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Sample records for ascites tumor growth

  1. [Metabolic changes of lymphocytes and neoplastic cells in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma during tumor growth].

    PubMed

    Inzhevatkin, E V; Fomenko, E Iu; Slepov, E V; Savchenko, A A

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the activities of NAD+- and NADP-dependent dehydrogenases of lymphocytes and tumor cells were studied in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, as well as changes in the concentrations of oxaloacetate, lactate, and NAD+ in the course of tumor growth. During the major period of tumor growth, conditions are produced in the lymphocytes for increased intensity of aerobic reactions directed at energy reproduction combined with a somewhat decreased intensity of synthetic processes. In the tumor cells, conditions predominantly arise for intensification of plastic metabolic reactions and reactions related to anaerobic energy reproduction. PMID:17853702

  2. [Effect of Zajdela ascite hepatoma growth on the extracellular antioxidant system of tumor bearer].

    PubMed

    Potselueva, M M; Naumov, A A; Sukhomlin, T K; Zinatullina, G G; Shatalin, Iu V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of tumor development on the blood plasma antioxidant system in the area of tumor growth has been studied. Zajdela ascite hepatoma transplanted to the abdominal cavity of Vistar rats was used as a model of tumor growth. It hase been found that tumor development produced and imbalance between pro- and antioxidant systems in the organism of tumor bearer. Besides, a sharp decrease in tocopherol and uric acid concentrations (twice), as well as in the concentration of protein SH-groups (seven times) was noted. In the tumor growth area, along with the tocopherol level decrease, a 5-7 fold increase in the concentrations of uric acid and protein SH-groups was observed. As the concentration of low-molecular antioxidants decreases, the major part is played by protein components which bind or oxidize ions of variable valence. Thus, the level of transferrin (Tf, which is responsible for the transport of iron ions, is reduced in 2.5 to 3 times (from 5.0 to 1.6 mg/ml) in the blood plasma, whereas the Tf level in the ascitic fluid increased from 1.5 to 2.7 mg/ml. The concentration dynamics of the other protein functioning together with Tf, ceruloplasmin (Cp), had opposite (inverse) tendencies. Thus, the Cp concentration in the blood plasma increased 1.5-2 times (from 0.55 to 1.1 mg/ml) whereas it decreased from 0.55 mg/ml to 0.35 mg/ml in the ascites. PMID:24592737

  3. Growth acceleration of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells treated by proteinase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Adamietz, I A; Kurfrst, F; Mller, U; Renner, K; Rimpler, M

    1989-12-01

    Since the cytotoxic effect of ionizing radiation increases in faster proliferating cell populations, the effects of a mild trypsin and bromelain treatment on the growth rate of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells cultured in vitro were studied. A continuous exposure to proteinase started at the time of cell plating caused a temporary block of DNA synthesis that was followed by an accelerated growth rate 48 h later (approximately 1.5-fold). EAT cells exposed to bromelain and trypsin after completed adaptation to the substratum demonstrated a similar increase of growth 2 days after the beginning of the enzyme treatment. The acceleration of growth was also observed when exposure to proteinase was interrupted after 24 h but the stimulation effect was reversible and continued only 2 days. It is concluded that bromelain and trypsin are able to modify reversibly the growth rate of EAT cell population cultured in vitro. PMID:2632265

  4. Mechanism of growth inhibitory effect of cape aloe extract in ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Saeda; Oikawa, Tomoko; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Kennedy, David Opare; Norikura, Toshio; Honzawa, Mayumi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2007-12-01

    Cape aloe (Aloe ferox Miller) has been a herb well known for its cathartic properties and has also been used popularly as a health drink (juice, tea and tonic) in the United States and in Europe. Cape aloe extract also has been reported to possess several pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and protective effect against liver injury. However, the investigations on an anti-tumor activity in cape aloe extract are very few and subsequent mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of the selective growth inhibitory activity of cape aloe extract and found that the cape aloe extract, especially the dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) extract, caused a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC), but not in mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells, which was used as a normal cell model. Furthermore, the CH(2)Cl(2) extract caused an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase and a decrease of cells in the S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle and inhibited DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, other results suggest that cell cycle arrest and inhibition of proliferation in EATC by the CH(2)Cl(2 )extract are associated with decreased retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation. PMID:18202544

  5. Role of isothiocyanate conjugate of pterostilbene on the inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation and tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Bodipati, Naganjaneyulu; Krishna Peddinti, Rama; Roy, Partha

    2014-01-15

    Naturally occurring pterostilbene (PTER) and isothiocyanate (ITC) attract great attention due to their wide range of biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-leukemic, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. A novel class of hybrid compound synthesized by introducing an ITC moiety on PTER backbone was evaluated for its anti-cancer efficacy in hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in vitro and Ehrlich ascitic tumor bearing mice model in vivo. The novel hybrid molecule showed significant in vitro anti-cancer activity (IC{sub 50}=25±0.38) when compared to reference compound PTER (IC{sub 50}=65±0.42). The conjugate molecule induced both S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest as indicated by flow cytometry analysis. In addition, the conjugate induced cell death was characterized by changes in cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-9, release of cytochrome-c into cytosol and increased Bax: Bcl-2 ratio. The conjugate also suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. The conjugate induced cell death was significantly increased in presence of A6730 (a potent Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor) and PD98059 (a specific ERK inhibitor). Moreover, the conjugated PTER inhibited tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice as observed by reduction in tumor volume compared to untreated animals. Collectively, the pro-apoptotic effect of conjugate is mediated through the activation of caspases, and is correlated with the blockade of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Conjugate was prepared by appending isothiocyanate moiety on pterostilbene backbone. • Conjugate showed anticancer effects at comparatively lower dose than pterostilbene. • Conjugate caused blockage of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. • Conjugate significantly reduced solid tumor volume as compared to pterostilbene.

  6. Factors Influencing the Inhibitory Effect of Selenium on Mice Inoculated with Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeder, Glenn A.; Milner, J. A.

    1980-08-01

    Selenium, administered to mice with Ehrlich ascites tumors, effectively limited tumor growth. The response was dependent on the chemical form and dose of selenium administered. At the doses administered, there were no detectable adverse effects to the host.

  7. Ascites

    MedlinePLUS

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  8. Chronic Dietary Administration of the Glycolytic Inhibitor 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (2-DG) Inhibits the Growth of Implanted Ehrlich’s Ascites Tumor in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Saurabh; Pandey, Sanjay; Bhatt, Anant Narayan; Chaudhary, Richa; Bhuria, Vikas; Kalra, Namita; Soni, Ravi; Roy, Bal Gangadhar; Saluja, Daman; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary energy restriction (DER) has been well established as a potent anticancer strategy. Non-adoption of restricted diet for an extended period has limited its practical implementation in humans with a compelling need to develop agents that mimic effects similar to DER, without reduction in actual dietary intake. Glycolytic inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), has recently been shown to possess potential as an energy restriction mimetic agent (ERMA). In the present study we evaluated the effect of dietary 2-DG administration on a mouse tumor model, with a focus on several potential mechanisms that may account for the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Swiss albino strain ‘A’ mice were administered with 0.2% and 0.4% w/v 2-DG in drinking water for 3 months prior to tumor implantation (Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma; EAC) and continued till the termination of the study with no adverse effects on general physiology and animal growth. Dietary 2-DG significantly reduced the tumor incidence, delayed the onset, and compromised the tumor growth along with enhanced survival. We observed reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels along with decreased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine positive (BrdU+) tumor cells in 2-DG fed mice. Also, reduced levels of certain key players of metabolic pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated-Akt and hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) were also noted in tumors of 2-DG fed mice. Further, decrease in CD4+/CD8+ ratio and T-regulatory cells observed in 2-DG fed mice suggested enhanced antitumor immunity and T cell effector function. Conclusion/Significance These results strongly suggest that dietary 2-DG administration in mice, at doses easily achievable in humans, suitably modulates several pleotrophic factors mimicking DER and inhibits tumorigenesis, emphasizing the use of ERMAs as a promising cancer preventive strategy. PMID:26135741

  9. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming; Wang, Chaoyuan; Su, Hanwen; Xiang, Meixian

    2013-06-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells.

  10. Ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor inhibition by Chenopodium ambrosioides L. treatment.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Flvia R F; Cruz, Gustavo V B; Pereira, Paulo Vitor S; Maciel, Mrcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Azevedo, Ana Paula S; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M

    2006-04-25

    The leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [Chenopodiaceae] ('mastruz') have been indicated for the treatment of several diseases, among which the cancer. There are no results focusing the effect of C. ambrosioides treatment on tumor development in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with C. ambrosioides on Ehrlich tumor development. Swiss mice were treated by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) with hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of C. ambrosioides (5 mg/kg) or with PBS (control group) 48 h before or 48 h later the Ehrlich tumor implantation. The tumor cells were implanted on the left footpad (solid tumor) or in the peritoneal cavity (ascitic tumor). To determine the solid tumor growth, footpad was measured each 2 days until the fourteenth day, when the feet were weighed. Ascitic tumor development was evaluated after 8 days of tumor implantation by quantification of the ascitic fluid volume and tumor cell number. The i.p. administration of C. ambrosioides extract before or after the tumor implantation significantly inhibited the solid and ascitic Ehrlich tumor forms. This inhibition was observed in ascitic tumor cell number, in the ascitic volume, in the tumor-bearing foot size and foot weight when compared to control mice. The treatments also increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, C. ambrosioides has a potent anti-tumoral effect which was evident with a small dose and even when the treatment was given two days after the tumor implantation. This effect is probably related with anti-oxidant properties of C. ambrosioides. PMID:16307762

  11. Enhancement of photosensitization efficiency by various combinations with radiosensitization in an experimental Ehrlich ascites tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luksiene, Zivile; Kaspariunaite, G.; Aleknavicius, E.; Valuckas, Konstantinas P.

    1996-12-01

    According to our previous results porphyrin can interact not only with visible light but with ionizing radiation also. This phenomenon gives us new possibility to combine photosensitization with radiosensitization. Data obtained on BALB/c mice with 7-day Ehrlich ascites tumors pretreated with 30 mg/kg HP dimethylether (not toxic and not mutagenic concentration) and irradiated with 60Co source (2 Gy) and visible light source (5 J/cm2) showed remarkable inhibition of tumor growth. Two Gy alone inhibited Ehrlich ascites tumor growth by 17%, whereas combination of 30 mg/kg HPde and 2 Gy (radiosensitization) -- by 38%. Photosensitization (30 mg/kg HPde plus 5 J/cm2) showed 37% tumor growth inhibition. Combination of photosensitization with radiosensitization inhibited tumor growth by 87%. It is important to note, that sequence of treatments (radiosensitization - 1 h - photosensitization or photosensitization - 1 h - radiosensitization) had no influence on tumor growth inhibition.

  12. Ascitic fluid from human ovarian cancer patients contains growth factors necessary for intraperitoneal growth of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, G B; May, C; Hill, M; Campbell, S; Shaw, P; Marks, A

    1990-01-01

    Human ovarian cancer, the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, tends to remain localized to the peritoneal cavity until late in the disease. In established disease, ascitic fluid accumulates in the peritoneal cavity. We have previously demonstrated that this ascitic fluid is a potent source of in vitro mitogenic activity including at least one unique growth factor. We now report that the human ovarian adenocarcinoma line, HEY, can be induced to grow intraperitoneally in immunodeficient nude mice in the presence (23/28 mice), but not absence (0/21 mice) of ascitic fluid from ovarian cancer patients. Ascitic fluid from patients with benign disease did not have similar effects on intraperitoneal growth of HEY cells (1/15 mice). Once tumors were established by injections of exogenous ascitic fluid, they could progress in the absence of additional injections of ascitic fluid. The mice eventually developed ascitic fluid which contained potent growth factor activity, suggesting that the tumors eventually produced autologous growth factors. This nude mouse model provides a system to study the action of ovarian cancer growth factors on tumor growth in vivo and to evaluate preclinically, therapeutic approaches designed to counteract the activity of these growth factors. PMID:2394835

  13. Ursolic acid inhibits tumor angiogenesis and induces apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor.

    PubMed

    Saraswati, Sarita; Agrawal, S S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

    2013-11-25

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpene naturally occurring in many plant foods. In the present study, we investigated anti-cancer activity of UA in vivo in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor. 15 × 10(6) EAC cells were implanted intraperitoneally (i.p., ascitic tumor) and subcutaneous (s.c., solid tumor) in Swiss albino mice. Mice with established tumors received UA i.p. at 25, 50 and 100mg/kg bw for 14 d in ascitic and 100mg/kg bw in solid tumor for 30 d. On day 15, blood samples were collected for hematological assessment of hemoglobin (Hb%), RBCs, WBCs and PCV. Tumor volume, cell viability, angiogenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory factors and antioxidant parameters were determined. Immunohistochemistry analysis for VEGF, iNOS, CD31, caspase-3 and Bax were also performed. UA significantly inhibited tumor growth, cell viability, in both ascites and solid tumor model in vivo (p<0.001). The anti-angiogenic effects were accompanied with decreased VEGF, iNOS, TNF-α and increased IL-12 levels. UA at 100mg/kg bw dose significantly increased SOD and CAT activity (p<0.01). GSH and TBARS were increased as compared to control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, UA increased total RBCs, WBCs as well as Hb% significantly (p<0.05) compared to cyclophosphamide (CP). Histopathological examination of tumor cells in the treated group demonstrated signs of apoptosis with chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage. Decreased peritoneal angiogenesis showed the anti-angiogenic potential. UA downregulated VEGF & iNOS expression whereas bax and caspase-3 expressions were upregulated suggesting drug induced tumor cell apoptosis through activating the pro-apoptotic bcl-2 family and caspase-3 and downregulation of VEGF. The present study sheds light on the potent antitumor property of the UA and can be extended further to develop therapeutic protocols for treatment of cancer. PMID:24051192

  14. Etiology of Ascites and Pleural Effusion Associated with Ovarian Tumors: Literature Review and Case Reports of Three Ovarian Tumors Presenting with Massive Ascites, but without Peritoneal Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Ai; Miyatake, Takashi; Hara, Takeya; Tanaka, Asuka; Komura, Naoko; Komiya, Shinnosuke; Kanao, Serika; Takeda, Masumi; Mimura, Mayuko; Nagamatsu, Masaaki; Yokoi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors are benign but relatively large tumors that are often initially mistaken as ovarian cancers. We report three cases of stage I borderline ovarian tumors having massive ascites that we (preoperatively) suspected of being advanced ovarian cancer. The three patients (35, 47, and 73 years old) reported feeling fullness of the abdomen before consulting their gynecologist. By CT scan, they were diagnosed with a pelvic tumor accompanied by massive ascites, the diameters of which were 11, 20, and 11 cm, respectively. Postsurgical pathology showed all were stage I borderline ovarian tumors without dissemination; two were mucinous and one was serous. The amount of ascites was 6,300, 2,600, and 3,600 mL, respectively, and was serous in all. Cytodiagnosis of the ascites found that one was positive for tumor cells and two were negative. After resection of the mass, the ascites disappeared in all three cases. No pleural effusion was present at any time. The literature is reviewed concerning ascites and pleural effusions linked to ovarian tumors, and a supposition is forwarded of why pleural effusion presents sporadically in these cases. PMID:26858849

  15. Ultraviolet Radiation Effects on Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Jerome J.; Engle, James L.; Rudkin, George T.; Schultz, Jack

    1959-01-01

    A flying spot ultraviolet microscope, employing a fast scan and pulsed operation of the raster, has been used to induce radiation damage in ascites tumor slide cultures, and to study by time-lapse cinematography the progressive stages of cell damage. The cells observed came from a strain (EF7) of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Irradiated cells were found to show a characteristic syndrome of damage, involving blebbing at the cell surface, while control cells in the adjacent areas of the preparation remained unchanged. The end of the blebbing period is marked by swelling of the cells, and the time taken for this phenomenon to occur was used as a measure of the severity of the damage. It was found that the time required for swelling is dependent on the size of the dose employed, as well as on the sensitivity of the cells. This latter sensitivity was found to decline as the physiological age of the tumor increased. If ultraviolet illumination below 255 m is excluded, no symptoms of damage occur, even when very large doses are used. These observations are discussed in relation to the nature of the system in the cell which is affected. PMID:13654439

  16. [DYNAMICS OF NITROGEN OXIDE METABOLITES IN THE PLASMA AND ASCITES DURING ZAJDEL HEPATOMA GROWTH IN VIVO].

    PubMed

    Potselueva, M M; Naumov, A A; Kupriyanova, E S

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of extracellular nitrogen oxide metabolites localized in the plasma and ascites during Zajdel ascites hepatoma growth in the abdominal cavity has been investigated. An increase in peroxynitrite concentration was found by the levels of nitrotyrosine (up to 10-11 nM) in blood plasma at the initial stage of tumor cell development. In the course of further tumor development, an oxidative stress developed, which might cause oxidation of protein components including tyrosine. All these processes may cause a decrease in the accessible amount of tyrosine for nitration and lead to a fall in nitrotyrosine level (to 3-6 nM) at the final stages of tumor growth. Nitrotyrosine dynamics in the region of tumor growth is essentially analogous to that in the plasma because proteins during tumor growth cames from the blood plasma of tumor bearer. In studying the dynamics of nitrosylation of sulfur-bearing protein groups, an increase in the concentration of S-nitrosothyols was found to occur in the blood plasma for up to 6 days of the experiment, subsequently their concentration decreased. In the ascites, where protein R-SNO arrives, the mean concentration of nitrosothyols upon tumor growth is lower compared to that of the plasma. In studying the dynamics of final stable nitrogen oxide decay products--nitrites/nitrates, it has been found that during tumor development the concentration of these metabolites in the plasma varies only moderately within some range and sharply increases at the final stage of the experiment. In the area of tumor growth, an analogous trend in the behavior of nitrites/nitriaes has been registered (noted, marked), but with a higher background level, which might be due to both the functioning of immunocompetent cells, microphages in particular, and a decreased rate of utilization of substances from the ascites. Based on the aforesaid, it has been concluded that the nitrosylating stress in the organism of the bearer of a tumor is being developed along with the oxidative stress. PMID:26495710

  17. Treatment of Walker ascites tumor cells by combination of photodynamic therapy with cyclophosphamide and interleukin-2 entrapped in liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Vasile F.; Ionescu, Mircea D.; Balotescu, Carmen; Dima, V. S.

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial and adverse local effects of PDT associated with chemoimmunotherapy on rats bearing Walker ascites tumor cells. Experiments were performed on five batches of Wistar inbred rats with ascites tumor cells receiving intraperitoneally PDT (Photofrin II and 18 hrs later HeNe laser irradiation); Cyclophosphamide (CY); interleukin-2 (IL-2) or associated therapy (PDT+CY+IL-2). The control batch consisted of untreated rats (HBSS). The following results were noticed: (a) sole administration of PDT, IL-2 or CY reduced tumor growth, gave survival rates between 28.4 and 56.5% and cure rates ranging from 12.4 to 33.3%; (b) combined therapy (PDT+CY+IL-2) decreased tumor growth, increased survival rates (88.5%) and cure rates were 73.1% forty-two days post-transplantation. Summing up, in this study we noticed that PDT associated with chemoimmunotherapy reduced mortality as well as tumor volumes and increased cure rates in rats with ascites tumor cells. This approach points to the need for further evaluation in patients with peritoneal malignancies.

  18. Importance of viability and attachment to an ascites tumor in the release of plasminogen activator.

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Q.; Zhou, M.; Subbarao, V.; Ts'ao, C.

    1991-01-01

    Tumor plasminogen activator (PA) has been alleged to play a role in the growth and metastasis of tumors. Before such a role can be realized, PA first must be released from tumor cells. Having determined intra- and extracellular PA and PA-inhibitor activities in an experimental pancreatic ascites tumor grown in hamsters, the release of PA from these cells was investigated. No PA activity was detected in the suspension medium of freshly isolated tumor cells; inclusion of plasminogen, fibrinogen, or collagen in the medium yielded similar negative results. On the other hand, PA activity was demonstrated to be released in a time-dependent manner from these tumor cells embedded in fibrin clots. Plasminogen activator activity also was not found in the suspension medium of frozen-thawed tumor cells, despite the fact that most of them had breaks on their cell membrane. Unlike freshly isolated tumor cells, PA was not released from frozen-thawed cells embedded in fibrin clots. Full PA activity was demonstrated in frozen-thawed cells treated with Triton X-100, however. Frozen-thawed cells exhibited signs of severe damage, and more than 80% of them failed to exclude trypan blue. Obviously PA is released from viable tumor cells embedded in fibrin clots but not suspended in artificial medium. The PA-release mechanism, not PA itself, is destroyed in cells rendered nonviable by freeze thawing. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1902626

  19. Regulation of purine metabolism. Adenylosuccinate synthetase from Novikoff ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, A W; Rudolph, F B

    1976-06-23

    Adenylosuccinate synthetase has been partially purified from Novikoff ascites tumor cells. The properties of the protein are quite different from the enzyme from rat liver in that the Km for asparate is higher and the K1 for the feedback inhibitor AMP is also higher. The antibiotic hadacidin has a preferential inhibitory effect on the tumor enzyme. These results suggest that the Novikoff ascites tumor enzyme is less sensitive to normal feedback controls but may be more sensitive to specific antitumor drugs. PMID:181081

  20. Rapid growth problems: ascites and skeletal deformities in broilers.

    PubMed

    Julian, R J

    1998-12-01

    Over the last 40 yr, genetic selection for rapid growth and improved feed efficiency has been very effective in meat-type poultry. Combined with changes in the feed that have increased both the nutritional and physical density to encourage a high nutrient intake, growth rate has more than doubled. The effect of genetic selection for high muscle to bone ratio and high calorie intake of a ration that supplies all nutritional requirements causes significant mortality from cardiovascular disease. In the chicken, sudden death syndrome (flip-over) and pulmonary hypertension syndrome resulting in ascites are the most important. Ruptured aorta, spontaneous turkey cardiomyopathy (round heart), and cardiomyopathy causing sudden death produce high mortality in turkeys. Rapid growth induced by high nutrient intake alone can cause severe lameness, bone defects, and deformity, as these problems are seen in animals that have not been selected for rapid growth: dogs, horses, pigs, ratites and wild birds kept in zoologic gardens. In meat-type poultry, growth-related disease can be reduced or eliminated by reducing feed intake without affecting final body weight. Rapid growth alone may not be the pathogenic mechanism that results in cardiovascular or musculoskeletal defects. Metabolic imbalance induced by high nutrient intake may cause some of the conditions. These metabolic problems might be corrected without reducing growth rate. PMID:9872578

  1. Immuno-protective effect of tumor cell vaccine on Kunming mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng; Zhou, Shao-Juan; Wu, Kai-Chun; Pan, Bo-Rong; Qiao, Tai-Dong; Chen, Bao-Jun; Fan, Dai-Ming

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the immunity of chemically modified tumor cell vaccine. METHODS: Tumor cell vaccines (TCV) were prepared by incubating the live Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with concanavalin A-mitomycin C (ConA-MMC), mitomycin C (MMC), concanavalin A-glutaraldehyde (ConA-Glu), glutaraldehyde ( Glu ), or paraformaldehyde ( Para ), respectively. The whole cell or soluble forms of the vaccines were administered intraperitoneally into Kunming mice once a week for three times prior to the intraperitoneal inoculation of a lethal dose of live tumor cells. A second challenge with live tumor cells was given four weeks later. Survival and antibody production of the mice were analyzed. RESULTS: After the first challenge, the mice, received whole TCV of ConA-MMC, MMC (P < 0.01) and Glu (P < 0.05) promoted survival incidence than the controls. All the treated mice had the survival time prolonged. ConA-MMC vaccine treated mice had longer survival days than that of ConA-Glu ones (P < 0.05). For the soluble TCV immunized mice, those treated with vaccines of Para (P < 0.01), ConA-Para and ConA-Glu (P < 0.05) had longer survival periods compared with that of the controls. Following the second challenge, survival incidence of the mice received vaccines of ConA-MMC, MMC, ConA-Glu or Glu was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Moreover, all the treated mice had the survival time prolonged, and ConA-MMC vaccine treated mice had longer survival days than that of Para treated ones (P < 0.05). Antibodies against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were found to be positive in sera of the mice treated with whole TCV of ConA-MMC. CONCLUSION: Ehrlich ascites tumor cells are immunogenic when treated with ConA-MMC, MMC, ConA-Glu, Glu or Para, which might act as safe and effective tumor vaccines with safety and effectiveness. PMID:11819331

  2. Synergism between propolis and hyperthermal intraperitoneal chemotherapy with cisplatin on ehrlich ascites tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Oroli?, Nada; Car, Nikola; Lisi?i?, Duje; Benkovi?, Vesna; Kneevi?, Anica Horvat; Diki?, Domagoj; Petrik, Jzsef

    2013-12-01

    We investigated antitumor, genotoxic, chemopreventive, and immunostimulative effects of local chemoimmunotherapy and hyperthermal intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in a mouse-bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT). Mice were treated with water-soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP) at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) , 7 and 3 days before implantation of EAT cells, whereas cisplatin (5 or 10 mg kg(-1) ) was injected 3 days after implantation of EAT cells at 37C and 43C. The following variables were analyzed: the total number of cells, differential count of the cells present in the peritoneal cavity, functional activity of macrophages, comet assay, and micronucleus assay. The combination of WSDP + CIS 5 mg kg(-1) at 37C resulted in tumor growth inhibition and increased the survival of mice by additional 115.25%. WSDP with HIPEC increased the survival of mice by additional 160.3% as compared with HIPEC. WSDP reduced cisplatin toxic and genotoxic effect to normal cells without affecting cisplatin cytotoxicity on EAT cells. In addition, WSDP with HIPEC increased the cytotoxic actions of macrophages to tumor cells. Water-soluble derivative of propolis increases macrophage activity and sensitivity of tumor cells to HIPEC and reduces cisplatin toxicity to normal cells. PMID:24136132

  3. Detection of SMARCB1 loss in ascites cells in the diagnosis of an abdominal rhabdoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Kerl, Kornelius; Oyen, Florian; Leuschner, Ivo; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Nagel, Inga; Siebert, Reiner; Groll, Andreas H; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Barth, Peter Josef; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Seringer, Angela; Wardelmann, Eva; Frhwald, Michael C

    2015-05-01

    We report on how MLPA and Sequencing of SMARCB1/INI1/SNF5 might be applied for initial diagnosis of rhabdoid tumor patients. These techniques were successfully used to detect loss of SMARCB1 in tumor cells of the ascites in a 3-month-old patient in which tumor biopsy could not initially be made due to life threatening intraabdominal bleedings. PMID:25663425

  4. Antitumor activity of silver nanoparticles in Dalton’s lymphoma ascites tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Muthu Irulappan; Kanth, Selvaraj Barath Mani; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2010-01-01

    Nanomedicine concerns the use of precision-engineered nanomaterials to develop novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities for human use. The present study demonstrates the efficacy of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as an antitumor agent using Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA) cell lines in vitro and in vivo. The AgNPs showed dose- dependent cytotoxicity against DLA cells through activation of the caspase 3 enzyme, leading to induction of apoptosis which was further confirmed through resulting nuclear fragmentation. Acute toxicity, ie, convulsions, hyperactivity and chronic toxicity such as increased body weight and abnormal hematologic parameters did not occur. AgNPs significantly increased the survival time in the tumor mouse model by about 50% in comparison with tumor controls. AgNPs also decreased the volume of ascitic fluid in tumor-bearing mice by 65%, thereby returning body weight to normal. Elevated white blood cell and platelet counts in ascitic fluid from the tumor-bearing mice were brought to near-normal range. Histopathologic analysis of ascitic fluid showed a reduction in DLA cell count in tumor-bearing mice treated with AgNPs. These findings confirm the antitumor properties of AgNPs, and suggest that they may be a cost-effective alternative in the treatment of cancer and angiogenesis-related disorders. PMID:21042421

  5. Cytologic features of ovarian granulosa cell tumors in pleural and ascitic fluids.

    PubMed

    Omori, Makiko; Kondo, Tetsuo; Yuminamochi, Tsutomu; Nakazawa, Kumiko; Ishii, Yoshio; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Hashi, Akihiko; Hirata, Shuji

    2015-07-01

    Adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is an uncommon neoplasm of the ovary with potential for aggressive behavior and late recurrence. The most important prognostic factor for AGCT is tumor stage. Thus, cytological assessment of pleural or ascitic fluids is crucial for initial staging and subsequent patient management. We report herein two cases of ovarian AGCT presenting with exfoliated tumor cells in pleural and ascitic fluid. The first case involved a 61-year-old woman who presented with stage Ic (a) AGCT. Seven years after initial diagnosis, pleural effusion and pleural dissemination were identified. The second case involved a 50-year-old woman who presented with stage IV AGCT with massive ascites and right pleural effusion. Fluid cytology from both cases showed cohesive or loose clusters of small uniform neoplastic cells with round-to-oval nuclei, coffee-bean-shaped nuclear grooves, small nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm. Call-Exner bodies were also observed in these cytologic specimens. In the differential diagnosis of small monomorphic tumor cells in pleural effusion or ascites, coffee-bean-shaped nuclear grooves and cell clusters forming Call-Exner bodies are diagnostic clues of AGCT. PMID:25605680

  6. Modulation of Cytokines Production by Indomethacin Acute Dose during the Evolution of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Luciana Boffoni; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Massoco, Cristina de Oliveira; Fecchio, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of a nonselective COX1/COX2 inhibitor (indomethacin) on tumor growth of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) in mice, using as parameters the tumor growth and cytokine profile. Mice were inoculated with EAT cells and treated with indomethacin. After 1, 3, 6, 10, and 13 days the animals were evaluated for the secretion of TNF?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13 and PGE2 level in peritoneal cavity. The results have shown that EAT induces PGE2 production and increases tumor cells number from the 10th day. The cytokine profile showed EAT induces production of IL-6 from 10th day and of IL-2 on 13th day; the other studied cytokines were not affected in a significant way. The indomethacin treatment of EAT-bearing mice inhibited the tumor growth and PGE2 synthesis from the 10th day. In addition, the treatment of EAT-bearing mice with indomethacin has stimulated the IL-13 production and has significantly inhibited IL-6 in the 13th day of tumor growth. Taken together, the results have demonstrated that EAT growth is modulated by PGE2 and the inhibition of the tumor growth could be partly related to suppression of IL-6 and induction of IL-13. PMID:26347589

  7. Therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells expressing interleukin-12 in mice bearing malignant ascites tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aihong; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Jumei; Liu, Tao; Xu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) expressing interleukin (IL)-12 on malignant ascites tumor-bearing mice and the related mechanisms. Malignant ascites tumor mouse model was established by the intraperitoneal inoculation with MethA or H22 tumor cells. Mouse BMSCs were transfected with lentiviral vector containing IL-12, and then transplanted into these mouse models via intraperitoneal injection. The peritoneal permeability in these mice was evaluated and compared. The contents of INF-? and VEGF in ascites were determined by ELISA. Mouse models receiving IL-12-expressing BMSCs were rechallenged with tumor cells, and the animal survival was observed and analyzed. In both MethA and H22 tumor cell-induced malignant ascites tumor mouse models, there were no significant differences in the peritoneal permeability between the normal saline (NS), BMSC-control, and BMSC-null groups. However, compared with NS control group, the peritoneal permeability was significantly decreased by IL-12-expressing BMSCs. Moreover, ELISA showed that, in both the MethA and H22 tumor cell-induced mouse models, compared with the NS control group, the contents of INF-? in ascites were significantly elevated, while the contents of VEGF in ascites were significantly decreased, in the BMSC-IL-12 groups. In addition, IL-12-expressing BMSCs significantly elongated the survival of mouse models after rechallenging with tumor cells. IL-12-expressing BMSCs exert protective effects against malignant ascites tumor, and the anti-tumor effects might be associated with the enhanced anti-tumor immunity. Our findings might bring new insights into the treatment of tumors with immunotherapy. PMID:26629085

  8. Ascites analysis by a microfluidic chip allows tumor-cell profiling

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Vanessa M.; Castro, Cesar M.; Chung, Jaehoon; Miller, Nathan C.; Ullal, Adeeti V.; Castano, Maria D.; Penson, Richard T.; Lee, Hakho; Birrer, Michael J.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Ascites tumor cells (ATCs) represent a potentially valuable source of cells for monitoring treatment of ovarian cancer as it would obviate the need for more invasive surgical biopsies. The ability to perform longitudinal testing of ascites in a point-of-care setting could significantly impact clinical trials, drug development, and clinical care. Here, we developed a microfluidic chip platform to enrich ATCs from highly heterogeneous peritoneal fluid and then perform molecular analyses on these cells. We evaluated 85 putative ovarian cancer protein markers and found that nearly two-thirds were either nonspecific for malignant disease or had low abundance. Using four of the most promising markers, we prospectively studied 47 patients (33 ovarian cancer and 14 control). We show that a marker set (ATCdx) can sensitively and specifically map ATC numbers and, through its reliable enrichment, facilitate additional treatment-response measurements related to proliferation, protein translation, or pathway inhibition. PMID:24297935

  9. Chylous Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Talluri, Siva K; Nuthakki, Harish; Tadakamalla, Ashvin; Talluri, Jyothsna; Besur, Siddesh

    2011-01-01

    Context: Chylous ascites is the accumulation of milky chyle in the peritoneal cavity. Chylous ascites has been reported after surgeries like abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, radical gastrectomy, duodenectomy, nephrectomy and Wilm's tumor resection. Our literature search did not reveal any reports of chylous ascites after a gastric ulcer resection. We report about an elderly woman with a rare complication of chylous ascites after an emergent surgery for a perforated gastric ulcer. Case Report: A 70-year-old woman developed sudden respiratory distress on 5th post-operative day after an elective C3-C7 cervical discectomy and fusion. Her past medical history was significant for cervical spondylosis. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the chest revealed air under the diaphragm suspicious for hollow viscus perforation. She underwent an emergent surgery for drainage of hematoma in the neck along with an emergent laparotomy to repair a large perforated gastric ulcer distal to the gastro-esophageal junction. The patient had worsening of abdominal distention on 4th post-operative day. The CT scan of abdomen showed fluid collection in the abdomen. The abdominal drain revealed large amount of serous milky fluid at the rate of 1500 ml per day. The fluid analysis showed that the triglyceride level was 170 mg/dl and cholesterol level was 15 mg/dl. The fluid cultures did not grow any organism. She responded to treatment with octreotide and a diet of medium chain triglyceride oil. Conclusion: Any obstruction or damage to the lymphatic channels results in chylous ascites. Lymphomas, metastatic malignancies, and abdominal surgeries commonly cause chylous ascites. Ascitic fluid triglyceride level greater than 110 mg/dl is diagnostic of chylous ascites. Chylous ascites is a rare complication of a peptic ulcer resection which can be managed effectively with octreotide. PMID:22362456

  10. Effects of hyperthermia and calcium channel blocker co-therapy on mice injected with Meth A solid of Meth A ascites tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effectiveness of treating tumor-injected mice with verapamil, a calcium antagonist, and hyperthermia. The co-treatment reduced the incidence of tumors in animals injected with Meth A solid cells. It was shown that the decrease in tumors corresponded to increases in natural killer (NK) cell activity measured in a /sup 51/Cr release assay, in the amount of anti-Meth A antibody measured in an immunofluorescence assay, and a decrease in the amount of intra-tumor cyclic AMP measured by radioimmunoassay in co-treated compared to untreated sarcoma-injected animals. A role of the immune system for mediating the prevention of sarcoma growth was indicated by Winn assays. Splenocytes sensitized in vivo against Meth A solid cells for 14 days exhibited an enhanced cytotoxic activity against syngeneic target cells compared to untreated tumor-sensitized splenocytes following heat-drug co-treatment. It was established that the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells against a histocompatibility antigen (H-2/sup d/) present on Meth A sarcoma cells resulted in tumor cell lysis. Animals bearing established Meth A solid sarcomas did not manifest tumor regressions following the administration of co-treatment alone or the adoptive transfer of co-treated tumor-sensitized splenocytes. The growth of Meth A ascites and Meth A ascites-derived solid sarcomas, unlike Meth A solid cell tumors, were not prevented in Winn assays. Additionally, the lifespan of animals injected with Meth A ascites cells was reduced by 50% compared to animals injected with Meth A solid sarcoma cells.

  11. Stress and morphine affect survival of rats challenged with a mammary ascites tumor (MAT 13762B).

    PubMed

    Lewis, J W; Shavit, Y; Terman, G W; Gale, R P; Liebeskind, J C

    We have previously shown that exposure to inescapable footshock stress decreases survival of rats injected with a mammary ascites tumor (MAT 13762B). This increased vulnerability to the tumor challenge was prevented by an opiate antagonist, naltrexone, suggesting mediation by opioid peptides. Supporting this hypothesis, we now report that a high dose of an opiate agonist, morphine, also reduces survival of rats given the same tumor. This effect shows tolerance after 14 daily injections. The adverse effect of stress, however, did not show other signs of opioid involvement: it manifested neither tolerance with repeated stress exposures nor cross-tolerance in morphine-tolerant rats. Our recent findings that stress and morphine reduce natural killer cell cytotoxicity in a similar fashion suggest an immune mechanism that may explain the present results. PMID:6678390

  12. Ascitic Fluid Analysis in the Differential Diagnosis of Ascites: Focus on Cirrhotic Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin-Lin; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. Because many diseases can cause ascites, in particular cirrhosis, samples of ascitic fluid are commonly analyzed in order to develop a differential diagnosis. The concept of transudate versus exudate, as determined by total protein measurements, is outdated and the use of serum-ascites albumin gradient as an indicator of portal hypertension is more accurate. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and other tumor markers can be helpful in distinguishing between malignant and benign conditions. Glucose and adenosine deaminase levels may support a diagnosis of tuberculous disease, and amylase level may indicate a diagnosis of pancreatitis. Given the specificity and sensitivity of laboratory results, accurate diagnosis should be based on both laboratory data and clinical judgment. PMID:26357618

  13. Effects of Fe(3+)-tumor cell interaction on Ca(2+)-uptake by Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Anghileri, L J

    1991-05-01

    Fe3+ ions complexed by various ligands induce an increased Ca2+ uptake by Ehrlich carcinoma ascites cells that is proportional to the thermodynamic stability constant of the complex, and the greatest increase is observed with ferric lactate. The absence of ATPase inhibition showed by this ferric complex, suggests that an increased passive diffusion of Ca2+ due to structural modifications of the cell membrane is the most probable cause of this phenomenon. PMID:1893397

  14. Ovarian cancer ascites increase Mcl-1 expression in tumor cells through ERK1/2-Elk-1 signaling to attenuate TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ascites may affect the progression of ovarian cancer (OC). In particular, soluble factors present in OC ascites can create a protective environment for tumor cells that promote de novo resistance to drug- and death receptor-induced apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for ascites-induced drug resistance are not well characterized. Methods Using human OC cell lines and tissues microarrays of human OC biopsies, we assessed the mechanism by which OC ascites increase Mcl-1 expression using Western blots, chemical inhibitors of ERK and small-inhibitory RNA treatments. Results In the present study, we found that both Mcl-1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated within 2 h upon treatment of OC cells with ascites obtained from women with advanced OC. In contrast, the expression of other Bcl-2 family antiapoptotic members such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL was not affected by ascites. An increase of Mcl-1 expression was consistently observed across different ascites from women with advanced serous OC. The knockdown of Mcl-1 significantly blocked ascites-induced Mcl-1 upregulation and ascites-mediated inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Ascites induced a rapid phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Elk-1 transcription factor. Furthermore, we found that ERK1/2 inhibition or Elk-1 knockdown was sufficient to block ascites-induced Mcl-1 expression. In high grade serous OC, we found a positive correlation between phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Mcl-1 expression. Conclusions These results indicate that ascites-induced ERK1/2/Elk-1 signaling is critical for Mcl-1 expression and for the ascites-mediated attenuation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The ERK1/2/Elk-1/Mcl-1 pathway represents a novel mechanism by which ascites induce de novo TRAIL resistance in OC cells. PMID:23158473

  15. Human ovarian tumor ascites fluids rapidly and reversibly inhibit T cell receptor-induced NF-?B and NFAT signaling in tumor-associated T cells

    PubMed Central

    Simpson-Abelson, Michelle R.; Loyall, Jenni L.; Lehman, Heather K.; Barnas, Jennifer L.; Minderman, Hans; OLoughlin, Kieran L.; Wallace, Paul K.; George, Thaddeus C.; Peng, Peng; Kelleher, Raymond J.; Odunsi, Kunle; Bankert, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Human memory T cells present in ovarian tumor ascites fluids fail to respond normally to stimulation via the T cell receptor (TCR). This immunosuppression is manifested by decreases in NF-?B and NFAT activation, IFN-? production, and cell proliferation in response to TCR stimulation with immobilized antibodies to CD3 and CD28. The anergy of the tumor-associated T cells (TATs) is mediated by soluble factors present in ovarian tumor ascites fluids. The non-responsiveness of the T cells is quickly reversed when the cells are assayed in the absence of the ascites fluid, and is rapidly reestablished when a cell-free ascites fluid is added back to the T cells. Based upon the observed normal phosphorylation patterns of the TCR proximal signaling molecules, the inhibition of NF-?B, and NFAT activation in response to TCR stimulation, as well as the ability of the diacylglycerol analog PMA and the ionophore ionomycin to bypass the ascites fluid-induced TCR signaling arrest, the site of the arrest in the activation cascade appears to be at or just upstream of PLC-?. An identical TCR signaling arrest pattern was observed when T cells derived from normal donor peripheral blood were incubated with either malignant or nonmalignant (cirrhotic) ascites fluids. The immunosuppressive activity of ascites fluids reported here suggests that soluble factors acting directly or indirectly upon T cells present within tumors contribute to the anergy that has previously been observed in T cells derived from malignant and nonmalignant inflammatory microenvironments. The soluble immunosuppressive factors represent potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. PMID:23882159

  16. Addition of Propolis to Irinotecan Therapy Prolongs Survival in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lisičić, Duje; Đikić, Domagoj; Blažević, Ana Sofia; Mihaljević, Josipa; Oršolić, Nada; Knežević, Anica Horvat

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated possible synergistic action of anticancer drug Irinotecan (IRI) combined with ethanolic (EEP) and water-soluble (WSDP) derivate of propolis on Swiss albino mice injected with Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT). For survival analysis mice were administered WSDP and EEP (100 mg/kg) daily for 3 consecutive days, beginning on 3rd day after EAT cell (1×106) injection. IRI was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg on days 1, 13, and 19. We simultaneously studied peripheral white blood cell count, cell types washed from the peritoneal cavity, functional activity of macrophages from peritoneal cavity, and the level of primary DNA damage in leukocytes, kidney, and liver cells using the alkaline comet assay. Three out of 9 mice per group survived the entire duration of the experiment (90 days) in groups treated with IRI combined with WSDP and EEP. All test components increased survival of mice by 7.53% to 231.54%. Combined treatment with IRI and/or WSDP and EEP significantly decreased percentage of tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity as compared to nontreated EAT-injected mice. All treated animals had significantly higher percentage of neutrophils in the peritoneal cavity in comparison to nontreated EAT-injected mice. We observed significantly higher value of DNA damage in leukocytes of mice treated with IRI and combination of IRI and/or WSDP and EEP as compared to nontreated EAT-injected mice, while the same treatment decreased DNA damage in kidney. Our results showed that addition of propolis to IRI treatment enhanced antitumor activity of IRI and prolongs survival in EAT-bearing mice, which definitely deserve further studies to clarify the possible mechanisms of antitumor actions of combined herb–drug treatments. PMID:24383762

  17. Experimental study of simultaneous photodynamic and hyperthermic treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and A22 hepatoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luksiene, Zivile

    1997-12-01

    Combined treatment of PDT and hyperthermia was examined on Ehrlich ascites tumor cell viability and A22 hepatoma tumor growth inhibition. Histological evaluations of tumors after different treatments have shown tumor necrosis, congestion of blood vessels and hemorrhage. The most drastic damages were observed after simultaneous PDT and hyperthermia action. At these experimental conditions tumor growth for 5 days was absolutely inhibited.

  18. [Mesentery capillary barrier in rats injected intravascularly with ascitic Zajdela hepatoma. III. Effect of serotonin and histamine on the extravasation of the tumor].

    PubMed

    Mouton, Y; Demaille, A

    1975-01-01

    The addition of serotonin or of histamin with tumoral cells of ascitic Zajdela's hepatoma and their injection in aorta induce plain hemodynamic changes and increase the tumoral extravasation. So only cells blocked in thrombi are observed in blood vessels. Therefore, serotonin and histamin do facilitate tumoral cells extravasation, allowing so a better metastatic diffusion in this experimental pattern. PMID:174793

  19. Iron-tumor cell interaction and regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis: their implication in tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Anghileri, L J; Martinez, A C; Maleki, P

    1992-01-01

    Using [59Fe] ferric lactate, a direct relationship between iron concentration and [59Fe] uptake by Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was found. Deferoxamine and albumin inhibited this uptake. Electrophoresis showed that both molecules complexed iron from ferric lactate. [45Ca] uptake in the presence of ferric lactate showed the same inhibition, and an iron mass-dependence, these findings suggest an iron--cell membrane interaction as the cause of this phenomenon. The implication of iron--tumor cell membrane interaction in tumor growth regulation is discussed. PMID:1528320

  20. Purification and properties of adenylosuccinate synthetase from Yoshida sarcoma ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Y; Shimura, K; Shiraki, H; Nakagawa, H

    1980-12-01

    Adenylosuccinate synthetase (IMP:L-aspartate ligase (GDP-forming), EC 6.3.4.4) was purified about 750-fold to a homogeneous state from Yoshida sarcoma ascites tumor cells. A yield of 38% purified enzyme was achieved by a procedure including affinity chromatography on hadacidin-Sepharose 4B. Ultracentrifugal analyses showed that the molecular weight of the native enzyme was 102 000 with an s20,w value of 4.5 and that the molecular weight in 6 M guanidine-HCl was 47 000. These values indicate that the native enzyme is composed of two subunits. The isoelectric point was determined to be 5.9 by isoelectric focusing. The optimum pH for activity was 6.8-7.0. The Km values for IMP, aspartate and GTP were calculated to be 4.1, 9.8 and 0.7 . 10(-4) M, respectively. The antibiotic, hadacidin was strongly inhibitory, causing competitive inhibition with respect to aspartate with a Ki value of 2.5 . 10(-6) M. Nucleoside mono- and diphosphate also inhibited the enzyme activity, but their inhibitions were not apparently specific. The purified enzyme showed full activity in the presence of Mg2+, and Mg2+ could be partially replaced by Mn2+, Co2+, Ca2+ or Cu2+. Divalent metal ions, such as Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+, interfered with the activity by antagonizing Mg2+. Hg2+ or PCMB inactivated the enzyme, suggesting that an SH-group may be important for activity. PMID:7213642

  1. A case of successful detection of disseminated gastrointestinal stromal tumors by ascites smear cytology using cell block preparation with DOG1 immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Kawabe, Akihiro; Nagasaka, Kazunori; Oda, Katsutoshi; Kawana, Kei; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    Cytological features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have been reported, especially regarding fine-needle aspiration cytology, including immunostaining for c-kit and DOG1. Meanwhile, cytological findings of GISTs on ascites cytology have rarely been reported, which may be owing to the rare appearance of GIST tumor cells in ascites. Herein, we present a 66-year-old woman who had disseminated GISTs in the abdomen. The GIST tumor cells appeared sparsely in the ascites smear cytology using ascites obtained at the time of autopsy. Even when widespread intra-abdominal dissemination takes place, GISTs may be hard to detect in ascites smear cytology, based on the experience of this case. However, immunohistochemistry of DOG1 using a cell block preparation was found to clearly visualize the GIST tumor cells, although they were sparsely present. Immunostaining of c-kit did not provide as clear an identification of the tumor cells as DOG1 did. When suspicious about GISTs, it is wise to prepare a cell block to make it possible to visualize the tumor cells immunohistochemically. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:137-140. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26646159

  2. Antitumor effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Koga, Y; Naraparaju, V R; Yamamoto, N

    1999-01-01

    Cancerous cells secrete alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) into the blood stream, resulting in deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (known as Gc protein), which is a precursor for macrophage activating factor (MAF). Incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF). Administration of GcMAF to cancer-bearing hosts can bypass the inactivated MAF precursor and act directly on macrophages for efficient activation. Therapeutic effects of GcMAF on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice were assessed by survival time and serum NaGalase activity, because serum NaGalase activity was proportional to tumor burden. A single administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) to eight mice on the same day after transplantation of the tumor (5 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 21 +/- 3 days for seven mice, with one mouse surviving more than 60 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 13 +/- 2 days. Six of the eight mice that received two GcMAF administrations, at Day 0 and Day 4 after transplantation, survived up to 31 +/- 4 days whereas, the remaining two mice survived for more than 60 days. Further, six of the eight mice that received three GcMAF administrations with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 60 days, and serum NaGalase levels were as low as those of control mice throughout the survival period. The cure with subthreshold GcMAF-treatments (administered once or twice) of tumor-bearing mice appeared to be a consequence of sustained macrophage activation by inflammation resulting from the macrophage-mediated tumoricidal process. Therefore, a protracted macrophage activation induced by a few administrations of minute amounts of GcMAF eradicated the murine ascites tumor. PMID:9893164

  3. Growth factors in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuejing; Nie, Daotai; Chakrabarty, Subhas

    2012-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor initiation and progression. Components in the microenvironment can modulate the growth of tumor cells, their ability to progress and metastasize. A major venue of communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment is through polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. This article discusses three major classes of growth-stimulatory polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. It also discusses how deregulation of these growth factors or their receptors can drive malignant transformation and progression. PMID:20036812

  4. Effect of sucrose monostearate, an emulsifier, on polyamine metabolism and phosphatidylinositol turnover in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Matsui-Yuasa, I; Koike, N; Ohtani, K; Otani, S

    1994-12-30

    Sucrose esters of fatty acids have antitumor activity. We studied the effect of sucrose monostearate (SS), an emulsifier, on polyamine metabolism and phosphatidylinositol turnover in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) was increased in the cells by changing the medium. This increase in the activity was inhibited by adding sucrose stearate, but not sucrose or stearate to the medium. The activity of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT), a rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biodegradation, was enhanced with the addition of SS in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The elevation of SAT activity was completely prevented when cycloheximide was added to the culture simultaneously. In in vitro studies, SS at various concentrations up to 1 mM hardly affected the activities of ODC or SAT. The incorporation of [3H]inositol into both fractions of inositolphospholipid and inositol phosphates was inhibited by SS. These results suggest that the perturbation of polyamine metabolism and phosphatidylinositol turnover is involved in the mechanism of antitumor activity of SS in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. PMID:7803498

  5. Morphogenesis of Influenza A Virus in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells as Revealed by Thin-Sectioning and Freeze-Etching

    PubMed Central

    Bchi, T.; Gerhard, W.; Lindenmann, J.; Mhlethaler, K.

    1969-01-01

    The budding of a tumor-adapted strain of influenza A0 virus at the surface of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by electron microscopy. Thin sections of budding sites showed the formation of a fuzzy coat on the outside of the cell membrane and simultaneously the apposition of a dark layer on the inner side. The continuity of cellular and viral membrane seemed to be preserved up to the point where the virion remained attached by only a thin stalk. Freeze-etching of virus budding sites yielded pictures in which a clear differentiation between the viral membrane and the host cell membrane was visible. The breaks across the fuzzy coat revealed striations corresponding to the spikes seen in negative contrast, whereas tangentially broken virus particles were best interpreted by assuming that splitting occurred midway between the two outer layers of the envelope. Images PMID:5391162

  6. Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Tumor Growth

    Cancer.gov

    The type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R) is over-expressed by many tumors and mediates proliferation, motility, and protection from apoptosis. Agents that inhibit IGF1R expression or function can potentially block tumor growth and metastasis. Its major ligands, IGF-I, and IGF-II are over-expressed by multiple tumor types.

  7. Characteristics of the accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamate derivatives in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.W.; Gewirtz, D.A.; Yalowich, J.C.; Goldman, I.D.

    1983-01-01

    The intracellular synthesis and retention of polygammaglutamyl derivatives of methotrexate and their interactions with H/sub 2/ folate reductase was evaluated. Methotrexate polyglutamates were detected within 15 minutes in hepatocytes exposed to 1 microM methotrexate, and continued to accumulate for at least 60 minutes producing a large transmembrane gradient. These derivatives appeared to be preferentially retained within the cell. In studies with the Ehrlich ascites tumor accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamates was increased over 5-fold by the addition of 5 mM L-glutamine or L-glutamate and exhibited a positive correlation with the extracellular concentration of methotrexate. When Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were exposed to 10 microM methotrexate and 5 mM L-glutamine intracellular polyglutamates were detected within 10 minutes and their levels increased linearly over 4 hours. As these derivatives accumulated, there was a decline in intracellular methotrexate due at least in part to a replacement of methotrexate on H/sub 2/ folate reductase by polyglutamates and subsequent efflux of the previously bound methotrexate from the cell. When polyglutamate derivatives were in excess of the H/sub 2/ folate reductase binding capacity and extracellular methotrexate removed, methotrexate rapidly exited the cell whereas the majority of its metabolites were retained and eventually saturated the major portion of the enzyme. These studies indicate that (1) intracellular methotrexate is rapidly converted to polygammaglutamyl derivatives, (2) these metabolites effectively compete with methotrexate for binding sites on H/sub 2/ folate reductase, (3) these derivatives are retained within the cell more effectively than methotrexate, and (4) vincristine and probenecid may be potentially useful for selectively increasing methotrexate polyglutamates in tumor cells.

  8. CHANGES IN THE ELECTRICAL SURFACE CHARGE AND TRANSPLANTATION PROPERTIES OF TA3 ASCITES TUMOR CELLS DURING SHORT-TERM MAINTENANCE IN AN ISOTONIC SALT SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.; Richards, W.R.; Kelly, L.S.

    1980-12-01

    TA3 ascites tumor cells maintained in vitro as a dilute suspension in 0.9% NaCl solution (physiological saline) were found to undergo time-dependent degenerative processes leading to alterations in both membrane characteristics and tumor transplantation properties. A 30% decrease in the negative cellular surface charge density occurred within 2 hr. when TA3 cells were incubated in a 0.9% NaCl solution at 23 C. A similar reduction in negative surface charge density occurred within 0.5 hr. when the medium was maintained at 37 C. This time-dependent reduction in surface charge was prevented when cellular metabolism was blocked either by maintaining the medium at 4 C. or by adding 1 mM cyanide ion to a 23 C medium. TA3 cells incubated as a dilute suspension in 0.9% NaCl solution at 23 C also exhibited a large 9 time-dependent reduction in proliferative capacity in isogeneic LAF1/J hosts, as indicated by an increase in the tumor dose for 50% mortality (TD50). Lowering the temperature of the medium to 4 C was observed to slow the onset of the degenerative processes that lead to a decreased transplantability of TA3 cells. The modification in growth properties of TA3 cells maintained in vitro was found to be attributable in part to an alteration in tumor histocompatibility. This effect was demonstrated by comparing the tumor growth kinetics and TD50 values in normal hosts versus hosts that had been immunosuppressed by whole-body irradiation. Following the in vitro maintenance of TA3 cells, nigrosin dye exclusion tests were performed as a means of assessing cell viability. Evidence obtained in this series of experiments indicated that vital staining is an inadequate criterion for judging either the extent of cell membrane damage or the loss of cellular proliferative capacity.

  9. Enhanced Antitumor Immunity Contributes to the Radio-Sensitization of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor by the Glycolytic Inhibitor 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Farooque, Abdullah; Singh, Niharika; Adhikari, Jawahar Singh; Afrin, Farhat; Dwarakanath, Bilikere Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Two-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), an inhibitor of glycolysis differentially enhances the radiation and chemotherapeutic drug induced cell death in cancer cells in vitro, while the local tumor control (tumor regression) following systemic administration of 2-DG and focal irradiation of the tumor results in both complete (cure) and partial response in a fraction of the tumor bearing mice. In the present studies, we investigated the effects of systemically administered 2-DG and focal irradiation of the tumor on the immune system in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) bearing Strain A mice. Markers of different immune cells were analyzed by immune-flow cytometry and secretary cytokines by ELISA, besides monitoring tumor growth. Increase in the expression of innate (NK and monocytes) and adaptive CD4+cells, and a decrease in B cells (CD19) have been observed after the combined treatment, suggestive of activation of anti-tumor immune response. Interestingly, immature dendritic cells were found to be down regulated, while their functional markers CD86 and MHC II were up regulated in the remaining dendritic cells following the combination treatment. Similarly, decrease in the CD4+ nave cells with concomitant increase in activated CD4+ cells corroborated the immune activation. Further, a shift from Th2 and Th17 to Th1 besides a decrease in inflammatory cytokines was also observed in the animals showing complete response (cure; tumor free survival). This shift was also complimented by respective antibody class switching followed by the combined treatment. The immune activation or alteration in the homeostasis favoring antitumor immune response may be due to depletion in T regulatory cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+). Altogether, these results suggest that early differential immune activation is responsible for the heterogenous response to the combined treatment. Taken together, these studies for the first time provided insight into the additional mechanisms underlying radio-sensitization by 2-DG in vivo by unraveling its potential as an immune-modulator besides direct effects on the tumor. PMID:25248151

  10. Some aspects of the causes of enhanced immune response of in vitro frozen ascites fibrosarcoma tumor cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Roy, A; Ghosh, S; Lahiri, S; Lahiri, P; Santra, A; Roy, B

    1995-08-01

    Estimation of 3 M KCl-extracted ascites fibrosarcoma (AFS) tumor cell membrane peripheral proteins in native and frozen tumor cells showed approximately a three-, four-, and fivefold increase per 1 x 10(6) cells of single-, three-, and programmed three-cycle frozen AFS tumor cells, respectively, compared to the same number of native cells, indicating an increase in surface membrane protein concentration with freezing. The 10% gel (homogeneous) electrophoretic (SDS-PAGE) study of 3 M KCl-extracted native and frozen cell membrane proteins showed (i) membrane proteins of native cells resolve into many more components compared to those of any frozen membranes, i.e., single, three, and programmed three cycle, the components decreasing in that order; (ii) the concentration of larger-molecular-weight protein fractions (> or = 75 kDa) decreases while those of smaller fractions (14 to 24 kDa) increase in frozen cells, with the maximum being in the programmed three-cycle frozen group. In contrast, the native cell membrane is rich in higher-molecular-weight proteins (> or = 75 kDa) with concentrations slowly decreasing toward lower-molecular weight fractions. Thus, the probable reasons for increased immune response of animals immunized with frozen AFS tumor cells are (i) absolute increase in cell surface protein concentrations as given by 3 M KCl extraction of cell membrane peripheral protein estimation in AFS tumor cells postfreeze; (ii) cell-surface protein pattern which is heterogeneous before freezing becomes relatively more homogeneous following freezing of AFS tumor cells; and (iii) depolymerization and breaking of higher-molecular-weight components which increase the concentration of terminal-sequence antigenic determinants and increase accessibility of determinant grouping by removing steric hindrance following freezing. PMID:7656564

  11. Cellular thiols status and cell death in the effect of green tea polyphenols in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Matsumoto, M; Kojima, A; Matsui-Yuasa, I

    1999-08-30

    Epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of green tea may help prevent cancers in humans, and also breast and prostate cancers in animal models are reduced by green tea, and several mechanisms have been proposed for these effects. In this study the relationship between cellular sulfhydryl (SH) groups and the cytotoxicity of green tea polyphenols in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was examined. It was found that in the presence of green tea extract (GTE) (100 microg/ml) and one of its polyphenolic components, epigallocatechin (EGC; 100 microM), both cellular non-protein (GSH) and protein-sulfhydryl (PSH) levels were significantly decreased and this was associated with a decrease in cell viability. Replenishing the thiol levels by using N-acetylcysteine (NAC) caused a recovery in cell viability, but this recovery was dependent on the time of thiol replenishment in the presence of EGC (initial 15 min). These results identify SH groups as a novel target of green tea polyphenols cytotoxicity in tumor cells, and a regulatory role for green tea in terms of reducing sulfhydryls in tumor inhibition. PMID:10475615

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cell 1 (MSC1)-Based Therapy Attenuates Tumor Growth Whereas MSC2-Treatment Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Ruth S.; Henkle, Sarah L.; Betancourt, Aline M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there are many promising clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell-based therapies of numerous diseases. Increasingly, however, there is a concern over the use of MSCs because they home to tumors and can support tumor growth and metastasis. For instance, we established that MSCs in the ovarian tumor microenvironment promoted tumor growth and favored angiogenesis. In parallel studies, we also developed a new approach to induce the conventional mixed pool of MSCs into two uniform but distinct phenotypes we termed MSC1 and MSC2. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we tested the in vitro and in vivo stability of MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes as well as their effects on tumor growth and spread. In vitro co-culture of MSC1 with various cancer cells diminished growth in colony forming units and tumor spheroid assays, while conventional MSCs or MSC2 co-culture had the opposite effect in these assays. Co-culture of MSC1 and cancer cells also distinctly affected their migration and invasion potential when compared to MSCs or MSC2 treated samples. The expression of bioactive molecules also differed dramatically among these samples. MSC1-based treatment of established tumors in an immune competent model attenuated tumor growth and metastasis in contrast to MSCs- and MSC2-treated animals in which tumor growth and spread was increased. Also, in contrast to these groups, MSC1-therapy led to less ascites accumulation, increased CD45+leukocytes, decreased collagen deposition, and mast cell degranulation. Conclusion/Significance These observations indicate that the MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes may be convenient tools for the discovery of critical components of the tumor stroma. The continued investigation of these cells may help ensure that cell based-therapy is used safely and effectively in human disease. PMID:23029122

  13. Genetic constraints in the induction of the immune response to Ehrlich ascites tumor in mice. [X ray

    SciTech Connect

    Marusic, M.; Perkins, E.H.

    1981-07-15

    A single injection of irradiated Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells induces immunity in normal mice but fails to do so in T-cell-deficient-thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (TIR) mice. TIR mice injected with normal syngeneic T cells develop an immune response to EAT when injected with irradiated EAT cells and reject a subsequent tumor cell challenge. In the present studies allogeneic T cells were unable to protect against EAT in TIR recipients even if harvested from donors tolerant to the recipient's transplantation antigens and injected into the TIR mice tolerant to the transplantation antigens of the injected T cells. Tolerance was produced by establishing long-term radiation chimeras of the P ..-->.. F/sub 1/ type. Semiallogeneic T cells also failed to afford protection against EAT in TIR recipients. Whereas tolerance to other parental-strain transplantation antigens did not reverse the inability of parental T cells (cells from P ..-->.. F/sub 1/ chimeric donors) to protect against EAT in F/sub 1/ TIR mice, it did enable F/sub 1/ T cells to afford protection in P ..-->.. F/sub 1/ TIR mice.

  14. Enhanced anti-tumor activity and reduced toxicity by combination andrographolide and bleomycin in ascitic tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huizhen; Zhang, Zhenbiao; Su, Zuqing; Sun, Chaoyue; Zhang, Xie; Zhao, Xiaoning; Lai, Xiaoping; Su, Ziren; Li, Yucui; Zhan, Janis Yaxian

    2016-04-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is an effective anti-carcinogen. With the main detrimental effects of inducing pulmonary fibrosis on patients, its clinical use is limited. Developing agents that enhance the efficacy and attenuate the side effects of cancer chemotherapy are critical. Andrographolide (Andro), an active diterpenoid labdane component extracted from Andrographis panicula, is generally prescribed for treatment of inflammatory associated diseases. The study showed that BLM combined with Andro was significantly more effective than BLM alone on inhibiting the tumor growth, arresting the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, promoting the capase-3 and capase-8 activity to induce cancer cell apoptosis. The underlying mechanisms may be related to the transcriptional regulation of P53/P21/Cyclin pathways. Moreover, BLM induced pulmonary fibrosis in tumor-bearing mice, but BLM combined with Andro dramatically alleviated the lesion in pulmonary fibrosis by activating the SOD, suppressing MDA and HYP production, in the meanwhile attenuating the IL-1β, TNF- α, IL-6 and TGF-β1 level. These mechanisms were associated with its effect on inhibition of protein expression of TGF-β, α-SMA, p-Smad2/3, enhanced expression of Smad7. Thus, it demonstrated that Andro might be a potential adjuvant therapeutic agent for BLM. PMID:26874212

  15. Immunotherapy of BALB/c mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1997-06-01

    Vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) is the precursor of macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of mouse DBP with immobilized beta-galactosidase or treatment of human Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated a remarkably potent MAF, termed DBPMAF or GcMAF, respectively. The domain of Gc protein responsible for macrophage activation was cloned and enzymatically converted to the cloned MAF, designated CdMAF. In Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice, tumor-specific serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) activity increased linearly with time as the transplanted tumor cells grew in the peritoneal cavity. Therapeutic effects of DBPMAF, GcMAF, and CdMAF on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor were assessed by survival time, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity, and serum NaGalase activity. Mice that received a single administration of DBPMAF or GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) on the same day after transplantation of tumor (1 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 35 +/- 4 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 16 +/- 2 days. When mice received the second DBPMAF or GcMAF administration at day 4, they survived more than 50 days. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 4 and 8 after transplantation of 1 x 10(5) tumor cells, survived up to 32 +/- 4 days. At day 4 posttransplantation, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity was approximately 5 x 10(5) cells. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 0 and 4 after transplantation of 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, also survived up to 32 +/- 4 days, while control mice that received the 5 x 10(5) ascites tumor cells only survived for 14 +/- 2 days. Four DBPMAF, GcMAF, or CdMAF administrations to mice transplanted with 5 x 10(5) Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 90 days and an insignificantly low serum NaGalase level between days 30 and 90. PMID:9187119

  16. Effect of high cell density on the growth properties of tumor cells: a role in tumor cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vivek; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the role of tumor progression in the growth properties of tumor cells and their susceptibility to the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. A murine transplantable T cell lymphoma of spontaneous origin, designated as Dalton's lymphoma, was used as a model tumor for this investigation. Tumor cells were harvested from the early (5 days after tumor transplantation) and late tumor-bearing stages (17 days after tumor transplantation), with or without in-vivo administration of the chemotherapeutic drugs, cisplatin or doxorubicin. Tumor cells harvested at the late tumor-bearing stages showed a higher proliferative ability in vitro. Tumor progression was found to be associated with a decline in the tumor cytotoxicity of the chemotherapeutic drugs. Similar results were also obtained when tumor cells were cultured at low (10(5) cells/ml) and high (10(9) cells/ml) cell densities in vitro in medium alone or in one containing the chemotherapeutic drugs. An increase in the expression of heat shock protein (Hsp70), vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-2 receptor and interleukin-2 proteins along with an inhibition in the expression of caspase-activated DNase and p53 proteins was observed during the late tumor-bearing stage and also in the Dalton's lymphoma cells when cultured in vitro at a higher cell density. The ascitic fluid obtained from the late tumor-bearing stage and the culture supernatant of tumor cells incubated in vitro at high cell density showed high levels of cell growth-regulating cytokines: interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interferon-gamma, vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor growth factor-beta and interleukin-10. In-vivo administration of cisplatin in tumor-bearing mice at the late tumor-bearing stage did not alter the level of these cytokines in the ascitic fluid. In view of the results of this investigation, it is suggested that under high cellular density-associated environmental conditions the tumor cells alter their growth properties depending on an alteration in the expression of cell growth and apoptosis-regulating proteins. Tumor cells, thus, switch to a high level of proliferation, which renders them resistant to the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:17893512

  17. Conditions supporting repair of potentially lethal damage cause a significant reduction of ultraviolet light-induced division delay in synchronized and plateau-phase Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.; Nusse, M.

    1982-09-01

    Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by uv light in synchronized and in plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by measuring cell survival. In particlar the influence of conditions supporting repair of PLD on growth kinetics was investigated. In synchronized G/sub 1/, S, or G/sub 2/ + M cells as well as in plateau-phase cells, uv light induced, almost exclusively, delay in the next S phase. A significant decrease of this delay was observed when the cells were incubated for 24 hr in balanced salt solution. Repair of PLD after uv irradiation was found to occur in plateau-phase cells and in cells in different phases of the cell cycle provided that after irradiation these were kept under conditions inhibiting cell multiplication (incubation in balanced salt solution or in conditioned medium). The repair time constant t/sub 50/ was significantly higher than those found for X irradiation (5-10 hr compared to 2 hr), and repair was not significantly inhibited by either 20 ..mu..g/ml cycloheximide or 2 mM caffeine in 24 hr.

  18. Glucose uptake-stimulatory activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem extracts in Ehrlich ascites tumor cell model system.

    PubMed

    Joladarashi, Darukeshwara; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans Veerayya

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multifunctional disorder with several causes and multiple consequences. Nutraceuticals play a vital role in ameliorating diabetic condition. The stems of the plant, Tinospora cordifolia (T. cordifolia) are often used in Ayurvedic medicine for the management of diabetes. Earlier studies have shown that T. cordifolia to be a potent antidiabetic plant material by virtue of being rich in nutraceuticals. In the present study we were interested to know if, T. cordifolia stem extracts are able to promote glucose uptake through glucose transporters, 1 (GLUT1) and 3 (GLUT3), which are responsible for basal glucose uptake. Hence, Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells were chosen as a model which harbours both GLUT1 and GLUT3 and glucose uptake was measured using a fluorescent analog 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG). Serially, solvent extracted T. cordifolia stems, especially water, ethanol and methanol extracts showed glucose uptake activity. Uptake was stimulated in a dose dependent manner at dosages of 1-100 μg. Glucose-stimulating activity does not seem to be solely due to polyphenol content since methanol extract, with high amount of polyphenol content (9.5 ± 0.1 g kg(-1)), did not stimulate higher glucose uptake activity when compared to water extract. PMID:24426067

  19. Selective incorporation of various C-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Masuzawa, Y.; Okano, S.; Waku, K.; Sprecher, H.; Lands, W.E.

