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1

Inhibition of ehrlich mouse ascites tumor growth by cordycepin. Abstr  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Cordycepin, a nucleoside isolated from cultures of the mold Cordycepsmilitaris, has been demonstrated to increase the survival time of mice bearing the Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor. In all these studies the drug was administered daily for a 7-day period. AVhendrug inoculations were started the same day as tumor inoculations, inhibition of tumor growth was noted at levels of from

N M Kredich; ARMAND J. GUARINO

1960-01-01

2

IgM response and resistance to ascites tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody response and protection against Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) was studied in eight EAT-immunized strains of mice (AL\\/N, BALB\\/C, C57BL\\/6J, F1(C57BL\\/6×BALB\\/C), C57BL\\/10J, B10.BR, CBA\\/Ca, SW). The results showed a close association between IgM response and resistance to subsequent tumor challenge. Thus, protection was only achieved in those animals giving a measurable IgM response against EAT cell surface antigens, i.e., all

Jose L. Subiza; Javier Coll; Rita Alvarez; Manuel Valdivieso; Emilio G. de la Concha

1987-01-01

3

Suppression of Growth of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells in Mice by Trehalose-6, 6? -Dimycolate (Cord Factor) and BCG  

PubMed Central

Growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in mice pretreated with cord factor was compared to growth of the tumor cells after pretreatment with Calmette-Guérin bacilli. Growth of Ehrlich ascites cells was strongly inhibited in the peritoneal cavities of mice pretreated with 80 ?g of cord factor. The median survival time of the animals was prolonged (70 versus 17 days), and 40% of the mice survived more than 90 days. Tumor suppression was still detectable 36 days after administration of cord factor. The effect of cord factor was local. Comparable results were obtained with living or killed Calmette-Guérin bacilli. The results are discussed. PMID:4208531

Yarkoni, E.; Wang, L.; Bekierkunst, A.

1974-01-01

4

Modulation of tumor induced angiogenesis in Ehrlich ascites tumor.  

PubMed

In this study the enzyme glutaminase, purified from the ascites fluid of ovarian cancer patients, was analysed for its antiangiogenic activity. Intraperitoneal administration of this enzyme reduces the number of tumor directed capillaries in solid and ascites tumor bearing Swiss mice induced by transplantation of Ehrlich ascites cells. The enzyme has a critical role in regulating the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from tumor cell and in turn tumor growth. Glutamine analogue like 6-diazo, 5- oxo L-norleucine (DON) is also found to be effective in regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion from tumor cells in vitro. Treatment with enzyme reduced serum VEGF levels of the tumor induced animals. In vitro VEGF production by EAC cells was reduced in a concentration dependent manner in presence of glutamine analogue. PMID:15743040

Ghosh, S; Roy, S; Banerjee, M; Maity, P

2004-12-01

5

Electrical properties of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell membrane potential (PD) of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was measured continuously at 37°C with conventional microelectrodes during rapid alterations of extracellular fluid composition. At extracellular electrolyte composition mimicking the in vivo situation PD is -56.7±0.7 mV and the apparent membrane resistance is 62.2±2.2 MO. Increasing extracellular potassium concentration from 5.4 to 20.0 mmol\\/l depolarizes the cell membrane by

E. Gstrein; M. Paulmichl; F. Lang

1987-01-01

6

Electrical properties of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.  

PubMed

The cell membrane potential (PD) of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was measured continuously at 37 degrees C with conventional microelectrodes during rapid alterations of extracellular fluid composition. At extracellular electrolyte composition mimicking the in vivo situation PD is -56.7 +/- 0.7 mV and the apparent membrane resistance is 62.2 +/- 2.2 M omega. Increasing extracellular potassium concentration from 5.4 to 20.0 mmol/l depolarizes the cell membrane by +18.4 +/- 0.5 mV. Thus, the transference number for potassium (tk, apparent slope potassium conductance over slope membrane conductance) is 0.53 +/- 0.01. A significant correlation is observed between tk and PD: tk = -(0.014 +/- 0.001) [1/mV] X PD [mV] -(0.243 +/- 0.051). 0.7 mmol/l barium depolarizes the cell membrane by +28.2 +/- 0.7 mV, increases the apparent membrane resistance by a factor of 2.6 +/- 0.1 and abolishes the apparent potassium conductance. Reduction of extracellular sodium concentration from 141 to 21 mmol/l depolarizes the cell membrane by +3.1 +/- 1.3 mV. Similarly, 0.1 mmol/l amiloride depolarizes the cell membrane by +3.3 +/- 0.7 mV. Reduction of extracellular chloride concentration from 128 to 67 mmol/l hyperpolarizes the cell membrane by -2.5 +/- 0.2 mV. 1 mmol/l anthracene-9-COOH does not significantly alter PD. Temporary omission of glucose from the extracellular fluid has no appreciable effect on PD. In conclusion, PD of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is in the range of other mammalian epithelial cells and is generated mainly by potassium diffusion, while the conductances to sodium and chloride appear to be small. PMID:3601633

Gstrein, E; Paulmichl, M; Lang, F

1987-05-01

7

Ascites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Ascites is the most common presentation of decompensated cirrhosis, and its development heralds a poor prognosis, with a 50%\\u000a 2-year survival rate. Effective first-line therapy for ascites includes sodium restriction (2 g\\/d), use of diuretics, and\\u000a large-volume paracentesis (LVP). Ideally, a combination of a loop-acting diuretic (eg, furosemide) and a distal-acting diuretic (eg, spironolactone) is used. LVP

Nelson Garcia; Arun J. Sanyal

2001-01-01

8

Regulation of taurine transport in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taurine influx is inhibited and taurine efflux accelerated when the cell membrane of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is depolarized. Taurine influx is inhibited at acid pH partly due to the concomitant depolarization of the cell membrane partly due to a reduced availability of negatively charged free carrier. These results are in agreement with a 2Na, 1Cl, 1taurine cotransport system which

Ian Henry Lambert; Else Kay Hoffmann

1993-01-01

9

Gracilaria edulis extract induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor in Ehrlich Ascites tumor cells in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Marine environment is inestimable for their chemical and biological diversity and therefore is an extraordinary resource for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. Recent development in elucidation of the mechanism and therapeutic action of natural products helped to evaluate for their potential activity. Methods We evaluated Gracilaria edulis J. Ag (Brown algae), for its antitumor potential against the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Gracilaria edulis (EEGE) using EAT cells showed significant activity. In vitro studies indicated that EEGE cytotoxicity to EAT cells is mediated through its ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore decreasing intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels may be attributed to oxidative stress. Results Apoptotic parameters including Annexin-V positive cells, increased levels of DNA fragmentation and increased caspase-2, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities indicated the mechanism might be by inducing apoptosis. Intraperitoneally administration of EEGE to EAT-bearing mice helped to increase the lifespan of the animals significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased survival of mice. Extensive hematology, biochemistry and histopathological analysis of liver and kidney indicated that daily doses of EEGE up to 300 mg/kg for 35 days are well tolerated and did not cause hematotoxicity nor renal or hepatotoxicity. Conclusion Comprehensive antitumor analysis in animal model and in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor cells was done including biochemical, and pathological evaluations indicate antitumor activity of the extract and non toxic in vivo. It was evident that the mechanism explains the apoptotic activity of the algae extract. PMID:24274337

2013-01-01

10

Ascites analysis by a microfluidic chip allows tumor-cell profiling  

E-print Network

Ascites tumor cells (ATCs) represent a potentially valuable source of cells for monitoring treatment of ovarian cancer as it would obviate the need for more invasive surgical biopsies. The ability to perform longitudinal ...

Peterson, Vanessa M.

11

Isolation and Characterization of Tumor Cells from the Ascites of Ovarian Cancer Patients: Molecular Phenotype of Chemoresistant Ovarian Tumors  

PubMed Central

Tumor cells in ascites are a major source of disease recurrence in ovarian cancer patients. In an attempt to identify and profile the population of ascites cells obtained from ovarian cancer patients, a novel method was developed to separate adherent (AD) and non-adherent (NAD) cells in culture. Twenty-five patients were recruited to this study; 11 chemonaive (CN) and 14 chemoresistant (CR). AD cells from both CN and CR patients exhibited mesenchymal morphology with an antigen profile of mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts. Conversely, NAD cells had an epithelial morphology with enhanced expression of cancer antigen 125 (CA125), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cytokeratin 7. NAD cells developed infiltrating tumors and ascites within 12–14 weeks after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections into nude mice, whereas AD cells remained non-tumorigenic for up to 20 weeks. Subsequent comparison of selective epithelial, mesenchymal and cancer stem cell (CSC) markers between AD and NAD populations of CN and CR patients demonstrated an enhanced trend in mRNA expression of E-cadherin, EpCAM, STAT3 and Oct4 in the NAD population of CR patients. A similar trend of enhanced mRNA expression of CD44, MMP9 and Oct4 was observed in the AD population of CR patients. Hence, using a novel purification method we demonstrate for the first time a distinct separation of ascites cells into epithelial tumorigenic and mesenchymal non-tumorigenic populations. We also demonstrate that cells from the ascites of CR patients are predominantly epithelial and show a trend towards increased mRNA expression of genes associated with CSCs, compared to cells isolated from the ascites of CN patients. As the tumor cells in the ascites of ovarian cancer patients play a dominant role in disease recurrence, a thorough understanding of the biology of the ascites microenvironment from CR and CN patients is essential for effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:23056490

Latifi, Ardian; Luwor, Rodney B.; Bilandzic, Maree; Nazaretian, Simon; Stenvers, Kaye; Pyman, Jan; Zhu, Hongjian; Thompson, Erik W.; Quinn, Michael A.; Findlay, Jock K.; Ahmed, Nuzhat

2012-01-01

12

Effect of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) on the Ehrlich tumor in its ascitic form.  

PubMed

The roots of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) have been indicated for the treatment of several diseases, among which the cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate experimentally the possible antineoplastic effect of this root. Firstly, a toxicity study was performed in which the doses of 400 and 200 mg/Kg of the powdered root were administered by gavage for 10 days to BALB/cICB mice. The mice did not lose weight during the treatment. No increase in serum alanine-aminotransferase neither histopathological alteration (liver, kidney and spleen) was observed in mice treated with P. paniculata. The effect of this root on the ascitic Ehrlich tumor in BALB/cICB mice was then investigated. Male mice received, by gavage, once a day, 200 mg/Kg of the powdered root of P. paniculata or distilled water, as control, for 20 days. This protocol started 10 days before tumor inoculation with 5 x 10(6) cells i.p., and lasted until 10 days after. The ascitic tumor was evaluated by the quantification of the volume of the ascitic fluid, relative number of tumor cells and total number of tumor cells. A decrease in the total ascitic volume was observed in P. paniculata treated mice, that was followed by a numerical decrease in the total number of Ehrlich tumor cells. These results may indicate that P. paniculata anti-inflammatory effects were responsible by the decrease in the total ascitic fluid. In addition, the presence of tumor-cell inhibitory factors in P. paniculata roots is in agreement with other in vitro studies. The mechanisms of such tumor inhibition should be further investigated. PMID:14623028

Matsuzaki, Patrícia; Akisue, Gokithi; Salgado Oloris, Sílvia Catarina; Górniak, Silvana Lima; Zaidan Dagli, Maria Lúcia

2003-12-19

13

Detection of laminin in serum and ascites from patients with epithelial ovarian tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The change in serum laminin (LN) level and its clinical significance in epithelial ovarian tumor were investigated. The LN\\u000a levels in serum and ascites samples from 69 patients with epithelial ovarian tumor and 42 cases as control group before and\\u000a after operation were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the serum LN levels in the patients with malignant\\u000a tumors

Chu Yongli; Yang Yuanxian; Lin Meihua; Wang Zehua

2002-01-01

14

Antitumor activity of silver nanoparticles in Dalton's lymphoma ascites tumor model  

PubMed Central

Nanomedicine concerns the use of precision-engineered nanomaterials to develop novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities for human use. The present study demonstrates the efficacy of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as an antitumor agent using Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA) cell lines in vitro and in vivo. The AgNPs showed dose- dependent cytotoxicity against DLA cells through activation of the caspase 3 enzyme, leading to induction of apoptosis which was further confirmed through resulting nuclear fragmentation. Acute toxicity, ie, convulsions, hyperactivity and chronic toxicity such as increased body weight and abnormal hematologic parameters did not occur. AgNPs significantly increased the survival time in the tumor mouse model by about 50% in comparison with tumor controls. AgNPs also decreased the volume of ascitic fluid in tumor-bearing mice by 65%, thereby returning body weight to normal. Elevated white blood cell and platelet counts in ascitic fluid from the tumor-bearing mice were brought to near-normal range. Histopathologic analysis of ascitic fluid showed a reduction in DLA cell count in tumor-bearing mice treated with AgNPs. These findings confirm the antitumor properties of AgNPs, and suggest that they may be a cost-effective alternative in the treatment of cancer and angiogenesis-related disorders. PMID:21042421

Sriram, Muthu Irulappan; Kanth, Selvaraj Barath Mani; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

2010-01-01

15

Co-Encapsulation of Doxorubicin With Galactoxyloglucan Nanoparticles for Intracellular Tumor-Targeted Delivery in Murine Ascites and Solid Tumors  

PubMed Central

Doxorubicin (Dox) treatment is limited by severe toxicity and frequent episodes of treatment failure. To minimize adverse events and improve drug delivery efficiently and specifically in cancer cells, encapsulation of Dox with naturally obtained galactoxyloglucan polysaccharide (PST001), isolated from Tamarindus indica was attempted. Thus formed PST-Dox nanoparticles induced apoptosis and exhibited significant cytotoxicity in murine ascites cell lines, Dalton’s lymphoma ascites and Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma. The mechanism contributing to the augmented cytotoxicity of nanoconjugates at lower doses was validated by measuring the Dox intracellular uptake in human colon, leukemic and breast cancer cell lines. PST-Dox nanoparticles showed rapid internalization of Dox into cancer cells within a short period of incubation. Further, in vivo efficacy was tested in comparison to the parent counterparts - PST001 and Dox, in ascites and solid tumor syngraft mice models. Treatment of ascites tumors with PST-Dox nanoparticles significantly reduced the tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, and increased survival and percentage life span in the early, established and prophylactic phases of the disease. Administration of nanoparticles through intratumoral route delivered more robust antitumor response than the intraperitoneal route in solid malignancies. Thus, the results indicate that PST-Dox nanoparticles have greater potential compared to the Dox as targeted drug delivery nanocarriers for loco regional cancer chemotherapy applications. PMID:25389448

Joseph, Manu M.; Aravind, S.R.; George, Suraj K.; Pillai, Raveendran K.; Mini, S.; Sreelekha, T.T.

2014-01-01

16

Downregulation of taurine uptake in multidrug resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?In daunorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (DNR), the initial taurine uptake was reduced by 56% as compared to\\u000a the parental, drug sensitive Ehrlich cells. Kinetic experiments indicated that taurine uptake in Ehrlich cells occurs via\\u000a both high- and low-affinity transporters. The maximal rate constant for the initial taurine uptake was reduced by 45% (high-affinity\\u000a system) and 49% (low affinity

K. A. Poulsen; T. Litman; J. Eriksen; J. Mollerup; I. H. Lambert

2002-01-01

17

Antitumor Activity of Prosopis glandulosa Torr. on Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) Tumor Bearing Mice  

PubMed Central

The antitumor activity of ethanol extract of Prosopis glandulosa Torr. (EPG) was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor model in Swiss albino mice on dose dependent manner. The activity was assessed using survival time, average increase in body weight, hematological parameters and solid tumor volume. Oral administration of EPG at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/Kg, significantly (p < 0.001) increased the survival time and decreased the average body weight of the tumor bearing mice. After 14 days of inoculation, EPG was able to reverse the changes in the hematological parameters, protein and PCV consequent to tumor inoculation. Oral administration of EPG was effective in reducing solid tumor mass development induced by EAC cells. The results indicate that EPG possess significant antitumor activity on dose dependent manner. PMID:24250382

Senthil Kumar, Raju; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Perumal, Perumal; Dhanasekaran, Thangavel; Alvin Jose, Manonmani; Jothimanivannan, Chennakesavalu

2011-01-01

18

Effects of hyperthermia and calcium channel blocker co-therapy on mice injected with Meth A solid of Meth A ascites tumors  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to determine the effectiveness of treating tumor-injected mice with verapamil, a calcium antagonist, and hyperthermia. The co-treatment reduced the incidence of tumors in animals injected with Meth A solid cells. It was shown that the decrease in tumors corresponded to increases in natural killer (NK) cell activity measured in a /sup 51/Cr release assay, in the amount of anti-Meth A antibody measured in an immunofluorescence assay, and a decrease in the amount of intra-tumor cyclic AMP measured by radioimmunoassay in co-treated compared to untreated sarcoma-injected animals. A role of the immune system for mediating the prevention of sarcoma growth was indicated by Winn assays. Splenocytes sensitized in vivo against Meth A solid cells for 14 days exhibited an enhanced cytotoxic activity against syngeneic target cells compared to untreated tumor-sensitized splenocytes following heat-drug co-treatment. It was established that the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells against a histocompatibility antigen (H-2/sup d/) present on Meth A sarcoma cells resulted in tumor cell lysis. Animals bearing established Meth A solid sarcomas did not manifest tumor regressions following the administration of co-treatment alone or the adoptive transfer of co-treated tumor-sensitized splenocytes. The growth of Meth A ascites and Meth A ascites-derived solid sarcomas, unlike Meth A solid cell tumors, were not prevented in Winn assays. Additionally, the lifespan of animals injected with Meth A ascites cells was reduced by 50% compared to animals injected with Meth A solid sarcoma cells.

Prince, R.N.

1986-01-01

19

Ascitic growth of a T cell lymphoma in mice alters the humoral and cellular immune response to exogenous antigens.  

PubMed

The effect of the ascitic growth of Dalton's lymphoma (DL), a T cell lymphoma, on the immune responses of the host mice to exogenous antigens, with respect to the humoral response, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and the antigen-presenting ability of macrophages was investigated. The humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as well as the antigen-presenting ability of macrophages (with keyhole limpet hemocyanin as the standard antigen) in the DL-bearing mice were consistently higher than in the normal mice, although the magnitude showed a decline during later tumor stages. However, the DTH response to SRBC was suppressed in the DL-bearing mice compared with the response in the normal mice. The possible mechanisms are discussed. In vivo administration of FK565, a synthetic biological response modifier, enhanced the humoral immune response as well as the antigen-presenting ability of the macrophages in the normal and early DL-bearing mice, whereas these immune responses n the later tumor-bearing animals were found to be nonresponsive to FK565 treatment. In contrast, the DTH response in the normal as well as in the DL-bearing mice was suppressed on FK565 administration. This is the first study of its kind regarding the effect of the ascitic growth of any T cell lymphoma on various aspects of the immune response to exogenous antigens and the correlation thereof with an immunomodulator. PMID:9222308

Parajuli, P; Singh, S M

1997-01-01

20

Production of cachexia mediators by Walker 256 cells from ascitic tumors.  

PubMed

In neoplasic cachexia, chemical mediators seem to act as initiators or perpetuators of this process. Walker 256 cells, whose metabolic properties have so far been little studied with respect to cancer cachexia, are used as a model for the study of this syndrome. The main objective of this research was to pinpoint the substances secreted by these cells that may contribute to the progression of the cachectic state. Since inflammatory mediators seem to be involved in the manifestation of this syndrome, the in vitro production of nitric oxide (NO), cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was evaluated in Walker 256 cells isolated from ascitic tumors. After 4 or 5 h, a significant increase in NO production was observed (2.55 +/- 1.56 and 4.05 +/- 1.99 nmol NO per 10(7) cells, respectively). When isolated from a 6-day-old tumor, a significantly lower production of IL-6 and higher production of TNF-alpha than in cells from a 4-day-old tumor were observed, indicating a relationship between the production of cytokines and the time of tumor development after implantation. Considerable production of PGE(2) by Walker 256 cells isolated from the 6-day-old tumor was also observed. Polyamines were also determined in Walker 256 cells. Levels of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine did not show significant differences in tumors developed during 4 or 6 days. Direct evidence of the release of proinflammatory cytokines and PGE2 by Walker 256 cells suggests that these mediators can drive the cachectic syndrome in the host, the effect being dependent on tumor development time. PMID:18646274

Rebeca, Rosilene; Bracht, Lívia; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Cadena, Silvia Maria Suter Correia; Carnieri, Eva Gunilla Skare; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; de Oliveira, Maria Benigna Martinelli

2008-08-01

21

Ovarian cancer ascites increase Mcl-1 expression in tumor cells through ERK1/2-Elk-1 signaling to attenuate TRAIL-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background Ascites may affect the progression of ovarian cancer (OC). In particular, soluble factors present in OC ascites can create a protective environment for tumor cells that promote de novo resistance to drug- and death receptor-induced apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for ascites-induced drug resistance are not well characterized. Methods Using human OC cell lines and tissues microarrays of human OC biopsies, we assessed the mechanism by which OC ascites increase Mcl-1 expression using Western blots, chemical inhibitors of ERK and small-inhibitory RNA treatments. Results In the present study, we found that both Mcl-1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated within 2 h upon treatment of OC cells with ascites obtained from women with advanced OC. In contrast, the expression of other Bcl-2 family antiapoptotic members such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL was not affected by ascites. An increase of Mcl-1 expression was consistently observed across different ascites from women with advanced serous OC. The knockdown of Mcl-1 significantly blocked ascites-induced Mcl-1 upregulation and ascites-mediated inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Ascites induced a rapid phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Elk-1 transcription factor. Furthermore, we found that ERK1/2 inhibition or Elk-1 knockdown was sufficient to block ascites-induced Mcl-1 expression. In high grade serous OC, we found a positive correlation between phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Mcl-1 expression. Conclusions These results indicate that ascites-induced ERK1/2/Elk-1 signaling is critical for Mcl-1 expression and for the ascites-mediated attenuation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The ERK1/2/Elk-1/Mcl-1 pathway represents a novel mechanism by which ascites induce de novo TRAIL resistance in OC cells. PMID:23158473

2012-01-01

22

Human ovarian tumor ascites fluids rapidly and reversibly inhibit T cell receptor-induced NF-?B and NFAT signaling in tumor-associated T cells  

PubMed Central

Human memory T cells present in ovarian tumor ascites fluids fail to respond normally to stimulation via the T cell receptor (TCR). This immunosuppression is manifested by decreases in NF-?B and NFAT activation, IFN-? production, and cell proliferation in response to TCR stimulation with immobilized antibodies to CD3 and CD28. The anergy of the tumor-associated T cells (TATs) is mediated by soluble factors present in ovarian tumor ascites fluids. The non-responsiveness of the T cells is quickly reversed when the cells are assayed in the absence of the ascites fluid, and is rapidly reestablished when a cell-free ascites fluid is added back to the T cells. Based upon the observed normal phosphorylation patterns of the TCR proximal signaling molecules, the inhibition of NF-?B, and NFAT activation in response to TCR stimulation, as well as the ability of the diacylglycerol analog PMA and the ionophore ionomycin to bypass the ascites fluid-induced TCR signaling arrest, the site of the arrest in the activation cascade appears to be at or just upstream of PLC-?. An identical TCR signaling arrest pattern was observed when T cells derived from normal donor peripheral blood were incubated with either malignant or nonmalignant (cirrhotic) ascites fluids. The immunosuppressive activity of ascites fluids reported here suggests that soluble factors acting directly or indirectly upon T cells present within tumors contribute to the anergy that has previously been observed in T cells derived from malignant and nonmalignant inflammatory microenvironments. The soluble immunosuppressive factors represent potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. PMID:23882159

Simpson-Abelson, Michelle R.; Loyall, Jenni L.; Lehman, Heather K.; Barnas, Jennifer L.; Minderman, Hans; O'Loughlin, Kieran L.; Wallace, Paul K.; George, Thaddeus C.; Peng, Peng; Kelleher, Raymond J.; Odunsi, Kunle; Bankert, Richard B.