    1986-11-01

    Three /sup 14/C-labeled 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 7,10,13,16-(/sup 14/C)docosatetraenoic acid (22:4(n-6)), 7,10,13,16,19-(/sup 14/C)docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)), and 4,7,10,13,16,19-(/sup 14/C)docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)), were compared with (/sup 3/H)arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6) and (14C)linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)) to characterize their incorporation into the lipids of Ehrlich ascites cells. The relatively rapid incorporation of the labeled 22-carbon acids into phosphatidic acid indicated that substantial amounts of these acids may be incorporated through the de novo pathway of phospholipid synthesis. In marked contrast to 20:4(n-6), the 22-carbon acids were incorporated much less into choline glycerophospholipids (CGP) and inositol glycerophospholipids (IGP). No selective preference was apparent for the (n-3) or (n-6) type of fatty acids. The amounts of the acids incorporated into diacylglycerophosphoethanolamine were in the order of: 22:6(n-3) greater than 20:4(n-6) much greater than 22:5(n-3) greater than or equal to 22:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6), whereas for alkylacylglycerophosphoethanolamine they were in the order of: 22:4(n-6) greater than 22:6(n-3) greater than 22:5(n-3) much greater than 20:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6). Of the mechanisms possibly responsible for the selective entry of 22-carbon acids into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, the most reasonable explanation was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamine phosphotransferase may have a unique double selectivity: for hexaenoic species of diacylglycerol and for 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing species of alkylacylglycerol. The relative distribution of fatty acids between newly incorporated and already maintained lipid classes suggested that IGP may function in Ehrlich cells as an intermediate pool for the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acids in glycerolipids.

  20. Unusual morphology of desmoplastic small round cell tumor from an ascitic fluid in the postchemotherapy setting

    PubMed Central

    Gonzlez-Arango, Ricardo; Castro-Villabn, Diana; Barrera-Herrera, Luis E.; Palau, Mauricio; Rodrguez-Urrego, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a malignant neoplasm that most often presents in male adolescents as an abdominal mass. Cytological features have been previously described, but only two reports noted post chemotherapy changes on effusions. We report a case of a 15-year-old male with DSRCT status postchemotherapy that presented with ascitis. Unusual morphology was seen: Numerous malignant large and single cells with prominent nucleoli and abundant cytoplasm in a background without the stroma, occasional mitosis, and the abundant apoptosis. Cell block immunocytochemistry was confirmatory. Awareness of the postchemotherapy changes in this tumor will allow us to diagnose recurrence. PMID:25948947

  1. PAPP-A proteolytic activity enhances IGF bioactivity in ascites from women with ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Jacob; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Espelund, Ulrick; rtoft, Gitte; Vestergaard, Poul; Magnusson, Nils E.; Conover, Cheryl A.; Tramm, Trine; Hager, Henrik; Hgdall, Claus; Hgdall, Estrid; Oxvig, Claus; Frystyk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action through proteolysis of IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-4. In experimental animals, PAPP-A accelerates ovarian tumor growth by this mechanism. To investigate the effect of PAPP-A in humans, we compared serum and ascites from 22 women with ovarian carcinoma. We found that ascites contained 46-fold higher PAPP-A levels as compared to serum (P < 0.001). The majority (80%) of PAPP-A was enzymatically active. This is supported by the finding that ascites contained more cleaved than intact IGFBP-4 (P < 0.03). Ascites was more potent than serum in activating the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in vitro (+31%, P < 0.05); in 8 of 22 patients by more than two-fold. In contrast, ascites contained similar levels of immunoreactive IGF-I, and lower levels of IGF-II (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of IGF-IR in all but one tumor, whereas all tumors expressed PAPP-A, IGFBP-4, IGF-I and IGF-II. Addition of recombinant PAPP-A to ascites increased the cleavage of IGFBP-4 and enhanced IGF-IR activation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, human ovarian tumors express PAPP-A, IGFBP-4 and IGFs and these proteins are also present in ascites. We suggest that both soluble PAPP-A in ascites and tissue-associated PAPP-A serve to increase IGF bioactivity and, thereby, to stimulate IGF-IR-mediated tumor growth. PMID:26336825

  2. PAPP-A proteolytic activity enhances IGF bioactivity in ascites from women with ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Jacob; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Espelund, Ulrick; rtoft, Gitte; Vestergaard, Poul; Magnusson, Nils E; Conover, Cheryl A; Tramm, Trine; Hager, Henrik; Hgdall, Claus; Hgdall, Estrid; Oxvig, Claus; Frystyk, Jan

    2015-10-13

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action through proteolysis of IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-4. In experimental animals, PAPP-A accelerates ovarian tumor growth by this mechanism. To investigate the effect of PAPP-A in humans, we compared serum and ascites from 22 women with ovarian carcinoma. We found that ascites contained 46-fold higher PAPP-A levels as compared to serum (P < 0.001). The majority (80%) of PAPP-A was enzymatically active. This is supported by the finding that ascites contained more cleaved than intact IGFBP-4 (P < 0.03). Ascites was more potent than serum in activating the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in vitro (+31%, P < 0.05); in 8 of 22 patients by more than two-fold. In contrast, ascites contained similar levels of immunoreactive IGF-I, and lower levels of IGF-II (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of IGF-IR in all but one tumor, whereas all tumors expressed PAPP-A, IGFBP-4, IGF-I and IGF-II. Addition of recombinant PAPP-A to ascites increased the cleavage of IGFBP-4 and enhanced IGF-IR activation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, human ovarian tumors express PAPP-A, IGFBP-4 and IGFs and these proteins are also present in ascites. We suggest that both soluble PAPP-A in ascites and tissue-associated PAPP-A serve to increase IGF bioactivity and, thereby, to stimulate IGF-IR-mediated tumor growth. PMID:26336825

  3. The activity against Ehrlich's ascites tumors of doxorubicin contained in self assembled, cell receptor targeted nanoparticle with simultaneous oral delivery of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    PubMed

    Ray, Lipika; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, Kailash C

    2013-04-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known anticancer drug used for the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. However, undesired toxicity of DOX limits its uses. To address the issue of minimizing toxicity of DOX by making it targeted towards cancer cells, DOX was entrapped in self-assembled 6-O-(3-hexadecyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl)-hyaluronic acid (HDHA) nanoparticles. We hypothesized that by encapsulating the drug in biodegradable nanoparticles, its therapeutic efficacy would improve, if targeted against cancer cells. We synthesized cell receptor targeted, DOX loaded HDHA nanoparticles (NPs) and non-targeted DOX loaded O-hexadecylated dextran (HDD) nanoparticles (NPs) and characterized them for their entrapment efficiency, percent yield, drug load, surface morphology, particle size and in vitro drug release. The anticancer efficacy of DOX loaded HDHA-NPs was evaluated by measuring the changes in tumor volumes, tumor weights, and mean survival rate of Swiss albino mice grafted with Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. For this, the animals were given HDHA-DOX-NPs (1.5 mg/kg b.wt.) intravenously and a green tea polyphenol, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (20 mg/kg b.wt.), orally through gavage. The targeted NP dose with EGCG significantly increased mean survival time of the animals and enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of the drug compared to the non-targeted NPs and free DOX. Further, we showed that these NPs (HDD and HDHA) were more active in the presence of EGCG than DOX alone in inducing apoptosis in EAC cells as evident by an increase in sub-G1 cells (percent), Annexin V positive cells and chromatin condensation along with the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The study demonstrates that DOX loaded HDHA-NPs along with EGCG significantly inhibit the growth of EAC cells with ∼38-fold dose advantage compared to DOX alone and thus opens a new dimension in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:23357370

  4. Effective recovery of highly purified CD326(+) tumor cells from lavage fluid of patients treated with a novel cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (KM-CART).

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yukino; Harada, Yui; Yasuda, Noriko; Ishidao, Takefumi; Yusa, Seiichi; Matsusaki, Keisuke; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    For the production of tumor-specific vaccines, including dendritic cell (DC) vaccines, the tumor cells themselves are an ideal source. Floating tumor cells in the ascites fluid from patients with malignant ascites are a good candidate source, but it is not easy to obtain pure tumor cells from ascites because of various types of cell contamination as well as protein aggregates. We here report an effective method to recover pure tumor cells from malignant ascites. We used lavage fluid from 13 patients with malignant ascites who were treated with modified cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (KM-CART). Cellular components were separated from the lavage fluid by centrifugation, enzymatic digestion and hemolysis. Tumor cells were purified by depleting CD45(+) leukocytes with antibody-conjugated magnetic beads. The tumor cell lysate was extracted by freeze-and-thaw cycles. The mean obtained total cell number was 7.50 × 10(7) cells (range 4.40 × 10(6)-2.48 × 10(8) cells). From this fraction, 6.39 × 10(6) (range 3.23 × 10(5)-2.53 × 10(7)) CD45(-) cells were collected, and the tumor cell purity was over 80 % defined as CD45(-)CD326(+). A sufficient amount of tumor lysate, average  = 2416 μg (range 25-8743 μg), was extracted from CD45(-)CD326(+) tumor cells. We here established an effective method to produce highly purified tumor cells from KM-CART lavage fluid. The clinical feasibility of this simple preparation method for generating tumor lysate should be examined in clinical studies of DC vaccines. PMID:26702369

  5. Changes in the electrical surface charge and transplantation properties of TA3 ascites tumor cells during short-term maintenance in an isotonic salt solution

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.; Richards, W.R.; Kelly, L.S.

    1980-12-01

    Several experimental procedures with tumors require in vitro maintenance of the cells under conditions that represent only an approximation to the physiological milieu. Examples of such procedures include the preparation of inocula for tumor transplantation and immunological studies on tumors in a cell culture system. Another example is the in vitro - in vivo cytotoxicity test in which the proliferative capacity of tumor cells is studied in vivo following incubation with a chemotherapeutic agent in vitro. As a means of characterizing several of the degenerative processes that can occur when tumor cells are maintained in vitro under relatively nonphysiological conditions, we have examined the influence of a 0.9% NaCl suspending medium on the surface charge and transplantation properties of TA3 ascites adenocarcinoma cells.

  6. Apparent involvement of opioid peptides in stress-induced enhancement of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J W; Shavit, Y; Terman, G W; Nelson, L R; Gale, R P; Liebeskind, J C

    1983-01-01

    Exposure to stress has been associated with alterations in both immune function and tumor development in man and laboratory animals. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a particular type of inescapable footshock stress, known to cause an opioid mediated form of analgesia, on survival time of female Fischer 344 rats injected with a mammary ascites tumor. Rats subjected to inescapable footshock manifested an enhanced tumor growth indicated by a decreased survival time and decreased percent survival. This tumor enhancing effect of stress was prevented by the opiate antagonist, naltrexone, suggesting a role for endogenous opioid peptides in this process. In the absence of stress, naltrexone did not affect tumor growth. PMID:6686324

  7. Hybrid Models of Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Rejniak, Katarzyna A.; Anderson, Alexander R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is a complex, multiscale process, in which genetic mutations occurring at a subcellular level manifest themselves as functional changes at the cellular and tissue scale. The multiscale nature of cancer requires mathematical modeling approaches that can handle multiple intra- and extracellular factors acting on different time and space scales. Hybrid models provide a way to integrate both discrete and continuous variables that are used to represent individual cells and concentration or density fields, respectively. Each discrete cell can also be equipped with sub-models that drive cell behavior in response to microenvironmental cues. Moreover, the individual cells can interact with one another to form and act as an integrated tissue. Hybrid models form part of a larger class of individual-based-models that can naturally connect with tumor cell biology and allow for the integration of multiple interacting variables both intrinsically and extrinsically and are therefore perfectly suited to a systems biology approach to tumor growth. PMID:21064037

  8. The effects of increasing levels of dietary garlic bulb on growth performance, systolic blood pressure, hematology, and ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Varmaghany, Saifali; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Lotfollahian, Houshang; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The effects of dietary garlic bulb were studied separately on hematological parameters, ascites incidence, and growth performance of an ascites susceptible broiler hybrid under both standard temperature conditions ( STC: ) and cold temperature conditions ( CTC: ). A total of 336 one-day-old male broiler chickens were allocated to 4 experimental groups with 4 replicates of 21 birds each under STC. In addition, the same grouping with another 336 birds was used for CTC. Under CTC, the birds were exposed to cold temperatures for induction of ascites. Experimental groups were defined by the inclusion of 0 (control), 5, 10 or 15?g/kg garlic bulbs in the diets under both STC and CTC. Growth performance, systolic blood pressure (as a measure of systemic arterial blood pressure), physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as ascites indices (right ventricle [ RV: ], total ventricle [ TV: ] weights, and RV/TV: ) were evaluated. Systolic blood pressure was determined using an indirect method with a sphygmomanometer, a pediatric cuff, and a Doppler device. The final body weight decreased quadratically (P=0.003), with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. The feed conversion ratio showed no significant differences among all groups under both STC and CTC. No significant differences were observed in total mortality and ascites-related mortality in all groups under STC, although total mortality (L: P=0.01; Q: P=0.001) and ascites-related mortality (L: P=0.007; Q: P=0.001) were significantly different among the diets under CTC. Under STC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, RV, TV, and RV/TV did not vary significantly among the diets. However, red blood cell count and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased linearly (P<0.005) with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. Under CTC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased (P<0.05) with increasing garlic levels. It is concluded that the inclusion of 5?g/kg garlic bulb in susceptible broiler chicken diets has a systemic anti-hypertensive effect and could decrease ascites incidence without impairing broiler chicken performance. PMID:26049796

  9. Identity-based High-performance thin Layer Chromatography Fingerprinting Profile and Tumor Inhibitory Potential of Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) wall Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nilesh; Lobo, Richard; Kumar, Nimmy; Bhagat, Jay Kumar; Mathew, Jessy Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) wall belonging to the family Lamiaceae is a plant that is widely used in folk medicine for treating eczema, cold, cough, and fever. Objective: In the present study, we explored the anticancer potential of A. carnosus leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and estimated the quantity of luteolin present in various extracts and fractions of A. carnosus by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting. Materials and Methods: Various factors such as tumor volume, tumor cell viability, tumor weight, prolongation of lifespan, and hematological parameters were assessed. Result: We observed a significant lowering in tumor volume, tumor weight, and cell viability in EAC-induced mice following intervention with A. carnosus extracts. Also, there was a considerable prolongation of host lifespan and restoration of hematological parameters to almost normal levels with A. carnosus treatment. HPTLC fingerprinting of various extracts and fractions of A. carnosus along with luteolin as the reference standard revealed the occurrence of luteolin in all tested extracts and fractions of A. carnosus with the highest concentration being reported in the ethanol fraction. Conclusion: A. carnosus exhibits potent anti-tumor potential which can most likely be attributed to the occurrence of different phytochemicals such as phytosterols, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the plant. Further studies to isolate compounds from A. carnosus and understand the mechanism of anti-tumor activity would be worthwhile. SUMMARY EAC induced mice that received A. carnosus treatment exhibited significant reduction in tumor volume, tumor weight and tumor cell viability. Their life span was considerably prolonged. We detected luteolin in A. carnosus aqueous and ethanol extract using HPTLC. Hence, anticancer activity of A. carnosus can be partly attributed to the presence of luteolin. PMID:26929584

  10. Research of ALA combined with HpD-PDT which induced s180 ascitic tumor cells, death or apoptosis on cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Yan, Min; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Li, Enling; Luo, Hongyu

    2005-07-01

    To ascertain the adequate dosage of ALA combined with HpD-PDT which induced tumor cell death or apoptosis on cytology. And to study the different effect of ALA-PDT and HPD-PDT used only. Rat ascitic tumor cells(S180) were randomly divided into several groups and incubated with ALA?20?g/ml ?40?g/ml?80?g/ml ?160?g/ml??HPD?2.5?g/ml?5?g/ml?10?g/ml?and their combination dosages. 630nm light (total output 2W) was delivered to tumor cells at a constant fluence rate: 200mw/cm2 and a constant irradiated time period: 20 minutes. We set 3 groups (no photosensitizers or no irradiation or neither) to be the control groups. We used inversion microscopy to observe the morphological change of tumor cells and flow cytometry technology to detect the death or apoptosis of tumor cells during the experiment. ..

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells genetically modified by lentivirus-mediated interleukin-12 inhibit malignant ascites in mice

    PubMed Central

    HAN, JIMING; ZHAO, JUMEI; XU, JIANRONG; WEN, YANJUN

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) genetically modified by lentivirus-mediated mouse interleukin-12 (Lenti-mIL-12) in treating malignant ascites in mice. The in vitro chemotactic effect of Lenti-mIL-12-MSC culture supernatant on dendritic cells was investigated using a chemotaxis chamber. Liver cancer H22 and MethA ascites models were constructed. Mice were divided evenly into four groups: Normal saline, MSC, Null and Lenti-mIL-12-MSC. The survival rate, ascites volume and red blood cell number were measured for these groups. The toxicity and side effects of Lenti-mIL-12-MSCs were investigated using visual and microscopy inspections. The results indicated that mIL-12 had a strong chemotactic effect on dendritic cells. mIL-12 was highly expressed in ascites of Lenti-mIL-12-MSC-treated mice. Lenti-mIL-12-MSCs reduced the volume of ascites and the number of red blood cells in ascites and thus increased the survival rate and prolonged the survival duration of the mice. Furthermore, Lenti-mIL-12-MSCs showed no toxicity and side effects on the mice with malignant ascites. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that Lenti-mIL-12-MSCs inhibited the growth of ascites and promoted the survival of tumor-bearing mice, suggesting that Lenti-mIL-12-MSCs exerts a therapeutic effect on malignant ascites by stimulating the immune responses of the mice. PMID:25187849

  12. Porphyrins as radiosensitizers in 60Co-irradiated E. ascites tumor cells: possibility to combine with PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luksiene, Zivile; Juodka, B.

    1993-06-01

    Efficiency of Ehrlich ascites cells radiosensitization by porphyrins is a function of irradiation dose. The maximal radiosensitization was reached at the dose--2Gy. Moreover, efficiency of cell radiosensitization depends on extracellular porphyrins concentration Hematoporphyrin (HP) and hemaporphyrin dimethylether (HPde) have different radiosensitizing effect on cells. One of the reasons of such phenomenon may be the different degree of hydrofobicity of those porphyrins. The studies of intracellular porphyrins concentration show that they differ in the case of HP and HPde in the same order as cell radiosensitization efficiencies.

  13. Metabolic changes in the liver of mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Inzhevatkin, E V; Savchenko, A A

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of NADP-dependent dehydrogenase activity and malonic dialdehyde content in the liver were studied in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Tumor growth was accompanied by the development of conditions for an increase in the intensity of energy metabolism and amphibolic role of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in LPO activation in liver cells. PMID:25342485

  14. Cancer Progression and Tumor Growth Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoev, Krastan; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Wilkerson, Julia; Sprinkhuizen, Sara; Song, Yi-Qiao; Bates, Susan; Rosen, Bruce; Fojo, Tito

    2013-03-01

    We present and analyze tumor growth data from prostate and brain cancer. Scaling the data from different patients shows that early stage prostate tumors show non-exponential growth while advanced prostate and brain tumors enter a stage of exponential growth. The scaling analysis points to the existence of cancer stem cells and/or massive apoptosis in early stage prostate cancer and that late stage cancer growth is not dominated by cancer stem cells. Statistical models of these two growth modes are discussed. Work supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health

  15. Mammalian protein homologous to VAT-1 of Torpedo californica: isolation from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, biochemical characterization, and organization of its gene.

    PubMed

    Hayess, K; Kraft, R; Sachsinger, J; Janke, J; Beckmann, G; Rohde, K; Jandrig, B; Benndorf, R

    1998-06-01

    Recently, interest has focused on the human gene encoding the putative protein homologous to VAT-1, the major protein of the synaptic vesicles of the electric organ of the Pacific electric ray Torpedo californica, after it has been localized on chromosome locus 17q21 in a region encompassing the breast cancer gene BRCA1. Chromosomal instability in this region is implicated in inherited predisposition for breast and ovarian cancer. Here we describe isolation and biochemical characterization of a mammalian 48 kDa protein homologous to the VAT-1 protein of Torpedo californica. This VAT-1 homolog was isolated from a murine breast cancer cell line (Ehrlich ascites tumor) and identified by sequencing of cleavage peptides. The isolated VAT-1 homolog protein displays an ATPase activity and exists in two isoforms with isoelectric points of 5.7 and 5.8. cDNA was prepared from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, and the murine VAT-1 homolog sequence was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and partially sequenced. The known part of the murine and the human translated sequences share 97% identity. By Northern blots, the size of the VAT-1 homolog mRNA in both murine and human (T47D) breast cancer cells was determined to be 2.8 kb. Based on the presented data, a modified gene structure of the human VAT-1 homolog with an extended exon 1 is proposed. VAT-1 and the mammalian VAT-1 homolog form a subgroup within the protein superfamily of medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases. PMID:9581869

  16. Decreased tumor growth in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats chronically supplemented with fish oil involves COX-2 and PGE2 reduction associated with apoptosis and increased peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Mund, Rogria C; Pizato, Nathalia; Bonatto, Sandro; Nunes, Everson A; Vicenzi, Thiago; Tanhoffer, Ricardo; de Oliveira, Heloisa H P; Curi, Rui; Calder, Philip C; Fernandes, Luiz C

    2007-02-01

    Many studies have shown that addition of fish oil (FO) to the diet reduces tumor growth but the mechanism(s) of action involved is (are) still unknown. In this study, we examine some possible mechanisms in tumor-bearing rats chronically supplemented with FO. Male Wistar rats (21 days old) were fed with regular chow and supplemented with coconut or FO (1g/kg body weight) until they reached 70 days of age. Then, they were inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (2 x 10(7)ml) and after 14 days they were killed. Supplementation with FO resulted in significantly lower tumor weight, greater tumor cell apoptosis, lower ex vivo tumor cell proliferation, a higher tumor content of lipid peroxides, lower expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in tumor tissue and a lower plasma concentration of prostaglandin E2 than observed in rats fed regular chow or supplemented with coconut oil. These results suggest that reduction of tumor growth by FO involves an increase in apoptosis and of lipid peroxidation in tumor tissue, with a reduction in tumor cell proliferation ex vivo, COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Thus, FO may act simultaneously through multiple effects to reduce tumor growth. Whether these effects are connected through a single underlying mechanism remains to be seen. PMID:17234396

  17. Effects of Dietary L-carnitine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Organ Weight, Biochemical Parameters and Ascites Susceptibility in Broilers Reared Under Low-temperature Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. W.; Ning, D.; Peng, Y. Z.; Guo, Y. M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on growth performance, organ weight, biochemical parameters of blood, heart and liver, and ascites susceptibility of broilers at different ages reared under a low-temperature environment. A total of 420 1-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments with fifteen replicates of fourteen broilers each. Treatment diets consisted of L-carnitine supplementation at levels of 0 and 100 mg/kg. At 11-d of age, low temperature stress was used to increase ascites susceptibility. Blood, heart and liver samples were collected at different ages for analysis of boichemical parameters. The results showed that, there was no significant difference in growth performance with L-carnitine supplementation, but the mortality due to ascites was significantly decreased. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced heart index (HI) and ascites heart index (AHI) on d 21, lung index (LUI) on d 35 and liver index (LI) on d 42. The broilers fed diets containing L-carnitine had significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB) concentration and hematocrit (HCT) on d 42. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content of heart tissue on d 21 and 35, and significantly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the heart on d 21 and 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum triglyceride (TG) content on d 28 and 35 and serum glucose (GLU) on d 35 and 42, and significantly increased serum total protein (TP) and globulin (GLO) content on d 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly enhanced liver succinodehydrogenase (SDH), malic dehydrogenase (MDH) and Na+-K+-ATPase activity on d 28, and tended to reduce the lactic acid (LD) level of liver on d 35 (p = 0.06). L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum uric acid (UA) content on d 28, 35 and 42. Based on the current results, it can be concluded that dietary L-carnitine supplementation reduced organ index, red blood cell counts and hematocrit, enhanced antioxidative capacity of the heart, enhanced liver enzymes activity involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, and reduced serum glucose and triglyceride. Therefore, it is suggested that L-carnitine can potentially reduce susceptibility and mortality due to ascites. PMID:25049781

  18. Simulating tumor growth in confined heterogeneous environments.

    PubMed

    Gevertz, Jana L; Gillies, George T; Torquato, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    The holy grail of computational tumor modeling is to develop a simulation tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for many of the complex processes involved in tumor growth. One interaction that has not been incorporated into computational models of neoplastic progression is the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and heterogeneity have on tumor growth. For this reason, we have taken a cellular automaton algorithm that was originally designed to simulate spherically symmetric tumor growth and generalized the algorithm to incorporate the effects of tissue shape and structure. We show that models that do not account for organ/tissue geometry and topology lead to false conclusions about tumor spread, shape and size. The impact that confinement has on tumor growth is more pronounced when a neoplasm is growing close to, versus far from, the confining boundary. Thus, any clinical simulation tool of cancer progression must not only consider the shape and structure of the organ in which a tumor is growing, but must also consider the location of the tumor within the organ if it is to accurately predict neoplastic growth dynamics. PMID:18824788

  19. Simulating tumor growth in confined heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevertz, Jana L.; Gillies, George T.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2008-09-01

    The holy grail of computational tumor modeling is to develop a simulation tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for many of the complex processes involved in tumor growth. One interaction that has not been incorporated into computational models of neoplastic progression is the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and heterogeneity have on tumor growth. For this reason, we have taken a cellular automaton algorithm that was originally designed to simulate spherically symmetric tumor growth and generalized the algorithm to incorporate the effects of tissue shape and structure. We show that models that do not account for organ/tissue geometry and topology lead to false conclusions about tumor spread, shape and size. The impact that confinement has on tumor growth is more pronounced when a neoplasm is growing close to, versus far from, the confining boundary. Thus, any clinical simulation tool of cancer progression must not only consider the shape and structure of the organ in which a tumor is growing, but must also consider the location of the tumor within the organ if it is to accurately predict neoplastic growth dynamics.

  20. C57BL/6N Mice Are More Resistant to Ehrlich Ascites Tumors Than C57BL/6J Mice: The Role of Macrophage Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Chausova, Svetlana; Kochetova, Lada; Malyshev, Yuri; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Effectiveness of the immune defense formed by the genotype often determines the predisposition to cancer. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages is an important element in this defense. MATERIAL AND METHODS We hypothesized that genetic characteristics of NO generation systems can predetermine the vulnerability to tumor development. The study was conducted on mice of 2 genetic substrains - C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N - with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). NO production in the tumor was changed using ITU, an iNOS inhibitor; c-PTIO, a NO scavenger; and SNP, a NO donor. Macrophage NO production was estimated by nitrite concentration in the culture medium. iNOS content was measured by Western blot analysis. Macrophage phenotype was determined by changes in NO production, iNOS level, and CD markers of the phenotype. RESULTS The lifespan of C57BL/6N mice (n=10) with EAC was 25% longer (p<0.01) than in C57BL/6J mice (n=10). Decreased NO production 23% reduced the survival duration of C57BL/6N mice (p<0.05), which were more resistant to tumors. Elevated NO production 26% increased the survival duration of C57BL/6J mice (p<0.05), which were more susceptible to EAC. Both the NO production and the iNOS level were 1.5 times higher in C57BL/6N than in C57BL/6J mice (p<0.01). CD markers confirmed that C57BL/6N macrophages had the M1 and C57BL/6J macrophages had the M2 phenotype. CONCLUSIONS The vulnerability to the tumor development can be predetermined by genetic characteristics of the NO generation system in macrophages. The important role of NO in anti-EAC immunity should be taken into account in elaboration of new antitumor therapies. PMID:26482575

  1. C57BL/6N Mice Are More Resistant to Ehrlich Ascites Tumors Than C57BL/6J Mice: The Role of Macrophage Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Chausova, Svetlana; Kochetova, Lada; Malyshev, Yuri; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Background Effectiveness of the immune defense formed by the genotype often determines the predisposition to cancer. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages is an important element in this defense. Material/Methods We hypothesized that genetic characteristics of NO generation systems can predetermine the vulnerability to tumor development. The study was conducted on mice of 2 genetic substrains C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). NO production in the tumor was changed using ITU, an iNOS inhibitor; c-PTIO, a NO scavenger; and SNP, a NO donor. Macrophage NO production was estimated by nitrite concentration in the culture medium. iNOS content was measured by Western blot analysis. Macrophage phenotype was determined by changes in NO production, iNOS level, and CD markers of the phenotype. Results The lifespan of C57BL/6N mice (n=10) with EAC was 25% longer (p<0.01) than in C57BL/6J mice (n=10). Decreased NO production 23% reduced the survival duration of C57BL/6N mice (p<0.05), which were more resistant to tumors. Elevated NO production 26% increased the survival duration of C57BL/6J mice (p<0.05), which were more susceptible to EAC. Both the NO production and the iNOS level were 1.5 times higher in C57BL/6N than in C57BL/6J mice (p<0.01). CD markers confirmed that C57BL/6N macrophages had the M1 and C57BL/6J macrophages had the M2 phenotype. Conclusions The vulnerability to the tumor development can be predetermined by genetic characteristics of the NO generation system in macrophages. The important role of NO in anti-EAC immunity should be taken into account in elaboration of new antitumor therapies. PMID:26482575

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression correlates with serum CA125 and represents a useful tool in prediction of refractoriness to platinum-based chemotherapy and ascites formation in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ai-Qun; Robertson, Gregory; Morris, David L.

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the identification of novel biological markers and potential therapeutic targets in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Given the critical role of growth factors in the biology of EOC, we aimed in the present study to evaluate the intratumoral expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) proteins and their clinical relevance in a cohort of 100 patients with EOC. All patients received platinum-based chemotherapy after surgery. A comparative immunohistochemical study of normal ovarian and EOC tissues showed that both growth factors were expressed at higher levels in tumor samples. In our statistical analysis, while no association existed between the FGF expression status and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients, intratumoral VEGF was identified as a potential biomarker for the prediction of ascites formation. In addition, the expression status of VEGF appeared to independently predict overall survival and response to chemotherapy. Furthermore, a direct association was demonstrated between the pre-treatment VEGF expression and serum CA125 after three cycles of chemotherapy. In sum, we report for the first time to our knowledge the correlation between intratumoral VEGF and serum CA125 in EOC. Our data also shows the prognostic value of VEGF expression in EOC. These results suggest the potential value of intratumoral VEGF in patient stratification. Dual inhibition of VEGF and CA125 might bring about a better outcome for patients with EOC. PMID:26143638

  3. ROLE OF CHEMOKINES IN TUMOR GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Baugher, Paige J.; Thu, Yee Mon; Richmond, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Chemokines play a paramount role in the tumor progression. Chronic inflammation promotes tumor formation. Both tumor cells and stromal cells elaborate chemokines and cytokines. These act either by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms to sustain tumor cell growth, induce angiogenesis and facilitate evasion of immune surveillance through immunoediting. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its ligands promote tumor angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration into the tumor microenvironment. In harsh acidic and hypoxic microenvironmental conditions tumor cells up-regulate their expression of CXCR4, which equips them to migrate up a gradient of CXCL12 elaborated by carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to a normoxic microenvironment. The CXCL12-CXCR4 axis facilitates metastasis to distant organs and the CCL21-CCR7 chemokine ligand-receptor pair favors metastasis to lymph nodes. These two chemokine ligand-receptor systems are common key mediators of tumor cell metastasis for several malignancies and as such provide key targets for chemotherapy. In this paper, the role of specific chemokines/chemokine receptor interactions in tumor progression, growth and metastasis and the role of chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions in the stromal compartment as related to angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune response to the tumor are reviewed. PMID:17629396

  4. Management of cirrhotic ascites

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Julie Steen; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    The most common complication to chronic liver failure is ascites. The formation of ascites in the cirrhotic patient is caused by a complex chain of pathophysiological events involving portal hypertension and progressive vascular dysfunction. Since ascites formation represents a hallmark in the natural history of chronic liver failure it predicts a poor outcome with a 50% mortality rate within 3 years. Patients with ascites are at high risk of developing complications such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hyponatremia and progressive renal impairment. Adequate management of cirrhotic ascites and its complications betters quality of life and increases survival. This paper summarizes the pathophysiology behind cirrhotic ascites and the diagnostic approaches, as well as outlining the current treatment options. Despite improved medical treatment of ascites, liver transplantation remains the ultimate treatment and early referral of the patient to a highly specialized hepatology unit should always be considered. PMID:25954497

  5. Investigation of Combined Action of Food Supplement's and Ionizing Radiation on the Cytogenetic Damage Induction and Ehrlich Ascite Carcinoma Growth on Mice in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, Svetlana; Zaichkina, Svetlana; Dyukina, Alsu; Rozanova, Olga; Balakin, Vladimir; Peleshko, Vladimir; Romanchenko, Sergey; Smirnova, Helena; Aptikaeva, Gella; Shemyakov, Alexander

    In recent ten years one of the major problems of modern radiobiology is the study of radiation protective mechanisms with the help of different substances as well as activation of internal resources of the organism. Internal resources mean such phenomena as hormesis and adaptive response which represent cell or body reaction on low doses of inducing factors and predetermine their further high dose effect resistance. At present special interest is attracted by studies of biological effects of low-dose-rate high-LET radiation because of searching for new types of radiation for more effective cancer therapy and searching for new methods of radiation protection. Since natural biologically active substances have low toxicity and are capable of affecting physiological processes taking place in human’s organism and increasing organism’s natural defense system, the interest to protective means of vegetal origin and search of special food supplements intensifies every year. The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined influence of food supplement, low dose rate high-LET radiation simulating high-altitude flight conditions and X-ray radiations on radiosensitivity, induction of radiation adaptive response (RAR) and growth of Ehrlich ascite carcinoma as well. Experiments were performed with males of SHK mice at the age of two months. The animals were being irradiated with low-dose-rate high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 cGy (0,5 cGy/day) behind the concrete shield of the 70 GeV protons accelerator (Protvino). The X-ray irradiation was carried out on the RTH device with a voltage of 200 kV (1 Gy/min; Pushchino). The diet composition included products containing big amount of biologically active substances, such as: soybeam meat, buckwheat, lettuce leaves and drug of cod-liver oil. Four groups of mice were fed with selected products mentioned above during the whole irradiation period of 22 days. The control groups received the same food without irradiation. The relation of the amount of the food supplement to the quantity of standard food was selected experimentally. In order to determine the level of radiosensitivity all groups of mice were subjected to X-radiation with the dose of 1,5 Gy and for induction of RAR the animals were irradiated according to the standard scheme (10 cGy+1,5 Gy). The influence of food supplement on the growth of solid tumor was estimated by measuring the size of the tumor at different times after the inoculation of ascitic cells s.c. into the femur. The percent of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) with micronucleus (MN) in marrow served as definition criteria of cytogenetic level of damage. The results of the study indicate that: 1) Due to influence of high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 Gy, mice who had dietary supplement demonstrated reduction of PCE with MN to the level of natural background radiation comparing with mice who had only standard food; 2) Diet containing soybeam, buckwheat or greens unlike cod-liver oil reduces the sensitivity of mice to X-radiation with the dose of 1,5 Gy and causes significant slowdown in growth of Ehrlich carcinoma; 3) The combined effect of high-LET radiation and the food supplements (except for cod-liver oil) reduces the sensitivity of mice to irradiation with the dose of 1,5 Gy, which demonstrate ability of RAR induction unlike the mice only irradiated with high-LET radiation and causes the slowdown in growth speed of Ehrlich carcinoma in contrast to the mice only irradiated with high-LET with the dose of 11,6 Gy; 4) The combined effect of high-LET radiation and the food supplements (except for cod-liver oil) does not influence the quantity of RAR according to the standard scheme (10 cGy+1,5 Gy).

  6. Microfilament association of ASGP-2, the concanavalin A-binding glycoprotein of the cell-surface sialomucin complex of 13762 rat mammary ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderpuye, L.A.; Carraway, C.A.C.; Carraway, K.L. )

    1988-10-01

    Microfilament-associated proteins and membrane-microfilament interactions are being investigated in microvilli isolated from 13762 rat mammary ascites tumor cells. Phalloidin shift analyses on velocity sedimentation gradients of Triton X-100 extracts of ({sup 3}H)-glucosamine-labeled microvilli identified a 120-kDa cell-surface glycoprotein associated with the microvillar microfilament core. The identification was verified by concanavalin A (Con A) blots of one- and two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis gels of sedimented microfilament cores. By 2D-electrophoresis and lectin analyses the 120-kDa protein appeared to be a fraction of ASGP-2, the major Con A-binding glycoprotein of the sialomucin complex of the 13762 cells. This identity was confirmed by immunoblot analyses using immunoblot-purified anti-ASGP-2 from anti-membrane serum prepared against microvillar membranes. Proteolysis of the microvilli with subtilisin or trypsin resulted in an increase in the amount of ASGP-2 associated with the microfilament cores. Proteolysis of isolated microvillar membranes, which contain actin but not microfilaments, also increased the association of ASGP-2 with a Triton-insoluble, actin-containing membrane fraction. Since the Triton-insoluble membrane residue is enriched in actin-containing transmembrane complex, which contains a different glycoprotein, the authors suggest that the ASGP-2 is binding indirectly via this complex to the microfilament core in the intact microvilli.

  7. Autocrine growth factors and solid tumor malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. H.; Karnes, W. E.; Cuttitta, F.; Walker, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of malignant cells to escape the constraint that normally regulate cell growth and differentiation has been a primary focus of attention for investigators of cancer cell biology. An outcome of this attention has been the discovery that the protein products of oncogenes play a role in the activation of growth signal pathways. A second outcome, possibly related to abnormal oncogene expression, has been the discovery that malignant cells frequently show an ability to regulate their own growth by the release of autocrine growth modulatory substances. Most important, the growth of certain malignant cell types has been shown to depend on autocrine growth circuits. A malignant tumor whose continued growth depends on the release of an autocrine growth factor may be vulnerable to treatment with specific receptor antagonists or immunoneutralizing antibodies designed to break the autocrine circuit. Information is rapidly emerging concerning autocrine growth factors in selected human solid tissue malignancy. Images PMID:1926844

  8. Characterization of Ascites-Derived Ovarian Tumor Cells from Spontaneously Occurring Ovarian Tumors of the Chicken: Evidence for E-Cadherin Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Anupama; Hadley, Jill A.; Hendricks, Gilbert L.; Elkin, Robert G.; Cooper, Timothy; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer, a highly metastatic disease, is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Chickens are widely used as a model for human ovarian cancer as they spontaneously develop epithelial ovarian tumors similar to humans. The cellular and molecular biology of chicken ovarian cancer (COVCAR) cells, however, have not been studied. Our objectives were to culture COVCAR cells and to characterize their invasiveness and expression of genes and proteins associated with ovarian cancer. COVCAR cell lines (n?=?13) were successfully maintained in culture for up to19 passages, cryopreserved and found to be viable upon thawing and replating. E-cadherin, cytokeratin and ?-smooth muscle actin were localized in COVCAR cells by immunostaining. COVCAR cells were found to be invasive in extracellular matrix and exhibited anchorage-independent growth forming colonies, acini and tube-like structures in soft agar. Using RT-PCR, COVCAR cells were found to express E-cadherin, N-cadherin, cytokeratin, vimentin, mesothelin, EpCAM, steroidogenic enzymes/proteins, inhibin subunits-?, ?A, ?B, anti-mllerian hormone, estrogen receptor [ER]-?, ER-?, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, and activin receptors. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed greater N-cadherin, vimentin, and VEGF mRNA levels and lesser cytokeratin mRNA levels in COVCAR cells as compared with normal ovarian surface epithelial (NOSE) cells, which was suggestive of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. Western blotting analyses revealed significantly greater E-cadherin levels in COVCAR cell lines compared with NOSE cells. Furthermore, cancerous ovaries and COVCAR cell lines expressed higher levels of an E-cadherin cleavage product when compared to normal ovaries and NOSE cells, respectively. Cancerous ovaries were found to express significantly higher ovalbumin levels whereas COVCAR cell lines did not express ovalbumin thus suggesting that the latter did not originate from oviduct. Taken together, COVCAR cell lines are likely to improve our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of ovarian tumors and its metastasis. PMID:23460878

  9. Blood porphyrin luminescence and tumor growth correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courrol, Lilia Coronato; Silva, Flávia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Bellini, Maria Helena; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Schor, Nestor; Vieira, Nilson Dias, Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Fluorescence technique appears very important for the diagnosis of cancer. Fluorescence detection has advantages over other light-based investigation methods: high sensitivity, high speed, and safety. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of new cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. Unfortunately many RCC masses remain asymptomatic and nonpalpable until they are advanced. Diagnosis and localization of early carcinoma play an important role in the prevention and curative treatment of RCC. Certain drugs or chemicals such as porphyrin derivatives accumulate substantially more in tumors than normal tissues. The autofluorescence of blood porphyrin of healthy and tumor induced male SCID mice was analyzed using fluorescence and excitation spectroscopy. A significant contrast between normal and tumor blood could be established. Blood porphyrin fluorophore showed enhanced fluorescence band (around 630 nm) in function of the tumor growth. This indicates that either the autofluorescence intensity of the blood fluorescence may provide a good parameter for the "first approximation" characterization of the tumor stage.

  10. Circulating Fibronectin Controls Tumor Growth12

    PubMed Central

    von Au, Anja; Vasel, Matthaeus; Kraft, Sabrina; Sens, Carla; Hackl, Norman; Marx, Alexander; Stroebel, Philipp; Hennenlotter, Jrg; Todenhfer, Tilman; Stenzl, Arnulf; Schott, Sarah; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Wetterwald, Antoinette; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Cecchini, Marco G; Nakchbandi, Inaam A

    2013-01-01

    Fibronectin is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix, and experimental evidence has shown that it modulates blood vessel formation. The relative contribution of local and circulating fibronectin to blood vessel formation in vivo remains unknown despite evidence for unexpected roles of circulating fibronectin in various diseases. Using transgenic mouse models, we established that circulating fibronectin facilitates the growth of bone metastases by enhancing blood vessel formation and maturation. This effect is more relevant than that of fibronectin produced by endothelial cells and pericytes, which only exert a small additive effect on vessel maturation. Circulating fibronectin enhances its local production in tumors through a positive feedback loop and increases the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) retained in the matrix. Both fibronectin and VEGF then cooperate to stimulate blood vessel formation. Fibronectin content in the tumor correlates with the number of blood vessels and tumor growth in the mouse models. Consistent with these results, examination of three separate arrays from patients with breast and prostate cancers revealed that a high staining intensity for fibronectin in tumors is associated with increased mortality. These results establish that circulating fibronectin modulates blood vessel formation and tumor growth by modifying the amount of and the response to VEGF. Furthermore, determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers. PMID:23908593

  11. Resolution of Malignant Ascites and Stabilization of Metastases in a Patient With Small Bowel Neuroendocrine Tumor With 177Lu-DOTATATE Following Progression After 17 131I-MIBG Treatments and Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Makis, William; McCann, Karey; Buteau, Francois A; McEwan, Alexander J B

    2015-07-01

    A 39-year-old man diagnosed with a small bowel neuroendocrine tumor metastatic to the liver, lymph nodes, and bones achieved stable disease with ¹³¹I-MIBG therapy totalling 17 treatments over 9 years (cumulative dose of 1.9 Ci). His disease progressed after the 17th ¹³¹I-MIBG treatment, and he went on to fail chemotherapy, developing severe ascites requiring up to 8 L of weekly paracentesis. He was referred for ¹⁷⁷Lu-[DOTA⁰,Tyr³]octreotate (DOTATATE) therapy, and after 4 induction cycles, his ascites resolved completely, and his metastatic disease stabilized. ¹⁷⁷Lu-DOTATATE may be useful in patients with an extensive history of radioisotope therapy with ¹³¹I-MIBG. PMID:25546192

  12. Pancreatic ascites hemoglobin contributes to the systemic response in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Upon hemolysis extracellular hemoglobin causes oxidative stress and cytotoxicity due to its peroxidase activity. Extracellular hemoglobin may release free hemin, which increases vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and adhesion molecule expression. Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid is reddish and may contain extracellular hemoglobin. Our aim has been to determine the role of extracellular hemoglobin in the local and systemic inflammatory response during severe acute pancreatitis in rats. To this end we studied taurocholate-induced necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. First, extracellular hemoglobin in ascites and plasma was quantified and the hemolytic action of ascitic fluid was tested. Second, we assessed whether peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma during pancreatitis. Third, hemoglobin was purified from rat erythrocytes and administered intraperitoneally to assess the local and systemic effects of ascitic-associated extracellular hemoglobin during acute pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin and hemin levels markedly increased in ascitic fluid and plasma during necrotizing pancreatitis. Peroxidase activity was very high in ascites. The peritoneal lavage abrogated the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma. The administration of extracellular hemoglobin enhanced ascites; dramatically increased abdominal fat necrosis; upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 gene expression; and decreased expression of interleukin-10 in abdominal adipose tissue during pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin enhanced the gene expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other hypoxia-inducible factor-related genes in the lung. Extracellular hemoglobin also increased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. In conclusion, extracellular hemoglobin contributes to the inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis through abdominal fat necrosis and inflammation and by increasing VEGF and leukocyte infiltration into the lung. PMID:25157787

  13. [Comparison of VEGF, IL-8 and beta-FGF concentrations in the serum and ascites of patients with ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Sad?ecki, Pawe?; Walentowicz-Sad?ecka, Ma?gorzata; Szyma?ski, Wies?aw; Grabiec, Marek

    2011-07-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of cancer death from gynecological malignancies. Angiogenesis is considered essential for tumor growth and the development of metastases. VEGF, IL-8, beta-FGF are potent angiostimulatory molecules and their expression has been demonstrated in many solid tumors, including ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of VEGF, IL-8 and beta-FGF in the serum and ascites of patients with ovarian cancer VEGF, IL-8, beta-FGF concentrations were measured by ELISA (Quantikine R&D). The median VEGF, IL-8 and beta-FGF levels were significantly higher in the ascites than sera of ovarian cancer patient. VEGF, IL-8, beta-FGF levels in ascites might be regarded as an additional tool in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. PMID:21913426

  14. Connective tissue growth factor in tumor pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Key roles for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) are demonstrated in the wound repair process where it promotes myofibroblast differentiation and angiogenesis. Similar mechanisms are active in tumor-reactive stroma where CTGF is expressed. Other potential roles include prevention of hypoxia-induced apoptosis and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transistion (EMT). CTGF expression in tumors has been associated to both tumor suppression and progression. For example, CTGF expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, breast, pancreas and gastric cancer correlates to worse prognosis whereas the opposite is true for colorectal, lung and ovarian cancer. This discrepancy is not yet understood. High expression of CTGF is a hallmark of ileal carcinoids, which are well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas with serotonin production originating from the small intestine and proximal colon. These tumors maintain a high grade of differentiation and low proliferation. Despite this, they are malignant and most patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis. These tumors demonstrate several phenotypes potentially related to CTGF function namely: cell migration, absent tumor cell apoptosis, as well as, reactive and well vascularised myofibroblast rich stroma and fibrosis development locally and in distal organs. The presence of CTGF in other endocrine tumors indicates a role in the progression of well-differentiated tumors. PMID:23259759

  15. Dual effects of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors on the therapeutic effects of cyclophosphamide and cycloplatam on Ehrlich ascites tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, L A; Morozkova, T S; Amitina, S A; Mazhukin, D G; Nikolin, V P; Popova, N A; Kaledin, V I

    2014-08-01

    Ethyl pyruvate, an inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, slightly suppressed the growth of transplantable Ehrlich tumor in mice and significantly potentiated the therapeutic effect of cyclophosphamide. Another inhibitor amidoxime produced a similar effect. However, both ethyl pyruvate and amidoxime significantly reduced the effect of cycloplatam therapy. The observed changes can be stipulated by different effects of cyclophosphamide and cycloplatam on the subpopulations of lymphoid cells taking part in the formation of antitumor immunity and resistance to tumors. PMID:25110094

  16. Ontogenetic tumor growth and evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattoli, G.; Ottaviani, P. L.; Pagnutti, S.

    2008-07-01

    We review the theory of ontogenetic tumor growth by discussing different evolution equations which account for the relevant dynamics. It is shown that most of the equations proposed can be treated from a unitary point of view. We extend the West ontogenetic evolution model to cancer growth and show that the relevant predictions agree with the experimental data from breast and prostate cancer. We finally prove that aging effects can be easily included in the theoretical scheme proposed.

  17. A tumor growth model with deformable ECM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciumè, G.; Santagiuliana, R.; Ferrari, M.; Decuzzi, P.; Schrefler, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Existing tumor growth models based on fluid analogy for the cells do not generally include the extracellular matrix (ECM), or if present, take it as rigid. The three-fluid model originally proposed by the authors and comprising tumor cells (TC), host cells (HC), interstitial fluid (IF) and an ECM, considered up to now only a rigid ECM in the applications. This limitation is here relaxed and the deformability of the ECM is investigated in detail. The ECM is modeled as a porous solid matrix with Green-elastic and elasto-visco-plastic material behavior within a large strain approach. Jauman and Truesdell objective stress measures are adopted together with the deformation rate tensor. Numerical results are first compared with those of a reference experiment of a multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) growing in vitro, then three different tumor cases are studied: growth of an MTS in a decellularized ECM, growth of a spheroid in the presence of host cells and growth of a melanoma. The influence of the stiffness of the ECM is evidenced and comparison with the case of a rigid ECM is made. The processes in a deformable ECM are more rapid than in a rigid ECM and the obtained growth pattern differs. The reasons for this are due to the changes in porosity induced by the tumor growth. These changes are inhibited in a rigid ECM. This enhanced computational model emphasizes the importance of properly characterizing the biomechanical behavior of the malignant mass in all its components to correctly predict its temporal and spatial pattern evolution.

  18. A tumor growth model with deformable ECM

    PubMed Central

    Scium, G; Santagiuliana, R; Ferrari, M; Decuzzi, P; Schrefler, B A

    2015-01-01

    Existing tumor growth models based on fluid analogy for the cells do not generally include the extracellular matrix (ECM), or if present, take it as rigid. The three-fluid model originally proposed by the authors and comprising tumor cells (TC), host cells (HC), interstitial fluid (IF) and an ECM, considered up to now only a rigid ECM in the applications. This limitation is here relaxed and the deformability of the ECM is investigated in detail. The ECM is modeled as a porous solid matrix with Green-elastic and elasto-visco-plastic material behavior within a large strain approach. Jauman and Truesdell objective stress measures are adopted together with the deformation rate tensor. Numerical results are first compared with those of a reference experiment of a multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) growing in vitro, then three different tumor cases are studied: growth of an MTS in a decellularized ECM, growth of a spheroid in the presence of host cells and growth of a melanoma. The influence of the stiffness of the ECM is evidenced and comparison with the case of a rigid ECM is made. The processes in a deformable ECM are more rapid than in a rigid ECM and the obtained growth pattern differs. The reasons for this are due to the changes in porosity induced by the tumor growth. These changes are inhibited in a rigid ECM. This enhanced computational model emphasizes the importance of properly characterizing the biomechanical behavior of the malignant mass in all its components to correctly predict its temporal and spatial pattern evolution. PMID:25427284

  19. Evidence that repair and expression of potentially lethal damage cause the variations in cell survival after x irradiation observed through the cell cycle in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1983-07-01

    The survival of synchronously growing Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT cells) was measured after x irradiation in various stages of the cell cycle. Cells at the beginning of S or in G2 + M phase showed a high level of killing, whereas cells irradiated in G1 or in the middle of S phase were more resistant. These changes resulted from a change in the survival curve shoulder width (D/sub q/) as cells passed through the cell cycle, and the mean lethal dose (D/sub 0/) remained practically unchanged (0.8 +- 0.05 Gy). When synchronization of the cell population was further sharpened using nocodazole, exponential survival curves were obtained at the beginning of S phase and at mitosis with a D/sub 0/ = 0.8 Gy. When cells (in all stages) were incubated in balanced salt solution for 6 h after irradiation, repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) was observed, resulting in an increase in D/sub q/, while D/sub 0/ remained constant. Treatment of the cells after irradiation with either caffeine or ..beta..-arabinofuranosyladenine (..beta..-araA) or hypertonic medium resulted in an expression of PLD and reduced the D/sub q/ of the survival curve. We measured the rate of the loss of sensitivity of these treatments that we assume reflects the rate of repair of PLD. Results indicate that the shoulder width D/sub q/ of the survival curve in cells irradiated at various stages of the cell cycle results from repair of PLD. It is suggested that the variations observed in cell survival through the cell cycle might reflect variations in the final amount of PLD either repaired or expressed as the cells progress through stages of the cell cycle.

  20. Ascites syndrome in broilers: physiological and nutritional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Baghbanzadeh, A; Decuypere, E

    2008-04-01

    Broiler chickens are intensively selected for productive traits. The management of these highly productive animals must be optimal to allow their full genetic potential to be expressed. If this is not done, inefficient production and several metabolic diseases such as ascites become apparent. The causes of the ascites are multifactorial but diet and, particularly, interactions between diet, other environmental and genetic factors play an important role. The relatively high heritability estimates for ascites-related traits and the significance of maternal genetic effects for most of the traits indicate that direct and maternal genetic effects play an important role in development of the ascites syndrome. An imbalance between oxygen supply and the oxygen required to sustain rapid growth rates and high food efficiencies causes ascites in broiler chickens. Because of the relationship to oxygen demand, ascites is affected and/or precipitated by factors such as growth rate, altitude (hypoxia) and environmental temperature. As the high metabolic rate (fast growth) is a major factor contributing to the susceptibility of broilers to ascites, early-age feed or nutrient restriction (qualitative or quantitative) or light restriction in order to slow down the growth rate seem practically viable methods, since final body weight is not compromised. Manipulation of the diet composition and/or feed allocation system can have a major effect on the incidence of ascites. Optimization of the house temperature and ventilation in cold weather seem helpful practices to decrease ascites incidence. PMID:18393088

  1. AAV-mediated human PEDF inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in murine colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis, therefore antiangiogenic therapy was widely investigated as a promising approach for cancer therapy. Recently, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been shown to be the most potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been intensively studied due to their wide tropisms, nonpathogenicity, and long-term transgene expression in vivo. The objective of this work was to evaluate the ability of AAV-mediated human PEDF (hPEDF) as a potent tumor suppressor and a potential candidate for cancer gene therapy. Methods Recombinant AAV2 encoding hPEDF (rAAV2-hPEDF) was constructed and produced, and then was assigned for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Conditioned medium from cells infected with rAAV2-hPEDF was used for cell proliferation and tube formation tests of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Subsequently, colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRPC) mouse model was established and treated with rAAV2-hPEDF. Therapeutic efficacy of rAAV2-hPEDF were investigated, including tumor growth and metastasis, survival time, microvessel density (MVD) and apoptosis index of tumor tissues, and hPEDF levels in serum and ascites. Results rAAV2-hPEDF was successfully constructed, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that rAAV2-hPEDF particles were non-enveloped icosahedral shape with a diameter of approximately 20 nm. rAAV2-hPEDF-infected cells expressed hPEDF protein, and the conditioned medium from infected cells inhibited proliferation and tube-formation of HUVECs in vitro. Furthermore, in CRPC mouse model, rAAV2-hPEDF significantly suppressed tumor growth and metastasis, and prolonged survival time of treated mice. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that rAAV2-hPEDF could inhibit angiogenesis and induce apoptosis in tumor tissues. Besides, hPEDF levels in serum and ascites of rAAV2-hPEDF-treated mice were significant higher than those in rAAV2-null or normal saline (NS) groups. Conclusions Thus, our results suggest that rAAV2-hPEDF may be a potential candidate as an antiangiogenic therapy agent. PMID:22462776

  2. In vivo Anticancer Activities of Benzophenone Semicarbazone against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Khairul; Ali, Shaikh M Mohsin; Jesmin, Mele; Khanam, Jahan Ara

    2012-01-01

    Objective Benzophenone semicarbazone (BSC) was synthesized and characterized to identify compounds with anticancer activities. Methods Anticancer activities were studied against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells in Swiss albino mice by monitoring parameters such as tumor weight measurement, survival time of tumor bearing mice, tumor cell growth inhibition, and so on. Some hematological parameters, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and hemoglobin content, were also measured. Results The results showed that BSC has a positive effect against EAC cells. An assessment was conducted by comparing these results with those obtained using the standard drug bleomycin. Conclusions The BSC compound can be considered as a potent anticancer agent. PMID:23691484

  3. Stochastic model for tumor growth with immunization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Thomas; Trimper, Steffen

    2009-05-01

    We analyze a stochastic model for tumor cell growth with both multiplicative and additive colored noises as well as nonzero cross correlations in between. Whereas the death rate within the logistic model is altered by a deterministic term characterizing immunization, the birth rate is assumed to be stochastically changed due to biological motivated growth processes leading to a multiplicative internal noise. Moreover, the system is subjected to an external additive noise which mimics the influence of the environment of the tumor. The stationary probability distribution Ps is derived depending on the finite correlation time, the immunization rate, and the strength of the cross correlation. Ps offers a maximum which becomes more pronounced for increasing immunization rate. The mean-first-passage time is also calculated in order to find out under which conditions the tumor can suffer extinction. Its characteristics are again controlled by the degree of immunization and the strength of the cross correlation. The behavior observed can be interpreted in terms of a biological model of tumor evolution.

  4. Fusion of lipid vesicles with ascites tumor cells and their lipid-depleted variants. Studies with radioactive- and fluorescent-labeled vesicles.

    PubMed

    Seibicke, S; Zimmermann, H P; Haeffner, E W

    1988-10-20

    Cultured ascites tumor cells and their lipid-depleted variants, which contained 35-40% less membrane phospholipid and cholesterol, were used for fusion experiments with unilamellar lipid vesicles which were between 300 and 600 nm in diameter. Vesicle-cell interaction was followed by tracer studies using vesicles double-labeled in the lipid moiety, by vesicle-encapsulated [3H] dextran, and by measurements of energy transfer between N-(10-[1-pyrene]decanoyl)sphingomyelin-labeled vesicles and alpha-parinaric acid-labeled cells in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as fusogen. The reaction rates measured with the radiolabeled vesicles were found to follow patterns similar to those obtained with the resonance energy transfer assay. This latter method revealed a vesicle-cell membrane fusion reaction, which was substantiated by radiolabeling the internal cellular compartment after treatment of the cells with [3H]dextran-encapsulated vesicles as shown by electron microscopic autoradiography on semi-thin sections. Endocytosis as a reaction mechanism can be excluded, since no energy transfer was observed at 25 degrees C in the absence of PEG. Investigations of vesicle bilayer order and fluidity on vesicle-cell interaction revealed optimal reactivity, with intermediate fluidity corresponding to cholesterol/phospholipid ratios between 0.7 and 1.0 and fluorescence depolarization (P) values of 0.18 and 0.21. Lipid depletion decreased the reaction velocity between cells and vesicles by about 20%, exhibiting V values of 33.2 mumol/min, as compared to the control of 41.4 mumol/min determined for 10(7) cells. The affinity constants for vesicle lipid were affected only slightly with Km values of 0.195 mM (0.210 mM). The activation energies for the reaction were calculated to give values of EA = 22.44 kJ/mol for the control and of EA = 20.4 kJ/mol for the modified cells. These data indicate that the decrease in membrane lipid content apparently has no major influence on the extent of the interaction. PMID:2460141

  5. [Treatment of refractory ascites].

    PubMed

    Martnez, Javier; Albillos, Agustn

    2014-07-01

    Ascites is a common complication of hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Patients present systemic and splanchnic circulation disorders, which cause central hypovolemia and arterial hypotension, with the subsequent activation of vasoconstrictor systems and increased renal reabsorption of sodium and water. Approximately 5%-10% of patients present refractory ascites. Refractory ascites is considered when it is not controllable with standard dietary (sodium restriction) and diuretic (furosemide up to 160 mg a day and spironolactone up to 400mg a day) treatment or when patients present adverse effects due to diuretics that impede their administration at optimum dosages. The current therapeutic options for these patients are repeated evacuative paracentesis and the percutaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Despite these treatments, refractory ascites has a poor prognosis; patients should therefore be assessed for liver transplantation. PMID:25087715

  6. A comparison and catalog of intrinsic tumor growth models.

    PubMed

    Sarapata, E A; de Pillis, L G

    2014-08-01

    Determining the mathematical dynamics and associated parameter values that should be used to accurately reflect tumor growth continues to be of interest to mathematical modelers, experimentalists and practitioners. However, while there are several competing canonical tumor growth models that are often implemented, how to determine which of the models should be used for which tumor types remains an open question. In this work, we determine the best fit growth dynamics and associated parameter ranges for ten different tumor types by fitting growth functions to at least five sets of published experimental growth data per type of tumor. These time-series tumor growth data are used to determine which of the five most common tumor growth models (exponential, power law, logistic, Gompertz, or von Bertalanffy) provides the best fit for each type of tumor. PMID:25081547

  7. [An unusual ascites...].

    PubMed

    Miéville, A; Maillard Dewarrat, G; Bauer, J

    2011-05-25

    The finding of an ascites in in- or out-patients in inner medicine is relatively frequent. However, the differential diagnosis sometimes extends in rarer pathologies which need rapid investigations to begin a treatment and improve the patient's prognosis. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with a progressive ascites in the context of a peritoneal carcinosis due to a malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. PMID:21614766

  8. Effects of intratumoral injection of I-125 iododeoxyuridine on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, S.S.; Ford, E.H.; Alfieri, A.A.; Bravo, S. )

    1989-11-01

    Intratumoral injection of I-125 iododeoxyuridine (IUdR), saline solution, and oil suspension was investigated using Ehrlich ascites tumors in the thighs of mice. The oil suspension was more effective in tumor growth delay than was the saline solution. Single injection of the oil suspension at the dose of 12.5 microCi resulted in 21.5 days growth delay, whereas 50 microCi of the saline solution resulted in 11.5 days growth delay relative to control growth delay. At 40 days after treatment, higher radioactivities were observed in the tumor and the skin of the mice treated with the oil suspension, which represented the prolongation of I-125 IUdR oil suspension within the tumor. No normal tissue toxicities were observed.

  9. TUSC1, a putative tumor suppressor gene, reduces tumor cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zhihong; Shakoori, Abbas; Bodaghi, Sohrab; Goldsmith, Paul; Jin, Jen; Wiest, Jonathan S

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported the identification of TUSC1 (Tumor Suppressor Candidate 1), as a novel intronless gene isolated from a region of homozygous deletion at D9S126 on chromosome 9p in human lung cancer. In this study, we examine the differential expression of TUSC1 in human lung cancer cell lines by western blot and in a primary human lung cancer tissue microarray by immunohistochemical analysis. We also tested the functional activities and mechanisms of TUSC1 as a tumor suppressor gene through growth suppression in vitro and in vivo. The results showed no expression of TUSC1 in TUSC1 homozygously deleted cells and diminished expression in some tumor cell lines without TUSC1 deletion. Interestingly, the results from a primary human lung cancer tissue microarray suggested that higher expression of TUSC1 was correlated with increased survival times for lung cancer patients. Our data demonstrated that growth curves of tumor cell lines transfected with TUSC1 grew slower in vitro than those transfected with the empty vector. More importantly, xenograph tumors in nude mice grew significantly slower in vivo in cells stably transfected with TUSC1 than those transfected with empty vector. In addition, results from confocal microscopy and immunohistochemical analyses show distribution of TUSC1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus in tumor cell lines and in normal and tumor cells in the lung cancer tissue microarray. Taken together, our results support TUSC1 has tumor suppressor activity as a candidate tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 9p. PMID:23776618

  10. Pancreatic cancers require autophagy for tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shenghong; Wang, Xiaoxu; Contino, Gianmarco; Liesa, Marc; Sahin, Ergun; Ying, Haoqiang; Bause, Alexandra; Li, Yinghua; Stommel, Jayne M.; Dell'Antonio, Giacomo; Mautner, Josef; Tonon, Giovanni; Haigis, Marcia; Shirihai, Orian S.; Doglioni, Claudio; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Kimmelman, Alec C.

    2011-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a regulated catabolic pathway to degrade cellular organelles and macromolecules. The role of autophagy in cancer is complex and may differ depending on tumor type or context. Here we show that pancreatic cancers have a distinct dependence on autophagy. Pancreatic cancer primary tumors and cell lines show elevated autophagy under basal conditions. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy leads to increased reactive oxygen species, elevated DNA damage, and a metabolic defect leading to decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Together, these ultimately result in significant growth suppression of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Most importantly, inhibition of autophagy by genetic means or chloroquine treatment leads to robust tumor regression and prolonged survival in pancreatic cancer xenografts and genetic mouse models. These results suggest that, unlike in other cancers where autophagy inhibition may synergize with chemotherapy or targeted agents by preventing the up-regulation of autophagy as a reactive survival mechanism, autophagy is actually required for tumorigenic growth of pancreatic cancers de novo, and drugs that inactivate this process may have a unique clinical utility in treating pancreatic cancers and other malignancies with a similar dependence on autophagy. As chloroquine and its derivatives are potent inhibitors of autophagy and have been used safely in human patients for decades for a variety of purposes, these results are immediately translatable to the treatment of pancreatic cancer patients, and provide a much needed, novel vantage point of attack. PMID:21406549

  11. Decorin: A Growth Factor Antagonist for Tumor Growth Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero A. H.; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Decorin (DCN) is the best characterized member of the extracellular small leucine-rich proteoglycan family present in connective tissues, typically in association with or “decorating” collagen fibrils. It has substantial interest to clinical medicine owing to its antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Studies on DCN knockout mice have established that a lack of DCN is permissive for tumor development and it is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene. A reduced expression or a total disappearance of DCN has been reported to take place in various forms of human cancers during tumor progression. Furthermore, when used as a therapeutic molecule, DCN has been shown to inhibit tumor progression and metastases in experimental cancer models. DCN affects the biology of various types of cancer by targeting a number of crucial signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The active sites for the neutralization of different growth factors all reside in different parts of the DCN molecule. An emerging concept that multiple proteases, especially those produced by inflammatory cells, are capable of cleaving DCN suggests that native DCN could be inactivated in a number of pathological inflammatory conditions. In this paper, we review the role of DCN in cancer. PMID:26697491

  12. Decorin: A Growth Factor Antagonist for Tumor Growth Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Jrvinen, Tero A H; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Decorin (DCN) is the best characterized member of the extracellular small leucine-rich proteoglycan family present in connective tissues, typically in association with or "decorating" collagen fibrils. It has substantial interest to clinical medicine owing to its antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Studies on DCN knockout mice have established that a lack of DCN is permissive for tumor development and it is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene. A reduced expression or a total disappearance of DCN has been reported to take place in various forms of human cancers during tumor progression. Furthermore, when used as a therapeutic molecule, DCN has been shown to inhibit tumor progression and metastases in experimental cancer models. DCN affects the biology of various types of cancer by targeting a number of crucial signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The active sites for the neutralization of different growth factors all reside in different parts of the DCN molecule. An emerging concept that multiple proteases, especially those produced by inflammatory cells, are capable of cleaving DCN suggests that native DCN could be inactivated in a number of pathological inflammatory conditions. In this paper, we review the role of DCN in cancer. PMID:26697491

  13. Malignant ascites: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Cavazzoni, Emanuel; Bugiantella, Walter; Graziosi, Luigina; Franceschini, Maria Silvia; Donini, Annibale

    2013-02-01

    Malignant ascites (MA) accompanies a variety of abdominal and extra-abdominal tumors. It is a primary cause of morbidity and raises several treatment challenges. MA has several symptoms, producing a significant reduction in the patient's quality of life: loss of proteins and electrolyte disorders cause diffuse oedema, while the accumulation of abdominal fluid facilitates sepsis. Treatment options include a multitude of different procedures with limited efficacy and some degree of risk. A Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library review of medical, interventional and surgical treatments of MA has been performed. Medical therapy, primarily paracentesis and diuretics, are first-line treatments in managing MA. Paracentesis is widely adopted but it is associated with significant patient discomfort and several risks. Diuretic therapy is effective at the very beginning of the disease but efficacy declines with tumor progression. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and radioisotopes are promising medical options but their clinical application is not yet completely elucidated, and further investigations and trials are necessary. Peritoneal-venous shunts are rarely used due to high rates of early mortality and complications. Laparoscopy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been proposed as palliative therapy. Literature on the use of laparoscopic HIPEC in MA includes only reports with small numbers of patients, all showing successful control of ascites. To date, none of the different options has been subjected to evidence-based clinical trials and there are no accepted guidelines for the management of MA. PMID:22460778

  14. Study on the therapeutic effects of low-energy laser therapy combined with cyclophosphamide on the mouse ascites sarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbin; Huang, Baoxu; Liu, Huanqi; Qu, Zhina; Liu, Xifeng; Cheng, Shaohui

    2004-07-01

    By using the experimental model of mouse S180 ascites sarcoma, the feasibility and mechanism of low-energy laser therapy combined with the traditional antitumor drug of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of malignant tumors were discussed. The S180 ascites sarcoma suffering BALB/c mice were irradiated upon the Harder's glands with the dosages of 11.00, 14.67 and 22.00 J/cm2 respectively, and/or injected with CYT intraperitoneally to evaluate the therapeutic effects of CYT/LELT combination on malignant tumors. The three dosages of LELT combined with CYT all showed remarkably therapeutic effects on the mouse S180 ascites sarcoma. Comparatively, the dosage of 14.67J/cm2 LELT combined with CYT showed the most ideal therapeutic effects and the survival time was up to 20.80 days, and the life prolongation ratio was 33.33% which was remarkably higher than those of the CYT and tumor control groups. CYT/LELT combined therapy had remarkably inhibiting effects on the mice ascites growth because of the existence of CYT.

  15. Gemcitabine suppresses malignant ascites of human pancreatic cancer: correlation with VEGF expression in ascites.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Kenichi; Sasaki, Tamito; Kobayashi, Kensou; Noma, Bunjirou; Serikawa, Masahiro; Iiboshi, Tomohiro; Miyata, Hideki; Kuwada, Yukio; Murakami, Masateru; Yamasaki, Souichirou; Kariya, Kenji; Morinaka, Kenji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2004-01-01

    It has been reported that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor that also has the ability to increase vascular permeability. VEGF plays an important role in the development of malignant ascites in various cancers. Gemcitabine has been prescribed for patients with inoperable human pancreatic ductal carcinoma as a first-line chemotherapy. However, the response rates of patients with malignant ascites who were undergoing systemic chemotherapy were extremely limited. In the present study, we investigated the role of VEGF and the effects of gemcitabine on malignant ascites of human pancreatic ductal carcinoma. As an in vitro assay, the human pancreatic cancer cell line (SUIT-2) was incubated in DMEM supplemented with serially diluted concentrations of gemcitabine for 24 h. The expression levels of VEGF in culture media were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). As an in vivo assay, a cell suspension (1 x 10(7) cells in 100 microliters PBS) was injected into the intraperitoneal region. The mice were randomly divided into two groups (control and treated with gemcitabine). The mice were sacrificed four weeks after inoculation, the ascites volume was measured, and the extent of peritoneal dissemination was examined. The expression levels of VEGF and CD31 in peritoneal nodules were examined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, secreted VEGF protein levels were quantified using ELISA. The results show that VEGF levels in the culture medium decreased in response to gemcitabine in a dose-dependent manner. The ascites formation and peritoneal dissemination within mice were suppressed by the treatment with gemcitabine. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that expression of VEGF and CD31 in peritoneal nodules was suppressed by gemcitabine treatment, and the VEGF protein level in ascites was significantly decreased by gemcitabine (p<0.05). These results suggest that gemcitabine controls malignant ascites and peritoneal dissemination, either directly or indirectly, via VEGF. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of gemcitabine may be a useful therapeutic approach for patients with malignant ascites in pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:14654905

  16. Cellular Potts Modeling of Tumor Growth, Tumor Invasion, and Tumor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell “successful” in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

  17. Cellular potts modeling of tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor evolution.

    PubMed

    Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M H

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell "successful" in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

  18. Evaluation and treatment of malignant ascites secondary to gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Michiya; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Malignant ascites affects approximately 10% of patients with gastric cancer (GC), and poses significant difficulties for both patients and clinicians. In addition to the dismal general condition of affected patients and the diversity of associated complications such as jaundice and ileus, problems in assessing scattered tumors have hampered the expansion of clinical trials for this condition. However, the accumulation of reported studies is starting to indicate that the weak response to treatment in GC patients with malignant ascites is more relevant to their poor prognosis rather than to the ascites volume at diagnosis. Therefore, precise assessment of initial state of ascites, repetitive evaluation of treatment efficacy, selection of suitable treatment, and swift transition to other treatment options as needed are paramount to maximizing patient benefit. Accurately determining ascites volume is the crucial first step in clinically treating a patient with malignant ascites. Ultrasonography is commonly used to identify the existence of ascites, and several methods have been proposed to estimate ascites volume. Reportedly, the sum of the depth of ascites at five points (named “five-point method”) on three panels of computed tomography images is well correlated to the actual ascites volume and/or abdominal girth. This method is already suited to repetitive assessment due to its convenience compared to the conventional volume rendering method. Meanwhile, a new concept, “Clinical Benefit Response in GC (CBR-GC)”, was recently introduced to measure the efficacy of chemotherapy for malignant ascites of GC. CBR-GC is a simple and reliable patient-oriented evaluation system based on changes in performance status and ascites, and is expected to become an important clinical endpoint in future clinical trials. The principal of treatment for GC patients with ascites is palliation and prevention of ascites-related symptoms. The treatment options are various, including a standard treatment based on the available guidelines, cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), laparoscopic HIPEC alone, intravenous chemotherapy, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and molecular targeting therapy. Although each treatment option is valid, further research is imperative to establish the optimal choice for each patient. PMID:26494952

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Tumor Cell Growth and Immune System Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihan, Fathalla A.; Safan, Muntaser; Abdeen, Mohamed A.; Abdel-Rahman, Duaa H.

    In this paper, we provide a family of ordinary and delay differential equations to describe the dynamics of tumor-growth and immunotherapy interactions. We explore the effects of adoptive cellular immunotherapy on the model and describe under what circumstances the tumor can be eliminated. The possibility of clearing the tumor, with a strategy, is based on two parameters in the model: the rate of influx of the effector cells, and the rate of influx of IL2. The critical tumor-growth rate, below which endemic tumor does not exist, has been found. One can use the model to make predictions about tumor-dormancy.

  20. The Role of Complement in Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Pio, Ruben; Corrales, Leticia; Lambris, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Complement is a central part of the immune system that has developed as a first defense against non-self cells. Neoplastic transformation is accompanied by an increased capacity of the malignant cells to activate complement. In fact, clinical data demonstrate complement activation in cancer patients. On the basis of the use of protective mechanisms by malignant cells, complement activation has traditionally been considered part of the body's immunosurveillance against cancer. Inhibitory mechanisms of complement activation allow cancer cells to escape from complement-mediated elimination and hamper the clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibody–based cancer immunotherapies. To overcome this limitation, many strategies have been developed with the goal of improving complement-mediated effector mechanisms. However, significant work in recent years has identified new and surprising roles for complement activation within the tumor microenvironment. Recent reports suggest that complement elements can promote tumor growth in the context of chronic inflammation. This chapter reviews the data describing the role of complement activation in cancer immunity, which offers insights that may aid the development of more effective therapeutic approaches to control cancer. PMID:24272362

  1. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin; Yarahmadian, Shantia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan.

  2. Caloric restriction reduces growth of mammary tumors and metastases

    PubMed Central

    De Lorenzo, Mariana S.; Baljinnyam, Erdene; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Abarza, Patricio; Vatner, Stephen F.; Rabson, Arnold B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on growth of tumors and metastases in the 4T1 mammary tumor model and found that CR, compared with normal diet, reduced the growth of mammary tumors and metastases and the total number of metastases that originated both spontaneously from the primary tumor and also experimentally from i.v. injection of the tumor cells. CR also decreased proliferation and angiogenesis and increased apoptosis in tumors. CR reduced levels of insulin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 and increased adiponectin in tumors. We also demonstrated that tumors from CR mice possessed lower levels of transforming growth factor-?, lower intratumor deposition of collagen IV and reduced invasiveness due to a decrease in tumor secretion of active matrix metalloproteinase 9. Our results suggest that CR-induced metabolic and signaling changes affect the stroma and the tumor cells resulting in a microenvironment that prevents proliferation of breast tumors and their metastases. PMID:21665891

  3. Rare cancers yield potential source of tumor growth

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have discovered a genetic mutation that appears to increase production of red blood cells in tumors. The discovery, based on analysis of tissue from rare endocrine tumors, may help clarify how some tumors generate a new blood supply to sustain their growth, the researchers explained.

  4. P-selectin-mediated platelet adhesion promotes tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cuiling; Wei, Bo; Zhou, Weijie; Yang, Yang; Li, Bin; Guo, Simei; Li, Jialin; Ye, Jie; Li, Jiangchao; Zhang, Qianqian; Lan, Tian; He, Xiaodong; Cao, Liu; Zhou, Jia; Geng, Jianguo; Wang, Lijing

    2015-03-30

    Blood platelets foster carcinogenesis. We found that platelets are accumulated in human tumors. P-selectin deficiency and soluble P-selectin abolish platelet deposition within tumors, decreasing secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis, thereby suppressing tumor growth. Binding of the P-selectin cytoplasmic tail to talin1 triggers the talin1 N-terminal head to interact with the ?3 cytoplasmic tail. This activates ?IIb?3 and recruits platelets into tumors. Platelet infiltration into solid tumors occurs through a P-selectin-dependent mechanism. PMID:25762641

  5. Intratumorally Establishing Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Blocks Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyang; Kim, Wonyoung; Moon, U J; Kim, Hyun J; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Sin, Jeong-Im; Park, Neung H; Cho, Hong R; Kwon, Byungsuk

    2016-03-01

    A long-standing question in the field of tumor immunotherapy is how Th2 cytokines block tumor growth. Their antitumor effects are particularly prominent when they are secreted continuously in tumors, suggesting that Th2 cytokines may create a tumor microenvironment unfavorable for tumor growth independently of adaptive immunity. In this study, we show that local production of IL-33 establishes a high number of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) with potent antitumor activity. IL-33 promotes secretion of a massive amount of CXCR2 ligands from ILC2s but creates a tumor microenvironment where tumor cells express CXCR2 through a dysfunctional angiogenesis/hypoxia/reactive oxygen species axis. These two signaling events converge to reinforce tumor cell-specific apoptosis through CXCR2. Our results identify a previously unrecognized antitumor therapeutic pathway wherein ILC2s play a central role. PMID:26829987

  6. Translocator Receptor Blockade Reduces Prostate Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Fafalios, Arlee; Akhavan, Ardavan; Parwani, Anil V.; Bies, Robert R.; McHugh, Kevin J.; Pflug, Beth R.

    2009-01-01

    Statement of Translational Relevance Although benzodiazepines have been used clinically for over 50 years, their application as a form of cancer therapy is largely unexplored. Here we show that lorazepam, a benzodiazepine commonly prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and acts on both central and peripheral receptors, inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and survival. Our studies further elucidate the mechanism by which Translocator Protein (TSPO) antagonists alter cancer cell function. Antagonists for TSPO are already used in the clinic for other indications and demonstrate very minor side effects. Because lorazepam is a commonly prescribed FDA-approved drug, the translation of our preclinical results to the prostate cancer patient population could be readily achieved. Our studies could lead to a significant change in the management of prostate cancer by providing a treatment option with minimal toxicity for use after failure of androgen-deprivation therapy and could ultimately prevent prostate cancer deaths. Purpose The transmembrane molecule, Translocator Protein (TSPO) has been implicated in the progression of epithelial tumors. TSPO gene expression is high in tissues involved in steroid biosynthesis, neurodegenerative disease and in cancer and overexpression has been shown to contribute to pathologic conditions including cancer progression in several different models. The goal of our study was to examine the expression and biological relevance of TSPO in prostate cancer and demonstrate that the commonly prescribed benzodiazepine lorazepam, a ligand for TSPO, exhibits anti-cancer properties. Experimental Design Immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarrays was used to determine the expression profile of TSPO in human prostate cancer tissues. To demonstrate the effect of benzodiazepines (lorazepam and PK11195) in prostate cancer, we utilized cell proliferation assays, apoptosis ELISA, prostate cancer xenograft study, and immunohistochemistry. Results TSPO expression is increased in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, primary prostate cancer, and metastases compared to normal prostate tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Furthermore, TSPO expression correlates with disease progression, as TSPO levels increased with increasing Gleason sum and stage with prostate cancer metastases demonstrating the highest level of expression among all tissues examined. Functionally, we have demonstrated that lorazepam has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, we have shown that TSPO overexpression in nontumorigenic cells conferred susceptibility to lorazepam-induced growth inhibition. Conclusion These data suggest that blocking TSPO function in tumor cells induces cell death and denotes a survival role for TSPO in prostate cancer and provide the first evidence for the use of benzodiazepines in prostate cancer therapeutics. PMID:19789311

  7. Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans.

    PubMed

    Keinj, R; Bastogne, T; Vallois, P

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the lifespan modeling of heterogenous tumors treated by radiotherapy. A bi-scale model describing the cell and tumor lifespans by random variables is proposed. First- and second-order moments as well as the cumulative distribution functions and confidence intervals are expressed for the two lifespans with respect to the model parameters. One interesting result is that the mean value of the tumor lifespan can be approached by a logarithmic function of the initial cancer cell number. Moreover, we show that TCP and NTCP, used in radiotherapy to evaluate, optimize and compare treatment plans, can be derived from the tumor lifespan and the surrounding healthy tissue, respectively. Finally, we propose a ROC curve, entitled ECT (Efficiency-Complication Trade-off), suited to the selection by clinicians of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:22820494

  8. IRP2 regulates breast tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Deng, Zhiyong; Hatcher, Heather; Miller, Lance D.; Di, Xiumin; Tesfay, Lia; Sui, Guangchao; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggest that dysregulation of proteins involved in iron metabolism plays a critical role in cancer. The mechanisms by which cancer cells alter homeostatic iron regulation are just beginning to be understood. Here we demonstrate that iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) plays a key role in iron accumulation in breast cancer. Although both IRP1 and IRP2 are over-expressed in breast cancer, the overexpression of IRP2, but not IRP1, is associated with decreased ferritin H and increased transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). Knock-down of IRP2 in triple negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells increases ferritin H expression and decreases TfR1 expression, resulting in a decrease in the labile iron pool. Further, IRP2 knockdown reduces growth of MDA-MB-231 cells in the mouse mammary fat pad. Gene expression microarray profiles of breast cancer patients demonstrate that increased IRP2 expression is associated with high grade cancer. Increased IRP2 expression is observed in luminal A, luminal B and basal breast cancer subtypes, but not in breast tumors of the ERBB2 molecular subtype. These results suggest that dysregulation of IRP2 is an early nodal point underlying altered iron metabolism in breast cancer and may contribute to poor outcome of some breast cancer patients. PMID:24285726

  9. Antitumor effect of nuclear factor-?B decoy transfer by mannose-modified bubble lipoplex into macrophages in mouse malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Patients with malignant ascites (MAs) display several symptoms, such as dyspnea, nausea, pain, and abdominal tenderness, resulting in a significant reduction in their quality of life. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a crucial role in MA progression. Because TAMs have a tumor-promoting M2 phenotype, conversion of the M2 phenotypic function of TAMs would be promising for MA treatment. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a master regulator of macrophage polarization. Here, we developed targeted transfer of a NF-?B decoy into TAMs by ultrasound (US)-responsive, mannose-modified liposome/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) in a mouse peritoneal dissemination model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In addition, we investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection into TAMs on MA progression and mouse survival rates. Intraperitoneal injection of Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure transferred the NF-?B decoy into TAMs effectively. When the NF-?B decoy was delivered into TAMs by this method in the mouse peritoneal dissemination model, mRNA expression of the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in TAMs was decreased significantly. In contrast, mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-6) were increased significantly. Moreover, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor in ascites was suppressed significantly, and peritoneal angiogenesis showed a reduction. Furthermore, NF-?B decoy transfer into TAMs significantly decreased the ascitic volume and number of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in ascites, and prolonged mouse survival. In conclusion, we transferred a NF-?B decoy efficiently by Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes with US exposure into TAMs, which may be a novel approach for MA treatment. PMID:24850474

  10. Endothelial cell-derived interleukin-6 regulates tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelial cells play a complex role in the pathobiology of cancer. This role is not limited to the making of blood vessels to allow for influx of oxygen and nutrients required for the high metabolic demands of tumor cells. Indeed, it has been recently shown that tumor-associated endothelial cells secrete molecules that enhance tumor cell survival and cancer stem cell self-renewal. The hypothesis underlying this work is that specific disruption of endothelial cell-initiated signaling inhibits tumor growth. Methods Conditioned medium from primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) stably transduced with silencing RNA for IL-6 (or controls) was used to evaluate the role of endothelial-derived IL-6 on the activation of key signaling pathways in tumor cells. In addition, these endothelial cells were co-transplanted with tumor cells into immunodefficient mice to determine the impact of endothelial cell-derived IL-6 on tumor growth and angiogenesis. Results We observed that tumor cells adjacent to blood vessels show strong phosphorylation of STAT3, a key mediator of tumor progression. In search for a possible mechanism for the activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway, we observed that silencing interleukin (IL)-6 in tumor-associated endothelial cells inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor cells. Notably, tumors vascularized with IL-6-silenced endothelial cells showed lower intratumoral microvessel density, lower tumor cell proliferation, and slower growth than tumors vascularized with control endothelial cells. Conclusions Collectively, these results demonstrate that IL-6 secreted by endothelial cells enhance tumor growth, and suggest that cancer patients might benefit from targeted approaches that block signaling events initiated by endothelial cells. PMID:24533454

  11. Primary tumor dependent inhibition of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and perfusion of secondary breast cancer in bone.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Christian; Schroeder, Malte; Fuhrhop, Ina; Viezens, Lennart; Otten, Jasmin; Fiedler, Walter; Rther, Wolfgang; Hansen-Algenstaedt, Nils

    2011-08-01

    The systemic balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors has been proposed to play a key-role in primary tumor growth dependent growth suppression of secondary tumors. Despite the importance of the organ microenvironment to angiogenesis and microcirculation, the influence of a primary tumor on secondary bone tumors has not been investigated so far. Since breast cancer has a high propensity to spread to bone, we used an in vivo xenograft model to determine the impact of growing breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in the mammary fat pad on the microvascular properties of subsequently inoculated secondary breast cancer tumors in bone. Mice were either treated with a resection of the primary tumor (n?=?10) or no surgery (n?=?9) and intravital microscopy was performed over 25 days in bone tumors. Tumor growth in bone was temporarily suppressed by the primary tumor on days 10 and 14. While microvascular permeability and vascular diameter decreased in both groups over time, the presence of the primary tumor was accompanied by a decreased tumor perfusion on days 8 and 10 through a reduction in vessels with diameters between 5 and 20?m. The results imply a potential benefit of a therapeutic regime in which the resection of the primary tumor is combined with an anti-angiogenic therapy in the perioperative or direct postoperative period. This might result in reduced progression of bone metastasis subsequent to excision of the primary tumor. PMID:21381098

  12. A multiphase model for three-dimensional tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Scium, G; Shelton, S; Gray, WG; Miller, CT; Hussain, F; Ferrari, M; Decuzzi, P; Schrefler, BA

    2014-01-01

    Several mathematical formulations have analyzed the time-dependent behaviour of a tumor mass. However, most of these propose simplifications that compromise the physical soundness of the model. Here, multiphase porous media mechanics is extended to model tumor evolution, using governing equations obtained via the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT). A tumor mass is treated as a multiphase medium composed of an extracellular matrix (ECM); tumor cells (TC), which may become necrotic depending on the nutrient concentration and tumor phase pressure; healthy cells (HC); and an interstitial fluid (IF) for the transport of nutrients. The equations are solved by a Finite Element method to predict the growth rate of the tumor mass as a function of the initial tumor-to-healthy cell density ratio, nutrient concentration, mechanical strain, cell adhesion and geometry. Results are shown for three cases of practical biological interest such as multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) and tumor cords. First, the model is validated by experimental data for time-dependent growth of an MTS in a culture medium. The tumor growth pattern follows a biphasic behaviour: initially, the rapidly growing tumor cells tend to saturate the volume available without any significant increase in overall tumor size; then, a classical Gompertzian pattern is observed for the MTS radius variation with time. A core with necrotic cells appears for tumor sizes larger than 150 ?m, surrounded by a shell of viable tumor cells whose thickness stays almost constant with time. A formula to estimate the size of the necrotic core is proposed. In the second case, the MTS is confined within a healthy tissue. The growth rate is reduced, as compared to the first case mostly due to the relative adhesion of the tumor and healthy cells to the ECM, and the less favourable transport of nutrients. In particular, for tumor cells adhering less avidly to the ECM, the healthy tissue is progressively displaced as the malignant mass grows, whereas tumor cell infiltration is predicted for the opposite condition. Interestingly, the infiltration potential of the tumor mass is mostly driven by the relative cell adhesion to the ECM. In the third case, a tumor cord model is analyzed where the malignant cells grow around microvessels in a 3D geometry. It is shown that tumor cells tend to migrate among adjacent vessels seeking new oxygen and nutrient. This model can predict and optimize the efficacy of anticancer therapeutic strategies. It can be further developed to answer questions on tumor biophysics, related to the effects of ECM stiffness and cell adhesion on tumor cell proliferation. PMID:24554920

  13. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy of PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA nanoparticles in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, Maryam N.; Ramadan, Heba S.; Mohamed, Moustafa M.; El khatib, Ahmed M.; Roston, Gamal D.

    2014-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) fabricated from the biodegradable copolymer poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were investigated as a drug delivery system to enhance the photodynamic efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs were prepared using binary organic solvent diffusion method and characterized in terms of shape and particle size. The in vivo photodynamic efficiency in Ehrlich ascites-bearing mice was studied. The obtained particles were uniform in size with spherical shape of mean size of 249.5 nm as obtained by particle size analyzer and the in vitro release studies demonstrated a controlled release profile of 5-ALA. Tumor-bearing mice injected with PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs exhibited significantly smaller mean tumor volume, increased tumor growth delay compared with the control group and the group injected with free 5-ALA during the time course of the experiment. Histopathological examination of tumor from mice treated with PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs showed regression of tumor cells, in contrast to those obtained from mice treated with free 5-ALA. The results indicate that PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs are a successful delivery system for improving photodynamic activity in the target tissue.

  14. Natural history of tumor growth and immune modulation in common spontaneous murine mammary tumor models

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Ekram; Rastetter, Lauren; Slota, Meredith; Koehnlein, Marlese; Treuting, Piper M.; Dang, Yushe; Stanton, Sasha; Disis, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies in patients with breast cancer suggest the immune microenvironment influences response to therapy. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between growth rates of tumors in common spontaneous mammary tumor models and immune biomarkers evaluated in the tumor and blood. Methods TgMMTV-neu and C3(1)-Tag transgenic mice were followed longitudinally from birth, and MPA-DMBA treated mice from the time of carcinogen administration, for the development of mammary tumors. Tumor infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, FOXP3+ T-regulatory cells, and myeloid derived suppressor cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Serum cytokines were evaluated in subsets of mice. Fine needle aspirates of tumors were collected and RNA isolated to determine levels of immune and proliferation markers. Results Age of tumor onset and kinetics of tumor growth were significantly different among the models. Mammary tumors from TgMMTV-neu contained a lower CD8/CD4 ratio than other models (p<0.05). MPA-DMBA induced tumors contained a higher percentage of FOXP3+ CD4+ T-cells (p<0.01) and MDSC (p<0.001) as compared to the other models. Individuals with significantly slower tumor growth demonstrated higher levels of Type I serum cytokines prior to the development of lesions as compared to those with rapid tumor growth. Moreover, the tumors of animals with more rapid tumor growth demonstrated a significant increase in expression of genes associated with Type II immunity than those with slower progressing tumors. Conclusions These data provide a foundation for the development of in vivo models to explore the relationship between endogenous immunity and response to standard therapies for breast cancer. PMID:25395320

  15. Tumor associated osteoclast-like giant cells promote tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor-C

    SciTech Connect

    Hatano, Yu; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Morita, Ikuo

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • M-CSF and RANKL expressing HeLa cells induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • We established OGC-containing tumor model in vivo. • OGC-containing tumor became larger independent of M-CSF or RANKL effect. • VEGF-C secreted from OGCs was a one of candidates for OGC-containing tumor growth. - Abstract: Tumors with osteoclast-like giant cells (OGCs) have been reported in a variety of organs and exert an invasive and prometastatic phenotype, but the functional role of OGCs in the tumor environment has not been fully clarified. We established tumors containing OGCs to clarify the role of OGCs in tumor phenotype. A mixture of HeLa cells expressing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, HeLa-M) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, HeLa-R) effectively supported the differentiation of osteoclast-like cells from bone marrow macrophages in vitro. Moreover, a xenograft study showed OGC formation in a tumor composed of HeLa-M and HeLa-R. Surprisingly, the tumors containing OGCs were significantly larger than the tumors without OGCs, although the growth rates were not different in vitro. Histological analysis showed that lymphangiogenesis and macrophage infiltration in the tumor containing OGCs, but not in other tumors were accelerated. According to quantitative PCR analysis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C mRNA expression increased with differentiation of osteoclast-like cells. To investigate whether VEGF-C expression is responsible for tumor growth and macrophage infiltration, HeLa cells overexpressing VEGF-C (HeLa-VC) were established and transplanted into mice. Tumors composed of HeLa-VC mimicked the phenotype of the tumors containing OGCs. Furthermore, the vascular permeability of tumor microvessels also increased in tumors containing OGCs and to some extent in VEGF-C-expressing tumors. These results suggest that macrophage infiltration and vascular permeability are possible mediators in these tumors. These findings revealed that OGCs in the tumor environment promoted tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis, at least in part, by secreting VEGF-C.

  16. Brain tumor modeling: glioma growth and interaction with chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaem, Hossein Y.; Ahmadian, Alireza; Saberi, Hooshangh; Daneshmehr, Alireza; Khodadad, Davood

    2011-10-01

    In last decade increasingly mathematical models of tumor growths have been studied, particularly on solid tumors which growth mainly caused by cellular proliferation. In this paper we propose a modified model to simulate the growth of gliomas in different stages. Glioma growth is modeled by a reaction-advection-diffusion. We begin with a model of untreated gliomas and continue with models of polyclonal glioma following chemotherapy. From relatively simple assumptions involving homogeneous brain tissue bounded by a few gross anatomical landmarks (ventricles and skull) the models have been expanded to include heterogeneous brain tissue with different motilities of glioma cells in grey and white matter. Tumor growth is characterized by a dangerous change in the control mechanisms, which normally maintain a balance between the rate of proliferation and the rate of apoptosis (controlled cell death). Result shows that this model closes to clinical finding and can simulate brain tumor behavior properly.

  17. Joint tumor growth prediction and tumor segmentation on therapeutic follow-up PET images.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hongmei; Petitjean, Caroline; Vera, Pierre; Ruan, Su

    2015-07-01

    Tumor response to treatment varies among patients. Patient-specific prediction of tumor evolution based on medical images during the treatment can help to build and adapt patient's treatment planning in a non-invasive way. Personalized tumor growth modeling allows patient-specific prediction by estimating model parameters based on individual's images. The model parameters are often estimated by optimizing a cost function constructed based on the tumor delineations. In this paper, we propose a joint framework for tumor growth prediction and tumor segmentation in the context of patient's therapeutic follow ups. Throughout the treatment, a series of sequential positron emission tomography (PET) images are acquired for tumor response monitoring. We propose to take into account the predicted information, which is used in combination with the random walks (RW) algorithm, to develop an automatic tumor segmentation method on PET images. Moreover, we propose an iterative scheme of RW, making the segmentation more performant. Furthermore, the obtained segmentation is applied to the process of model parameter estimation so as to get the model based prediction of tumor evolution. We evaluate our methods on 7 lung tumor patients, totaling 29 PET exams, under radiotherapy by comparing the obtained tumor prediction and tumor segmentation with manual tumor delineation by expert. Our system produces promising results when compared to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25988489

  18. Getting to Know Ovarian Cancer Ascites: Opportunities for Targeted Therapy-Based Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nuzhat; Stenvers, Kaye L.

    2013-01-01

    More than one third of ovarian cancer patients present with ascites at diagnosis, and almost all have ascites at recurrence. The presence of ascites correlates with the peritoneal spread of ovarian cancer and is associated with poor disease prognosis. Malignant ascites acts as a reservoir of a complex mixture of soluble factors and cellular components which provide a pro-inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment for the tumor cells. Subpopulations of these tumor cells exhibit cancer stem-like phenotypes, possess enhanced resistance to therapies and the capacity for distal metastatic spread and recurrent disease. Thus, ascites-derived malignant cells and the ascites microenvironment represent a major source of morbidity and mortality for ovarian cancer patients. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular, cellular, and functional characteristics of the cellular populations within ascites and discusses their contributions to ovarian cancer metastasis, chemoresistance, and recurrence. We highlight in particular recent translational findings which have used primary ascites-derived tumor cells as a tool to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, yielding new insights and targets for therapeutic manipulation. PMID:24093089

  19. Fetal ascites owing to congenital cytomegalovirus: response to ganciclovir.

    PubMed

    Basu, S; Chandra, P K; Basu, S

    2008-09-01

    A term newborn with severe congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is described. Fetal ascites was detected at 28 weeks gestation, and at birth there was tense ascites. There was intra-uterine growth retardation, microcephaly, chorioretinitis, jaundice, purpura and pneumonitis. Computed tomographic scan of the brain showed ventriculomegaly with periventricular calcifications. Serology was positive for cytomegalovirus-specific immunoglobulin M, and cytomegalovirus DNA was detected in the ascitic fluid and urine by nested polymerase chain reaction. He received 6 weeks of treatment with ganciclovir. Ascites resolved spontaneously and liver function tests became normal. Although there was a good clinical response to ganciclovir therapy without any side-effects, on follow-up the infant had global developmental delay and bilateral sensorineural deafness. PMID:18727854

  20. Acellular fraction of ovarian cancer ascites induce apoptosis by activating JNK and inducing BRCA1, Fas and FasL expression in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marie; Pierredon, Sandra; Wuillemin, Christine; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Acellular fraction of ascites might play an active role in tumor development. Nevertheless the mechanisms involved in the tumor-modulating properties are still controversial. Here, we demonstrate that malignant ascites from 8 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer did not influence proliferative or invasive properties of ovarian cancer cells, but promoted H2O2-induced apoptosis and increased sensitivity to paclitaxel. Malignant ascites induced BRCA1, Fas and FasL expression and phosphorylation of JNK, but not the activation of caspase pathway. Ascites-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells was strongly inhibited by a JNK inhibitor suggesting a critical role of JNK pathway in ascite-induced apoptosis. The use of siRNA JNK confirmed the importance of JNK in ascites-induced Fas and FasL expression. These results demonstrate that malignant ascites induce apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and encourage us to think about the clinical management of ovarian cancer patients with malignant ascites. PMID:25594018

  1. Acellular fraction of ovarian cancer ascites induce apoptosis by activating JNK and inducing BRCA1, Fas and FasL expression in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marie; Pierredon, Sandra; Wuillemin, Christine; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Acellular fraction of ascites might play an active role in tumor development. Nevertheless the mechanisms involved in the tumor-modulating properties are still controversial. Here, we demonstrate that malignant ascites from 8 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer did not influence proliferative or invasive properties of ovarian cancer cells, but promoted H2O2-induced apoptosis and increased sensitivity to paclitaxel. Malignant ascites induced BRCA1, Fas and FasL expression and phosphorylation of JNK, but not the activation of caspase pathway. Ascites-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells was strongly inhibited by a JNK inhibitor suggesting a critical role of JNK pathway in ascite-induced apoptosis. The use of siRNA JNK confirmed the importance of JNK in ascites-induced Fas and FasL expression. These results demonstrate that malignant ascites induce apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and encourage us to think about the clinical management of ovarian cancer patients with malignant ascites. PMID:25594018

  2. Effect of mid-late mouse fetus' microenvironment on the growth of tumor cells after intrauterine transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang; Zhou, Lan; Fang, Liao-Qiong; Bai, Jin; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Biao

    2007-06-01

    Successful intrauterine transplantation (IUT) of stem cells for treatment of fetal defects in some animal models of human diseases has prompted us to study the mechanisms of transplantation, immunological tolerance and embryonic environment. The objective of this study was to determine whether intrauterine transplantation of tumor cells would affect the survival and growth of the tumor cells themselves as well as fetus development. A total of 2 x 10(6) H(22) cells or S(180) cells were transplanted into the amniotic or abdominal cavity of NIH mice on D9-D12 or D13-D18 of gestation. The adult and newborn NIH mice which were inoculated with the same number of H(22) cells and S(180) cells by intraperitoneal injection were used as positive controls for the cancer bearing control group while undisrupted fetuses of the same gestation were used as negative controls (i.e. for the normal development) group. The development of fetuses transplanted with tumor cells in utero was monitored by several developmental indices, and the tumor growth of them were observed by some distinctive bearing cancer index. The H(22) transplanted group was further assessed for minimal cancer bearing by detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, tumor burden and the development of the F1 generation of the mice by IUT were also investigated. Protein kinase C (PKC) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) of GFP-expressing H(22) cells transplanted in the uterus were analyzed under laser confocal microscopy. There was no significant difference in the developmental indices between the experimental and control groups. HE staining of the major organs, including liver, kidney, and lung, showed that these organs properly developed. No tumor ascites were found in those delivered mice after intrauterine transplantation with H(22) cells and S(180) cells. Furthermore, as minimal bearing cancer index for H(22) cells, AFP expression analyzed by RIA and RT-PCR indicated that no tumor cells were detected in the experimental groups. The F1 progenies developed normally without any signs of tumor development. Fluorescence analysis revealed that expression of PKC and PCNA was markedly reduced in the H(22) cells after injection for 24, 48, and 72 h. Our study showed that the tumor cells did not grow in the mice by intrauterine transplantation, whereas transplantation of the same number of tumor cells resulted in obvious ascites tumor in the adult and newborn mice. Furthermore, the differentiation and proliferation of H(22) cells changed dramatically after injection. Our results suggest that, while the embryonic transplantation of tumor cells does not affect fetal development, the survival and growth of implanted tumor cells may be significantly inhibited in the embryonic microenvironment. PMID:17276703

  3. In vivo-like growth of human tumors in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, A E; Hoffman, R M

    1986-01-01

    We show that diverse human tumors obtained directly from surgery or biopsy can grow at high frequency in vitro for long periods of time and still maintain many of their in vivo properties. The in vivo properties maintained in vitro include three-dimensional growth; maintenance of tissue organization and structure, including changes associated with oncogenic transformation; retention of differentiated function; tumorigenicity; and the growth of multiple types of cells from a single tumor. Images PMID:3458228

  4. Phase transition in tumor growth: I avascular development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Rebelo, I.; Tejera, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a mechanism for avascular tumor growth based on a simple chemical network. This model presents a logistic behavior and shows a “second order” phase transition. We prove the fractal origin of the empirical logistics and Gompertz constant and its relation to mitosis and apoptosis rate. Finally, the thermodynamics framework developed demonstrates the entropy production rate as a Lyapunov function during avascular tumor growth.

  5. A Mathematical Model Coupling Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Hector

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for vascular tumor growth. We use phase fields to model cellular growth and reaction-diffusion equations for the dynamics of angiogenic factors and nutrients. The model naturally predicts the shift from avascular to vascular growth at realistic scales. Our computations indicate that the negative regulation of the Delta-like ligand 4 signaling pathway slows down tumor growth by producing a larger density of non-functional capillaries. Our results show good quantitative agreement with experiments. PMID:26891163

  6. Host Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Signaling Regulates Tumor-Associated Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Hideki; Hayashi, Izumi; Endo, Hirahito; Kitasato, Hidero; Yamashina, Shohei; Maruyama, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Michiyoshi; Satoh, Kazutoyo; Narita, Masami; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Murata, Takahiko; Yoshimura, Hirokuni; Narumiya, Shuh; Majima, Masataka

    2003-01-01

    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatories are known to suppress incidence and progression of malignancies including colorectal cancers. However, the precise mechanism of this action remains unknown. Using prostaglandin (PG) receptor knockout mice, we have evaluated a role of PGs in tumor-associated angiogenesis and tumor growth, and identified PG receptors involved. Sarcoma-180 cells implanted in wild-type (WT) mice formed a tumor with extensive angiogenesis, which was greatly suppressed by specific inhibitors for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 but not for COX-1. Angiogenesis in sponge implantation model, which can mimic tumor-stromal angiogenesis, was markedly suppressed in mice lacking EP3 (EP3−/−) with reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) around the sponge implants. Further, implanted tumor growth (sarcoma-180, Lewis lung carcinoma) was markedly suppressed in EP3−/−, in which tumor-associated angiogenesis was also reduced. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that major VEGF-expressing cells in the stroma were CD3/Mac-1 double-negative fibroblasts, and that VEGF-expression in the stroma was markedly reduced in EP3−/−, compared with WT. Application of an EP3 receptor antagonist inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis in WT, but not in EP3−/−. These results demonstrate significance of host stromal PGE2-EP3 receptor signaling in tumor development and angiogenesis. An EP3 receptor antagonist may be a candidate of chemopreventive agents effective for malignant tumors. PMID:12538661

  7. Alcohol promotes mammary tumor growth through activation of VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    LU, YANMIN; NI, FANG; XU, MEI; YANG, JINLIAN; CHEN, JI; CHEN, ZHUO; WANG, XINYI; LUO, JIA; WANG, SIYING

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer. Experimental studies demonstrate that alcohol exposure promotes the progression of existing mammary tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In the present study, the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in alcohol promotion of breast cancer development was investigated using a mouse xenograft model of mammary tumors and a three-dimensional (3D) tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. For the mouse xenograft model, mouse E0771 breast cancer cells were implanted into the mammary fat pad of C57BL6 mice. These mice were exposed to alcohol in their drinking water. For the 3D co-culture system, E0771 cells and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were co-cultured with SVEC4-10EE2 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. The results demonstrated that alcohol increased tumor angiogenesis and accelerated tumor growth. Furthermore, it appeared that alcohol induced VEGF expression in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Blocking VEGF signaling by SU5416 inhibited tumor angiogenesis in the 3D tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. Furthermore, injection of SU5416 into mice inhibited alcohol-promoted mammary tumor growth in vivo. These results indicate that alcohol may promote mammary tumor growth by stimulating VEGF-dependent angiogenesis. PMID:25009649

  8. Tumor suppressor XAF1 induces apoptosis, inhibits angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li Ming; Shi, Dong Mei; Dai, Qiang; Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Yao, Wei Yan; Sun, Ping Hu; Ding, Yan Fei; Qiao, Min Min; Wu, Yun Lin; Jiang, Shi Hu; Tu, Shui Ping

    2014-01-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), a XIAP-binding protein, is a tumor suppressor gene. XAF1 was silent or expressed lowly in most human malignant tumors. However, the role of XAF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of XAF1 on tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatocellular cancer cells. Our results showed that XAF1 expression was lower in HCC cell lines SMMC-7721, Hep G2 and BEL-7404 and liver cancer tissues than that in paired non-cancer liver tissues. Adenovirus-mediated XAF1 expression (Ad5/F35-XAF1) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in dose- and time- dependent manners. Infection of Ad5/F35-XAF1 induced cleavage of caspase -3, -8, -9 and PARP in HCC cells. Furthermore, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model of liver cancer cells. Western Blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment suppressed expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is associated with tumor angiogenesis, in cancer cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Moreover, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate that XAF1 inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. XAF1 may be a promising target for liver cancer treatment. PMID:24980821

  9. Tumor suppressor XAF1 induces apoptosis, inhibits angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li Ming; Shi, Dong Mei; Dai, Qiang; Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Yao, Wei Yan; Sun, Ping Hu; Ding, Yanfei; Qiao, Min Min; Wu, Yun Lin; Jiang, Shi Hu; Tu, Shui Ping

    2014-07-30

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), a XIAP-binding protein, is a tumor suppressor gene. XAF1 was silent or expressed lowly in most human malignant tumors. However, the role of XAF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of XAF1 on tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatocellular cancer cells. Our results showed that XAF1 expression was lower in HCC cell lines SMMC-7721, Hep G2 and BEL-7404 and liver cancer tissues than that in paired non-cancer liver tissues. Adenovirus-mediated XAF1 expression (Ad5/F35-XAF1) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in dose- and time- dependent manners. Infection of Ad5/F35-XAF1 induced cleavage of caspase -3, -8, -9 and PARP in HCC cells. Furthermore, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model of liver cancer cells. Western Blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment suppressed expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is associated with tumor angiogenesis, in cancer cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Moreover, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate that XAF1 inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. XAF1 may be a promising target for liver cancer treatment. PMID:24980821

  10. Tumor-induced osteomalacia due to a recurrent mesenchymal tumor overexpressing several growth factor receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gerothanasi, Nikolina; Frydas, Athanasios; Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Poulios, Chris; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Apostolou, Panagiotis; Papasotiriou, Ioannis; Tournis, Symeon; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Yovos, John G

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused primarily by benign mesenchymal tumors. These tumors typically follow a benign clinical course and local recurrence occurs in <5% of cases. We investigated a 49-year-old man with a recurrent mesenchymal phosphaturic tumor showing no signs of malignancy. The patient suffered from chronic muscle weakness, myalgia and cramps. His medical record included the diagnosis of oncogenic osteomalacia, for which he was submitted to tumor resection in the left leg three times before. Laboratory examination showed hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia and an elevated serum FGF23 level. A radical surgical approach (amputation) was advised, however, complete biochemical and clinical remission was not reached. Molecular analysis of the tumor cells demonstrated overexpression of growth factor receptors implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastatic potential (platelet derived growth factor type A (PDGFRA), PDGFRB and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor) together with increased expression of FGF23, x-linked-phosphate-regulating endopeptidase and KLOTHO. TIO is usually associated with benign phosphauturic tumors and, when identified, resection of the tumor leads to complete remission in the majority of cases. The underlying pathophysiology of recurrences in these tumors is not known. This is the first report showing increased expression of growth factor receptors in a locally aggressive but histopathologically benign phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. Learning points TIO is usually associated with benign soft tissue or bone neoplasms of mesenchymal origin.These tumors typically follow a benign clinical course and even in the rare malignant cases local recurrence occurs in <5%.Successful identification and removal of the tumor leads to full recovery in the majority of cases. PMID:26155363

  11. Patient specific tumor growth prediction using multimodal images.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yixun; Sadowski, Samira M; Weisbrod, Allison B; Kebebew, Electron; Summers, Ronald M; Yao, Jianhua

    2014-04-01

    Personalized tumor growth model is valuable in tumor staging and therapy planning. In this paper, we present a patient specific tumor growth model based on longitudinal multimodal imaging data including dual-phase CT and FDG-PET. The proposed Reaction-Advection-Diffusion model is capable of integrating cancerous cell proliferation, infiltration, metabolic rate and extracellular matrix biomechanical response. To bridge the model with multimodal imaging data, we introduce Intracellular Volume Fraction (ICVF) measured from dual-phase CT and Standardized Uptake Value (SUV) measured from FDG-PET into the model. The patient specific model parameters are estimated by fitting the model to the observation, which leads to an inverse problem formalized as a coupled Partial Differential Equations (PDE)-constrained optimization problem. The optimality system is derived and solved by the Finite Difference Method. The model was evaluated by comparing the predicted tumors with the observed tumors in terms of average surface distance (ASD), root mean square difference (RMSD) of the ICVF map, average ICVF difference (AICVFD) of tumor surface and tumor relative volume difference (RVD) on six patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The ASD between the predicted tumor and the reference tumor was 2.40.5mm, the RMSD was 4.30.4%, the AICVFD was 2.60.6%, and the RVD was 7.71.3%. PMID:24607911

  12. Bee venom inhibits growth of human cervical tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Myoung; Jung, Yu Yeon; Park, Mi Hee; Oh, Sang Hyun; Yun, Hye Seok; Jun, Hyung Ok; Yoo, Hwan Soo; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ung Soo; Yoon, Joo Hee; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    We studied whether bee venom (BV) inhibits cervical tumor growth through enhancement of death receptor (DR) expressions and inactivation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in mice. In vivo study showed that BV (1 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth. Similar inhibitory effects of BV on cancer growth in primary human cervical cancer cells were also found. BV (15 ?g/ml) also inhibited the growth of cancer cells, Ca Ski and C33Aby the induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner. Agreed with cancer cell growth inhibition, expression of death receptors; FAS, DR3 and DR6, and DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase-3 and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the NF-?B activity and the expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited by treatment with BV in tumor mice, human cancer cell and human tumor samples as well as cultured cancer cells. In addition, deletion of FAS, DR3 and DR6 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed BV-induced cell growth inhibitory effects as well as NF-?B inactivation. These results suggest that BV inhibits cervical tumor growth through enhancement of FAS, DR3 and DR6 expression via inhibition of NF-?B pathway. PMID:25730901

  13. Host STAT2/type I interferon axis controls tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Chanyu; Xu, Jun; Estioko, Marc Daryl Tan; Kotredes, Kevin P.; Lopez-Otalora, Yolanda; Hilliard, Brendan A.; Baker, Darren P.; Gallucci, Stefania; Gamero, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of STAT2 in mediating the antigrowth effects of type I interferon (IFN) is well-documented in vitro. Yet evidence of IFN-activated STAT2 as having tumor suppressor function in vivo and participation in antitumor immunity is lacking. Here we show in a syngeneic tumor transplantation model that STAT2 reduces tumor growth. Stat2?/? mice formed larger tumors compared to wild type (WT) mice. IFN-? treatment of Stat2?/? mice did not cause tumor regression. Gene expression analysis revealed a small subset of immunomodulatory genes to be downregulated in tumors established in Stat2?/? mice. Additionally, we found tumor antigen cross-presentation by Stat2?/? dendritic cells to T cells to be impaired. Adoptive transfer of tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells primed by Stat2?/? dendritic cells into tumor-bearing Stat2?/? mice did not induce tumor regression with IFN-? intervention. We observed that an increase in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph nodes of IFN-?-treated tumor-bearing WT mice was absent in IFN-? treated Stat2?/? mice. Thus our study provides evidence for further evaluation of STAT2 function in cancer patients receiving type I IFN based immunotherapy. PMID:24895110

  14. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A; Salomon, Matthew P; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-03-01

    What happens in early, still undetectable human malignancies is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a 'Big Bang' model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed subclones that are not subject to stringent selection and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors showed an absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) and subclone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear 'born to be bad', with subclone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH, with important clinical implications. PMID:25665006

  15. Acriflavine inhibits HIF-1 dimerization, tumor growth, and vascularization.

    PubMed

    Lee, KangAe; Zhang, Huafeng; Qian, David Z; Rey, Sergio; Liu, Jun O; Semenza, Gregg L

    2009-10-20

    HIF-1 is a heterodimeric transcription factor that mediates adaptive responses to hypoxia and plays critical roles in cancer progression. Using a cell-based screening assay we have identified acriflavine as a drug that binds directly to HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha and inhibits HIF-1 dimerization and transcriptional activity. Pretreatment of mice bearing prostate cancer xenografts with acriflavine prevented tumor growth and treatment of mice bearing established tumors resulted in growth arrest. Acriflavine treatment inhibited intratumoral expression of angiogenic cytokines, mobilization of angiogenic cells into peripheral blood, and tumor vascularization. These results provide proof of principle that small molecules can inhibit dimerization of HIF-1 and have potent inhibitory effects on tumor growth and vascularization. PMID:19805192

  16. Acriflavine inhibits HIF-1 dimerization, tumor growth, and vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, KangAe; Zhang, Huafeng; Qian, David Z.; Rey, Sergio; Liu, Jun O.; Semenza, Gregg L.

    2009-01-01

    HIF-1 is a heterodimeric transcription factor that mediates adaptive responses to hypoxia and plays critical roles in cancer progression. Using a cell-based screening assay we have identified acriflavine as a drug that binds directly to HIF-1? and HIF-2? and inhibits HIF-1 dimerization and transcriptional activity. Pretreatment of mice bearing prostate cancer xenografts with acriflavine prevented tumor growth and treatment of mice bearing established tumors resulted in growth arrest. Acriflavine treatment inhibited intratumoral expression of angiogenic cytokines, mobilization of angiogenic cells into peripheral blood, and tumor vascularization. These results provide proof of principle that small molecules can inhibit dimerization of HIF-1 and have potent inhibitory effects on tumor growth and vascularization. PMID:19805192

  17. Tumor endothelial marker 1 (Tem1) functions in the growth and progression of abdominal tumors.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Akash; Karim, Baktiar; Peng, Zhongsheng; Liu, Guosheng; Qiu, Weiping; Gan, Christine; Vogelstein, Bert; St Croix, Brad; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Huso, David L

    2006-02-28

    Tumor endothelial marker 1 (Tem1; endosialin) is the prototypical member of a family of genes expressed in the stroma of tumors. To assess the functional role of Tem1, we disrupted the Tem1 gene in mice by targeted homologous recombination. Tem1(-/-) mice were healthy, their wound healing was normal, and tumors grew normally when implanted in s.c. sites. However, there was a striking reduction in tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis after transplantation of tumors to abdominal sites in mice without functional Tem1 genes. These data indicate that the stroma can control tumor aggressiveness and that this control varies with anatomic site. Therefore, they have significant implications for the mechanisms underlying tumor invasiveness and for models that evaluate this process. PMID:16492758

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Branching Morphogenesis and Vascular Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huaming

    Feedback regulation of cell lineages is known to play an important role in tissue size control, but the effect in tissue morphogenesis has yet to be explored. We first use a non-spatial model to show that a combination of positive and negative feedback on stem and/or progenitor cell self-renewal leads to bistable or bi-modal growth behaviors and ultrasensitivity to external growth cues. Next, a spatiotemporal model is used to demonstrate spatial patterns such as local budding and branching arise in this setting, and are not consequences of Turing-type instabilities. We next extend the model to a three-dimensional hybrid discrete-continuum model of tumor growth to study the effects of angiogenesis, tumor progression and cancer therapies. We account for the crosstalk between the vasculature and cancer stem cells (CSCs), and CSC transdifferentiation into vascular endothelial cells (gECs), as observed experimentally. The vasculature stabilizes tumor invasiveness but considerably enhances growth. A gEC network structure forms spontaneously within the hypoxic core, consistent with experimental findings. The model is then used to study cancer therapeutics. We demonstrate that traditional anti-angiogenic therapies decelerate tumor growth, but make the tumor highly invasive. Chemotherapies help to reduce tumor sizes, but cannot control the invasion. Anti-CSC therapies that promote differentiation or disturb the stem cell niche effectively reduce tumor invasiveness. However, gECs inherit mutations present in CSCs and are resistant to traditional therapies. We show that anti-gEC treatments block the support on CSCs by gECs, and reduce both tumor size and invasiveness. Our study suggests that therapies targeting the vasculature, CSCs and gECs, when combined, are highly synergistic and are capable of controlling both tumor size and shape.

  19. Cirrhotic ascites: pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tsao, G

    1995-03-01

    The pathogenesis of ascites can be divided into (1) factors that favor efflux of fluid from the vascular into the peritoneal space (sinusoidal hypertension, hypoalbuminemia), (2) factors that favor accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity (thoracic duct insufficiency), and (3) factors responsible for repletion of the intravascular volume, and thereby continuous formation of ascites (sodium and water retention). Ascites is perhaps the one complication of cirrhosis with the lowest therapeutic priority. Current therapy of ascites is mainly directed at attaining a negative sodium balance (sodium restriction, diuretics) or at removing intraperitoneal fluid and returning it or its components back to the systemic circulation (large volume paracentesis accompanied by plasma volume expanders, peritoneovenous shunt, ascites "recycling" procedures). Future studies of ascites should investigate the usefulness of peripheral vasoconstrictors and nonsurgical side-to-side portosystemic shunting to relieve sinusoidal hypertension (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt). More than 90% of patients respond to diuretics and salt restriction. Other therapeutic measures should be directed at the 10% of patients with ascites refractory to diuretics. Prognosis in these patients is poor, and liver transplantation should be contemplated. PMID:7743121

  20. A multiphase model for three-dimensional tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scium, G.; Shelton, S.; Gray, W. G.; Miller, C. T.; Hussain, F.; Ferrari, M.; Decuzzi, P.; Schrefler, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    Several mathematical formulations have analyzed the time-dependent behavior of a tumor mass. However, most of these propose simplifications that compromise the physical soundness of the model. Here, multiphase porous media mechanics is extended to model tumor evolution, using governing equations obtained via the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory. A tumor mass is treated as a multiphase medium composed of an extracellular matrix (ECM); tumor cells (TCs), which may become necrotic depending on the nutrient concentration and tumor phase pressure; healthy cells (HCs); and an interstitial fluid for the transport of nutrients. The equations are solved by a finite element method to predict the growth rate of the tumor mass as a function of the initial tumor-to-healthy cell density ratio, nutrient concentration, mechanical strain, cell adhesion and geometry. Results are shown for three cases of practical biological interest such as multicellular tumor spheroids (MTSs) and tumor cords. First, the model is validated by experimental data for time-dependent growth of an MTS in a culture medium. The tumor growth pattern follows a biphasic behavior: initially, the rapidly growing TCs tend to saturate the volume available without any significant increase in overall tumor size; then, a classical Gompertzian pattern is observed for the MTS radius variation with time. A core with necrotic cells appears for tumor sizes larger than 150 ?m, surrounded by a shell of viable TCs whose thickness stays almost constant with time. A formula to estimate the size of the necrotic core is proposed. In the second case, the MTS is confined within a healthy tissue. The growth rate is reduced, as compared to the first casemostly due to the relative adhesion of the TCs and HCs to the ECM, and the less favorable transport of nutrients. In particular, for HCs adhering less avidly to the ECM, the healthy tissue is progressively displaced as the malignant mass grows, whereas TC infiltration is predicted for the opposite condition. Interestingly, the infiltration potential of the tumor mass is mostly driven by the relative cell adhesion to the ECM. In the third case, a tumor cord model is analyzed where the malignant cells grow around microvessels in a three-dimensional geometry. It is shown that TCs tend to migrate among adjacent vessels seeking new oxygen and nutrients. This model can predict and optimize the efficacy of anticancer therapeutic strategies. It can be further developed to answer questions on tumor biophysics, related to the effects of ECM stiffness and cell adhesion on TC proliferation.

  1. [Tlaloc and ascites].

    PubMed

    Viesca-Trevio, Carlos; Macuil-Garca, Carmen; Monzn-Barranco, Abraham; Rosas-Pea, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Ascites has been a common pathological sign among prehispanic Mexican people, as a result from hepatic and cardiac ailments. In this sense it represents a significant epidemiological problem. But it also is important because is related to Tlaloc and the rain gods and goddesses. The hidropic body is a symbolic water container and have a special function: serve as a Tlaloc and related gods vehicle to transport the precious liquid. In this paper we analyze the Tlaloc role as water and alimentary substances provider and his capital importance for people survival. We also describe five different plastic ways to represent water in the body, all of them with clear relationships to Tlaloc. PMID:20141653

  2. Thymidine Phosphorylase is Angiogenic and Promotes Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, Amir; Zhang, Hua-Tang; Fan, Tai-Ping D.; Hu, De-En; Lees, Vivien C.; Turley, Helen; Fox, Stephen B.; Gatter, Kevin C.; Harris, Adrian L.; Bicknell, Roy

    1995-02-01

    Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor was previously identified as the sole angiogenic activity present in platelets; it is now known to be thymidine phosphorylase (TP). The effect of TP on [methyl-^3H]thymidine uptake does not arise from de novo DNA synthesis and the molecule is not a growth factor. Despite this, TP is strongly angiogenic in a rat sponge and freeze-injured skin graft model. Neutralizing antibodies and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the enzyme activity of TP is a condition for its angiogenic activity. The level of TP was found to be elevated in human breast tumors compared to normal breast tissue (P < 0.001). Overexpression of TP in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells had no effect on growth in vitro but markedly enhanced tumor growth in vivo. These data and the correlation of expression in tumors with malignancy identify TP as a target for antitumor strategies.

  3. Obesity promotes melanoma tumor growth: Role of leptin

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Elizabeth L.; Gu, Jian-Wei; Cantwell, Lauren; He, Zhi; Wallace, Gray; Hall, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that obesity increases the risk of developing several cancers, including melanoma. Obesity increases the expression of angiogenic factors, such as leptin, that may contribute to tumor growth. However, a direct cause and effect relationship between obesity and tumor growth has not been clearly established and the role of leptin in accelerating tumor growth is unclear. Our objective in the present study was to examine the rate of melanoma tumor growth in lean and obese mice with leptin deficiency or high levels of plasma leptin. We injected 1 106 B16F10 melanoma cells subcutaneously into lean wild type (WT), obese melanocortin receptor 4 knockout (MC4R?/?), which have high leptin levels, obese leptin-deficient(ob ?/?), pair fed lean ob?/?, and lean ob+/? mice. Mean body weights were 29.7 0.3 g (WT), 46.3 1.9 g (MC4R?/?), 63.7 0.9 g (ob?/?), 30.5 1.0 g (pair fed ob?/?) and 31.6 1.7 g (ob+/?). Tumors were much larger in the obese leptin deficientob?/? (5.1 0.9 g) and obese MC4R?/? (5.1 0.7 g) than in lean WT (1.9 0.3 g) and ob+/? (2.8 0.7 g) mice. prevention of obesity by pair feeding ob?/? mice dramatically reduced tumor weight (0.95 0.2 g) to a level that was significantly lower than in WT mice of the same weight. Tumor VEGF levels were the highest in the obese mouse tumors (p < 0.05), regardless of the host leptin levels. Except for the lean ob+/?, MC4R?/? and ob?/? melanomas had the highest VEGF receptor 1 and VEGF receptor 2 protein expression (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05), respectively. These results indicate that obesity markedly increases melanoma tumor growth rate by mechanisms that may involve upregulation of VEGF pathways. although tumor growth does not require host leptin, melanoma tumor growth may be accelerated by leptin. PMID:19713740

  4. TNF? antagonization alters NOS2 dependent nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Bourouba, Mehdi; Zergoun, Ahmed-Amine; Maffei, Joseph S; Chila, Dalia; Djennaoui, Djamel; Asselah, Fatima; Amir-Tidadini, Zine-Charef; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2015-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF?) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which mediates via nitric oxide (NO) several carcinogenic processes. Increasing evidences suggest that NO promotes inflammation induced growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In patients, TNF? synthesis associates with poor survival. To explore the effect of the cytokine on NO production and NOS2 dependent NPC growth, NO2(-) (nitrite) producing cells in patients were analyzed in vitro. We observed that patients' monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Ma) and primary tumor biopsies synthesized significant amounts of NO2(-). Interestingly, tumor explants derived NO2(-) levels were more important in elderly patients in comparison with juveniles. Endogenous TNF? neutralization with an anti-TNF? monoclonal antibody (mAb) successfully inhibited NO2(-) synthesis by blood mononuclear cells and tumor explants. Recombinant TNF? (rTNF?) enhanced NO2(-) synthesis and C666-1 NPC cell proliferation. NOS2 selective inhibition (1400W) and TNF? antagonization with an anti-TNF? mAb potently inhibited rTNF? induced C666-1 proliferation and NO2(-) production. Importantly, primary tumors treated with the anti-TNF? mAb also displayed reduced proliferation index (Ki67). Altogether, our results define monocytes/macrophages and the primary tumor as major sources of circulating NO2(-) in NPC patients and support the idea that antibody dependent inhibition of the TNF?/NOS2 pathway may alter NPC tumor growth. PMID:25912222

  5. The use of blood gas parameters to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers.

    PubMed

    van As, P; Elferink, M G; Closter, A M; Vereijken, A; Bovenhuis, H; Crooijmans, R P M A; Decuypere, E; Groenen, M A M

    2010-08-01

    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder found in modern broilers that have insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. Commercial breeding programs have heavily focused on high growth rate, which led to fast-growing chickens, but as a negative consequence, the incidence of ascites syndrome increased. However, not all birds with a high growth rate will suffer from ascites syndrome, which might indicate a genetic susceptibility to ascites. Information on blood gas parameters measured early in life and their relation to ascites susceptibility is expected to contribute to identification on the cause of ascites syndrome. In this study, several physiological parameters, such as blood gas parameters [pH, partial pressure of CO(2) in venous blood (pvCO(2)), and partial pressure of O(2) in venous blood], hematocrit, electrolytes (Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+)), metabolites (lactate and glucose), were measured at d 11 to 12 of age from 100 female and 100 male broilers. From d 14 onward, the birds were challenged to provoke the development of ascites syndrome. Our results showed that high pvCO(2) values together with low pH values (males) or high pH values (females) in the venous blood of juvenile broilers coincided with ascites. Therefore, blood pvCO(2) and pH in both juvenile male and female broilers seem to be critical factors in ascites pathophysiology and can be used as phenotypic traits to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers at d 11 to 12. A prediction model was built on a subpopulation of the broilers without any loss in sensitivity (0.52) and specificity (0.78) when applied to the validation population. The parameter sex was included in the prediction model because levels of pvCO(2) and pH that associated with ascites susceptibility are different between males and females. Commercial breeders can include these phenotypic traits in their genetic selection programs to reduce the incidence of ascites syndrome. PMID:20634524

  6. Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells as a mechanism of tumor growth reduction in allergic mice.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Flávia C H; Menezes, Gustavo B; Moura, Sandra A L; Cassali, Geovanni D; Teixeira, Mauro M; Cara, Denise C

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Analysis of epidemiological data has revealed a negative relationship between allergic conditions and cancer incidence. This study addresses the effects of chronic antigen ingestion by sensitized mice (allergy) on Ehrlich tumor growth in mouse footpad. Mice were sensitized (allergic) or not (sham) with ovalbumin and challenged orally with egg white solution. After one week of oral challenge, all mice were inoculated with experimental Ehrlich tumor (EET) cells in the footpad, and tumor growth was evaluated for 21 days. A decrease in tumor growth occurred, as assessed by paw thickness in the allergic group, which was associated with smaller areas of necrosis, reduced infiltration of neutrophils, and reduced levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-10. Although, the tumor proliferation rate was similar in both groups, an increase in apoptosis occurred in allergic mice. In conclusion, analysis of the data obtained allows us to suggest that a concomitant allergic condition would reduce tumor progression through increased tumor cell apoptosis, accompanied by reduced areas of necrosis at the tumor site. Indeed, such findings suggested a possible mechanism for the reduced cancer incidence observed in allergic individuals. PMID:19268488

  7. Inhibition of tumor growth by histoincompatible cells expressing interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Roth, C; Mir, L M; Cressent, M; Quintin-Colonna, F; Ley, V; Fradelizi, D; Kourilsky, P

    1992-12-01

    Murine tumor cells engineered to express IL-2 have been shown to be rejected by the syngeneic host, which is then protected against a subsequent tumorigenic challenge. To assess whether IL-2 has to be produced by the tumor cells themselves, or whether its local delivery would be sufficient to promote such beneficial effects, the syngeneic tumor cells were co-inoculated with allogeneic or xenogeneic cells secreting IL-2, selected after gene transfection. In several murine systems, it was observed that this is an efficient approach for controlling the growth of the syngeneic tumor. However, animals which rejected the tumor were not protected against a subsequent challenge. Several lines of evidence indicate that NK cells play a major role in tumor rejection induced by the IL-2 expressing histoincompatible vector cells. Thus, while local delivery of IL-2 in the vicinity of a tumor might not be sufficient to promote a systemic long-term specific antitumor immune response, it can control the growth of the primary syngeneic tumor. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of using genetically engineered histoincompatible cells (which are rejected by the host's immune system) as a transient delivery system in vivo. PMID:1286066

  8. Three-Dimensional Multispecies Nonlinear Tumor GrowthII: Tumor Invasion and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Frieboes, H.B.; Jin, F.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Wise, S.M.; Lowengrub, J.S.; Cristini, V.

    2010-01-01

    We extend the diffuse interface model developed in Wise et al. (2008) to study nonlinear tumor growth in 3D. Extensions include the tracking of multiple viable cell species populations through a continuum diffuse-interface approach, onset and aging of discrete tumor vessels through angiogenesis, and incorporation of individual cell movement using a hybrid continuum-discrete approach. We investigate disease progression as a function of cellular-scale parameters such as proliferation and oxygen/nutrient uptake rates. We find that heterogeneity in the physiologically complex tumor microenvironment, caused by non-uniform distribution of oxygen, cell nutrients, and metabolites, as well as phenotypic changes affecting cellular-scale parameters, can be quantitatively linked to the tumor macro-scale as a mechanism that promotes morphological instability. This instability leads to invasion through tumor infiltration of surrounding healthy tissue. Models that employ a biologically-founded, multiscale approach, as illustrated in this work, could help to quantitatively link the critical effect of heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment with clinically observed tumor growth and invasion. Using patient tumor-specific parameter values, this approach may provide a predictive tool to characterize the complex in vivo tumor physiological characteristics and clinical response, and thus lead to improved treatment modalities and prognosis. PMID:20303982

  9. Dietary rice bran component γ-oryzanol inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Kim SP; Kang MY; Nam SH; Friedman M

    2012-06-01

    SCOPE: We investigated the effects of rice bran and components on tumor growth in mice.METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice fed standard diets supplemented with rice bran, γ-oryzanol, Ricetrienol®, ferulic acid, or phytic acid for 2 weeks were inoculated with CT-26 colon cancer cells and fed the same diet for two additional weeks. Tumor mass was significantly lower in the γ-oryzanol and less so in the phytic acid group. Tumor inhibition was associated with the following biomarkers: increases in cytolytic activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells; partial restoration of nitric oxide production and phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages increases in released the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from macrophages; and reductions in the number of blood vessels inside the tumor. Pro-angiogenic biomarkers vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and 5-lipoxygenase-5 (5-LOX) were also significantly reduced in mRNA and protein expression by tumor genes. ELISA of tumor cells confirmed reduced expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX up to 30%. Reduced COX-2 and 5-LOX expression downregulated VEGF and inhibited neoangiogenesis inside the tumors.CONCLUSION: Induction of NK activity, activation of macrophages, and inhibition of angiogenesis seem to contribute to the inhibitory mechanism of tumor regression by γ-oryzanol.

  10. Study on the effects of low-energy laser irradiation on the development of mouse S180 ascites sarcoma in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Baoxu; Wang, Hongbin; Liu, Huanqi; Qu, Zhina; Liu, Xifeng; Cheng, Shaohui

    2004-07-01

    The antitumor effects of low-energy laser irradiation (LELI) are always the focus of scientific investigation. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of low-energy He-Ne laser irradiation on mouse S180 ascites sarcoma. After innoculating S180 sarcoma cells at the dosage of 1 x 106 cells per mouse, five group of BALB/c mice were irradiated at the spot of one Harder's glands of the mouse eye for six days with five different dosages of 7.33, 11.00, 14.67, 22.00 and 29.33 J/cm2 respectively. The antitumor effects were evaluated in two aspects: life prolongation ratio and ascites growth of tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that low energy He-Ne laser irradiation of 7.33, 11.00, 14.67, 22.00 and 29.33 J/cm2 could inhibit the proliferation speed of S180 ascites sarcoma in vivo, and therefore could prolong the survival time of the tumor bearing mice in some degree. Moreover, the dosage of 14.67 J/cm2 showed the most remarkable inhibiting effects among the four dosages, and the life prolongation ratio was up to 45.51%. On the contrary, the proliferation speed of S180 ascites sarcoma cells in vivo was accelerated by the large dosage of 29.33 J/cm2 LELI and the survival time of the tumor bearing mice were remarkably shortened. Low energy He-Ne laser irradiation with proper dosages can inhibit the development of the mouse S180 ascites sarcoma, while too large dosage shows promotive effects.