2013-01-01

23

Isolation and reconstitution of furosemide-binding proteins from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.  

PubMed

Furosemide-binding proteins were isolated from cholate-solubilized membranes of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by affinity chromatography, using furosemide as ligand. Solubilized proteins retarded by the affinity material were eluted by furosemide. In reducing and denaturing gels, the major proteins eluted by furosemide were 100 and 45 kDa. In nonreducing, non-denaturing gels, homodimers of both polypeptides were found, whereas no oligomeric proteins containing both polypeptides were seen. It is concluded that the furosemide gel binds two distinct dimeric proteins. The isolated proteins were reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles and the K+ transport activity of these vesicles was assayed by measurement of 86Rb+ uptake against a large opposing K+ gradient. The reconstituted system was found to contain a K+ transporting protein, which is sensitive to Ba2+ like the K+ channel previously demonstrated to be activated in intact cells after cell swelling. PMID:2476561

Jessen, F; Cherksey, B D; Zeuthen, T; Hoffmann, E K

1989-05-01

24

Initiation of DNA synthesis in the liver and other tissues of adult mice by a growth factor (EACF) isolated from acellular fluid of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitogenic effect of a new growth factor that we recently isolated from the acellular ascitic fluid of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma grown in vivo was examined. We have called this factor EACF (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma factor ) . EACF caused initiation of DNA synthesis in the liver , submandibular gland, exorbital lacrimal gland and epithelium of the tongue of

Hsing-Wu Yeh; E. Robert Burns; Yun-Chi Yeh

1985-01-01

25

Rapid Growth Problems: Ascites and Skeletal Deformities in Broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 40 yr, genetic selection for rapid growth and improved feed efficiency has been very effective in meat-type poultry. Combined with changes in the feed that have increased both the nutritional and physical density to encourage a high nutrient intake, growth rate has more than doubled. The effect of genetic selection for high muscle to bone ratio and

R. J. JULIAN

26

Role of the F-actin Cytoskeleton in the RVD and RVI Processes in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the F-actin cytoskeleton in cell volume regulation was studied in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, using a quantitative rhodamine–phalloidin assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and electronic cell sizing. A hypotonic challenge (160 mOsm) was associated with a decrease in cellular F-actin content at 1 and 3 min and a hypertonic challenge (600 mOsm) with an increase in cellular

S. F. Pedersen; J. W. Mills; E. K. Hoffmann

1999-01-01

27

Addition of propolis to irinotecan therapy prolongs survival in ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.  

PubMed

We investigated possible synergistic action of anticancer drug Irinotecan (IRI) combined with ethanolic (EEP) and water-soluble (WSDP) derivate of propolis on Swiss albino mice injected with Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT). For survival analysis mice were administered WSDP and EEP (100?mg/kg) daily for 3 consecutive days, beginning on 3rd day after EAT cell (1×10?) injection. IRI was administered at a dose of 50?mg/kg on days 1, 13, and 19. We simultaneously studied peripheral white blood cell count, cell types washed from the peritoneal cavity, functional activity of macrophages from peritoneal cavity, and the level of primary DNA damage in leukocytes, kidney, and liver cells using the alkaline comet assay. Three out of 9 mice per group survived the entire duration of the experiment (90 days) in groups treated with IRI combined with WSDP and EEP. All test components increased survival of mice by 7.53% to 231.54%. Combined treatment with IRI and/or WSDP and EEP significantly decreased percentage of tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity as compared to nontreated EAT-injected mice. All treated animals had significantly higher percentage of neutrophils in the peritoneal cavity in comparison to nontreated EAT-injected mice. We observed significantly higher value of DNA damage in leukocytes of mice treated with IRI and combination of IRI and/or WSDP and EEP as compared to nontreated EAT-injected mice, while the same treatment decreased DNA damage in kidney. Our results showed that addition of propolis to IRI treatment enhanced antitumor activity of IRI and prolongs survival in EAT-bearing mice, which definitely deserve further studies to clarify the possible mechanisms of antitumor actions of combined herb-drug treatments. PMID:24383762

Lisi?i?, Duje; Benkovi?, Vesna; Điki?, Domagoj; Blaževi?, Ana Sofia; Mihaljevi?, Josipa; Oršoli?, Nada; Kneževi?, Anica Horvat

2014-03-01

28

Energetics of Na+-dependent amino acid co-transport in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.  

PubMed

The energy available from the Na+ electrochemical potential gradient (delta mu Na) has been evaluated in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells during accumulation of 2-aminoisobutyric acid. Cells were incubated in media of varying [Na+] (25-154 mM) in the presence of 0.25 mM 2-aminoisobutyric acid to establish maximum steady-state accumulation of the amino acid. Membrane potential (Vm) and intracellular Na+ activity (aNa) were estimated using standard electrophysiological techniques. In physiological saline ([Na+] = 154 mM) aNa is 4.4 +/- 0.6 mM, giving an apparent Na+ activity coefficient (gamma app) in the cytoplasm of 0.17 +/- 0.02. Vm under these conditions is -20.8 +/- 2.1 mV. From these values, delta mu Na = 9.9 +/- 0.8 kJ/mol. Concomitant determinations of 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) accumulation show an energy requirement (delta mu AIB) of 8.5 +/- 0.5 kJ/mol. Stepwise reductions in extracellular [Na+] give parallel reductions in aNa, Vm and 2-aminoisobutyric acid accumulation. However, under all conditions tested the energy available from the Na+ electrochemical potential gradient exceeds that needed to drive 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake. The effects of 2-aminoisobutyric acid on Vm have also been determined. Addition of AIB (10 mM) to steady-state cells leads to membrane depolarization (resting Vm = -22.1 +/- 1.3 mV; plus AIB Vm = -16.2 +/- 1.2 mV) within 1 min. Subsequent repolarization of the membrane to resting levels occurs within 10 min. The repolarization phase is blocked in the presence of ouabain (2 mM). The results establish that the energy available from the Na+ gradient is sufficient to serve as a source for 2-aminoisobutyric acid accumulation. PMID:3801480

Dawson, W D; Smith, T C

1987-02-12

29

Role of the Na+/H+ antiport in the regulation of the internal pH of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in culture.  

PubMed

Ehrlich ascites tumor cells contain a Na+ uptake system, which is activated by internal protons and is inhibited by amiloride with an IC50 of 25 microM and by dimethylamiloride with an IC50 of 0.6 microM at 1 mM external Na+. Decrease of external Na+ or addition of amiloride is followed by a decrease of internal pH. Taken together, these findings suggest the presence of an operative Na+/H+ antiport system, which is involved in the regulation of internal pH. We cannot find a significant contribution of a proton pump activated by glycolysis to the pH gradient. At an external pH between 7.0 and 7.6, quiescent cells are more alkaline than exponentially growing cells (0.1 to 0.17 units). Accordingly, an increase of the affinity of the Na+/H+ antiport for internal protons in quiescent cells is demonstrated by the following findings: The internal pH, at which the half-maximal activation of the amiloride-sensitive Na+ uptake occurs, is shifted from 6.85 to 7.1 at 1 mM external Na+. The threshold value of external pH, below which a pronounced effect of amiloride on steady-state internal pH is observed, is shifted from 7.0 in growing to 7.5 in quiescent cells at physiological Na+ concentrations. Therefore, we conclude that quiescent Ehrlich ascites tumor cells raise their internal pH by increasing the affinity of their Na+/H+ antiporter to internal protons. The Na+/H+ antiport cannot be activated further by addition of serum growth factors to quiescent cells. All experiments were performed at bicarbonate concentrations in the medium which do not exceed 0.5 mM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3018257

Doppler, W; Maly, K; Grunicke, H

1986-01-01

30

Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Tumor Growth  

Cancer.gov

The type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R) is over-expressed by many tumors and mediates proliferation, motility, and protection from apoptosis. Agents that inhibit IGF1R expression or function can potentially block tumor growth and metastasis. Its major ligands, IGF-I, and IGF-II are over-expressed by multiple tumor types.

31

Comparison of three lines of broiler breeders differing in ascites susceptibility or growth rate. 1. Relationship between acoustic resonance data and embryonic or hatching parameters.  

PubMed

Ascites is a prevalent cardiovascular disease among modern broilers with negative impacts on production and animal welfare. The peak of mortality due to ascites occurs at the end of the growing period, but the etiology of this problem may start during embryonic development. A few recent reports have demonstrated that the signs of ascites susceptibility are manifested during the late stages of incubation. In the current study, we used a nondestructive method based on egg acoustic resonance parameters [resonant frequency (RF) and damping] to establish a relationship between embryo physiological events during early development in broiler eggs and susceptibility to ascites. The hatching eggs of 3 broiler lines differing in ascites susceptibility were used for this study: ascites-resistant dam line (DAR), ascites-sensitive dam line (DAS), and ascites-sensitive sire line (SASL). These lines were selected on the basis of fast growth, high breast meat yield, and ascites induction at low temperatures such that the order of ascites susceptibility in terms of mortality was SASL > DAS > DAR. Eggs were incubated under standard conditions in forced-draft incubators. We measured egg weights at setting, albumen pH, Haugh units (HU) at setting, and embryo weights at d 11 and 18, at internal pipping (IP), and at hatch. The durations of IP, external pipping (EP), and hatching were also determined. At 2 hourly periods during incubation, egg RF and damping were also measured. There were differences in egg weights between DAR and SASL vs. DAS, but albumen HU, albumen pH, and the ratio of yolk weight to egg weight were similar. There were differences in RF, damping, embryonic growth rates, and hatching events. Changes in resonant frequency and damping, which certainly suggest eggshell differences among lines, were not totally related to variations in physiological events during early and late embryonic development. A comparison between DAR and DAS, between DAS and SASL, or DAR and SASL indicates that sensitivity to ascites and selection for rapid growth rate in ascites-sensitive lines have different effects on embryonic parameters. We concluded that the sensitivity of broiler breeders to ascites does not influence egg internal quality, but the occurrence of ascites sensitivity in broilers could not be reliably predicted by early in ovo acoustic resonance parameters and hatching events. PMID:16206566

Tona, K; Kemps, B; Bruggeman, V; Bamelis, F; De Smit, L; Onagbesan, O; De Baerdemaeker, J; Decuypere, E

2005-09-01

32

Enhanced Antitumor Immunity Contributes to the Radio-Sensitization of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor by the Glycolytic Inhibitor 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose in Mice  

PubMed Central

Two-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), an inhibitor of glycolysis differentially enhances the radiation and chemotherapeutic drug induced cell death in cancer cells in vitro, while the local tumor control (tumor regression) following systemic administration of 2-DG and focal irradiation of the tumor results in both complete (cure) and partial response in a fraction of the tumor bearing mice. In the present studies, we investigated the effects of systemically administered 2-DG and focal irradiation of the tumor on the immune system in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) bearing Strain “A” mice. Markers of different immune cells were analyzed by immune-flow cytometry and secretary cytokines by ELISA, besides monitoring tumor growth. Increase in the expression of innate (NK and monocytes) and adaptive CD4+cells, and a decrease in B cells (CD19) have been observed after the combined treatment, suggestive of activation of anti-tumor immune response. Interestingly, immature dendritic cells were found to be down regulated, while their functional markers CD86 and MHC II were up regulated in the remaining dendritic cells following the combination treatment. Similarly, decrease in the CD4+ naďve cells with concomitant increase in activated CD4+ cells corroborated the immune activation. Further, a shift from Th2 and Th17 to Th1 besides a decrease in inflammatory cytokines was also observed in the animals showing complete response (cure; tumor free survival). This shift was also complimented by respective antibody class switching followed by the combined treatment. The immune activation or alteration in the homeostasis favoring antitumor immune response may be due to depletion in T regulatory cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+). Altogether, these results suggest that early differential immune activation is responsible for the heterogenous response to the combined treatment. Taken together, these studies for the first time provided insight into the additional mechanisms underlying radio-sensitization by 2-DG in vivo by unraveling its potential as an immune-modulator besides direct effects on the tumor. PMID:25248151

Farooque, Abdullah; Singh, Niharika; Adhikari, Jawahar Singh; Afrin, Farhat; Dwarakanath, Bilikere Srinivasa Rao

2014-01-01

33

The effects of feed restriction and ambient temperature on growth and ascites mortality of broilers reared at high altitude.  

PubMed

The development of ascites was investigated in broilers at low versus high altitudes, cold versus normal ambient temperatures (AT), and 3 feeding regimens. One-day-old chicks obtained at sea level were reared at high altitude (highA; 1,720 m; n = 576) with 2 AT treatments, low AT from 3 wk onward at highA (highA/cold) and normal AT from 3 wk onward at highA (highA/norm), or at sea level (normal AT from 3 wk onward at low altitude, lowA/norm; n = 540). Under highA/cold, AT ranged between 16 to 17 degrees C in the fourth week, 17 to 19 degrees C in the fifth week, and 19 to 21 degrees C thereafter. Under highA/norm and lowA/norm, AT was 24 degrees C in the fourth week and ranged between 22 to 24 degrees C thereafter. Broilers in each condition were divided into 3 groups: feed restriction (FR) from 7 to 14 d, FR from 7 to 21 d, and ad libitum (AL). Ascites mortality and related parameters were recorded. Low mortality (0.4%) occurred under lowA/norm conditions. Under highA/norm, mortality was lower in females (8.6%) than in males (13.8%) and was not affected by the feeding regimen. The highA/cold treatment resulted in higher mortality but only in males; it was 44.2% among highA/cold AL-fed males and only about 26% under the FR regimens, suggesting that FR helped some males to better acclimatize to the highA/cold environment and avoid ascites. However, mortality was only 13.3% in AL-fed males at highA/norm and FR did not further reduce the incidence of ascites under these conditions. Thus, avoiding low AT in the poultry house by slight heating was more effective than FR in reducing ascites mortality at highA. Compared with FR from 7 to 14 d, FR from 7 to 21 d did not further reduce mortality and reduced growth. At 47 d, the majority of surviving broilers at highA had high levels of hematocrit and right ventricle:total ventricle weight ratio (>0.29), but they were healthy and reached approximately the same BW as their counterparts at low altitude. This finding may suggest that in broilers reared at highA from day of hatch, the elevation in hematocrit and in right ventricle:total ventricle weight ratio happens gradually and therefore is not necessarily indicative of ascites development. PMID:20371850

Ozkan, S; Takma, C; Yahav, S; Sögüt, B; Türkmut, L; Erturun, H; Cahaner, A

2010-05-01

34

Cytotoxic protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: formation of hydrophilic pores in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and effect on cell viability.  

PubMed

Increased plasma membrane permeability induced by a purified cytotoxic protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied using mouse Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in incubation medium containing an osmotic stabilizer. In the presence of serum albumin, 40 nM of the cytotoxin was required for cationic imbalance of 2.7 X 10(7) cells per ml at pH 7.4. The rate of passive flux of water-soluble markers with a molecular radius range between 0.3 and 4 nm was used to calculate the size of functional transmembrane pores. Within a short time of intoxication pores of 1 nm in radius were formed. Their stability is inferred from the constant rate of leakage of the most restricted marker during intoxication (60-90 min). The cytotoxin-induced plasma membrane damage led to loss of essential low molecular weight substances and was associated with a decrease of tumor propagation rate in mice. Regression analysis of these functional parameters indicate the reversibility of plasma membrane disorganization up to complete breakdown of the Na+/K+ gradient. The cell can even tolerate partial loss of larger cytosolic compounds under conditions of limited intoxication. PMID:3035751

Lutz, F; Maurer, M; Failing, K

1987-01-01

35

Mechanics in Tumor Growth 1 Mechanics in Tumor Growth  

E-print Network

the extracellular matrix. As will be described in the following this process is affected by the stress applied some of the main feature of tumor growth and in particular the phenomena involving stress description, one can say that the cells forming a compact tumor, like other cells in the body, live

Preziosi, Luigi

36

Conditions supporting repair of potentially lethal damage cause a significant reduction of ultraviolet light-induced division delay in synchronized and plateau-phase Ehrlich ascites tumor cells  

SciTech Connect

Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by uv light in synchronized and in plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by measuring cell survival. In particlar the influence of conditions supporting repair of PLD on growth kinetics was investigated. In synchronized G/sub 1/, S, or G/sub 2/ + M cells as well as in plateau-phase cells, uv light induced, almost exclusively, delay in the next S phase. A significant decrease of this delay was observed when the cells were incubated for 24 hr in balanced salt solution. Repair of PLD after uv irradiation was found to occur in plateau-phase cells and in cells in different phases of the cell cycle provided that after irradiation these were kept under conditions inhibiting cell multiplication (incubation in balanced salt solution or in conditioned medium). The repair time constant t/sub 50/ was significantly higher than those found for X irradiation (5-10 hr compared to 2 hr), and repair was not significantly inhibited by either 20 ..mu..g/ml cycloheximide or 2 mM caffeine in 24 hr.

Iliakis, G.; Nusse, M.

1982-09-01

37

Glucose uptake-stimulatory activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem extracts in Ehrlich ascites tumor cell model system.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a multifunctional disorder with several causes and multiple consequences. Nutraceuticals play a vital role in ameliorating diabetic condition. The stems of the plant, Tinospora cordifolia (T. cordifolia) are often used in Ayurvedic medicine for the management of diabetes. Earlier studies have shown that T. cordifolia to be a potent antidiabetic plant material by virtue of being rich in nutraceuticals. In the present study we were interested to know if, T. cordifolia stem extracts are able to promote glucose uptake through glucose transporters, 1 (GLUT1) and 3 (GLUT3), which are responsible for basal glucose uptake. Hence, Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells were chosen as a model which harbours both GLUT1 and GLUT3 and glucose uptake was measured using a fluorescent analog 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG). Serially, solvent extracted T. cordifolia stems, especially water, ethanol and methanol extracts showed glucose uptake activity. Uptake was stimulated in a dose dependent manner at dosages of 1-100 ?g. Glucose-stimulating activity does not seem to be solely due to polyphenol content since methanol extract, with high amount of polyphenol content (9.5?±?0.1 g?kg(-1)), did not stimulate higher glucose uptake activity when compared to water extract. PMID:24426067

Joladarashi, Darukeshwara; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans Veerayya

2014-01-01

38

Procalcitonin, and cytokines document a dynamic inflammatory state in non-infected cirrhotic patients with ascites  

PubMed Central

AIM: To quantitate the simultaneous serum and ascitic fluid levels of procalcitonin and inflammatory markers in cirrhotics with and without ascites. METHODS: A total of 88 consecutive severe cirrhotic patients seen in a large city hospital liver clinic were studied and divided into two groups, those with and without ascites. Group 1 consisted of 41 cirrhotic patients with massive ascites, as demonstrated by necessity for therapeutic large-volume paracentesis. Group 2 consisted of 47 cirrhotic patients without any clinically documented ascites to include either a recent abdominal computed tomography scan or ultrasound study. Serum and ascitic fluid levels of an array of inflammatory markers, including procalcitonin, were measured and compared to each other and a normal plasma panel (NPP). RESULTS: The values for inflammatory markers assayed in the serum of Groups 1 and 2, and ascitic fluid of the Group 1. The plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, interferon gamma (IFN?) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were all significantly greater in the serum of Group 1 as compared to that of the serum obtained from the Group 2 subjects (all P < 0.05). There were significantly greater serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-?, vascular endothelial growth factor and EGF when comparing Group 2 to the NPP. There was no significant difference for IL-1A, IL-1B, IL-2, IL-4 and IFN? levels between these two groups. Serum procalcitonin levels were increased in cirrhotics with ascites compared to cirrhotics without ascites, but serum levels were similar to ascites levels within the ascites group. Furthermore, many of these cytokines, but not procalcitonin, demonstrate an ascites-to-serum gradient. Serum procalcitonin does not demonstrate any significant difference segregated by liver etiology in the ascites group; but ascitic fluid procalcitonin is elevated significantly in cardiac cirrhosis/miscellaneous subgroup compared to the hepatitis C virus and alcoholic cirrhosis subgroups. CONCLUSION: Procalcitonin in the ascitic fluid, but not in the serum, differentiates between cirrhotic subgroup reflecting the dynamic interplay of ascites, bacterial translocation and the peri-peritoneal cytokine. PMID:24605035

Attar, Bashar M; Moore, Christopher M; George, Magdalena; Ion-Nedelcu, Nicolae; Turbay, Rafael; Zachariah, Annamma; Ramadori, Guiliano; Fareed, Jawed; Thiel, David H Van

2014-01-01

39

Therapeutic effects of viral vector-mediated antiangiogenic gene transfer in malignant ascites.  