  11. Massive ascites of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Massive ascites of unknown origin is an uncommon condition, which represent a diagnostic challenge. Patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment may have a poor prognosis. A 22-year-old female was referred to this hospital due to a 4-year progressive abdominal distension with massive ascites of unknown origin. By thorough investigations, she was eventually diagnosed as chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. She received pericardiectomy and had an uneventful postoperative course. With a few day paracentesis, ascites did not progress any more. She was doing well at 5-month follow-up and has returned to work. Extracardiac manifestations, such as massive ascites and liver cirrhosis, were rare in patients with constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy can be a radical solution for the treatment of chronic constrictive pericarditis. In order to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, physicians have to bear in mind this rare manifestation of chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. PMID:24600502

  12. Massive ascites of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Massive ascites of unknown origin is an uncommon condition, which represent a diagnostic challenge. Patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment may have a poor prognosis. A 22-year-old female was referred to this hospital due to a 4-year progressive abdominal distension with massive ascites of unknown origin. By thorough investigations, she was eventually diagnosed as chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. She received pericardiectomy and had an uneventful postoperative course. With a few day paracentesis, ascites did not progress any more. She was doing well at 5-month follow-up and has returned to work. Extracardiac manifestations, such as massive ascites and liver cirrhosis, were rare in patients with constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy can be a radical solution for the treatment of chronic constrictive pericarditis. In order to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, physicians have to bear in mind this rare manifestation of chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. PMID:24600502

  13. Mathematical modeling of tumor growth and metastatic spreading: validation in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Niklas; Mollard, Sverine; Barbolosi, Dominique; Benabdallah, Assia; Chapuisat, Guillemette; Henry, Gerard; Giacometti, Sarah; Iliadis, Athanassios; Ciccolini, Joseph; Faivre, Christian; Hubert, Florence

    2014-11-15

    Defining tumor stage at diagnosis is a pivotal point for clinical decisions about patient treatment strategies. In this respect, early detection of occult metastasis invisible to current imaging methods would have a major impact on best care and long-term survival. Mathematical models that describe metastatic spreading might estimate the risk of metastasis when no clinical evidence is available. In this study, we adapted a top-down model to make such estimates. The model was constituted by a transport equation describing metastatic growth and endowed with a boundary condition for metastatic emission. Model predictions were compared with experimental results from orthotopic breast tumor xenograft experiments conducted in Nod/Scid? mice. Primary tumor growth, metastatic spread and growth were monitored by 3D bioluminescence tomography. A tailored computational approach allowed the use of Monolix software for mixed-effects modeling with a partial differential equation model. Primary tumor growth was described best by Bertalanffy, West, and Gompertz models, which involve an initial exponential growth phase. All other tested models were rejected. The best metastatic model involved two parameters describing metastatic spreading and growth, respectively. Visual predictive check, analysis of residuals, and a bootstrap study validated the model. Coefficients of determination were [Formula: see text] for primary tumor growth and [Formula: see text] for metastatic growth. The data-based model development revealed several biologically significant findings. First, information on both growth and spreading can be obtained from measures of total metastatic burden. Second, the postulated link between primary tumor size and emission rate is validated. Finally, fast growing peritoneal metastases can only be described by such a complex partial differential equation model and not by ordinary differential equation models. This work advances efforts to predict metastatic spreading during the earliest stages of cancer. PMID:25217520

  14. Dual targeting of glioma U251 cells with nanoparticles prevents tumor angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongjie; Fan, Kaichun; Wang, Shousen; Liu, Zheng; Zheng, Zhaocong

    2012-05-01

    Important advances have been made within in past few years in the treatment of glioma, however, the longterm prognosis after resection of glioma remains unsatisfactory as a result of a high incidence of recurrence. To solve this problem, many biologic therapies have been investigated. In the present study, we report a nanoparticle with properties for dual targeting of tumor cells and the neovasculature. The nanoparticle comprises encoding vasohibin and RGD 12-mer cationic peptide RKKRRQRRRRGD (Tat49-57RGD) peptides, which a nuclear nanoparticle within an extranuclear peptide envelope. Our results demonstrate that the nanoparticle could prevent tumor angiogenesis and inhibit tumor growth via attenuating neovasculature formation and inducing tumor apoptosis. Therefore, the dual targeting strategy of tumor cells and neovasculature represents an integrative approach in glioma therapy. This can be extended to additional agents to target multiple signal pathways or distinct tumor compartments. PMID:22475398

  15. Antitumor properties of Boswellic acid against Ehrlich ascites cells bearing mouse.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S S; Saraswati, Sarita; Mathur, Rajani; Pandey, Maneesha

    2011-09-01

    Boswellic acid (BA), a triterpene, isolated from Boswellia serrata (Burseraceae) has been found to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. The present study aimed at exploring the possible role of BA on ascites and solid Ehrlich tumor. Ascitic tumor development was evaluated 14 d after tumor implantation by quantification of the ascitic fluid volume whereas solid tumor was evaluated after 30 d tumor implantation by H&E and IHC. The i.p. administration of BA significantly inhibited ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor model. This inhibition was observed with reduced ascitic volume, solid tumor volume and body weight when compared to control mice. The treatments also increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice. VEGF and TNF- ? levels were decreased, whereas the IL-12 levels were increased with BA treatment at 25mg/kg. Further, results on decrease in the peritoneal angiogenesis and microvessel density showed the anti-angiogenic potential. Microscopic examination of tumors revealed that in BA-treated groups the expression of Bax and caspase 3 increased, suggesting drug induced tumor cell apoptosis through activating the pro-apoptotic bcl-2 family and caspase-3. The present study sheds light on the potent antitumor property of the boswellic acid and can be extended further to develop therapeutic protocols for treatment of cancer. PMID:21513768

  16. Ascites Increases Expression/Function of Multidrug Resistance Proteins in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhiqing; Murphy, Susan K.; Payne, Sturgis; Wang, Fang; Kennedy, Margaret; Cianciolo, George J.; Bryja, Vitezslav; Pizzo, Salvatore V.; Bachelder, Robin E.

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy resistance is the major reason for the failure of ovarian cancer treatment. One mechanism behind chemo-resistance involves the upregulation of multidrug resistance (MDR) genes (ABC transporters) that effectively transport (efflux) drugs out of the tumor cells. As a common symptom in stage III/IV ovarian cancer patients, ascites is associated with cancer progression. However, whether ascites drives multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer cells awaits elucidation. Here, we demonstrate that when cultured with ascites derived from ovarian cancer-bearing mice, a murine ovarian cancer cell line became less sensitive to paclitaxel, a first line chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer patients. Moreover, incubation of murine ovarian cancer cells in vitro with ascites drives efflux function in these cells. Functional studies show ascites-driven efflux is suppressible by specific inhibitors of either of two ABC transporters [Multidrug Related Protein (MRP1); Breast Cancer Related Protein (BCRP)]. To demonstrate relevance of our findings to ovarian cancer patients, we studied relative efflux in human ovarian cancer cells obtained from either patient ascites or from primary tumor. Immortalized cell lines developed from human ascites show increased susceptibility to efflux inhibitors (MRP1, BCRP) compared to a cell line derived from a primary ovarian cancer, suggesting an association between ascites and efflux function in human ovarian cancer. Efflux in ascites-derived human ovarian cancer cells is associated with increased expression of ABC transporters compared to that in primary tumor-derived human ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, our findings identify a novel activity for ascites in promoting ovarian cancer multidrug resistance. PMID:26148191

  17. Molecular Cochaperones: Tumor Growth and Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Calderwood, Stuart K.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular chaperones play important roles in all cellular organisms by maintaining the proteome in an optimally folded state. They appear to be at a premium in cancer cells whose evolution along the malignant pathways requires the fostering of cohorts of mutant proteins that are employed to overcome tumor suppressive regulation. To function at significant rates in cells, HSPs interact with cochaperones, proteins that assist in catalyzing individual steps in molecular chaperoning as well as in posttranslational modification and intracellular localization. We review current knowledge regarding the roles of chaperones such as heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and Hsp70 and their cochaperones in cancer. Cochaperones are potential targets for cancer therapy in themselves and can be used to assess the likely prognosis of individual malignancies. Hsp70 cochaperones Bag1, Bag3, and Hop play significant roles in the etiology of some cancers as do Hsp90 cochaperones Aha1, p23, Cdc37, and FKBP1. Others such as the J domain protein family, HspBP1, TTC4, and FKBPL appear to be associated with more benign tumor phenotypes. The key importance of cochaperones for many pathways of protein folding in cancer suggests high promise for the future development of novel pharmaceutical agents. PMID:24278769

  18. SKI knockdown inhibits human melanoma tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dahu; Lin, Qiushi; Box, Neil; Roop, Dennis; Ishii, Shunsuke; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Fan, Tao; Hornyak, Thomas J; Reed, Jon A; Stavnezer, Ed; Timchenko, Nikolai A; Medrano, Estela E

    2009-12-01

    The SKI protein represses the TGF-beta tumor suppressor pathway by associating with the Smad transcription factors. SKI is upregulated in human malignant melanoma tumors in a disease-progression manner and its overexpression promotes proliferation and migration of melanoma cells in vitro. The mechanisms by which SKI antagonizes TGF-beta signaling in vivo have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that human melanoma cells in which endogenous SKI expression was knocked down by RNAi produced minimal orthotopic tumor xenograft nodules that displayed low mitotic rate and prominent apoptosis. These minute tumors exhibited critical signatures of active TGF-beta signaling including high levels of nuclear Smad3 and p21(Waf-1), which are not found in the parental melanomas. To understand how SKI promotes tumor growth we used gain- and loss-of-function approaches and found that simultaneously to blocking the TGF-beta-growth inhibitory pathway, SKI promotes the switch of Smad3 from tumor suppression to oncogenesis by favoring phosphorylations of the Smad3 linker region in melanoma cells but not in normal human melanocytes. In this context, SKI is required for preventing TGF-beta-mediated downregulation of the oncogenic protein c-MYC, and for inducing the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, a mediator of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Together, the results indicate that SKI exploits multiple regulatory levels of the TGF-beta pathway and its deficiency restores TGF-beta tumor suppressor and apoptotic activities in spite of the likely presence of oncogenic mutations in melanoma tumors. PMID:19845874

  19. Pinning of tumoral growth by enhancement of the immune response.

    PubMed

    Br, A; Albertos, S; Lpez Garca-Asenjo, J A; Br, I

    2004-06-11

    Tumor growth is a surface phenomenon of the molecular beam epitaxy universality class in which diffusion at the surface is the determining factor. This Letter reports experiments performed in mice showing that these dynamics can, however, be changed. By stimulating the immune response, we induced strong neutrophilia around the tumor. The neutrophils hindered cell surface diffusion so much that they induced new dynamics compatible with the slower quenched-disorder Edwards-Wilkinson universality class. Important clinical effects were also seen, including remarkably high tumor necrosis (around 80%-90% of the tumor), a general increase in survival time [the death ratio in the control group is 15.76 times higher than in the treated group (equivalent to a Cox's model hazard ratio of 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.95, p=0.004)], and even the total elimination of some tumors. PMID:15245196

  20. Pinning of Tumoral Growth by Enhancement of the Immune Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brú, A.; Albertos, S.; García-Asenjo, J. A.; Brú, I.

    2004-06-01

    Tumor growth is a surface phenomenon of the molecular beam epitaxy universality class in which diffusion at the surface is the determining factor. This Letter reports experiments performed in mice showing that these dynamics can, however, be changed. By stimulating the immune response, we induced strong neutrophilia around the tumor. The neutrophils hindered cell surface diffusion so much that they induced new dynamics compatible with the slower quenched-disorder Edwards-Wilkinson universality class. Important clinical effects were also seen, including remarkably high tumor necrosis (around 80% 90% of the tumor), a general increase in survival time [the death ratio in the control group is 15.76 times higher than in the treated group (equivalent to a Cox's model hazard ratio of 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.76 0.95, p=0.004)], and even the total elimination of some tumors.

  1. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts and Tumor Growth: Focus on Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    De Veirman, Kim; Rao, Luigia; De Bruyne, Elke; Menu, Eline; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Van Riet, Ivan; Frassanito, Maria Antonia; Di Marzo, Lucia; Vacca, Angelo; Vanderkerken, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) comprise a heterogeneous population that resides within the tumor microenvironment. They actively participate in tumor growth and metastasis by production of cytokines and chemokines, and the release of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic factors, creating a more supportive microenvironment. The aim of the current review is to summarize the origin and characteristics of CAFs, and to describe the role of CAFs in tumor progression and metastasis. Furthermore, we focus on the presence of CAFs in hypoxic conditions in relation to multiple myeloma disease. PMID:24978438

  2. Role of acetoin on the regulation of intermediate metabolism of Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria: its contribution to membrane cholesterol enrichment modifying passive proton permeability.

    PubMed

    Baggetto, L G; Testa-Parussini, R

    1990-12-01

    Acetoin, an unusual metabolite of highly glycolytic mammalian tumor cells, is synthesized from decarboxylated pyruvate and active acetaldehyde in mitochondria. It plays important roles in the regulation and detoxification of pyruvate metabolism through pyruvate dehydrogenase. We show in this report the inhibitory effect of acetoin on succinate oxidation by Ehrlich tumor cell mitochondria, and thus its regulatory role on intermediate metabolism. Acetoin utilization by Ehrlich mitochondria may lead to small quantities of citrate formation which increase the already increased cholesterol synthesis of cancer cells. Membranes, in particular the inner mitochondrial membrane, flooded with cholesterol, show a proton passive permeability twice as low as that of control mitochondrial membranes, a feature that may be related to drastic changes in membrane potential-dependent metabolism of cancer cells. PMID:2275543

  3. Regulatory B cells preferentially accumulate in tumor-draining lymph nodes and promote tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Ganti, Sheila N.; Albershardt, Tina C.; Iritani, Brian M.; Ruddell, Alanna

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies found that B16-F10 melanoma growth in the rear footpad of immunocompetent mice induces marked B cell accumulation within tumor-draining popliteal lymph nodes (TDLN). This B cell accumulation drives TDLN remodeling that precedes and promotes metastasis, indicating a tumor-promoting role for TDLN B cells. Here we show that phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes in mice bearing B16-F10 melanomas identifies preferential accumulation of T2-MZP B cells in the TDLN. Comparison of non-draining LNs and spleens of tumor-bearing mice with LNs and spleens from nave mice determined that this pattern of B cell accumulation was restricted to the TDLN. B cell-deficient and immunocompetent mice reconstituted with T2-MZP B cells but not with other B cell subsets displayed accelerated tumor growth, demonstrating that T2-MZP B cells possess regulatory activity in tumor-bearing mice. Unlike splenic regulatory B cells, however, these TDLN B cells did not exhibit increased IL-10 production, nor did they promote Treg generation in the TDLN. These findings demonstrate that tumors initially signal via the lymphatic drainage to stimulate the preferential accumulation of T2-MZP regulatory B cells. This local response may be an early and critical step in generating an immunosuppressive environment to permit tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:26193241

  4. Heparanase-neutralizing antibodies attenuate lymphoma tumor growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Weissmann, Marina; Arvatz, Gil; Horowitz, Netanel; Feld, Sari; Naroditsky, Inna; Zhang, Yi; Ng, Mary; Hammond, Edward; Nevo, Eviatar; Vlodavsky, Israel; Ilan, Neta

    2016-01-19

    Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains of proteoglycans, resulting in disassembly of the extracellular matrix underlying endothelial and epithelial cells and associating with enhanced cell invasion and metastasis. Heparanase expression is induced in carcinomas and sarcomas, often associating with enhanced tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, the function of heparanase in hematological malignancies (except myeloma) was not investigated in depth. Here, we provide evidence that heparanase is expressed by human follicular and diffused non-Hodgkin's B-lymphomas, and that heparanase inhibitors restrain the growth of tumor xenografts produced by lymphoma cell lines. Furthermore, we describe, for the first time to our knowledge, the development and characterization of heparanase-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that inhibit cell invasion and tumor metastasis, the hallmark of heparanase activity. Using luciferase-labeled Raji lymphoma cells, we show that the heparanase-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies profoundly inhibit tumor load in the mouse bones, associating with reduced cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Notably, we found that Raji cells lack intrinsic heparanase activity, but tumor xenografts produced by this cell line exhibit typical heparanase activity, likely contributed by host cells composing the tumor microenvironment. Thus, the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies attenuate lymphoma growth by targeting heparanase in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26729870

  5. Histone Methylase MLL1 plays critical roles in tumor growth and angiogenesis and its knockdown suppresses tumor growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Khairul I.; Kasiri, Sahba; Mandal, Subhrangsu S.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed lineage leukemias (MLL) are human histone H3 lysine-4 specific methyl transferases that play critical roles in gene expression, epigenetics, and cancer. Herein, we demonstrated that antisense-mediated knockdown of MLL1 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cultured cells. Intriguingly, application of MLL1-antisense specifically knocked down MLL1 in vivo and suppressed the growth of xenografted cervical tumor implanted in nude mouse. MLL1-knockdown downregulated various growth and angiogenic factors such as HIF1?, VEGF and CD31 in tumor tissue affecting tumor growth. MLL1 is overexpressed along the line of vascular network and localized adjacent to endothelial cell layer expressing CD31, indicating potential roles of MLL1 in vasculogenesis. MLL1 is also overexpressed in the hypoxic regions along with HIF1?. Overall, our studies demonstrated that MLL1 is a key player in hypoxia signaling, vasculogenesis, and tumor growth, and its depletion suppresses tumor growth in vivo, indicating its potential in novel cancer therapy. PMID:22926525

  6. Embelin suppresses pancreatic cancer growth by modulating tumor immune microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Justine L; Jackman, Chris P; Tang, Su-Ni; Shankar, Sharmila; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2014-01-01

    Since pancreatic carcinoma is largely refractory to conventional therapies, development of novel agents is required for the effective treatment of pancreatic cancer. The objective of this paper was to examine the molecular mechanisms by which embelin inhibited human pancreatic cancer growth in mice by modulating tumor immune microenvironment. Embelin inhibited PANC-1 tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis which were associated with suppression of Akt and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways. Embelin inhibited the expression of Bcl-2, cyclin D1, CDK2 and CDK6, IL-6 and IL-8, and induced the expression of Bax in tumor tissues. Embelin also reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition by up-regulating E-cadherin and inhibiting the expression of Snail, Slug and Zeb1. Embelin inhibited pancreatic cancer growth in Kras(G12D) mice by modulating tumor immune microenvironment where CTL, NKT, ??T, NK, and IFN? (Th1 type) cells were up-regulated, and Th17, PMN-MDSC, IL-6 and IL-8 (Th2 type) immune cells were inhibited. These data suggest that embelin can inhibit pancreatic cancer growth by modulating tumor immune microenvironment and Akt and Shh pathways, and inhibiting inflammation. Embelin may offer therapeutic benefits for the treatment and/or prevention of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24389175

  7. Genetics of Ascites Resistance and Tolerance in Chicken: A Random Regression Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kause, Antti; van Dalen, Sacha; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Resistance and tolerance are two complementary mechanisms to reduce the detrimental effects of parasites, pathogens, and production diseases on host performance. Using body weight and ascites data on domesticated chicken Gallus gallus domesticus, we demonstrate the use of random regression animal model and covariance functions to estimate genetic parameters for ascites resistance and tolerance and illustrate the way individual variation in resistance and tolerance induce both genotype re-ranking and changes in variation of host performance along increasing ascites severity. Tolerance to ascites displayed significant genetic variance, with the estimated breeding values of tolerance slope ranging from strongly negative (very sensitive genotype) to weakly negative (less sensitive). Resistance to ascites had heritability of 0.34. Both traits are hence expected to respond to selection. The two complementary defense strategies, tolerance and resistance, were genetically independent. Ascites induced changes to the correlations between ascites resistance and body weight, with the genetic correlations being weak when birds were ascites-free but moderately negative when both healthy and affected birds were present. This likely results because ascites reduces growth, and thus high ascites incidence is genetically related to low adult body weight. Although ascites induced elevated phenotypic and genetic variances in body weight of affected birds, heritability displayed negligible changes across healthy and affected birds. Ascites induced moderate genotype re-ranking in body weight, with the genetic correlation of healthy birds with mildly affected birds being unity but with severely affected birds 0.45. This study demonstrates a novel approach for exploring genetics of defense traits and their impact on genotype-by-environment interactions. PMID:22670223

  8. Targeted Proapoptotic Peptides Depleting Adipose Stromal Cells Inhibit Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Daquinag, Alexes C; Tseng, Chieh; Zhang, Yan; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Florez, Fernando; Dadbin, Ali; Zhang, Tao; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2016-02-01

    Progression of many cancers is associated with tumor infiltration by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Adipose stromal cells (ASC) are MSC that serve as adipocyte progenitors and endothelium-supporting cells in white adipose tissue (WAT). Clinical and animal model studies indicate that ASC mobilized from WAT are recruited by tumors. Direct evidence for ASC function in tumor microenvironment has been lacking due to unavailability of approaches to specifically inactivate these cells. Here, we investigate the effects of a proteolysis-resistant targeted hunter-killer peptide D-WAT composed of a cyclic domain CSWKYWFGEC homing to ASC and of a proapoptotic domain KLAKLAK2. Using mouse bone marrow transplantation models, we show that D-WAT treatment specifically depletes tumor stromal and perivascular cells without directly killing malignant cells or tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. In several mouse carcinoma models, targeted ASC cytoablation reduced tumor vascularity and cell proliferation resulting in hemorrhaging, necrosis, and suppressed tumor growth. We also validated a D-WAT derivative with a proapoptotic domain KFAKFAK2 that was found to have an improved cytoablative activity. Our results for the first time demonstrate that ASC, recruited as a component of tumor microenvironment, support cancer progression. We propose that drugs targeting ASC can be developed as a combination therapy complementing conventional cancer treatments. PMID:26316391

  9. Autocrine and paracrine growth factors in tumor growth: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Michelson, S; Leith, J

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model of tumor growth including autocrine and paracrine control has been developed. The model starts with the logistic equation of Verhulst: dV/dt = rV (1-V/K). Autocrine controls are described as modifiers of the Malthusian growth rate (r), while paracrine controls modify the carrying capacity (K) of the system. The control mechanisms are expressed in terms of "candidate" functions, which are based upon the dynamic distribution of TGF-alpha TGF-beta in the local tumor environment. Three paradigms of tissue growth have been modeled: normal tissue wound repair, unrestricted, unperturbed tumor growth, and tumor growth in a (radiation) damaged environment (the Tumor Bed Effect, TBE). These scenarios were used to test the dynamics of the system against known phenomena. Computer simulations are presented for each case. The mode is being extended to include the description of heterogeneous tumors, within which subpopulations can express differential degrees of growth activity. Heterogeneous tumor models, with and without emergent subpopulations, and models of terminal differentiation are also discussed. PMID:1933032

  10. CHIP is a novel tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer and inhibits tumor growth through targeting EGFR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianxiao; Yang, Jingxuan; Xu, Jianwei; Li, Jian; Cao, Zhe; Zhou, Li; You, Lei; Shu, Hong; Lu, Zhaohui; Li, Huihua; Li, Min; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2014-01-01

    Carboxyl terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein (CHIP) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in protein quality control and mediates several tumor-related proteins in many cancers, but the function of CHIP in pancreatic cancer is not known. Here we show that CHIP interacts and ubiquitinates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for proteasome-mediated degradation in pancreatic cancer cells, thereby inhibiting the activation of EGFR downstream pathways. CHIP suppressed cell proliferation, anchor-independent growth, invasion and migration, as well as enhanced apoptosis induced by erlotinib in vitro and in vivo. The expression of CHIP was decreased in pancreatic cancer tissues or sera. Low CHIP expression in tumor tissues was correlated with tumor differentiation and shorter overall survival. These observations indicate that CHIP serves as a novel tumor suppressor by down-regulating EGFR pathway in pancreatic cancer cells, decreased expression of CHIP was associated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24722501

  11. Growth suppressing factor for endothelial cells exhibits tumor regressing activity.

    PubMed

    Usui, S; Matsunaga, T; Ukai, S; Kiho, T; Hirano, K

    1999-04-01

    Endothelium growth suppressing and tumor-regressing activities were copurified from the conditioned medium of P388D1 culture in the presence of 100 microg/ml carboxymethylated curdlan by a procedure including ammonium sulfate fractionation and six column chromatographies of Ceramic hydroxyapatite, Q-Sepharose, Sephacryl S-300 HR, Matrex PBA-30, PBE94, and anti-bovine serum albumin (anti-BSA) agarose. The intravenous administration of the purified growth suppressing factor for endothelial cells to sarcoma 180-bearing mouse caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable tumor cells in tumor lumps within 16 h. Immunohistochemical study showed that the intravenous injection of the purified factor to sarcoma 180-bearing mouse resulted in hemorrhagic disorder all over the tissue in the tumor lamp. Thus, the purified factor exhibited not only growth suppressing activity for endothelial cells but also tumor regressing activity at a concentration as low as about 15 ng/mouse. The purified factor significantly inhibited in vitro tubulogenesis of bovine artery, human umbilical vein, and adult human darmal microvascular endothelial cells on collagen gel at a concentration of about 5 ng/ml. After the tube formation of endothelial cells was completed on a collagen gel, the purified factor disrupted the tubes at a concentration of about 5 ng/ml within 48 h. These findings demonstrate that endothelium growth suppressing factor is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis as well as the growth of endothelial cells, and may bring about the regression of a solid tumor by inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:10328553

  12. Growth of melanoma brain tumors monitored by photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Jacob; Grogan, Patrick; Samadi, Abbas K.; Cui, Huizhong; Cohen, Mark S.; Yang, Xinmai

    2010-07-01

    Melanoma is a primary malignancy that is known to metastasize to the brain and often causes death. The ability to image the growth of brain melanoma in vivo can provide new insights into its evolution and response to therapies. In our study, we use a reflection mode photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system to detect the growth of melanoma brain tumor in a small animal model. The melanoma tumor cells are implanted in the brain of a mouse at the beginning of the test. Then, PAM is used to scan the region of implantation in the mouse brain, and the growth of the melanoma is monitored until the death of the animal. It is demonstrated that PAM is capable of detecting and monitoring the brain melanoma growth noninvasively in vivo.

  13. Clinical management of ascites and its complications.

    PubMed

    Wongcharatrawee, S; Garcia-Tsao, G

    2001-08-01

    Development of ascites is a poor prognostic sign with a 1 year mortality rate of up to 50%. Cirrhotic patients who develop ascites should therefore be evaluated for liver transplantation. Even though current therapies of ascites are not associated with a survival benefit, the elimination of ascites will improve quality of life and prevent the development of lethal complications such as SBP and HRS. Therapy of ascites should be directed at correcting the pathophysiologic abnormalities that lead to ascites formation, namely sodium retention, reduced effective arterial blood volume, and sinusoidal hypertension. PMID:11565143

  14. Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by photoimmunotherapy targeting tumor-associated macrophage in a sorafenib-resistant tumor model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenran; Gao, Liquan; Cai, Yuehong; Liu, Hao; Gao, Duo; Lai, Jianhao; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Liu, Zhaofei

    2016-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play essential roles in tumor invasion and metastasis, and contribute to drug resistance. Clinical evidence suggests that TAM levels are correlated with local tumor relapse, distant metastasis, and poor prognosis in patients. In this study, we synthesized a TAM-targeted probe (IRD-αCD206) by conjugating a monoclonal anti-CD206 antibody with a near-infrared phthalocyanine dye. We then investigated the potential application of the IRD-αCD206 probe to near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of tumors resistant to treatment with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib. Sorafenib treatment had no effect on tumor growth in a 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer, but induced M2 macrophage polarization in tumors. M2 macrophage recruitment by sorafenib-treated 4T1 tumors was noninvasively visualized by in vivo NIRF imaging of IRD-αCD206. Small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT and intratumoral microdistribution analysis indicated TAM-specific localization of the IRD-αCD206 probe in 4T1 tumors after several rounds of sorafenib treatment. Upon light irradiation, IRD-αCD206 suppressed the growth of sorafenib-resistant tumors. In vivo CT imaging and ex vivo histological analysis confirmed the inhibition of lung metastasis in mice by IRD-αCD206 PIT. These results demonstrate the utility of the IRD-αCD206 probe for TAM-targeted diagnostic imaging and treatment of tumors that are resistant to conventional therapeutics. PMID:26803407

  15. Phase transitions in tumor growth: II prostate cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanos-Prez, J. A.; Betancourt-Mar, A.; De Miguel, M. P.; Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Royuela-Garca, M.; Tejera, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a mechanism for prostate cancer cell lines growth, LNCaP and PC3 based on a Gompertz dynamics. This growth exhibits a multifractal behavior and a "second order" phase transition. Finally, it was found that the cellular line PC3 exhibits a higher value of entropy production rate compared to LNCaP, which is indicative of the robustness of PC3, over to LNCaP and may be a quantitative index of metastatic potential tumors.

  16. Robo4 vaccines induce antibodies that retard tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaodong; Ahmed, Forhad; Zhang, Yang; Ferguson, Henry J; Steele, Jane C; Steven, Neil M; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Heath, Victoria L; Toellner, Kai-Michael; Bicknell, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Tumor endothelial specific expression of Robo4 in adults identifies this plasma membrane protein as an anti-cancer target for immunotherapeutic approaches, such as vaccination. In this report, we describe how vaccination against Robo4 inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. To break tolerance to the auto-antigen Robo4, mice were immunised with the extracellular domain of mouse Robo4, fused to the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin within an adjuvant. Vaccinated mice show a strong antibody response to Robo4, with no objectively detectable adverse effects on health. Robo4 vaccinated mice showed impaired fibrovascular invasion and angiogenesis in a rodent sponge implantation assay, as well as a reduced growth of implanted syngeneic Lewis lung carcinoma. The anti-tumor effect of Robo4 vaccination was present in CD8 deficient mice but absent in B cell or IgG1 knockout mice, suggesting antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity as the anti-vascular/anti-tumor mechanism. Finally, we show that an adjuvant free soluble Robo4-carrier conjugate can retard tumor growth in carrier primed mice. These results point to appropriate Robo4 conjugates as potential anti-angiogenic vaccines for cancer patients. PMID:25348086

  17. Hypoxia promotes tumor growth in linking angiogenesis to immune escape.

    PubMed

    Chouaib, Salem; Messai, Yosra; Couve, Sophie; Escudier, Bernard; Hasmim, Meriem; Noman, Muhammad Zaeem

    2012-01-01

    Despite the impressive progress over the past decade, in the field of tumor immunology, such as the identification of tumor antigens and antigenic peptides, there are still many obstacles in eliciting an effective immune response to eradicate cancer. It has become increasingly clear that tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the control of immune protection. Tumors have evolved to utilize hypoxic stress to their own advantage by activating key biochemical and cellular pathways that are important in progression, survival, and metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a determinant role in promoting tumor cell growth and survival. Hypoxia contributes to immune suppression by activating HIF-1 and VEGF pathways. Accumulating evidence suggests a link between hypoxia and tumor tolerance to immune surveillance through the recruitment of regulatory cells (regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells). In this regard, hypoxia (HIF-1α and VEGF) is emerging as an attractive target for cancer therapy. How the microenvironmental hypoxia poses both obstacles and opportunities for new therapeutic immune interventions will be discussed. PMID:22566905

  18. Hypoxia Promotes Tumor Growth in Linking Angiogenesis to Immune Escape

    PubMed Central

    Chouaib, Salem; Messai, Yosra; Couve, Sophie; Escudier, Bernard; Hasmim, Meriem; Noman, Muhammad Zaeem

    2012-01-01

    Despite the impressive progress over the past decade, in the field of tumor immunology, such as the identification of tumor antigens and antigenic peptides, there are still many obstacles in eliciting an effective immune response to eradicate cancer. It has become increasingly clear that tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the control of immune protection. Tumors have evolved to utilize hypoxic stress to their own advantage by activating key biochemical and cellular pathways that are important in progression, survival, and metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a determinant role in promoting tumor cell growth and survival. Hypoxia contributes to immune suppression by activating HIF-1 and VEGF pathways. Accumulating evidence suggests a link between hypoxia and tumor tolerance to immune surveillance through the recruitment of regulatory cells (regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells). In this regard, hypoxia (HIF-1α and VEGF) is emerging as an attractive target for cancer therapy. How the microenvironmental hypoxia poses both obstacles and opportunities for new therapeutic immune interventions will be discussed. PMID:22566905

  19. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A.; Salomon, Matthew P.; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F.; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-01-01

    What happens in the early, still undetectable human malignancy is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a “Big Bang” model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed sub-clones that are not subject to stringent selection, and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors revealed the absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH), and sub-clone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations, and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear born-to-be-bad, with sub-clone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH with significant clinical implications. PMID:25665006

  20. Adipose-derived stem cells promote tumor initiation and accelerate tumor growth by interleukin-6 production

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Rong; Lu, Jui-Hua; Lai, Wen-Fu T.; Chen, Wei-Hong; Liu, Hen-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ting; Deng, Win-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent cells that have attracted much recent attention. Here, we show that ADSCs enhance sphere formation and in vivo tumor initiation of breast and colon cancer cells. In co-culture, ADSCs induced several stem cell markers in cancer cells. ADSCs also accelerated tumor growth. Interaction of ADSCs and cancer cells stimulated secretion of interlukin-6 in ADSCs, which in turn acted in a paracrine manner on cancer cells to enhance their malignant properties. Interleukin-6 regulated stem cell-related genes and activated JAK2/STAT3 in cancer cells. We suggest that ADSCs may enhance tumor initiation and promotion. PMID:25797257

  1. Antitumor effectiveness and toxicity of cisplatin-loaded long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes against Ehrlich ascitic tumor.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Maroni, Las; de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda Cardoso; Leite, Elaine Amaral; Melo, Marlia Martins; de Carvalho Ribeiro, Ana Flvia; Cassali, Geovani Dantas; de Souza, Cristina Maria; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Caldas, Iramaya Rodrigues; Arajo, Mrcio Sobreira Silva; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; de Oliveira, Mnica Cristina; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andra

    2012-08-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents commonly used in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. The disadvantages of its clinical use are systemic side-effects, such as nephrotoxicity and myelotoxicity. Long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (SpHL-CDDP) were developed by our research group aiming to promote the release of CDDP near the tumor as well as decreasing toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor efficacy and toxicity of SpHL-CDDP after intraperitoneal administration in initial or disseminated tumor-bearing mice, at a dose of 12 mg/kg. The survival was monitored and blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological analysis. Kidneys, liver and spleen were removed for histopathological examination. Tumor cells were evaluated for cellular viability and cell cycle. The survival of animals treated with SpHL-CDDP was higher than those treated with free CDDP. The cell death caused by treatment with SpHL-CDDP occurred through induction of apoptosis, with a cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. The treatment of mice presenting initial cancer with both formulations provoked a suppression of granulocytes. Mice treated with free CDDP also showed a decrease in platelet count, which suggests a high myelotoxicity. In an advanced cancer model, SpHL-CDDP treatment allowed an improvement of the immune response. Mice affected by cancer at an early stage and treated with free CDDP or SpHL-CDDP showed a lower urea/creatinine index compared with the saline control group. These findings indicate that both treatments were able to reduce the renal damage caused by peritoneal carcinomatosis. Microscopic analysis of kidneys from mice treated with SpHL-CDDP showed a discrete morphological alteration, while tubular necrosis was observed for free CDDP-treated mice. Concerning hepatotoxicity, no alteration in clinical chemistry parameters was observed. These findings reveal that SpHL-CDDP can improve the antitumor efficacy and decrease renal and bone marrow toxicity. PMID:22903135

  2. Building Context with Tumor Growth Modeling Projects in Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Julie C.; Gevertz, Jana L.; Howard, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modeling projects serves to integrate, reinforce, and extend student knowledge. Here we present two projects related to tumor growth appropriate for a first course in differential equations. They illustrate the use of problem-based learning to reinforce and extend course content via a writing or research experience. Here we discuss

  3. Altered tumor cell growth and tumorigenicity in models of microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, K.; Taga, M.; Furian, L.; Odle, J.; Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N.; Andrassy, R.; Kulkarni, A.

    Spaceflight environment and microgravity (MG) causes immune dysfunction and is a major health risk to humans, especially during long-term space missions. The effects of microgravity environment on tumor growth and carcinogenesis are yet unknown. Hence, we investigated the effects of simulated MG (SMG) on tumor growth and tumorigenicity using in vivo and in vitro models. B16 melanoma cells were cultured in static flask (FL) and rotating wall vessel bioreactors (BIO) to measure growth and properties, melanin production and apoptosis. BIO cultures had 50% decreased growth (p<0.01), increased doubling time and a 150% increase in melanin production (p<0.05). Flow cytometric analysis showed increased apoptosis in BIO. When BIO cultured melanoma cells were inoculated sc in mice there was a significant increase in tumorigenicity as compared to FL cells. Thus SMG may have supported &selected highly tumorigenic cells and it is pos sible that in addition to decreased immune function MG may alter tumor cell characteristics and invasiveness. Thus it is important to study effects of microgravity environment and its stressors using experimental tumors and SMG to understand and evaluate carcinogenic responses to true microgravity. Further studies on carcinogenic events and their mechanisms will allow us develop and formulate countermeasures and protect space travelers. Additional results will be presented. (Supported by NASA NCC8-168 grant, ADK)

  4. Building Context with Tumor Growth Modeling Projects in Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Julie C.; Gevertz, Jana L.; Howard, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modeling projects serves to integrate, reinforce, and extend student knowledge. Here we present two projects related to tumor growth appropriate for a first course in differential equations. They illustrate the use of problem-based learning to reinforce and extend course content via a writing or research experience. Here we discuss…

  5. Antiproliferative and hepatoprotective activity of metabolites from Corynebacterium xerosis against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Ghosh, Soby; Khanam, Jahan Ara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find out the effective anticancer drugs from bacterial products, petroleum ether extract of Corynebacterium xerosis. Methods Antiproliferative activity of the metabolite has been measured by monitoring the parameters like tumor weight measurement, tumor cell growth inhibition in mice and survival time of tumor bearing mice, etc. Hepatoprotective effect of the metabolites was determined by observing biochemical, hematological parameters. Results It has been found that the petroleum ether extract bacterial metabolite significantly decrease cell growth (78.58%; P<0.01), tumor weight (36.04 %; P<0.01) and increase the life span of tumor bearing mice (69.23%; P<0.01) at dose 100 mg/kg (i.p.) in comparison to those of untreated Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. The metabolite also alters the depleted hematological parameters like red blood cell, white blood cell, hemoglobin (Hb%), etc. towards normal in tumor bearing mice. Metabolite show no adverse effect on liver functions regarding blood glucose, serum alkaline phosphatases, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity and serum billirubin, etc. in normal mice. Histopathological observation of these mice organ does not show any toxic effect on cellular structure. But in the case of EAC bearing untreated mice these hematological and biochemical parameters deteriorate extremely with time whereas petroleum ether extract bacterial metabolite receiving EAC bearing mice nullified the toxicity induced by EAC cells. Conclusion Study results reveal that metabolite possesses significant antiproliferative and hepatoprotective effect against EAC cells. PMID:25183099

  6. Implication of scatter/growth factors in tumor progression.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Boyer B; Valls AM; Jouanneau J; Delouve A; Thiery JP

    1994-01-01

    Several steps during cancer progression have been distinguished on the basis of anatomo-pathological observations and experimental data. The first step, which consists of the detachment of the cancer cells from the primary tumor prior to their migration, has received much attention. Several lines of evidence have indicated that inducer molecules of tumor cell dispersion are scatter factors which are similar or identical to some growth factors. Our studies have focused on the dispersing effect of growth factors, such as acidic FGF (aFGF) on a rat bladder carcinoma cell line. These studies demonstrated that specific extracellular matrix components might contribute to the scattering effect of soluble growth factors. Additionally, our results indicated that the dispersing action of aFGF is counterbalanced by its mitogenic effect, since these two functions of aFGF cannot be observed simultaneously for the same cell. Depending on its location in the cell collective, a given cell chooses to enter mitosis or to scatter in response to aFGF. The choice between the two responses is apparently driven by molecules belonging to the transducing pathways of aFGF signaling. Finally, our data indicated that aFGF-induced tumor cell scattering leads to increased in vitro invasiveness and in vivo metastasis. Interestingly, the presence of few aFGF-producing tumor cells in a population of non-producing cells dramatically enhances the growth rate and the metastatic properties of the whole tumor, suggesting that a low proportion of highly metastatic cells in a heterogeneous cell population might modify the behavior of the tumor mass.

  7. Ketone body utilization drives tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lin, Zhao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously proposed that catabolic fibroblasts generate mitochondrial fuels (such as ketone bodies) to promote the anabolic growth of human cancer cells and their metastasic dissemination. We have termed this new paradigm two-compartment tumor metabolism. Here, we further tested this hypothesis by using a genetic approach. For this purpose, we generated hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts overexpressing the rate-limiting enzymes that promote ketone body production, namely BDH1 and HMGCS2. Similarly, we generated MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells overexpressing the key enzyme(s) that allow ketone body re-utilization, OXCT1/2 and ACAT1/2. Interestingly, our results directly show that ketogenic fibroblasts are catabolic and undergo autophagy, with a loss of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) protein expression. Moreover, ketogenic fibroblasts increase the mitochondrial mass and growth of adjacent breast cancer cells. However, most importantly, ketogenic fibroblasts also effectively promote tumor growth, without a significant increase in tumor angiogenesis. Finally, MDA-MB-231 cells overexpressing the enzyme(s) required for ketone re-utilization show dramatic increases in tumor growth and metastatic capacity. Our data provide the necessary genetic evidence that ketone body production and re-utilization drive tumor progression and metastasis. As such, ketone inhibitors should be designed as novel therapeutics to effectively treat advanced cancer patients, with tumor recurrence and metastatic disease. In summary, ketone bodies behave as onco-metabolites, and we directly show that the enzymes HMGCS2, ACAT1/2 and OXCT1/2 are bona fide metabolic oncogenes. PMID:23082722

  8. Dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.; Baron, L.; Baron, P.; White, F.; Banks, W.L. Jr.

    1986-03-05

    The effects of high dietary BCAA on tumor growth was examined in adult male Fischer 344 rats inoculated with 10/sup 6/ viable MCA fibrosarcoma cells. Ten days after tumor inoculation, when tumors were of palpable size, rats were divided into two groups at random. The experimental(E) group was fed the AIN-76 diet supplemented with 4X the BCAA content of diet casein and the control(C) group was fed the AIN-76 made isonitrogenous with the E diet by glutamic acid supplementation. Five rats from each group were killed at days 0,3,6, and 9. Rats were injected with /sup 14/C-Tyrosine and /sup 3/H-Thymidine i.p. (2 and 4 uCi/100g BW, respectively) an hour before they were killed. The incorporation of /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H into the acid insoluble fraction of the tumor tissues samples were measured. Single cell suspension of tumor were prepared for cell cycle kinetics analysis using a Coulter EPICS IV flow microflorometer. The percentage of normal and hyperdiploid cells were analyzed. Results showed that both tumor size and weight were doubled at each time point the rats were killed. At day 0, the /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C incorporation were 32 +/- 10dpm and 27 +/- 4dpm/mg tumor, respectively. The /sup 3/H incorporation dropped in both diet groups at days 6 and 9 but the /sup 14/C incorporation showed a decrease only at day 9. These changes were statistically significant, P>0.05. No difference in the tumor growth parameters used in this study can be attributed to the high dietary BCAA.

  9. Pancreatic Tumor Growth Prediction with Multiplicative Growth and Image-Derived Motion.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ken C L; Summers, Ronald M; Kebebew, Electron; Yao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are abnormal growths of hormone-producing cells in the pancreas. Different from the brain in the skull, the pancreas in the abdomen can be largely deformed by the body posture and the surrounding organs. In consequence, both tumor growth and pancreatic motion attribute to the tumor shape difference observable from images. As images at different time points are used to personalize the tumor growth model, the prediction accuracy may be reduced if such motion is ignored. Therefore, we incorporate the image-derived pancreatic motion to tumor growth personalization. For realistic mechanical interactions, the multiplicative growth decomposition is used with a hyperelastic constitutive law to model tumor mass effect, which allows growth modeling without compromising the mechanical accuracy. With also the FDG-PET and contrast-enhanced CT images, the functional, structural, and motion data are combined for a more patient-specific model. Experiments on synthetic and clinical data show the importance of image-derived motion on estimating physiologically plausible mechanical properties and the promising performance of our framework. From six patient data sets, the recall, precision, Dice coefficient, relative volume difference, and average surface distance were 89.8 3.5%, 85.6 7.5%, 87.4 3.6%, 9.7 7.2%, and 0.6 0.2 mm, respectively. PMID:26221698

  10. Macrophages Reprogrammed In Vitro Towards the M1 Phenotype and Activated with LPS Extend Lifespan of Mice with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kalish, Sergey V.; Lyamina, Svetlana V.; Usanova, Elena A.; Manukhina, Eugenia B.; Larionov, Nikolai P.; Malyshev, Igor Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background The majority of tumors trigger macrophage reprogramming from an anti-tumor M1 phenotype towards a pro-tumor M2 phenotype. The M2 phenotype promotes tumor growth. We hypothesized that increasing the number of M1 macrophages in a tumor would limit carcinogenesis and extend the lifespan of the tumor host. The aim of this study was to verify this hypothesis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). The objectives were to evaluate effects of 1) EAC on a macrophage phenotype and NO-producing macrophage activity in vivo; 2) ascitic fluid from mice with EAC on a macrophage phenotype and NO-producing macrophage activity in vitro; and 3) in vitro reprogrammed M1 macrophages on lifespan of mice with EAC. Material/Methods The study was conducted using C57BL/6J mice. Results Concentration of nitrite, a stable NO metabolite and an index of NO production, was measured spectrophotometrically. Shifts of macrophage phenotype were assessed by changes in NO production as well as by amounts of CD80, a marker of M1 phenotype, and CD206, a marker of M2 phenotype. The CD markers were measured by flow cytometry. Macrophages were reprogrammed towards the M1 phenotype using two reprogramming factors: 0% FBS and 20 ng/ml IFN-?. The study results showed that 1) EAC inhibited the macrophage NO production in vivo and reprogrammed macrophages towards the M2 phenotype; 2) ascitic fluid of mice with EAC inhibited the macrophage NO production in vitro and reprogrammed macrophages towards the M2 phenotype; and 3) injection of in vitro reprogrammed M1 macrophages into mice with EAC significantly increased the lifespan of mice. Conclusions These findings suggest that promising biotechnologies for restriction of tumor growth could be developed based on the in vitro macrophage reprogramming. PMID:26471744

  11. Thymoquinone inhibits tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth through suppressing AKT and ERK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Tingfang; Cho, Sung-Gook; Yi, Zhengfang; Pang, Xiufeng; Rodriguez, Melissa; Wang, Ying; Sethi, Gautam; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Liu, Mingyao

    2008-01-01

    Thymoquinone, a component derived from the medial plant Nigella sativa, has been used for medical purposes for more than two thousands of years. Recent studies reported that thymoquinone exhibited inhibitory effects on cell proliferation of many cancer cell lines and hormone-refractory prostate cancer by suppressing androgen receptor and E2F-1. Whether thymoquinone inhibits angiogenesis, the critical step of tumor growth and metastasis, is still unknown. In this study, we found that thymoquinone effectively inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration, invasion, and tube formation. Thymoquinone inhibited cell proliferation and suppressed the activation of AKT and ERK. Thymoquinone blocked angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, prevented tumor angiogenesis in a xenograft human prostate cancer (PC3) model in mouse and inhibited human prostate tumor growth at low dosage with almost no chemotoxicitical side effects. Furthermore, we observed that endothelial cells were more sensitive to thymoquinone-induced cell apoptosis, cell proliferation and migration inhibition compared to PC3 cancer cells. Thymoquinone inhibited VEGF-induced ERK activation, but showed no inhibitory effects on VEGF receptor 2 activation. Overall, our results indicate that thymoquinone inhibits tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth, and could be used as a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:18644991

  12. CD151-?3?1 integrin complexes suppress ovarian tumor growth by repressing slug-mediated EMT and canonical Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Michael; Jia, Changhe; Liu, Zeyi; Erfani, Sonia; Jin, Hongyan; Xu, Mei; She, Qing-Bai; van Nagell, John R.; Wang, Chi; Chen, Li; Plattner, Rina; Kaetzel, David M.; Luo, Jia; Lu, Michael; West, Dava; Liu, Chunming; Ueland, Fred R.; Drapkin, Ronny; Zhou, Binhua P.; Yang, Xiuwei H.

    2014-01-01

    Human ovarian cancer is diagnosed in the late, metastatic stages but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We report a surprising functional link between CD151-?3?1 integrin complexes and the malignancy of serous-type ovarian cancer. Analyses of clinical specimens indicate that CD151 expression is significantly reduced or diminished in 90% of metastatic lesions, while it remains detectable in 58% of primary tumors. These observations suggest a putative tumor-suppressing role of CD151 in ovarian cancer. Indeed, our analyses show that knocking down CD151 or ?3 integrin enhances tumor cell proliferation, growth and ascites production in nude mice. These changes are accompanied by impaired cell-cell contacts and aberrant expression of E-cadherin, Mucin 5AC and fibronectin, largely reminiscent of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like change. Importantly, Slug, a master regulator of EMT, is markedly elevated. Knocking down Slug partially restores CD151-?3?1 integrin complex-dependent suppression of cell proliferation. Moreover, disruption of these adhesion protein complexes is accompanied by a concomitant activation of canonical Wnt signaling, including elevated levels of ?-catenin and Axin-2 as well as resistance to the inhibition in ?-catenin-dependent transcriptional complexes. Together, our study demonstrates that CD151-?3?1 integrin complexes regulate ovarian tumor growth by repressing Slug-mediated EMT and Wnt signaling. PMID:25356755

  13. Dietary rice component, Oryzanol, inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scope: We investigated the effects of rice bran and components on tumor growth in mice. Methods and results: Mice fed standard diets supplemented with rice bran, '-oryzanol, Ricetrienol®, ferulic acid, or phytic acid for 2 weeks were inoculated with CT-26 colon cancer cells and fed the same diet fo...

  14. Thymoquinone reduces mouse colon tumor cell invasion and inhibits tumor growth in murine colon cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Ocker, Matthias; Kuester, Doerthe; Krueger, Sabine; El-Hajj, Zeina; Diestel, Antje; Evert, Matthias; El-Najjar, Nahed; Peters, Brigitte; Jurjus, Abdo; Roessner, Albert; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We have shown that thymoquinone (TQ) is a potent antitumor agent in human colorectal cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated TQ's therapeutic potential in two different mice colon cancer models [1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) and xenografts]. We also examined TQ effects on the growth of C26 mouse colorectal carcinoma spheroids and assessed tumor invasion in vitro. Mice were treated with saline, TQ, DMH, or combinations once per week for 30 weeks and the multiplicity, size and distribution of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumors were determined at weeks 10, 20 and 30. TQ injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) significantly reduced the numbers and sizes of ACF at week 10; ACF numbers were reduced by 86%. Tumor multiplicity was reduced at week 20 from 17.8 in the DMH group to 4.2 in mice injected with TQ. This suppression was observed at week 30 and was long-term; tumors did not re-grow even when TQ injection was discontinued for 10 weeks. In a xenograft model of HCT116 colon cancer cells, TQ significantly (P < 0.05) delayed the growth of the tumor cells. Using a matrigel artificial basement membrane invasion assay, we demonstrated that sub-cyto-toxic doses of TQ (40?M) decreased C26 cell invasion by 50% and suppressed growth in three-dimensional spheroids. Apoptotic signs seen morphologically were increased significantly in TQ-treated spheroids. TUNEL staining of xenografts and immunostaining for caspase 3 cleavage in DMH tumors confirmed increased apoptosis in mouse tumors in response to TQ. These data should encourage further in vivo testing and support the potential use of TQ as a therapeutic agent in human colorectal cancer. PMID:18366456

  15. [Pancreatic ascites. Presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Penso, N; Mendez Contreras, E

    1980-01-01

    Pancreatic ascites in a 13 year old female is described. The diagnosis was suspected by the presence of ascites with an elevated fluid amilase level and protein content. Ascites was successfully treated by a Roux-in-Y-pancreatojejunostomy. PMID:6161064

  16. Merkel cell carcinoma presenting as malignant ascites: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C.; Avery, Diane L.; Hartley, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    The most common site of metastasis to ascitic fluid in females is from a mullerian (ovarian) primary, whereas in males it is from the gastrointestinal tract. Metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) to the ascitic fluid is extremely rare and may present as a diagnostic challenge on effusion cytology. In a review of the literature, there are only two case reports of metastatic MCC in pleural effusion. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first cytological diagnosis of MCC metastatic to the ascitic fluid. We describe the cytologic findings as well as the immunohistochemical stains supportive of the diagnosis. Given the fatal prognosis of this tumor compared to melanoma and rarity of its occurrence in ascitic fluid, awareness of this tumor and use of immunohistochemical stains are critical in arriving at the diagnosis. PMID:26425135

  17. Netrin-4 regulates angiogenic responses and tumor cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Nacht, Mariana; St Martin, Thia B.; Byrne, Ann; Klinger, Katherine W.; Teicher, Beverly A.; Madden, Stephen L. Jiang, Yide

    2009-03-10

    Netrin-4 is a 628 amino acid basement membrane component that promotes neurite elongation at low concentrations but inhibits neurite extension at high concentrations. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that several molecules, including netrins, are regulators of both neuronal and vascular growth. It is believed that molecules that guide neural growth and development are also involved in regulating morphogenesis of the vascular tree. Further, netrins have recently been implicated in controlling epithelial cell branching morphogenesis in the breast, lung and pancreas. Characterization of purified netrin-4 in in vitro angiogenesis assays demonstrated that netrin-4 markedly inhibits HMVEC migration and tube formation. Moreover, netrin-4 inhibits proliferation of a variety of human tumor cells in vitro. Netrin-4 has only modest effects on proliferation of endothelial and other non-transformed cells. Netrin-4 treatment results in phosphorylation changes of proteins that are known to control cell growth. Specifically, Phospho-Akt-1, Phospho-Jnk-2, and Phospho-c-Jun are reduced in tumor cells that have been treated with netrin-4. Together, these data suggest a potential role for netrin-4 in regulating tumor growth.

  18. The role of mechanical forces in tumor growth and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rakesh K.; Martin, John D.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2014-01-01

    Tumors generate physical forces during growth and progression. These physical forces are able to compress blood and lymphatic vessels, reducing perfusion rates and creating hypoxia. When exerted directly on cancer cells, they can increase their invasive and metastatic potential. Tumor vessels - while nourishing the tumor - are usually leaky and tortuous, which further decreases perfusion. Hypo-perfusion and hypoxia contribute to immune-evasion, promote malignant progression and metastasis, and reduce the efficacy of a number of therapies, including radiation. In parallel, vessel leakiness together with vessel compression cause a uniformly elevated interstitial fluid pressure that hinders delivery of blood-borne therapeutic agents, lowering the efficacy of chemo- and nano-therapies. In addition, shear stresses exerted by flowing blood and interstitial fluid modulate the behavior of cancer and a variety of host cells. Taming these physical forces can improve therapeutic outcomes in many cancers. PMID:25014786

  19. Liver-Tumor Hybrid Organoids for Modeling Tumor Growth and Drug Response In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Skardal, Aleksander; Devarasetty, Mahesh; Rodman, Christopher; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2015-01-01

    Current in vitro models for tumor growth and metastasis are poor facsimiles of in vivo cancer physiology and thus, are not optimal for anti-cancer drug development. Three dimensional (3D) tissue organoid systems, which utilize human cells in a tailored microenvironment, have the potential to recapitulate in vivo conditions and address the drawbacks of current tissue culture dish 2D models. In this study, we created liver-based cell organoids in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor. The organoids were further inoculated with colon carcinoma cells in order to create liver-tumor organoids for in vitro modeling of liver metastasis. Immunofluorescent staining revealed notable phenotypic differences between tumor cells in 2D and inside the organoids. In 2D they displayed an epithelial phenotype, and only after transition to the organoids did the cells present with a mesenchymal phenotype. The cell surface marker expression results suggested that WNT pathway might be involved in the phenotypic changes observed between cells in 2D and organoid conditions, and may lead to changes in cell proliferation. Manipulating the WNT pathway with an agonist and antagonist showed significant changes in sensitivity to the anti-proliferative drug 5-fluoruracil. Collectively, the results show the potential of in vitro 3D liver-tumor organoids to serve as a model for metastasis growth and for testing the response of tumor cells to current and newly discovered drugs. PMID:25777294

  20. The role of the microenvironment in tumor growth and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yangjin; Stolarska, Magdalena A.; Othmer, Hans G.

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and computational analysis are essential for understanding the dynamics of the complex gene networks that control normal development and homeostasis, and can help to understand how circumvention of that control leads to abnormal outcomes such as cancer. Our objectives here are to discuss the different mechanisms by which the local biochemical and mechanical microenvironment, which is comprised of various signaling molecules, cell types and the extracellular matrix (ECM), affects the progression of potentially-cancerous cells, and to present new results on two aspects of these effects. We first deal with the major processes involved in the progression from a normal cell to a cancerous cell at a level accessible to a general scientific readership, and we then outline a number of mathematical and computational issues that arise in cancer modeling. In Section 2 we present results from a model that deals with the effects of the mechanical properties of the environment on tumor growth, and in Section 3 we report results from a model of the signaling pathways and the tumor microenvironment (TME), and how their interactions affect the development of breast cancer. The results emphasize anew the complexities of the interactions within the TME and their effect on tumor growth, and show that tumor progression is not solely determined by the presence of a clone of mutated immortal cells, but rather that it can be ‘community-controlled’. It Takes a Village – Hilary Clinton PMID:21736894

  1. Integrative models of vascular remodeling during tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Heiko; Welter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Malignant solid tumors recruit the blood vessel network of the host tissue for nutrient supply, continuous growth, and gain of metastatic potential. Angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), vessel cooption (the integration of existing blood vessels into the tumor vasculature), and vessel regression remodel the healthy vascular network into a tumor-specific vasculature that is in many respects different from the hierarchically organized arterio-venous blood vessel network of the host tissues. Integrative models based on detailed experimental data and physical laws implement in silico the complex interplay of molecular pathways, cell proliferation, migration, and death, tissue microenvironment, mechanical and hydrodynamic forces, and the fine structure of the host tissue vasculature. With the help of computer simulations high-precision information about blood flow patterns, interstitial fluid flow, drug distribution, oxygen and nutrient distribution can be obtained and a plethora of therapeutic protocols can be tested before clinical trials. In this review, we give an overview over the current status of integrative models describing tumor growth, vascular remodeling, blood and interstitial fluid flow, drug delivery, and concomitant transformations of the microenvironment. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Systems Biology and Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25808551

  2. Tumor growth and its effect on Magnetic Resonance Imaging signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cersosimo, Homero; Colon, Jorge; Ramos, Elio; Zypman, Fredy

    2000-03-01

    The goal of this project is twofold. On one hand, we have developed computer code based on simple probabilistic rules to model the growth (or shrinking) of cancerigenous tissue. We assume that initially there exists a differentiated cell, which has a time- dependent probability of reproducing. If it did reproduce, then we assume that it has a finite probability of dying before reproducing again. This simple model falls into the Eden-type kind, and presents appropriate bulk growth characteristics, as it follows Gompert observational law. We propose new methods of geometrical characterization of the tumor. Besides its total mass, we also consider higher multipolar order of mass distribution and surface fractal dimension. In addition, we study how the geometrical properties of the tumor affect the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signal. To this end, we consider a human brain in the presence of radiofrequency fields. We calculate the MRI image of this object. Then, we introduce a tumor in the white-gray matter region and reobtain the MRI image. We associate the signal changes with the geometrical properties of the tumor.

  3. Coccidioidomycosis Masquerading as Eosinophilic Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Kourosh; Atla, Pradeep R.; Haq, Tahmina; Sheikh, Muhammad Y.

    2015-01-01

    Endemic to the southwestern parts of the United States, coccidioidomycosis, also known as “Valley Fever,” is a common fungal infection that primarily affects the lungs in both acute and chronic forms. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is the most severe but very uncommon and usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. It can affect the central nervous system, bones, joints, skin, and, very rarely, the abdomen. This is the first case report of a patient with coccidioidal dissemination to the peritoneum presenting as eosinophilic ascites (EA). A 27-year-old male presented with acute abdominal pain and distention from ascites. He had eosinophilia of 11.1% with negative testing for stool studies, HIV, and tuberculosis infection. Ascitic fluid exam was remarkable for low serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG), PMN count >250/mm3, and eosinophils of 62%. Abdominal imaging showed thickened small bowel and endoscopic testing negative for gastric and small bowel biopsies. He was treated empirically for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but no definitive diagnosis could be made until coccidioidal serology returned positive. We noted complete resolution of symptoms with oral fluconazole during outpatient follow-up. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis can present in an atypical fashion and may manifest as peritonitis with low SAAG EA. The finding of EA in an endemic area should raise the suspicion of coccidioidal dissemination. PMID:26266062

  4. Bursts of Bipolar Microsecond Pulses Inhibit Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Sano, Michael B; Arena, Christopher B; Bittleman, Katelyn R; DeWitt, Matthew R; Cho, Hyung J; Szot, Christopher S; Saur, Dieter; Cissell, James M; Robertson, John; Lee, Yong W; Davalos, Rafael V

    2015-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging focal therapy which is demonstrating utility in the treatment of unresectable tumors where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. IRE uses ultra-short duration, high-intensity monopolar pulsed electric fields to permanently disrupt cell membranes within a well-defined volume. Though preliminary clinical results for IRE are promising, implementing IRE can be challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of tumor tissue and the unintended induction of muscle contractions. High-frequency IRE (H-FIRE), a new treatment modality which replaces the monopolar IRE pulses with a burst of bipolar pulses, has the potential to resolve these clinical challenges. We explored the pulse-duration space between 250 ns and 100 ?s and determined the lethal electric field intensity for specific H-FIRE protocols using a 3D tumor mimic. Murine tumors were exposed to 120 bursts, each energized for 100 ?s, containing individual pulses 1, 2, or 5 ?s in duration. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited and all protocols were able to achieve complete regressions. The H-FIRE protocol substantially reduces muscle contractions and the therapy can be delivered without the need for a neuromuscular blockade. This work shows the potential for H-FIRE to be used as a focal therapy and merits its investigation in larger pre-clinical models. PMID:26459930

  5. Cyclooxygenase-Dependent Tumor Growth through Evasion of Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zelenay, Santiago; van der Veen, Annemarthe G.; Böttcher, Jan P.; Snelgrove, Kathryn J.; Rogers, Neil; Acton, Sophie E.; Chakravarty, Probir; Girotti, Maria Romina; Marais, Richard; Quezada, Sergio A.; Sahai, Erik; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms by which melanoma and other cancer cells evade anti-tumor immunity remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the growth of tumors formed by mutant BrafV600E mouse melanoma cells in an immunocompetent host requires their production of prostaglandin E2, which suppresses immunity and fuels tumor-promoting inflammation. Genetic ablation of cyclooxygenases (COX) or prostaglandin E synthases in BrafV600E mouse melanoma cells, as well as in NrasG12D melanoma or in breast or colorectal cancer cells, renders them susceptible to immune control and provokes a shift in the tumor inflammatory profile toward classic anti-cancer immune pathways. This mouse COX-dependent inflammatory signature is remarkably conserved in human cutaneous melanoma biopsies, arguing for COX activity as a driver of immune suppression across species. Pre-clinical data demonstrate that inhibition of COX synergizes with anti-PD-1 blockade in inducing eradication of tumors, implying that COX inhibitors could be useful adjuvants for immune-based therapies in cancer patients. PMID:26343581

  6. Cyclooxygenase-Dependent Tumor Growth through Evasion of Immunity.

    PubMed

    Zelenay, Santiago; van der Veen, Annemarthe G; Bttcher, Jan P; Snelgrove, Kathryn J; Rogers, Neil; Acton, Sophie E; Chakravarty, Probir; Girotti, Maria Romina; Marais, Richard; Quezada, Sergio A; Sahai, Erik; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2015-09-10

    The mechanisms by which melanoma and other cancer cells evade anti-tumor immunity remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the growth of tumors formed by mutant Braf(V600E) mouse melanoma cells in an immunocompetent host requires their production of prostaglandin E2, which suppresses immunity and fuels tumor-promoting inflammation. Genetic ablation of cyclooxygenases (COX) or prostaglandin E synthases in Braf(V600E) mouse melanoma cells, as well as in Nras(G12D) melanoma or in breast or colorectal cancer cells, renders them susceptible to immune control and provokes a shift in the tumor inflammatory profile toward classic anti-cancer immune pathways. This mouse COX-dependent inflammatory signature is remarkably conserved in human cutaneous melanoma biopsies, arguing for COX activity as a driver of immune suppression across species. Pre-clinical data demonstrate that inhibition of COX synergizes with anti-PD-1 blockade in inducing eradication of tumors, implying that COX inhibitors could be useful adjuvants for immune-based therapies in cancer patients. PMID:26343581

  7. Bursts of Bipolar Microsecond Pulses Inhibit Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Michael B.; Arena, Christopher B.; Bittleman, Katelyn R.; DeWitt, Matthew R.; Cho, Hyung J.; Szot, Christopher S.; Saur, Dieter; Cissell, James M.; Robertson, John; Lee, Yong W.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2015-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging focal therapy which is demonstrating utility in the treatment of unresectable tumors where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. IRE uses ultra-short duration, high-intensity monopolar pulsed electric fields to permanently disrupt cell membranes within a well-defined volume. Though preliminary clinical results for IRE are promising, implementing IRE can be challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of tumor tissue and the unintended induction of muscle contractions. High-frequency IRE (H-FIRE), a new treatment modality which replaces the monopolar IRE pulses with a burst of bipolar pulses, has the potential to resolve these clinical challenges. We explored the pulse-duration space between 250 ns and 100 μs and determined the lethal electric field intensity for specific H-FIRE protocols using a 3D tumor mimic. Murine tumors were exposed to 120 bursts, each energized for 100 μs, containing individual pulses 1, 2, or 5 μs in duration. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited and all protocols were able to achieve complete regressions. The H-FIRE protocol substantially reduces muscle contractions and the therapy can be delivered without the need for a neuromuscular blockade. This work shows the potential for H-FIRE to be used as a focal therapy and merits its investigation in larger pre-clinical models. PMID:26459930

  8. Bursts of Bipolar Microsecond Pulses Inhibit Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Michael B.; Arena, Christopher B.; Bittleman, Katelyn R.; Dewitt, Matthew R.; Cho, Hyung J.; Szot, Christopher S.; Saur, Dieter; Cissell, James M.; Robertson, John; Lee, Yong W.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2015-10-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging focal therapy which is demonstrating utility in the treatment of unresectable tumors where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. IRE uses ultra-short duration, high-intensity monopolar pulsed electric fields to permanently disrupt cell membranes within a well-defined volume. Though preliminary clinical results for IRE are promising, implementing IRE can be challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of tumor tissue and the unintended induction of muscle contractions. High-frequency IRE (H-FIRE), a new treatment modality which replaces the monopolar IRE pulses with a burst of bipolar pulses, has the potential to resolve these clinical challenges. We explored the pulse-duration space between 250 ns and 100 μs and determined the lethal electric field intensity for specific H-FIRE protocols using a 3D tumor mimic. Murine tumors were exposed to 120 bursts, each energized for 100 μs, containing individual pulses 1, 2, or 5 μs in duration. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited and all protocols were able to achieve complete regressions. The H-FIRE protocol substantially reduces muscle contractions and the therapy can be delivered without the need for a neuromuscular blockade. This work shows the potential for H-FIRE to be used as a focal therapy and merits its investigation in larger pre-clinical models.

  9. Bridging population and tissue scale tumor dynamics: A new paradigm for understanding differences in tumor growth and metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    Gallaher, Jill; Babu, Aravind

    2013-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of the relationship between primary tumor growth rates and metastatic burden, we present a method that bridges tumor growth dynamics at the population-level, extracted from the SEER database, to those at the tissue level. Specifically, with this method, we are able to relate estimates of tumor growth rates and metastatic burden derived from a population level model to estimates of the primary tumor vascular response and the circulating tumor cell (CTC) fraction derived from a tissue level model. Variation in the population level model parameters produce differences in cancer-specific survival and cure fraction. Variation in the tissue level model parameters produces different primary tumor dynamics that subsequently lead to different growth dynamics of the CTCs. Our method to bridge the population and tissue scales was applied to lung and breast cancer separately, and the results were compared. The population model suggests that lung tumors grow faster and shed a significant number of lethal metastatic cells at small sizes, whereas breast tumors grow slower and do not significantly shed lethal metastatic cells until becoming larger. Although the tissue level model does not explicitly model the metastatic population, we are able to disengage the direct dependency of the metastatic burden on primary tumor growth by introducing the CTC population as an intermediary and assuming dependency. We calibrate the tissue level model to produce results consistent with the population model while also revealing a more dynamic relationship between the primary tumor and the CTCs. This leads to exponential tumor growth in lung and power law tumor growth in breast. We conclude that the vascular response of the primary tumor is a major player in the dynamics of both the primary tumor and the CTCs, and is significantly different in breast and lung cancer. PMID:24408919

  10. Bridging population and tissue scale tumor dynamics: a new paradigm for understanding differences in tumor growth and metastatic disease.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, Jill; Babu, Aravind; Plevritis, Sylvia; Anderson, Alexander R A

    2014-01-15

    To provide a better understanding of the relationship between primary tumor growth rates and metastatic burden, we present a method that bridges tumor growth dynamics at the population level, extracted from the SEER database, to those at the tissue level. Specifically, with this method, we are able to relate estimates of tumor growth rates and metastatic burden derived from a population-level model to estimates of the primary tumor vascular response and the circulating tumor cell (CTC) fraction derived from a tissue-level model. Variation in the population-level model parameters produces differences in cancer-specific survival and cure fraction. Variation in the tissue-level model parameters produces different primary tumor dynamics that subsequently lead to different growth dynamics of the CTCs. Our method to bridge the population and tissue scales was applied to lung and breast cancer separately, and the results were compared. The population model suggests that lung tumors grow faster and shed a significant number of lethal metastatic cells at small sizes, whereas breast tumors grow slower and do not significantly shed lethal metastatic cells until becoming larger. Although the tissue-level model does not explicitly model the metastatic population, we are able to disengage the direct dependency of the metastatic burden on primary tumor growth by introducing the CTC population as an intermediary and assuming dependency. We calibrate the tissue-level model to produce results consistent with the population model while also revealing a more dynamic relationship between the primary tumor and the CTCs. This leads to exponential tumor growth in lung and power law tumor growth in breast. We conclude that the vascular response of the primary tumor is a major player in the dynamics of both the primary tumor and the CTCs, and is significantly different in breast and lung cancer. PMID:24408919

  11. In-vivo visualization of melanoma tumor microvessels and blood flow velocity changes accompanying tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Hiroki; Hachiga, Tadashi; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Akiguchi, Shunsuke

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate that using micro multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry (?-MLDV) for noninvasive in-vivo imaging of blood vessels is useful for diagnosing malignant melanomas by comparison with visual diagnosis by dermoscopy. The blood flow velocity in microvessels varied during growth of melanomas transplanted in mouse ears. Mouse ears were observed by ?-MLDV up to 16 days after transplantation. The blood flow velocity in the tumor increased with increasing time and reached maximum of 4.5 mm/s at 9 days, which is more than twice that prior to transplantation. After 12 days, when the lesion had grown to an area of 6.6 mm2, we observed the formation of new blood vessels in the tumor. Finally, when the lesion had an area of 18 mm2 after 16 days, the flow velocity in the tumor decreased to approximately 3.2 mm/s.

  12. Differential growth and responsiveness to cancer therapy of tumor cells in different environments.

    PubMed

    Alsaggar, Mohammad; Yao, Qian; Cai, Houjian; Liu, Dexi

    2016-02-01

    Tumor metastasis often confers poor prognosis for cancer patients due to lack of comprehensive strategy in dealing with cells growing in different environment. Current anticancer therapies have incomplete effectiveness because they were designed assuming metastatic tumors behave similarly in different organs. We hypothesize that tumors growing in different sites are biologically heterogeneous in growth potential, as well as in tumor response to anti-cancer therapies. To test this hypothesis, we have developed a multi-organ tumor growth model using the hydrodynamic cell delivery method to establish simultaneous and quantifiable tumor growth in the liver, lungs and kidneys of mice. We demonstrated that growth rate of melanoma tumor in the liver is higher than that of the lungs and kidneys. Tumors in the lungs and kidneys grew minimally at the early stage and aggressively thereafter. Tumors in different organs were also heterogeneous in response to chemotherapy and immune gene therapy using dacarbazine and interferon beta gene, respectively. Lung tumors responded to chemotherapy better than tumors in the liver, but showed minimal response to interferon beta gene therapy, compared to tumors in the liver and kidneys. We also confirmed differential tumor growth of the metastatic colon cancer in mice. Our results point out the importance of a better understanding of the differences in tumor growing in diverse environments. The biological heterogeneity of metastatic tumors demonstrated in this study necessitates establishing new drug screening strategies that take into account the environmental difference at the sites of tumor growth. PMID:26476830

  13. Mo polyoxometalate nanoparticles inhibit tumor growth and vascular endothelial growth factor induced angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wenjing; Yang, Licong; Liu, Ying; Qin, Xiuying; Zhou, Yanhui; Zhou, Yunshan; Liu, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Tumor growth depends on angiogenesis, which can furnish the oxygen and nutrients that proliferate tumor cells. Thus, blocking angiogenesis can be an effective strategy to inhibit tumor growth. In this work, three typical nanoparticles based on polyoxometalates (POMs) have been prepared; we investigated their capability as antitumor and anti-angiogenesis agents. We found that Mo POM nanoparticles, especially complex 3, inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) through cellular reactive oxygen species levels’ elevation and mitochondrial membrane potential damage. Complex 3 also suppressed the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro and chicken chorioallantoic membrane development ex vivo. Furthermore, western blot analysis of cell signaling molecules indicated that Mo POMs blocked the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways in endothelial cells. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated their cellular uptake and localization within the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells. These results indicate that, owing to the extraordinary physical and chemical properties, Mo POM nanoparticles can significantly inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis, which makes them potential drug candidates in anticancer and anti-angiogenesis therapies.

  14. HE4 (WFDC2) gene overexpression promotes ovarian tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Richard G; Hill, Emily K; Horan, Timothy; Yano, Naohiro; Kim, KyuKwang; MacLaughlan, Shannon; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Tseng, YiTang Don; Padbury, James F; Miller, M Craig; Lange, Thilo S; Singh, Rakesh K

    2014-01-01

    Selective overexpression of Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) points to a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis but little is known about the role the HE4 gene or the gene product plays. Here we show that elevated HE4 serum levels correlate with chemoresistance and decreased survival rates in EOC patients. HE4 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth and chemoresistance against cisplatin in an animal model resulting in reduced survival rates. HE4 displayed responses to tumor microenvironment constituents and presented increased expression as well as nuclear translocation upon EGF, VEGF and Insulin treatment and nucleolar localization with Insulin treatment. HE4 interacts with EGFR, IGF1R, and transcription factor HIF1?. Constructs of antisense phosphorothio-oligonucleotides targeting HE4 arrested tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively these findings implicate increased HE4 expression as a molecular factor in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Selective targeting directed towards the HE4 protein demonstrates therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24389815

  15. Hybrid Cellular Continuum Simulations of Heterogeneity in Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, H. G. E.; Family, Fereydoon; van Meir, Erwin; Grossniklaus, Hans

    2010-03-01

    We will discuss simulations of pre-angiogenic tumor growth using a class of hybrid cellular-continuum models. A lattice site can be occupied either by a cell of a specific tumor cell population or consist of extracellular matrix. The local concentrations of oxygen is described by continuum reaction-diffusion equations. Dynamic linked lists of cells are evolved in time and contain information on cell type, position, age, concentration of oxygen at cell site. When cells proliferate via mitosis or differentiate, new cells are added to the list, if mutation occurs the cell types are altered, and if the cell dies via apoptosis the cells are removed from the linked list. The motion of individual cells consist of random walks subject to caging and chemotaxis away from regions of low oxygen concentration. We will describe the heterogenous spatial segregation of different cell types in the tumor, the development of necrotic cores as well as micronecrotic regions, and the effects of externally applied drugs on cell populations and overall tumor shape.

  16. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Rie; Okabe, Sachiko; Migita, Toshiro; Nakano, Ichiro; Seimiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs' role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation invivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. PMID:26775840

  17. Syngeneic murine ovarian cancer model reveals that ascites enriches for ovarian cancer stem-like cells expressing membrane GRP78

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Lihong; Bachelder, Robin E.; Kennedy, Margaret; Chen, Po-Han; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Berchuck, Andrew; Cianciolo, George; Pizzo, Salvatore V.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer patients are generally diagnosed at FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage III/IV, when ascites is common. The volume of ascites correlates positively with the extent of metastasis and negatively with prognosis. Membrane GRP78, a stress-inducible endoplasmic reticulum chaperone that is also expressed on the plasma membrane (memGRP78) of aggressive cancer cells, plays a crucial role in the embryonic stem cell maintenance. We studied ascites effects on ovarian cancer stem-like cells using a syngeneic mouse model. Our study demonstrates that ascites-derived tumor cells from mice injected intraperitoneally with murine ovarian cancer cells (ID8) express increased memGRP78 levels compared to ID8 cells from normal culture. We hypothesized that these ascites associated memGRP78+ cells are cancer stem-like cells (CSC). Supporting this hypothesis, we show that memGRP78+ cells isolated from murine ascites exhibit increased sphere forming and tumor initiating abilities compared to memGRP78? cells. When the tumor microenvironment is recapitulated by adding ascites fluid to cell culture, ID8 cells express more memGRP78 and increased self-renewing ability compared to those cultured in medium alone. Moreover, compared to their counterparts cultured in normal medium, ID8 cells cultured in ascites, or isolated from ascites, show increased stem cell marker expression. Antibodies directed against the carboxy-terminal domain of GRP78: 1) reduce self-renewing ability of murine and human ovarian cancer cells pre-incubated with ascites and 2) suppress a GSK3?-AKT/SNAI1 signaling axis in these cells. Based on these data, we suggest that memGRP78 is a logical therapeutic target for late stage ovarian cancer. PMID:25589495

  18. Erythropoietin Stimulates Tumor Growth via EphB4.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Sunila; Huang, Jie; Mora, Edna M; Nick, Alpa M; Cho, Min Soon; Wu, Sherry Y; Noh, Kyunghee; Pecot, Chad V; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Stein, Martin A; Brock, Stephan; Wen, Yunfei; Xiong, Chiyi; Gharpure, Kshipra; Hansen, Jean M; Nagaraja, Archana S; Previs, Rebecca A; Vivas-Mejia, Pablo; Han, Hee Dong; Hu, Wei; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Zand, Behrouz; Stagg, Loren J; Ladbury, John E; Ozpolat, Bulent; Alpay, S Neslihan; Nishimura, Masato; Stone, Rebecca L; Matsuo, Koji; Armaiz-Pea, Guillermo N; Dalton, Heather J; Danes, Christopher; Goodman, Blake; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Kruger, Carola; Schneider, Armin; Haghpeykar, Shyon; Jaladurgam, Padmavathi; Hung, Mien-Chie; Coleman, Robert L; Liu, Jinsong; Li, Chun; Urbauer, Diana; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Jackson, David B; Sood, Anil K

    2015-11-01

    While recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) has been widely used to treat anemia in cancer patients, concerns about its adverse effects on patient survival have emerged. A lack of correlation between expression of the canonical EpoR and rhEpo's effects on cancer cells prompted us to consider the existence of an alternative Epo receptor. Here, we identified EphB4 as an Epo receptor that triggers downstream signaling via STAT3 and promotes rhEpo-induced tumor growth and progression. In human ovarian and breast cancer samples, expression of EphB4 rather than the canonical EpoR correlated with decreased disease-specific survival in rhEpo-treated patients. These results identify EphB4 as a critical mediator of erythropoietin-induced tumor progression and further provide clinically significant dimension to the biology of erythropoietin. PMID:26481148

  19. Notch Pathway Activation Induces Neuroblastoma Tumor Cell Growth Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Zage, Peter E.; Nolo, Riitta; Fang, Wendy; Stewart, John; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Zweidler-McKay, Patrick A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Notch pathway signaling has critical roles in differentiation, proliferation and survival, and has oncogenic or tumor suppressor effects in a variety of malignancies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of Notch activation on human neuroblastoma cells. Procedure Quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression of Notch receptors (Notch1–4), cleaved Notch1 (ICN1), and downstream targets (HES1–5) in human neuroblastoma cell lines and patient tumor samples. Notch pathway signaling was induced using intracellular Notch (ICN1–3) and HES gene constructs or direct culture on Notch ligands. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR was used to quantify methylation of the HES gene promoters, and the effects of treatment with decitabine were measured. Results Neuroblastoma cells express varying levels of Notch receptors and low levels of HES genes at baseline. However, no endogenous activation of the Notch pathway was detected in neuroblastoma cell lines or patient tumor samples. Expression of activated Notch intracellular domains and HES gene products led to growth arrest. The HES2 and HES5 gene promoters were found to be heavily methylated in most neuroblastoma lines, and HES gene expression could be induced through treatment with decitabine. Conclusions We report that neuroblastoma cell lines express multiple Notch receptors, which are inactive at baseline. Activation of the Notch pathway via ligand binding or downstream HES gene expression consistently resulted in growth arrest. HES gene expression appears to be regulated epigenetically and could be induced with decitabine. These findings support a tumor suppressor role for Notch signaling in neuroblastoma. PMID:21744479

  20. Ribonuclease binase inhibits primary tumor growth and metastases via apoptosis induction in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Nadezhda L.; Petrushanko, Irina Y.; Patutina, Olga A.; Sen’kova, Aexandra V.; Simonenko, Olga V.; Mitkevich, Vladimir A.; Markov, Oleg V.; Zenkova, Marina A.; Makarov, Alexander A.

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous ribonucleases are known to inhibit tumor growth via apoptosis induction in tumor cells, allowing to consider them as promising anticancer drugs for clinical application. In this work the antitumor potential of binase was evaluated in vivo and the mechanism of cytotoxic effect of binase on tumor cells was comprehensively studied in vitro. We investigated tumoricidal activity of binase using three murine tumor models of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), lymphosarcoma RLS40 and melanoma B-16. We show for the first time that intraperitoneal injection of binase at a dose range 0.1–5 mg/kg results in retardation of primary tumor growth up to 45% in LLC and RLS40 and inhibits metastasis up to 50% in LLC and RLS40 and up to 70% in B-16 melanoma. Binase does not exhibit overall toxic effect and displays a general systemic and immunomodulatory effects. Treatment of RLS40-bearing animals with binase together with polychemotherapy revealed that binase decreases the hepatotoxicity of polychemotherapy while maintaining its antitumor effect. It was demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of binase is realized via the induction of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway is manifested by a drop of mitochondrial potential, increase in calcium concentration and inhibition of respiratory activity. Subsequent synthesis of TNF-α in the cells under the action of binase triggers extrinsic apoptotic pathway through the binding of TNF with cell-death receptors and activation of caspase 8. Thus binase is a potential anticancer therapeutics inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:23759588

  1. Ribonuclease binase inhibits primary tumor growth and metastases via apoptosis induction in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Mironova, Nadezhda L; Petrushanko, Irina Y; Patutina, Olga A; Sen'kova, Aexandra V; Simonenko, Olga V; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Markov, Oleg V; Zenkova, Marina A; Makarov, Alexander A

    2013-07-01

    Exogenous ribonucleases are known to inhibit tumor growth via apoptosis induction in tumor cells, allowing to consider them as promising anticancer drugs for clinical application. In this work the antitumor potential of binase was evaluated in vivo and the mechanism of cytotoxic effect of binase on tumor cells was comprehensively studied in vitro. We investigated tumoricidal activity of binase using three murine tumor models of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), lymphosarcoma RLS 40 and melanoma B-16. We show for the first time that intraperitoneal injection of binase at a dose range 0.1-5 mg/kg results in retardation of primary tumor growth up to 45% in LLC and RLS 40 and inhibits metastasis up to 50% in LLC and RLS 40 and up to 70% in B-16 melanoma. Binase does not exhibit overall toxic effect and displays a general systemic and immunomodulatory effects. Treatment of RLS 40-bearing animals with binase together with polychemotherapy revealed that binase decreases the hepatotoxicity of polychemotherapy while maintaining its antitumor effect. It was demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of binase is realized via the induction of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway is manifested by a drop of mitochondrial potential, increase in calcium concentration and inhibition of respiratory activity. Subsequent synthesis of TNF-α in the cells under the action of binase triggers extrinsic apoptotic pathway through the binding of TNF with cell-death receptors and activation of caspase 8. Thus binase is a potential anticancer therapeutics inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:23759588

  2. Triparanol suppresses human tumor growth in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Xinyu; Han, Xingpeng; Zhang, Fang; He, Miao; Zhang, Yi; Zhi, Xiu-Yi; Zhao, Hong

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrate Triparanol can block proliferation in multiple cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrate Triparanol can induce apoptosis in multiple cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proved Triparanol can inhibit Hedgehog signaling in multiple cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrated Triparanol can impede tumor growth in vivo in mouse xenograft model. -- Abstract: Despite the improved contemporary multidisciplinary regimens treating cancer, majority of cancer patients still suffer from adverse effects and relapse, therefore posing a significant challenge to uncover more efficacious molecular therapeutics targeting signaling pathways central to tumorigenesis. Here, our study have demonstrated that Triparanol, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, can block proliferation and induce apoptosis in multiple human cancer cells including lung, breast, liver, pancreatic, prostate cancer and melanoma cells, and growth inhibition can be rescued by exogenous addition of cholesterol. Remarkably, we have proved Triparanol can significantly repress Hedgehog pathway signaling in these human cancer cells. Furthermore, study in a mouse xenograft model of human lung cancer has validated that Triparanol can impede tumor growth in vivo. We have therefore uncovered Triparanol as potential new cancer therapeutic in treating multiple types of human cancers with deregulated Hedgehog signaling.

  3. Management of ascites with hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeen, H.H.; Piccone, V.A.; Hutto, R.B.

    1984-08-01

    Hydrothorax occurs in 5.3 percent of ascitic patients. Experience with 22 cases forms the basis of this report. Of the 22 cases, 21 were spontaneous and 1 was due to transdiaphragmatic incision. Usually fluid enters the chest through tiny defects in the diaphragm. These defects are often covered by pleuroperitoneum, but the high abdominal pressure raises a bleb on the superior surface of the diaphragm. Rupture produces hydrothorax. The ascites is often relieved with the onset of the hydrothorax. Blockage of the thoracic duct has produced chylous ascites. The thoracoabdominal communication is immediately confirmed by a scan of the chest and abdomen after intraperitoneal injection of technetium-99 colloid. The rate at which the technetium-99 enters the chest is related to the size of the defect in the diaphragm. A significant transfer should occur within 12 hours. Immediate transfer occurs with large defects. The ruptured blister on the diaphragm forms a one-way valve. Intrathoracic injection does not migrate into the peritoneal cavity. The valvular characteristics of the leak force ascitic fluid into the thorax because the differential pressure between the abdominal and pleural cavities is intensified by inspiration. If tension hydrothorax has occurred, urgent thoracocentesis and paracentesis may be required. A chest tube should not be introduced. The main principle of surgery is to supply a low resistance pathway for the return of fluid to the venous system and to eliminate the diaphragmatic defect by obliteration of the pleural space. A LeVeen peritoneovenous shunt is performed after emptying the abdomen of its fluid load. After completion of the shunt operation, the chest is emptied of fluid, and a sclerosing agent (tetracycline or nitrogen mustard) is injected into the pleural cavity. With this regime, the defect closed or was rendered insignificant in 18 of 22 patients.

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction in breast cancer cells prevents tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alvarez, Rosa; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Gandara, Ricardo; Sartini, Marina; Rubin, Emanuel; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is a well-established diabetes drug that prevents the onset of most types of human cancers in diabetic patients, especially by targeting cancer stem cells. Metformin exerts its protective effects by functioning as a weak “mitochondrial poison,” as it acts as a complex I inhibitor and prevents oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS). Thus, mitochondrial metabolism must play an essential role in promoting tumor growth. To determine the functional role of “mitochondrial health” in breast cancer pathogenesis, here we used mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) to genetically induce mitochondrial dysfunction in either human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) or cancer-associated fibroblasts (hTERT-BJ1 cells). Our results directly show that all three UCP family members (UCP-1/2/3) induce autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer cells, which results in significant reductions in tumor growth. Conversely, induction of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer-associated fibroblasts has just the opposite effect. More specifically, overexpression of UCP-1 in stromal fibroblasts increases β-oxidation, ketone body production and the release of ATP-rich vesicles, which “fuels” tumor growth by providing high-energy nutrients in a paracrine fashion to epithelial cancer cells. Hence, the effects of mitochondrial dysfunction are truly compartment-specific. Thus, we conclude that the beneficial anticancer effects of mitochondrial inhibitors (such as metformin) may be attributed to the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction in the epithelial cancer cell compartment. Our studies identify cancer cell mitochondria as a clear target for drug discovery and for novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:23257779

  5. Expression of fibroblast growth factors in ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal tumors and corneal tumor cell lines from Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, C L; Kusewitt, D F; Applegate, L A; Budge, C L; Ley, R D

    1993-01-01

    Chronic exposure of the gray, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces highly vascularized mesenchymal tumors of the cornea. Cell lines derived from these UVR-induced corneal tumors and the corneal tumors themselves were examined for the presence of mRNA coding for basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors (FGF), transforming growth factors-beta and -alpha (TGF-beta and TGF-alpha), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Basic FGF was expressed in the cell lines derived from corneal tumors and in the corneal tumors. Expression of basic FGF was high in one corneal tumor. Transcripts for acidic FGF were detected only in the corneal tumor cell lines, not in primary tumors. TGF-beta expression was detected in the corneal tumors and tumor-derived cell lines. TGF-alpha, EGF, and TNF-alpha transcripts were not detectable in any opossum material; however, homologous gene sequences for TGF-alpha and EGF were detected on Southern blots of opossum genomic DNA. Southern blot analysis revealed no evidence of amplification or rearrangement of the genes for basic FGF or acidic FGF in the UVR-induced corneal tumor that expressed high levels of basic FGF. Opossum basic FGF, which stimulated the proliferation of fetal bovine heart endothelial cells, was purified by heparin affinity chromatography from a UVR-induced corneal tumor and a corneal tumor cell line. Immunoblotting of opossum basic FGF from a corneal tumor cell line using antiserum to bovine basic FGF showed two prominent immunoreactive bands of 17.5 and 18.5 kDa. Expression of basic FGF and acidic FGF may play a role in the development and progression of UVR-induced corneal tumors in M. domestica. PMID:7683886

  6. Cirrhotic ascites review: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Christopher M; Van Thiel, David H

    2013-01-01

    Ascites is a pathologic accumulation of peritoneal fluidcommonly observed in decompensated cirrhotic states.Its causes are multi-factorial, but principally involve significant volume and hormonal dysregulation in the setting of portal hypertension. The diagnosis of ascites is considered in cirrhotic patients given a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, and ultimately confirmed, with insight into etiology, by imaging and paracentesis procedures. Treatment for ascites is multi-modal including dietary sodium restriction, pharmacologic therapies, diagnostic and therapeutic paracentesis, and in certain cases transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt. Ascites is associated with numerous complications including spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepato-hydrothorax and hepatorenal syndrome. Given the complex nature of ascites and associatedcomplications, it is not surprising that it heralds increased morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients and increased cost-utilization upon the health-care system. This review will detail the pathophysiology of cirrhotic ascites, common complications derived from it, and pertinent treatment modalities. PMID:23717736

  7. Fatty acid-binding protein E-FABP restricts tumor growth by promoting IFN-? responses in tumor-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuwen; Sun, Yanwen; Rao, Enyu; Yan, Fei; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Ying; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Liu, Shujun; Sauter, Edward; Cleary, Margot P; Li, Bing

    2014-06-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP) are known central regulators of both metabolic and inflammatory pathways, but their role in tumor development remains largely unexplored. Here, we report that host expression of epidermal FABP (E-FABP) protects against mammary tumor growth. We find that E-FABP is highly expressed in macrophages, particularly in a specific subset, promoting their antitumor activity. In the tumor stroma, E-FABP-expressing tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) produce high levels of IFN-? through upregulation of lipid droplet formation in response to tumors. E-FABP-mediated IFN-? signaling can further enhance recruitment of tumoricidal effector cells, in particular natural killer cells, to the tumor stroma for antitumor activity. These findings identify E-FABP as a new protective factor to strengthen IFN-? responses against tumor growth. PMID:24713431

  8. Fatty acid binding protein E-FABP restricts tumor growth by promoting IFN? responses in tumor-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuwen; Sun, Yanwen; Rao, Enyu; Yan, Fei; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Ying; Silverstein, Kevin A. T.; Liu, Shujun; Sauter, Edward; Cleary, Margot P.; Li, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are known central regulators of both metabolic and inflammatory pathways, but their role in tumor development remains largely unexplored. Here, we report that host expression of epidermal FABP (E-FABP) protects against mammary tumor growth. We find that E-FABP is highly expressed in macrophages, particularly in a specific subset, promoting their antitumor activity. In the tumor stroma E-FABP-expressing tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) produce high levels of interferon ? (IFN?) through upregulation of lipid droplet (LD) formation in response to tumors. E-FABP-mediated IFN? signaling can further enhance recruitment of tumoricidal effector cells, in particular NK cells, to the tumor stroma for antitumor activity. These findings identify E-FABP as a new protective factor to strengthen IFN? responses against tumor growth. PMID:24713431

  9. A High-Performance Cellular Automaton Model of Tumor Growth with Dynamically Growing Domains

    PubMed Central

    Poleszczuk, Jan; Enderling, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Tumor growth from a single transformed cancer cell up to a clinically apparent mass spans many spatial and temporal orders of magnitude. Implementation of cellular automata simulations of such tumor growth can be straightforward but computing performance often counterbalances simplicity. Computationally convenient simulation times can be achieved by choosing appropriate data structures, memory and cell handling as well as domain setup. We propose a cellular automaton model of tumor growth with a domain that expands dynamically as the tumor population increases. We discuss memory access, data structures and implementation techniques that yield high-performance multi-scale Monte Carlo simulations of tumor growth. We discuss tumor properties that favor the proposed high-performance design and present simulation results of the tumor growth model. We estimate to which parameters the model is the most sensitive, and show that tumor volume depends on a number of parameters in a non-monotonic manner. PMID:25346862

  10. Dynamic density functional theory of solid tumor growth: Preliminary models

    PubMed Central

    Chauviere, Arnaud; Hatzikirou, Haralambos; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Lowengrub, John S.; Cristini, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a disease that can be seen as a complex system whose dynamics and growth result from nonlinear processes coupled across wide ranges of spatio-temporal scales. The current mathematical modeling literature addresses issues at various scales but the development of theoretical methodologies capable of bridging gaps across scales needs further study. We present a new theoretical framework based on Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT) extended, for the first time, to the dynamics of living tissues by accounting for cell density correlations, different cell types, phenotypes and cell birth/death processes, in order to provide a biophysically consistent description of processes across the scales. We present an application of this approach to tumor growth. PMID:22489279

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-related, apoptosis-inducing ligand supports growth of mouse mastocytoma tumors by killing tumor-infiltrating macrophages.

    PubMed

    Strebel, Alessandro; Bachmann, Felix; Wernli, Marion; Erb, Peter

    2002-08-20

    TRAIL antisense transfected mastocytoma cells (R56VTas) injected into syngeneic DBA/2 mice demonstrate significantly delayed tumor growth compared to mock transfected cells (R56VTMo). TRAIL expression in R56VTas cells was successfully, albeit not completely, downregulated, as shown by Western blots, flow-cytometric analysis and functionally by loss of cytolytic activity against TRAIL-R-bearing target cells. Immunohistochemic and immunoblotting analyses of ex vivo tumors confirmed the lower expression of TRAIL by the antisense transfection compared to the mock transfection. Investigating the mechanism of the delayed tumor growth, it was found that neither T nor NK cells but activated macrophages infiltrated the tumors. The number of infiltrating macrophages was significantly lower in the mock transfected compared to the TRAIL antisense transfected tumor sections, indicating that TRAIL-expressing tumor cells may lyse macrophages. Indeed, activated macrophages proved to be sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. This indicates that, although macrophages can infiltrate the mastocytoma R56VT, they are in part eliminated by TRAIL-expressing tumor cells, allowing the tumor to rapidly grow. Hence, downregulation of TRAIL allows more macrophages to survive and to better attack the tumor cells, slowing down tumor growth. In conclusion, TRAIL expressed on R56VT tumor cells can impair an important innate immune defense mechanism against tumors by eliminating effector macrophages. PMID:12209599

  12. Delivery of Therapeutics Targeting the mRNA-Binding Protein HuR Using 3DNA Nanocarriers Suppresses Ovarian Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hung; Peng, Weidan; Furuuchi, Narumi; Gerhart, Jacquelyn; Rhodes, Kelly; Mukherjee, Neelanjan; Jimbo, Masaya; Gonye, Gregory E; Brody, Jonathan R; Getts, Robert C; Sawicki, Janet A

    2016-03-15

    Growing evidence shows that cancer cells use mRNA-binding proteins and miRNAs to posttranscriptionally regulate signaling pathways to adapt to harsh tumor microenvironments. In ovarian cancer, cytoplasmic accumulation of mRNA-binding protein HuR (ELAVL1) is associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we observed high HuR expression in ovarian cancer cells compared with ovarian primary cells, providing a rationale for targeting HuR. RNAi-mediated silencing of HuR in ovarian cancer cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth, and impaired migration and invasion. In addition, HuR-depleted human ovarian xenografts were smaller than control tumors. A biodistribution study showed effective tumor-targeting by a novel Cy3-labeled folic acid (FA)-derivatized DNA dendrimer nanocarrier (3DNA). We combined siRNAs against HuR with FA-3DNA and found that systemic administration of the resultant FA-3DNA-siHuR conjugates to ovarian tumor-bearing mice suppressed tumor growth and ascites development, significantly prolonging lifespan. NanoString gene expression analysis identified multiple HuR-regulated genes that function in many essential cellular and molecular pathways, an attractive feature of candidate therapeutic targets. Taken together, these results are the first to demonstrate the versatility of the 3DNA nanocarrier for in vivo-targeted delivery of a cancer therapeutic and support further preclinical investigation of this system adapted to siHuR-targeted therapy for ovarian cancer. Cancer Res; 76(6); 1549-59. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921342

  13. Senescence Mediates Pituitary Hypoplasia and Restrains Pituitary Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Chesnokova, Vera; Zonis, Svetlana; Rubinek, Tami; Yu, Run; Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Kovacs, Kalman; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Melmed, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    Understanding factors subserving pituitary cell proliferation enables understanding mechanisms underlying uniquely benign pituitary tumors. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (Pttg) deletion results in pituitary hypoplasia, low pituitary cell proliferation rates, and rescue of pituitary tumor development in Rb+/? mice. Pttg?/? pituitary glands exhibit ARF/p53/p21-dependent senescence pathway activation evidenced by up-regulated p19, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2 protein levels and p53 stabilization. High pituitary p21 levels in the absence of PTTG were associated with suppressed cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity, Rb phosphorylation, and cyclin A expression, all required for cell cycle progression. Although senescence-associated ?-galactosidase was enhanced in Pttg-deficient pituitary glands, telomere lengths were increased. DNA damage signaling pathways were activated and aneuploidy was evident in the Pttg-deficient pituitary, triggering senescence-associated genes. To confirm the p21 dependency of decreased proliferation and senescence in the Pttg-null pituitary, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) colony formation was tested in wild-type, Pttg?/?, Rb+/?, Rb+/?Pttg?/?, and Rb+/?Pttg?/?p21?/? cells. Rb+/?Pttg?/? MEFs, unlike Rb+/? cells, failed to produce colonies and exhibited high levels of senescence. p21 deletion from Rb+/?Pttg?/? MEFs enhanced anchorage-independent cell growth, accompanied by a marked decrease in senescence. As cell proliferation assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was higher in Rb+/?Pttg?/?p21?/? relative to Rb+/?Pttg?/? pituitary glands, p21-dependent senescence provoked by Pttg deletion may underlie pituitary hypoplasia and decreased tumor development in Rb+/?Pttg?/? mice. PMID:17975001

  14. VCC-1, a novel chemokine, promotes tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Edward J.; Head, Richard; Griggs, David W.; Sun Duo; Evans, Robert J.; Swearingen, Michelle L.; Westlin, Marisa M.; Mazzarella, Richard . E-mail: richard.a.mazzarella@pfizer.com

    2006-11-10

    We have identified a novel human gene by transcriptional microarray analysis, which is co-regulated in tumors and angiogenesis model systems with VEGF expression. Isolation of cDNA clones containing the full-length VCC-1 transcript from both human and mouse shows a 119 amino acid protein with a 22 amino acid cleavable signal sequence in both species. Comparison of the protein product of this gene with hidden Markov models of all known proteins shows weak but significant homology with two known chemokines, SCYA17 and SCYA16. Northern analysis of human tissues detects a 1 kb band in lung and skeletal muscle. Murine VCC-1 expression can also be detected in lung as well as thyroid, submaxillary gland, epididymis, and uterus tissues by slot blot analysis. By quantitative real time RT-PCR 71% of breast tumors showed 3- to 24-fold up-regulation of VCC-1. In situ hybridization of breast carcinomas showed strong expression of the gene in both normal and transformed mammary gland ductal epithelial cells. In vitro, human microvascular endothelial cells grown on fibronectin increase VCC-1 expression by almost 100-fold. In addition, in the mouse angioma endothelial cell line PY4.1 the gene was over-expressed by 28-fold 6 h after induction of tube formation while quiescent and proliferating cells showed no change. VCC-1 expression is also increased by VEGF and FGF treatment, about 6- and 5-fold, respectively. Finally, 100% of mice injected with NIH3T3 cells over-expressing VCC-1 develop rapidly progressing tumors within 21 days while no growth is seen in any control mice injected with NIH3T3 cells containing the vector alone. These results strongly suggest that VCC-1 plays a role in angiogenesis and possibly in the development of tumors in some tissue types.

  15. Expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors in normal and tumorous human thyroid tissues.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, B F; Freeman, J L; Asa, S L

    1995-02-01

    A number of growth factors have been implicated as stimuli of thyroid cell proliferation; overexpression of these growth factors and/or their receptors may play a role in the growth of thyroid tumors. To determine if immunohistochemical detection of growth factors and/or their receptors correlates with morphological alterations in proliferative lesions of thyroid, we examined the localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and their common receptor, EGF-receptor (EGF-R), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-1-receptor (IGF-R) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP)-1, -2, -3, and -4, nerve growth factor (NGF), and its receptor NGF-receptor (NGF-R), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), in normal thyroid tissue and various thyroid tumors. We applied the streptavidin-biotin technique to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. We studied 8-16 different cases of each of the following: normal human thyroid, multinodular hyperplasia, follicular adenoma, papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, and anaplastic carcinoma. EGF, TGF-alpha, and their receptor EGF-R were widely expressed in normal thyroid and in all the thyroid lesions examined. IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 were diffusely present in all different thyroid tissues as well. There was no difference in staining intensity or distribution that correlated with the pathological process. IGFBP-4 seemed to have a variable expression. IGFBP-2 and -3 were detected only in medullary carcinomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7787437

  16. Role of Constitutive Behavior and Tumor-Host Mechanical Interactions in the State of Stress and Growth of Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Odysseos, Andreani D.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces play a crucial role in tumor patho-physiology. Compression of cancer cells inhibits their proliferation rate, induces apoptosis and enhances their invasive and metastatic potential. Additionally, compression of intratumor blood vessels reduces the supply of oxygen, nutrients and drugs, affecting tumor progression and treatment. Despite the great importance of the mechanical microenvironment to the pathology of cancer, there are limited studies for the constitutive modeling and the mechanical properties of tumors and on how these parameters affect tumor growth. Also, the contribution of the host tissue to the growth and state of stress of the tumor remains unclear. To this end, we performed unconfined compression experiments in two tumor types and found that the experimental stress-strain response is better fitted to an exponential constitutive equation compared to the widely used neo-Hookean and Blatz-Ko models. Subsequently, we incorporated the constitutive equations along with the corresponding values of the mechanical properties - calculated by the fit - to a biomechanical model of tumor growth. Interestingly, we found that the evolution of stress and the growth rate of the tumor are independent from the selection of the constitutive equation, but depend strongly on the mechanical interactions with the surrounding host tissue. Particularly, model predictions - in agreement with experimental studies - suggest that the stiffness of solid tumors should exceed a critical value compared with that of the surrounding tissue in order to be able to displace the tissue and grow in size. With the use of the model, we estimated this critical value to be on the order of 1.5. Our results suggest that the direct effect of solid stress on tumor growth involves not only the inhibitory effect of stress on cancer cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis, but also the resistance of the surrounding tissue to tumor expansion. PMID:25111061

  17. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-dependent tumor growth inhibition by a vascular endothelial growth factor-superantigen conjugate

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qingwen; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 ; Jiang, Songmin; Han, Baohui; Sun, Tongwen; Li, Zhengnan; Zhao, Lina; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Jialin

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct and purify a fusion protein VEGF-SEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF-SEA strongly repressed the growth of murine solid sarcoma 180 (S180) tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells driven by VEGF-SEA were accumulated around tumor cells bearing VEGFR by mice image model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF-SEA can serve as a tumor targeting agent and sequester CTLs into the tumor site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The induced CTLs could release the cytokines, perforins and granzyme B to kill the tumor cells. -- Abstract: T cells are major lymphocytes in the blood and passengers across the tumor vasculature. If these T cells are retained in the tumor site, a therapeutic potential will be gained by turning them into tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). A fusion protein composed of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) with a D227A mutation strongly repressed the growth of murine solid sarcoma 180 (S180) tumors (control versus VEGF-SEA treated with 15 {mu}g, mean tumor weight: 1.128 g versus 0.252 g, difference = 0.876 g). CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells driven by VEGF-SEA were accumulated around VEGFR expressing tumor cells and the induced CTLs could release the tumoricidal cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Meanwhile, intratumoral CTLs secreted cytolytic pore-forming perforin and granzyme B proteins around tumor cells, leading to the death of tumor cells. The labeled fusion proteins were gradually targeted to the tumor site in an imaging mice model. These results show that VEGF-SEA can serve as a tumor targeting agent and sequester active infiltrating CTLs into the tumor site to kill tumor cells, and could therefore be a potential therapeutical drug for a variety of cancers.

  18. Tumor-secreted Hsp90 subverts polycomb function to drive prostate tumor growth and invasion.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Krystal D; Franco, Omar E; Hance, Michael W; Hayward, Simon W; Isaacs, Jennifer S

    2015-03-27

    Prostate cancer remains the second highest contributor to male cancer-related lethality. The transition of a subset of tumors from indolent to invasive disease is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Activation of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) genetic program is a major risk factor for cancer progression. We recently reported that secreted extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90) initiates EMT in prostate cancer cells, coincident with its enhanced expression in mesenchymal models. Our current work substantially extended these findings in defining a pathway linking eHsp90 signaling to EZH2 function, a methyltransferase of the Polycomb repressor complex. EZH2 is also implicated in EMT activation, and its up-regulation represents one of the most frequent epigenetic alterations during prostate cancer progression. We have now highlighted a novel epigenetic function for eHsp90 via its modulation of EZH2 expression and activity. Mechanistically, eHsp90 initiated sustained activation of MEK/ERK, a signal critical for facilitating EZH2 transcriptional up-regulation and recruitment to the E-cadherin promoter. We further demonstrated that an eHsp90-EZH2 pathway orchestrates an expanded repertoire of EMT-related events including Snail and Twist expression, tumor cell motility, and anoikis resistance. To evaluate the role of eHsp90 in vivo, eHsp90 secretion was stably enforced in a prostate cancer cell line resembling indolent disease. Remarkably, eHsp90 was sufficient to induce tumor growth, suppress E-cadherin, and initiate localized invasion, events that are exquisitely dependent upon EZH2 function. In summary, our findings illuminate a hitherto unknown epigenetic function for eHsp90 and support a model wherein tumor eHsp90 functions as a rheostat for EZH2 expression and activity to orchestrate mesenchymal properties and coincident aggressive behavior. PMID:25670862

  19. Quantum dot-based multiplexed imaging in malignant ascites: a new model for malignant ascites classification

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei-Juan; Peng, Chun-Wei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Cui, Ran; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study are to establish a new method for simultaneously detecting the interactions between cancer cells and immunocytes in malignant ascites (MA) and to propose a new model for MA classification. Methods A quantum dot (QD)-based multiplexed imaging technique was developed for simultaneous in situ imaging of cancer cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages. This method was first validated in gastric cancer tissues, and then was applied to MA samples from 20 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastrointestinal and gynecological origins. The staining features of MA and the interactions between cancer cells and immunocytes in the ascites were further analyzed and correlated with clinical features. Results The QD-based multiplexed imaging technique was able to simultaneously show gastric cancer cells, infiltrating macrophages, and lymphocytes in tumor tissue, and the technique revealed the distinctive features of the cancer tumor microenvironment. When this multiplexed imaging protocol was applied to MA cytology, different features of the interactions and quantitative relations between cancer cells and immunocytes were observed. On the basis of these features, MA could be classified into immunocyte-dominant type, immunocyte-reactive type, cancer cell-dominant type, and cell deletion type; the four categories were statistically different in terms of the ratio of cancer cells to immunocytes (P<0.001). Moreover, in the MA, the ratio of cancer cells to immunocytes was higher for patients with gynecological and gastric cancers than for those with colorectal cancer. Conclusion The newly developed QD-based multiplexed imaging technique was able to better reveal the interactions between cancer cells and immunocytes. This advancement allows for better MA classification and, thereby, allows for treatment decisions to be more individualized. PMID:25784803

  20. Brief Report: Human Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells Facilitate Floating Tumorigenic Cell Growth via Glutamine-Ammonium Cycle.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ke; Hu, Liang; Ma, Jingwei; Zhang, Huafeng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Yong; Ma, Ruihua; Luo, Shunqun; Liu, Dongbo; Long, Guoxian; Han, Mei; Liu, Shunfang; Song, Anping; Shen, Meizhu; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Bo

    2015-09-01

    How mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote tumor growth remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that mesenchymal stem-like cells (MSLCs) are commonly present in malignant pleural effusion or ascites of cancer patients, where they directly interact with tumor cells. Chemokines and chemokine receptors, especially the CCL2/CCR2 pathway, are involved in this interaction. As a result, MSLCs exert tumor-promoting effects by enhancing the proliferation and colony formation of tumor-repopulating cells. The underlying molecular basis involves MSLC release of glutamine to tumorigenic cells. Inhibition of glutamine uptake impedes MSC-mediated tumor-promoting effects. More intriguingly, MSLCs take up tumor cell-released ammonium that, in turn, favors MSLC growth. Thus, glutamine and ammonium form a vicious cycle between MSLCs and tumorigenic cells. These findings suggest a potential clinical application by targeting MSLCs in patients with malignant pleural effusions or ascites. PMID:26031226

  1. Targeting Gli Transcription Activation by Small Molecule Suppresses Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bosco-Clment, Genevive; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Zhao; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Li, Hui; Mikami, Iwao; Hirata, Tomomi; Yagui-Beltran, Adam; Lui, Natalie; Do, Hanh T.; Cheng, Tiffany; Tseng, Hsin-Hui; Choi, Helen; Fang, Li-Tai; Kim, Il-Jin; Yue, Dongsheng; Wang, Changli; Zheng, Qingfeng; Fujii, Naoaki; Mann, Michael; Jablons, David M.; He, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Targeted inhibition of Hedgehog signaling at the cell membrane has been associated with anti-cancer activity in preclinical and early clinical studies. Hedgehog signaling involves activation of Gli transcription factors that can also be induced by alternative pathways. In this study we identified an interaction between Gli proteins and a transcription co-activator TAF9, and validated its functional relevance in regulating Gli transactivation. We also describe a novel, synthetic small molecule, FN1-8, that efficiently interferes with Gli/TAF9 interaction and down-regulate Gli/TAF9 dependent transcriptional activity. More importantly, FN1-8 suppresses cancer cell proliferation in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Our results suggest that blocking Gli transactivation, a key control point of multiple oncogenic pathways, may be an effective anti-cancer strategy. PMID:23686308

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in oligodendroglial tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Reifenberger, J.; Reifenberger, G.; Ichimura, K.; Schmidt, E. E.; Wechsler, W.; Collins, V. P.

    1996-01-01

    A series of 13 oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II) and 20 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade III) was studied for gene amplification and expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR). EGFR gene amplification was found in only one case of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, which additionally showed a deletion/rearrangement at the 5' end of the gene. Northern blot analysis, however, revealed increases of EGFR mRNA expression relative to non-neoplastic control brain in 6 of 13 oligodendrogliomas and 10 of 18 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. All cases with increased mRNA expression showed strong immunoreactivity for EGFR protein. Our findings thus indicate that increased expression of EGFR mRNA and protein is common in low-grade and high-grade oligodendroglial tumors and in the vast majority of cases is not caused by gene amplification. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8686753

  3. Analysis of a ``phase transition'' from tumor growth to latency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsanto, P. P.; Romano, A.; Scalerandi, M.; Pescarmona, G. P.

    2000-08-01

    A mathematical model, based on the local interaction simulation approach, is developed in order to allow simulations of the spatiotemporal evolution of neoplasies. The model consists of a set of rules, which govern the interaction of cancerous cells among themselves and in competition with other cell populations for the acquisition of essential nutrients. As a result of small variations in the basic parameters, it leads to four different outcomes: indefinite growth, metastasis, latency, and complete regression. In the present contribution a detailed analysis of the dormant phase is carried on and the critical parameters for the transition to other phases are computed. Interesting chaotic behaviors can also be observed, with different attractors in the parameters space. Interest in the latency phase has been aroused by therapeutical strategies aiming to reduce a growing tumor to dormancy. The effect of such strategies may be simulated with our approach.

  4. Heparanase Enhances Tumor Growth and Chemoresistance by Promoting Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Shteingauz, Anna; Boyango, Ilanit; Naroditsky, Inna; Hammond, Edward; Gruber, Maayan; Doweck, Ilana; Ilan, Neta; Vlodavsky, Israel

    2015-09-15

    Heparanase is the only enzyme in mammals capable of cleaving heparan sulfate, an activity implicated in tumor inflammation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Heparanase is secreted as a latent enzyme that is internalized and subjected to proteolytic processing and activation in lysosomes. Its role under normal conditions has yet to be understood. Here, we provide evidence that heparanase resides within autophagosomes, where studies in heparanase-deficient or transgenic mice established its contributions to autophagy. The protumorigenic properties of heparanase were found to be mediated, in part, by its proautophagic function, as demonstrated in tumor xenograft models of human cancer and through use of inhibitors of the lysosome (chloroquine) and heparanase (PG545), both alone and in combination. Notably, heparanase-overexpressing cells were more resistant to stress and chemotherapy in a manner associated with increased autophagy, effects that were reversed by chloroquine treatment. Collectively, our results establish a role for heparanase in modulating autophagy in normal and malignant cells, thereby conferring growth advantages under stress as well as resistance to chemotherapy. Cancer Res; 75(18); 3946-57. 2015 AACR. PMID:26249176

  5. A rare cause of chylous ascites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Yung-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with end-stage renal disease status after two renal transplantations. Milky-like ascites was noted since the immunosuppressant agent was switched to sirolimus (1 mg/day). Chylous ascites was diagnosed owing to the triglyceride of dialysate to serum being 15.98:15.99. Series studies were all negative. It is highly suspected that the cause of chylous ascites is sirolimus related because surgically related lymph vessel injury happens most often 6 months after transplantation. Sirolimus-related chylous ascites is a rare cause of chylous ascites but the incidence rate increases after transplantation. Side effects of sirolimus include hyperlipidemia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatotoxicity, delayed wound healing and a high rate of lymphoceles, lymph edema, and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Chylous ascitis has improved since the switch from sirolimus to other immunosuppressant agents. PMID:25859356

  6. The clinical effects of dendritic cell vaccines combined with cytokine-induced killer cells intraperitoneal injected on patients with malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Yue-Qin; Cai, Kai; Hu, Jian-Hua; Jiang, Long-Wei; Gao, Yan-Rong; Zhao, Hua; Jia, Shao-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Malignant ascites (MA) is a pathological condition due to a variety of primary abdominal and extra-abdominal neoplasms. It is a primary cause of morbidity and presents many difficulties in evaluation and treatment. In this study we used dendritic cell vaccines combined with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells intraperitoneal injected in patients with MA, and evaluated the safety and efficacy of this treatment. The results showed that the percentage of CD3+ CD56+ CIK cells after treatment increased significantly while the percentage of CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells decreased (P < 0.05). The clinical response rate (RR) was 40.9% and disease control rate (DCR) was 77.3%. We then studied and identified the mechanisms of the anti-tumor effects of the vaccines by analyzing a series of cytokines that are commonly involved in tumor progression and ascitic development including granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TGF-α), tumor necrosis factor-β (TGF-β), Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). These data demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection with DC vaccines combined with CIK cells in patients with malignant peritoneal effusion is safe and feasible. This therapy modality can achieve a certain clinical benefit even in patients resistant to conventional treatments. PMID:25550942

  7. Sanguinarine Suppresses Prostate Tumor Growth and Inhibits Survivin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng; Lou, Wei; Chun, Jae Yeon; Cho, Daniel S.; Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Evans, Christopher P.; Chen, Jun; Yue, Jiao; Zhou, Qinghua; Gao, Allen C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a frequently occurring disease and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths of men in the United States. Current treatments have proved inadequate in curing or controlling prostate cancer, and a search for agents for the management of this disease is urgently needed. Survivin plays an important role in both progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer and resistance to chemotherapy. Altered expression of survivin in prostate cancer cells is associated with cancer progression, drug/radiation resistance, poor prognosis, and short patient survival. In the present study, the authors performed a cell-based rapid screen of the Prestwick Chemical Library consisting of 1120 Food and Drug Administrationapproved compounds with known safety and bioavailability in humans to identify potential inhibitors of survivin and anticancer agents for prostate cancer. Sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid derived primarily from the bloodroot plant, was identified as a novel inhibitor of survivin that selectively kills prostate cancer cells over normal prostate epithelial cells. The authors found that sanguinarine inhibits survivin protein expression through protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Sanguinarine induces apoptosis and inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cells and in vivo tumor formation. Administration of sanguinarine, beginning 3 days after ectopic implantation of DU145 human prostate cancer cells, reduces both tumor weight and volume. In addition, sanguinarine sensitized paclitaxel-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis, offering a potential therapeutic strategy for overcoming taxol resistance. These results suggest that sanguinarine may be developed as an agent either alone or in combination with taxol for treatment of prostate cancer overexpressing survivin. PMID:21318089

  8. Sanguinarine suppresses prostate tumor growth and inhibits survivin expression.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Lou, Wei; Chun, Jae Yeon; Cho, Daniel S; Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Evans, Christopher P; Chen, Jun; Yue, Jiao; Zhou, Qinghua; Gao, Allen C

    2010-03-01

    Prostate cancer is a frequently occurring disease and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths of men in the United States. Current treatments have proved inadequate in curing or controlling prostate cancer, and a search for agents for the management of this disease is urgently needed. Survivin plays an important role in both progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer and resistance to chemotherapy. Altered expression of survivin in prostate cancer cells is associated with cancer progression, drug/radiation resistance, poor prognosis, and short patient survival. In the present study, the authors performed a cell-based rapid screen of the Prestwick Chemical Library consisting of 1120 Food and Drug Administration-approved compounds with known safety and bioavailability in humans to identify potential inhibitors of survivin and anticancer agents for prostate cancer. Sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid derived primarily from the bloodroot plant, was identified as a novel inhibitor of survivin that selectively kills prostate cancer cells over "normal" prostate epithelial cells. The authors found that sanguinarine inhibits survivin protein expression through protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Sanguinarine induces apoptosis and inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cells and in vivo tumor formation. Administration of sanguinarine, beginning 3 days after ectopic implantation of DU145 human prostate cancer cells, reduces both tumor weight and volume. In addition, sanguinarine sensitized paclitaxel-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis, offering a potential therapeutic strategy for overcoming taxol resistance. These results suggest that sanguinarine may be developed as an agent either alone or in combination with taxol for treatment of prostate cancer overexpressing survivin. PMID:21318089

  9. A critical role for GRP78/BiP in the tumor microenvironment for neovascularization during tumor growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dezheng; Stapleton, Christopher; Luo, Biquan; Xiong, Shigang; Ye, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Jhaveri, Niyati; Zhu, Genyuan; Ye, Risheng; Liu, Zhi; Bruhn, Kevin W; Craft, Noah; Groshen, Susan; Hofman, Florence M; Lee, Amy S

    2011-04-15

    Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78)/BiP is a multifunctional protein which plays a major role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein processing, protein quality control, maintaining ER homeostasis, and controlling cell signaling and viability. Previously, using a transgene-induced mammary tumor model, we showed that Grp78 heterozygosity impeded cancer growth through suppression of tumor cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis and the Grp78(+/-) mice exhibited dramatic reduction (70%) in the microvessel density (MVD) of the endogenous mammary tumors, while having no effect on the MVD of normal organs. This observation suggests that GRP78 may critically regulate the function of the host vasculature within the tumor microenvironment. In this article, we interrogated the role of GRP78 in the tumor microenvironment. In mouse tumor models in which wild-type (WT), syngeneic mammary tumor cells were injected into the host, we showed that Grp78(+/-) mice suppressed tumor growth and angiogenesis during the early phase but not during the late phase of tumor growth. Growth of metastatic lesions of WT, syngeneic melanoma cells in the Grp78(+/-) mice was potently suppressed. We created conditional heterozygous knockout of GRP78 in the host endothelial cells and showed severe reduction of tumor angiogenesis and metastatic growth, with minimal effect on normal tissue MVD. Furthermore, knockdown of GRP78 expression in immortalized human endothelial cells showed that GRP78 is a critical mediator of angiogenesis by regulating cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Our findings suggest that concomitant use of current chemotherapeutic agents and novel therapies against GRP78 may offer a powerful dual approach to arrest cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. PMID:21467168

  10. Voluntary Running Suppresses Tumor Growth through Epinephrine- and IL-6-Dependent NK Cell Mobilization and Redistribution.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Line; Idorn, Manja; Olofsson, Gitte H; Lauenborg, Britt; Nookaew, Intawat; Hansen, Rasmus Hvass; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Becker, Jürgen C; Pedersen, Katrine S; Dethlefsen, Christine; Nielsen, Jens; Gehl, Julie; Pedersen, Bente K; Thor Straten, Per; Hojman, Pernille

    2016-03-01

    Regular exercise reduces the risk of cancer and disease recurrence. Yet the mechanisms behind this protection remain to be elucidated. In this study, tumor-bearing mice randomized to voluntary wheel running showed over 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across five different tumor models. Microarray analysis revealed training-induced upregulation of pathways associated with immune function. NK cell infiltration was significantly increased in tumors from running mice, whereas depletion of NK cells enhanced tumor growth and blunted the beneficial effects of exercise. Mechanistic analyses showed that NK cells were mobilized by epinephrine, and blockade of β-adrenergic signaling blunted training-dependent tumor inhibition. Moreover, epinephrine induced a selective mobilization of IL-6-sensitive NK cells, and IL-6-blocking antibodies blunted training-induced tumor suppression, intratumoral NK cell infiltration, and NK cell activation. Together, these results link exercise, epinephrine, and IL-6 to NK cell mobilization and redistribution, and ultimately to control of tumor growth. PMID:26895752

  11. Kinetics of tumor growth and regression in IgG multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Peter W.; Salmon, Sydney E.

    1972-01-01

    Studies of immunoglobulin synthesis, total body tumor cell number, and tumor kinetics were carried out in a series of patients with IgG multiple myeloma. The changes in tumor size associated with tumor growth or with regression were underestimated when the concentration of serum M-component was used as the sole index of tumor mass. Calculation of the total body M-component synthetic rate (corrected for concentration-dependent changes in IgG metabolism) and tumor cell number gave a more accurate and predictable estimate of changes in tumor size. Tumor growth and drug-induced tumor regression were found to follow Gompertzian kinetics, with progressive retardation of the rate of change of tumor size in both of these circumstances. This retardation effect, describable with a constant ?, may be caused by a shift in the proportion of tumor cells in the proliferative cycle. Drug sensitivity of the tumor could be described quantitatively with a calculation of BO, the tumor's initial sensitivity to a given drug regimen. Of particular clinical significance, the magnitude of a given patient's tumor regression could be predicted from the ratio of BO to ?. Mathematical proof was obtained that the retardation constant determined during tumor regression also applied to the earlier period of tumor growth, and this constant was used to reconstruct the preclinical history of disease. In the average patient, fewer than 5 yr elapse from the initial tumor cell doubling to its clinical presentation with from 1011 to more than 1012 myeloma cells in the body. The reduction in total body tumor mass in most patients responding to therapy ranges from less than one to almost two orders of magnitude. Application of predictive kinetic analysis to the design of sequential drug regimens may lead to further improvement in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other tumors with similar growth characteristics. PMID:5040867

  12. Host Cxcr2-dependent regulation of mammary tumor growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhawna; Nannuru, Kalyan C; Varney, Michelle L; Singh, Rakesh K

    2015-01-01

    Host-derived angiogenic and inflammatory tumor supportive microenvironment regulates progression and metastasis, but the molecular mechanism(s) underlying host-tumor interactions remains unclear. Tumor expression of CXCR2 and its ligands have been shown to regulate angiogenesis, invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis. In this report, we hypothesized that host-derived Cxcr2-dependent signaling plays an important role in breast cancer growth and metastasis. Two mammary tumor cell lines Cl66 and 4T1 cells were orthotopically implanted into the mammary fat pad of wild-type and Cxcr2(-/-) female BALB/c mice. Tumor growth and spontaneous lung metastasis were monitored. Immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor tissues were performed to analyze proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and immune cell infiltration. Our results demonstrated that knock-down of host Cxcr2 decreases tumor growth and metastasis by reducing angiogenesis, proliferation and enhancing apoptosis. Host Cxcr2 plays an important role in governing the pro-inflammatory response in mammary tumors as evaluated by decreased Gr1(+) tumor-associated granulocytes, F4/80(+) tumor associated macrophages, and CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid derived suppressor cells in Cxcr2(-/-) mice as compared to control wild-type mice. Together, these results demonstrate that host Cxcr2-dependent signaling regulates mammary tumor growth and metastasis by promoting angiogenesis and pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:25511644

  13. Simulation of the effect of plasma species on tumor growth and apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William; Carroll, Caitlin; Keidar, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Tumor modeling is a technique that entails using mathematical and physical equations to describe the biological disease, most importantly uncontrolled cell growth and the tumor life cycle. The model utilized in this paper makes use of a three-dimensional hybrid discrete-continuum model to show the apoptotic effect a tumor volume undergoes when treated with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species from the cold atmospheric plasma. The results compare untreated and treated tumors of varying sizes by measuring spatiotemporal data to predict trends of tumor evolution. The simulation results show that the treated tumor death, irrespective of tumor volume, follows an exponential decay and that the untreated tumor follows an expected growth pattern. Future experiments and applications can lead to a predictive tumor model allowing for individualized treatment planning for the cold atmospheric plasma therapy.

  14. Differential remodeling of cadherins and intermediate cytoskeletal filaments influence microenvironment of solid and ascitic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chaklader, Malay; Pan, Ankita; Law, Aditya; Chattopadhayay, Sukalpa; Chatterjee, Ritam; Law, Sujata

    2013-10-01

    Different forms of sarcoma (solid or ascitic) often pose a critical medical situation for pediatric or adolescent group of patients. To date, predisposed genetic anomalies and related changes in protein expression are thought to be responsible for sarcoma development. However, in spite of genetic abnormality, role of tumor microenvironment is also indispensable for the evolving neoplasm. In our present study, we characterized the deferentially remodeled microenvironment in solid and ascitic tumors by sequential immunohistochemistry and flowcytometric analysis of E-cdaherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, and cytokeratin along with angiogenesis and metastasis. In addition, we considered flowcytometric apoptosis and CD133 positive cancer stem cell analysis. Comparative hemogram was also considered as a part. Our investigation revealed that both types of tumor promoted neovascularization over time with sign of local inflammation. Invasion of neighboring skeletal muscle by solid sarcoma was more frequent than its ascitic counterpart. In contrary, rapid and earlier cadherin switching (E-cadherin to N-cadherin) in ascitic sarcoma made them more aggressive than that of solid sarcoma and helped to early metastasize distant tissue like liver through the hematogenous route. Differential cadherin switching and infidelity of cytokeratin expression in Vimentin positive sarcoma also influenced the behavior of ascitic CD133+ cancer initiating cell pool with respect to CD133+ cells housed in solid sarcoma. Therefore our study concludes that differential cadherin switching program and infidelity of intermediate filaments in part, sharply discriminate the severity and metastatic potentiality of either type of sarcoma accompanying with CD133+ cellular repertoire. Besides, tumor phenotype-based dichotomous cadherin switching program could be exploited as a future drug target to manage decompensated malignant ascitic and solid sarcoma. PMID:23861106

  15. Destruction of tumor vasculature and abated tumor growth upon VEGF blockade is driven by proapoptotic protein Bim in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Naik, Edwina; O'Reilly, Lorraine A; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse; Merino, Delphine; Lin, Ann; Cook, Michele; Coultas, Leigh; Bouillet, Philippe; Adams, Jerry M; Strasser, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    For malignant growth, solid cancers must stimulate the formation of new blood vessels by producing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), which is required for the survival of tumor-associated vessels. Novel anticancer agents that block VEGF-A signaling trigger endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis and vascular regression preferentially within tumors, but how the ECs die is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that VEGF-A deprivation, provoked either by drug-induced tumor shrinkage or direct VEGF-A blockade, up-regulates the proapoptotic BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3)-only Bcl-2 family member Bim in ECs. Importantly, the tumor growth inhibitory activity of a VEGF-A antagonist required Bim-induced apoptosis of ECs. These findings thus reveal the mechanism by which VEGF-A blockade induces EC apoptosis and impairs tumor growth. They also indicate that drugs mimicking BH3-only proteins may be exploited to kill tumor cells not only directly but also indirectly by ablating the tumor vasculature. PMID:21646395

  16. Tumor-derived osteopontin reprograms normal mammary fibroblasts to promote inflammation and tumor growth in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Yoray; Raz, Yael; Cohen, Noam; Ben-Shmuel, Amir; Schwartz, Hila; Geiger, Tamar; Erez, Neta

    2015-03-15

    Breast tumors are characterized by an extensive desmoplastic stroma, abundantly populated by fibroblasts. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation, and invasion. CAF also orchestrate tumor-promoting inflammation in multiple tumor types, including breast cancer. However, the mechanisms through which normal tissue fibroblasts are reprogrammed to tumor-promoting CAFs are mainly obscure. Here, we show that mammary fibroblasts can be educated by breast cancer cells to become activated to a proinflammatory state that supports malignant progression. Proteomic analysis of breast cancer cell-secreted factors identified the secreted proinflammatory mediator osteopontin, which has been implicated in inflammation, tumor progression, and metastasis. Osteopontin was highly secreted by mouse and human breast cancer cells, and tumor cell-secreted osteopontin activated a CAF phenotypes in normal mammary fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo. Osteopontin was sufficient to induce fibroblast reprogramming and neutralizing antibodies against osteopontin-blocked fibroblast activation induced by tumor cells. The ability of secreted osteopontin to activate mammary fibroblasts relied upon its known receptors CD44 and αVβ3 integrin. Strikingly, osteopontin silencing in tumor cells in vivo attenuated stromal activation and inhibited tumor growth. Our findings establish a critical functional role for paracrine signaling by tumor-derived osteopontin in reprograming normal fibroblasts into tumor-promoting CAFs. PMID:25600648

  17. Targeting tumor micro-environment for design and development of novel anti-angiogenic agents arresting tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Gacche, Rajesh N; Meshram, Rohan J

    2013-11-01

    Angiogenesis: a process of generation of new blood vessels has been proved to be necessary for sustained tumor growth and cancer progression. Inhibiting angiogenesis pathway has long been remained a significant hope for the development of novel, effective and target orientated antitumor agents arresting the tumor proliferation and metastasis. The process of neoangiogenesis as a biological process is regulated by several pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, especially vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, hypoxia inducible factor 1 and transforming growth factor. Every endothelial cell destined for vessel formation is equipped with receptors for these angiogenic peptides. Moreover, numerous other angiogenic cytokines such as platelet derived growth factor (PGDF), placenta growth factor (PGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), stem-cell factor (SCF), and interleukins-2, 4, 6 etc. These molecular players performs critical role in regulating the angiogenic switch. Couple of decade's research in molecular aspects of tumor biology has unraveled numerous structural and functional mysteries of these angiogenic peptides. In present article, a detailed update on the functional and structural peculiarities of the various angiogenic peptides is described focusing on structural opportunities made available that has potential to be used to modulate function of these angiogenic peptides in developing therapeutic agents targeting neoplastic angiogenesis. The data may be useful in the mainstream of developing novel anticancer agents targeting tumor angiogenesis. We also discuss major therapeutic agents that are currently used in angiogenesis associated therapies as well as those are subject of active research or are in clinical trials. PMID:24139944

  18. Inhibition of vacuolar ATPase subunit in tumor cells delays tumor growth by decreasing the essential macrophage population in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Katara, G K; Kulshrestha, A; Jaiswal, M K; Pamarthy, S; Gilman-Sachs, A; Beaman, K D

    2016-02-25

    In cancer cells, vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multi-subunit enzyme, is expressed on the plasma as well as vesicular membranes and critically influences metastatic behavior. The soluble, cleaved N-terminal domain of V-ATPase a2 isoform is associated with in vitro induction of tumorigenic characteristics in macrophages. This activity led us to further investigate its in vivo role in cancer progression by inhibition of a2 isoform (a2V) in tumor cells and the concomitant effect on tumor microenvironment in the mouse 4T-1 breast cancer model. Results showed that macrophages cocultivated with a2V knockdown (sh-a2) 4T-1 cells produce lower amounts of tumorigenic factors in vitro and have reduced ability to suppress T-cell activation and proliferation compared with control 4T-1 cells. Data analysis showed a delayed mammary tumor growth in Balb/c mice inoculated with sh-a2 4T-1 cells compared with control. The purified CD11b(+) macrophages from sh-a2 tumors showed a reduced expression of mannose receptor-1 (CD206), interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-?, arginase-1, matrix metalloproteinase and vascular endothelial growth factor. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor-infiltrated macrophages showed a significantly low number of F4/80(+)CD11c(+)CD206(+) macrophages in sh-a2 tumors compared with control. In sh-a2 tumors, most of the macrophages were F4/80(+)CD11c(+) (antitumor M1 macrophages) suggesting it to be the reason behind delayed tumor growth. Additionally, tumor-infiltrating macrophages from sh-a2 tumors showed a reduced expression of CD206 compared with control whereas CD11c expression was unaffected. These findings demonstrate that in the absence of a2V in tumor cells, the resident macrophage population in the tumor microenvironment is altered which affects in vivo tumor growth. We suggest that by involving the host immune system, tumor growth can be controlled through targeting of a2V on tumor cells. PMID:25961933

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  20. Preliminary investigation of the inhibitory effects of mechanical stress in tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Ishita; Miga, Michael I.

    2008-03-01

    In the past years different models have been formulated to explain the growth of gliomas in the brain. The most accepted model is based on a reaction-diffusion equation that describes the growth of the tumor as two separate components- a proliferative component and an invasive component. While many improvements have been made to this basic model, the work exploring the factors that naturally inhibit growth is insufficient. It is known that stress fields affect the growth of normal tissue. Due to the rigid skull surrounding the brain, mechanical stress might be an important factor in inhibiting the growth of gliomas. A realistic model of glioma growth would have to take that inhibitory effect into account. In this work a mathematical model based on the reaction-diffusion equation was used to describe tumor growth, and the affect of mechanical stresses caused by the mass effect of tumor cells was studied. An initial tumor cell concentration with a Gaussian distribution was assumed and tumor growth was simulated for two cases- one where growth was solely governed by the reaction-diffusion equation and second where mechanical stress inhibits growth by affecting the diffusivity. All the simulations were performed using the finite difference method. The results of simulations show that the proposed mechanism of inhibition could have a significant affect on tumor growth predictions. This could have implications for varied applications in the imaging field that use growth models, such as registration and model updated surgery.

  1. Astatine-211-tellurium radiocolloid cures experimental malignant ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Neirinckx, R.D.; Adelstein, S.J.; Gordon, P.R.; Ruth, T.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-04-17

    An investigation of the efficacy of astatine-211-tellurium colloid for the treatment of experimental malignant ascites in mice reveals that this ..cap alpha..-emitting radiocolloid can be curative without causing undue toxicity to normal tissue. By comparison, negatron-emitting phosphorus-32 as colloidal chromic phosphate had no antineoplastic activity. The most compelling explanation for this striking difference is the dense ionization and short range of action associated with ..cap alpha..-emission. These results have important implications for the development and use of ..cap alpha..-emitters as radiocolloid therapy for the treatment of human tumors.

  2. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  3. Dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase synergistically suppresses primary tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guodong; Panigrahy, Dipak; Hwang, Sung Hee; Yang, Jun; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Wettersten, Hiromi I.; Liu, Jun-Yan; Wang, Yanru; Ingham, Elizabeth S.; Tam, Sarah; Kieran, Mark W.; Weiss, Robert H.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandins derived from the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) from the cytochrome P450/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway are important eicosanoids that regulate angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors, which block the formation of prostaglandins, suppress tumor growth, whereas sEH inhibitors, which increase endogenous EETs, stimulate primary tumor growth and metastasis. However, the functional interactions of these two pathways in cancer are unknown. Using pharmacological inhibitors as probes, we show here that dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH synergistically inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. COX-2/sEH dual pharmacological inhibitors also potently suppress primary tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via selective inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. These results demonstrate a critical interaction of these two lipid metabolism pathways on tumorigenesis and suggest dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:25024195

  4. Longitudinal Bioluminescence Imaging of Primary versus Abdominal Metastatic Tumor Growth in Orthotopic Pancreatic Tumor Models in NSG Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Harlan E.; Fishel, Melissa L.; Xie, Jingwu; Gu, Dongsheng; McCarthy, Brian P.; Riley, Amanda A.; Sinn, Anthony L.; Silver, Jayne M.; Peterman, Kacie; Kelley, Mark R.; Hanenberg, Helmut; Korc, Murray; Pollok, Karen E.; Territo, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate noninvasive bioluminescence imaging methods for differentially monitoring primary and abdominal metastatic tumor growth in mouse orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. Methods A semiautomated maximum entropy segmentation method was implemented for the primary tumor region-of-interest, and a rule-based method for manually drawing a region-of-interest for the abdominal metastatic region was developed for monitoring tumor growth in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. The two region-of-interest methods were validated by having two observers independently segment Panc-1 tumors, and the results compared with the number of mesenteric lymph node nodules, and histopathological assessment of liver metastases. The findings were extended to orthotopic tumors of the more metastatic MIA PaCa-2 and AsPC-1 cells where separate groups of animals were implanted with different numbers of cells. Results The results demonstrated that the segmentation methods were highly reliable, reproducible and robust, and allowed statistically significant discrimination in the growth rates of primary and abdominal metastatic tumors of different cell lines implanted with different numbers of cells. Conclusions The present results demonstrate that primary tumors and abdominal metastatic foci in orthotopic pancreatic cancer models can be reliably quantified separately and noninvasively over time with bioluminescence imaging. PMID:25406955

  5. Antitumor Properties of Modified Detonation Nanodiamonds and Sorbed Doxorubicin on the Model of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, N N; Zhukov, E L; Inzhevatkin, E V; Bezzabotnov, V E

    2016-01-01

    We studied antitumor properties of modified detonation nanodiamonds loaded with doxorubicin on in vivo model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The type of tumor development and morphological characteristics of the liver, kidneys, and spleen were evaluated in experimental animals. Modified nanodiamonds injected intraperitoneally produced no antitumor effect on Ehrlich carcinoma. However, doxorubicin did not lose antitumor activity after sorption on modified nanodiamonds. PMID:26742746

  6. PRIMA-1MET Inhibits Growth of Mouse Tumors Carrying Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Zache, Nicole; Lambert, Jeremy M. R.; Wiman, Klas G.; Bykov, Vladimir J. N.