PubMed

Malignant ascites is a common complication of advanced intraabdominal neoplasms for which standard treatments are suboptimal. Evidence suggests that tumor-mediated angiogenesis and enhanced vascular permeability in the peritoneal wall due to high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of malignant ascites. To explore the advantage of viral vector-mediated "targeted antiangiogenic therapy" in ascites formation, we constructed and administered adenoviral vectors encoding several different antiangiogenic proteins (angiostatin, endostatin, platelet factor 4, and a fusion protein between angiostatin and endostatin) alone or in combination intraperitoneally in mice with peritoneal carcinomatosis from breast cancer (TA3 cells) and ovarian cancer (SKOV-3 i.p. and ES-2 cell lines) to explore the potential of additive or synergistic activity. Our data demonstrated statistically significant downregulation of ascites formation, tumor growth, vascularity, and prolongation of animal survival after intraperitoneal treatment with antiangiogenic adenoviral vectors in three different ascites tumor models. Combined treatment proved to be more effective than treatment with one vector alone. Reduced ascites formation was accompanied by decreased microvascular density in the peritoneal wall and increased apoptosis of tumor cells after administration of antiangiogenic vectors in vivo. Of interest was the observation that AdPF4 caused a significant decrease in the level of VEGF secreted by tumor cells both in vitro and in TA3 ascites tumor-bearing animals in vivo. These data suggest that adenoviral vector-mediated delivery of genes encoding antiangiogenic proteins may represent a potentially new treatment modality for malignant ascites. PMID:11560766

Hampl, M; Tanaka, T; Albert, P S; Lee, J; Ferrari, N; Fine, H A

2001-09-20

40

Relationship between antitumor effect and metabolites of 5-fluorouracil in combination treatment with 5-fluorouracil and guanosine in ascites Sarcoma 180 tumor system  

SciTech Connect

The antitumor activity of (6-14C)5-fluorouracil ((6-14C)FUra) against ascites Sarcoma 180 was significantly enhanced by coadministration of guanosine, and slightly by adenosine, but not by cytidine or uridine. In advanced ascites Sarcoma 180, guanosine also enhanced the action of FUra, but adenosine, uridine, and cytidine did not. The potentiation of antitumor activity by guanosine was reversed by addition of cytidine. The antitumor activity of FUra was significantly potentiated when guanosine was administered either 0 to 15 min before or 5 min after FUra. Changes in metabolites of FUra after potentiation by guanosine were investigated. The potentiation of antitumor activity of FUra by guanosine was considered to be due to an increase in incorporation of FUra into FUra-nucleotides and RNA in the tumor cells.

Iigo, M.; Kuretani, K.; Hoshi, A.

1983-12-01

41

Apparent involvement of opioid peptides in stress-induced enhancement of tumor growth.  

PubMed

Exposure to stress has been associated with alterations in both immune function and tumor development in man and laboratory animals. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a particular type of inescapable footshock stress, known to cause an opioid mediated form of analgesia, on survival time of female Fischer 344 rats injected with a mammary ascites tumor. Rats subjected to inescapable footshock manifested an enhanced tumor growth indicated by a decreased survival time and decreased percent survival. This tumor enhancing effect of stress was prevented by the opiate antagonist, naltrexone, suggesting a role for endogenous opioid peptides in this process. In the absence of stress, naltrexone did not affect tumor growth. PMID:6686324

Lewis, J W; Shavit, Y; Terman, G W; Nelson, L R; Gale, R P; Liebeskind, J C

1983-01-01

42

Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans  

E-print Network

Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans R. Keinj1 , T. Bastogne2,4,6 , P. Vallois3 September 9, 2012 Abstract This paper deals with the lifespan modeling of heterogenous tumors treated by radiotherapy. A bi-scale model describing the cell and tumor lifespans by random variables is proposed. First

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

Research of ALA combined with HpD-PDT which induced s180 ascitic tumor cells, death or apoptosis on cytology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ascertain the adequate dosage of ALA combined with HpD-PDT which induced tumor cell death or apoptosis on cytology. And to study the different effect of ALA-PDT and HPD-PDT used only. Rat ascitic tumor cells(S180) were randomly divided into several groups and incubated with ALA?20?g/ml ?40?g/ml?80?g/ml ?160?g/ml??HPD?2.5?g/ml?5?g/ml?10?g/ml?and their combination dosages. 630nm light (total output 2W) was delivered to tumor cells at a constant fluence rate: 200mw/cm2 and a constant irradiated time period: 20 minutes. We set 3 groups (no photosensitizers or no irradiation or neither) to be the control groups. We used inversion microscopy to observe the morphological change of tumor cells and flow cytometry technology to detect the death or apoptosis of tumor cells during the experiment. ..

Zhu, Jing; Yan, Min; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Li, Enling; Luo, Hongyu

2005-07-01

44

Ascites associated with uterine leiomyoma in a 22-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Ascites in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients has a variety of etiologies, which usually require different treatment options. Our case was a 22-year-old patient with an unusual combination of ascites, uterine leiomyoma and SLE. The patient presented with painless ascites of an inflammatory nature. However, the ascites was not related to peritonitis and SLE disease activity. The ascites disappeared following laparotomy and tumor resection without additional medication. Gynecologic benign tumors including uterine leiomyoma can be the cause of ascites in SLE patients. Clinicians should be aware of that possibility in case painless ascites occurs in females with SLE. PMID:24972898

Seo, M R; Sung, J Y; Cho, H J; Ryu, H J; Choi, H-J; Park, C-Y; Baek, H J

2014-10-01

45

The impact of the Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq on antitumor and antioxidant activity in a S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mouse tumor model  

PubMed Central

Aim: This study was designed to study the antitumor and antioxidant activity of Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq (ASMq) in the S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mice tumor model. Materials and Methods: The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), and glutathione-catalase (GSH-PX) were analyzed, and the mice were also subjected to a hypoxia tolerance test. Their climbing ability was also analyzed. Results: The findings of the study revealed that ASMq-treatment leads to an increase in blood serum SOD and GSH-PX levels but a decrease in blood serum MDA levels. Moreover, ASMq-treatment enhanced the survival time of mice maintained under hypoxic conditions and improved their mice climbing ability. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that ASMq has obvious antitumor and antioxidative effects. PMID:22701288

Aikemu, Ainiwaer; Yusup, Abdiryim; Umar, Anwar; Berke, Benedicte; Moore, Nicholas; Upur, Halmurat

2012-01-01

46

Cancer Progression and Tumor Growth Kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and analyze tumor growth data from prostate and brain cancer. Scaling the data from different patients shows that early stage prostate tumors show non-exponential growth while advanced prostate and brain tumors enter a stage of exponential growth. The scaling analysis points to the existence of cancer stem cells and/or massive apoptosis in early stage prostate cancer and that late stage cancer growth is not dominated by cancer stem cells. Statistical models of these two growth modes are discussed.

Blagoev, Krastan; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Wilkerson, Julia; Sprinkhuizen, Sara; Song, Yi-Qiao; Bates, Susan; Rosen, Bruce; Fojo, Tito

2013-03-01

47

Strange Attractor in Immunology of Tumor Growth  

E-print Network

The time delayed cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response on the tumor growth has been developed on the basis of discrete approximation (2-dimensional map). The growth kinetic has been described by logistic law with growth rate being the bifurcation parameter. Increase in the growth rate results in instability of the tumor state and causes period-doubling bifurcations in the immune+tumor system. For larger values of tumor growth rate a strange attractor has been observed. The model proposed is able to describe the metastable-state production when time series data of the immune state and the number of tumor cells are irregular and unpredictable. This metastatic disease may be caused not by exterior (medical) factors, but interior density dependent ones.

Margarita Voitikova

1997-08-21

48

Effects of Dietary L-carnitine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Organ Weight, Biochemical Parameters and Ascites Susceptibility in Broilers Reared Under Low-temperature Environment  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on growth performance, organ weight, biochemical parameters of blood, heart and liver, and ascites susceptibility of broilers at different ages reared under a low-temperature environment. A total of 420 1-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments with fifteen replicates of fourteen broilers each. Treatment diets consisted of L-carnitine supplementation at levels of 0 and 100 mg/kg. At 11-d of age, low temperature stress was used to increase ascites susceptibility. Blood, heart and liver samples were collected at different ages for analysis of boichemical parameters. The results showed that, there was no significant difference in growth performance with L-carnitine supplementation, but the mortality due to ascites was significantly decreased. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced heart index (HI) and ascites heart index (AHI) on d 21, lung index (LUI) on d 35 and liver index (LI) on d 42. The broilers fed diets containing L-carnitine had significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB) concentration and hematocrit (HCT) on d 42. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content of heart tissue on d 21 and 35, and significantly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the heart on d 21 and 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum triglyceride (TG) content on d 28 and 35 and serum glucose (GLU) on d 35 and 42, and significantly increased serum total protein (TP) and globulin (GLO) content on d 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly enhanced liver succinodehydrogenase (SDH), malic dehydrogenase (MDH) and Na+-K+-ATPase activity on d 28, and tended to reduce the lactic acid (LD) level of liver on d 35 (p = 0.06). L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum uric acid (UA) content on d 28, 35 and 42. Based on the current results, it can be concluded that dietary L-carnitine supplementation reduced organ index, red blood cell counts and hematocrit, enhanced antioxidative capacity of the heart, enhanced liver enzymes activity involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, and reduced serum glucose and triglyceride. Therefore, it is suggested that L-carnitine can potentially reduce susceptibility and mortality due to ascites. PMID:25049781

Wang, Y. W.; Ning, D.; Peng, Y. Z.; Guo, Y. M.

2013-01-01

49

Markedly elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and interleukin 6 in Meigs syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of serum and peritoneal and pleural fluid from a patient with Meigs’ syndrome revealed high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and interleukin 6. Serum levels declined after removal of the ovarian tumor, along with resolution of ascites and hydrothorax. These findings suggest the involvement of these vasoactive factors in ascites and pleural fluid formation in

Yoram Abramov; Shaoul O. Anteby; Sozos J. Fasouliotis; Vivian Barak

2001-01-01

50

Effect of malignant ascites on antioxidative potency of two tumoral cells-induced bone metastases: Walker 256/B and MatLyLu.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to estimate antioxidative status of two malignant-mammary gland carcinoma (Walker 256/B) and malignant-prostate carcinoma cells (MatLyLu) disseminated in ascitic fluids. Malignant carcinoma cells (10(7) cells) were twice serially intraperitoneal injected in male Wistar rats to develop ascites. After 7 days, ascitic fluids were collected, and cells in suspension were usable for biological assays. Cellular lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. Some antioxidant parameters: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) were also assessed. Comparisons with control baseline (cells maintained in normal culture medium) were analyzed. TBARS levels were found to be significantly decreased in both ascitic cancer cells compared to the baseline except for in the ascite I of MatLyLu cells. On the other hand, SOD and CAT activities were found to be statistically increased in the two malignant ascitic passages. GSH-Px levels were elevated in the first and in the second ascitic passages (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that malignant ascites are associated not only with reduced levels of TBARS but also with increased antioxidant parameters, indicating the increasing antioxidant potency of two cancer cells during malignancies process. PMID:20605085

Badraoui, R; Rebai, T

2012-01-01

51

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C Promotes Tumor Lymphangiogenesis and Intralymphatic Tumor Growth1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many solid tumors produce vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), and its receptor, VEGFR-3, is expressed in tumor blood vessels. To study the role of VEGF-C in tumorigenesis, we implanted MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells overexpressing recombinant VEGF-C orthotopically into severe combined immunodeficient mice. VEGF-C increased tumor growth, but unlike VEGF, it had little effect on tumor angiogenesis. Instead, VEGF-C

Terhi Karpanen; Mikala Egeblad; Marika J. Karkkainen; Hajime Kubo; Kari Alitalo

2001-01-01

52

Investigation of Combined Action of Food Supplement's and Ionizing Radiation on the Cytogenetic Damage Induction and Ehrlich Ascite Carcinoma Growth on Mice in Vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent ten years one of the major problems of modern radiobiology is the study of radiation protective mechanisms with the help of different substances as well as activation of internal resources of the organism. Internal resources mean such phenomena as hormesis and adaptive response which represent cell or body reaction on low doses of inducing factors and predetermine their further high dose effect resistance. At present special interest is attracted by studies of biological effects of low-dose-rate high-LET radiation because of searching for new types of radiation for more effective cancer therapy and searching for new methods of radiation protection. Since natural biologically active substances have low toxicity and are capable of affecting physiological processes taking place in human’s organism and increasing organism’s natural defense system, the interest to protective means of vegetal origin and search of special food supplements intensifies every year. The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined influence of food supplement, low dose rate high-LET radiation simulating high-altitude flight conditions and X-ray radiations on radiosensitivity, induction of radiation adaptive response (RAR) and growth of Ehrlich ascite carcinoma as well. Experiments were performed with males of SHK mice at the age of two months. The animals were being irradiated with low-dose-rate high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 cGy (0,5 cGy/day) behind the concrete shield of the 70 GeV protons accelerator (Protvino). The X-ray irradiation was carried out on the RTH device with a voltage of 200 kV (1 Gy/min; Pushchino). The diet composition included products containing big amount of biologically active substances, such as: soybeam meat, buckwheat, lettuce leaves and drug of cod-liver oil. Four groups of mice were fed with selected products mentioned above during the whole irradiation period of 22 days. The control groups received the same food without irradiation. The relation of the amount of the food supplement to the quantity of standard food was selected experimentally. In order to determine the level of radiosensitivity all groups of mice were subjected to X-radiation with the dose of 1,5 Gy and for induction of RAR the animals were irradiated according to the standard scheme (10 cGy+1,5 Gy). The influence of food supplement on the growth of solid tumor was estimated by measuring the size of the tumor at different times after the inoculation of ascitic cells s.c. into the femur. The percent of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) with micronucleus (MN) in marrow served as definition criteria of cytogenetic level of damage. The results of the study indicate that: 1) Due to influence of high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 Gy, mice who had dietary supplement demonstrated reduction of PCE with MN to the level of natural background radiation comparing with mice who had only standard food; 2) Diet containing soybeam, buckwheat or greens unlike cod-liver oil reduces the sensitivity of mice to X-radiation with the dose of 1,5 Gy and causes significant slowdown in growth of Ehrlich carcinoma; 3) The combined effect of high-LET radiation and the food supplements (except for cod-liver oil) reduces the sensitivity of mice to irradiation with the dose of 1,5 Gy, which demonstrate ability of RAR induction unlike the mice only irradiated with high-LET radiation and causes the slowdown in growth speed of Ehrlich carcinoma in contrast to the mice only irradiated with high-LET with the dose of 11,6 Gy; 4) The combined effect of high-LET radiation and the food supplements (except for cod-liver oil) does not influence the quantity of RAR according to the standard scheme (10 cGy+1,5 Gy).

Sorokina, Svetlana; Zaichkina, Svetlana; Dyukina, Alsu; Rozanova, Olga; Balakin, Vladimir; Peleshko, Vladimir; Romanchenko, Sergey; Smirnova, Helena; Aptikaeva, Gella; Shemyakov, Alexander

53

The prosurvival activity of ascites against TRAIL is associated with a shorter disease-free interval in patients with ovarian cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The production of ascites is a common complication of ovarian cancer. Ascites constitute a unique tumor microenvironment that may affect disease progression. In this context, we recently showed that ovarian cancer ascites may protect tumor cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In this study, we sought to determine whether the prosurvival effect of ascites affects disease-free intervals. METHODS: Peritoneal fluids were

Isabelle Matte; Claudine Rancourt; Alain Piché

2010-01-01

54

Peritoneovenous shunts palliate malignant ascites.  

PubMed

Fifty-five peritoneovenous shunts (PVS) were implanted in 45 patients (29 LeVeen and 26 Denver shunts). Seventy-five percent of patients experienced relief of symptoms referable to their ascites. The mean survival time post-shunt placement was 33 weeks; however, considerable variation was noted in survival times for the various tumor types (pancreas 7 weeks, ovary 71 weeks). Significant alterations in coagulation parameters consistent with subclinical disseminated intervascular coagulation (DIC) were present in all patients with functioning shunts. These coagulation changes have proven reliable indicators of shunt patency. Shunt revision was necessary in 18 percent of patients. No significant difference in shunt patency was detected when Denver and LeVeen shunts were compared. This experience indicates that PVS offers effective palliation without undue morbidity for malignant ascites. The best results can be expected in those patients with ovarian and breast primary tumors. Because of the short time from onset of disabling ascites until death, PVS is not indicated in the majority of patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:2480068

Edney, J A; Hill, A; Armstrong, D

1989-12-01

55

Evidence that repair and expression of potentially lethal damage cause the variations in cell survival after x irradiation observed through the cell cycle in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells  

SciTech Connect

The survival of synchronously growing Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT cells) was measured after x irradiation in various stages of the cell cycle. Cells at the beginning of S or in G2 + M phase showed a high level of killing, whereas cells irradiated in G1 or in the middle of S phase were more resistant. These changes resulted from a change in the survival curve shoulder width (D/sub q/) as cells passed through the cell cycle, and the mean lethal dose (D/sub 0/) remained practically unchanged (0.8 +- 0.05 Gy). When synchronization of the cell population was further sharpened using nocodazole, exponential survival curves were obtained at the beginning of S phase and at mitosis with a D/sub 0/ = 0.8 Gy. When cells (in all stages) were incubated in balanced salt solution for 6 h after irradiation, repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) was observed, resulting in an increase in D/sub q/, while D/sub 0/ remained constant. Treatment of the cells after irradiation with either caffeine or ..beta..-arabinofuranosyladenine (..beta..-araA) or hypertonic medium resulted in an expression of PLD and reduced the D/sub q/ of the survival curve. We measured the rate of the loss of sensitivity of these treatments that we assume reflects the rate of repair of PLD. Results indicate that the shoulder width D/sub q/ of the survival curve in cells irradiated at various stages of the cell cycle results from repair of PLD. It is suggested that the variations observed in cell survival through the cell cycle might reflect variations in the final amount of PLD either repaired or expressed as the cells progress through stages of the cell cycle.

Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

1983-07-01

56

Ascites in poultry.  

PubMed

Research on ascites occurring in meat-type chickens reared at moderate and low altitude has shown that the pathogenesis is similar to that of the high altitude disease. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by increased blood flow or increased resistance to flow in the lung results in right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), valvular insufficiency, increased venous pressure and ascites. The structure of the avian heart, with its thin-walled right ventricle and muscular right atrioventricular valve, allows PH to induce heart failure quickly. The sudden increase in pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in meat-type chickens in the 1980s was associated with a rapid increase in growth rate and feed conversion. This was a result of a combination of genetic selection for fast-growing, heavy broilers with low feed conversion and a more dense, high caloric, pelleted food that supplied all the nutrients required for rapid growth and encouraged a high nutrient intake. PHS in meat-type chickens is usually primary pulmonary hypertension, that is, PH that occurs without evidence of prior heart or lung disease that could account for the increase in blood flow or resistance to flow that results in the increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries. The lungs of birds are firm and fixed in the thoracic cavity and they do not expand to draw air into the lung. The blood and air capillaries form a rigid network that allows only minimal expansion of the blood capillaries when more blood flow is required. Air is moved through the lung by abdominal movement which draws air in and out of the air sacs. The anatomy and physiology of the avian respiratory system are important in the susceptibility of meat-type chickens to PHS. The small stature of the modern meat-type chicken, the large, heavy breast mass, the pressure from abdominal contents on air sacs, and the small lung volume compared to body weight, may all be involved in the increased incidence of PHS. There is limited space for blood flow in the avian lung. Factors that increase blood flow or increase resistance to flow are additive. Increased blood viscosity caused by the polycythaemia of hypoxia, or increased erythrocyte rigidity of high Na (+), are more likely to produce PH in fast-growing than in slow-growing birds. Increased flow due to cold exposure is also additive. Ascites caused by PH is a production-related disease at low altitude. It can be prevented easily by restricting growth rate. It is possible that some meat-type chickens of the phenotype we have created have reached the limit of blood flow through their lungs and that future improvements in growth rate will only be possible if the lung and abdominal cavity capacities are enlarged. PMID:18671031

Julian, R J

1993-09-01

57

Necrotic tumor growth: an analytic approach  

E-print Network

The present paper deals with a free boundary problem modeling the growth process of necrotic multi-layer tumors. We prove the existence of flat stationary solutions and determine the linearization of our model at such an equilibrium. Finally, we compute the solutions of the stationary linearized problem.

Kohlmann, Martin

2011-01-01

58

Alanine transport in plasma membrane vesicles from Yoshida ascites hepatoma cells (AH 130) in the exponential and stationary phase of growth.  