    2008-01-01

    Reactivation of the tumor suppressor activity to mutant p53 should trigger massive apoptosis and eliminate tumors. The low molecular weight compounds PRIMA-1 and the structural analog PRIMA-1MET reactivate human mutant p53 in vitro and suppress growth of human tumor xenografts in SCID mice. However, little is known about their effect on mouse mutant p53 in mouse tumor cells. We have examined the effect of PRIMA-1MET on mouse sarcomas, mammary carcinomas and chemically induced fibrosarcomas. PRIMA-1MET showed potent growth suppression in mutant p53-carrying mouse tumors in vitro and a significant anti-tumor effect in syngeneic mice in vivo. These results demonstrate that PRIMA-1MET targets mouse tumors carrying mutant p53 and provide strong support for the anti-tumor efficiency of PRIMA-1METin vivo. PMID:18791272

  7. Neuronal system-dependent facilitation of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth by calcitonin gene-related peptide

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Masaya; Suzuki, Tatsunori; Hosono, Kanako; Hayashi, Izumi; Hashiba, Shinichiro; Onuma, Yuichiro; Amano, Hideki; Kurihara, Yukiko; Kurihara, Hiroki; Okamoto, Hirotsugu; Hoka, Sumio; Majima, Masataka

    2008-01-01

    A neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is widely distributed in neuronal systems and exhibits numerous biological activities. Using CGRP-knockout mice (CGRP?/?), we examined whether or not endogenous CGRP facilitates angiogenesis indispensable to tumor growth. CGRP increased tube formation by endothelial cells in vitro and enhanced sponge-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis in CGRP?/? implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells were significantly reduced compared with those in wild-type (WT) mice. A CGRP antagonist, CGRP8-37 or denervation of sciatic nerves (L15) suppressed LLC growth in the sites of denervation compared with vehicle infusion or sham operation. CGRP precursor mRNA levels in the dorsal root ganglion in LLC-bearing WT were increased compared with those in non-LLC-bearing mice. This increase was abolished by denervation. The expression of VEGF in tumor stroma was down-regulated in CGRP?/?. These results indicate that endogenous CGRP facilitates tumor-associated angiogenesis and tumor growth and suggest that relevant CGRP may be derived from neuronal systems including primary sensory neurons and may become a therapeutic target for cancers. PMID:18757746

  8. Neuronal system-dependent facilitation of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth by calcitonin gene-related peptide.

    PubMed

    Toda, Masaya; Suzuki, Tatsunori; Hosono, Kanako; Hayashi, Izumi; Hashiba, Shinichiro; Onuma, Yuichiro; Amano, Hideki; Kurihara, Yukiko; Kurihara, Hiroki; Okamoto, Hirotsugu; Hoka, Sumio; Majima, Masataka

    2008-09-01

    A neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is widely distributed in neuronal systems and exhibits numerous biological activities. Using CGRP-knockout mice (CGRP(-/-)), we examined whether or not endogenous CGRP facilitates angiogenesis indispensable to tumor growth. CGRP increased tube formation by endothelial cells in vitro and enhanced sponge-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis in CGRP(-/-) implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells were significantly reduced compared with those in wild-type (WT) mice. A CGRP antagonist, CGRP8-37 or denervation of sciatic nerves (L(1-5)) suppressed LLC growth in the sites of denervation compared with vehicle infusion or sham operation. CGRP precursor mRNA levels in the dorsal root ganglion in LLC-bearing WT were increased compared with those in non-LLC-bearing mice. This increase was abolished by denervation. The expression of VEGF in tumor stroma was down-regulated in CGRP(-/-). These results indicate that endogenous CGRP facilitates tumor-associated angiogenesis and tumor growth and suggest that relevant CGRP may be derived from neuronal systems including primary sensory neurons and may become a therapeutic target for cancers. PMID:18757746

  9. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain (P < 0.001), serum glutathione (GSH) content (day 14, P = 0.02; day 28, P = 0.045), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) at 21 days (P = 0.001, 0.015) and 28 days (P = 0.017, 0.010) and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.001), serum malondialdehyde (day 21, P = 0.000) and protein carbonyl Level (day 14, P = 0.003; day 21, P = 0.035). As for incidence of AS, there were significant effects of LAT on red blood cell (RBC) count (P < 0.05), hematocrit (HCT) (P < 0.05), and the right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV/TV) at 21 days (P = 0.012) and 28 days (P = 0.046). Supplementation of DL-HMTBA markedly decreased RV/TV at day 28 (P = 0.021), RBC (day 21, P = 0.008), HCT (day 21, P < 0.001), mean cell hemoglobin (day 14, P = 0.035; day 21, P = 0.003), and serum protein carbonyl level (day 21, P = 0.009), while significantly increased serum GSH content (day 14, P = 0.022; day 28, P = 0.001), SOD and GSH-Px activities at 21 days of age (P < 0.001 and P = 0.037). The optimal supplemental DL-HMTBA levels in basal diet of broilers aged from 7 to 28 days under low or normal temperatures were similar, so the authors recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  10. Direct tumor recognition by a human CD4+ T-cell subset potently mediates tumor growth inhibition and orchestrates anti-tumor immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Tsuji, Takemasa; Luescher, Immanuel F.; Shiku, Hiroshi; Mineno, Junichi; Okamoto, Sachiko; Old, Lloyd J.; Shrikant, Protul; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2015-01-01

    Tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells generally orchestrate and regulate immune cells to provide immune surveillance against malignancy. However, activation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is restricted at local tumor sites where antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are frequently dysfunctional, which can cause rapid exhaustion of anti-tumor immune responses. Herein, we characterize anti-tumor effects of a unique human CD4+ helper T-cell subset that directly recognizes the cytoplasmic tumor antigen, NY-ESO-1, presented by MHC class II on cancer cells. Upon direct recognition of cancer cells, tumor-recognizing CD4+ T cells (TR-CD4) potently induced IFN-?-dependent growth arrest in cancer cells. In addition, direct recognition of cancer cells triggers TR-CD4 to provide help to NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells by enhancing cytotoxic activity, and improving viability and proliferation in the absence of APCs. Notably, the TR-CD4 either alone or in collaboration with CD8+ T cells significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo in a xenograft model. Finally, retroviral gene-engineering with T cell receptor (TCR) derived from TR-CD4 produced large numbers of functional TR-CD4. These observations provide mechanistic insights into the role of TR-CD4 in tumor immunity, and suggest that approaches to utilize TR-CD4 will augment anti-tumor immune responses for durable therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients. PMID:26447332

  11. In Vitro Growth of Thymic Tumor Cell Lines from Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Pasquier, Louis du; Robert, Jacques

    1992-01-01

    A spontaneous lymphoid thymus tumor was discovered in a male Xenopus of the MHC ff genotype. The tumor cell can be transplanted in histocompatible larval ff hosts, but not in ff adults unless irradiated (3000 rad). The tumor is rejected by allogeneic hosts. The tumor cells express neither markers of the B-cell lineage nor MHC encoded molecules; they express only markers of the T-cell lineage. Its lymphoid population is clonal as revealed by the existence of a stable rearrangement pattern of the immunoglobulin genes. Cell lines growing continuously in vitro have been derived from the tumor. PMID:1343098

  12. RPA Inhibition increases Replication Stress and Suppresses Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Glanzer, Jason G.; Liu, Shengqin; Wang, Ling; Mosel, Adam; Peng, Aimin; Oakley, Greg G.

    2014-01-01

    The ATR/Chk1 pathway is a critical surveillance network that maintains genomic integrity during DNA replication by stabilizing the replication forks during normal replication to avoid replication stress. One of the many differences between normal cells and cancer cells is the amount of replication stress that occurs during replication. Cancer cells with activated oncogenes generate increased levels of replication stress. This creates an increased dependency on the ATR/Chk1 pathway in cancer cells and opens up an opportunity to preferentially kill cancer cells by inhibiting this pathway. In support of this idea, we have identified a small molecule termed HAMNO ((1Z)-1-[(2-hydroxyanilino)methylidene]naphthalen-2-one), a novel protein interaction inhibitor of replication protein A (RPA), a protein involved in the ATR/Chk1 pathway. HAMNO selectively binds the N-terminal domain of RPA70, effectively inhibiting critical RPA protein interactions which rely on this domain. HAMNO inhibits both ATR autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of RPA32 Ser33 by ATR. By itself, HAMNO treatment creates DNA replication stress in cancer cells that are already experiencing replication stress, but not in normal cells, and it acts synergistically with etoposide to kill cancer cells in vitro and slow tumor growth in vivo. Thus, HAMNO illustrates how RPA inhibitors represent candidate therapeutics for cancer treatment, providing disease selectivity in cancer cells by targeting their differential response to replication stress. PMID:25070753

  13. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote growth and angiogenesis of breast and prostate tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to migrate to tumor tissues. This behavior of MSCs has been exploited as a tumor-targeting strategy for cell-based cancer therapy. However, the effects of MSCs on tumor growth are controversial. This study was designed to determine the effect of MSCs on the growth of breast and prostate tumors. Methods Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) were isolated and characterized. Effects of BM-MSCs on tumor cell proliferation were analyzed in a co-culture system with mouse breast cancer cell 4T1 or human prostate cancer cell DU145. Tumor cells were injected into nude mice subcutaneously either alone or coupled with BM-MSCs. The expression of cell proliferation and angiogenesis-related proteins in tumor tissues were immunofluorescence analyzed. The angiogenic effect of BM-MSCs was detected using a tube formation assay. The effects of the crosstalk between tumor cells and BM-MSCs on expression of angiogenesis related markers were examined by immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Results Both co-culturing with mice BM-MSCs (mBM-MSCs) and treatment with mBM-MSC-conditioned medium enhanced the growth of 4T1 cells. Co-injection of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs into nude mice led to increased tumor size compared with injection of 4T1 cells alone. Similar experiments using DU145 cells and human BM-MSCs (hBM-MSCs) instead of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs obtained consistent results. Compared with tumors induced by injection of tumor cells alone, the blood vessel area was greater in tumors from co-injection of tumor cells with BM-MSCs, which correlated with decreased central tumor necrosis and increased tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, both conditioned medium from hBM-MSCs alone and co-cultures of hBM-MSCs with DU145 cells were able to promote tube formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. When hBM-MSCs are exposed to the DU145 cell environment, the expression of markers associated with neovascularization (macrophage inflammatory protein-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and IL-6) was increased. Conclusion These results indicate that BM-MSCs promote tumor growth and suggest that the crosstalk between tumor cells and BM-MSCs increased the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, which may have induced tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis thereby increasing solid tumor growth. PMID:23763837

  14. Struma Ovarii with Elevated Ca-125 Levels and Ascites Mimicking Advanced Ca Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Navin Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery. PMID:24783110

  15. Struma ovarii with elevated ca-125 levels and ascites mimicking advanced ca ovary.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Navin Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery. PMID:24783110

  16. Vesicular stomatitis virus is a potent agent for the treatment of malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Pengfei; Tang, Ruilei; Li, Qiu

    2016-03-01

    Cancer cells in ascites are usually exposed to a hypoxia tumor microenvironment and utilize enhanced glycolysis which produces energy and metabolizes nutrients to support proliferation. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus that relies on the host cellular metabolism for replication. We tested the efficacy of VSV on peritoneal carcinomatosis and assessed VSV replication in cancer cells from ascites. BALB/c female mice bearing peritoneal H22 or MethA cells received an i.p. administration of 1x108 PFU VSV or 1x108 PFU equivalent of UV-inactivated VSV on day 10, 12 and 14 after incubation. Administration of VSV resulted in a significant inhibition of ascites formation and prolonged survival of the treated mice. The replication of VSV was obviously enhanced in the cancer cells from the ascites. Considering the central carbon metabolic pathways, cancer cells in the malignant ascites provided more exogenous glucose, glutamine and pyruvate after VSV infection due to its unregulated glycolytic activity and glutamine metabolism. Pharmacologically, inhibition of the glycolytic pathway and glutamine metabolism reduced VSV replication, and this inhibited replication was rescued by the addition of multiple tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Our results demonstrated that metabolic adaptive processes in peritoneal carcinoma, such as high glycolytic activity and glutamine metabolism, favor VSV replication. These results suggest the clinical potency of VSV in the treatment of malignant ascites and provide new insights into the further exploration of the potential application of VSV in the treatment of hypoxia ascites cancer cells. PMID:26707610

  17. Screening and Identification of Biomarkers in Ascites Related to Intrinsic Chemoresistance of Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jihong; Zheng, Minghui; Feng, Yanling; Hu, Kunhua; Huang, Yongwen; Huang, Qidan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The ability to predict responses to chemotherapy for serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) would be valuable since intrinsically chemoresistant EOC patients (persistent or recurrent disease within 6 months) gain little benefit from standard chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to screen and identify distinctive biomarkers in ascites of serous EOC associated with intrinsic chemoresistance. Methods Protein samples from ascites of 12 chemosensitive and 7 intrinsically chemoresistant serous EOC patients were analyzed using two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Furthermore, the identified proteins were validated by ELISA in ascites samples from 19 chemosensitive and 9 intrinsically chemoresistant EOC patients. Results The number of spots detected in all 2-D DIGE gels ranged from 15231711 using DeCyder software analysis. Thirty-four spots were differentially expressed based on the criteria of an average ratio of more than 1.5 and a student t-test P value <0.05. After MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis, 11 differentially expressed proteins, including 3 up-regulated and 8 down-regulated proteins, in ascites of chemoresistant tumors were successfully identified. Of the four selected proteins (ceruloplasmin, apoliprotein A-IV, transthyretin and haptoglobin) in ascites tested by ELISA, only ceruloplasmin was present at significantly different levels between the chemoresistant and chemosensitive ascites samples with average concentrations of 192.2 g/ml and 157.5 g/ml, respectively (P?=?0.001). Conclusion The significantly up-regulated level of ceruloplasmin in the ascites fluid of intrinsic chemoresistant serous EOC patients suggests its potential as a prognostic biomarker for responses to chemotherapy. This finding prompts further investigation with a larger study in order to validate the clinical utility of ceruloplasmin. PMID:23251472

  18. IMP1 promotes tumor growth, dissemination and a tumor-initiating cell phenotype in colorectal cancer cell xenografts.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kathryn E; Noubissi, Felicite K; Katti, Prateek S; Hahn, Christopher M; Davey, Sonya R; Lundsmith, Emma T; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Rhim, Andrew D; Spiegelman, Vladimir S; Rustgi, Anil K

    2013-11-01

    Igf2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IMP1, CRD-BP, ZBP-1) is a messenger RNA binding protein that we have shown previously to regulate colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, increased IMP1 expression correlates with enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in CRC patients. In the current study, we sought to elucidate IMP1-mediated functions in CRC pathogenesis in vivo. Using CRC cell xenografts, we demonstrate that IMP1 overexpression promotes xenograft tumor growth and dissemination into the blood. Furthermore, intestine-specific knockdown of Imp1 dramatically reduces tumor number in the Apc (Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis. In addition, IMP1 knockdown xenografts exhibit a reduced number of tumor cells entering the circulation, suggesting that IMP1 may directly modulate this early metastatic event. We further demonstrate that IMP1 overexpression decreases E-cadherin expression, promotes survival of single tumor cell-derived colonospheres and promotes enrichment and maintenance of a population of CD24+CD44+ cells, signifying that IMP1 overexpressing cells display evidence of loss of epithelial identity and enhancement of a tumor-initiating cell phenotype. Taken together, these findings implicate IMP1 as a modulator of tumor growth and provide evidence for a novel role of IMP1 in early events in CRC metastasis. PMID:23764754

  19. IMP1 promotes tumor growth, dissemination and a tumor-initiating cell phenotype in colorectal cancer cell xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kathryn E.; Noubissi, Felicite K.; Rustgi, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    Igf2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IMP1, CRD-BP, ZBP-1) is a messenger RNA binding protein that we have shown previously to regulate colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, increased IMP1 expression correlates with enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in CRC patients. In the current study, we sought to elucidate IMP1-mediated functions in CRC pathogenesis in vivo. Using CRC cell xenografts, we demonstrate that IMP1 overexpression promotes xenograft tumor growth and dissemination into the blood. Furthermore, intestine-specific knockdown of Imp1 dramatically reduces tumor number in the Apc Min/+ mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis. In addition, IMP1 knockdown xenografts exhibit a reduced number of tumor cells entering the circulation, suggesting that IMP1 may directly modulate this early metastatic event. We further demonstrate that IMP1 overexpression decreases E-cadherin expression, promotes survival of single tumor cell-derived colonospheres and promotes enrichment and maintenance of a population of CD24+CD44+ cells, signifying that IMP1 overexpressing cells display evidence of loss of epithelial identity and enhancement of a tumor-initiating cell phenotype. Taken together, these findings implicate IMP1 as a modulator of tumor growth and provide evidence for a novel role of IMP1 in early events in CRC metastasis. PMID:23764754

  20. Tumor Growth Modeling from the Perspective of Multiphase Porous Media Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Scium, G.; Shelton, S.E.; Gray, W.G.; Miller, C.T.; Hussain, F.; Ferrari, M.; Decuzzi, P.; Schrefler, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiphase porous media mechanics is used for modeling tumor growth, using governing equations obtained via the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT). This approach incorporates the interaction of more phases than legacy tumor growth models. The tumor is treated as a multiphase system composed of an extracellular matrix, tumor cells which may become necrotic depending on the nutrient level and the pressure, healthy cells and an interstitial fluid which transports nutrients. The governing equations are numerically solved within a Finite Element framework for predicting the growth rate of the tumor mass, and of its individual components, as a function of the initial tumor-to-healthy cell density ratio, nutrient concentration, and mechanical strain. Preliminary results are shown. PMID:23285734

  1. Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity and Longitudinal Growth in Children With Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Triana, Clímaco Andres; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D.; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Jiménez-Méndez, Ricardo; Medina, Aurora; Clark, Patricia; Rassekh, Rod; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Carleton, Bruce; Medeiros, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cisplatin, a major antineoplastic drug used in the treatment of solid tumors, is a known nephrotoxin. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the prevalence and severity of cisplatin nephrotoxicity in 54 children and its impact on height and weight. We recorded the weight, height, serum creatinine, and electrolytes in each cisplatin cycle and after 12 months of treatment. Nephrotoxicity was graded as follows: normal renal function (Grade 0); asymptomatic electrolyte disorders, including an increase in serum creatinine, up to 1.5 times baseline value (Grade 1); need for electrolyte supplementation <3 months and/or increase in serum creatinine 1.5 to 1.9 times from baseline (Grade 2); increase in serum creatinine 2 to 2.9 times from baseline or need for electrolyte supplementation for more than 3 months after treatment completion (Grade 3); and increase in serum creatinine ≥3 times from baseline or renal replacement therapy (Grade 4). Nephrotoxicity was observed in 41 subjects (75.9%). Grade 1 nephrotoxicity was observed in 18 patients (33.3%), Grade 2 in 5 patients (9.2%), and Grade 3 in 18 patients (33.3%). None had Grade 4 nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity patients were younger and received higher cisplatin dose, they also had impairment in longitudinal growth manifested as statistically significant worsening on the height Z Score at 12 months after treatment. We used a multiple logistic regression model using the delta of height Z Score (baseline-12 months) as dependent variable in order to adjust for the main confounder variables such as: germ cell tumor, cisplatin total dose, serum magnesium levels at 12 months, gender, and nephrotoxicity grade. Patients with nephrotoxicity Grade 1 where at higher risk of not growing (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.07–24.3, P = 0.04). The cisplatin total dose had a significant negative relationship with magnesium levels at 12 months (Spearman r = −0.527, P = <0.001). PMID:26313789

  2. TGFβ signaling regulates epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in ovarian cancer ascites-derived spheroids.

    PubMed

    Rafehi, Samah; Valdes, Yudith Ramos; Bertrand, Monique; McGee, Jacob; Préfontaine, Michel; Sugimoto, Akira; DiMattia, Gabriel E; Shepherd, Trevor G

    2016-03-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) serves as a key mechanism driving tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in many carcinomas. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling is implicated in several steps during cancer pathogenesis and acts as a classical inducer of EMT. Since epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells have the potential to switch between epithelial and mesenchymal states during metastasis, we predicted that modulation of TGFβ signaling would significantly impact EMT and the malignant potential of EOC spheroid cells. Ovarian cancer patient ascites-derived cells naturally underwent an EMT response when aggregating into spheroids, and this was reversed upon spheroid re-attachment to a substratum. CDH1/E-cadherin expression was markedly reduced in spheroids compared with adherent cells, in concert with an up-regulation of several transcriptional repressors, i.e., SNAI1/Snail, TWIST1/2, and ZEB2. Treatment of EOC spheroids with the TGFβ type I receptor inhibitor, SB-431542, potently blocked the endogenous activation of EMT in spheroids. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with SB-431542 upon re-attachment enhanced the epithelial phenotype of dispersing cells and significantly decreased cell motility and Transwell migration. Spheroid formation was significantly compromised by exposure to SB-431542 that correlated with a reduction in cell viability particularly in combination with carboplatin treatment. Thus, our findings are the first to demonstrate that intact TGFβ signaling is required to control EMT in EOC ascites-derived cell spheroids, and it promotes the malignant characteristics of these structures. As such, we show the therapeutic potential for targeted inhibition of this pathway in ovarian cancer patients with late-stage disease. PMID:26647384

  3. Myeloid Cell COX-2 deletion reduces mammary tumor growth through enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Edward P.; Markosyan, Nune; Connolly, Emma; Lawson, John A.; Li, Xuanwen; Grant, Gregory R.; Grosser, Tilo; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Smyth, Emer M.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is associated with poor prognosis across a range of human cancers, including breast cancer. The contribution of tumor cell-derived COX-2 to tumorigenesis has been examined in numerous studies; however, the role of stromal-derived COX-2 is ill-defined. Here, we examined how COX-2 in myeloid cells, an immune cell subset that includes macrophages, influences mammary tumor progression. In mice engineered to selectively lack myeloid cell COX-2 [myeloid-COX-2 knockout (KO) mice], spontaneous neu oncogene-induced tumor onset was delayed, tumor burden reduced, and tumor growth slowed compared with wild-type (WT). Similarly, growth of neu-transformed mammary tumor cells as orthotopic tumors in immune competent syngeneic myeloid-COX-2 KO host mice was reduced compared with WT. By flow cytometric analysis, orthotopic myeloid-COX-2 KO tumors had lower tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration consistent with impaired colony stimulating factor-1-dependent chemotaxis by COX-2 deficient macrophages in vitro. Further, in both spontaneous and orthotopic tumors, COX-2-deficient TAM displayed lower immunosuppressive M2 markers and this was coincident with less suppression of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in myeloid-COX-2 KO tumors. These studies suggest that reduced tumor growth in myeloid-COX-2 KO mice resulted from disruption of M2-like TAM function, thereby enhancing T-cell survival and immune surveillance. Antibody-mediated depletion of CD8+, but not CD4+ cells, restored tumor growth in myeloid-COX-2 KO to WT levels, indicating that CD8+ CTLs are dominant antitumor effectors in myeloid-COX-2 KO mice. Our studies suggest that inhibition of myeloid cell COX-2 can potentiate CTL-mediated tumor cytotoxicity and may provide a novel therapeutic approach in breast cancer therapy. PMID:24590894

  4. The autophagic tumor stroma model of cancer or "battery-operated tumor growth": A simple solution to the autophagy paradox.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Pavlides, Stephanos; Chiavarina, Barbara; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Casey, Trimmer; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Migneco, Gemma; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka; Balliet, Renee; Mercier, Isabelle; Wang, Chengwang; Flomenberg, Neal; Howell, Anthony; Lin, Zhao; Caro, Jaime; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2010-11-01

    The role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is controversial. Both autophagy inhibitors (chloroquine) and autophagy promoters (rapamycin) block tumorigenesis by unknown mechanism(s). This is called the "Autophagy Paradox". We have recently reported a simple solution to this paradox. We demonstrated that epithelial cancer cells use oxidative stress to induce autophagy in the tumor microenvironment. As a consequence, the autophagic tumor stroma generates recycled nutrients that can then be used as chemical building blocks by anabolic epithelial cancer cells. This model results in a net energy transfer from the tumor stroma to epithelial cancer cells (an energy imbalance), thereby promoting tumor growth. This net energy transfer is both unilateral and vectorial, from the tumor stroma to the epithelial cancer cells, representing a true host-parasite relationship. We have termed this new paradigm "The Autophagic Tumor Stroma Model of Cancer Cell Metabolism" or "Battery-Operated Tumor Growth". In this sense, autophagy in the tumor stroma serves as a "battery" to fuel tumor growth, progression and metastasis, independently of angiogenesis. Using this model, the systemic induction of autophagy will prevent epithelial cancer cells from using recycled nutrients, while the systemic inhibiton of autophagy will prevent stromal cells from producing recycled nutrients-both effectively "starving" cancer cells. We discuss the idea that tumor cells could become resistant to the systemic induction of autophagy, by the upregulation of natural endogenous autophagy inhibitors in cancer cells. Alternatively, tumor cells could also become resistant to the systemic induction of autophagy, by the genetic silencing/deletion of pro-autophagic molecules, such as Beclin1. If autophagy resistance develops in cancer cells, then the systemic inhibition of autophagy would provide a therapeutic solution to this type of drug resistance, as it would still target autophagy in the tumor stroma. As such, an anti-cancer therapy that combines the alternating use of both autophagy promoters and autophagy inhibitors would be expected to prevent the onset of drug resistance. We also discuss why anti-angiogenic therapy has been found to promote tumor recurrence, progression and metastasis. More specifically, anti-angiogenic therapy would induce autophagy in the tumor stroma via the induction of stromal hypoxia, thereby converting a non-aggressive tumor type to a "lethal" aggressive tumor phenotype. Thus, uncoupling the metabolic parasitic relationship between cancer cells and an autophagic tumor stroma may hold great promise for anti-cancer therapy. Finally, we believe that autophagy in the tumor stroma is the local microscopic counterpart of systemic wasting (cancer-associated cachexia), which is associated with advanced and metastatic cancers. Cachexia in cancer patients is not due to decreased energy intake, but instead involves an increased basal metabolic rate and increased energy expenditures, resulting in a negative energy balance. Importantly, when tumors were surgically excised, this increased metabolic rate returned to normal levels. This view of cachexia, resulting in energy transfer to the tumor, is consistent with our hypothesis. So, cancer-associated cachexia may start locally as stromal autophagy, and then spread systemically. As such, stromal autophagy may be the requisite precursor of systemic cancer-associated cachexia. PMID:21051947

  5. Influence of Cancer-Associated Endometrial Stromal Cells on Hormone-Driven Endometrial Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, M. J.; Lu, Z.; Cao, D.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts have been shown to inhibit or stimulate tumor growth depending on stage, grade, and tumor type. It remains unclear, however, the effect of endometrial-cancer-associated fibroblasts on hormone-driven responses in endometrial cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of normal and cancer-associated stromal cells from patients with and without endometrial cancer on endometrial tumor growth in response to estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). Compared to benign endometrial stromal cells, the low-grade and high-grade cancer-associated stromal cells exhibited a blunted hormone response for proliferation as well as IGFBP1 secretion. Additional analysis of the influence of stromal cells on hormone-driven tumor growth was done by mixing stromal cells from benign, low-grade, or high-grade tumors, with Ishikawa cells for subcutaneous tumor formation. The presence of both benign and high-grade cancer-associated stromal cells increased estradiol-driven xenografted tumor growth compared to Ishikawa cells alone. Low-grade cancer-associated stromal cells did not significantly influence hormone-regulated tumor growth. Addition of P4 attenuated tumor growth in Ishikawa + benign or high-grade stromal cells, but not in Ishikawa cells alone or with low-grade stromal cells. Using an angiogenesis focused real-time array TGFA, TGFB2 and TGFBR1 and VEGFC were identified as potential candidates for hormone-influenced growth regulation of tumors in the presence of benign and high-grade stromal cells. In summary, endometrial-cancer-associated cells responded differently to in vitro hormone treatment compared to benign endometrial stromal cells. Additionally, presence of stromal cells differentially influenced hormone-driven xenograft growth in vivo depending on the disease status of the stromal cells. PMID:25976290

  6. pHLIP-mediated targeting of truncated tissue factor to tumor vessels causes vascular occlusion and impairs tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Yinlong; Su, Shishuai; Wang, Jing; Wu, Meiyu; Shi, Quanwei; Anderson, Gregory J.; Thomsen, Johannes; Zhao, Ruifang; Ji, Tianjiao; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Occluding tumor blood supply by delivering the extracellular domain of coagulation-inducing protein tissue factor (truncated tissue factor, tTF) to tumor vasculature has enormous potential to eliminate solid tumors. Yet few of the delivery technologies are moved into clinical practice due to their non-specific tissue biodistribution and rapid clearance by the reticuloendothelial system. Here we introduced a novel tTF delivery method by generating a fusion protein (tTF-pHLIP) consisting of tTF fused with a peptide with a low pH-induced transmembrane structure (pHLIP). This protein targets the acidic tumor vascular endothelium and effectively induces local blood coagulation. tTF-pHLIP, wherein pHLIP is cleverly designed to mimic the natural tissue factor transmembrane domain, triggered thrombogenic activity of the tTF by locating it to the endothelial cell surface, as demonstrated by coagulation assays and confocal microscopy. Systemic administration of tTF-pHLIP into tumor-bearing mice selectively induced thrombotic occlusion of tumor vessels, reducing tumor perfusion and impairing tumor growth without overt side effects. Our work introduces a promising strategy for using tTF as an anti-cancer drug, which has great potential value for clinical applications. PMID:26143637

  7. Macrophage depletion reduces postsurgical tumor recurrence and metastatic growth in a spontaneous murine model of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Muly; Khoo, Karen; Yeo, Kim Pin; Kato, Masashi; Prevost-Blondel, Amelle; Angeli, Veronique; Abastado, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection of tumors is often followed by regrowth at the primary site and metastases may emerge rapidly following removal of the primary tumor. Macrophages are important drivers of tumor growth, and here we investigated their involvement in postoperative relapse as well as explore macrophage depletion as an adjuvant to surgical resection. RETAAD mice develop spontaneous metastatic melanoma that begins in the eye. Removal of the eyes as early as 1 week of age did not prevent the development of metastases; rather, surgery led to increased proliferation of tumor cells locally and in distant metastases. Surgery-induced increase in tumor cell proliferation correlated with increased macrophage density within the tumor. Moreover, macrophages stimulate tumor sphere formation from tumor cells of post-surgical but not control mice. Macrophage depletion with a diet containing the CSF-1R specific kinase inhibitor Ki20227 following surgery significantly reduced postoperative tumor recurrence and abrogated enhanced metastatic outgrowth. Our results confirm that tumor cells disseminate early, and show that macrophages contribute both to post-surgical tumor relapse and growth of metastases, likely through stimulating a population of tumor-initiating cells. Thus macrophage depletion warrants exploration as an adjuvant to surgical resection. PMID:25762633

  8. Control of Tumor Growth in Animals by Infusion of an Angiogenesis Inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Robert; Conn, Howard; Vacanti, Joseph; Haudenschild, Christian; Folkman, Judah

    1980-07-01

    Angiogenesis and tumor growth were inhibited in two different animal models by regional infusion of a partially purified cartilage extract. In rabbits bearing corneal implants of V2 carcinoma and receiving the inhibitor, vascular growth rates were <3% of those in control animals receiving either Ringer's solution or bovine trypsin inhibitor (Trasylol). Subconjunctival B16 melanoma implants in mice receiving the inhibitor weighed <2.5% of implants in mice receiving Ringer's solution, Trasylol, or albumin. Histologic study of major organs and standard blood tests revealed no toxic effects in any of the animals. The inhibitor did not retard the growth of either tumor cell type in tissue culture at concentrations as high as 1 mg/ml. These results suggest that the cartilage factor does not interfere with the growth of the tumor cell population directly but that it prevents tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis.

  9. Insulin-like growth factors and insulin: at the crossroad between tumor development and longevity.

    PubMed

    Novosyadlyy, Ruslan; Leroith, Derek

    2012-06-01

    Numerous lines of evidence indicate that insulin-like growth factor signaling plays an important role in the regulation of life span and tumor development. In the present paper, the role of individual components of insulin-like growth factor signaling in aging and tumor development has been extensively analyzed. The molecular mechanisms underlying aging and tumor development are frequently overlapping. Although the link between reduced insulin-like growth factor signaling and suppressed tumor growth and development is well established, it remains unclear whether extended life span results from direct suppression of insulin-like growth factor signaling or this effect is caused by indirect mechanisms such as improved insulin sensitivity. PMID:22421704

  10. Control exponential growth of tumor cells with slow spread of oncolytic virus.

    PubMed

    Si, Wen; Zhang, Weinian

    2015-02-21

    Great attention has been paid to cancer therapy by means of oncolytic viruses, but the fast virus-spread, which eliminates all tumor cells, cannot be applied to solid tumors. As slow virus-spread is applied, solid tumors are expected to be controlled but complicated dynamical behaviors appear. In this paper we investigate bifurcations of equilibria in the oncolytic virus dynamics model with exponential growth of tumor cells and slow virus-spread. We find conditions of parameters for saddle-node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation. Those conditions give thresholds for slow virus-spread to control the population of tumor cells within an appropriate range. PMID:25435412

  11. SSAO inhibitors suppress hepatocellular tumor growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Li, Hui; Luo, Hong-Jun; Lin, Zhe-Xuan; Jiang, Zhi-Wu; Luo, Wen-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is both an endothelial adhesion molecule involved in leukocytes emigration, and an oxidase belonging to the family of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases (SSAOs). The enzyme activity of VAP-1 plays an important role in the migration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) into tumor site, and SSAO inhibitors can block the function of VAP-1. The effects of SSAO inhibitors on leukocyte infiltration and tumor progression were evaluated in H22 hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice. Tumor weight and volume were measured after SSAO inhibitor treatment. Then, MDSCs recruitment and neo-angiogenesis were determined using immunostaining. SSAO inhibitors significantly blocked the catalytic activity of VAP-1 in tumor, attenuated tumor progression, and reduced neo-angiogenesis. CD11b(+) and Gr-1(+) MDSCs, which normally infiltrate into tumors, were significantly diminished in tumor-bearing mice treated with SSAO inhibitors. The present study demonstrated that SSAO inhibitors might have an anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting recruitment of CD11b(+) and Gr-1(+) cells and hindering angiogenesis, which could be attributed to impairing the catalytic activity of VAP-1. PMID:23850964

  12. Fufang Kushen injection inhibits sarcoma growth and tumor-induced hyperalgesia via TRPV1 signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhizheng; Fan, Huiting; Higgins, Tim; Qi, Jia; Haines, Diana; Trivett, Anna; Oppenheim, Joost J.; Wei, Hou; Li, Jie; Lin, Hongsheng; Howard, O.M. Zack

    2014-01-01

    Cancer pain is a deleterious consequence of tumor growth and related inflammation. Opioids and antiinflammatory drugs provide first line treatment for cancer pain, but both are limited by side effects. Fufang Kushen injection (FKI) is GMP produced, traditional Chinese medicine used alone or with chemotherapy to reduce cancer-associated pain. FKI limited mouse sarcoma growth both in vivo and in vitro, in part, by reducing the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT kinases and BAD. FKI inhibited TRPV1 mediated capsaicin-induced ERK phosphorylation and reduced tumor-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Thus, FKI limited cancer pain both directly by blocking TRPV1 signaling and indirectly by reducing tumor growth. PMID:25242356

  13. Is tumor growth sustained by rare cancer stem cells or dominant clones?

    PubMed

    Adams, Jerry M; Strasser, Andreas

    2008-06-01

    A key issue for cancer biology and therapy is whether the relentless growth of a tumor is driven by a substantial proportion of its cells or exclusively by a rare subpopulation, commonly termed "cancer stem cells." Support for the cancer stem cell model has been stimulated by experiments in which human tumor cells were transplanted into immunodeficient mice. Most notably, in human acute myeloid leukemia, only a minute proportion of the cells, displaying a defined phenotype, could seed leukemia in mice. Xenotransplantation, however, may fail to reveal many tumor growth-sustaining cells because the foreign microenvironment precludes essential interactions with support cells. In studies that instead have transplanted mouse leukemias and lymphomas into syngeneic animals, most of the tumors seem to be maintained by the dominant cell population, and only a few types of mouse leukemia seem to be sustained by a minor tumor growth-sustaining subpopulation. The collective evidence suggests that various tumors may span the spectrum between the extremes represented by the two models. If tumor growth can indeed be sustained either by rare cancer stem cells or dominant clones or both, as current evidence suggests, curative therapy for many types of tumors will most likely require targeting all the tumor cell populations. PMID:18519656

  14. Omental adipose tissue-derived stromal cells promote vascularization and growth of endometrial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Klopp, Ann H.; Zhang, Yan; Solley, Travis; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Marini, Frank; Andreeff, Michael; Debeb, Bisrat; Woodward, Wendy; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Broaddus, Russell; Lu, Karen; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Adipose tissue contains a population of tumor-tropic mesenchymal progenitors, termed adipose stromal cells (ASC), which engraft in neighboring tumors to form supportive tumor stroma. We hypothesized that intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue may contain a uniquely tumor promoting population of ASC to account for the relationship between excess visceral adipose tissue and mortality of intra-abdominal cancers. Experimental Design To investigate this, we isolated and characterized ASC from intra-abdominal omental adipose tissue (O-ASC) and characterized their effects on endometrial cancer progression as compared to subcutaneous adipose derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SC-ASC), bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) and lung fibroblasts. To model chronic recruitment of ASC by tumors, cells were injected metronomically into mice bearing Hec1a xenografts. Results O-ASC expressed cell surface markers characteristic of BM-MSC and differentiated into mesenchymal lineages. Co-culture with O-ASC increased endometrial cancer cell proliferation in-vitro. Tumor tropism of O-ASC and SC-ASC for human Hec1a endometrial tumor xenografts was comparable, but O-ASC more potently promoted tumor growth. Compared with tumors in SC-ASC-injected mice, tumors in O-ASC-injected mice contained higher numbers of large tortuous desmin-positive blood vessels, which correlated with decreased central tumor necrosis and increased tumor cell proliferation. O-ASC-exhibited enhanced motility as compared to SC-ASC in response to Hec1a secreted factors. Conclusions Visceral adipose contains a population of multipotent MSC that promote endometrial tumor growth more potently than MSC from subcutaneous adipose tissue. We propose that O-ASC recruited to tumors express specific factors that enhance tumor vascularization, promoting survival and proliferation of tumor cells. PMID:22167410

  15. Integrin ?v?6 sustains and promotes tumor invasive growth in colon cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang-Yun; Guo, Sen; Dong, Cong-Ying; Wang, Xian-Qiang; Hu, Bing-Yang; Liu, Yang-Feng; Chen, Yong-Wei; Niu, Jun; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To detect the mechanism by which colon tumor escapes the growth constraints imposed on normal cells by cell crowding and dense pericellular matrices. METHODS: An immunohistochemical study of integrin ?v?6 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was performed on tissue microarrays of 200 spots, including 100 cases of colon tumors. RESULTS: High immunoreactivity for ?v?6 (73.7%; 28/38) and MMP-9 (76.5%; 52/68) was observed in invasive tumor portions. Furthermore, the effects of integrin ?v?6 on tumor invasive growth in nude mice were detected. Tumor invasive growth and high expression of both ?v?6 and MMP-9 were only seen in tumors resulting from WiDr cells expressing ?v?6 in the tumorigenicity assay. Flow cytometry was applied to analyze ?v?6 expression in colon cancer WiDr and SW480 cells. The effects of cell density on ?v?6 expression and MMP-9 secretion were also detected by Biotrak MMP-9 activity assay and gelatin zymography assay. High cell density evidently enhanced ?v?6 expression and promoted MMP-9 secretion compared with low density. CONCLUSION: Integrin ?v?6 sustains and promotes tumor invasive growth in tumor progression via a self-perpetuating mechanism. Integrin ???6-mediated MMP-9 secretion facilitates pericellular matrix degradation at high cell density, which provides the basis of invasive growth. PMID:26139991

  16. Naproxen, clenbuterol and insulin administration ameliorates cancer cachexia and reduce tumor growth in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Piffar, P M; Fernandez, R; Tchaikovski, O; Hirabara, S M; Folador, A; Pinto, G J; Jakobi, S; Gobbo-Bordon, D; Rohn, T V; Fabrcio, V E B; Moretto, K D; Tosta, E; Curi, R; Fernandes, L C

    2003-11-25

    Cancer cachexia is characterized by anorexia and intense peripheral catabolism. We examine the potential benefits of combination of different anabolic agents such as insulin and clenbuterol associated to prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor (naproxen) on tumor growth, cachexia and renal function in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats (WK). Groups were separated into WK, and WK with naproxen (WK N) or naproxen plus clenbuterol (WK NCb) or naproxen plus clenbuterol plus insulin (WK NCbI). Treatment begins at the 4th day after tumor inoculation, at the 14th day they were killed, glycemia, lacticidemia, glycogen content from liver, soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, tumor mass, body weight and kidney function were determined. Glycemia and glycogen content were reduced and lacticidemia increased in WK (p<0.05) as compared to control rats. The glycogen content recovered in all treated groups. Tumor weight was significantly reduced by the different treatments. At the 14th weight change (carcass-initial body weight) in the control increased by 38% and in the WK -2%. Naproxen treatment (WK N) induced an increased by 14%. The inclusion of clenbuterol (WK NCb) and insulin (WK NCbI) by 38 and 41%, respectively. Mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased in the WK (p<0.05) as compared to control, but in the WK NCb the GFR was similar to control. Our results suggest that naproxen is able to reduce tumor growth and its association with insulin and clenbuterol induce mass weight gain and recovery energy fuel. PMID:14607327

  17. Pharmacological Inhibition of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 Suppresses Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mediated Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bocci, Elena; Coletta, Isabella; Polenzani, Lorenzo; Mangano, Giorgina; Alisi, Maria Alessandra; Cazzolla, Nicola; Giachetti, Antonio; Ziche, Marina; Donnini, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background Blockade of Prostaglandin (PG) E2 production via deletion of microsomal Prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) gene reduces tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo on xenograft tumors. So far the therapeutic potential of the pharmacological inhibition of mPGES-1 has not been elucidated. PGE2 promotes epithelial tumor progression via multiple signaling pathways including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we evaluated the antitumor activity of AF3485, a compound of a novel family of human mPGES-1 inhibitors, in vitro and in vivo, in mice bearing human A431 xenografts overexpressing EGFR. Treatment of the human cell line A431 with interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) increased mPGES-1 expression, PGE2 production and induced EGFR phosphorylation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression. AF3485 reduced PGE2 production, both in quiescent and in cells stimulated by IL-1β. AF3485 abolished IL-1β-induced activation of the EGFR, decreasing VEGF and FGF-2 expression, and tumor-mediated endothelial tube formation. In vivo, in A431 xenograft, AF3485, administered sub-chronically, decreased tumor growth, an effect related to inhibition of EGFR signalling, and to tumor microvessel rarefaction. In fact, we observed a decrease of EGFR phosphorylation, and VEGF and FGF-2 expression in tumours explanted from treated mice. Conclusion Our work demonstrates that the pharmacological inhibition of mPGES-1 reduces squamous carcinoma growth by suppressing PGE2 mediated-EGFR signalling and by impairing tumor associated angiogenesis. These results underscore the potential of mPGES-1 inhibitors as agents capable of controlling tumor growth. PMID:22815767

  18. Four Cases of Chylous Ascites following Robotic Gynecologic Oncological Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gmen, Ahmet; Avc?, Muhittin Eftal; Sanl?kan, Fatih; Uar, Mustafa Gazi

    2014-01-01

    Chylous ascites is an uncommon form of ascites characterized by milky-appearing fluid caused by blocked or disrupted lymph flow through chyle-transporting vessels. The most common causes of chylous ascites are therapeutic interventions and trauma. In this report, we present four cases of chylous ascites following robot-assisted surgery for endometrial staging and the treatment strategies that we used. After retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, leaving a drain is very useful in diagnosing chylous ascites and observing its resolution; furthermore, the use of octreotide in conjunction with TPN appears to be an efficient treatment modality for chylous ascites and should be considered before any invasive intervention. PMID:24716036

  19. Endothelial Jagged1 promotes solid tumor growth through both pro-angiogenic and angiocrine functions

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Ana-Rita; Trindade, Alexandre; Carvalho, Catarina; Graça, José; Carvalho, Sandra; Peleteiro, Maria C.; Adams, Ralf H.; Duarte, António

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process required for tumor growth and progression. The Notch signaling pathway has been identified as a key regulator of the neo-angiogenic process. Jagged-1 (Jag1) is a Notch ligand required for embryonic and retinal vascular development, which direct contribution to the regulation of tumor angiogenesis remains to be fully characterized. The current study addresses the role of endothelial Jagged1-mediated Notch signaling in the context of tumoral angiogenesis in two different mouse tumor models: subcutaneous Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumor transplants and the autochthonous Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP). The role of endothelial Jagged1 in tumor growth and neo-angiogenesis was investigated with endothelial-specific Jag1 gain- and loss-of-function mouse mutants (eJag1OE and eJag1cKO). By modulating levels of endothelial Jag1, we observed that this ligand regulates tumor vessel density, branching, and perivascular maturation, thus affecting tumor vascular perfusion. The pro-angiogenic function is exerted by its ability to positively regulate levels of Vegfr-2 while negatively regulating Vegfr-1. Additionally, endothelial Jagged1 appears to exert an angiocrine function possibly by activating Notch3/Hey1 in tumor cells, promoting proliferation, survival and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), potentiating tumor development. These findings provide valuable mechanistic insights into the role of endothelial Jagged1 in promoting solid tumor development and support the notion that it may constitute a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:26213336

  20. On a Nonlinear Model for Tumor Growth: Global in Time Weak Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donatelli, Donatella; Trivisa, Konstantina

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a class of tumor growth models known as mixed models. The key characteristic of these type of tumor growth models is that the different populations of cells are continuously present everywhere in the tumor at all times. In this work we focus on the evolution of tumor growth in the presence of proliferating, quiescent and dead cells as well as a nutrient. The system is given by a multi-phase flow model and the tumor is described as a growing continuum Ω with boundary ∂Ω both of which evolve in time. Global-in-time weak solutions are obtained using an approach based on penalization of the boundary behavior, diffusion and viscosity in the weak formulation.

  1. Tumor growth model for atlas based registration of pathological brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moualhi, Wafa; Ezzeddine, Zagrouba

    2015-02-01

    The motivation of this work is to register a tumor brain magnetic resonance (MR) image with a normal brain atlas. A normal brain atlas is deformed in order to take account of the presence of a large space occupying tumor. The method use a priori model of tumor growth assuming that the tumor grows in a radial way from a starting point. First, an affine transformation is used in order to bring the patient image and the brain atlas in a global correspondence. Second, the seeding of a synthetic tumor into the brain atlas provides a template for the lesion. Finally, the seeded atlas is deformed combining a method derived from optical flow principles and a model for tumor growth (MTG). Results show that an automatic segmentation method of brain structures in the presence of large deformation can be provided.

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor c promotes ovarian carcinoma progression through paracrine and autocrine mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Decio, Alessandra; Taraboletti, Giulia; Patton, Veronica; Alzani, Rachele; Perego, Patrizia; Fruscio, Robert; Jürgensmeier, Juliane M; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Belotti, Dorina

    2014-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) has been reported to promote tumor progression in several tumor types, mainly through the stimulation of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. However, the expression and biological significance of the VEGFC/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 pathway in ovarian cancer growth and dissemination are unclear, and have been investigated in this study. Soluble VEGFC was detected in the plasma and ascites of patients with ovarian carcinoma, and VEGFR3 expression was found in their tumor tissues. In human ovarian carcinoma xenograft models, high levels of soluble VEGFC in ascites and serum were detected, in association with disease progression, tumor burden, and volume of ascites. Peak VEGFC expression preceded para-aortic lymph node infiltration by HOC8 neoplastic cells. Histological detection of tumor cells in blood and lymphatic vessels indicated both hematogenous and lymphatic dissemination. Overexpression of VEGFC in the VEGFR3-positive and luciferase-expressing IGROV1 cells promoted carcinoma dissemination after orthotopic transplantation in the ovary of immunodeficient mice. In vitro, VEGFC released by the tumor cells stimulated tumor cell migration in an autocrine manner. Cediranib, an inhibitor of VEGFR1-3 and c-kit, inhibited in vivo metastasis of VEGFC-overexpressing IGROV1 and in vitro autocrine effects. These findings suggest that the VEGFC/VEGFR3 pathway acts as an enhancer of ovarian cancer progression through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms, hence offering a potential target for therapy. PMID:24508126

  3. The effect of interstitial pressure on tumor growth: coupling with the blood and lymphatic vascular systems

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B.; McDougall, Steven R.; Chaplain, Mark A.J.; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2013-01-01

    The flow of interstitial fluid and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in solid tumors and surrounding host tissues have been identified as critical elements in cancer growth and vascularization. Both experimental and theoretical studies have shown that tumors may present elevated IFP, which can be a formidable physical barrier for delivery of cell nutrients and small molecules into the tumor. Elevated IFP may also exacerbate gradients of biochemical signals such as angiogenic factors released by tumors into the surrounding tissues. These studies have helped to understand both biochemical signaling and treatment prognosis. Building upon previous work, here we develop a vascular tumor growth model by coupling a continuous growth model with a discrete angiogenesis model. We include fluid/oxygen extravasation as well as a continuous lymphatic field, and study the micro-environmental fluid dynamics and their effect on tumor growth by accounting for blood flow, transcapillary fluid flux, interstitial fluid flow, and lymphatic drainage. We thus elucidate further the non-trivial relationship between the key elements contributing to the effects of interstitial pressure in solid tumors. In particular, we study the effect of IFP on oxygen extravasation and show that small blood/lymphatic vessel resistance and collapse may contribute to lower transcapillary fluid/oxygen flux, thus decreasing the rate of tumor growth. We also investigate the effect of tumor vascular pathologies, including elevated vascular and interstitial hydraulic conductivities inside the tumor as well as diminished osmotic pressure differences, on the fluid flow across the tumor capillary bed, the lymphatic drainage, and the IFP. Our results reveal that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity together with poor lymphatic function is the root cause of the development of plateau profiles of the IFP in the tumor, which have been observed in experiments, and contributes to a more uniform distribution of oxygen, solid tumor pressure and a broad-based collapse of the tumor lymphatics. We also find that the rate that IFF is fluxed into the lymphatics and host tissue is largely controlled by an elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity in the tumor. We discuss the implications of these results on microenvironmental transport barriers, and the tumor invasive and metastatic potential. Our results suggest the possibility of developing strategies of targeting tumor cells based on the cues in the interstitial fluid. PMID:23220211

  4. Co-implanting orthotopic tissue creates stroma microenvironment enhancing growth and angiogenesis of multiple tumors

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, Jan E

    2013-01-01

    Tumor models are needed to study cancer. Noninvasive imaging of tumors under native conditions in vivo is critical but challenging. Intravital microscopy (IVM) of subcutaneous tumors provides dynamic, continuous, long-term imaging at high resolution. Although popular, subcutaneous tumor models are often criticized for being ectopic and lacking orthotopic tissue microenvironments critical for proper development. Similar IVM of orthotopic and especially spontaneous tumors is seldom possible. Here, we generate and characterize tumor models in mice for breast, lung, prostate and ovarian cancer by co-engrafting tumor spheroids with orthotopic tissue in dorsal skin window chambers for IVM. We use tumor cells and tissue, both genetically engineered to express distinct fluorescent proteins, in order to distinguish neoplastic cells from engrafted tissue. IVM of this new, two-colored model reveals classic tumor morphology with red tumor cell nests surrounded by green stromal elements. The co-implanted tissue forms the supportive stroma and vasculature of these tumors. Tumor growth and angiogenesis are more robust when tumor cells are co-implanted with orthotopic tissue versus other tissues, or in the skin alone. The orthotopic tissue promotes tumor cell mitosis over apoptosis. With time, tumor cells can adapt to new environments and ultimately even grow better in the non-orthotopic tissue over the original orthotopic tissue. These models offer a significant advance by recreating an orthotopic microenvironment in an ectopic location that is still easy to image by IVM. These ectopic-orthotopic models provide an exceptional way to study tumor and stroma cells in cancer, and directly show the critical importance of microenvironment in the development of multiple tumors. PMID:24715954

  5. Paracrine signaling by platelet-derived growth factor-CC promotes tumor growth by recruitment of cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Anderberg, Charlotte; Li, Hong; Fredriksson, Linda; Andrae, Johanna; Betsholtz, Christer; Li, Xuri; Eriksson, Ulf; Pietras, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Cancer results from the concerted performance of malignant cells and stromal cells. Cell types populating the microenvironment are enlisted by the tumor to secrete a host of growth-promoting cues, thus upholding tumor initiation and progression. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) support the formation of a prominent tumor stromal compartment by as of yet unidentified molecular effectors. Whereas PDGF-CC induces fibroblast reactivity and fibrosis in a range of tissues, little is known about the function of PDGF-CC in shaping the tumor-stroma interplay. Herein, we present evidence for a paracrine signaling network involving PDGF-CC and PDGF receptor-alpha in malignant melanoma. Expression of PDGFC in a mouse model accelerated tumor growth through recruitment and activation of different subsets of cancer-associated fibroblasts. In seeking the molecular identity of the supporting factors provided by cancer-associated fibroblasts, we made use of antibody arrays and an in vivo coinjection model to identify osteopontin as the effector of the augmented tumor growth induced by PDGF-CC. In conclusion, we establish paracrine signaling by PDGF-CC as a potential drug target to reduce stromal support in malignant melanoma. PMID:19118022

  6. Defining MAP3 kinases required for MDA-MB-231 cell tumor growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Cronan, M R; Nakamura, K; Johnson, N L; Granger, D A; Cuevas, B D; Wang, J-G; Mackman, N; Scott, J E; Dohlman, H G; Johnson, G L

    2012-08-23

    Analysis of patient tumors suggests that multiple MAP3 kinases (MAP3Ks) are critical for growth and metastasis of cancer cells. MAP3Ks selectively control the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and ERK5 in response to receptor tyrosine kinases and GTPases. We used MDA-MB-231 cells because of their ability to metastasize from the breast fat pad to distant lymph nodes for an orthotopic xenograft model to screen the function of seven MAP3Ks in controlling tumor growth and metastasis. Stable short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown was used to inhibit the expression of each of the seven MAP3Ks, which were selected for their differential regulation of the MAPK network. The screen identified two MAP3Ks, MEKK2 and MLK3, whose shRNA knockdown caused significant inhibition of both tumor growth and metastasis. Neither MEKK2 nor MLK3 have been previously shown to regulate tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These results demonstrated that MAP3Ks, which differentially activate JNK, p38 and ERK5, are necessary for xenograft tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 tumors. The requirement for MAP3Ks signaling through multiple MAPK pathways explains why several members of the MAPK network are activated in cancer. MEKK2 was required for epidermal growth factor receptor and Her2/Neu activation of ERK5, with ERK5 being required for metastasis. Loss of MLK3 expression increased mitotic infidelity and apoptosis in vitro. Knockdown of MEKK2 and MLK3 resulted in increased apoptosis in orthotopic xenografts relative to control tumors in mice, inhibiting both tumor growth and metastasis; MEKK2 and MLK3 represent untargeted kinases in tumor biology for potential therapeutic development. PMID:22139075

  7. Functional analysis of tumor cell growth and clearance in living animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Thomas J.; Mailaender, V.; Tucker, Amanda A.; Olomu, A. B.; Zhang, Weisheng; Negrin, Robert S.; Contag, Christopher H.

    1999-07-01

    Evaluation of antineoplastic therapies would be enhanced by sensitive methods that noninvasively asses both tumor location and neoplastic growth kinetics in living animals. Since light is transmitted through mammalian tissues, it was possible to externally monitor growth and regression of luciferase labeled murine tumor cells engrafted into immunodeficient mice. External quantification of tumor burden revealed the biological impact of the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide on the kinetics of tumor growth in living animals. Therapeutic activity was apparent but this drug did not eliminate the NIH 3T3 cell signal over the 28 d time course. This novel, noninvasive system allowed sensitive, real time spatiotemporal analyses of neoplastic cell growth and may facilitate rapid optimization of effective therapeutic treatment regimes.

  8. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase suppresses NK cell activity and accelerates tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Kai, Seiichiro; Goto, Shigeru; Tahara, Kouichirou; Sasaki, Atsushi; Kawano, Katsunori; Kitano, Seigo

    2003-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan catabolizing enzyme, is induced under various pathological conditions, including viral and bacterial infection, allograft rejection, cerebral ischemia, and tumor growth. We have previously reported that the expression of IDO mRNA was increased in some clinical cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in which the recurrence-free survival rate in these IDO-positive patients was significantly higher than that in patients without IDO mRNA induction in tumors. Additionally, IDO expressed in tumors was localized not to the tumor cells but instead to tumor-infiltrating cells by immunohistochemistry. In this study, in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying anti-tumor effect of IDO, we investigated whether IDO inhibitor (1-methyl-dl-tryptophan, 1MT) affects the growth of subcutaneous B16 tumors in mice. Subsequently, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells was investigated under the conditions of inhibited IDO activity in vivo and in vitro. IDO mRNA expression of B16 cells, B16 subcutaneous tumor, sprenocytes of mice, and human NK cells were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. B16 subcutaneous tumor growth with or without IDO inhibition was observed and cytotoxic activity of NK cells were investigated under the conditions of inhibited IDO activity in vivo and in vitro. IDO mRNA was expressed in B16 subcutaneous tumor, splenocytes of tumor bearing mice, co-cultured splenocytes with B16, and human NK cells. On day 14, after injection of B16 melanoma cells, the sizes of tumors in IDO-inhibited mice were significantly larger than those in control mice. The cytotoxic activity of mice NK cells was reduced by IDO inhibition in vivo. In vitro inhibition of IDO, NK activity was reduced in dose-dependent manner of 1MT. In conclusion, these results indicated that IDO plays an important role in anti-tumor immunity by regulating cytotoxic activity of NK cells. PMID:14678522

  9. Human primary brain tumor cell growth inhibition in serum-free medium optimized for neuron survival.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Gregory J; LeRoux, Peter D

    2007-07-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults from which about 15,000 patients die each year in the United States. Despite aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, median survival remains only 1 year. Here we evaluate growth of primary human brain tumor cells in a defined nutrient culture medium (Neuregen) that was optimized for neuron regeneration. We hypothesized that Neuregen would inhibit tumor cell growth because of its ability to inhibit gliosis in rat brain. Tumor tissue was collected from 18 patients including 10 males and 8 females (mean age 60+/-12 years) who underwent craniotomy for newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed brain tumors. The tissue was shipped overnight in Hibernate transport medium. Tumor cells were isolated and plated in Neurobasal/serum or Neuregen on culture plastic. After 1 week, growth in Neuregen was significantly less in 9/10 glioblastoma multiforme cases, 5/5 meningioma cases and 3/3 cases of brain metastasis. Analysis of deficient formulations of Neuregen and formulations to which selected components were added back implicate no single active component. However, individual cases were sensitive to corticosterone, selenium, ethanolamine, fatty acids and/or antioxidants. Therefore, a defined culture medium that promotes neuron regeneration inhibits the growth of human primary glioblastoma, meningioma and metastatic tumor cells in culture. The possible in vivo efficacy of Neuregen for treatment of brain tumor resections remains to be determined. PMID:17537410

  10. CCR 20th anniversary commentary: a chimeric antibody, C225, inhibits EGFR activation and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, John; Prewett, Marie; Rockwell, Patricia; Goldstein, Neil I

    2015-01-15

    Murine mAb 225 was effective against the EGFR tyrosine kinase and inhibited tumor growth in preclinical studies. A phase I trial showed safety, tumor localization, and satisfactory pharmacokinetics. Human:murine chimeric C225 retained biologic activity, which was essential for the conduct of subsequent combination therapy trials and eventual regulatory approval. PMID:25593342

  11. Expression of endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinases and growth factors in human brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hatva, E.; Kaipainen, A.; Mentula, P.; Jskelinen, J.; Paetau, A.; Haltia, M.; Alitalo, K.

    1995-01-01

    Key growth factor-receptor interactions involved in angiogenesis are possible targets for therapy of CNS tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific endothelial cell mitogen that has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis, a requirement for solid tumor growth. The expression of VEGF, the closely related placental growth factor (PIGF), the newly cloned endothelial high affinity VEGF receptors KDR and FLT1, and the endothelial orphan receptors FLT4 and Tie were analyzed by in situ hybridization in normal human brain tissue and in the following CNS tumors: gliomas, grades II, III, IV; meningiomas, grades I and II; and melanoma metastases to the cerebrum. VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in the majority of low grade tumors studied and was highly expressed in cells of malignant gliomas. Significantly elevated levels of Tie, KDR, and FLT1 mRNAs, but not FLT4 mRNA, were observed in malignant tumor endothelia, as well as in endothelia of tissues directly adjacent to the tumor margin. In comparison, there was little or no receptor expression in normal brain vasculature. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that these endothelial receptors are induced during tumor progression and may play a role in tumor angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7856749

  12. Radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma abutting the diaphragm: the value of artificial ascites.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided percutanoeus radiofrequency (RF) ablation is difficult to perform for treating a hepatic tumor abutting the diaphragm due to a poor sonic window and high risk of diaphragmatic thermal injury. RF ablation with assistance of the use of artificial ascites is a simple and safe technique for treating a hepatic dome tumor abutting the diaphragm. One can improve the sonic window and separate the RF ablation zone from the diaphragm by downward displacement of the liver with the use of a simple and inexpensive technique. Dextrose water solution is an ideal fluid due to its nonionic nature. Complications related to the use of artificial ascites including hemoperitoneum are rare. Peritoneal adhesion and tumor location in the bare area are the limitations for the application of this technique. PMID:18463915

  13. [ASCITES IN HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS: RECOGNITION INVESTIGATIONAND TREATMENT

    PubMed

    Shah, Ha; Finlayson, Niale D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is the most common cause of ascites. It is caused by liver failure leading to complex interrelated circulatory and renal changes resulting in retention of sodium and water and portal hypertension localising that sodium and water in the peritoneum. Ascites is an important development in cirrhosis as it implies a generally poor long term prognosis. Investigation is important as ascites is not always dueto cirrhosis, may bethe consequence of complications of cirrhosis such as hepatocellular carcinoma, and may be associated with infection which is fatal if untreated. Most patients respond to treatment with sodium restriction and diuretic drugs. This treatment takes time, and increasingly doctors use therapeutic paracentesis with sodium restriction and diuretics to prevent recurrence of ascites. Paracentesis, however, is not without complications, and it is particularly important to give colloid replacement to prevent hypovolaemia which can lead to renal failure. Patients who do not respond to this treatment may be helped by a TIPSS procedure or a peritoneovenous shunt. However, these patients usually have very poor liverfunction and the possibility of fiver transplantation should be considered. Infection is a very serious complication of ascites (spontaneous bacterial peritonitis) and carries a generally poor prognosis.Antibiotic prophylaxis is important to prevent recurrence and liver transpiantation shoulcl be considered. PMID:12215741

  14. Selective expression of constitutively active pro-apoptotic protein BikDD gene in primary mammary tumors inhibits tumor growth and reduces tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Omar M; Nie, Lei; Chan, Li-Chuan; Li, Chia-Wei; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Jennifer; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that specifically delivering BikDD, a constitutive active mutant of pro-apoptotic protein Bik, to breast cancer cell xenografts in immunocompromised mice has a potent activity against tumor initiating cells (TICs), and that the combination between tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and BikDD gene therapy yielded synergistic effect on EGFR and HER2 positive breast cancer cells in immunodeficient nude mice. Those encouraging results have allowed us to propose a clinical trial using the liposome-complexing plasmid DNA expressing BikDD gene which has been approved by the NIH RAC Advisory committee. However, it is imperative to test whether systemic delivery of BikDD-expressing plasmid DNAs with liposomes into immunocompetent mice has therapeutic efficacy and tolerable side effects as what we observed in the nude mice model. In this study, we investigated the effects of BikDD gene-therapy on the primary mammary tumors, especially on tumor initiating cells (TICs), of a genetically engineered immunocompetent mouse harboring normal microenvironment and immune response. The effects on TIC population in tumors were determined by FACS analysis with different sets of murine specific TIC markers, CD49fhighCD61high and CD24+Jagged1-. First we showed in vitro that ectopic expression of BikDD in murine N202 cells derived from MMTV-HER2/Neu transgenic mouse tumors induced apoptosis and decreased the number of TICs. Consistently, systemic delivery of VISA-Claudin4-BikDD by liposome complexes significantly inhibited mammary tumor growth and slowed down residual tumor growth post cessation of therapy in MMTV-HER2/Neu transgenic mice compared to the controls. In addition, the anti-tumor effects of BikDD in vivo were consistent with decreased TIC population assessed by FACS analysis and in vitro tumorsphere formation assay of freshly isolated tumor cells. Importantly, systemic administration of BikDD did not cause significant cytotoxic response in standard toxicity assays or body weight changes. Taken together, our findings validated that selective expression of BikDD in the primary mammary tumors in immunocompetent hosts significantly reduced tumor burden and inhibited the residual tumor growth at off-therapy stage by eliminating TICs. Hence, the VISA-Claudin4-BikDD-mediated gene therapy is worthy of further investigation in breast cancer clinical trials. PMID:26885451

  15. Untangling the Etiology of Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Molina, Michael; Shiani, Ashok V.; Oller, Kellee L.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 72 Final Diagnosis: Systemic amyloidosis Symptoms: Medication: Clinical Procedure: Liver biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Amyloidosis is a systemic disease known to affect a vast range of organs, including the liver, heart, and kidney. When infiltrating the liver, amyloidosis typically does not present with cirrhosis. Typical presentation includes hepatomegaly with some mild laboratory abnormalities. Case Report: A 72-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of worsening abdominal, scrotal, and extremity swelling. He endorsed melanotic stools and intermittent dizziness with a 10-pound weight gain. Vitals revealed a blood pressure of 82/57 mmHg and a pulse of 83 beats/min with positive orthostatic changes. Mild bibasilar crackles were noted. His abdomen was moderately distended with a fluid wave present, but no hepatosplenomegaly was noted. He displayed anasarca with significant extremity and scrotal edema, but no jaundice, telangiectasias, or other stigmata of chronic liver disease were present. Liver function tests demonstrated a total bilirubin of 1.5 mg/dL (normal value: 0.21.2 mg/dL), AST 111 IU/L (normal value 534 IU/L), ALT 51 IU/L (normal value 555 IU/L), and GGT 583 U/L (1264 U/L). Alkaline phosphatase was 645 U/L (40150 U/L). Analysis of peritoneal fluid was consistent with portal hypertension due to liver disease. Given an atypical presentation of cirrhosis with unclear etiology, a biopsy was performed and revealed amyloid deposition. Conclusions: Liver disease can be due to various etiologies, many of which can present ambiguously. Although the most typical etiologies have been well defined, we present a case of an atypical presentation of hepatic amyloidosis discovered in a patient with ascites and without typical hepatomegaly. PMID:25844525

  16. Angiogenesis-independent tumor growth mediated by stem-like cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sakariassen, Per .; Prestegarden, Lars; Wang, Jian; Skaftnesmo, Kai-Ove; Mahesparan, Rupavathana; Molthoff, Carla; Sminia, Peter; Sundlister, Eirik; Misra, Anjan; Tysnes, Berit Blge; Chekenya, Martha; Peters, Hans; Lende, Gabriel; Kalland, Karl Henning; yan, Anne M.; Petersen, Kjell; Jonassen, Inge; van der Kogel, Albert; Feuerstein, Burt G.; Terzis, A. Jorge A.; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Enger, Per yvind

    2006-01-01

    In this work, highly infiltrative brain tumors with a stem-like phenotype were established by xenotransplantation of human brain tumors in immunodeficient nude rats. These tumors coopted the host vasculature and presented as an aggressive disease without signs of angiogenesis. The malignant cells expressed neural stem cell markers, showed a migratory behavior similar to normal human neural stem cells, and gave rise to tumors in vivo after regrafting. Serial passages in animals gradually transformed the tumors into an angiogenesis-dependent phenotype. This process was characterized by a reduction in stem cells markers. Gene expression profiling combined with high throughput immunoblotting analyses of the angiogenic and nonangiogenic tumors identified distinct signaling networks in the two phenotypes. Furthermore, proinvasive genes were up-regulated and angiogenesis signaling genes were down-regulated in the stem-like tumors. In contrast, proinvasive genes were down-regulated in the angiogenesis-dependent tumors derived from the stem-like tumors. The described angiogenesis-independent tumor growth and the uncoupling of invasion and angiogenesis, represented by the stem-like cancer cells and the cells derived from them, respectively, point at two completely independent mechanisms that drive tumor progression. This article underlines the need for developing therapies that specifically target the stem-like cell pools in tumors. PMID:17056721

  17. The ADAMTS1 Protease Gene Is Required for Mammary Tumor Growth and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardelli, Carmela; Frewin, Kate M.; Tan, Izza de Arao; Williams, Elizabeth D.; Opeskin, Kenneth; Pritchard, Melanie A.; Ingman, Wendy V.; Russell, Darryl L.