PubMed

The Na(+)-dependent transport of L-alanine into plasma membrane vesicles from Yoshida ascites hepatoma (AH-130) cells in the exponential and stationary phase of growth has been studied. A transient accumulation of the amino acid occurred in the presence of an inwardly directed sodium gradient, in both conditions. However, the height and the shape of the overshoot curve differed noticeably in the two preparations. The accumulation ratio increased three-fold and the maximal uptake value occurred at an earlier time in plasma membrane vesicles from exponential growing rather than stationary phase cells. This might suggest that one of the two systems, A or ASC, serving hepatocytes, is fully expressed only in the exponential phase of growth or, alternatively, that the kinetic parameters of a possibly unique transport system are modified. Inhibition, countertransport as well as adaptive stimulation experiments and kinetic studies suggested the presence of a unique carrier-mediated transport of alanine in both phases of growth. The Vmax value was drastically reduced in the stationary phase of growth whereas the Km value was almost the same in both preparations. Therefore, the differences in time courses observed could be related to changes of the Vmax of a single transport agency rather than to the appearance/disappearance of an additional transport system (e.g. system A) in the conditions studied. PMID:2081337

Leonardi, M G; Comolli, R; Giordana, B

1990-11-01

59

Management of Ascites in Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ascites is derived from the Greek word askos referring to a bag or sack. Ascites are defined as the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. Cirrhosis of the liver is the most common cause of ascites and accounts for almost 85% of all cases of ascites (1). Numerous other disorders, however, including malignancy, cardiac failure, pancreatitis,

Arun J. Sanyal

60

Shrinkage-induced Activation of the Na + \\/H + Exchanger in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells: Mechanisms Involved in the Activation and a Role for the Exchanger in Cell Volume Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Amiloride-sensitive, Na+-dependent, DIDS-insensitive cytoplasmic alkalinization is observed after hypertonic challenge in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.\\u000a This was assessed using the fluorescent pH-sensitive probe 2?,7?-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). A parallel\\u000a increase in the amiloride-sensitive unidirectional Na+ influx is also observed. This indicates that hypertonic challenge activates a Na+\\/H+ exchanger. Activation occurs after several types of hypertonic challenge, is a graded function of

S. F. Pedersen; B. Kramhřft; N. K. Jřrgensen; E. K. Hoffmann

1996-01-01

61

Generation of lymphokine-activated killer cells in human ovarian carcinoma ascitic fluid: Identification of transforming growth factor-? as a suppressive factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of cell-free ascitic fluid from patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma on the generation of lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) was compared to the activity generated in control medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, using Daudi target cells. Samples of ascitic fluid from nine different patients tested inhibited LAK generation. Suppressive activity was evident as early as 24 h

Hal Hirte; David A. Clark

1991-01-01

62

Reduced Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in Endoglin-Haploinsufficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoglin is a transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) accessory receptor which is highly expressed in tumor vessels. To study the role of endoglin in tumor growth and angiogenesis we induced a highly vascularized tumor in mice heterozygous for endoglin (Eng+\\/–) and in their control littermates (Eng+\\/+) by injecting 106 Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cells subcutaneously. Nine days after injection, the tumor

Annette Düwel; Nélida Eleno; Mirjana Jerkic; Miguel Arevalo; Juan P. Bolańos; Carmelo Bernabeu; Jose M. López-Novoa

2007-01-01

63

Deregulation of tumor angiogenesis and blockade of tumor growth in PPARb-deficient mice  

E-print Network

Deregulation of tumor angiogenesis and blockade of tumor growth in PPARb-deficient mice Sabine Mu Peters5 and Rolf Muďż˝ ller1, * 1 Institute of Molecular Biology and Tumor Research (IMT), Philipps show that the growth of syn- geneic Pparb wild-type tumors is impaired in Pparbďż˝/ďż˝ mice, concomitant

Omiecinski, Curtis

64

Influence of Correlated Noises on Growth of a Tumor  

E-print Network

We studied the effect of additive and multiplicative noises on the growth of a tumor based on a logistic growth model. The steady-state probability distribution and the average population of the tumor cells were given to explain the important roles of correlated noises in the tumor growth. We found that multiplicative noise induces a phase transition of the tumor growth from an uni-stable state to a bi-stable state; the relationship between the intensity of multiplicative noise and the population of the tumor cells showed a stochastic resonance-like characteristic. It was also confirmed that additive noise weakened rather than extinguish the tumor growth. Homologous noises, however, promote the growth of a tumor. We also discussed about the relationship between the tumor treatment and the model.

Zhong, W R; He, Z H; Zhong, Wei-Rong; Shao, Yuan-Zhi; He, Zhen-Hui

2005-01-01

65

A cellular automaton model for tumor growth in heterogeneous environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer is not a single disease: it exhibits heterogeneity on different spatial and temporal scales and strongly interacts with its host environment. Most mathematical modeling of malignant tumor growth has assumed a homogeneous host environment. We have developed a cellular automaton model for tumor growth that explicitly incorporates the structural heterogeneity of the host environment such as tumor stroma. We show that these structural heterogeneities have non-trivial effects on the tumor growth dynamics and prognosis.

Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Sal

2011-03-01

66

Blocking tumor cell eicosanoid synthesis by GPx4 impedes tumor growth and malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using tumor cell-restricted overexpression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), we investigated the contribution of tumor cell eicosanoids to solid tumor growth and malignant progression in two tumor models differing in tumorigenic potential. By lowering cellular lipid hydroperoxide levels, GPx4 inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities. GPx4 overexpression drastically impeded solid tumor growth of weakly tumorigenic L929 fibrosarcoma cells, whereas

Ingeborg Heirman; Daisy Ginneberge; Regina Brigelius-Flohé; Nico Hendrickx; Patrizia Agostinis; Peter Brouckaert; Pieter Rottiers; Johan Grooten

2006-01-01

67

Net growth delay: a novel parameter derived from tumor growth curves  

SciTech Connect

Growth delay does not only reflect the effect of treatment on the tumor parenchymal cells but also on the stroma. Due to tumor bed effect, the extent of growth delay determined from tumor growth curves is highly dependent on the end volume chosen. It was aimed to minimize the influence of the tumor bed effect on the growth delay calculated by choosing a smaller size and essentially an earlier time for regrowth. Net growth delay is a novel parameter derived from the tumor growth curves, allowing a better comparison of the results with colony assay and tumor control data.

Beck-Bornholdt, H.P.; Wuerschmidt, F.V.; Vogler, H.

1987-05-01

68

Cellular potts modeling of tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor evolution.  

PubMed

Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell "successful" in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M H

2013-01-01

69

Growth Failure After Treatment of Pediatric Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objectives. Primary brain tumors are the most common solid tumors that occur in childhood. With improved management of these tumors, there are more survivors with long-term sequelae of radiation and che- motherapy including growth failure. The aim of this study was to assess growth prospectively in children with nonpituitary-related primary brain tumors. Methods. Forty-one children 3.1 to 13.8 years

Cheril L. Clarson; Rolando F. Del Maestro

70

Tumor growth reduction is regulated at the gene level in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats supplemented with fish oil rich in EPA and DHA  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on tumor growth, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), and RelA gene and protein expression in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Male Wistar rats (70 days old) were fed with regular chow (group W) or chow supplemented with 1 g/kg body weight FO daily (group WFO) until they reached 100 days of age. Both groups were then inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (3×107 cells/mL). After 14 days the rats were killed, total RNA was isolated from the tumor tissue, and relative mRNA expression was measured using the 2-??CT method. FO significantly decreased tumor growth (W=13.18±1.58 vs WFO=5.40±0.88 g, P<0.05). FO supplementation also resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 (W=100.1±1.62 vs WFO=59.39±5.53, P<0.001) and PPAR? (W=100.4±1.04 vs WFO=88.22±1.46, P<0.05) protein expression. Relative mRNA expression was W=1.06±0.022 vs WFO=0.31±0.04 (P<0.001) for COX-2, W=1.08±0.02 vs WFO=0.52±0.08 (P<0.001) for PPAR?, and W=1.04±0.02 vs WFO=0.82±0.04 (P<0.05) for RelA. FO reduced tumor growth by attenuating inflammatory gene expression associated with carcinogenesis. PMID:24036940

Borghetti, G.; Yamazaki, R.K.; Coelho, I.; Pequito, D.C.T.; Schiessel, D.L.; Kryczyk, M.; Mamus, R.; Naliwaiko, K.; Fernandes, L.C.

2013-01-01

71

Tumor growth reduction is regulated at the gene level in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats supplemented with fish oil rich in EPA and DHA.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on tumor growth, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), and RelA gene and protein expression in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Male Wistar rats (70 days old) were fed with regular chow (group W) or chow supplemented with 1 g/kg body weight FO daily (group WFO) until they reached 100 days of age. Both groups were then inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (3 × 10(7) cells/mL). After 14 days the rats were killed, total RNA was isolated from the tumor tissue, and relative mRNA expression was measured using the 2(-??CT) method. FO significantly decreased tumor growth (W=13.18 ± 1.58 vs WFO=5.40 ± 0.88 g, P<0.05). FO supplementation also resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 (W=100.1 ± 1.62 vs WFO=59.39 ± 5.53, P<0.001) and PPAR? (W=100.4 ± 1.04 vs WFO=88.22 ± 1.46, P<0.05) protein expression. Relative mRNA expression was W=1.06 ± 0.022 vs WFO=0.31 ± 0.04 (P<0.001) for COX-2, W=1.08 ± 0.02 vs WFO=0.52 ± 0.08 (P<0.001) for PPAR?, and W=1.04 ± 0.02 vs WFO=0.82 ± 0.04 (P<0.05) for RelA. FO reduced tumor growth by attenuating inflammatory gene expression associated with carcinogenesis. PMID:24036940

Borghetti, G; Yamazaki, R K; Coelho, I; Pequito, D C T; Schiessel, D L; Kryczyk, M; Mamus, R; Naliwaiko, K; Fernandes, L C

2013-08-01

72

Palliative treatment of malignant ascites: profile of catumaxomab  

PubMed Central

Malignant ascites is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity associated with several intrapelvic and intra-abdominal malignancies. The development of ascites leads to significant symptoms and poor quality of life for the cancer patient. Available therapies for palliation include treatment of the underlying disease, but when there are no treatment options, the use of diuretics, implantation of drainage catheters, and surgical shunting techniques are considered. None of these symptom palliation options affect the course of disease. The development of trifunctional antibodies, which attach to specific overexpressed surface markers on tumor cells, and trigger an immune response leading to cytoreductive effects, represents a new approach to the management of malignant ascites. The purpose of this review is to highlight current therapies for malignant ascites and review data as to the effectiveness of a new trifunctional antibody, catumaxomab. PMID:20531969

Ammouri, Lila; Prommer, Eric E

2010-01-01

73

Biologic Determinants of Tumor Growth in Healing Wounds  

PubMed Central

The morphologic characteristics of a scar may render it an “immunologically privileged site” providing fertile ground for tumor occurrence and growth. We sought to extend this concept and to determine the effect of different stages of wound healing on tumor occurrence. Syngeneic strain-2 guinea pigs and a methylcholanthrene-induced liposarcoma (MCA-2) were used. Incisional flank wounds were created at appropriate intervals such that at the time of tumor inoculation each group of animals had a sequentially aged wound which was a) acute, b) three weeks old, c) nine weeks old, d) 11 weeks old, e) created one week after tumor injection, or f) no wound. Wounds which were three, nine, or 11 weeks old consistently caused a significant increase in tumor growth rate following inoculation of a single cell tumor suspension (<.001). The delayed wounds, or those created following after tumor injection, and the acute wounds did not promote increased tumor growth. This study demonstrates that the ability of a wound to amplify or retard tumor growth may vary with its age. As a postulate we suggest that the relative paucity of lymphatic regeneration within scar tissue may render it an “immunologically privileged site” such that early recognition and destruction of tumor cells within the scar may be delayed long enough for the tumor to grow to a “critical size.” Subsequent to this regardless of the host's immunocompetence the tumor can no longer be destroyed by an immune mechanism. The general lack of progressive growth of tumor cells placed in acute wounds suggests that they were not protected from immunocompetent cells and were destroyed by the ongoing inflammatory response to injury. Therefore, different biologic characteristics of a surgical scar are important in potentiating or retarding tumor growth. Variations in such factors may account for the local recurrence of cancer in operative wounds. PMID:426550

Pendergrast, W. Jefferson; Futrell, J. William

1979-01-01

74

Antitumor effect of nuclear factor-?B decoy transfer by mannose-modified bubble lipoplex into macrophages in mouse malignant ascites.  

PubMed

Patients with malignant ascites (MAs) display several symptoms, such as dyspnea, nausea, pain, and abdominal tenderness, resulting in a significant reduction in their quality of life. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a crucial role in MA progression. Because TAMs have a tumor-promoting M2 phenotype, conversion of the M2 phenotypic function of TAMs would be promising for MA treatment. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a master regulator of macrophage polarization. Here, we developed targeted transfer of a NF-?B decoy into TAMs by ultrasound (US)-responsive, mannose-modified liposome/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) in a mouse peritoneal dissemination model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In addition, we investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection into TAMs on MA progression and mouse survival rates. Intraperitoneal injection of Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure transferred the NF-?B decoy into TAMs effectively. When the NF-?B decoy was delivered into TAMs by this method in the mouse peritoneal dissemination model, mRNA expression of the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in TAMs was decreased significantly. In contrast, mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-6) were increased significantly. Moreover, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor in ascites was suppressed significantly, and peritoneal angiogenesis showed a reduction. Furthermore, NF-?B decoy transfer into TAMs significantly decreased the ascitic volume and number of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in ascites, and prolonged mouse survival. In conclusion, we transferred a NF-?B decoy efficiently by Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes with US exposure into TAMs, which may be a novel approach for MA treatment. PMID:24850474

Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

2014-08-01

75

Enhanced photodynamic efficacy of PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA nanoparticles in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles (NPs) fabricated from the biodegradable copolymer poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were investigated as a drug delivery system to enhance the photodynamic efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs were prepared using binary organic solvent diffusion method and characterized in terms of shape and particle size. The in vivo photodynamic efficiency in Ehrlich ascites-bearing mice was studied. The obtained particles were uniform in size with spherical shape of mean size of 249.5 nm as obtained by particle size analyzer and the in vitro release studies demonstrated a controlled release profile of 5-ALA. Tumor-bearing mice injected with PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs exhibited significantly smaller mean tumor volume, increased tumor growth delay compared with the control group and the group injected with free 5-ALA during the time course of the experiment. Histopathological examination of tumor from mice treated with PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs showed regression of tumor cells, in contrast to those obtained from mice treated with free 5-ALA. The results indicate that PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs are a successful delivery system for improving photodynamic activity in the target tissue.

Shaker, Maryam N.; Ramadan, Heba S.; Mohamed, Moustafa M.; El khatib, Ahmed M.; Roston, Gamal D.

2014-10-01

76

Natural history of tumor growth and immune modulation in common spontaneous murine mammary tumor models.  

PubMed

Recent studies in patients with breast cancer suggest the immune microenvironment influences response to therapy. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between growth rates of tumors in common spontaneous mammary tumor models and immune biomarkers evaluated in the tumor and blood. TgMMTV-neu and C3(1)-Tag transgenic mice were followed longitudinally from birth, and MPA-DMBA-treated mice from the time of carcinogen administration, for the development of mammary tumors. Tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, FOXP3(+) T-regulatory cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Serum cytokines were evaluated in subsets of mice. Fine needle aspirates of tumors were collected and RNA was isolated to determine levels of immune and proliferation markers. Age of tumor onset and kinetics of tumor growth were significantly different among the models. Mammary tumors from TgMMTV-neu contained a lower CD8/CD4 ratio than that of other models (p < 0.05). MPA-DMBA-induced tumors contained a higher percentage of FOXP3(+) CD4(+) T-cells (p < 0.01) and MDSC (p < 0.001) compared with the other models. Individuals with significantly slower tumor growth demonstrated higher levels of Type I serum cytokines prior to the development of lesions compared to those with rapid tumor growth. Moreover, the tumors of animals with more rapid tumor growth demonstrated a significant increase in the expression of genes associated with Type II immunity than those with slower-progressing tumors. These data provide a foundation for the development of in vivo models to explore the relationship between endogenous immunity and response to standard therapies for breast cancer. PMID:25395320

Gad, Ekram; Rastetter, Lauren; Slota, Meredith; Koehnlein, Marlese; Treuting, Piper M; Dang, Yushe; Stanton, Sasha; Disis, Mary L

2014-12-01

77

Getting to Know Ovarian Cancer Ascites: Opportunities for Targeted Therapy-Based Translational Research  

PubMed Central

More than one third of ovarian cancer patients present with ascites at diagnosis, and almost all have ascites at recurrence. The presence of ascites correlates with the peritoneal spread of ovarian cancer and is associated with poor disease prognosis. Malignant ascites acts as a reservoir of a complex mixture of soluble factors and cellular components which provide a pro-inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment for the tumor cells. Subpopulations of these tumor cells exhibit cancer stem-like phenotypes, possess enhanced resistance to therapies and the capacity for distal metastatic spread and recurrent disease. Thus, ascites-derived malignant cells and the ascites microenvironment represent a major source of morbidity and mortality for ovarian cancer patients. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular, cellular, and functional characteristics of the cellular populations within ascites and discusses their contributions to ovarian cancer metastasis, chemoresistance, and recurrence. We highlight in particular recent translational findings which have used primary ascites-derived tumor cells as a tool to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, yielding new insights and targets for therapeutic manipulation. PMID:24093089

Ahmed, Nuzhat; Stenvers, Kaye L.

2013-01-01

78

Host deficiency in caveolin-2 inhibits lung carcinoma tumor growth by impairing tumor angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Caveolin-2 (Cav-2), a member of caveolin protein family, is largely different from better known caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and thus might play distinct functions. Here, we provide the first genetic evidence suggesting that host-expressed Cav-2 promotes subcutaneous tumor growth and tumor-induced neovascularization using two independent syngeneic mouse models. Host deficiency in Cav-2 resulted in defective and reduced growth of subcutaneously implanted Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and B16-F10 melanoma tumors, respectively. Consistent with the defective growth, LLC and B16-F10 melanoma tumors implanted into Cav-2 KO mice displayed reduced microvascular density (MVD) determined by IHC with anti-CD31 antibodies, suggesting impaired pathologic angiogenesis. Additional studies involving LLC tumors extracted from Cav-2 KO mice just 10 days after implantation determined reduced cell proliferation, massive necrotic cell death, and fibrosis. In contrast with day 10, only MVD but not cell proliferation and survival was reduced in the earliest palpable LLC tumors extracted 6 days after implantation into Cav-2 KO mice, suggesting that impaired angiogenesis is the causative factor. Mechanistically, impaired LLC tumor growth and angiogenesis in Cav-2 KO mice was associated with increased expression levels of antiangiogenic thrombospondin-1 and inhibited S1177 phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Taken together, our data suggest that host deficiency in Cav-2 impairs tumor-induced angiogenesis, leading to compromised tumor cell survival/proliferation manifested by the defective tumor growth. In conclusion, host-expressed Cav-2 may promote tumor growth via supporting tumor-induced angiogenesis. Thus, Cav-2 expressed in tumor microenvironment may potentially become a novel target for cancer therapy. Cancer Res; 74(22); 6452-62. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25269481

Liu, Yajun; Jang, Sungchan; Xie, Leike; Sowa, Grzegorz

2014-11-15

79

Molecular Profiling and Clinical Outcome of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Presenting with Low- versus High-Volume Ascites  

PubMed Central

Epithelial ovarian cancer consists of multiple histotypes differing in etiology and clinical course. The most prevalent histotype is high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), which often presents at an advanced stage frequently accompanied with high-volume ascites. While some studies suggest that ascites is associated with poor clinical outcome, most reports have not differentiated between histological subtypes or tumor grade. We compared genome-wide gene expression profiles from a discovery cohort of ten patients diagnosed with stages III-IV HGSOC with high-volume ascites and nine patients with low-volume ascites. An upregulation of immune response genes was detected in tumors from patients presenting with low-volume ascites relative to those with high-volume ascites. Immunohistochemical studies performed on tissue microarrays confirmed higher expression of proteins encoded by immune response genes and increased tumorinfiltrating cells in tumors associated with low-volume ascites. Comparison of 149 advanced-stage HGSOC cases with differential ascites volume at time of primary surgery indicated low-volume ascites correlated with better surgical outcome and longer overall survival. These findings suggest that advanced stage HGSOC presenting with low-volume ascites reflects a unique subgroup of HGSOC, which is associated with upregulation of immune related genes, more abundant tumor infiltrating cells and better clinical outcomes. PMID:24982872

Clarke, Blaise; Virtanen, Carl; Plotkin, Anna; Rosen, Barry; Bernardini, Marcus Q.; Brown, Theodore J.; Murphy, K. Joan

2014-01-01

80

Brain tumor modeling: glioma growth and interaction with chemotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In last decade increasingly mathematical models of tumor growths have been studied, particularly on solid tumors which growth mainly caused by cellular proliferation. In this paper we propose a modified model to simulate the growth of gliomas in different stages. Glioma growth is modeled by a reaction-advection-diffusion. We begin with a model of untreated gliomas and continue with models of polyclonal glioma following chemotherapy. From relatively simple assumptions involving homogeneous brain tissue bounded by a few gross anatomical landmarks (ventricles and skull) the models have been expanded to include heterogeneous brain tissue with different motilities of glioma cells in grey and white matter. Tumor growth is characterized by a dangerous change in the control mechanisms, which normally maintain a balance between the rate of proliferation and the rate of apoptosis (controlled cell death). Result shows that this model closes to clinical finding and can simulate brain tumor behavior properly.

Banaem, Hossein Y.; Ahmadian, Alireza; Saberi, Hooshangh; Daneshmehr, Alireza; Khodadad, Davood

2011-10-01

81

Effects of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections in Microtus montanus on susceptibility to Ehrlich's tumors.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections in the field vole Microtus montanus increased susceptibility to Ehrlich's tumor growth. Whereas uninfected voles were totally resistant to intraperitoneal Ehrlich's ascites tumor cell challenge, over 78% of the animals infected with the trypanosomes developed tumors after challenge. Likewise, when Ehrlich's ascites cells were injected subcutaneously to induce solid tumor formation, only 7% of uninfected controls developed tumors, whereas over 82% of trypanosome-infected animals exhibited malignancies after Ehrlich's cell challenge. Finally, when solid tumors grown in albino CD-1 mice were implanted subcutaneously into uninfected voles, the tumor mass rapidly diminished in size and could not be found when animals were examined 2 weeks postimplant. However, in trypanosome-infected voles, implanted tumors exhibited pronounced expansion, and viable, solid tumors were recovered from over 70% of the challenged voles at 2 weeks postimplant. The implications of trypanosome-induced immunosuppression, especially toward susceptibility to neoplastic growth, are discussed. PMID:770326

Ackerman, S B; Seed, J R

1976-02-01

82

A nonlinear structured population model of tumor growth with quiescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear structured cell population model of tumor growth is considered. The model distinguishes between two types of cells\\u000a within the tumor: proliferating and quiescent. Within each class the behavior of individual cells depends on cell size, whereas\\u000a the probabilities of becoming quiescent and returning to the proliferative cycle are in addition controlled by total tumor\\u000a size. The asymptotic behavior

M. Gyllenberg; G. F. Webb

1990-01-01

83

Second hand smoke stimulates tumor angiogenesis and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is believed to cause lung cancer. Pathological angiogenesis is a requisite for tumor growth. Lewis lung cancer cells were injected subcutaneously into mice, which were then exposed to sidestream smoke (SHS) or clean room air and administered vehicle, cerivastatin, or mecamylamine. SHS significantly increased tumor size, weight, capillary density, VEGF and MCP-1 levels, and

Bo-qing Zhu; Christopher Heeschen; Richard E. Sievers; Joel S. Karliner; William W. Parmley; John P. Cooke

2003-01-01

84

Tumor suppressor XAF1 induces apoptosis, inhibits angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), a XIAP-binding protein, is a tumor suppressor gene. XAF1 was silent or expressed lowly in most human malignant tumors. However, the role of XAF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of XAF1 on tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatocellular cancer cells. Our results showed that XAF1 expression was lower in HCC cell lines SMMC-7721, Hep G2 and BEL-7404 and liver cancer tissues than that in paired non-cancer liver tissues. Adenovirus-mediated XAF1 expression (Ad5/F35-XAF1) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in dose- and time- dependent manners. Infection of Ad5/F35-XAF1 induced cleavage of caspase -3, -8, -9 and PARP in HCC cells. Furthermore, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model of liver cancer cells. Western Blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment suppressed expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is associated with tumor angiogenesis, in cancer cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Moreover, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate that XAF1 inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. XAF1 may be a promising target for liver cancer treatment. PMID:24980821

Zhu, Li Ming; Shi, Dong Mei; Dai, Qiang; Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Yao, Wei Yan; Sun, Ping Hu; Ding, Yan Fei; Qiao, Min Min; Wu, Yun Lin; Jiang, Shi Hu; Tu, Shui Ping

2014-01-01

85

Alcohol promotes mammary tumor growth through activation of VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption has been recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer. Experimental studies demonstrate that alcohol exposure promotes the progression of existing mammary tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In the present study, the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in alcohol promotion of breast cancer development was investigated using a mouse xenograft model of mammary tumors and a three-dimensional (3D) tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. For the mouse xenograft model, mouse E0771 breast cancer cells were implanted into the mammary fat pad of C57BL6 mice. These mice were exposed to alcohol in their drinking water. For the 3D co-culture system, E0771 cells and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were co-cultured with SVEC4-10EE2 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. The results demonstrated that alcohol increased tumor angiogenesis and accelerated tumor growth. Furthermore, it appeared that alcohol induced VEGF expression in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Blocking VEGF signaling by SU5416 inhibited tumor angiogenesis in the 3D tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. Furthermore, injection of SU5416 into mice inhibited alcohol-promoted mammary tumor growth in vivo. These results indicate that alcohol may promote mammary tumor growth by stimulating VEGF-dependent angiogenesis. PMID:25009649

LU, YANMIN; NI, FANG; XU, MEI; YANG, JINLIAN; CHEN, JI; CHEN, ZHUO; WANG, XINYI; LUO, JIA; WANG, SIYING

2014-01-01

86

Patient specific tumor growth prediction using multimodal images.  

PubMed

Personalized tumor growth model is valuable in tumor staging and therapy planning. In this paper, we present a patient specific tumor growth model based on longitudinal multimodal imaging data including dual-phase CT and FDG-PET. The proposed Reaction-Advection-Diffusion model is capable of integrating cancerous cell proliferation, infiltration, metabolic rate and extracellular matrix biomechanical response. To bridge the model with multimodal imaging data, we introduce Intracellular Volume Fraction (ICVF) measured from dual-phase CT and Standardized Uptake Value (SUV) measured from FDG-PET into the model. The patient specific model parameters are estimated by fitting the model to the observation, which leads to an inverse problem formalized as a coupled Partial Differential Equations (PDE)-constrained optimization problem. The optimality system is derived and solved by the Finite Difference Method. The model was evaluated by comparing the predicted tumors with the observed tumors in terms of average surface distance (ASD), root mean square difference (RMSD) of the ICVF map, average ICVF difference (AICVFD) of tumor surface and tumor relative volume difference (RVD) on six patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The ASD between the predicted tumor and the reference tumor was 2.4±0.5mm, the RMSD was 4.3±0.4%, the AICVFD was 2.6±0.6%, and the RVD was 7.7±1.3%. PMID:24607911

Liu, Yixun; Sadowski, Samira M; Weisbrod, Allison B; Kebebew, Electron; Summers, Ronald M; Yao, Jianhua

2014-04-01

87

Host STAT2/type I interferon axis controls tumor growth.  

PubMed

The role of STAT2 in mediating the antigrowth effects of type I interferon (IFN) is well-documented in vitro. Yet evidence of IFN-activated STAT2 as having tumor suppressor function in vivo and participation in antitumor immunity is lacking. Here we show in a syngeneic tumor transplantation model that STAT2 reduces tumor growth. Stat2(-) (/) (-) mice formed larger tumors compared to wild type (WT) mice. IFN-? treatment of Stat2(-) (/) (-) mice did not cause tumor regression. Gene expression analysis revealed a small subset of immunomodulatory genes to be downregulated in tumors established in Stat2(-) (/) (-) mice. Additionally, we found tumor antigen cross-presentation by Stat2(-) (/) (-) dendritic cells to T cells to be impaired. Adoptive transfer of tumor antigen specific CD8(+) T cells primed by Stat2(-) (/) (-) dendritic cells into tumor-bearing Stat2(-) (/) (-) mice did not induce tumor regression with IFN-? intervention. We observed that an increase in the number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the draining lymph nodes of IFN-?-treated tumor-bearing WT mice was absent in IFN-? treated Stat2(-) (/) (-) mice. Thus our study provides evidence for further evaluation of STAT2 function in cancer patients receiving type I IFN based immunotherapy. PMID:24895110

Yue, Chanyu; Xu, Jun; Tan Estioko, Marc Daryl; Kotredes, Kevin P; Lopez-Otalora, Yolanda; Hilliard, Brendan A; Baker, Darren P; Gallucci, Stefania; Gamero, Ana M

2015-01-01

88

Endometriosis and ascites.  

PubMed

A 29-year-old black woman had increasing abdominal girth, dullness to percussion, and an irregular mass in the left adnexal region. At laparotomy, 6 L of dark brown fluid was removed, and the abdominal cavity had the appearance of extensive carcinomatosis. Subsequent histology was consistent with endometriosis. Fourteen cases of endometriosis producing symptoms resembling ovarian cancer have been previously reported. Of the 10 patients whose race was mentioned, 9 were black, as was our patient. The etiology of the ascites is unknown. Histologically, the endometrial implants show dense stroma and a slightly hyperplastic epithelium rather than the physiologic proliferative endometrium usually associated with endometriosis. This leads us to question the prognosis of the lesion despite its apparently benign histology. PMID:8211342

London, S; Parmley, T

1993-10-01

89

Tumor grafts derived from women with breast cancer authentically reflect tumor pathology, growth, metastasis and disease outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and preclinical testing of new cancer therapies is limited by the scarcity of in vivo models that authentically reproduce tumor growth and metastatic progression. We report new models for breast tumor growth and metastasis in the form of transplantable tumors derived directly from individuals undergoing treatment for breast cancer. These tumor grafts illustrate the diversity of human breast cancer

Yoko S DeRose; Guoying Wang; Yi-Chun Lin; Philip S Bernard; Saundra S Buys; Mark T W Ebbert; Rachel Factor; Cindy Matsen; Brett A Milash; Edward Nelson; Leigh Neumayer; R Lor Randall; Inge J Stijleman; Bryan E Welm; Alana L Welm

2011-01-01

90

Neutrophils responsive to endogenous IFN-? regulate tumor angiogenesis and growth in a mouse tumor model  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant neoplasias, as the formation of new blood vessels is required for tumors to acquire oxygen and nutrients essential for their continued growth and metastasis. However, the signaling pathways leading to tumor vascularization are not fully understood. Here, using a transplantable mouse tumor model, we have demonstrated that endogenous IFN-? inhibits tumor angiogenesis through repression of genes encoding proangiogenic and homing factors in tumor-infiltrating neutrophils. We determined that IFN-?–deficient mice injected with B16F10 melanoma or MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells developed faster-growing tumors with better-developed blood vessels than did syngeneic control mice. These tumors displayed enhanced infiltration by CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils expressing elevated levels of the genes encoding the proangiogenic factors VEGF and MMP9 and the homing receptor CXCR4. They also expressed higher levels of the transcription factors c-myc and STAT3, known regulators of VEGF, MMP9, and CXCR4. In vitro, treatment of these tumor-infiltrating neutrophils with low levels of IFN-? restored expression of proangiogenic factors to control levels. Moreover, depletion of these neutrophils inhibited tumor growth in both control and IFN-?–deficient mice. We therefore suggest that constitutively produced endogenous IFN-? is an important mediator of innate tumor surveillance. Further, we believe our data help to explain the therapeutic effect of IFN treatment during the early stages of cancer development. PMID:20237412

Jablonska, Jadwiga; Leschner, Sara; Westphal, Kathrin; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried

2010-01-01

91

MerTK inhibition in tumor leukocytes decreases tumor growth and metastasis  

PubMed Central

MerTK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) of the TYRO3/AXL/MerTK family, is expressed in myeloid lineage cells in which it acts to suppress proinflammatory cytokines following ingestion of apoptotic material. Using syngeneic mouse models of breast cancer, melanoma, and colon cancer, we found that tumors grew slowly and were poorly metastatic in MerTK–/– mice. Transplantation of MerTK–/– bone marrow, but not wild-type bone marrow, into lethally irradiated MMTV-PyVmT mice (a model of metastatic breast cancer) decreased tumor growth and altered cytokine production by tumor CD11b+ cells. Although MerTK expression was not required for tumor infiltration by leukocytes, MerTK–/– leukocytes exhibited lower tumor cell–induced expression of wound healing cytokines, e.g., IL-10 and growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), and enhanced expression of acute inflammatory cytokines, e.g., IL-12 and IL-6. Intratumoral CD8+ T lymphocyte numbers were higher and lymphocyte proliferation was increased in tumor-bearing MerTK–/– mice compared with tumor-bearing wild-type mice. Antibody-mediated CD8+ T lymphocyte depletion restored tumor growth in MerTK–/– mice. These data demonstrate that MerTK signaling in tumor-associated CD11b+ leukocytes promotes tumor growth by dampening acute inflammatory cytokines while inducing wound healing cytokines. These results suggest that inhibition of MerTK in the tumor microenvironment may have clinical benefit, stimulating antitumor immune responses or enhancing immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:23867499

Cook, Rebecca S.; Jacobsen, Kristen M.; Wofford, Anne M.; DeRyckere, Deborah; Stanford, Jamie; Prieto, Anne L.; Redente, Elizabeth; Sandahl, Melissa; Hunter, Debra M.; Strunk, Karen E.; Graham, Douglas K.; Earp, H. Shelton

2013-01-01

92

Hyper or hypothyroidism: its association with the development of ascites syndrome in fast-growing chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ascites syndrome in broiler chickens is attributed to the progress in genetic selection for rapid growth, coupled with the metabolic burden imposed by exposure to a relatively low-ambient temperature (Ta). The syndrome is mainly characterized by hematocrit elevation, decline in blood oxygen saturation, accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, and finally, death. Ascitic chickens have demonstrated hypothyroidism coupled

Dror Luger; Dmitri Shinder; Shlomo Yahav

2002-01-01

93

APRIL, a New Ligand of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Family, Stimulates Tumor Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family induce pleiotropic biological responses, including cell growth, differentiation, and even death. Here we describe a novel member of the TNF family designated APRIL (for a proliferation-inducing ligand). Although transcripts of APRIL are of low abundance in normal tissues, high levels of mRNA are detected in transformed cell lines, and in human cancers of colon, thyroid, and lymphoid tissues in vivo. The addition of recombinant APRIL to various tumor cells stimulates their proliferation. Moreover, APRIL-transfected NIH-3T3 cells show an increased rate of tumor growth in nude mice compared with the parental cell line. These findings suggest that APRIL may be implicated in the regulation of tumor cell growth. PMID:9743536

Hahne, Michael; Kataoka, Takao; Schröter, Michael; Hofmann, Kay; Irmler, Martin; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Schneider, Pascal; Bornand, Tierry; Holler, Nils; French, Lars E.; Sordat, Bernard; Rimoldi, Donata; Tschopp, Jürg

1998-01-01

94

Effect of Magnetic Fields on Tumor Growth and Viability  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common nonskin cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Most methods of intervention involve combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and ionizing radiation. Both chemotherapy and ionizing radiation can be effective against many types of cancer, but they also harm normal tissues. The use of nonionizing, magnetic fields has shown early promise in a number of in vitro and animal studies. Our study tested the effect of varying durations of magnetic exposure on tumor growth and viability in mice injected with breast cancer cells. Cancer cells were labeled through stable expression of firefly luciferase for monitoring of tumor growth and progression by using an in vivo imaging system. We hypothesized that magnetic field exposure would influence tumor growth and progression. Our results showed that exposure of the mice to magnetic fields for 360 min daily for as long as 4 wk suppressed tumor growth. Our study is unique in that it uses an in vivo imaging system to monitor the growth and progression of tumors in real time in individual mice. Our findings support further exploration of the potential of magnetic fields in cancer therapeutics, either as adjunct or primary therapy. PMID:22330249

Tatarov, Ivan; Panda, Aruna; Petkov, Daniel; Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Thompson, Keyata; Kavirayani, Anoop; Lipsky, Michael M; Elson, Edward; Davis, Christopher C; Martin, Stuart S; DeTolla, Louis J

2011-01-01

95

Mathematical modeling of tumor growth and metastatic spreading: validation in tumor-bearing mice.  

PubMed

Defining tumor stage at diagnosis is a pivotal point for clinical decisions about patient treatment strategies. In this respect, early detection of occult metastasis invisible to current imaging methods would have a major impact on best care and long-term survival. Mathematical models that describe metastatic spreading might estimate the risk of metastasis when no clinical evidence is available. In this study, we adapted a top-down model to make such estimates. The model was constituted by a transport equation describing metastatic growth and endowed with a boundary condition for metastatic emission. Model predictions were compared with experimental results from orthotopic breast tumor xenograft experiments conducted in Nod/Scid? mice. Primary tumor growth, metastatic spread and growth were monitored by 3D bioluminescence tomography. A tailored computational approach allowed the use of Monolix software for mixed-effects modeling with a partial differential equation model. Primary tumor growth was described best by Bertalanffy, West, and Gompertz models, which involve an initial exponential growth phase. All other tested models were rejected. The best metastatic model involved two parameters describing metastatic spreading and growth, respectively. Visual predictive check, analysis of residuals, and a bootstrap study validated the model. Coefficients of determination were [Formula: see text] for primary tumor growth and [Formula: see text] for metastatic growth. The data-based model development revealed several biologically significant findings. First, information on both growth and spreading can be obtained from measures of total metastatic burden. Second, the postulated link between primary tumor size and emission rate is validated. Finally, fast growing peritoneal metastases can only be described by such a complex partial differential equation model and not by ordinary differential equation models. This work advances efforts to predict metastatic spreading during the earliest stages of cancer. Cancer Res; 74(22); 6397-407. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25217520

Hartung, Niklas; Mollard, Séverine; Barbolosi, Dominique; Benabdallah, Assia; Chapuisat, Guillemette; Henry, Gerard; Giacometti, Sarah; Iliadis, Athanassios; Ciccolini, Joseph; Faivre, Christian; Hubert, Florence

2014-11-15

96

Anti-MUC1 Monoclonal Antibody (C595) and Docetaxel Markedly Reduce Tumor Burden and Ascites, and Prolong Survival in an in vivo Ovarian Cancer Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

MUC1 is associated with cellular transformation and tumorigenicity and is considered as an important tumor-associated antigen (TAA) for cancer therapy. We previously reported that anti-MUC1 monoclonal antibody C595 (MAb C595) plus docetaxel (DTX) increased efficacy of DTX alone and caused cultured human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells to undergo apoptosis. To further study the mechanisms of this combination-mediated apoptosis, we

Li Wang; Hongmin Chen; Mohammad H. Pourgholami; Julia Beretov; Jingli Hao; Hongtu Chao; Alan C. Perkins; John H. Kearsley; Yong Li; Ilya Ulasov

2011-01-01

97

Inhibition of melanoma tumor growth in vivo by survivin targeting  

PubMed Central

A role of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in tumor formation and growth was investigated by targeting the apoptosis inhibitor survivin in vivo. Expression of a phosphorylation-defective survivin mutant (Thr34?Ala) triggered apoptosis in several human melanoma cell lines and enhanced cell death induced by the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in vitro. Conditional expression of survivin Thr34?Ala in YUSAC2 melanoma cells prevented tumor formation upon s.c. injection into CB.17 severe combined immunodeficient-beige mice. When induced in established melanoma tumors, survivin Thr34?Ala inhibited tumor growth by 60–70% and caused increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation of melanoma cells in vivo. Manipulation of the antiapoptotic pathway maintained by survivin may be beneficial for cancer therapy. PMID:11149963

Grossman, Douglas; Kim, Paul J.; Schechner, Jeffrey S.; Altieri, Dario C.

2001-01-01

98

Pharmacological Inhibition of BMK1 Suppresses Tumor Growth Through PML  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY BMK1 is activated by mitogens and oncogenic signals and, thus, is strongly implicated in tumorigenesis. We found that BMK1 interacted with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), and inhibited its tumor-suppressor function through phosphorylation. Furthermore, activated BMK1 notably inhibited PML-dependent activation of p21. To further investigate the BMK-mediated inhibition of the tumor suppressor activity of PML in tumor cells, we developed a small-molecule inhibitor of the kinase activity of BMK1, XMD8-92. Inhibition of BMK1 by XMD8-92 blocked tumor cell proliferation in vitro and significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo by 95%, demonstrating the efficacy and tolerability of BMK1-targeted cancer treatment in animals. PMID:20832753

Yang, Qingkai; Deng, Xianming; Lu, Bingwen; Cameron, Michael; Fearns, Colleen; Patricelli, Matthew P.

2010-01-01

99

Requirement of the Na+/H+ exchanger for tumor growth.  

PubMed

The Na+/H+ exchanger is involved in a variety of cellular processes, including regulation of intracellular pH and possibly the control of cell growth and proliferation. To study the role of the Na+/H+ exchanger in tumor growth, human sodium proton exchanger-deficient (HSPD) mutants were derived from the human bladder carcinoma cell line MGH-U1 (EJ) by the proton suicide selection technique (J. Pouyssegur et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81: 4833-4837, 1984). The HSPD cells were approximately 40% larger and contained approximately 70% more DNA than the parental cells. They were unable to grow in vitro in the absence of bicarbonate at pH less than 7.0, whereas the parental cells grew well at pH greater than or equal to 6.6. This difference in acid sensitivity was abolished in the presence of bicarbonate. In contrast to the parental MGH-U1 cells, the Na+/H+-deficient HSPD cells either failed to grow tumors, or showed severely retarded tumor growth when implanted into immune-deprived mice. This difference in tumor growth was not attributed to differences in cell size and DNA content, because Na+/H+ exchange-competent large cells (HLC), derived during the same proton suicide selection process as the HSPD cells, grew tumors at a rate close to that of the parental cells. Cells derived from the few tumors which grew after implantation of HSPD mutant cells were revertants which had regained Na+/H+ activity. HSPD cells also failed to form spheroids in culture, and the only spheroid formed consisted of revertant cells which had regained both Na+/H+ exchange activity and tumorigenic capacity. These results suggest that the Na+/H+ exchanger is important for tumor growth. PMID:2535690

Rotin, D; Steele-Norwood, D; Grinstein, S; Tannock, I

1989-01-01

100

Cancer Associated Fibroblasts and Tumor Growth: Focus on Multiple Myeloma  

PubMed Central

Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) comprise a heterogeneous population that resides within the tumor microenvironment. They actively participate in tumor growth and metastasis by production of cytokines and chemokines, and the release of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic factors, creating a more supportive microenvironment. The aim of the current review is to summarize the origin and characteristics of CAFs, and to describe the role of CAFs in tumor progression and metastasis. Furthermore, we focus on the presence of CAFs in hypoxic conditions in relation to multiple myeloma disease. PMID:24978438

De Veirman, Kim; Rao, Luigia; De Bruyne, Elke; Menu, Eline; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Van Riet, Ivan; Frassanito, Maria Antonia; Di Marzo, Lucia; Vacca, Angelo; Vanderkerken, Karin

2014-01-01

101

Triggering CD40 on endothelial cells contributes to tumor growth  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory cells can either promote or inhibit tumor growth. Here we studied whether CD40, a key molecule for adaptive immune response, has any role in mammary carcinogenesis of BALB/NeuT transgenic tumor-prone mice. We transferred the HER2/neu oncogene into CD40-null background to obtain the CD40-KO/NeuT strain. CD40-KO/NeuT mice showed delayed tumor onset and reduced tumor multiplicity. BM (BM) transplantation experiments excluded a role of BM-derived cells in the reduced tumorigenicity associated with CD40 deficiency. Rather, CD40 expressed by endothelial cells (ECs) takes part to the angiogenic process. Accordingly, large vessels, well organized around the tumor lobular structures, characterize BALB/NeuT tumors, whereas tiny numerous vessels with scarce extracellular matrix are dispersed in the parenchyma of poorly organized CD40-KO/NeuT tumors. Activated platelets, which may interact with and activate ECs, are a possible source of CD40L. Their localization within tumor vessels prompted the idea of treating BALB/NeuT and CD40-KO/NeuT mice chronically with the anti-platelet drug clopidogrel, known to inhibit platelet CD40L expression. Treatment of BALB/NeuT mice reduced tumor growth to a level similar to CD40-deficient mice, whereas CD40-KO/NeuT mice treated or not showed the same attenuated tumor outgrowth, indicating that activated platelets are the likely source of CD40L in this model. Collectively, these data point to a participation of CD40/CD40L in the angiogenic processes associated with mammary carcinogenesis of BALB/NeuT mice. PMID:17043144

Chiodoni, Claudia; Iezzi, Manuela; Guiducci, Cristiana; Sangaletti, Sabina; Alessandrini, Isabella; Ratti, Chiara; Tiboni, Francesca; Musiani, Piero; Granger, D. Neil; Colombo, Mario P.