    2011-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs protein 1 (ADAMTS1) is a protease commonly up-regulated in metastatic carcinoma. Its overexpression in cancer cells promotes experimental metastasis, but whether ADAMTS1 is essential for metastatic progression is unknown. To address this question, we investigated mammary cancer progression and spontaneous metastasis in the MMTV-PyMT mouse mammary tumor model in Adamts1 knockout mice. Adamts1?/?/PyMT mice displayed significantly reduced mammary tumor and lung metastatic tumor burden and increased survival, compared with their wild-type and heterozygous littermates. Histological examination revealed an increased proportion of tumors with ductal carcinoma in situ and a lower proportion of high-grade invasive tumors in Adamts1?/?/PyMT mice, compared with Adamts1+/+/PyMT mice. Increased apoptosis with unaltered proliferation and vascular density in the Adamts1?/?/PyMT tumors suggested that reduced cell survival accounts for the lower tumor burden in ADAMTS1-deficient mice. Furthermore, Adamts1?/? tumor stroma had significantly lesser amounts of proteolytically cleaved versican and increased numbers of CD45+ leukocytes. Characterization of immune cell gene expression indicated that cytotoxic cell activation was increased in Adamts1?/? tumors, compared with Adamts1+/+ tumors. This finding is supported by significantly elevated IL-12+ cell numbers in Adamts1?/? tumors. Thus, in vivo ADAMTS1 may promote mammary tumor growth and progression to metastasis in the PyMT model and is a potential therapeutic target to prevent metastatic breast cancer. PMID:22001177

  18. Antitumor activity of galactoxyloglucan-gold nanoparticles against murine ascites and solid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Manu M; Aravind, S R; George, Suraj K; Pillai, K Raveendran; Mini, S; Sreelekha, T T

    2014-04-01

    Galactoxyloglucan polysaccharide (PST001), isolated from the seed kernels of Tamarindus indica (Ti), was used both as reducing and capping agent for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (PST-Gold) of 20 nm size. The present study evaluated the anticancer effects of the PST-Gold nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxicity was evaluated in the murine cancer cell lines, Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC). Galactoxyloglucan-gold nanoparticles (PST-Gold) not only retained the anticancer effects of PST001, but also showed enhanced cytotoxicity via induction of apoptosis even at lower doses and lesser incubation times. In vivo antitumor activity was tested in DLA and EAC murine ascites and EAC solid-tumor syngeneic mouse models. PST-Gold nanoparticles reduced tumor burden and increased median survival and life span significantly in both tumor models compared to the controls. The PST-Gold nanoparticles were very effective as a chemopreventive agent, showing the best overall response when administered prior to tumor induction. In the case of solid tumors, intratumoral administration of the PST-Gold nanoparticles yielded significant results with regard to survival and increment in lifespan as compared to intraperitoneal mode of drug administration. Further studies in higher animal models and in patients at high-risk for recurrence are warranted to fully explore and develop the potential of PST-Gold nanoconjugates as a chemopreventive and therapeutic anti-cancer agent. PMID:24486833

  19. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α promotes primary tumor growth and tumor-initiating cell activity in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Overexpression of the oxygen-responsive transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The mouse mammary tumor virus polyoma virus middle T (MMTV-PyMT) mouse is a widely utilized preclinical mouse model that resembles human luminal breast cancer and is highly metastatic. Prior studies in which the PyMT model was used demonstrated that HIF-1α is essential to promoting carcinoma onset and lung metastasis, although no differences in primary tumor end point size were observed. Using a refined model system, we investigated whether HIF-1α is directly implicated in the regulation of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in breast cancer. Methods Mammary tumor epithelial cells were created from MMTV-PyMT mice harboring conditional alleles of Hif1a, followed by transduction ex vivo with either adenovirus β-galactosidase or adenovirus Cre to generate wild-type (WT) and HIF-1α-null (KO) cells, respectively. The impact of HIF-1α deletion on tumor-initiating potential was investigated using tumorsphere assays, limiting dilution transplantation and gene expression analysis. Results Efficient deletion of HIF-1α reduced primary tumor growth and suppressed lung metastases, prolonging survival. Loss of HIF-1α led to reduced expression of markers of the basal lineage (K5/K14) in cells and tumors and of multiple genes involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. HIF-1α also enhanced tumorsphere formation at normoxia and hypoxia. Decreased expression of several genes in the Notch pathway as well as Vegf and Prominin-1 (CD133)was observed in response to Hif1a deletion. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that CD133 expression was reduced in KO cells and in tumorspheres. Tumorsphere formation was enhanced in CD133hi versus CD133neg cells sorted from PyMT tumors. Limiting dilution transplantation of WT and KO tumor cells into immunocompetent recipients revealed > 30-fold enrichment of TICs in WT cells. Conclusion These results demonstrate that HIF-1α plays a key role in promoting primary mammary tumor growth and metastasis, in part through regulation of TICs. HIF-1α regulates expression of several members of the Notch pathway, CD133 and markers of the basal lineage in mammary tumors. Our results suggest that CD133, which has not been profiled extensively in breast cancer, may be a useful marker of TICs in the PyMT mouse model. These data reveal for the first time that HIF-1α directly regulates breast TIC activity in vivo. PMID:22225988

  20. Ethanol Promotes Mammary Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis: the Involvement of Chemoattractant Factor MCP-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Siying; Xu, Mei; Li, Feifei; Wang, Xin; Bower, Kimberly A.; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Lu, Yanmin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Ke, Zunji; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for breast cancer in humans. Experimental studies indicate that alcohol exposure promotes malignant progression of mammary tumors. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Alcohol induces a pro-inflammatory response by modulating the expression of cytokines and chemokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), also known as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), is a pro-inflammatory chemokine implicated in breast cancer development/malignancy. We investigated the role of MCP-1 in alcohol-promoted mammary tumor progression. Using a xenograft model, we demonstrated that alcohol increased tumor angiogenesis and promoted growth/metastasis of breast cancer cells in C57BL/6 mice. Alcohol up-regulated the expression of MCP-1 and its receptor CCR2 in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Using a three-dimensional (3-D) tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system, we demonstrated MCP-1 regulated tumor/endothelial cell interaction and promoted tumor angiogenesis. More importantly, MCP-1 mediated alcohol-promoted angiogenesis; an antagonist of the MCP-1 receptor CCR2 significantly inhibited alcohol-stimulated tumor angiogenesis. The CCR2 antagonist abolished ethanol-stimulated growth of mammary tumors in mice. We further demonstrated that MCP-1 enhanced the migration, but not the proliferation of endothelial cells as well as breast cancer cells. These results suggest that MCP-1 plays an important role in ethanol-stimulated tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression. PMID:22160640

  1. Differential feeding patterns induced by tumor growth and by TPN.

    PubMed

    Meguid, M M; Yang, Z J; Gleason, J R; Kubota, A

    1999-01-01

    The effects of anorexia induced by early tumor, and anorexia induced by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on food intake and the indexes of food intake, were investigated in rats infused with saline after jugular catheter placement and concomitant inoculation with methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced tumor cells on day 0, and in rats without catheters receiving tumor only. Tumor became palpable around day 10 and increased to represent 6-8% of host body weight by day 26. On day 18, food intake started to decrease. Catheter-bearing rats were then randomized to saline controls (n = 9) for 11 d or to TPN-100 (n = 9) for 4 d providing 100% of daily caloric needs. Both then received saline until day 26. Food intake and feeding indexes were continuously measured using the Automated Computerized Rat Eater Meter (ACREM) and data was analyzed using ANOVA and regression analysis. In controls (both with and without catheter) the tumor induced a specific feeding pattern which consisted of a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in food intake via a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in meal size. A non-significant decrease in meal number and meal duration occurred. Two other feeding-related activities, meal consumption rate and intermeal sniffs, also decreased. Infusion of TPN-100 into the already anorectic rat led to a further significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in food intake via a significant decrease in both meal size (P < 0.0001) and in meal number (P < 0.0001). A decrease in all other feeding indexes also occurred, resulting in a different feeding pattern. After stopping TPN-100, the TPN-100-induced feeding pattern returned to that of the tumor-induced feeding pattern. That the tumor-induced feeding pattern differs from the TPN-100-induced feeding pattern suggests that the mechanisms whereby these two factors induce anorexia may also differ. PMID:10422086

  2. Dioscin inhibits colon tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis through regulating VEGFR2 and AKT/MAPK signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Qingyi; Qing, Yong; Wu, Yang; Hu, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Lei; Wu, Xiaohua

    2014-12-01

    Dioscin has shown cytotoxicity against cancer cells, but its in vivo effects and the mechanisms have not elucidated yet. The purpose of the current study was to assess the antitumor effects and the molecular mechanisms of dioscin. We showed that dioscin could inhibit tumor growth in vivo and has no toxicity at the test condition. The growth suppression was accompanied by obvious blood vessel decrease within solid tumors. We also found dioscin treatment inhibited the proliferation of cancer and endothelial cell lines, and most sensitive to primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). What's more, analysis of HUVECs migration, invasion, and tube formation exhibited that dioscin has significantly inhibitive effects to these actions. Further analysis of blood vessel formation in the matrigel plugs indicated that dioscin could inhibit VEGF-induced blood vessel formation in vivo. We also identified that dioscin could suppress the downstream protein kinases of VEGFR2, including Src, FAK, AKT and Erk1/2, accompanied by the increase of phosphorylated P38MAPK. The results potently suggest that dioscin may be a potential anticancer drug, which efficiently inhibits angiogenesis induced by VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathways. - Highlights: • Dioscin inhibits tumor growth in vivo and does not exhibit any toxicity. • Dioscin inhibits angiogenesis within solid tumors. • Dioscin inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation of HUVECs. • Dioscin inhibits VEGF–induced blood vessel formation in vivo. • Dioscin inhibits VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathway.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of ascitic cholesterol concentration for malignant ascites: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hong; Shen, Yongchun; Deng, Kai; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Yaqin; Liu, Taiguo; Huang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have investigated whether ascitic cholesterol can aid in diagnosis of malignant related ascites (MRA), and the results have varied considerably. To gain a more reliable answer to this question, we meta-analyzed the literature on using ascitic cholesterol as diagnostic tests to help identify MRA. Literature databases were systematically searched for studies examining accuracy of ascitic cholesterol for diagnosing MRA. Data on sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio (PLR/NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were pooled using random effects models. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to summarize overall test performance. At last, our meta-analysis included 8 studies involving 743 subjects. Summary estimates for ascitic cholesterol in the diagnosis of MRA were as follows: sensitivity, 0.82 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.86); specificity, 0.90 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.93); PLR, 9.24 (95% CI 4.58 to 18.66); NLR, 0.16 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.32); and DOR, 66.96 (95% CI 18.83 to 238.11). The AUC was 0.96. The ascitic cholesterol level is helpful for the diagnosis of MRA. Nevertheless, the results of ascitic cholesterol assays should be interpreted in parallel with the results of traditional tests and clinical information. PMID:26770458

  4. Modified Gompertz equation for electrotherapy murine tumor growth kinetics: predictions and new hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Electrotherapy effectiveness at different doses has been demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies; however, several aspects that occur in the tumor growth kinetics before and after treatment have not yet been revealed. Mathematical modeling is a useful instrument that can reveal some of these aspects. The aim of this paper is to describe the complete growth kinetics of unperturbed and perturbed tumors through use of the modified Gompertz equation in order to generate useful insight into the mechanisms that underpin this devastating disease. Methods The complete tumor growth kinetics for control and treated groups are obtained by interpolation and extrapolation methods with different time steps, using experimental data of fibrosarcoma Sa-37. In the modified Gompertz equation, a delay time is introduced to describe the tumor's natural history before treatment. Different graphical strategies are used in order to reveal new information in the complete kinetics of this tumor type. Results The first stage of complete tumor growth kinetics is highly non linear. The model, at this stage, shows different aspects that agree with those reported theoretically and experimentally. Tumor reversibility and the proportionality between regions before and after electrotherapy are demonstrated. In tumors that reach partial remission, two antagonistic post-treatment processes are induced, whereas in complete remission, two unknown antitumor mechanisms are induced. Conclusion The modified Gompertz equation is likely to lead to insights within cancer research. Such insights hold promise for increasing our understanding of tumors as self-organizing systems and, the possible existence of phase transitions in tumor growth kinetics, which, in turn, may have significant impacts both on cancer research and on clinical practice. PMID:21029411

  5. Extensive Loculated Ascites in Hepatic Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Buppajarntham, Saranya; Kue-A-Pai, Pongsathorn

    2014-01-01

    Context: Amyloidosis is a disease of extracellular deposition of misfolded proteinaceous subunits, which could be systemic or localized disease. Though hepatic amyloidosis was not uncommon in autopsy series, most cases of hepatic amyloidosis were asymptomatic. Ascites, jaundice, portal hypertension, and gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal varices were reported in literature. Case report: A 42-year-old man with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis and recent small bowel obstruction presented with chronic abdominal pain. Computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis showed extensive loculated ascites and multiple small bowel loops tethered to adhesions and hepatomegaly. Finally, hepatic venography and liver biopsy confirmed hepatic amyloidosis with portal hypertension. The patient was waiting for liver transplant for definite treatment. Conclusion: We report a rare case of hepatic amyloidosis with prior small bowel obstruction presented with extensive loculated ascites and multiple small bowel loops tethered to adhesions. PMID:25077085

  6. Chylous ascites in a hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Roh, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Cho, Ara; Kim, Min-Su; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-12-01

    An African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was diagnosed as chylous ascites with biliary cirrhosis. Abdomenocentesis revealed a milky fluid with a 324 mg/dl triglyceride level. On serum biochemical examination, the hedgehog had hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, and high blood urea nitrogen. There was no cytologic or genomic evidence of infection, and a blood culture was negative. Histopathologic examination revealed a liver with proliferative bile ducts that were often surrounded by prominent septa of fibrous connective tissue. In the area of ductular reaction, proliferative cells positive for CD66, an embryogenic antigen of epithelial cells, were revealed. The potential association between chylous ascites and liver cirrhosis is undetermined but could be an aspect of future study. This is the first description of chylous ascites in a hedgehog. PMID:25632690

  7. Tumor growth in complex, evolving microenvironmental geometries: A diffuse domain approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lowengrub, John S.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model of tumor growth in complex, dynamic microenvironments with active, deformable membranes. Using a diffuse domain approach, the complex domain is captured implicitly using an auxiliary function and the governing equations are appropriately modified, extended and solved in a larger, regular domain. The diffuse domain method enables us to develop an efficient numerical implementation that does not depend on the space dimension or the microenvironmental geometry. We model homotypic cell-cell adhesion and heterotypic cell-basement membrane (BM) adhesion with the latter being implemented via a membrane energy that models cell-BM interactions. We incorporate simple models of elastic forces and the degradation of the BM and ECM by tumor-secreted matrix degrading enzymes. We investigate tumor progression and BM response as a function of cell-BM adhesion and the stiffness of the BM. We find tumor sizes tend to be positively correlated with cell-BM adhesion since increasing cell-BM adhesion results in thinner, more elongated tumors. Prior to invasion of the tumor into the stroma, we find a negative correlation between tumor size and BM stiffness as the elastic restoring forces tend to inhibit tumor growth. In order to model tumor invasion of the stroma, we find it necessary to downregulate cell-BM adhesiveness, which is consistent with experimental observations. A stiff BM promotes invasiveness because at early stages the opening in the BM created by MDE degradation from tumor cells tends to be narrower when the BM is stiffer. This requires invading cells to squeeze through the narrow opening and thus promotes fragmentation that then leads to enhanced growth and invasion. In three dimensions, the opening in the BM was found to increase in size even when the BM is stiff because of pressure induced by growing tumor clusters. A larger opening in the BM can increase the potential for further invasiveness by increasing the possibility that additional tumor cells could invade the stroma. PMID:25014472

  8. Radiological Insertion of Denver Peritoneovenous Shunts for Malignant Refractory Ascites: A Retrospective Multicenter Study (JIVROSG-0809)

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Shunsuke; Sone, Miyuki; Arai, Yasuaki; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Aramaki, Takeshi; Sato, Yozo; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Ueno, Teruko; Matsueda, Kiyoshi; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Tsushima, Takahiro

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Peritoneal venous shunts (PVSs) are widely used for palliating symptoms of refractory malignant ascites and are recognized as one of the practical methods. However, reliable clinical data are insufficient because most previous reports have been small studies from single centers. We conducted a retrospective, multicenter study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of radiologically placed PVSs in patients with malignant refractory ascites. Methods: A total of 133 patients with malignant ascites refractory to medical therapies were evaluated for patient characteristics, technical success, efficacy, survival times, adverse events, and changes in laboratory data. Results: PVSs were successfully placed in all patients and were effective (i.e., improvement of ascites symptoms lasting 7 days or more) in 110 (82.7%). The median duration of symptom palliation was 26 days and median survival time was 41 days. The most frequent adverse event was PVS dysfunction, which occurred in 60 (45.1%) patients, among whom function was recovered with an additional minimally invasive procedure in 9. Abnormalities in coagulation (subclinical disseminated intravascular coagulation) occurred in 37 (27.8%) patients, although only 7 (5.3%) developed clinical disseminated intravascular coagulation. Other major adverse events were gastrointestinal bleeding (9.8%), sepsis (3.8%), and acute heart failure (3.0%). PVS was least effective in patients with elevated serum creatinine, bloody ascites, or gynecologic tumor. Conclusions: Radiological PVS is a technically feasible and effective method for palliating the symptoms from refractory malignant ascites, but preoperative evaluation and monitoring the postprocedural complications are mandatory to preclude severe adverse events after PVS.

  9. Microvesicle-mediated delivery of transforming growth factor ?1siRNA for the suppression of tumor growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqin; Li, Limin; Yu, Jianxiong; Zhu, Dihan; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Xihan; Gu, Hongwei; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke

    2014-05-01

    Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) have been recently shown as an efficient carrier to deliver small RNAs into the target cells. In the present study, we characterized the inhibitory effect of TGF-?1 siRNA delivered by mouse fibroblast L929 cell-derived MVs (L929 MVs) on the growth and metastasis of murine sarcomas 180 cells both invitro and invivo. We found that, comparing to the same concentration of free TGF-?1 siRNA, TGF-?1 siRNA delivered by L929 MVs much more efficiently decreased the level of TGF-?1 in the recipient tumor cells. Functionally, MVs containing TGF-?1 siRNA significantly decreased the viability and migration of sarcomas 180 cells and promoted the apoptosis of tumor cells. Co-immunoprecipitation with Argonaute 2 (AGO2) via anti-AGO2 antibody indicated that the majority of TGF-?1 siRNA in the MVs were associated with AGO2 complex. A tumor implantation mouse model further showed that intravenous injection of TGF-?1 siRNA-containing MVs strongly suppressed TGF-?1 expression and TGF-?1 signaling downstream in the implanted tumor cells, and thus inhibited the growth and lung metastases of tumor cells. In conclusion, our results collectively demonstrate that the delivery of therapeutic TGF-?1 siRNA by cell-derived MVs provides an effective strategy to control tumor cell growth and metastasis. PMID:24565517

  10. Mechanisms of vascularization in murine models of primary and metastatic tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Bugyik, Edina; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Szabo, Vanessza; Dezso, Katalin; Ecker, Nora; Rokusz, Andras; Nagy, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Paku, Sandor

    2016-01-01

    Directed capillary ingrowth has long been considered synonymous with tumor vascularization. However, the vasculature of primary tumors and metastases is not necessarily formed by endothelial cell sprouting; instead, malignant tumors can acquire blood vessels via alternative vascularization mechanisms, such as intussusceptive microvascular growth, vessel co-option, and glomeruloid angiogenesis. Importantly, in response to anti-angiogenic therapies, malignant tumors can switch from one vascularization mechanism to another. In this article, we briefly review the biological features of these mechanisms and discuss on their significance in medical oncology. PMID:26873579

  11. A huge renal cyst mimicking ascites: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal cysts are common in old patients, and usually remain untreated. Giant renal cyst measuring more than 15 cm in diameter and containing more than 1500 mls of serous fluid are rarely seen. We report a case of a 75-year-old man with a giant right renal cyst. Case presentation A 75-year-old man presented with a five years history of suprapubic pain, abdominal distension. He had no urological symptoms. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen with shifting dullness. Routine hematology, biochemistry, and serum tumor markers were within normal limits. Erroneously diagnosed as ascites on ultrasonographic examination. Abdominal paracentesis of supposed ascites was performed. The diagnosis of giant renal cyst was finally made by Computed tomography (CT) and patient underwent continuous percutaneous catheter drainage with negative pressure, whereby 8 liters of fluid were removed with negative cytology. Subsequent Computed tomography after 6 months revealed disparition of the cysts, and the patient remained asymptomatic. Conclusion Giant renal cysts are uncommon; we conclude that the CT remains the best exam in patients evaluated for giant renal cyst. This to the best of our knowledge is the largest renal cyst in the medical literature. Studies are needed with particular attention to the factors associated with renal cyst enlargement. PMID:24428865

  12. Failure of thalidomide to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gutman, M; Szold, A; Ravid, A; Lazauskas, T; Merimsky, O; Klausner, J M

    1996-01-01

    Thalidomide was recently suggested to be angiogenesis-inhibitor following the demonstration of its activity in a rabbit cornea micropocket model. The purpose of the present study was to test its efficacy in solid tumors in mice. B16-F10 melanoma and CT-26 colon carcinoma cells were injected subcutaneously, intravenously and intraperitoneally, and mice received daily gavage of 0.3-1.0 mg thalidomide starting either two or 10 days following tumor cell injection. The tumors were measured and compared with controls. There was no growth retardation in CT-26 bearing mice nor in mice with pulmonary or peritoneal metastases of B16-F10 melanoma. In 3/7 groups of mice with SC B16-F10 tumors, growth retardation was demonstrated, however the difference was not statistically significant. All tumors eventually reached maximal size, similar to controls. Morphological evaluation of the blood vessels oriented towards the tumor revealed that in both thalidomide and control groups, all mice had developed an intact network of new blood vessels. In our model for the oral administration of thalidomide inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis did not occur. We hypothesize that the lack of sustained antiangiogenic response was either due to immune modulation or to tumor heterogeneity and adaptation. PMID:9042240

  13. Computational Modeling of 3D Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis for Chemotherapy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lei; van de Ven, Anne L.; Guo, Dongmin; Andasari, Vivi; Cristini, Vittorio; Li, King C.; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Solid tumors develop abnormally at spatial and temporal scales, giving rise to biophysical barriers that impact anti-tumor chemotherapy. This may increase the expenditure and time for conventional drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. In order to facilitate drug discovery, we propose a mathematical model that couples three-dimensional tumor growth and angiogenesis to simulate tumor progression for chemotherapy evaluation. This application-oriented model incorporates complex dynamical processes including cell- and vascular-mediated interstitial pressure, mass transport, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and vessel maturation to model tumor progression through multiple stages including tumor initiation, avascular growth, and transition from avascular to vascular growth. Compared to pure mechanistic models, the proposed empirical methods are not only easy to conduct but can provide realistic predictions and calculations. A series of computational simulations were conducted to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed comprehensive model. The computational simulation results suggest that solid tumor geometry is related to the interstitial pressure, such that tumors with high interstitial pressure are more likely to develop dendritic structures than those with low interstitial pressure. PMID:24404145

  14. Adipocytes promote ovarian cancer metastasis and provide energy for rapid tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, Kristin M; Kenny, Hilary A; Penicka, Carla V; Ladanyi, Andras; Buell-Gutbrod, Rebecca; Zillhardt, Marion R; Romero, Iris L; Carey, Mark S; Mills, Gordon B; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S; Yamada, S Diane; Peter, Marcus E; Gwin, Katja; Lengyel, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    Intra-abdominal tumors, such as ovarian cancer1,2, have a clear predilection for metastasis to the omentum, an organ primarily composed of adipocytes. Currently, it is unclear why tumor cells preferentially home to and proliferate in the omentum, yet omental metastases typically represent the largest tumor in the abdominal cavities of women with ovarian cancer. We show here that primary human omental adipocytes promote homing, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, and that adipokines including interleukin-8 (IL-8) mediate these activities. Adipocyte–ovarian cancer cell coculture led to the direct transfer of lipids from adipocytes to ovarian cancer cells and promoted in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. Furthermore, coculture induced lipolysis in adipocytes and β-oxidation in cancer cells, suggesting adipocytes act as an energy source for the cancer cells. A protein array identified upregulation of fatty acid–binding protein 4 (FABP4, also known as aP2) in omental metastases as compared to primary ovarian tumors, and FABP4 expression was detected in ovarian cancer cells at the adipocyte-tumor cell interface. FABP4 deficiency substantially impaired metastatic tumor growth in mice, indicating that FABP4 has a key role in ovarian cancer metastasis. These data indicate adipocytes provide fatty acids for rapid tumor growth, identifying lipid metabolism and transport as new targets for the treatment of cancers where adipocytes are a major component of the microenvironment. PMID:22037646

  15. Simulation of avascular tumor growth by agent-based game model involving phenotype-phenotype interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Hengtong; Zhang, Jiangang; Chen, Ke; Li, Yumin

    2015-01-01

    All tumors, both benign and metastatic, undergo an avascular growth stage with nutrients supplied by the surrounding tissue. This avascular growth process is much easier to carry out in more qualitative and quantitative experiments starting from tumor spheroids in vitro with reliable reproducibility. Essentially, this tumor progression would be described as a sequence of phenotypes. Using agent-based simulation in a two-dimensional spatial lattice, we constructed a composite growth model in which the phenotypic behavior of tumor cells depends on not only the local nutrient concentration and cell count but also the game among cells. Our simulation results demonstrated that in silico tumors are qualitatively similar to those observed in tumor spheroid experiments. We also found that the payoffs in the game between two living cell phenotypes can influence the growth velocity and surface roughness of tumors at the same time. Finally, this current model is flexible and can be easily extended to discuss other situations, such as environmental heterogeneity and mutation. PMID:26648395

  16. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 silencing inhibits tumor growth and lung metastasis in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yang-Fan; Yan, Guang-Ning; Meng, Gang; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Qiao-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) methyltransferase is the catalytic subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which acts as a transcription repressor via the trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone 3 (H3K27me3). EZH2 has been recognised as an oncogene in several types of tumors; however, its role in osteosarcoma has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we show that EZH2 silencing inhibits tumor growth and lung metastasis in osteosarcoma by facilitating re-expression of the imprinting gene tumor-suppressing STF cDNA 3 (TSSC3). Our previous study showed that TSSC3 acts as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma. In this study, we found that EZH2 was abnormally elevated in osteosarcoma, and its overexpression was associated with poor prognosis in osteosarcoma. Silencing of EZH2 resulted in tumor growth inhibition, apoptosis and chemosensitivity enhancement. Moreover, suppression of EZH2 markedly inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, EZH2 knockdown facilitated the re-expression of TSSC3 by reducing H3K27me3 in the promoter region. Cotransfection with siEZH2 and siTSSC3 could partially reverse the ability of siEZH2 alone. We have demonstrated that EZH2 plays a crucial role in tumor growth and distant metastasis in osteosarcoma; its oncogenic role is related to its regulation of the expression of TSSC3. PMID:26265454

  17. DNA vaccination with CD44 variant isoform reduces mammary tumor local growth and lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wallach-Dayan, Shulamit Batya; Rubinstein, Ariel M; Hand, Carla; Breuer, Raphael; Naor, David

    2008-06-01

    We have shown recently that cDNA vaccination, using a virtual lymph node, ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Successful cure from mammary tumor requires resolution of local tumor growth and metastases. We have examined whether targeting of CD44 cell surface adhesion molecule by cDNA vaccination plays a role in resolving mammary tumor development. We show here that CD44 cDNA vaccination decreases the tumor mass and metastatic potential in experimental mammary tumor of BALB/c mice. Vaccination of mice, inoculated with the mammary tumors, by cDNA of CD44 variant (CD44v) but not by cDNA of standard CD44, markedly reduced local tumor development and lung metastasis. Concomitantly, transfection of CD44 antisense into a highly metastatic mammary tumor cell line disrupted the CD44 expression of the cells and reduced their ability to establish local tumors as well as metastatic colonies in the lung. Moreover, when CD44v, but not standard CD44 sense cDNA, was transfected into the poorly metastatic cell line, tumor development was markedly enhanced. It is possible therefore that DNA vaccination with a specific CD44v construct could induce an immune resistance to mammary tumor progression. PMID:18566232

  18. Pediatric gastric cancer presenting with massive ascites.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Heng; Lin, Wei-Ching; Lai, I-Hsiu; Wu, Shu-Fen; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Chen, An-Chyi

    2015-03-21

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is quite rare in children and as a result very little experience has been reported on with regards to clinical presentation, treatment and outcome. We describe the case of a 16-year-old boy presenting with abdominal fullness and poor appetite for 7 d. Sonography showed massive ascites and computed tomography imaging revealed the presence of gastric mucosa thickness with omentum caking. The diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma was biopsy-proven endoscopically. Despite gastric adenocarcinoma being quite rare in the pediatric patient population, we should not overlook the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma when a child presents with distended abdomen and massive ascites. PMID:25805952

  19. A small-molecule antagonist of CXCR4 inhibits intracranial growth of primary brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Joshua B.; Kung, Andrew L.; Klein, Robyn S.; Chan, Jennifer A.; Sun, Yanping; Schmidt, Karl; Kieran, Mark W.; Luster, Andrew D.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2003-11-01

    The vast majority of brain tumors in adults exhibit glial characteristics. Brain tumors in children are diverse: Many have neuronal characteristics, whereas others have glial features. Here we show that activation of the Gi protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 is critical for the growth of both malignant neuronal and glial tumors. Systemic administration of CXCR4 antagonist AMD 3100 inhibits growth of intracranial glioblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts by increasing apoptosis and decreasing the proliferation of tumor cells. This reflects the ability of AMD 3100 to reduce the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt, all of which are pathways downstream of CXCR4 that promote survival, proliferation, and migration. These studies (i) demonstrate that CXCR4 is critical to the progression of diverse brain malignances and (ii) provide a scientific rationale for clinical evaluation of AMD 3100 in treating both adults and children with malignant brain tumors.

  20. Neonatal Urinary Ascites: A Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gajjar, Priya; Nourse, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Urinary ascites in neonates is not a common condition. Three cases of urinary ascites are presented and each of them has a different aetiology. Neonates with urinary ascites usually present as clinical emergency, requiring resuscitation, ventilator support, and subsequent drainage of urine. The ultimate management depends on the site of extravasation and the underlying cause. PMID:25954559

  1. Mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells promotes breast cancer tumor growth and confers autophagy resistance

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Ahmed F.; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we set out to test the novel hypothesis that increased mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells would fuel enhanced tumor growth. For this purpose, we generated MDA-MB-231 cells (a triple-negative human breast cancer cell line) overexpressing PGC-1? and MitoNEET, which are established molecules that drive mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Interestingly, both PGC-1? and MitoNEET increased the abundance of OXPHOS protein complexes, conferred autophagy resistance under conditions of starvation and increased tumor growth by up to ~3-fold. However, this increase in tumor growth was independent of neo-angiogenesis, as assessed by immunostaining and quantitation of vessel density using CD31 antibodies. Quantitatively similar increases in tumor growth were also observed by overexpression of PGC-1? and POLRMT in MDA-MB-231 cells, which are also responsible for mediating increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, we propose that increased mitochondrial power in epithelial cancer cells oncogenically promotes tumor growth by conferring autophagy resistance. As such, PGC-1?, PGC-1?, mitoNEET and POLRMT should all be considered as tumor promoters or metabolic oncogenes. Our results are consistent with numerous previous clinical studies showing that metformin (a weak mitochondrial poison) prevents the onset of nearly all types of human cancers in diabetic patients. Therefore, metformin (a complex I inhibitor) and other mitochondrial inhibitors should be developed as novel anticancer therapies, targeting mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. PMID:23070475

  2. Mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells promotes breast cancer tumor growth and confers autophagy resistance.

    PubMed

    Salem, Ahmed F; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2012-11-15

    Here, we set out to test the novel hypothesis that increased mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells would "fuel" enhanced tumor growth. For this purpose, we generated MDA-MB-231 cells (a triple-negative human breast cancer cell line) overexpressing PGC-1α and MitoNEET, which are established molecules that drive mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Interestingly, both PGC-1α and MitoNEET increased the abundance of OXPHOS protein complexes, conferred autophagy resistance under conditions of starvation and increased tumor growth by up to ~3-fold. However, this increase in tumor growth was independent of neo-angiogenesis, as assessed by immunostaining and quantitation of vessel density using CD31 antibodies. Quantitatively similar increases in tumor growth were also observed by overexpression of PGC-1β and POLRMT in MDA-MB-231 cells, which are also responsible for mediating increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, we propose that increased mitochondrial "power" in epithelial cancer cells oncogenically promotes tumor growth by conferring autophagy resistance. As such, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, mitoNEET and POLRMT should all be considered as tumor promoters or "metabolic oncogenes." Our results are consistent with numerous previous clinical studies showing that metformin (a weak mitochondrial "poison") prevents the onset of nearly all types of human cancers in diabetic patients. Therefore, metformin (a complex I inhibitor) and other mitochondrial inhibitors should be developed as novel anticancer therapies, targeting mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. PMID:23070475

  3. Molecular Characterization of Growth Hormone-producing Tumors in the GC Rat Model of Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Rodríguez, Juan F.; Muñoz-Bravo, Jose L.; Ibañez-Costa, Alejandro; Fernandez-Maza, Laura; Balcerzyk, Marcin; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Luque, Raúl M.; Castaño, Justo P.; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso; Cano, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Acromegaly is a disorder resulting from excessive production of growth hormone (GH) and consequent increase of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), most frequently caused by pituitary adenomas. Elevated GH and IGF-I levels results in wide range of somatic, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, and gastrointestinal morbidities. Subcutaneous implantation of the GH-secreting GC cell line in rats leads to the formation of tumors. GC tumor-bearing rats develop characteristics that resemble human acromegaly including gigantism and visceromegaly. However, GC tumors remain poorly characterized at a molecular level. In the present work, we report a detailed histological and molecular characterization of GC tumors using immunohistochemistry, molecular biology and imaging techniques. GC tumors display histopathological and molecular features of human GH-producing tumors, including hormone production, cell architecture, senescence activation and alterations in cell cycle gene expression. Furthermore, GC tumors cells displayed sensitivity to somatostatin analogues, drugs that are currently used in the treatment of human GH-producing adenomas, thus supporting the GC tumor model as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic agents. The information obtained would help to maximize the usefulness of the GC rat model for research and preclinical studies in GH-secreting tumors. PMID:26549306

  4. Inhibition of tumor growth by a newly-identified activator for epidermal fatty acid binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Enyu; Singh, Puja; Zhai, Xiuhong; Li, Yan; Zhu, Ganqian; Zhang, Yuwen; Hao, Jiaqing; Chi, Young-In; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Cleary, Margot P.; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that expression of epidermal fatty acid binding protein (E-FABP) in tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) promotes macrophage anti-tumor activity by enhancing IFN? responses in tumor models. Thus, E-FABP represents a new protective factor in enhancing tumor immune surveillance against tumor development. Herein, we report the compound 5-(benzylamino)-2-(3-methylphenyl)-1,3-oxazole-4-carbonitrile (designated EI-05) as a novel E-FABP activator for inhibition of mammary tumor growth. EI-05 was selected from the ZINC compound library using molecular docking analysis based on the crystal structure of E-FABP. Although EI-05 is unable to bind E-FABP directly, it significantly increases E-FABP expression in macrophages during inflammation. Stimulation of macrophages with EI-05 remarkably enhances lipid droplet formation and IFN? production, which further promotes the anti-tumor activity of macrophages. Importantly, administering EI-05 in vivo significantly inhibits mammary tumor growth in a syngeneic mouse model. Altogether, these results suggest that EI-05 may represent a promising drug candidate for anti-tumor treatment through enhancing E-FABP activity and IFN? responses in macrophages. PMID:25796556

  5. Ephrin-A1 inhibits NSCLC tumor growth via induction of Cdx-2 a tumor suppressor gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tumor formation is a complex process which involves constitutive activation of oncogenes and suppression of tumor suppressor genes. Receptor EphA2 and its ligand ephrin-A1 form an important cell communication system with its functional role in cell-cell interaction and tumor growth. Loss of cell-cell adhesion is central to the cellular transformation and acquisition of metastatic potential. Claudins, the integrated tight junction (TJ) cell-cell adhesion proteins located on the apico-lateral portion of epithelial cells, functions in maintaining cell polarity. There is extensive evidence implicating Eph receptors and ephrins in malignancy, but the mechanisms how these molecular players affect TJ proteins and regulate tumor growth are not clear. In the present study we hypothesized that EphA2 signaling modulates claudin-2 gene expression via induction of cdx-2, a tumor suppressor gene in NSCLC cells. Methods The expression of EphA2, claudin-2 was determined in various NSCLC cell lines by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. The claudin-2 expression was also analyzed by immunofluorescence analysis. EphA2 and erk1/erk2 phosphorylation in ephrin-A1 activated cells was evaluated by Western blot analysis. The cell proliferation and tumor colony formation were determined by WST-1 and 3-D matrigel assays respectively. Results NSCLC cells over expressed receptor EphA2 and claudin-2. Ephrin-A1 treatment significantly down regulated the claudin-2 and EphA2 expression in NSCLC cells. The transient transfection of cells with vector containing ephrin-A1 construct (pcDNA-EFNA1) decreased the expression of claudin-2, EphA2 when compared to empty vector. In addition ephrin-A1 activation increased cdx-2 expression in A549 cells. In contrast over-expression of EphA2 with plasmid pcDNA-EphA2 up regulated claudin-2 mRNA expression and decreased cdx-2 expression. The transient transfection of cells with vector containing cdx-2 construct (pcMV-cdx-2) decreased the expression of claudin-2 in A549 cells. Moreover, silencing the expression of receptor EphA2 by siRNA significantly reduced claudin-2 expression and decreased cell proliferation and tumor formation. Furthermore, silencing cdx-2 gene expression before ephrin-A1 treatment increased claudin-2 expression along with increased cell proliferation and tumor growth in A549 cells. Conclusions Our study suggests that EphA2 signaling up-regulates the expression of the TJ-protein claudin-2 that plays an important role in promoting cell proliferation and tumor growth in NSCLC cells. We conclude that receptor EphA2 activation by ephrin-A1 induces tumor suppressor gene cdx-2 expression which attenuates cell proliferation, tumor growth and thus may be a promising therapeutic target against NSCLC. PMID:22824143

  6. Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: improving target volume delineation.

    PubMed

    Unkelbach, Jan; Menze, Bjoern H; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A

    2014-02-01

    Glioblastoma differ from many other tumors in the sense that they grow infiltratively into the brain tissue instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In current clinical practice, a uniform margin, typically two centimeters, is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease that is not directly assessable through imaging. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth, which arises from different factors: anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain. The target volume for radiotherapy planning can be defined as an isoline of the simulated tumor cell density. This paper analyzes the model with respect to implications for target volume definition and identifies its most critical components. A retrospective study involving ten glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been performed. To illustrate the main findings of the study, a detailed case study is presented for a glioblastoma located close to the falx. In this situation, the falx represents a boundary for migrating tumor cells, whereas the corpus callosum provides a route for the tumor to spread to the contralateral hemisphere. We further discuss the sensitivity of the model with respect to the input parameters. Correct segmentation of the brain appears to be the most crucial model input. We conclude that the tumor growth model provides a method to account for anisotropic growth patterns of glioma, and may therefore provide a tool to make target delineation more objective and automated. PMID:24440875

  7. Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: improving target volume delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkelbach, Jan; Menze, Bjoern H.; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-02-01

    Glioblastoma differ from many other tumors in the sense that they grow infiltratively into the brain tissue instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In current clinical practice, a uniform margin, typically two centimeters, is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease that is not directly assessable through imaging. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth, which arises from different factors: anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain. The target volume for radiotherapy planning can be defined as an isoline of the simulated tumor cell density. This paper analyzes the model with respect to implications for target volume definition and identifies its most critical components. A retrospective study involving ten glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been performed. To illustrate the main findings of the study, a detailed case study is presented for a glioblastoma located close to the falx. In this situation, the falx represents a boundary for migrating tumor cells, whereas the corpus callosum provides a route for the tumor to spread to the contralateral hemisphere. We further discuss the sensitivity of the model with respect to the input parameters. Correct segmentation of the brain appears to be the most crucial model input. We conclude that the tumor growth model provides a method to account for anisotropic growth patterns of glioma, and may therefore provide a tool to make target delineation more objective and automated.

  8. Enhancement of experimental pulmonary metastasis and inhibition of subcutaneously transplanted tumor growth following cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Shibata, T; Yamashita, T; Suzuki, K; Takeichi, N; Micallef, M; Hosokawa, M; Kobayashi, H; Murata, M; Arisue, M

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported that inhibition of anti-tumor immune responses and a corresponding enhancement of metastatic tumor growth occurred in rats following cryosurgery of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced WKA rat fibrosarcoma (KMT-17). In this study, to evaluate the enhancement of metastasis arising from the inhibition of anti-tumor immune responses following cryosurgery, we examined how cryosurgery affected experimental pulmonary metastasis and the growth of subcutaneously transplanted tumor. To reveal the effect of cryosurgery on pulmonary metastasis, rats received a subcutaneous inoculation of KMT-17 tumor in the right flank (1 x 10(6)) and i.v. injection (1 x 10(5)) on the same day or 4 days later. The right flank tumors were treated with cryosurgery 5 days after subcutaneous transplantation. The pulmonary metastasis of the rats, which were injected i.v. one day before treatment, was enhanced by cryosurgery as compared with surgical excision, though the pulmonary metastasis of rats, which were injected i.v. 5 days before treatment, was un-affected by cryosurgery. These observations suggest that cryosurgery may enhance the pulmonary metastasis in its early steps but has no effects in its later stages. To reveal the effect of cryosurgery on the growth of distant tumors, rats received subcutaneous inoculations of KMT-17 tumor in the right (1 x 10(6)) and left (1 x 10(4) approximately 10(5)) flanks. Tumors in the right flank were treated with cryosurgery 5 days after inoculation and the growth of untreated left flank tumors was observed. In this double grafted tumor system, however, cryosurgery significantly inhibited the growth of the untreated left flank tumors. Spleen cells obtained from rats which had undergone cryosurgery 4 or 10 days previously (cryo-spleen cells) were used for in vivo neutralizing Winn assay. Antitumor activity of cryo-spleen cells was decreased as compared with that of rats after surgical excision in both spleen cells from 4 and 10 days after treatment. These findings suggest that effector cells in the spleen may not participate in subcutaneous tumor regression and that the evaluation of antitumor effect using the double grafted tumor system needs caution. PMID:9891507

  9. Effect of Melatonin on Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in Xenograft Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jardim-Perassi, Bruna Victorasso; Arbab, Ali S.; Ferreira, Lívia Carvalho; Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Varma, Nadimpalli R. S.; Iskander, A. S. M.; Shankar, Adarsh; Ali, Meser M.; de Campos Zuccari, Debora Aparecida Pires

    2014-01-01

    As neovascularization is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, controlling angiogenesis is a promising tactic in limiting cancer progression. Melatonin has been studied for their inhibitory properties on angiogenesis in cancer. We performed an in vivo study to evaluate the effects of melatonin treatment on angiogenesis in breast cancer. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay after melatonin treatment in triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). After, cells were implanted in athymic nude mice and treated with melatonin or vehicle daily, administered intraperitoneally 1 hour before turning the room light off. Volume of the tumors was measured weekly with a digital caliper and at the end of treatments animals underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Technetium-99m tagged vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C to detect in vivo angiogenesis. In addition, expression of pro-angiogenic/growth factors in the tumor extracts was evaluated by membrane antibody array and collected tumor tissues were analyzed with histochemical staining. Melatonin in vitro treatment (1 mM) decreased cell viability (p<0.05). The breast cancer xenografts nude mice treated with melatonin showed reduced tumor size and cell proliferation (Ki-67) compared to control animals after 21 days of treatment (p<0.05). Expression of VEGF receptor 2 decreased significantly in the treated animals compared to that of control when determined by immunohistochemistry (p<0.05) but the changes were not significant on SPECT (p>0.05) images. In addition, there was a decrease of micro-vessel density (Von Willebrand Factor) in melatonin treated mice (p<0.05). However, semiquantitative densitometry analysis of membrane array indicated increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 in treated tumors compared to vehicle treated tumors (p<0.05). In conclusion, melatonin treatment showed effectiveness in reducing tumor growth and cell proliferation, as well as in the inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:24416386

  10. Ascites-induced shift along epithelial-mesenchymal spectrum in ovarian cancer cells: enhancement of their invasive behavior partly dependant on αv integrins.

    PubMed

    Carduner, L; Leroy-Dudal, J; Picot, C R; Gallet, O; Carreiras, F; Kellouche, S

    2014-08-01

    At least one-third of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) present ascites at diagnosis and almost all have ascites at recurrence. The presence of ascites, which acts as a dynamic reservoir of active molecules and cellular components, correlates with the OC peritoneal metastasis and is associated with poor prognosis. Since epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in different phases of OC progression, we have investigated the effect of the unique ascitic tumor microenvironment on the EMT status and the behavior of OC cells. The exposure of three OC cell lines to ascites leads to changes in cellular morphologies. Within ascites, OC cells harboring an initial intermediate epithelial phenotype are characterized by marked dislocation of epithelial markers (E-cadherin, ZO-1 staining) while OC cells initially harboring an intermediate mesenchymal phenotype strengthen their mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin). Ascites differentially triggers a dissemination phenotype related to the initial cell features by either allowing the proliferation and the formation of spheroids and the extension of colonies for cells that present an initial epithelial intermediate phenotype, or favoring the migration of cells with a mesenchymal intermediate phenotype. In an ascitic microenvironment, a redeployment of αv integrins into cells was observed and the ascites-induced accentuation of the two different invasive phenotypes (i.e. spheroids formation or migration) was shown to involve αv integrins. Thus, ascites induces a shift toward an unstable intermediate state of the epithelial-mesenchymal spectrum and confers a more aggressive cell behavior that takes on a different pathway based on the initial epithelial-mesenchymal cell features. PMID:24946950

  11. Effects of Marsdenia tenacissima polysaccharide on the immune regulation and tumor growth in H22 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuang; Qiu, Limin; Li, Yiquan; Li, Lu; Wang, Xingyun; Liu, Zhi; Guo, Yan; Wang, Haotian

    2016-02-10

    One water-soluble polysaccharide (Marsdenia tenacissima polysaccharide, MTP), with an average molecular weight of 4.910(4)Da, was isolated from the dried rattan of M. tenacissima. MTP contained 93.8% carbohydrates, 5.6% proteins and 21.3% uronic acid, and were composed of arabinose, mannose, galactose, xylose, glucuronic acid at a molar ratio of 9.1, 17.7, 30.2, 22.4 and 20.6. The experiments on the animals showed that MTP could increase the serum hemolysin, promote the formation of antibody-forming cells and improve the phagocytosis of mononuclear macrophage in normal mice. Meanwhile, MTP could also inhibit the growth of tumor in H22 tumor-bearing mice dose-dependently, and increase the spleen index, thymus index and serum albumin level in the mice. In addition, MTP could elevate the serum level of TNF-? and IL-2, increase the activity of GSH-Px, CAT and SOD in the liver tissue, and reduce the content of VEGF and MDA. These results suggest that MTP can regulate the immune function in mice and suppress the growth of tumor in H22 tumor-bearing mice, and its antitumor activity may be related to its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:26686104

  12. Effects of photodynamic hyperthermal therapy with indocyanine green on tumor growth in a colon 26 tumor-bearing mouse model

    PubMed Central

    ONOYAMA, MASAKI; AZUMA, KAZUO; TSUKA, TAKESHI; IMAGAWA, TOMOHIRO; OSAKI, TOMOHIRO; MINAMI, SABURO; OGAWA, NOBUHIKO; OKAMOTO, YOSHIHARU

    2014-01-01

    The present study used indocyanine green (ICG) and a broadband light source apparatus [photodynamic hyperthermal therapy (PHT) group] in order to treat a colon 26 tumor-bearing mouse model. The other groups were administered either ICG alone (ICG group), light alone (light group) or no treatment (control group). Following the treatment, tumor growth was measured. Nine days after the treatment, the tumors were resected and histological and immunohistological examinations were performed. In the PHT group, the growth rates of the tumor tissues were significantly decreased compared with those observed in the other groups (P<0.05). The proportion of necrotic areas in the PHT and light groups were increased significantly compared with those observed in the ICG and control groups. However, there were no significant differences between the PHT and light groups. The proportion of Ki-67 in the PHT and light groups was less than that observed in the ICG and control groups. The number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells in the PHT group was significantly increased compared with that observed in the other groups. These data indicate that PHT is effective in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24944683

  13. Salmonella typhimurium Suppresses Tumor Growth via the Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-1β

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Phan, Thuy Xuan; Nguyen, Vu Hong; Dinh-Vu, Hong-Van; Zheng, Jin Hai; Yun, Misun; Park, Sung-Gyoo; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E.; Szardenings, Michael; Hwang, Won; Park, Jin-A; Park, SunHee; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Min, Jung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Although strains of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium and wild-type Escherichia coli show similar tumor-targeting capacities, only S. typhimurium significantly suppresses tumor growth in mice. The aim of the present study was to examine bacteria-mediated immune responses by conducting comparative analyses of the cytokine profiles and immune cell populations within tumor tissues colonized by E. coli or attenuated Salmonellae. CT26 tumor-bearing mice were treated with two different bacterial strains: S. typhimurium defective in ppGpp synthesis (ΔppGpp Salmonellae) or wild-type E. coli MG1655. Cytokine profiles and immune cell populations in tumor tissue colonized by these two bacterial strains were examined at two time points based on the pattern of tumor growth after ΔppGpp Salmonellae treatment: 1) when tumor growth was suppressed ('suppression stage') and 2) when they began to re-grow ('re-growing stage'). The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were markedly increased in tumors colonized by ΔppGpp Salmonellae. This increase was associated with tumor regression; the levels of both IL-1β and TNF-α returned to normal level when the tumors started to re-grow. To identify the immune cells primarily responsible for Salmonellae-mediated tumor suppression, we examined the major cell types that produce IL-1β and TNF-α. We found that macrophages and dendritic cells were the main producers of TNF-α and IL-1β. Inhibiting IL-1β production in Salmonellae-treated mice restored tumor growth, whereas tumor growth was suppressed for longer by local administration of recombinant IL-1β or TNF-α in conjunction with Salmonella therapy. These findings suggested that IL-1β and TNF-α play important roles in Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy. A better understanding of host immune responses in Salmonella therapy may increase the success of a given drug, particularly when various strategies are combined with bacteriotherapy. PMID:26516371

  14. Definition of Prostaglandin E2-EP2 Signals in the Colon Tumor Microenvironment That Amplify Inflammation and Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojun; Aoki, Tomohiro; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Narumiya, Shuh

    2015-07-15

    Inflammation in the colon contributes significantly to colorectal cancer development. While aspirin reduces the colorectal cancer risk, its action mechanism, especially in inflammation in tumor microenvironment, still remains obscure. Here, we examined this issue by subjecting mice deficient in each prostaglandin (PG) receptor to colitis-associated cancer model. Deficiency of PGE receptor subtype EP2 selectively reduced, and deficiency of EP1 and EP3 enhanced, the tumor formation. EP2 is expressed in infiltrating neutrophils and tumor-associated fibroblasts in stroma, where it regulates expression of inflammation- and growth-related genes in a self-amplification manner. Notably, expression of cytokines such as TNF? and IL6, a chemokine, CXCL1, a PG-producing enzyme, COX-2, and Wnt5A was significantly elevated in tumor lesions of wild-type mice but this elevation was significantly suppressed in EP2-deficient mice. Intriguingly, EP2 stimulation in cultured neutrophils amplified expression of TNF?, IL6, CXCL1, COX-2, and other proinflammatory genes synergistically with TNF?, and EP2 stimulation in cultured fibroblasts induced expression of EP2 itself, COX-2, IL6, and Wnt genes. EP2 expression in infiltrating neutrophils and tumor-associated fibroblasts was also found in clinical specimen of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Bone marrow transfer experiments suggest that EP2 in both cell populations is critical for tumorigenesis. Finally, administration of a selective EP2 antagonist potently suppressed tumorigenesis in this model. Our study has thus revealed that EP2 in neutrophils and tumor-associated fibroblasts promotes colon tumorigenesis by amplifying inflammation and shaping tumor microenvironment, and suggests that EP2 antagonists are promising candidates of aspirin-alternative for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. PMID:26018088

  15. Mechanisms by which SMARCB1 loss drives rhabdoid tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kimberly H; Roberts, Charles W M

    2014-09-01

    SMARCB1 (INI1/SNF5/BAF47), a core subunit of the SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin-remodeling complex, is inactivated in the large majority of rhabdoid tumors, and germline heterozygous SMARCB1 mutations form the basis for rhabdoid predisposition syndrome. Mouse models validated Smarcb1 as a bona fide tumor suppressor, as Smarcb1 inactivation in mice results in 100% of the animals rapidly developing cancer. SMARCB1 was the first subunit of the SWI/SNF complex found mutated in cancer. More recently, at least seven other genes encoding SWI/SNF subunits have been identified as recurrently mutated in cancer. Collectively, 20% of all human cancers contain a SWI/SNF mutation. Consequently, investigation of the mechanisms by which SMARCB1 mutation causes cancer has relevance not only for rhabdoid tumors, but also potentially for the wide variety of SWI/SNF mutant cancers. Here we discuss normal functions of SMARCB1 and the SWI/SNF complex as well as mechanistic and potentially therapeutic insights that have emerged. PMID:24853101

  16. Host endothelial S1PR1 regulation of vascular permeability modulates tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Sarkisyan, Gor; Gay, Laurie J.; Nguyen, Nhan; Felding, Brunhilde H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding vascular growth and maturation in developing tumors has important implications for tumor progression, spread, and ultimately host survival. Modulating the signaling of endothelial G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in blood and lymphatic vessels can enhance or limit tumor progression. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is a GPCR for circulating lysophospholipid S1P that is highly expressed in blood and lymphatic vessels. Using the S1PR1- enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) mouse model in combination with intravital imaging and pharmacologic modulation of S1PR1 signaling, we show that boundary conditions of high and low S1PR1 signaling retard tumor progression by enhancing or destabilizing neovasculature integrity, respectively. In contrast, midrange S1PR1 signaling, achieved by receptor antagonist titration, promotes abundant growth of small, organized vessels and thereby enhances tumor progression. Furthermore, in vivo S1PR1 antagonism supports lung colonization by circulating tumor cells. Regulation of endothelial S1PR1 dynamically controls vascular integrity and maturation and thus modulates angiogenesis, tumor growth, and hematogenous metastasis. PMID:24740542

  17. Modeling tumor growth in a complex evolving confinement using a diffuse domain approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yao-Li; Lowengrub, John; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiangrong; Frieboes, Hermann; Cristini, Vittorio

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal evolution of tumor growth represents an essential step towards engineering effective treatment for cancer patients. At the macroscopic scale, various biophysical models describing tumors as continuum fluids have been constructed, particularly on a Cartesian grid, where efficient numerical schemes are available to analyze the model for general tumor behaviors in a relatively unconfined space. For practical problems, however, tumors are often found in a confined sub-domain, which can even be dilated and distorted by the growing tumor within. To study such tumors, we adopt a novel diffuse domain approach that enables us to adapt a model to an evolving sub-domain and formulate the modified problem on a Cartesian grid to utilize existing numerical schemes. To demonstrate this approach, we adapt a diffuse-interface model presented in Wise et al. [2008, Three-dimensional multispecies nonlinear tumor growth - I Model and numerical method, J. Theor. Biol. 253, 524-543] to simulate lymphoma growth in a lymph node structure. Supported by NIH-PSOC grant 1U54CA143907-01.

  18. Akt1 and akt3 exert opposing roles in the regulation of vascular tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Phung, Thuy L; Du, Wa; Xue, Qi; Ayyaswamy, Sriram; Gerald, Damien; Antonello, Zeus; Nhek, Sokha; Perruzzi, Carole A; Acevedo, Isabel; Ramanna-Valmiki, Rajesh; Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul; Enayati, Ladan; Hochman, Marcelo L; Lev, Dina; Geeganage, Sandaruwan; Benjamin, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    Vascular tumors are endothelial cell neoplasms whose mechanisms of tumorigenesis are poorly understood. Moreover, current therapies, particularly those for malignant lesions, have little beneficial effect on clinical outcomes. In this study, we show that endothelial activation of the Akt1 kinase is sufficient to drive de novo tumor formation. Mechanistic investigations uncovered opposing functions for different Akt isoforms in this regulation, where Akt1 promotes and Akt3 inhibits vascular tumor growth. Akt3 exerted negative effects on tumor endothelial cell growth and migration by inhibiting activation of the translation regulatory kinase S6-Kinase (S6K) through modulation of Rictor expression. S6K in turn acted through a negative feedback loop to restrain Akt3 expression. Conversely, S6K signaling was increased in vascular tumor cells where Akt3 was silenced, and the growth of these tumor cells was inhibited by a novel S6K inhibitor. Overall, our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the therapeutic utility of treating vascular tumors, such as angiosarcomas, with S6K inhibitors. PMID:25388284

  19. Novel xenograft model expressing human hepatocyte growth factor shows ligand-dependent growth of c-Met-expressing tumors.

    PubMed

    Francone, Todd D; Landmann, Ron G; Chen, Chin-Tung; Sun, Mark Y; Kuntz, Eleanor J; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Dematteo, Ronald P; Paty, Philip B; Weiser, Martin R

    2007-04-01

    c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase responsible for cellular migration, invasion, and proliferation, is overexpressed in human cancers. Although ligand-independent c-Met activation has been described, the majority of tumors are ligand dependent and rely on binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) for receptor activation. Both receptor and ligand are attractive therapeutic targets; however, preclinical models are limited because murine HGF does not activate human c-Met. The goal of this study was to develop a xenograft model in which human HGF (hHGF) is produced in a controllable fashion in the mouse. Severe combined immunodeficient mice were treated with adenovirus encoding the hHGF transgene (Ad-hHGF) via tail vein injection, and transgene expression was determined by the presence of hHGF mRNA in mouse tissue and hHGF in serum. Ad-hHGF administration to severe combined immunodeficient mice resulted in hHGF production that was (a) dependent on quantity of virus delivered; (b) biologically active, resulting in liver hypertrophy; and (c) sustainable over 40 days. In this model, the ligand-dependent human tumor cell line SW1417 showed enhanced tumor growth, whereas the ligand-independent cell lines SW480 and GTL-16 showed no augmented tumor growth. This novel xenograft model is ideal for investigating c-Met/HGF-dependent human tumor progression and for evaluating c-Met targeted therapy. PMID:17431125

  20. Inverse hormesis of cancer growth mediated by narrow ranges of tumor-directed antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Oliver M. T.; Lubli, Heinz; Verhagen, Andrea; Secrest, Patrick; Zhang, Jiquan; Varki, Nissi M.; Crocker, Paul R.; Bui, Jack D.; Varki, Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Compelling evidence for naturally occurring immunosurveillance against malignancies informs and justifies some current approaches toward cancer immunotherapy. However, some types of immune reactions have also been shown to facilitate tumor progression. For example, our previous studies showed that although experimental tumor growth is enhanced by low levels of circulating antibodies directed against the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), which accumulates in human tumors, growth could be inhibited by anti-Neu5Gc antibodies from a different source, in a different model. However, it remains generally unclear whether the immune responses that mediate cancer immunosurveillance vs. those responsible for inflammatory facilitation are qualitatively and/or quantitatively distinct. Here, we address this question using multiple murine tumor growth models in which polyclonal antibodies against tumor antigens, such as Neu5Gc, can alter tumor progression. We found that although growth was stimulated at low antibody doses, it was inhibited by high doses, over a linear and remarkably narrow range, defining an immune response curve (IRC; i.e., inverse hormesis). Moreover, modulation of immune responses against the tumor by altering antibody avidity or by enhancing innate immunity shifted the IRC in the appropriate direction. Thus, the dualistic role of immunosurveillance vs. inflammation in modulating tumor progression can be quantitatively distinguished in multiple model systems, and can occur over a remarkably narrow range. Similar findings were made in a human tumor xenograft model using a narrow range of doses of a monoclonal antibody currently in clinical use. These findings may have implications for the etiology, prevention, and treatment of cancer. PMID:24711415

  1. Divergent Selection for Ascites Incidence in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken lines that were either resistant or susceptible to ascites syndrome were developed by using a hypobaric chamber to induce the disease. Birds were reared in a hypobaric chamber that simulated high altitude by operating under a partial vacuum, which thereby lowered the partial pressure of oxyg...

  2. Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone suppress in vivo tumor growth and gene expression in triple negative breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Perez, Roberto; Schally, Andrew V; Vidaurre, Irving; Rincon, Ricardo; Block, Norman L; Rick, Ferenc G

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a modern antagonistic analog of GHRH on tumor growth and on expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in two models of human triple negative breast cancers (TNBC). The TNBC subtype is refractory to the treatment options available for other hormone-independent breast cancers. Inflammatory cytokines play a major role in the cellular signaling associated with breast cancer pathogenesis and enhance epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT), drug resistance, and metastatic potential. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide which regulates the synthesis and release of growth hormone by the pituitary and is an autocrine/paracrine growth factor for multiple human cancers. The effects of analogs of GHRH on tumoral cytokine expression have not been previously investigated. Animals bearing xenografts of the human TNBC cell lines, HCC1806 and MX-1, were treated with MIA-602, an antagonistic analog of GHRH. Treatment with MIA-602 significantly reduced tumor growth. We quantified transcript levels of the genes for several inflammatory cytokines. Expression of INF?, IL-1?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF?, was significantly reduced by treatment with MIA-602. We conclude that treatment of TNBC with GHRH antagonists reduces tumor growth through an action mediated by tumoral GHRH receptors and produces a suppression of inflammatory cytokine signaling. Silencing of GHRH receptors in vitro with siRNA inhibited the expression of GHRH-R genes and inflammatory cytokine genes in HCC1806 and MX-1 cells. Further studies on GHRH antagonists may facilitate the development of new strategies for the treatment of resistant cancers. PMID:22941871

  3. Towards a Computer Aided Prognosis for Brain Glioblastomas Tumor Growth Estimation.

    PubMed

    Sallemi, Lamia; Njeh, Ines; Lehericy, Stephane

    2015-10-01

    Bridging the gap between mathematical and biological models and clinical applications could be considered as one of the new challenges of medical image analysis over the ten last years. This paper presents an advanced and convivial algorithm for brain glioblastomas tumor growth modelization. The brain glioblastomas tumor region would be extracted using a fast distribution matching developed algorithm based on global pixel wise information. A new model to simulate the tumor growth based on two major elements: cellular automata and fast marching method (CFMM) has been developed and used to estimate the brain tumor evolution during the time. On the basis of this model, experiments were carried out on twenty pathological MRI selected cases that were carefully discussed with the clinical part. The obtained simulated results were validated with ground truth references (real tumor growth measure) using dice metric parameter. As carefully discussed with the clinical partner, experimental results showed that our proposed algorithm for brain glioblastomas tumor growth model proved a good agreement. Our main purpose behind this research was of course to make advances and progress during clinical explorations helping therefore radiologists in their diagnosis. Clinical decisions and guidelines would be hence so more focused with such an advanced tool that could help clinicians and ensuring more accuracy and objectivity. PMID:26441424

  4. Morphology and growth characteristics of epithelial cells from classic Wilms' tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen-Martin, D. J.; Garvin, A. J.; Gansler, T.; Tarnowski, B. I.; Sens, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to establish cell cultures representing the epithelial component of Wilms' tumor was determined for 18 cases of classic Wilms' tumors. From these 18 cases only two resulted in the culture of epithelial cells. Although the tumors from both cases were composed of a prominent epithelial component, other classic tumors not producing epithelial cell cultures also possessed appreciable epithelial components. Likewise, heterotransplants of these two primary tumors failed to give rise to epithelial cell cultures, although cultures of the blastemal element were produced. This suggests that Wilms' tumors may be prone to differentiate in different directions at varying times during tumor growth, possibly dependent on local tumor environment. Epithelial cells from these two classic cases were grown in culture in basal medium composed of a 1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham's F-12 medium, supplemented with selenium, insulin, transferrin, hydrocortisone, tri-iodothyronine, and epidermal growth factor, on a collagen type I matrix with absorbed fetal calf serum proteins. One of the two cases also required the addition of bovine pituitary extract, ethanolamine, prostaglandin E1, and putrescine for optimum growth. Morphological analysis disclosed that the cultured cells were very similar to normal renal tubular cells in culture, except that the cells displayed little evidence for differentiated active ion transport and tended to grow in a multilayered arrangement. The culture of the epithelial cells from classic Wilms' tumors provides a model system for the study of tumor differentiation and progression. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8384407

  5. Measuring Growth and Gene Expression Dynamics of Tumor-Targeted S. Typhimurium Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hasty, Jeff; Bhatia, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to generate quantitative time-course data on the growth and gene expression dynamics of attenuated S. typhimurium bacterial colonies growing inside tumors. We generated model xenograft tumors in mice by subcutaneous injection of a human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-8 (NCI DCTD Tumor Repository, Frederick, MD). We transformed attenuated strains of S. typhimurium bacteria (ELH430:SL1344 phoPQ- 1) with a constitutively expressed luciferase (luxCDABE) plasmid for visualization2. These strains specifically colonize tumors while remaining essentially non-virulent to the mouse1. Once measurable tumors were established, bacteria were injected intravenously via the tail vein with varying dosage. Tumor-localized, bacterial gene expression was monitored in real time over the course of 60 hours using an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). At each time point, tumors were excised, homogenized, and plated to quantitate bacterial colonies for correlation with gene expression data. Together, this data yields a quantitative measure of the in vivo growth and gene expression dynamics of bacteria growing inside tumors. PMID:23851642

  6. Depletion of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Slows the Growth of Chemically Induced Mouse Lung Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Jason M.; Tennis, Meredith A.; Orlicky, David J.; Yin, Hao; Ju, Cynthia; Redente, Elizabeth F.; Choo, Kevin S.; Staab, Taylor A.; Bouchard, Ronald J.; Merrick, Daniel T.; Malkinson, Alvin M.; Dwyer-Nield, Lori D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for lung cancer, and low-dose aspirin intake reduces lung cancer risk. However, the roles that specific inflammatory cells and their products play in lung carcinogenesis have yet to be fully elucidated. In mice, alveolar macrophage numbers increase as lung tumors progress, and pulmonary macrophage programing changes within 2?weeks of carcinogen exposure. To examine how macrophages specifically affect lung tumor progression, they were depleted in mice bearing urethane-induced lung tumors using clodronate-encapsulated liposomes. Alveolar macrophage populations decreased to ?50% of control levels after 46?weeks of liposomal clodronate treatment. Tumor burden decreased by 50% compared to vehicle treated mice, and tumor cell proliferation, as measured by Ki67 staining, was also attenuated. Pulmonary fluid levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, CXCL1, IL-6, and CCL2 diminished with clodronate liposome treatment. Tumor-associated macrophages expressed markers of both M1 and M2 programing in vehicle and clodronate liposome-treated mice. Mice lacking CCR2 (the receptor for macrophage chemotactic factor CCL2) had comparable numbers of alveolar macrophages and showed no difference in tumor growth rates when compared to similarly treated wild-type mice suggesting that while CCL2 may recruit macrophages to lung tumor microenvironments, redundant pathways can compensate when CCL2/CCR2 signaling is inactivated. Depletion of pulmonary macrophages rather than inhibition of their recruitment may be an advantageous strategy for attenuating lung cancer progression. PMID:25505466

  7. In vivo Cytokine Gene Transfer by Gene Gun Reduces Tumor Growth in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenn H.; Burkholder, Joseph K.; Sun, Jian; Culp, Jerilyn; Turner, Joel; Lu, Xing G.; Pugh, Thomas D.; Ershler, William B.; Yang, Ning-Sun

    1995-03-01

    Implantation of tumor cells modified by in vitro cytokine gene transfer has been shown by many investigators to result in potent in vivo antitumor activities in mice. Here we describe an approach to tumor immunotherapy utilizing direct transfection of cytokine genes into tumorbearing animals by particle-mediated gene transfer. In vivo transfection of the human interleukin 6 gene into the tumor site reduced methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma growth, and a combination of murine tumor necrosis factor α and interferon γ genes inhibited growth of a renal carcinoma tumor model (Renca). In addition, treatment with murine interleukin 2 and interferon γ genes prolonged the survival of Renca tumor-bearing mice and resulted in tumor eradication in 25% of the test animals. Transgene expression was demonstrated in treated tissues by ELISA and immunohistochemical analysis. Significant serum levels of interleukin 6 and interferon γ were detected, demonstrating effective secretion of transgenic proteins from treated skin into the bloodstream. This in vivo cytokine gene therapy approach provides a system for evaluating the antitumor properties of various cytokines in different tumor models and has potential utility for human cancer gene therapy.