2006-01-01

102

Inhibition of IL-17A Suppresses Enhanced-Tumor Growth in Low Dose Pre-Irradiated Tumor Beds  

PubMed Central

Ionizing radiation induces modification of the tumor microenvironment such as tumor surrounding region, which is relevant to treatment outcome after radiotherapy. In this study, the effects of pre-irradiated tumor beds on the growth of subsequently implanted tumors were investigated as well as underlying mechanism. The experimental model was set up by irradiating the right thighs of C3H/HeN mice with 5 Gy, followed by the implantation of HCa-I and MIH-2. Both implanted tumors in the pre-irradiated bed showed accelerated-growth compared to the control. Tumor-infiltrated lymphocyte (TIL) levels were increased, as well as pro-tumor factors such as IL-6 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) in the pre-irradiated group. In particular, the role of pro-tumor cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A) was investigated as a possible target mechanism because IL-6 and TGF-? are key factors in Th17 cells differentiation from naďve T cells. IL-17A expression was increased not only in tumors, but also in CD4+ T cells isolated from the tumor draining lymph nodes. The effect of IL-17A on tumor growth was confirmed by treating tumors with IL-17A antibody, which abolished the acceleration of tumor growth. These results indicate that the upregulation of IL-17A seems to be a key factor for enhancing tumor growth in pre-irradiated tumor beds. PMID:25181290

Lee, Eun-Jung; Park, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ik-Jae; Kim, Won Woo; Ha, Sang-Jun; Suh, Yang-Gun; Seong, Jinsil

2014-01-01

103

Molecular Cochaperones: Tumor Growth and Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Molecular chaperones play important roles in all cellular organisms by maintaining the proteome in an optimally folded state. They appear to be at a premium in cancer cells whose evolution along the malignant pathways requires the fostering of cohorts of mutant proteins that are employed to overcome tumor suppressive regulation. To function at significant rates in cells, HSPs interact with cochaperones, proteins that assist in catalyzing individual steps in molecular chaperoning as well as in posttranslational modification and intracellular localization. We review current knowledge regarding the roles of chaperones such as heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and Hsp70 and their cochaperones in cancer. Cochaperones are potential targets for cancer therapy in themselves and can be used to assess the likely prognosis of individual malignancies. Hsp70 cochaperones Bag1, Bag3, and Hop play significant roles in the etiology of some cancers as do Hsp90 cochaperones Aha1, p23, Cdc37, and FKBP1. Others such as the J domain protein family, HspBP1, TTC4, and FKBPL appear to be associated with more benign tumor phenotypes. The key importance of cochaperones for many pathways of protein folding in cancer suggests high promise for the future development of novel pharmaceutical agents. PMID:24278769

Calderwood, Stuart K.

2013-01-01

104

Antiproliferative and hepatoprotective activity of metabolites from Corynebacterium xerosis against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Objective To find out the effective anticancer drugs from bacterial products, petroleum ether extract of Corynebacterium xerosis. Methods Antiproliferative activity of the metabolite has been measured by monitoring the parameters like tumor weight measurement, tumor cell growth inhibition in mice and survival time of tumor bearing mice, etc. Hepatoprotective effect of the metabolites was determined by observing biochemical, hematological parameters. Results It has been found that the petroleum ether extract bacterial metabolite significantly decrease cell growth (78.58%; P<0.01), tumor weight (36.04 %; P<0.01) and increase the life span of tumor bearing mice (69.23%; P<0.01) at dose 100 mg/kg (i.p.) in comparison to those of untreated Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. The metabolite also alters the depleted hematological parameters like red blood cell, white blood cell, hemoglobin (Hb%), etc. towards normal in tumor bearing mice. Metabolite show no adverse effect on liver functions regarding blood glucose, serum alkaline phosphatases, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity and serum billirubin, etc. in normal mice. Histopathological observation of these mice organ does not show any toxic effect on cellular structure. But in the case of EAC bearing untreated mice these hematological and biochemical parameters deteriorate extremely with time whereas petroleum ether extract bacterial metabolite receiving EAC bearing mice nullified the toxicity induced by EAC cells. Conclusion Study results reveal that metabolite possesses significant antiproliferative and hepatoprotective effect against EAC cells. PMID:25183099

Islam, Farhadul; Ghosh, Soby; Khanam, Jahan Ara

2014-01-01

105

Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: correlations with feed efficiency and carcase traits.  

PubMed

(1) Pulmonary hypertension syndrome followed by ascites is a metabolic disorder in broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at cool temperatures. (2) Knowledge of the genetic relationships among ascites-related traits and performance traits like carcase traits or feed efficiency traits is required to design breeding programmes that aim to improve the degree of resistance to ascites syndrome as well as production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate these genetic correlations. (3) Three different experiments were set up to measure ascites-related traits (4202 birds), feed efficiency traits (2166 birds) and carcase traits (2036 birds). The birds in different experiments originated from the same group of parents, which enabled the estimation of genetic correlations among different traits. (4) The genetic correlation of body weight (BW) measured under normal conditions and in the carcase experiment with the ascites indicator trait of right ventricle to total ventricle ratio (RV:TV) measured under cold conditions was 0.30. The estimated genetic correlation indicated that single-trait selecting for BW leads to an increase in occurrence of the ascites syndrome but that there are realistic opportunities of multi-trait selection of birds for improved BW and resistance to ascites. (5) Weak but positive genetic relationships were found between feed efficiency and ascites-related traits suggesting that more efficient birds tend to be slightly more susceptible to ascites. (6) The relatively low genetic correlation between BW measured in the carcase or in the feed efficiency experiments and BW measured in the ascites experiment (0.49) showed considerable genotype by environment interaction. (7) These results indicate that birds with high genetic potential for growth rate under normal temperature conditions have lower growth rate under cold-stress conditions due to ascites. PMID:15835251

Pakdel, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

2005-02-01

106

Growth of melanoma brain tumors monitored by photoacoustic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melanoma is a primary malignancy that is known to metastasize to the brain and often causes death. The ability to image the growth of brain melanoma in vivo can provide new insights into its evolution and response to therapies. In our study, we use a reflection mode photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system to detect the growth of melanoma brain tumor in a small animal model. The melanoma tumor cells are implanted in the brain of a mouse at the beginning of the test. Then, PAM is used to scan the region of implantation in the mouse brain, and the growth of the melanoma is monitored until the death of the animal. It is demonstrated that PAM is capable of detecting and monitoring the brain melanoma growth noninvasively in vivo.

Staley, Jacob; Grogan, Patrick; Samadi, Abbas K.; Cui, Huizhong; Cohen, Mark S.; Yang, Xinmai

2010-07-01

107

Oral DNA vaccines target the tumor vasculature and microenvironment and suppress tumor growth and metastasis.  

PubMed

Four novel oral DNA vaccines provide protection against melanoma, colon, breast, and lung carcinoma in mouse models. Vaccines are delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to secondary lymphoid organs and respectively target vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, transcription factor Fos-related antigen-1, anti-apoptosis protein survivin and Legumain, an asparaginyl endopeptidase specifically overexpressed on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment (TME). These vaccines are all capable of inducing potent cell-mediated protective immunity against self-antigens, resulting in marked suppression of tumor growth and dissemination. Key mechanisms induced by these DNA vaccines include efficient suppression of angiogenesis in the tumor vasculature and marked activation of cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, and antigen-presenting dendritic cells. The vaccine targeting Legumain establishes the new paradigm whereby a reduction in the density of TAMs in the TME decreases the release of factors potentiating tumor growth and angiogenesis. This, in turn, remodels the TME and decreases its immunosuppressive milieu and thereby potentiates the DNA vaccine's ability to effectively suppress tumor cell proliferation, vascularization, and metastasis. It is anticipated that such research efforts will lead to novel DNA-based vaccines that will be effective for the treatment of cancer. PMID:18363997

Xiang, Rong; Luo, Yunping; Niethammer, Andreas G; Reisfeld, Ralph A

2008-04-01

108

Fully human VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody BC001 attenuates tumor angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth.  

PubMed

The critical role of VEGFR2 in tumor neovascularization and progression has allowed the design of clinically beneficial therapies based on it. Here we show that BC001, a new fully human anti-VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody, inhibits VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration, tube formation, and effectively suppressed the transdifferentiation of cancer stem cells into endothelial cells in vitro. Since BC001 exhibited no activity against the mouse VEGFR2 and mouse based study was required to confirm its efficacy in vivo, BC101, the mouse analogue of BC001, was developed. BC101 significantly attenuated angiogenesis according to Matrigel plug assay and resulted in ~80% growth inhibition of mouse B16F10 homograft tumors relative to vehicle control. Similarly, human analogue BC001 suppressed the growth of human xenograft tumors HCT116 and BGC823. Furthermore, immunohistochemical results showed reduced expression of CD31, VEGFR2 and Ki-67, as well as increased expression of Caspase 3 in BC001-treated tumor, which indicated BC001 was able to significantly decrease microvessel density, suppress proliferation and promote apoptosis. These results demonstrate the fully human VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody BC001 can work as an effective inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25269419

Xuan, Zi-Xue; Li, Lin-Na; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Cheng-Wang; Yang, De-Xuan; Yuan, Ye; An, Ying-Hong; Wang, Shan-Shan; Li, Xiao-Wen; Yuan, Shou-Jun

2014-12-01

109

Interleukin18 suppresses tumor growth and induces tumor cells apoptosis on implanted Lewis lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of interleukin-18 (IL-18) on implanted Lewis lung cancer in suppressing\\u000a tumor growth and inducing tumor cells apoptosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One week after hypodermic inoculation of Lewis cells, sixteen tumor-bearing syngeneic mice were randomly divided into two\\u000a groups. The mice in the treatment group were intraperitoneal injected with the IL-18, in the control

Sheng Yang; Huishan Lu; Xiangqi Chen; Tingyan Lin; Zhiying Li; Mingqiang Kang

2010-01-01

110

Hypoxia Promotes Tumor Growth in Linking Angiogenesis to Immune Escape  

PubMed Central

Despite the impressive progress over the past decade, in the field of tumor immunology, such as the identification of tumor antigens and antigenic peptides, there are still many obstacles in eliciting an effective immune response to eradicate cancer. It has become increasingly clear that tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the control of immune protection. Tumors have evolved to utilize hypoxic stress to their own advantage by activating key biochemical and cellular pathways that are important in progression, survival, and metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a determinant role in promoting tumor cell growth and survival. Hypoxia contributes to immune suppression by activating HIF-1 and VEGF pathways. Accumulating evidence suggests a link between hypoxia and tumor tolerance to immune surveillance through the recruitment of regulatory cells (regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells). In this regard, hypoxia (HIF-1? and VEGF) is emerging as an attractive target for cancer therapy. How the microenvironmental hypoxia poses both obstacles and opportunities for new therapeutic immune interventions will be discussed. PMID:22566905

Chouaib, Salem; Messai, Yosra; Couve, Sophie; Escudier, Bernard; Hasmim, Meriem; Noman, Muhammad Zaeem

2012-01-01

111

SUBVERSION OF HOST DEFENSE MECHANISMS BY MALIGNANT TUMORS: AN ESTABLISHED TUMOR AS A PRIVILEGED SITE FOR BACTERIAL GROWTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is ample evidence to support the proposal that most, if not all, tumors possess tumor-specific antigens and are immunogenic to varying degrees. This proposal rests on two main lines of evidence. First, that a state of specific immunity to growth of a tumor cell challenge can be generated in a host pre-exposed to various immunizing regimens with tumor cells

GEORGE L. SPITALNY; ROBERT J. NORTH

112

Joint fitting reveals hidden interactions in tumor growth  

E-print Network

Tumor growth is often the result of the simultaneous development of two or more cancer cell populations. Their interaction between them characterizes the system evolution. To obtain information about these interactions we apply the recently developed vector universality (VUN) formalism to various instances of competition between tumor populations. The formalism allows us: (a) to quantify the growth mechanisms of a HeLa cell colony, describing the phenotype switching responsible for its fast expansion, (b) to reliably reconstruct the evolution of the necrotic and viable fractions in both in vitro and in vivo tumors using data for the time dependences of the total masses, and (c) to show how the shedding of cells leading to subspheroid formation is beneficial to both the spheroid and subspheroid populations, suggesting that shedding is a strong positive influence on cancer dissemination.

Barberis, Lucas; Condat, Carlos Alberto

2014-01-01

113

Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model  

E-print Network

Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: Improving target volume Computer Vision Laboratory, ETH Z¨urich, Switzerland December 20, 2013 Abstract Glioblastoma differ from components. A retrospective study in- volving 10 glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Prevention of local tumor growth with paclitaxel-loaded microspheres  

E-print Network

deliver chemotherapy and prevent the establishment and growth of lung cancer cells and establish proof. Colson, MD, PhDa Objectives: Lung cancer is associated with a significant rate of locoregional recur assay for tumor inhibition and induction of apoptosis. The in vivo prevention of Lewis lung carcinoma

115

Homeostatic competition drives tumor growth and metastasis nucleation  

E-print Network

point, subpopulations of cells may detach from the primary tumor and spread via the blood- stream preferential growth in differ- ent organs with a distribution that cannot be ex- plained by blood flow patterns in epithelial tissues from where they invade through the basal membrane into the connective tissue. At some

Turner, Matthew

116

Tumor growth instability and the onset of invasion  

E-print Network

Motivated by experimental observations, we develop a mathematical model of chemotactically directed tumor growth. We present an analytical study of the model as well as a numerical one. The mathematical analysis shows that: (i) tumor cell proliferation by itself cannot generate the invasive branching behaviour observed experimentally, (ii) heterotype chemotaxis provides an instability mechanism that leads to the onset of tumor invasion and (iii) homotype chemotaxis does not provide such an instability mechanism but enhances the mean speed of the tumor surface. The numerical results not only support the assumptions needed to perform the mathematical analysis but they also provide evidence of (i), (ii) and (iii). Finally, both the analytical study and the numerical work agree with the experimental phenomena.

Castro, M; Deisboeck, T; Castro, Mario; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Deisboeck, Thomas s.

2005-01-01

117

Prognostic significance of IL-6 and IL-8 ascites levels in ovarian cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background The acellular fraction of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) ascites promotes de novo resistance of tumor cells and thus supports the idea that tumor cells may survive in the surrounding protective microenvironment contributing to disease recurrence. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 are elevated in EOC ascites suggesting that they could play a role in tumor progression. Methods We measured IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the ascites of 39 patients with newly diagnosed EOC. Commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine IL-6 and IL-8 ascites levels. Ascites cytokine levels were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and progression-free survival. Results Mean ascites levels for IL-6 and IL-8 were 6419 pg/ml (SEM: 1409 pg/ml) and 1408 pg/ml (SEM: 437 pg/ml) respectively. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in ascites were significantly lower in patients that have received prior chemotherapy before the surgery (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.037 for IL-6 and P = 0.008 for IL-8). Univariate analysis revealed that high IL-6 ascites levels (P = 0.021), serum CA125 levels (P = 0.04) and stage IV (P = 0.009) were significantly correlated with shorter progression-free survival. Including these variables in a multivariate analysis revealed that elevated IL-6 levels (P = 0.033) was an independent predictor of shorter progression-free survival. Conclusion Elevated IL-6, but not IL-8, ascites level is an independent predictor of shorter progression-free survival. PMID:21619709

2011-01-01

118

TPX2 regulates tumor growth in human cervical carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The targeting protein for the Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2), a microtubule-associated protein, has been utilized as a tool to evaluate, more precisely, the proliferative behavior of tumor cells. The abnormal expression of TPX2 in a variety of malignant tumor types has been reported, however less is known about its role in cervical cancer. In the present study, the association between TPX2 expression and the biological behavior of cervical cancer, was investigated. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect the expression of TPX2 in cervical cancer tissues. The inhibitory effect of TPX2-siRNA on the growth of SiHa human cervical carcinoma cells was studied in vitro. TPX2 expression was identified as significantly higher in cervical carcinoma compared with the control, normal cervical tissues. TPX2 siRNA transfected into SiHa cells induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. Similar results were obtained by in vivo transplantation, as TPX2 siRNA transfection significantly reduced tumor growth of the xenograft in nude mice. The results demonstrated that TPX2 is important in the regulation of tumor growth in cervical cancer and therefore may be a potential therapeutic target as a novel treatment strategy. PMID:24718984

Jiang, Peiyue; Shen, Kexin; Wang, Xuerui; Song, Haiqin; Yue, Ying; Liu, Tongjun

2014-06-01

119

Human STEAP3 maintains tumor growth under hypoferric condition  

SciTech Connect

Iron is essential in cellular proliferation and survival based on its crucial roles in DNA and ATP synthesis. Tumor cells proliferate rapidly even in patients with low serum iron, although their actual mechanisms are not well known. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of efficient tumor progression under the hypoferric condition, we studied the roles of six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate family member 3 (STEAP3), which was reported to facilitate iron uptake. Using Raji cells with low STEAP3 mRNA expression, human STEAP3-overexpressing cells were established. The impact of STEAP3 expression was analyzed about the amount of iron storage, the survival under hypoferric conditions in vitro and the growth of tumor in vivo. STEAP3 overexpression increased ferritin, an indicator of iron storage, in STEAP3-overexpressing Raji cells. STEAP3 gave Raji cells the resistance to iron deprivation-induced apoptosis. These STEAP3-overexpressing Raji cells preserved efficient growth even in hypoferric mice, while parental Raji cells grew less rapidly. In addition, iron deficiency enhanced STEAP3 mRNA expression in tumor cells. Furthermore, human colorectal cancer tissues exhibited more STEAP3 mRNA expression and iron storage compared with normal colon mucosa. These findings indicate that STEAP3 maintains iron storage in human malignant cells and tumor proliferation under the hypoferric condition. -- Highlights: {yields} STEAP3 expression results in increment of stored intracellular iron. {yields} Iron deprivation induces expression of STEAP3. {yields} Colorectal cancer expresses STEAP3 highly and stores iron much. {yields} STEAP3 expressing tumors preserves growth even in mice being hypoferremia.

Isobe, Taichi, E-mail: tisobe@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Baba, Eishi, E-mail: e-baba@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Arita, Shuji, E-mail: arita.s@nk-cc.go.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Komoda, Masato, E-mail: komoda@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tamura, Shingo, E-mail: tamshin@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: t-w-r@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ariyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: hariyama@kyumed.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Takaishi, Shigeo, E-mail: takaishi@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kusaba, Hitoshi, E-mail: hkusaba@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); and others

2011-11-01

120

MEDI3617, a human anti-angiopoietin 2 monoclonal antibody, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in human tumor xenograft models.  

PubMed

Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) is an important regulator of angiogenesis, blood vessel maturation and integrity of the vascular endothelium. The correlation between the dynamic expression of Ang2 in tumors with regions of high angiogenic activity and a poor prognosis in many tumor types makes Ang2 an ideal drug target. We have generated MEDI3617, a human anti-Ang2 monoclonal antibody that neutralizes Ang2 by preventing its binding to the Tie2 receptor in vitro, and inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. Treatment of mice with MEDI3617 resulted in inhibition of angiogenesis in several mouse models including: FGF2-induced angiogenesis in a basement extract plug model, tumor and retinal angiogenesis. In xenograft tumor models, treatment with MEDI3617 resulted in a reduction in tumor angiogenesis and an increase in tumor hypoxia. The administration of MEDI3617 as a single agent to mice bearing human tumor xenografts resulted in tumor growth inhibition against a broad spectrum of tumor types. Combining MEDI3617 with chemotherapy or bevacizumab resulted in a delay in tumor growth and no body weight loss was observed in the combination groups. These results, combined with pharmacodynamic studies, demonstrate that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with MEDI3617 significantly inhibited tumor growth as a single agent by blocking tumor angiogenesis. Together, these data show that MEDI3617 is a robust antiangiogenic agent and support the clinical evaluation and biomarker development of MEDI3617 in cancer patients. PMID:22327175

Leow, Ching Ching; Coffman, Karen; Inigo, Ivan; Breen, Shannon; Czapiga, Meggan; Soukharev, Serguei; Gingles, Neill; Peterson, Norman; Fazenbaker, Christine; Woods, Rob; Jallal, Bahija; Ricketts, Sally-Ann; Lavallee, Theresa; Coats, Steve; Chang, Yong

2012-05-01

121

Noscapine inhibits tumor growth in TMZ-resistant gliomas.  

PubMed

Noscapine, a common oral antitussive agent, has been shown to have potent antitumor activity in a variety of cancers. Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with temozolomide (TMZ), its current standard of care, is problematic because the tumor generally recurs and is then resistant to this drug. We therefore investigated the effects of noscapine on human TMZ-resistant GBM tumors. We found that noscapine significantly decreased TMZ-resistant glioma cell growth and invasion. Using the intracranial xenograft model, we showed that noscapine increased survival of animals with TMZ-resistant gliomas. Thus noscapine can provide an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of TMZ-resistant gliomas. PMID:21925789

Jhaveri, Niyati; Cho, Heeyeon; Torres, Shering; Wang, Weijun; Schönthal, Axel H; Petasis, Nicos A; Louie, Stan G; Hofman, Florence M; Chen, Thomas C

2011-12-22

122

Mathematical Modeling of Interleukin-35 Promoting Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-35 (IL-35), a cytokine from the Interleukin-12 cytokine family, has been considered as an anti-inflammatory cytokine which promotes tumor progression and tumor immune evasion. It has also been demonstrated that IL-35 is secreted by regulatory T cells. Recent mouse experiments have shown that IL-35 produced by cancer cells promotes tumor growth via enhancing myeloid cell accumulation and angiogenesis, and reducing the infiltration of activated CD8 T cells into tumor microenvironment. In the present paper we develop a mathematical model based on these experimental results. We include in the model an anti-IL-35 drug as treatment. The extended model (with drug) is used to design protocols of anti-IL-35 injections for treatment of cancer. We find that with a fixed total amount of drug, continuous injection has better efficacy than intermittent injections in reducing the tumor load while the treatment is ongoing. We also find that the percentage of tumor reduction under anti-IL-35 treatment improves when the production of IL-35 by cancer is increased. PMID:25356878

Liao, Kang-Ling; Bai, Xue-Feng; Friedman, Avner

2014-01-01

123

Netrin-4 regulates angiogenic responses and tumor cell growth  

SciTech Connect

Netrin-4 is a 628 amino acid basement membrane component that promotes neurite elongation at low concentrations but inhibits neurite extension at high concentrations. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that several molecules, including netrins, are regulators of both neuronal and vascular growth. It is believed that molecules that guide neural growth and development are also involved in regulating morphogenesis of the vascular tree. Further, netrins have recently been implicated in controlling epithelial cell branching morphogenesis in the breast, lung and pancreas. Characterization of purified netrin-4 in in vitro angiogenesis assays demonstrated that netrin-4 markedly inhibits HMVEC migration and tube formation. Moreover, netrin-4 inhibits proliferation of a variety of human tumor cells in vitro. Netrin-4 has only modest effects on proliferation of endothelial and other non-transformed cells. Netrin-4 treatment results in phosphorylation changes of proteins that are known to control cell growth. Specifically, Phospho-Akt-1, Phospho-Jnk-2, and Phospho-c-Jun are reduced in tumor cells that have been treated with netrin-4. Together, these data suggest a potential role for netrin-4 in regulating tumor growth.

Nacht, Mariana; St Martin, Thia B.; Byrne, Ann; Klinger, Katherine W.; Teicher, Beverly A. [Genzyme Corporation, 49 New York Avenue, Framingham, MA 01701 (United States); Madden, Stephen L. [Genzyme Corporation, 49 New York Avenue, Framingham, MA 01701 (United States)], E-mail: steve.madden@genzyme.com; Jiang, Yide [Genzyme Corporation, 49 New York Avenue, Framingham, MA 01701 (United States)], E-mail: yide.jiang@genzyme.com

2009-03-10

124

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Marker of Tumor Endothelium1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic growth factor that is a primary stimulant of the vascularization of solid tumors. VEGF production is induced by oncogenic gene mutations in the tumor cells and by hypoxic conditions inside the tumor mass. Hypoxia and the locally increased concentration of VEGF lead to an up-regulation of VEGF receptor expression on tumor endothelial

Rolf A. Brekken; Xianming Huang; Steven W. King; Philip E. Thorpe

1998-01-01

125

Short hairpin RNA targeting of fibroblast activation protein inhibits tumor growth and improves the tumor microenvironment in a mouse model  

PubMed Central

Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a specific serine protease expressed in tumor stroma proven to be a stimulatory factor in the progression of some cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of FAP knockdown on tumor growth and the tumor microenvironment. Mice bearing 4T1 subcutaneous tumors were treated with liposome-shRNA complexes targeting FAP. Tumor volumes and weights were monitored, and FAP, collagen, microvessel density (MVD), and apoptosis were measured. Our studies showed that shRNA targeting of FAP in murine breast cancer reduces FAP expression, inhibits tumor growth, promotes collagen accumulation (38%), and suppresses angiogenesis (71.7%), as well as promoting apoptosis (by threefold). We suggest that FAP plays a role in tumor growth and in altering the tumor microenvironment. Targeting FAP may therefore represent a supplementary therapy for breast cancer. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(5): 252-257] PMID:23710635

Cai, Fan; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Chunting; Xian, Shuang; Xu, Guangchao; Peng, Feng; Wei, Yuquan; Lu, You

2013-01-01

126

Application of Meal Feeding and Skip-A-Day Feeding With or Without Probiotics for Broiler Chickens Grown at High-Altitude to Prevent Ascites Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Ascites is a common rapid-growth-related problem in broiler chickens grown at high altitude where the partial pressure o f oxygen is low and is marginally adequate to support the growth performance and ascites-related variables. A mismatch between the growth of oxygen supplying organs and the oxygen demanding organs causes ascites in broiler chickens. In the present study, broilers

Ali Saffar; Fariborz Khajali

127

Natural killer cells: role in local tumor growth and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Historically, the name of natural killer (NK) cells came from their natural ability to kill tumor cells in vitro. From the 1970s to date, accumulating data highlighted the importance of NK cells in host immune response against cancer and in therapy-induced antitumor response. The recognition and the lysis of tumor cells by NK cells are regulated by a complex balance of inhibitory and activating signals. This review summarizes NK cell mechanisms to kill cancer cells, their role in host immune responses against tumor growth or metastasis, and their implications in antitumor immunotherapies via cytokines, antibodies, or in combination with other therapies. The regulatory role of NK cells in autoimmunity is also discussed. PMID:22532775

Langers, Inge; Renoux, Virginie M; Thiry, Marc; Delvenne, Philippe; Jacobs, Nathalie

2012-01-01

128

The role of mechanical forces in tumor growth and therapy  

PubMed Central

Tumors generate physical forces during growth and progression. These physical forces are able to compress blood and lymphatic vessels, reducing perfusion rates and creating hypoxia. When exerted directly on cancer cells, they can increase their invasive and metastatic potential. Tumor vessels - while nourishing the tumor - are usually leaky and tortuous, which further decreases perfusion. Hypo-perfusion and hypoxia contribute to immune-evasion, promote malignant progression and metastasis, and reduce the efficacy of a number of therapies, including radiation. In parallel, vessel leakiness together with vessel compression cause a uniformly elevated interstitial fluid pressure that hinders delivery of blood-borne therapeutic agents, lowering the efficacy of chemo- and nano-therapies. In addition, shear stresses exerted by flowing blood and interstitial fluid modulate the behavior of cancer and a variety of host cells. Taming these physical forces can improve therapeutic outcomes in many cancers. PMID:25014786

Jain, Rakesh K.; Martin, John D.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

2014-01-01

129

Dominant-Negative Inhibition of Flk-1 Suppresses the Growth of Many Tumor Types in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis, the sprouting of new blood vessels from existing vessels, occurs in many physiological and pathological processes, including em bryonic development, wound healing, and tumor growth. It is required for tumor growth because new blood vessel formation is necessary for tumors to expand beyond a minimum volume. Several growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in angiogenesis, including receptors

Birgit Millauer; Michael P. Longhi; Karl H. Plate; Laura K. Shawver; Werner Risau; Axel Ullrich; Laurie M. Strawn

130

Homeostatic competition drives tumor growth and metastasis nucleation  

E-print Network

We propose a mechanism for tumor growth emphasizing the role of homeostatic regulation and tissue stability. We show that competition between surface and bulk effects leads to the existence of a critical size that must be overcome by metastases to reach macroscopic sizes. This property can qualitatively explain the observed size distributions of metastases, while size-independent growth rates cannot account for clinical and experimental data. In addition, it potentially explains the observed preferential growth of metastases on tissue surfaces and membranes such as the pleural and peritoneal layers, suggests a mechanism underlying the seed and soil hypothesis introduced by Stephen Paget in 1889 and yields realistic values for metastatic inefficiency. We propose a number of key experiments to test these concepts. The homeostatic pressure as introduced in this work could constitute a quantitative, experimentally accessible measure for the metastatic potential of early malignant growths.

Basan, Markus; Joanny, Jean-Francois; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Prost, Jacques

2009-01-01

131

Endostatin: An Endogenous Inhibitor of Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously identified the angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin. Using a similar strategy, we have identified endostatin, an angiogenesis inhibitor produced by hemangioendothelioma. Endostatin is a 20 kDa C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII. Endostatin specifically inhibits endothelial proliferation and potently inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. By a novel method of sustained release, E. coli–derived endostatin was administered as a nonrefolded suspen- sion.

Michael S O'Reilly; Thomas Boehm; Yuen Shing; Naomi Fukai; George Vasios; Evelyn Flynn; James R Birkhead; Bjorn R Olsen; Judah Folkman

1997-01-01

132

The Wilms' Tumor Gene WT1 - 17AA/- KTS Splice Variant Increases Tumorigenic Activity Through Up-Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in an In Vivo Ovarian Cancer Model.  

PubMed

The Wilms' tumor 1 gene WT1 encodes a zinc transcription factor involved in a variety of cancer-related processes. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of WT1 splice variants on tumorigenic activity and survival in an in vivo ovarian cancer model. To this end, we established stable ovarian cancer cell lines transduced with lentiviral constructs containing each of the four WT1 splice variants (- 17AA/- KTS, + 17AA/- KTS, - 17AA/+ KTS, and + 17AA/+ KTS). In mice inoculated intraperitoneally with SKOV3ip1 cells expressing WT1 - 17AA/- KTS, disseminated tumor weights and production of ascites were significantly increased compared with those in mice inoculated with cells expressing the control vector. The overall survival in mice inoulated with WT1 - 17AA/- KTS-expressing cells was significantly shorter than that in mice inoculated with control cells (P = .0115). Immunoblot analysis revealed that WT1 - 17AA/- KTS significantly increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared with the control. Greater numbers of CD31-immunopositive vessels were observed in tumors from mice injected with cells expressing WT1 - 17AA/- KTS than in tumors from control mice. Finally, WT1 - 17AA/- KTS significantly increased tumor microvessel density compared with that in the control (P < .05). Treatment with anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab) inhibited tumor growth, dissemination, and ascites production in mice injected with cells expressing WT1 - 17AA/- KTS. The overexpression of WT1 - 17AA/- KTS induced a more aggressive phenotype in ovarian cancer cells through VEGF up-regulation in an in vivo ovarian cancer model. Our findings indicated that WT1 - 17AA/- KTS enhanced tumorigenic activity and could decreased patient survival through up-regulation of VEGF expression in ovarian cancers. PMID:25389453

Yamanouchi, Keiko; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Liu, Zhiyang; Oji, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Haruo; Shridhar, Viji; Matsumura, Sohei; Takahashi, Toshifumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kurachi, Hirohisa

2014-10-01

133

The Wilms' Tumor Gene WT1 - 17AA/- KTS Splice Variant Increases Tumorigenic Activity Through Up-Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in an In Vivo Ovarian Cancer Model  

PubMed Central

The Wilms' tumor 1 gene WT1 encodes a zinc transcription factor involved in a variety of cancer-related processes. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of WT1 splice variants on tumorigenic activity and survival in an in vivo ovarian cancer model. To this end, we established stable ovarian cancer cell lines transduced with lentiviral constructs containing each of the four WT1 splice variants (? 17AA/? KTS, + 17AA/? KTS, ? 17AA/+ KTS, and + 17AA/+ KTS). In mice inoculated intraperitoneally with SKOV3ip1 cells expressing WT1 ? 17AA/? KTS, disseminated tumor weights and production of ascites were significantly increased compared with those in mice inoculated with cells expressing the control vector. The overall survival in mice inoulated with WT1 ? 17AA/? KTS-expressing cells was significantly shorter than that in mice inoculated with control cells (P = .0115). Immunoblot analysis revealed that WT1 ? 17AA/? KTS significantly increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared with the control. Greater numbers of CD31-immunopositive vessels were observed in tumors from mice injected with cells expressing WT1 ? 17AA/? KTS than in tumors from control mice. Finally, WT1 ? 17AA/? KTS significantly increased tumor microvessel density compared with that in the control (P < .05). Treatment with anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab) inhibited tumor growth, dissemination, and ascites production in mice injected with cells expressing WT1 ? 17AA/? KTS. The overexpression of WT1 ? 17AA/? KTS induced a more aggressive phenotype in ovarian cancer cells through VEGF up-regulation in an in vivo ovarian cancer model. Our findings indicated that WT1 ? 17AA/? KTS enhanced tumorigenic activity and could decreased patient survival through up-regulation of VEGF expression in ovarian cancers. PMID:25389453

Yamanouchi, Keiko; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Liu, Zhiyang; Oji, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Haruo; Shridhar, Viji; Matsumura, Sohei; Takahashi, Toshifumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kurachi, Hirohisa

2014-01-01

134

[Seasonal patterns of breast tumor growth in Far North residents].  

PubMed

Earlier, we established a relationship between sex hormone receptor concentration in tumor and 5-year survival, on the one hand, and seasonality, on the other. The parameters showed a distinct 6-month cycle. That pointed to certain environmental factors which could synchronize hormone-dependent tumor process in the breast of women living in the North. The present study is concerned with a relationship of 6-month rhythm of tumor growth and latitude of residence. Said rhythm was reliably identified as a parameter of 5-year survival in the Far North (68 deg. northern latitude, p < 0.001). Maximum values of 5-year survival were registered in those diagnosed with cancer in winter or summer, while those diagnosed in spring or fall had unfavorable prognosis. Northern magnetic storms recur at 6-month intervals and most frequently in spring and fall. Electromagnetic radiation is known to suppress melatonin production and, that might have stimulated tumor process. Therefore, it is most likely that solar electromagnetic radiation might synchronize hormone-dependent tumor process in women resident in the North. PMID:17037040

Borisenkov, M F; Bazhenov, S M

2005-01-01

135

Interfacial properties in a discrete model for tumor growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and study, by means of Monte Carlo numerical simulations, a minimal discrete model for avascular tumor growth, which can also be applied for the description of cell cultures in vitro. The interface of the tumor is self-affine and its width can be characterized by the following exponents: (i) the growth exponent ?=0.32(2) that governs the early time regime, (ii) the roughness exponent ?=0.49(2) related to the fluctuations in the stationary regime, and (iii) the dynamic exponent z=?/??1.49(2), which measures the propagation of correlations in the direction parallel to the interface, e.g., ??t1/z, where ? is the parallel correlation length. Therefore, the interface belongs to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, in agreement with recent experiments of cell cultures in vitro. Furthermore, density profiles of the growing cells are rationalized in terms of traveling waves that are solutions of the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation. In this way, we achieved excellent agreement between the simulation results of the discrete model and the continuous description of the growth front of the culture or tumor.

Moglia, Belén; Guisoni, Nara; Albano, Ezequiel V.

2013-03-01

136

Inhibitory effect of soluble EP2 receptor on ovarian tumor growth in nude mice and utility of TMPRSS4 as a combinatorial molecular target.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that FuEP2/Ex2, a soluble decoy receptor for PGE2, suppresses tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model. To examine whether it has further uses, we examined the effect of FuEP2/Ex2 in an intraperitoneal metastasis model of ovarian cancer cells. We established FuEP2/Ex2-expressing ovarian cancer cells (SKOV/ip-FuEP2/Ex2) and injected them intraperitoneally into female nude mice. Mice injected with SKOV/ip-FuEP2/Ex2 had no ascitic fluid and showed smaller tumor lesions compared to mice injected with vector control cells, with decreased microvessel density and M2 macrophages. To identify molecular targets for combination treatment, we conducted cDNA microarray analysis and found three genes encoding enzyme [matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), transmembrane protease serin 4 (TMPRSS4) and cytocrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1)] to be upregulated in SKOV/ip-FuEP2/Ex2-derived tumors. Administration of TMPRSS4 inhibitor further reduced tumor weight and decreased the number of Ki-67?positive cells in SKOV/ip-FuEP2/Ex2-injected mice. These data indicate a possible EP-targeting strategy using FuEP2/Ex2 in the treatment of ovarian cancer and suggest that dual targeting of EP-mediated signaling and TMPRSS4 may enhance therapeutic value. PMID:23708855

Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Uehara, Hisanori; Izumi, Keisuke

2013-08-01

137

Environmental enrichment does not impact on tumor growth in mice  

PubMed Central

The effect of environmental enrichment (EE) on a variety of physiologic and disease processes has been studied in laboratory mice. During EE, a large group of mice are housed in larger cages than the standard cage and are given toys and equipment, enabling more social contact, and providing a greater surface area per mouse, and a more stimulating environment. Studies have been performed into the effect of EE on neurogenesis, brain injury, cognitive capacity, memory, learning, neuronal pathways, diseases such as Alzheimer’s, anxiety, social defeat, emotionality, depression, drug addiction, alopecia, and stereotypies. In the cancer field, three papers have reported effects on mice injected with tumors and housed in enriched environments compared with those housed in standard conditions. One paper reported a significant decrease in tumor growth in mice in EE housing. We attempted to replicate this finding in our animal facility, because the implications of repeating this finding would have profound implications for how we house all our mice in our studies on cancer. We were unable to reproduce the results in the paper in which B16F10 subcutaneous tumors of mice housed in EE conditions were smaller than those of mice housed in standard conditions. The differences in results could have been due to the different growth rate of the B16F10 cultures from the different laboratories, the microbiota of the mice housed in the two animal facilities, variations in noise and handling between the two facilities, food composition, the chemical composition of the cages or the detergents used for cleaning, or a variety of other reasons. EE alone does not appear to consistently result in decreased tumor growth, but other factors would appear to be able to counteract or inhibit the effects of EE on cancer progression. PMID:24555065

Kershaw, Michael H

2013-01-01

138

Effect of Prebiotic on Gut Development and Ascites Incidence of Broilers Reared in a Hypoxic Environment1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern broilers have been genetically se- lected for an increased growth rate and improved feed conversion, but they are also more susceptible to ascites. Ascites occurs when there is an imbalance between avail- able oxygen and the oxygen demand of the broiler. We hypothesized that promoting neonatal gut development with a prebiotic, such as Aspergillus meal (Prebiotic-AM), would enhance gut

F. Solis; M. B. Farnell; G. Tellez; J. M. Balog; N. B. Anthony; A. Torres-Rodriguez; S. Higgins; B. M. Hargis; A. M. Donoghue

139

Tumor suppressor TSLC1 inhibits growth, proliferation, invasiveness and angiogenesis in nude mice xenografted tumor of Eca109 cells  

PubMed Central

Tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) is a novel tumor suppressor gene whose inactivation is implicated in the occurrence, invasion, metastasis and prognosis of esophageal cancer. TSLC1 was studied by comparing the tumor formation of TSLC1 transfectant and control cells in nude mice. Compared with blank group and mock group, tumor size and infiltrating range of transfected group was less, differentiation of tumor tissue was slightly better, and differences of tumor angiogenesis was worse. There was no obvious difference between blank group and mock group. We have shown TSLC1 gene inhibited the growth proliferation, infiltration and angiogenesis of Eca109 cells. PMID:25035773

Liang, Qi-Lian; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Qiu-Long; Li, Zhou-Yu; Zhang, Xiang-Ning; Zhou, Yuan; Ou, Wen-Ting; Wang, Bi-Rong; Hu, Li-Ren

2014-01-01

140

Curcumin in combination with visible light inhibits tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model.  

PubMed

It is known that curcumin, a dietary pigment from the plant Curcuma longa, inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in different cell lines; however, the therapeutic benefit is hampered by very low absorption after transdermal or oral application. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that curcumin at low concentrations (0.2-1 microg/ml) offered the described effects only when applied with UVA or visible light. Nevertheless, the in vivo efficacy of this combination is lacking. In the present study, we used a xenograft tumor model with human epithelial carcinoma A431 cells to test the effect of curcumin and visible light on tumor growth. It was found that tumor growth was significantly inhibited in mice that were i.p. injected with curcumin and consecutively irradiated with visible light. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed a reduction of Ki 67 expression, indicating a decrease of cycling cells and induction of apoptotic bodies. The effect on apoptosis was further confirmed by Western blot analysis showing enhanced activation of caspases-9. Vice versa inhibition of extracellular regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) was observed which may aid inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. In summary, the present findings suggest a combination of curcumin and light as a new therapeutic concept to increase the efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of cancer. PMID:19035461

Dujic, Jadranka; Kippenberger, Stefan; Ramirez-Bosca, Ana; Diaz-Alperi, Joaquin; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Kaufmann, Roland; Bernd, August; Hofmann, Matthias

2009-03-15

141

Mo polyoxometalate nanoparticles inhibit tumor growth and vascular endothelial growth factor induced angiogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor growth depends on angiogenesis, which can furnish the oxygen and nutrients that proliferate tumor cells. Thus, blocking angiogenesis can be an effective strategy to inhibit tumor growth. In this work, three typical nanoparticles based on polyoxometalates (POMs) have been prepared; we investigated their capability as antitumor and anti-angiogenesis agents. We found that Mo POM nanoparticles, especially complex 3, inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) through cellular reactive oxygen species levels’ elevation and mitochondrial membrane potential damage. Complex 3 also suppressed the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro and chicken chorioallantoic membrane development ex vivo. Furthermore, western blot analysis of cell signaling molecules indicated that Mo POMs blocked the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways in endothelial cells. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated their cellular uptake and localization within the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells. These results indicate that, owing to the extraordinary physical and chemical properties, Mo POM nanoparticles can significantly inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis, which makes them potential drug candidates in anticancer and anti-angiogenesis therapies.