  8. A Mathematical Model of Prostate Tumor Growth Under Hormone Therapy with Mutation Inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Youshan; Guo, Qian; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2010-04-01

    This paper extends Jackson’s model describing the growth of a prostate tumor with hormone therapy to a new one with hypothetical mutation inhibitors. The new model not only considers the mutation by which androgen-dependent (AD) tumor cells mutate into androgen-independent (AI) ones but also introduces inhibition which is assumed to change the mutation rate. The tumor consists of two types of cells (AD and AI) whose proliferation and apoptosis rates are functions of androgen concentration. The mathematical model represents a free-boundary problem for a nonlinear system of parabolic equations, which describe the evolution of the populations of the above two types of tumor cells. The tumor surface is a free boundary, whose velocity is equal to the cell’s velocity there. Global existence and uniqueness of solutions of this model is proved. Furthermore, explicit formulae of tumor volume at any time t are found in androgen-deprived environment under the assumption of radial symmetry, and therefore the dynamics of tumor growth under androgen-deprived therapy could be predicted by these formulae. Qualitative analysis and numerical simulation show that controlling the mutation may improve the effect of hormone therapy or delay a tumor relapse.

  9. Bioassay of Eucalyptus extracts for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cells in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Khatun, Hasina; Ghosh, Soby; Ali, MM; Khanam, JA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results : EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches. PMID:23569937

  10. Tumor Growth Suppression and Enhanced Radioresponse by an Exogenous Epidermal Growth Factor in Mouse Xenograft Models with A431 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yu Jin; Jeon, Sang-Rok; Koh, Jae Moon; Wu, Hong-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether an exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) could induce anti-tumor and radiosensitizing effects in vivo. Materials and Methods BALB/c-nu mice that were inoculated with A431 (human squamous cell carcinoma) cells in the right hind legs were divided into five groups: I (no treatment), II (EGF for 6 days), III (EGF for 20 days), IV (radiotherapy [RT]), and V (RT plus concomitant EGF). EGF was administered intraperitoneally (5 mg/kg) once a day and the RT dose was 30 Gy in six fractions. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections of tumor, liver, lung, and kidney tissues were investigated. Additionally, tumors were subjected to immunohistochemistry staining with caspase-3. Results EGF for 6 days decreased tumor volume, but it approached the level of the control group at the end of follow-up (p=0.550). The duration of tumor shrinkage was prolonged in group V while the slope of tumor re-growth phase was steeper in group IV (p=0.034). EGF for 20 days decreased tumor volume until the end of the observation period (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry revealed that mice in group V showed stronger intensity than those in group IV. There were no abnormal histological findings upon H&E staining of the normal organs. Conclusion EGF-induced anti-tumor effect was ascertained in the xenograft mouse models with A431 cells. Concomitant use of EGF has the potential role as a radiosensitizer in the design of fractionated irradiation. PMID:25600061

  11. Drugs Which Inhibit Osteoclast Function Suppress Tumor Growth through Calcium Reduction in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Liao, Jinhui; Park, Serk In; Koh, Amy J; Sadler, William D; Pienta, Kenneth J; Rosol, Thomas J; McCauley, Laurie K

    2011-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma frequently metastasizes to bone where the microenvironment facilitates its growth. Inhibition of bone resorption is effective in reducing tumor burden and bone destruction in prostate cancer. However, whether drugs that inhibit osteoclast function inhibit tumor growth independent of inhibition of bone resorption is unclear. Calcium is released during bone resorption and the calcium sensing receptor is an important regulator of cancer cell proliferation. The goal of this investigation was to elucidate the role of calcium released during bone resorption and to determine the impact of drugs which suppress bone resorption on tumor growth in bone. To compare tumor growth in a skeletal versus non-skeletal site, equal numbers of canine prostate cancer cells expressing luciferase (ACE-1luc) prostate cancer cells were inoculated into a simple collagen matrix, neonatal mouse vertebrae (vossicles), human de-proteinized bone, or a mineralized collagen matrix. Implants were placed subcutaneously into athymic mice. Luciferase activity was used to track tumor growth weekly and at one month tumors were dissected for histologic analysis. Luciferase activity and tumor size were greater in vossicles, de-proteinized bone and mineralized collagen matrix versus non-mineralized collagen implants. The human osteoblastic prostate carcinoma cell line C4-2b also grew better in a mineral rich environment with a greater proliferation of C4-2b cells reflected by Ki-67 staining. Zoledronic acid (ZA), a bisphosphonate, and recombinant OPG-Fc, a RANKL inhibitor, were administered to mice bearing vertebral implants (vossicles) containing ACE-1 osteoblastic prostate cancer cells. Vossicles or collagen matrices were seeded with ACE-1luc cells subcutaneously in athymic mice (2 vossicles, 2 collagen implants/mouse). Mice received ZA (5?g/mouse, twice/week), (OPG-Fc at 10mg/kg, 3 times/week) or vehicle, and luciferase activity was measured weekly. Histologic analysis of the tumors, vossicles and endogenous bones and serum biochemistry were performed. Antiresorptive administration was associated with decreased serum TRAP5b and reduced osteoclast numbers, increased tibia and vossicle bone areas. ZA significantly decreased bone marrow calcium concentrations without affecting serum calcium. ZA and OPG-Fc significantly inhibited tumor growth in bone but not in collagen implants. In conclusion, the inhibitory effects of ZA or OPG-Fc on prostate tumor growth in bone are mediated via blocking bone resorption and calcium release from bone. PMID:21419883

  12. The Importance of Neighborhood Scheme Selection in Agent-based Tumor Growth Modeling.

    PubMed

    Tzedakis, Georgios; Tzamali, Eleftheria; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis

    2015-01-01

    Modeling tumor growth has proven a very challenging problem, mainly due to the fact that tumors are highly complex systems that involve dynamic interactions spanning multiple scales both in time and space. The desire to describe interactions in various scales has given rise to modeling approaches that use both continuous and discrete variables, known as hybrid approaches. This work refers to a hybrid model on a 2D square lattice focusing on cell movement dynamics as they play an important role in tumor morphology, invasion and metastasis and are considered as indicators for the stage of malignancy used for early prognosis and effective treatment. Considering various distributions of the microenvironment, we explore how Neumann vs. Moore neighborhood schemes affects tumor growth and morphology. The results indicate that the importance of neighborhood selection is critical under specific conditions that include i) increased hapto/chemo-tactic coefficient, ii) a rugged microenvironment and iii) ECM degradation. PMID:26396490

  13. Noncanonical K27-Linked Polyubiquitination of TIEG1 Regulates Foxp3 Expression and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Dong-Jun; Zeng, Minghui; Muromoto, Ryuta; Matsuda, Tadashi; Shimoda, Kazuya; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Wei, Wei-Zen; Venuprasad, K.

    2013-01-01

    Earlier, we demonstrated the essential role of Kruppel-like transcription factor, TIEG1, in TGF-?induced regulatory T cell (Treg) development. In this article, we demonstrate that IL-6, which promotes Th17 development, abrogated TIEG1 nuclear translocation and inhibited TGF-?induced Treg development. Tyrosine kinase Tyk2-mediated phosphorylation of TIEG1 at Tyr179 promoted noncanonical K-27linked polyubiquitination, which inhibited TIEG1 nuclear translocation. To test the role of TIEG1-regulated Treg/Th17 development in antitumor immunity, we analyzed TRAMP-C2 tumor growth in TIEG1/ mice. The defective Treg development and elevated Th17 response resulted in enhanced immune reactivity in the tumor and inhibition of TRAMP-C2 tumor growth in TIEG1/ mice. Thus, our results uncovered a novel regulatory mechanism that modulates Tregs and may regulate tumor progression. PMID:21471442

  14. The Importance of Neighborhood Scheme Selection in Agent-based Tumor Growth Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Tzedakis, Georgios; Tzamali, Eleftheria; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis

    2015-01-01

    Modeling tumor growth has proven a very challenging problem, mainly due to the fact that tumors are highly complex systems that involve dynamic interactions spanning multiple scales both in time and space. The desire to describe interactions in various scales has given rise to modeling approaches that use both continuous and discrete variables, known as hybrid approaches. This work refers to a hybrid model on a 2D square lattice focusing on cell movement dynamics as they play an important role in tumor morphology, invasion and metastasis and are considered as indicators for the stage of malignancy used for early prognosis and effective treatment. Considering various distributions of the microenvironment, we explore how Neumann vs. Moore neighborhood schemes affects tumor growth and morphology. The results indicate that the importance of neighborhood selection is critical under specific conditions that include i) increased hapto/chemo-tactic coefficient, ii) a rugged microenvironment and iii) ECM degradation. PMID:26396490

  15. Both stromal cell and colonocyte epidermal growth factor receptors control HCT116 colon cancer cell growth in tumor xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Colon cancer growth requires growth-promoting interactions between malignant colonocytes and stromal cells. Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are expressed on colonocytes and many stromal cells. Furthermore, EGFR is required for efficient tumorigenesis in experimental colon cancer models. To dissect the cell-specific role of EGFR, we manipulated receptor function on stromal cells and cancer cells. To assess the role of stromal EGFR, HCT116 human colon cancer cells were implanted into immunodeficient mice expressing dominant negative (DN) EgfrVelvet/+ or Egfr+/+. To assess the role of cancer cell EGFR, HCT116 transfectants expressing inducible DN-Egfr were implanted into immunodeficient mice. To dissect EGFR signals in vitro, we examined colon cancer cells in monoculture or in cocultures with fibroblasts for EGFR transactivation and prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) induction. EGFR signals were determined by blotting, immunostaining and real-time PCR. Tumor xenografts in EgfrVelvet/+ mice were significantly smaller than tumors in Egfr+/+ mice, with decreased proliferation (Ki67) and increased apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) in cancer cells and decreased stromal blood vessels. Mouse stromal transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA), amphiregulin (AREG), PTGS2 and Il1b and interleukin-1 receptor 1 (Il1r1) transcripts and cancer cell beta catenin (CTNNB1) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) were significantly lower in tumors obtained from EgfrVelvet/+ mice. DN-EGFR HCT116 transfectants also formed significantly smaller tumors with reduced mouse Areg, Ptgs2, Il1b and Il1r1 transcripts. Coculture increased Caco-2 phospho-active ERBB (pERBB2), whereas DN-EGFR in Caco-2 cells suppressed fibroblast PTGS2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In monoculture, interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) transactivated EGFR in HCT116 cells. Stromal cell and colonocyte EGFRs are required for robust EGFR signals and efficient tumor growth, which involve EGFRinterleukin-1 crosstalk. PMID:22791816

  16. Porous biodegradable EW62 medical implants resist tumor cell growth.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, O; Ventura, Y; Goldman, J; Vago, R; Aghion, E

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium alloys have been widely investigated for biodegradable medical applications. However, the shielding of harmful cells (eg. bacteria or tumorous cells) from immune surveillance may be compounded by the increased porosity of biodegradable materials. We previously demonstrated the improved corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of a novel EW62 (Mg-6%Nd-2%Y-0.5%Zr)) magnesium alloy by rapid solidification followed by extrusion (RS) compared to its conventional counterpart (CC). The present in vitro study evaluated the influence of rapid solidification on cytotoxicity to murine osteosarcoma cells. We found that CC and RS corrosion extracts significantly reduced cell viability over a 24-h exposure period. Cell density was reduced over 48h following direct contact on both CC and RS surfaces, but was further reduced on the CC surface. The direct presence of cells accelerated corrosion for both materials. The corroded RS material exhibited superior mechanical properties relative to the CC material. The data show that the improved corrosion resistance of the rapidly solidified EW62 alloy (RS) resulted in a relatively reduced cytotoxic effect on tumorous cells. Hence, the tested alloy in the form of a rapidly solidified substance may introduce a good balance between its biodegradation characteristics and cytotoxic effect towards cancerous and normal cells. PMID:26838879

  17. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors VEGF-B and VEGF-C Are Expressed in Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Salven, Petri; Lymboussaki, Athina; Heikkilä, Päivi; Jääskela-Saari, Hilkka; Enholm, Bernd; Aase, Karin; von Euler, Gabriel; Eriksson, Ulf; Alitalo, Kari; Joensuu, Heikki

    1998-01-01

    The growth of solid tumors is dependent on angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a secreted endothelial-cell-specific mitogen. We have recently characterized two novel endothelial growth factors with structural homology to VEGF and named them VEGF-B and VEGF-C. To further define the roles of VEGF-B and VEGF-C, we have studied their expression in a variety of human tumors, both malignant and benign. VEGF-B mRNA was detected in most of the tumor samples studied, and the mRNA and the protein product were localized to tumor cells. Endothelial cells of tumor vessels were also immunoreactive for VEGF-B, probably representing the binding sites of the VEGF-B polypeptide secreted by adjacent tumor cells. VEGF-C mRNA was detected in approximately one-half of the cancers analyzed. Via in situ hybridization, VEGF-C mRNA was also localized to tumor cells. All lymphomas studied contained low levels of VEGF-C mRNA, possibly reflecting the cell-specific pattern of expression of the VEGF-C gene in the corresponding normal cells. The expression of VEGF-C is associated with the development of lymphatic vessels, and VEGF-C could be an important factor regulating the mutual paracrine relationships between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells. Furthermore, VEGF-C and VEGF-B can, similarly to VEGF, be involved in tumor angiogenesis. PMID:9665470

  18. Monitoring Prostate Tumor Growth in an Orthotopic Mouse Model Using Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging Technique.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jie; Cozzi, Paul; Hung, Tzong-Tyng; Hao, Jingli; Graham, Peter; Li, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most commonly diagnosed and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males in USA. Prostate orthotopic mouse model has been widely used to study human CaP in preclinical settings. Measurement of changes in tumor size obtained from noninvasive diagnostic images is a standard method for monitoring responses to anticancer modalities. This article reports for the first time the usage of a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound system equipped with photoacoustic (PA) imaging in monitoring longitudinal prostate tumor growth in a PC-3 orthotopic NODSCID mouse model (n = 8). Two-dimensional and 3D modes of ultrasound show great ability in accurately depicting the size and shape of prostate tumors. PA function on two-dimensional and 3D images showed average oxygen saturation and average hemoglobin concentration of the tumor. Results showed a good fit in representative exponential tumor growth curves (n = 3; r(2) = 0.948, 0.955, and 0.953, respectively) and a good correlation of tumor volume measurements performed in vivo with autopsy (n = 8, r = 0.95, P < .001). The application of 3D ultrasound imaging proved to be a useful imaging modality in monitoring tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model, with advantages such as high contrast, uncomplicated protocols, economical equipment, and nonharmfulness to animals. PA mode also enabled display of blood oxygenation surrounding the tumor and tumor vasculature and angiogenesis, making 3D ultrasound imaging an ideal tool for preclinical cancer research. PMID:26947880

  19. Non-cell autonomous tumor-growth driving supports sub-clonal heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Marusyk, Andriy; Tabassum, Doris P.; Altrock, Philipp M.; Almendro, Vanessa; Michor, Franziska; Polyak, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cancers arise through a process of somatic evolution that can result in substantial sub-clonal heterogeneity within tumors. The mechanisms responsible for the coexistence of distinct sub-clones and the biological consequences of this coexistence remain poorly understood. Here we used a mouse xenograft model to investigate the impact of sub-clonal heterogeneity on tumor phenotypes and the competitive expansion of individual clones. We found that tumor growth can be driven by a minor cell subpopulation, which enhances the proliferation of all cells within a tumor by overcoming environmental constraints and yet can be outcompeted by faster proliferating competitors, resulting in tumor collapse. We then developed a mathematical modeling framework to identify the rules underlying the generation of intratumor clonal heterogeneity. We found that non-cell autonomous driving, together with clonal interference, stabilizes sub-clonal heterogeneity, thereby enabling inter-clonal interactions that can lead to new phenotypic traits. PMID:25079331

  20. Effects of nanosized lithium carbonate particles on intact muscle tissue and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Bgatova, N P; Borodin, Yu I; Makarova, V V; Pozhidaeva, A A; Rachkovskaya, L N; Konenkov, V I

    2014-05-01

    The effects of nanosized lithium carbonate particles on muscle tissue structure and development of experimental hepatocarcinoma-29 transplanted into the hip were studied in CBA mice. Necrotic changes in all structural components of the muscle were detected after intramuscular injection of nanosized lithium carbonate particles to intact animals. Regeneration of the muscle fibers after lithium carbonate treatment was associated with a significant increase in macrophage count, number of microvessels, activation of fibroblasts, and complete recovery of the organ structure. Injection of lithium carbonate nanoparticles at the periphery of tumor growth caused tumor cell necrosis, destruction of the vascular bed, and attraction of neutrophils and macrophages to the tumor focus. After the preparation was discontinued, the tumor developed with lesser number of vessels, smaller tumor cells, and lesser deformation of the cell nuclei structure. PMID:24909724

  1. PPAR? ligands inhibit primary tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahy, Dipak; Singer, Samuel; Shen, Lucy Q.; Butterfield, Catherine E.; Freedman, Deborah A.; Chen, Emy J.; Moses, Marsha A.; Kilroy, Susan; Duensing, Stefan; Fletcher, Christopher; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Folkman, Judah; Kaipainen, Arja

    2002-01-01

    Several drugs approved for a variety of indications have been shown to exhibit antiangiogenic effects. Our study focuses on the PPAR? ligand rosiglitazone, a compound widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that PPAR? is highly expressed in tumor endothelium and is activated by rosiglitazone in cultured endothelial cells. Furthermore, we show that rosiglitazone suppresses primary tumor growth and metastasis by both direct and indirect antiangiogenic effects. Rosiglitazone inhibits bovine capillary endothelial cell but not tumor cell proliferation at low doses in vitro and decreases VEGF production by tumor cells. In our in vivo studies, rosiglitazone suppresses angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane, in the avascular cornea, and in a variety of primary tumors. These results suggest that PPAR? ligands may be useful in treating angiogenic diseases such as cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:12370270

  2. Catabolic cancer-associated fibroblasts transfer energy and biomass to anabolic cancer cells, fueling tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lisanti, Michael P; Sotgia, Federica

    2014-04-01

    Fibroblasts are the most abundant "non-cancerous" cells in tumors. However, it remains largely unknown how these cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote tumor growth and metastasis, driving chemotherapy resistance and poor clinical outcome. This review summarizes new findings on CAF signaling pathways and their emerging metabolic phenotypes that promote tumor growth. Although it is well established that altered cancer metabolism enhances tumor growth, little is known about the role of fibroblast metabolism in tumor growth. New studies reveal that metabolic coupling occurs between catabolic fibroblasts and anabolic cancer cells, in many types of human tumors, including breast, prostate, and head & neck cancers, as well as lymphomas. These catabolic phenotypes observed in CAFs are secondary to a ROS-induced metabolic stress response. Mechanistically, this occurs via HIF1-alpha and NF?B signaling, driving oxidative stress, autophagy, glycolysis and senescence in stromal fibroblasts. These catabolic CAFs then create a nutrient-rich microenvironment, to metabolically support tumor growth, via the local stromal generation of mitochondrial fuels (lactate, ketone bodies, fatty acids, glutamine, and other amino acids). New biomarkers of this catabolic CAF phenotype (such as caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and MCT4), which are reversible upon treatment with anti-oxidants, are strong predictors of poor clinical outcome in various types of human cancers. How cancer cells metabolically reprogram fibroblasts can also help us to understand the effects of cancer cells at an organismal level, explaining para-neoplastic phenomena, such as cancer cachexia. In conclusion, cancer should be viewed more as a systemic disease, that engages the host-organism in various forms of energy-transfer and metabolic co-operation, across a whole-body "ecosystem". PMID:24486645

  3. A new computational tool for the phenomenological analysis of multipassage tumor growth curves.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, Antonio S; Guiot, Caterina; Delsanto, Pier Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Multipassage experiments are performed by subcutaneous implantation in lab animals (usually mice) of a small number of cells from selected human lines. Tumor cells are then passaged from one mouse to another by harvesting them from a growing tumor and implanting them into other healthy animals. This procedure may be extremely useful to investigate the various mechanisms involved in the long term evolution of tumoral growth. It has been observed by several researchers that, contrary to what happens in in vitro experiments, there is a significant growth acceleration at each new passage. This result is explained by a new method of analysis, based on the Phenomenological Universalities approach. It is found that, by means of a simple rescaling of time, it is possible to collapse all the growth curves, corresponding to the successive passages, into a single curve, belonging to the Universality Class U2. Possible applications are proposed and the need of further experimental evidence is discussed. PMID:19396358

  4. A New Computational Tool for the Phenomenological Analysis of Multipassage Tumor Growth Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gliozzi, Antonio S.; Guiot, Caterina; Delsanto, Pier Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Multipassage experiments are performed by subcutaneous implantation in lab animals (usually mice) of a small number of cells from selected human lines. Tumor cells are then passaged from one mouse to another by harvesting them from a growing tumor and implanting them into other healthy animals. This procedure may be extremely useful to investigate the various mechanisms involved in the long term evolution of tumoral growth. It has been observed by several researchers that, contrary to what happens in in vitro experiments, there is a significant growth acceleration at each new passage. This result is explained by a new method of analysis, based on the Phenomenological Universalities approach. It is found that, by means of a simple rescaling of time, it is possible to collapse all the growth curves, corresponding to the successive passages, into a single curve, belonging to the Universality Class U2. Possible applications are proposed and the need of further experimental evidence is discussed. PMID:19396358

  5. Fufang Kushen injection inhibits sarcoma growth and tumor-induced hyperalgesia via TRPV1 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhizheng; Fan, Huiting; Higgins, Tim; Qi, Jia; Haines, Diana; Trivett, Anna; Oppenheim, Joost J; Wei, Hou; Li, Jie; Lin, Hongsheng; Howard, O M Zack

    2014-12-28

    Cancer pain is a deleterious consequence of tumor growth and related inflammation. Opioids and anti-inflammatory drugs provide first line treatment for cancer pain, but both are limited by side effects. Fufang Kushen injection (FKI) is GMP produced, traditional Chinese medicine used alone or with chemotherapy to reduce cancer-associated pain. FKI limited mouse sarcoma growth both in vivo and in vitro, in part, by reducing the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT kinases and BAD. FKI inhibited TRPV1 mediated capsaicin-induced ERK phosphorylation and reduced tumor-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Thus, FKI limited cancer pain both directly by blocking TRPV1 signaling and indirectly by reducing tumor growth. PMID:25242356

  6. Caveolin-1 is a negative regulator of tumor growth in glioblastoma and modulates chemosensitivity to temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Quann, Kevin; Gonzales, Donna M.; Mercier, Isabelle; Wang, Chenguang; Sotgia, Federica; Pestell, Richard G.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Jasmin, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a critical regulator of tumor progression in a variety of cancers where it has been shown to act as either a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter. In glioblastoma multiforme, it has been previously demonstrated to function as a putative tumor suppressor. Our studies here, using the human glioblastoma-derived cell line U-87MG, further support the role of Cav-1 as a negative regulator of tumor growth. Using a lentiviral transduction approach, we were able to stably overexpress Cav-1 in U-87MG cells. Gene expression microarray analyses demonstrated significant enrichment in gene signatures corresponding to downregulation of MAPK, PI3K/AKT and mTOR signaling, as well as activation of apoptotic pathways in Cav-1-overexpressing U-87MG cells. These same gene signatures were later confirmed at the protein level in vitro. To explore the ability of Cav-1 to regulate tumor growth in vivo, we further show that Cav-1-overexpressing U-87MG cells display reduced tumorigenicity in an ectopic xenograft mouse model, with marked hypoactivation of MAPK and PI3K/mTOR pathways. Finally, we demonstrate that Cav-1 overexpression confers sensitivity to the most commonly used chemotherapy for glioblastoma, temozolomide. In conclusion, Cav-1 negatively regulates key cell growth and survival pathways and may be an effective biomarker for predicting response to chemotherapy in glioblastoma. PMID:23598719

  7. Nav1.5 regulates breast tumor growth and metastatic dissemination in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michaela; Yang, Ming; Millican-Slater, Rebecca; Brackenbury, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) mediate action potential firing and regulate adhesion and migration in excitable cells. VGSCs are also expressed in cancer cells. In metastatic breast cancer (BCa) cells, the Nav1.5 α subunit potentiates migration and invasion. In addition, the VGSC-inhibiting antiepileptic drug phenytoin inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. However, the functional activity of Nav1.5 and its specific contribution to tumor progression in vivo has not been delineated. Here, we found that Nav1.5 is up-regulated at the protein level in BCa compared with matched normal breast tissue. Na+ current, reversibly blocked by tetrodotoxin, was retained in cancer cells in tumor tissue slices, thus directly confirming functional VGSC activity in vivo. Stable down-regulation of Nav1.5 expression significantly reduced tumor growth, local invasion into surrounding tissue, and metastasis to liver, lungs and spleen in an orthotopic BCa model. Nav1.5 down-regulation had no effect on cell proliferation or angiogenesis within the in tumors, but increased apoptosis. In vitro, Nav1.5 down-regulation altered cell morphology and reduced CD44 expression, suggesting that VGSC activity may regulate cellular invasion via the CD44-src-cortactin signaling axis. We conclude that Nav1.5 is functionally active in cancer cells in breast tumors, enhancing growth and metastatic dissemination. These findings support the notion that compounds targeting Nav1.5 may be useful for reducing metastasis. PMID:26452220

  8. [Production of nitric oxide metabolites during transplanted tumors growth with different metastatic potential].

    PubMed

    Deriagina, V P; Ryzhova, N I; Krivosheeva, L V; Golubeva, I S

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous formation of metabolites of NO - nitrite (NI), nitrates (NA) and volatile nitrosamines in the body, tumor tissue and by abdominal cavity by macrophages for dynamics was investigated in mice F1(C57BlxCBA), Balb/c and BDF with subcutaneous transplanted tumors (Erlich carcinoma - EC and metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma - LLC). It was shown that growth of EC was accompanied by a statistically significant increase in the concentrations of NI and NA in tumor tissue to (7.34.67)'10-6 - (7.82.57)'10-5 (mol/kg) for the first three weeks and a sharp increase in urinary excretion of NI and NA. The maximum total concentration of NI and NA - (3.,60.46)'10-5 in tissue LLC was registered during the early stage of the tumor growth (7 days); it later declined, negatively correlating with the mass of the tumor. NI secretion by abdominal cavity macrophages demonstrated statistically significantly decrease at the stage of intensive growth LLC (14, 21 days). The tissue of EC contained varied concentration of cancerogenic N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine at all investigated time points. Thus, the ability of different gistogenesis tumor tissue to synthesize metabolites NO depended on time parameters and was more pronounced for EC, than LLC. PMID:25552506

  9. Model of avascular tumor growth and response to low dose exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Aguirre, J. M.; Custidiano, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    A single level cellular automata model is described and used to simulate early tumor growth, and the response of the tumor cells under low dose radiation affects. In this model the cell cycle of the population of normal and cancer cells is followed. The invasion mechanism of the tumor is simulated by a local factor that takes into account the microenvironment hardness to cell development, in a picture similar to the AMTIH model. The response of normal and cancer cells to direct effects of radiation is tested for various models and a model of bystander response is implemented.

  10. Production of vascular endothelial growth factor by human tumors inhibits the functional maturation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Gabrilovich, D I; Chen, H L; Girgis, K R; Cunningham, H T; Meny, G M; Nadaf, S; Kavanaugh, D; Carbone, D P

    1996-10-01

    Inadequate presentation of tumor antigens by host professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells (DCs), is one potential mechanism for the escape of tumors from the host immune system. Here, we show that human cancer cell lines release a soluble factor or factors that dramatically affect DC maturation from precursors without affecting the function of relatively mature DCs. One factor responsible for these effects was identified as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Thus, VEGF may play a broader role in the pathogenesis of cancer than was previously thought, and therapeutic blockade of VEGF action may improve prospects for immunotherapy as well as inhibit tumor neovasculature. PMID:8837607

  11. Transplantation of human renal cell carcinoma into NMRI nu/nu mice. III. Effect of irradiation on tumor acceptance and tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, U.; Huland, H.; Baisch, H.; Kloeppel, G.

    1985-07-01

    Irradiation of human renal cell carcinoma before radical tumor nephrectomy resulted in a significantly lower acceptance rate (1 of 7) in nude mice than for nonirradiated tumors (all of 13). The tumor tissue was transplanted into NMRI nu/nu mice immediately after nephrectomy. In this experimental system the authors demonstrated the reduced vitality of human tumor cells after irradiation. In a second series of experiments, 3 morphologically different human renal cell carcinomas were irradiated at various doses after establishment in nude mice. The irradiated tumor tissue was transplanted to the next passage. The morphology, proliferation rate and growth of these tumors were compared with those of nonirradiated controls. Radiation effect was dose dependent in the responding tumor types. The characteristics correlated with radiosensitivity were high proliferation rate (measured by flow cytometry), low cytologic grading and fast growth rate in the nude mice.

  12. Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of tumor growth kinetics in medullary thyroid cancer patients receiving cabozantinib.

    PubMed

    Miles, Dale R; Wada, David R; Jumbe, Nelson L; Lacy, Steven A; Nguyen, Linh T

    2016-04-01

    Nonlinear mixed effects models were developed to describe the relationship between cabozantinib exposure and target lesion tumor size in a phase III study of patients with progressive metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. These models used cabozantinib exposure estimates from a previously published population pharmacokinetic model for cabozantinib in cancer patients that was updated with data from healthy-volunteer studies. Semi-mechanistic models predict well for tumors with static, increasing, or decreasing growth over time, but they were not considered adequate for predicting tumor sizes in medullary thyroid cancer patients, among whom an early reduction in tumor size was followed by a late stabilization phase in those receiving cabozantinib. A semi-empirical tumor model adequately predicted tumor profiles that were assumed to have a net growth rate constant that was piecewise continuous in the regions of 0-110 and 110-280 days. Emax models relating average concentration to average change in tumor size predicted that an average concentration of 79 and 58?ng/ml, respectively, would yield 50% of the maximum possible tumor reduction during the first 110 days of dosing and during the subsequent 110-280 days of dosing. Simulations of tumor responses showed that daily doses of 60?mg or greater are expected to provide a similar tumor reduction. Both model evaluation of observed data and simulation results suggested that the two protocol-defined cabozantinib dose reductions from 140 to 100?mg/day and from 100 to 60?mg/day are not projected to result in a marked reduction in target lesion regrowth. PMID:26825867

  13. Antisense oligonucleotides and prevention of tumor growth: a different approach and proposal for a new method.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Deniz; Oztas, Haydar; Hilal Ates, Buse

    2005-01-01

    There have been several attempts to prevent tumor formation and growth. However, none of the developed methods gives a completely satisfying result for the treatment of tumor masses. The most often used therapies against tumor cells are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, utilization of these methods to treat cancer generally result in generation of undesired side effects. In recent years, the antisense oligonucleotide technology has been employed, with success to an extent, in prevention of tumor growth. However, this method has its limitations. One of the most important limitation is that all of the crucial genes that play certain roles and are specifically expressed in tumor cells have not yet been identified. Therefore, only a few numbers of genes that are shown to play a role in tumor cells are targeted by the antisense oligonucleotide method. The aim of the present study is to propose a hypotheses and outline the involved procedure which could be used to generate oligonucleotides that are antisense to genes or mRNAs that display certain specific functions in tumor cells but are yet to be identified. The proposed hypotheses involves first, a careful isolation of differentially expressed mRNAs by using the tumor and the corresponding normal cells. These mRNAs should represent the genes that operate in tumor cells but not in the corresponding normal cells. Following the isolation of the differentially expressed mRNAs, they will be reverse transcribed and the desired amounts of cDNA copies will be obtained. The cDNA copies will then be used differentially as a source for oligonucleotides that are antisense to genes or mRNAs. To obtain the desired length oligonucleotides that will be used as antisense oligonucleotides the cDNA copies will be subjected to Maxam-Gilbert fragmentation and/or controlled enodonuclease digestion. These two mentioned procedures could be optimized and used together or separately to obtain the desired length oligonucleotides that will be used against tumor cells. PMID:15607566

  14. NOS Inhibition Modulates Immune Polarization and Improves Radiation-Induced Tumor Growth Delay.

    PubMed

    Ridnour, Lisa A; Cheng, Robert Y S; Weiss, Jonathan M; Kaur, Sukhbir; Soto-Pantoja, David R; Basudhar, Debashree; Heinecke, Julie L; Stewart, C Andrew; DeGraff, William; Sowers, Anastasia L; Thetford, Angela; Kesarwala, Aparna H; Roberts, David D; Young, Howard A; Mitchell, James B; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Wiltrout, Robert H; Wink, David A

    2015-07-15

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are important mediators of progrowth signaling in tumor cells, as they regulate angiogenesis, immune response, and immune-mediated wound healing. Ionizing radiation (IR) is also an immune modulator and inducer of wound response. We hypothesized that radiation therapeutic efficacy could be improved by targeting NOS following tumor irradiation. Herein, we show enhanced radiation-induced (10 Gy) tumor growth delay in a syngeneic model (C3H) but not immunosuppressed (Nu/Nu) squamous cell carcinoma tumor-bearing mice treated post-IR with the constitutive NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). These results suggest a requirement of T cells for improved radiation tumor response. In support of this observation, tumor irradiation induced a rapid increase in the immunosuppressive Th2 cytokine IL10, which was abated by post-IR administration of L-NAME. In vivo suppression of IL10 using an antisense IL10 morpholino also extended the tumor growth delay induced by radiation in a manner similar to L-NAME. Further examination of this mechanism in cultured Jurkat T cells revealed L-NAME suppression of IR-induced IL10 expression, which reaccumulated in the presence of exogenous NO donor. In addition to L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitors ODQ and thrombospondin-1 also abated IR-induced IL10 expression in Jurkat T cells and ANA-1 macrophages, which further suggests that the immunosuppressive effects involve eNOS. Moreover, cytotoxic Th1 cytokines, including IL2, IL12p40, and IFN?, as well as activated CD8(+) T cells were elevated in tumors receiving post-IR L-NAME. Together, these results suggest that post-IR NOS inhibition improves radiation tumor response via Th1 immune polarization within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25990221

  15. Arsenic trioxide disrupts glioma stem cells via promoting PML degradation to inhibit tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenchao; Cheng, Lin; Shi, Yu; Ke, Susan Q; Huang, Zhi; Fang, Xiaoguang; Chu, Cheng-wei; Xie, Qi; Bian, Xiu-wu; Rich, Jeremy N; Bao, Shideng

    2015-11-10

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor. Tumor relapse in GBM is inevitable despite maximal therapeutic interventions. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) have been found to be critical players in therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Therapeutic drugs targeting GSCs may significantly improve GBM treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that arsenic trioxide (As2O3) effectively disrupted GSCs and inhibited tumor growth in the GSC-derived orthotopic xenografts by targeting the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML). As2O3 treatment induced rapid degradation of PML protein along with severe apoptosis in GSCs. Disruption of the endogenous PML recapitulated the inhibitory effects of As2O3 treatment on GSCs both in vitro and in orthotopic tumors. Importantly, As2O3 treatment dramatically reduced GSC population in the intracranial GBM xenografts and increased the survival of mice bearing the tumors. In addition, As2O3 treatment preferentially inhibited cell growth of GSCs but not matched non-stem tumor cells (NSTCs). Furthermore, As2O3 treatment or PML disruption potently diminished c-Myc protein levels through increased poly-ubiquitination and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. Our study indicated a potential implication of As2O3 in GBM treatment and highlighted the important role of PML/c-Myc axis in the maintenance of GSCs. PMID:26510911

  16. Arsenic trioxide disrupts glioma stem cells via promoting PML degradation to inhibit tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenchao; Cheng, Lin; Shi, Yu; Ke, Susan Q.; Huang, Zhi; Fang, Xiaoguang; Chu, Cheng-wei; Xie, Qi; Bian, Xiu-wu; Rich, Jeremy N.; Bao, Shideng

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor. Tumor relapse in GBM is inevitable despite maximal therapeutic interventions. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) have been found to be critical players in therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Therapeutic drugs targeting GSCs may significantly improve GBM treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that arsenic trioxide (As2O3) effectively disrupted GSCs and inhibited tumor growth in the GSC-derived orthotopic xenografts by targeting the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML). As2O3 treatment induced rapid degradation of PML protein along with severe apoptosis in GSCs. Disruption of the endogenous PML recapitulated the inhibitory effects of As2O3 treatment on GSCs both in vitro and in orthotopic tumors. Importantly, As2O3 treatment dramatically reduced GSC population in the intracranial GBM xenografts and increased the survival of mice bearing the tumors. In addition, As2O3 treatment preferentially inhibited cell growth of GSCs but not matched non-stem tumor cells (NSTCs). Furthermore, As2O3 treatment or PML disruption potently diminished c-Myc protein levels through increased poly-ubiquitination and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. Our study indicated a potential implication of As2O3 in GBM treatment and highlighted the important role of PML/c-Myc axis in the maintenance of GSCs. PMID:26510911

  17. NKD2, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, S; Kurenbekova, L; Gao, Y; Roos, A; Creighton, CJ; Rao, P; Hicks, J; Man, T-K; Lau, C; Brown, AMC; Jones, SN; Lazar, AJ; Ingram, D; Lev, D; Donehower, LA; Yustein, JT

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent pediatric malignant bone tumor that has a high propensity for metastases. Through osteoblast-specific alteration of p53 status, we developed a genetically engineered mouse model of localized and metastatic OS to gain an understanding into the molecular pathogenesis of OS. Microarray analysis of both localized tumors and metastatic tumors identified the downregulation of the naked cuticle homolog 2 (NKD2) gene, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling. Overexpression of NKD2 in metastatic human and mouse OS cells significantly decreases cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability in vitro and drastically diminishes OS tumor growth and metastasis in vivo, whereas downregulation enhances migratory and invasive potential. Evaluation of NKD2-overexpressing tumors revealed upregulation of tumor-suppressor genes and downregulation of molecules involved in blood vessel formation and cell migration. Furthermore, assessment of primary human OS revealed downregulation of NKD2 in metastatic and recurrent OS. Finally, we provide biological evidence that use of small-molecule inhibitors targeting the Wnt pathway can have therapeutic efficacy in decreasing metastatic properties in OS. Our studies provide compelling evidence that downregulation of NKD2 expression and alterations in associated regulated pathways have a significant role in driving OS tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:25579177

  18. Cancer Stem Cell Plasticity as Tumor Growth Promoter and Catalyst of Population Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Poleszczuk, Jan; Enderling, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly argued that cancer stem cells are not a cellular phenotype but rather a transient state that cells can acquire, either through intrinsic signaling cascades or in response to environmental cues. While cancer stem cell plasticity is generally associated with increased aggressiveness and treatment resistance, we set out to thoroughly investigate the impact of different rates of plasticity on early and late tumor growth dynamics and the response to therapy. We develop an agent-based model of cancer stem cell driven tumor growth, in which plasticity is defined as a spontaneous transition between stem and nonstem cancer cell states. Simulations of the model show that plasticity can substantially increase tumor growth rate and invasion. At high rates of plasticity, however, the cells get exhausted and the tumor will undergo spontaneous remission in the long term. In a series of in silico trials, we show that such remission can be facilitated through radiotherapy. The presented study suggests that stem cell plasticity has rather complex, nonintuitive implications on tumor growth and treatment response. Further theoretical, experimental, and integrated studies are needed to fully decipher cancer stem cell plasticity and how it can be harnessed for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26858759

  19. Estrogen Exhibits a Biphasic Effect on Prostate Tumor Growth through the Estrogen Receptor ?-KLF5 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuka; Osakabe, Asami; Waku, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Akaogi, Kensuke; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Homma, Yukio; Inoue, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Junn

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens are effective in the treatment of prostate cancer; however, the effects of estrogens on prostate cancer are enigmatic. In this study, we demonstrated that estrogen (17?-estradiol [E2]) has biphasic effects on prostate tumor growth. A lower dose of E2 increased tumor growth in mouse xenograft models using DU145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, whereas a higher dose significantly decreased tumor growth. We found that anchorage-independent apoptosis in these cells was inhibited by E2 treatment. Similarly, in vivo angiogenesis was suppressed by E2. Interestingly, these effects of E2 were abolished by knockdown of either estrogen receptor ? (ER?) or Krppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF5). ?n addition, E2 suppressed KLF5-mediated transcription through ER?, which inhibits proapoptotic FOXO1 and proangiogenic PDGFA expression. Furthermore, we revealed that a nonagonistic ER ligand GS-1405 inhibited FOXO1 and PDGFA expression through the ER?-KLF5 pathway and regulated prostate tumor growth without ER? transactivation. Therefore, these results suggest that E2 biphasically modulates prostate tumor formation by regulating KLF5-dependent transcription through ER? and provide a new strategy for designing ER modulators, which will be able to regulate prostate cancer progression with minimal adverse effects due to ER transactivation. PMID:26483416

  20. Modulation of the Leptin Receptor Mediates Tumor Growth and Migration of Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chalfant, Madeleine C.; Gorden, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been implicated as a significant risk factor for development of pancreatic cancer. In the setting of obesity, a systemic chronic inflammatory response is characterized by alterations in the production and secretion of a wide variety of growth factors. Leptin is a hormone whose level increases drastically in the serum of obese patients. High fat diet induced obesity in mice leads to an overall increased body weight, pancreatic weight, serum leptin, and pancreatic tissue leptin levels. Here we report the contribution of obesity and leptin to pancreatic cancer growth utilizing an in vivo orthotopic murine pancreatic cancer model, which resulted in increased tumor proliferation with concomitant increased tumor burden in the diet induced obese mice compared to lean mice. Human and murine pancreatic cancer cell lines were found to express the short as well as the long form of the leptin receptor and functionally responded to leptin induced activation through an increased phosphorylation of AKT473. In vitro, leptin stimulation increased cellular migration which was blocked by addition of a PI3K inhibitor. In vivo, depletion of the leptin receptor through shRNA knockdown partially abrogated increased orthotopic tumor growth in obese mice. These findings suggest that leptin contributes to pancreatic tumor growth through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, which promotes pancreatic tumor cell migration. PMID:25919692

  1. Vav1 promotes lung cancer growth by instigating tumor-microenvironment cross-talk via growth factor secretion.

    PubMed

    Sebban, Shulamit; Farago, Marganit; Rabinovich, Shiran; Lazer, Galit; Idelchuck, Yulia; Ilan, Lena; Pikarsky, Eli; Katzav, Shulamit

    2014-10-15

    Vav1 is a signal transducer that functions as a scaffold protein and a regulator of cytoskeleton organization in the hematopoietic system, where it is exclusively expressed. Recently, Vav1 was shown to be involved in diverse human cancers, including lung cancer. We demonstrate that lung cancer cells that abnormally express Vav1 secrete growth factors in a Vav1-dependent manner. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that Vav1 depletion results in a marked reduction in the expression of colony-stimulating-factor-1 (CSF1), a hematopoietic growth factor. The association between Vav1 expression and CSF1 was further supported by signal transduction experiments, supporting involvement of Vav1 in regulating lung cancer secretome. Blocking of ERK phosphorylation, led to a decrease in CSF1 transcription, thus suggesting a role for ERK, a downstream effector of Vav1, in CSF1 expression. CSF1-silenced cells exhibited reduced focus formation, proliferation abilities, and growth in NOD/SCID mice. CSF1-silenced H358 cells resulted in significantly smaller tumors, showing increased fibrosis and a decrease in tumor infiltrating macrophages. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis of primary human lung tumors revealed a positive correlation between Vav1 and CSF1 expression, which was associated with tumor grade. Additional results presented herein suggest a potential cross-talk between cancer cells and the microenvironment controlled by CSF1/Vav1 signaling pathways. PMID:25313137

  2. Vav1 promotes lung cancer growth by instigating tumor-microenvironment cross-talk via growth factor secretion

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Shiran; Lazer, Galit; Idelchuck, Yulia; Ilan, Lena; Pikarsky, Eli; Katzav, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    Vav1 is a signal transducer that functions as a scaffold protein and a regulator of cytoskeleton organization in the hematopoietic system, where it is exclusively expressed. Recently, Vav1 was shown to be involved in diverse human cancers, including lung cancer. We demonstrate that lung cancer cells that abnormally express Vav1 secrete growth factors in a Vav1-dependent manner. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that Vav1 depletion results in a marked reduction in the expression of colony-stimulating-factor-1 (CSF1), a hematopoietic growth factor. The association between Vav1 expression and CSF1 was further supported by signal transduction experiments, supporting involvement of Vav1 in regulating lung cancer secretome. Blocking of ERK phosphorylation, led to a decrease in CSF1 transcription, thus suggesting a role for ERK, a downstream effector of Vav1, in CSF1 expression. CSF1-silenced cells exhibited reduced focus formation, proliferation abilities, and growth in NOD/SCID mice. CSF1-silenced H358 cells resulted in significantly smaller tumors, showing increased fibrosis and a decrease in tumor infiltrating macrophages. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis of primary human lung tumors revealed a positive correlation between Vav1 and CSF1 expression, which was associated with tumor grade. Additional results presented herein suggest a potential cross-talk between cancer cells and the microenvironment controlled by CSF1/Vav1 signaling pathways. PMID:25313137

  3. Effects of the Landschtz ascites carcinoma and ascitic fluid on macrophage activity in C. parvum-injected mice.

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, L. C.; Pugh-Humphreys, R. G.; Thomson, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    I.p. administration of 1.4 mg Corynebacterium parvum (C. parvum) 24 h before inoculation of Landschtz ascites carcinoma (LAC) cells significantly impaired growth of the tumour in MF1 mice. The injection of tumour cells caused a transient inhibition of the activity of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) in both normal and C. parvum-treated hosts, as evidenced by impaired clearance of colloidal carbon from the bloodstream and reduction in hepatic phagocytosis of 51Cr-labelled sheep erythrocytes. Depression in Kupffer-cell activity was associated with a shift in particle distribution towards the spleen. The pronounced hepatosplenomegaly in response to C. parvum was significantly less in animals which also received tumour cells. Histological examination of liver and spleen revealed evidence of depressed MPS activity. Granuloma production in the liver in response to C. parvum was inhibited in tumour-bearing mice, and macrophage proliferation within the spleen was also reduced. Ascitic fluid showed similar inhibitory effects to those of tumour-cell suspensions, suggesting production by LAC of a heat-stable macrophage-inhibitory factor. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7236491

  4. Numerical Simulation of a Tumor Growth Dynamics Model Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cell growth models involve high-dimensional parameter spaces that require computationally tractable methods to solve. To address a proposed tumor growth dynamics mathematical model, an instance of the particle swarm optimization method was implemented to speed up the search process in the multi-dimensional parameter space to find optimal parameter values that fit experimental data from mice cancel cells. The fitness function, which measures the difference between calculated results and experimental data, was minimized in the numerical simulation process. The results and search efficiency of the particle swarm optimization method were compared to those from other evolutional methods such as genetic algorithms.

  5. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-05-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment.

  6. Tumor induced osteomalacia: associated with elevated circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor-7 in addition to fibroblast growth factor-23.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Shweta; Khazim, Khaled; Suri, Rajeev; Martin, DeAndra; Werner, Sherry; Fanti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia, and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, a phosphatonin i.e., phosphaturia-promoting hormone, is commonly implicated in the pathogenesis of TIO. However, very limited information is available about the circulating levels and clinical significance of other phosphatonins that are expressed by TIO-associated tumors. In addition, identification of the primary tumor constitutes a frequent major challenge in the management of TIO. Here, we report a patient with the clinical diagnosis of TIO with elevated blood levels of the phosphatonins FGF-23 and FGF-7; and extensive but unrewarding radiological search for the primary tumor. In selective venous sampling, both FGF-23 and FGF-7 displayed highest concentrations in the left femoral and iliac veins; although lateralization was much more pronounced for FGF-7 than FGF-23. This laboratory finding allowed us to focus on the left lower extremity as the likely location of the primary tumor. Our case is the first to show that FGF-7 can be analyzed in the circulation and used to assist in the diagnosis and localization of TIO-associated tumors. PMID:26521888

  7. Interleukin-12 Inhibits Tumor Growth in a Novel Angiogenesis Canine Hemangiosarcoma Xenograft Model1

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Erin B; Steinberg, Howard; Breen, Matthew; Auerbach, Robert; Helfand, Stuart C

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We established a canine hemangiosarcoma cell line derived from malignant endothelial cells comprising a spontaneous tumor in a dog to provide a renewable source of endothelial cells for studies of angiogenesis in malignancy. Pieces of the hemangiosarcoma biopsy were engrafted subcutaneously in a bg/nu/XID mouse allowing the tumor cells to expand in vivo. A cell line, SB-HSA, was derived from the xenograft. SB-HSA cells expressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors 1 and 2, CD31, CD146, and ?v?3 integrin, and produced several growth factors and cytokines, including VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor, and interleukin (IL)-8 that are stimulatory to endothelial cell growth. These results indicated that the cells recapitulated features of mitotically activated endothelia. In vivo, SB-HSA cells stimulated robust angiogenic responses in mice and formed tumor masses composed of aberrant vascular channels in immunocompromised mice providing novel opportunities for investigating the effectiveness of antiangiogenic agents. Using this model, we determined that IL-12, a cytokine with both immunostimulatory and antiangiogenic effects, suppressed angiogenesis induced by, and tumor growth of, SB-HSA cells. The endothelial cell model we have described offers unique opportunities to pursue further investigations with IL-12, as well as other antiangiogenic approaches in cancer therapy. PMID:15140399

  8. Formononetin, a novel FGFR2 inhibitor, potently inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in preclinical models

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen Feng; Chen, Che; Liu, Jia Yun; Wu, Guan Nan; Yao, Xue Quan; Liu, Fu Kun; Li, Gang; Shen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Most anti-angiogenic therapies currently being evaluated in clinical trials target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, however, the tumor vasculature can acquire resistance to VEGF-targeted therapy by shifting to other angiogenesis mechanisms. Therefore, other potential therapeutic agents that block non-VEGF angiogenic pathways need to be evaluated. Here we identified formononetin as a novel agent with potential anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer activities. Formononetin demonstrated inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in response to basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis assays, formononetin suppressed FGF2-induced microvessel sprouting of rat aortic rings and angiogenesis. To understand the underlying molecular basis, we examined the effects of formononetin on different molecular components in treated endothelial cell, and found that formononetin suppressed FGF2-triggered activation of FGFR2 and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling. Moreover, formononetin directly inhibited proliferation and blocked the oncogenic signaling pathways in breast cancer cell. In vivo, using xenograft models of breast cancer, formononetin showed growth-inhibitory activity associated with inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Moreover, formononetin enhanced the effect of VEGFR2 inhibitor sunitinib on tumor growth inhibition. Taken together, our results indicate that formononetin targets the FGFR2-mediated Akt signaling pathway, leading to the suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis. PMID:26575424

  9. Biomarker- versus drug-driven tumor growth inhibition models: an equivalence analysis.

    PubMed

    Sardu, Maria Luisa; Poggesi, Italo; De Nicolao, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    The mathematical modeling of tumor xenograft experiments following the dosing of antitumor drugs has received much attention in the last decade. Biomarker data can further provide useful insights on the pathological processes and be used for translational purposes in the early clinical development. Therefore, it is of particular interest the development of integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models encompassing drug, biomarker and tumor-size data. This paper investigates the reciprocal consistency of three types of models: drug-to-tumor, such as established drug-driven tumor growth inhibition (TGI) models, drug-to-biomarker, e.g. indirect response models, and biomarker-to-tumor, e.g. the more recent biomarker-driven TGI models. In particular, this paper derives a mathematical relationship that guarantees the steady-state equivalence of the cascade of drug-to-biomarker and biomarker-to-tumor models with a drug-to-tumor TGI model. Using the Simeoni TGI model as a reference, conditions for steady-state equivalence are worked out and used to derive a new biomarker-driven model. Simulated and real data are used to show that in realistic cases the steady-state equivalence extends also to transient responses. The possibility of predicting the drug-to-tumor potency of a new candidate drug based only on biomarker response is discussed. PMID:26209955

  10. HOIL-1L Functions as the PKC? Ubiquitin Ligase to Promote Lung Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Queisser, Markus A.; Dada, Laura A.; Deiss-Yehiely, Nimrod; Angulo, Martin; Zhou, Guofei; Kouri, Fotini M.; Knab, Lawrence M.; Liu, Jing; Stegh, Alexander H.; DeCamp, Malcolm M.; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Ciechanover, Aaron; Iwai, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Protein kinase C zeta (PKC?) has been reported to act as a tumor suppressor. Deletion of PKC? in experimental cancer models has been shown to increase tumor growth. However, the mechanisms of PKC? down-regulation in cancerous cells have not been previously described. Objectives: To determine the molecular mechanisms that lead to decreased PKC? expression and thus increased survival in cancer cells and tumor growth. Methods: The levels of expression of heme-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase 1L (HOIL-1L), HOIL-1interacting protein (HOIP), Shank-associated RH domain-interacting protein (SHARPIN), and PKC? were analyzed by Western blot and/or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in different cell lines. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments were used to demonstrate the interaction between HOIL-1L and PKC?. Ubiquitination was measured in an in vitro ubiquitination assay and by Western blot with specific antibodies. The role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) was determined by gain/loss-of-function experiments. The effect of HOIL-1L expression on cell death was investigated using RNA interference approaches in vitro and on tumor growth in mice models. Increased HOIL-1L and decreased PKC? expression was assessed in lung adenocarcinoma and glioblastoma multiforme and documented in several other cancer types by oncogenomic analysis. Measurements and Main Results: Hypoxia is a hallmark of rapidly growing solid tumors. We found that during hypoxia, PKC? is ubiquitinated and degraded via the ubiquitin ligase HOIL-1L, a component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). In vitro ubiquitination assays indicate that HOIL-1L ubiquitinates PKC? at Lys-48, targeting it for proteasomal degradation. In a xenograft tumor model and lung cancer model, we found that silencing of HOIL-1L increased the abundance of PKC? and decreased the size of tumors, suggesting that lower levels of HOIL-1L promote survival. Indeed, mRNA transcript levels of HOIL-1L were elevated in tumor of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, and in a lung adenocarcinoma tissue microarray the levels of HOIL-1L were associated with high-grade tumors. Moreover, we found that HOIL-1L expression was regulated by HIFs. Interestingly, the actions of HOIL-1L were independent of LUBAC. Conclusions: These data provide first evidence of a mechanism of cancer cell adaptation to hypoxia where HIFs regulate HOIL-1L, which targets PKC? for degradation to promote tumor survival. We provided a proof of concept that silencing of HOIL-1L impairs lung tumor growth and that HOIL-1L expression predicts survival rate in cancer patients suggesting that HOIL-1L is an attractive target for cancer therapy. PMID:25118570

  11. Ecto-5’-Nucleotidase Overexpression Reduces Tumor Growth in a Xenograph Medulloblastoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Cappellari, Angélica R.; Pillat, Micheli M.; Souza, Hellio D. N.; Dietrich, Fabrícia; Oliveira, Francine H.; Figueiró, Fabrício; Abujamra, Ana L.; Roesler, Rafael; Lecka, Joanna; Sévigny, Jean; Battastini, Ana Maria O.; Ulrich, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Background Ecto-5’-nucleotidase/CD73 (ecto-5’-NT) participates in extracellular ATP catabolism by converting adenosine monophosphate (AMP) into adenosine. This enzyme affects the progression and invasiveness of different tumors. Furthermore, the expression of ecto-5’-NT has also been suggested as a favorable prognostic marker, attributing to this enzyme contradictory functions in cancer. Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common brain tumor of the cerebellum and affects mainly children. Materials and Methods The effects of ecto-5’-NT overexpression on human MB tumor growth were studied in an in vivo model. Balb/c immunodeficient (nude) 6 to 14-week-old mice were used for dorsal subcutaneous xenograph tumor implant. Tumor development was evaluated by pathophysiological analysis. In addition, the expression patterns of adenosine receptors were verified. Results The human MB cell line D283, transfected with ecto-5’-NT (D283hCD73), revealed reduced tumor growth compared to the original cell line transfected with an empty vector. D283hCD73 generated tumors with a reduced proliferative index, lower vascularization, the presence of differentiated cells and increased active caspase-3 expression. Prominent A1 adenosine receptor expression rates were detected in MB cells overexpressing ecto-5’-NT. Conclusion This work suggests that ecto-5’-NT promotes reduced tumor growth to reduce cell proliferation and vascularization, promote higher differentiation rates and initiate apoptosis, supposedly by accumulating adenosine, which then acts through A1 adenosine receptors. Therefore, ecto-5’-NT might be considered an important prognostic marker, being associated with good prognosis and used as a potential target for therapy. PMID:26491983

  12. Three-dimensional multispecies nonlinear tumor growthI. Model and numerical method

    PubMed Central

    Wise, S.M.; Lowengrub, J.S.; Frieboes, H.B.; Cristini, V.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first paper in a two-part series in which we develop, analyze and simulate a diffuse interface continuum model of multispecies tumor growth and tumor-induced angiogenesis in two and three dimensions. Three dimensional simulations of nonlinear tumor growth and neovascularization using this diffuse interface model were recently presented in Frieboes et al. (2007), but that paper did not describe the details of the model or the numerical algorithm. This is done here. In this diffuse interface approach, sharp interfaces are replaced by narrow transition layers that arise due to differential adhesive forces among the cell-species. Accordingly, a continuum model of adhesion is introduced. The model is thermodynamically consistent, is related to recently developed mixture models, and thus is capable of providing a detailed description of tumor progression. The model is well-posed and consists of fourth-order nonlinear advection-reaction-diffusion equations (of Cahn-Hilliard-type) for the cell-species coupled with reaction-diffusion equations for the substrate components. We demonstrate analytically and numerically that when the diffuse interface thickness tends to zero, the system reduces to a classical sharp interface model. Using a new fully adaptive, nonlinear multigrid/finite difference method the system is simulated efficiently. In this first paper, we present simulations of unstable avascular tumor growth in two and three dimensions and demonstrate that our techniques now make large-scale three dimensional simulations of tumors with complex morphologies computationally feasible. In Part II of this study, we will investigate multispecies tumor invasion, tumor-induced angiogenesis and focus on the morphological instabilities that may underlie invasive phenotypes. PMID:18485374

  13. Ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma with a noninvasive growth pattern simulating a serous borderline tumor.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Hiroko; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Aman, Murasaki; Shida, Kaai; Shinozaki, Tomoko; Yasutake, Nobuko; Sonoda, Kenzo; Kato, Kiyoko; Oda, Yoshinao

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian serous borderline tumors (SBTs) being a precursor of low-grade serous carcinomas are morphologically characterized by noninvasive growth and low-grade cytology. On the other hand, many pathologists regard cytologically high-grade, noninvasive (HG-noninv) ovarian serous tumors resembling SBTs in low magnification as conventional high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) by personal experiences. Nonetheless, there are no established molecular characteristic of such tumors. In this study, therefore, we attempted to provide the molecular evidence. We selected 37 ovarian serous tumors that exhibited a cytologically HG-noninv growth pattern, including 36 tumors that coexisted with conventional invasive HGSC components (HG-inv) and a single tumor exclusively composed of pure HG-noninv. Histologically, all HG-noninv showed many mitotic figures, and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas were identified in 3 tumors with HG-noninv. Immunohistochemically, most HG-noninv showed aberrant p53 expression, frequent IMP3 positivity, p16 overexpression, a high MIB-1 labeling index, and infrequent PAX2. By molecular analysis, the pure HG-noninv and 13 HGSCs with HG-noninv showed TP53 mutations, but KRAS/BRAF mutations were not detected in any of them. In 1 tumor, we detected an identical TP53 mutation in both HG-noninv and HG-inv components by using laser capture microdissection. These immunohistochemical and molecular features of HG-noninv were similar to those of conventional invasive HGSCs but different from those of SBTs. In conclusion, our results showed that a cytologically HG-noninv growth pattern simulating an SBT is a morphological spectrum of HGSC, but not a true SBT. PMID:26232113

  14. The Tumor Microenvironment Contribution to Development, Growth, Invasion and Metastasis of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Koontongkaew, Sittichai

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a complex tissue that contains tumor cells and the surrounding stroma, which is populated by different types of mesenchymal cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Collectively, they are referred to as the tumor microenvironment (TME). Recent studies have shown that TME has a more profound influence on the growth and metastasis of HNSCC than was previously appreciated. Because carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are frequently observed in the stroma of the tumor, this review focuses on the potential role of tumor-CAFs interactions in progression of HNSCC. Tumor-CAFs crosstalk enhances the production of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inflammatory mediators, which eventually facilitates tumor growth. In fact, factors and cells that do not support tumor growth are usually down regulated or mitigated in TME. Therefore TME may determine the fate of the tumors at the site of invasion and metastasis. For tumor cells that survive at these sites, stromal activation may serve to establish a supportive tumor stroma, fostering the outgrowth of the metastatic cells. The concept of tumor-stromal interactions and microenvironmental niche has profound consequences in tumor growth and metastasis and therefore, it's understanding will open up new strategies for the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of HNSCC. PMID:23386906

  15. The RGD Domain of Human Osteopontin Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Activation of Survival Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Shirley; Kong, Christina; Banh, Alice; Kuo, Peiwen; Bouley, Donna M.; Vice, Carmen; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Denko, Nicholas C.; Koong, Albert C.; Giaccia, Amato; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2010-01-01

    Background Human osteopontin (OPN), a known tumor associated protein, exists in different isoforms, whose function is unclear. It also possesses a RGD domain, which has been implicated in diverse function. Here, we use genetic approaches to systematically investigate the function of the RGD domain in different OPN isoforms on tumor progression and metastasis for 2 different solid tumor models. Methodology/Principal Findings Using isoform-specific qRT-PCR, we found that OPN-A and B were the main isoforms overexpressed in evaluated human tumors, which included 4 soft tissue sarcomas, 24 lung and 30 head and neck carcinomas. Overexpression of either OPN-A or B in two different cell types promoted local tumor growth and lung metastasis in SCID mouse xenografts. However, expression of either isoform with the RGD domain either mutated or deleted decreased tumor growth and metastasis, and resulted in increased apoptosis by TUNEL staining. In vitro, whereas mutation of the RGD domain did not affect cell-cell adhesion, soft agar growth or cell migration, it increased apoptosis under hypoxia and serum starvation. This effect could be mitigated when the RGD mutant cells were treated with condition media containing WT OPN. Mechanistically, the RGD region of OPN inhibited apoptosis by inducing NF-?B activation and FAK phosphorylation. Inhibition of NF-?B (by siRNA to the p65 subunit) or FAK activation (by a inhibitor) significantly increased apoptosis under hypoxia in WT OPN cells, but not in RGD mutant cells. Conclusion/Significance Unlike prior reports, our data suggest that the RGD domain of both OPN-A and B promote tumor growth and metastasis mainly by protecting cells against apoptosis under stressed conditions and not via migration or invasion. Future inhibitors directed against OPN should target multiple isoforms and should inhibit cell survival mechanisms that involve the RGD domain, FAK phosphorylation and NF-?B activation. PMID:20224789

  16. Effect of soy isoflavones on the growth of human breast tumors: findings from preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Youngjoo

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, and many women with breast cancer live more than 5years after their diagnosis. Breast cancer patients and survivors have a greater interest in taking soy foods and isoflavone supplements. However, the effect of isoflavones on breast cancer remains controversial. Thus, it is critical to determine if and when isoflavones are beneficial or detrimental to breast cancer patients. According to the available preclinical data, high concentrations of isoflavones inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells, regardless of their estrogen receptor (ER) status. In comparison, genistein, a major isoflavone, has stimulated tumor growth at low concentrations and mitigated tamoxifen efficacy in ER-positive breast cancer. Studies have indicated that the relative levels of genistein and estrogen at the target site are important to determine the genistein effect on the ER-positive tumor growth. However, studies using ovariectomized mice and subcutaneous xenograft models might not truly reflect estrogen concentrations in human breast tumors. Moreover, it may be an oversimplification that isoflavones stimulate hormone-dependent tumor growth due to their potential estrogenic effect since studies also suggest nonestrogenic anticancer effects of isoflavones and ER-independent anticancer activity of tamoxifen. Therefore, the concentrations of isoflavones and estrogen in human breast tumors should be considered better in future preclinical studies and the parameters that can estimate those levels in breast tumors are required in human clinical/epidemiological investigation. In addition, it will be important to identify the molecular mechanisms that either inhibit or promote the growth of breast cancer cells by soy isoflavones, and use those molecules to evaluate the relevance of the preclinical findings to the human disease and to predict the health effects of isoflavones in human breast tumors. PMID:25493176

  17. Targeted doxorubicin nanotherapy strongly suppressing growth of multidrug resistant tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dai Hai; Lee, Jung Seok; Bae, Jin Woo; Choi, Jong Hoon; Lee, Yunki; Son, Joo Young; Park, Ki Dong

    2015-11-10

    The rational design of nanomedicine to treat multidrug resistant (MDR) tumors in vivo is described in the study. We prepared multifunctionalized Pluronic micelles that are already well-established to be responsive to low pH and redox in order to systemically deliver doxorubicin (DOX) to MDR tumors. Folic acids (FAs) were introduced on the micelle surface as tumor-targeting molecules. In vitro, the DOX-loaded micelles exerted high cytotoxicity in the DOX-resistant cells by bypassing MDR efflux. Cellular uptake studies clearly demonstrated that FA-conjugated DOX micelles (FA/DOX micelles) were efficiently internalized and accumulated in the MDR cells. In vivo studies indicated significant efficacy of FA/DOX micelles for MDR tumors in mice, and that the volume of tumors was 3 times smaller in this group than that of tumors in the free DOX group, and 8 times smaller than the tumors in the saline group. To the best of our knowledge, this methodology has been recognized to have significantly high efficacy, compared to previously reported DOX nanoparticle formulations. This superior anti-tumor efficacy of FA/DOX micelles in MDR tumor-bearing mice can be attributed to FA-targeted and -mediated endocytosis, inhibition of MDR effect, and subsequent DOX release triggered by dual stimuli (low pH and redox) inside the tumor. Given the promise of the multifunctional micelle mediated delivery on inhibition of MDR tumor growth, FA/DOX micelle platform is a much sought after goal for cancer chemotherapy, especially for cancers resistant to anticancer drugs. PMID:26325307

  18. Effect of selumetinib on the growth of anastrozole-resistant tumors.

    PubMed

    Sabnis, Gauri J; Kazi, Armina; Golubeva, Olga; Shah, Preeti; Brodie, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant improvement in the treatment outcome of hormone responsive postmenopausal breast cancer, some patients eventually acquire resistance to aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Using our MCF-7Ca xenograft model, we observed that although AIs such as anastrozole initially inhibit tumor growth effectively, tumors eventually began to grow. Our previous data show that anastrozole-resistant tumors upregulate growth factor receptor pathways as they adapt to grow in the low estrogen environment. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the effect of inhibiting the growth factor receptor pathways with a MEK-1/2 inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142866). We treated the mice with anastrozole-resistant tumors with selumetinib alone or in combination with anastrozole. MCF-7Ca cells were inoculated sc into ovariectomized athymic nude mice supplemented throughout the experiment with androstenedione (100 ?g/day), the substrate for aromatase conversion to estrogen. Once the tumors reached a measurable size (~300 mm(3)), the mice were treated with anastrozole (200 ?g/day), supplemented with androstenedione (?(4)A). The tumors in the anastrozole group doubled in volume after 6 weeks, at which time the animals were regrouped to receive the following treatments: (i) anastrozole, (ii) anastrozole withdrawal (?(4)A alone), (iii) selumetinib (25 mg/kg/d, bid, po), and (iv) selumetinib + anastrozole, (n = 10 mice/group). The treatments were given for 6 weeks (till week 12) and then the mice were euthanized, the tumors were collected and analyzed. The tumors of mice treated with selumetinib + anastrozole had significantly lower growth rates than those treated with single agents (p = 0.008). Western blot analysis of the tumors showed that treatment with anastrozole resulted in upregulation of proteins in the growth factor receptor cascade such as p-mTOR, pAkt, pMEK, and pMAPK. This was accompanied by downregulation of ER? protein, consistent with previous findings. The treatment of mice with selumetinib resulted in downregulation of activated MAPK, along with p-mTOR, which likely resulted in upregulation of ER?. Our results suggest that inhibition of the growth factor receptor pathway with selumetinib can reverse anastrozole resistance. PMID:23508762

  19. Radiosensitivity of different human tumor cells lines grown as multicellular spheroids determined from growth curves and survival data

    SciTech Connect

    Schwachoefer, J.H.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.; van Gasteren, J.J.; Hoogenhout, J.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Kal, H.B.; Theeuwes, A.G. )

    1989-11-01

    Five human tumor cell lines were grown as multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) to determine whether multicellular tumor spheroids derived from different types of tumors would show tumor-type dependent differences in response to single-dose irradiation, and whether these differences paralleled clinical behavior. Multicellular tumor spheroids of two neuroblastoma, one lung adenocarcinoma, one melanoma, and a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue, were studied in terms of growth delay, calculated cell survival, and spheroid control dose50 (SCD50). Growth delay and cell survival analysis for the tumor cell lines showed sensitivities that correlated well with clinical behavior of the tumor types of origin. Similar to other studies on melanoma multicellular tumor spheroids our spheroid control dose50 results for the melanoma cell line deviated from the general pattern of sensitivity. This might be due to the location of surviving cells, which prohibits proliferation of surviving cells and hence growth of melanoma multicellular tumor spheroids. This study demonstrates that radiosensitivity of human tumor cell lines can be evaluated in terms of growth delay, calculated cell surviva