Zheng, Wenjing; Yang, Licong; Liu, Ying; Qin, Xiuying; Zhou, Yanhui; Zhou, Yunshan; Liu, Jie

2014-06-01

142

Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Is Required for Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

The cellular process of autophagy (literally “self-eating”) is important for maintaining the homeostasis and bioenergetics of mammalian cells. Two of the best-studied mechanisms of autophagy are macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Changes in macroautophagy activity have been described in cancer cells and in solid tumors, and inhibition of macroautophagy promotes tumorigenesis. Because normal cells respond to inhibition of macroautophagy by up-regulation of the CMA pathway, we aimed to characterize the CMA status in different cancer cells and to determine the contribution of changes in CMA to tumorigenesis. Here, we show consistent up-regulation of CMA in different types of cancer cells regardless of the status of macroautophagy. We also demonstrate an increase in CMA components in human cancers of different types and origins. CMA is required for cancer cell proliferation in vitro because it contributes to the maintenance of the metabolic alterations characteristic of malignant cells. Using human lung cancer xenografts in mice, we confirmed the CMA dependence of cancer cells in vivo. Inhibition of CMA delays xenograft tumor growth, reduces the number of cancer metastases, and induces regression of existing human lung cancer xenografts in mice. The fact that similar manipulations of CMA also reduce tumor growth of two different melanoma cell lines suggests that targeting this autophagic pathway may have broad antitumorigenic potential. PMID:22089453

Kon, Maria; Kiffin, Roberta; Koga, Hiroshi; Chapochnick, Javier; Macian, Fernando; Varticovski, Lyuba; Cuervo, Ana Maria

2014-01-01

143

HE4 (WFDC2) gene overexpression promotes ovarian tumor growth.  

PubMed

Selective overexpression of Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) points to a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis but little is known about the role the HE4 gene or the gene product plays. Here we show that elevated HE4 serum levels correlate with chemoresistance and decreased survival rates in EOC patients. HE4 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth and chemoresistance against cisplatin in an animal model resulting in reduced survival rates. HE4 displayed responses to tumor microenvironment constituents and presented increased expression as well as nuclear translocation upon EGF, VEGF and Insulin treatment and nucleolar localization with Insulin treatment. HE4 interacts with EGFR, IGF1R, and transcription factor HIF1?. Constructs of antisense phosphorothio-oligonucleotides targeting HE4 arrested tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively these findings implicate increased HE4 expression as a molecular factor in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Selective targeting directed towards the HE4 protein demonstrates therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24389815

Moore, Richard G; Hill, Emily K; Horan, Timothy; Yano, Naohiro; Kim, KyuKwang; MacLaughlan, Shannon; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Tseng, YiTang Don; Padbury, James F; Miller, M Craig; Lange, Thilo S; Singh, Rakesh K

2014-01-01

144

Chaperone-mediated autophagy is required for tumor growth.  

PubMed

The cellular process of autophagy (literally "self-eating") is important for maintaining the homeostasis and bioenergetics of mammalian cells. Two of the best-studied mechanisms of autophagy are macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Changes in macroautophagy activity have been described in cancer cells and in solid tumors, and inhibition of macroautophagy promotes tumorigenesis. Because normal cells respond to inhibition of macroautophagy by up-regulation of the CMA pathway, we aimed to characterize the CMA status in different cancer cells and to determine the contribution of changes in CMA to tumorigenesis. Here, we show consistent up-regulation of CMA in different types of cancer cells regardless of the status of macroautophagy. We also demonstrate an increase in CMA components in human cancers of different types and origins. CMA is required for cancer cell proliferation in vitro because it contributes to the maintenance of the metabolic alterations characteristic of malignant cells. Using human lung cancer xenografts in mice, we confirmed the CMA dependence of cancer cells in vivo. Inhibition of CMA delays xenograft tumor growth, reduces the number of cancer metastases, and induces regression of existing human lung cancer xenografts in mice. The fact that similar manipulations of CMA also reduce tumor growth of two different melanoma cell lines suggests that targeting this autophagic pathway may have broad antitumorigenic potential. PMID:22089453

Kon, Maria; Kiffin, Roberta; Koga, Hiroshi; Chapochnick, Javier; Macian, Fernando; Varticovski, Lyuba; Cuervo, Ana Maria

2011-11-16

145

PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate suppresses tumor growth through direct and indirect angiogenesis inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis and inflammation are central processes through which the tumor microenvironment influences tumor growth. We have demonstrated recently that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha deficiency in the host leads to overt inflammation that suppresses angiogenesis via excess production of thrombospondin (TSP)-1 and prevents tumor growth. Hence, we speculated that pharmacologic activation of PPARalpha would promote tumor growth. Surprisingly, the PPARalpha agonist

Dipak Panigrahy; Arja Kaipainen; Sui Huang; Catherine E. Butterfield; Carmen M. Barnés; Michael Fannon; Andrea M. Laforme; Deviney M. Chaponis; Judah Folkman; Mark W. Kieran

2008-01-01

146

Hybrid Cellular Continuum Simulations of Heterogeneity in Tumor Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will discuss simulations of pre-angiogenic tumor growth using a class of hybrid cellular-continuum models. A lattice site can be occupied either by a cell of a specific tumor cell population or consist of extracellular matrix. The local concentrations of oxygen is described by continuum reaction-diffusion equations. Dynamic linked lists of cells are evolved in time and contain information on cell type, position, age, concentration of oxygen at cell site. When cells proliferate via mitosis or differentiate, new cells are added to the list, if mutation occurs the cell types are altered, and if the cell dies via apoptosis the cells are removed from the linked list. The motion of individual cells consist of random walks subject to caging and chemotaxis away from regions of low oxygen concentration. We will describe the heterogenous spatial segregation of different cell types in the tumor, the development of necrotic cores as well as micronecrotic regions, and the effects of externally applied drugs on cell populations and overall tumor shape.

Hentschel, H. G. E.; Family, Fereydoon; van Meir, Erwin; Grossniklaus, Hans

2010-03-01

147

Lifespan Based Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model of Tumor Growth Inhibition by Anticancer Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Accurate prediction of tumor growth is critical in modeling the effects of anti-tumor agents. Popular models of tumor growth inhibition (TGI) generally offer empirical description of tumor growth. We propose a lifespan-based tumor growth inhibition (LS TGI) model that describes tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model, on the basis of cellular lifespan T. At the end of the lifespan, cells divide, and to account for tumor burden on growth, we introduce a cell division efficiency function that is negatively affected by tumor size. The LS TGI model capability to describe dynamic growth characteristics is similar to many empirical TGI models. Our model describes anti-cancer drug effect as a dose-dependent shift of proliferating tumor cells into a non-proliferating population that die after an altered lifespan TA. Sensitivity analysis indicated that all model parameters are identifiable. The model was validated through case studies of xenograft mouse tumor growth. Data from paclitaxel mediated tumor inhibition was well described by the LS TGI model, and model parameters were estimated with high precision. A study involving a protein casein kinase 2 inhibitor, AZ968, contained tumor growth data that only exhibited linear growth kinetics. The LS TGI model accurately described the linear growth data and estimated the potency of AZ968 that was very similar to the estimate from an established TGI model. In the case study of AZD1208, a pan-Pim inhibitor, the doubling time was not estimable from the control data. By fixing the parameter to the reported in vitro value of the tumor cell doubling time, the model was still able to fit the data well and estimated the remaining parameters with high precision. We have developed a mechanistic model that describes tumor growth based on cell division and has the flexibility to describe tumor data with diverse growth kinetics. PMID:25333487

Mo, Gary; Gibbons, Frank; Schroeder, Patricia; Krzyzanski, Wojciech

2014-01-01

148

Cirrhotic ascites review: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management  

PubMed Central

Ascites is a pathologic accumulation of peritoneal fluidcommonly observed in decompensated cirrhotic states.Its causes are multi-factorial, but principally involve significant volume and hormonal dysregulation in the setting of portal hypertension. The diagnosis of ascites is considered in cirrhotic patients given a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, and ultimately confirmed, with insight into etiology, by imaging and paracentesis procedures. Treatment for ascites is multi-modal including dietary sodium restriction, pharmacologic therapies, diagnostic and therapeutic paracentesis, and in certain cases transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt. Ascites is associated with numerous complications including spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepato-hydrothorax and hepatorenal syndrome. Given the complex nature of ascites and associatedcomplications, it is not surprising that it heralds increased morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients and increased cost-utilization upon the health-care system. This review will detail the pathophysiology of cirrhotic ascites, common complications derived from it, and pertinent treatment modalities. PMID:23717736

Moore, Christopher M; Van Thiel, David H

2013-01-01

149

BMP4 Promotes Prostate Tumor Growth in Bone Through Osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Induction of new bone formation is frequently seen in the bone lesions from prostate cancer (PCa). However, whether osteogenesis is necessary for prostate tumor growth in bone is unknown. Recently, two xenografts, MDA-PCa-118b and MDA-PCa-133, were generated from PCa bone metastases. When implanted subcutaneously in SCID mice, MDA-PCa-118b induced strong ectopic bone formation while MDA-PCa-133 did not. To identify the factors that are involved in bone formation, we compared the expression of secreted factors (“secretome”) from MDA-PCa-118b and MDA-PCa-133 by cytokine array. We found that the osteogenic MDA-PCa-118b xenograft expressed higher levels of BMP-4 and several cytokines including IL-8, Gro, and CCL2. We demonstrated that BMP-4 secreted from MDA-PCa-118b contributed to about a third of the osteogenic differentiation seen in MDA-PCa-118b tumors. The conditioned media from MDA-PCa-118b induced a higher level of osteoblast differentiation, which was significantly reduced by treating with BMP-4 neutralizing antibody or the small molecule BMP receptor 1 inhibitor LDN-193189. BMP-4 did not elicit an autocrine effect on MDA-PCa-118b, which expressed low to undetectable levels of BMP receptors. Treatment of SCID mice bearing MDA-PCa-118b tumors with LDN-193189 significantly reduced tumor growth. Thus, these studies support a role of BMP4-mediated osteogenesis in the progression of PCa in bone. PMID:21670081

Lee, Yu-Chen; Cheng, Chien-Jui; Bilen, Mehmet A.; Lu, Jing-Fang; Satcher, Robert L.; Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan; Gallick, Gary E.; Maity, Sankar N.; Lin, Sue-Hwa

2011-01-01

150

Triparanol suppresses human tumor growth in vitro and in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrate Triparanol can block proliferation in multiple cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrate Triparanol can induce apoptosis in multiple cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proved Triparanol can inhibit Hedgehog signaling in multiple cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrated Triparanol can impede tumor growth in vivo in mouse xenograft model. -- Abstract: Despite the improved contemporary multidisciplinary regimens treating cancer, majority of cancer patients still suffer from adverse effects and relapse, therefore posing a significant challenge to uncover more efficacious molecular therapeutics targeting signaling pathways central to tumorigenesis. Here, our study have demonstrated that Triparanol, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, can block proliferation and induce apoptosis in multiple human cancer cells including lung, breast, liver, pancreatic, prostate cancer and melanoma cells, and growth inhibition can be rescued by exogenous addition of cholesterol. Remarkably, we have proved Triparanol can significantly repress Hedgehog pathway signaling in these human cancer cells. Furthermore, study in a mouse xenograft model of human lung cancer has validated that Triparanol can impede tumor growth in vivo. We have therefore uncovered Triparanol as potential new cancer therapeutic in treating multiple types of human cancers with deregulated Hedgehog signaling.

Bi, Xinyu [Department of Abdominal Surgical Oncology, Lab of Abdominal Surgical Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China)] [Department of Abdominal Surgical Oncology, Lab of Abdominal Surgical Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China); Han, Xingpeng [Department of Pathology, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjin 300051 (China)] [Department of Pathology, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjin 300051 (China); Zhang, Fang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Enzymology, Yangtze Delta Region Institute of Tsinghua University, Jiaxing 314006, Zhejiang (China)] [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Enzymology, Yangtze Delta Region Institute of Tsinghua University, Jiaxing 314006, Zhejiang (China); He, Miao [Life Sciences School, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)] [Life Sciences School, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Yi [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)] [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Zhi, Xiu-Yi, E-mail: xiuyizhi@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)] [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Zhao, Hong, E-mail: zhaohong9@sina.com [Department of Abdominal Surgical Oncology, Lab of Abdominal Surgical Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China)] [Department of Abdominal Surgical Oncology, Lab of Abdominal Surgical Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China)

2012-08-31

151

A High-Performance Cellular Automaton Model of Tumor Growth with Dynamically Growing Domains  

PubMed Central

Tumor growth from a single transformed cancer cell up to a clinically apparent mass spans many spatial and temporal orders of magnitude. Implementation of cellular automata simulations of such tumor growth can be straightforward but computing performance often counterbalances simplicity. Computationally convenient simulation times can be achieved by choosing appropriate data structures, memory and cell handling as well as domain setup. We propose a cellular automaton model of tumor growth with a domain that expands dynamically as the tumor population increases. We discuss memory access, data structures and implementation techniques that yield high-performance multi-scale Monte Carlo simulations of tumor growth. We discuss tumor properties that favor the proposed high-performance design and present simulation results of the tumor growth model. We estimate to which parameters the model is the most sensitive, and show that tumor volume depends on a number of parameters in a non-monotonic manner.

Poleszczuk, Jan; Enderling, Heiko

2014-01-01

152

Interferon-? and celecoxib inhibit lung-tumor growth through modulating M2/M1 macrophage ratio in the tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Tumor-associated macrophages play an important role in tumor growth and progression. These macrophages are heterogeneous with diverse functions, eg, M1 macrophages inhibit tumor growth, whereas M2 macrophages promote tumor growth. In this study, we found that IFN? and/or celecoxib (cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) treatment consistently inhibited tumor growth in a mouse lung cancer model. IFN? alone and celecoxib alone increased the percentage of M1 macrophages but decreased the percentage of M2 macrophages in the tumors, and thus the M2/M1 macrophage ratio was reduced to 1.1 and 1.7 by IFN? alone and celecoxib alone, respectively, compared to the M2/M1 macrophage ratio of 4.4 in the control group. A combination of IFN? and celecoxib treatment reduced the M2/M1 macrophage ratio to 0.8. Furthermore, IFN? and/or celecoxib treatment decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and VEGF, as well as the density of microvessels in the tumors, compared to the control group. This study provides the proof of principle that IFN? and/or celecoxib treatment may inhibit lung-tumor growth through modulating the M2/M1 macrophage ratio in the tumor microenvironment, suggesting that IFN? and celecoxib have potential to be further optimized into a new anticancer therapy. PMID:25284985

Ren, Fuqiang; Fan, Mingyu; Mei, Jiandong; Wu, Yongqiang; Liu, Chengwu; Pu, Qiang; You, Zongbing; Liu, Lunxu

2014-01-01

153

Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (Fetal Liver Kinase 1) Monoclonal Antibody Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis and Growth of Several Mouse and Human Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor angiogenesis is mediated by tumor-secreted angiogenic growth factors that interact with their surface receptors expressed on endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk-1)\\/kinase insert domain-containing receptor) play an important role in vascular permeability and tumor angiogenesis. Previ- ously, we reported on the development of anti-Flk-1 and antikinase insert domain-containing receptor monoclonal

Marie Prewett; James Huber; Yiwen Li; Angel Santiago; William O'Connor; Karen King; Jay Overholser; Andrea Hooper; Bronislaw Pytowski; Larry Witte; Peter Bohlen; Daniel J. Hicklin

1999-01-01

154

Tumor Growth Parameters Estimation and Source Localization From a Unique Time Point: Application to  

E-print Network

Tumor Growth Parameters Estimation and Source Localization From a Unique Time Point: Application provided interesting ways to better understand the proliferative-invasive aspect of glial cells in tumors of a non-swollen brain tumor, estimate the tumor source location and the diffusivity ratio between white

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

[The effect of the spleen on tumor growth in mouse lines with various spleen sizes].  

PubMed

Selectively raised laboratory mice differ according to spleen size in their immunologic behavior against various tumors. A small spleen and splenectomy reduce tumor growth, whereas a large spleen or additional transfer of tumor antigen-specific spleen cells ("suppressor cells") stimulate tumor incidence. PMID:313319

von Wallenberg, H; Mainusch, P; Meyer, J; Hammer, C

1979-01-01

156

Dynamic density functional theory of solid tumor growth: Preliminary models  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a disease that can be seen as a complex system whose dynamics and growth result from nonlinear processes coupled across wide ranges of spatio-temporal scales. The current mathematical modeling literature addresses issues at various scales but the development of theoretical methodologies capable of bridging gaps across scales needs further study. We present a new theoretical framework based on Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT) extended, for the first time, to the dynamics of living tissues by accounting for cell density correlations, different cell types, phenotypes and cell birth/death processes, in order to provide a biophysically consistent description of processes across the scales. We present an application of this approach to tumor growth. PMID:22489279

Chauviere, Arnaud; Hatzikirou, Haralambos; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Lowengrub, John S.; Cristini, Vittorio

2012-01-01

157

Inhibition of GTP cyclohydrolase attenuates tumor growth by reducing angiogenesis and M2-like polarization of tumor associated macrophages.  

PubMed

GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1) is the key-enzyme to produce the essential enzyme cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin. The byproduct, neopterin is increased in advanced human cancer and used as cancer-biomarker, suggesting that pathologically increased GCH1 activity may promote tumor growth. We found that inhibition or silencing of GCH1 reduced tumor cell proliferation and survival and the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which upon hypoxia increased GCH1 and endothelial NOS expression, the latter prevented by inhibition of GCH1. In nude mice xenografted with HT29-Luc colon cancer cells GCH1 inhibition reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis, determined by in vivo luciferase and near-infrared imaging of newly formed blood vessels. The treatment with the GCH1 inhibitor shifted the phenotype of tumor associated macrophages from the proangiogenic M2 towards M1, accompanied with a shift of plasma chemokine profiles towards tumor-attacking chemokines including CXCL10 and RANTES. GCH1 expression was increased in mouse AOM/DSS-induced colon tumors and in high grade human colon and skin cancer and oppositely, the growth of GCH1-deficient HT29-Luc tumor cells in mice was strongly reduced. The data suggest that GCH1 inhibition reduces tumor growth by (i) direct killing of tumor cells, (ii) by inhibiting angiogenesis, and (iii) by enhancing the antitumoral immune response. PMID:22753274

Pickert, Geethanjali; Lim, Hee-Young; Weigert, Andreas; Häussler, Annett; Myrczek, Thekla; Waldner, Maximilian; Labocha, Sandra; Ferreirós, Nerea; Geisslinger, Gerd; Lötsch, Jörn; Becker, Christoph; Brüne, Bernhard; Tegeder, Irmgard

2013-02-01

158

Semaphorin 3A is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks tumor growth and normalizes tumor vasculature in transgenic mouse models  

PubMed Central

Tumor growth and progression rely upon angiogenesis, which is regulated by pro- and antiangiogenic factors, including members of the semaphorin family. By analyzing 3 different mouse models of multistep carcinogenesis, we show here that during angiogenesis, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is expressed in ECs, where it serves as an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis that is present in premalignant lesions and lost during tumor progression. Pharmacologic inhibition of endogenous Sema3A during the angiogenic switch, the point when pretumoral lesions initiate an angiogenic phase that persists throughout tumor growth, enhanced angiogenesis and accelerated tumor progression. By contrast, when, during the later stages of carcinogenesis following endogenous Sema3A downmodulation, Sema3A was ectopically reintroduced into islet cell tumors by somatic gene transfer, successive waves of apoptosis ensued, first in ECs and then in tumor cells, resulting in reduced vascular density and branching and inhibition of tumor growth and substantially extended survival. Further, long-term reexpression of Sema3A markedly improved pericyte coverage of tumor blood vessels, something that is thought to be a key property of tumor vessel normalization, and restored tissue normoxia. We conclude, therefore, that Sema3A is an endogenous and effective antiangiogenic agent that stably normalizes the tumor vasculature. PMID:19809158

Maione, Federica; Molla, Fabiola; Meda, Claudia; Latini, Roberto; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro; Seano, Giorgio; Serini, Guido; Bussolino, Federico; Giraudo, Enrico

2009-01-01

159

Lysine acetylation activates 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase to promote tumor growth.  

PubMed

Although the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is important for tumor growth, how 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) in this pathway is upregulated in human cancers is unknown. We found that 6PGD is commonly activated in EGF-stimulated cells and human cancer cells by lysine acetylation. Acetylation at K76 and K294 of 6PGD promotes NADP(+) binding to 6PGD and formation of active 6PGD dimers, respectively. Moreover, we identified DLAT and ACAT2 as upstream acetyltransferases of K76 and K294, respectively, and HDAC4 as the deacetylase of both sites. Expressing acetyl-deficient mutants of 6PGD in cancer cells significantly attenuated cell proliferation and tumor growth. This is due in part to reduced levels of 6PGD products ribulose-5-phosphate and NADPH, which led to reduced RNA and lipid biosynthesis as well as elevated ROS. Furthermore, 6PGD activity is upregulated with increased lysine acetylation in primary leukemia cells from human patients, providing mechanistic insights into 6PGD upregulation in cancer cells. PMID:25042803

Shan, Changliang; Elf, Shannon; Ji, Quanjiang; Kang, Hee-Bum; Zhou, Lu; Hitosugi, Taro; Jin, Lingtao; Lin, Ruiting; Zhang, Liang; Seo, Jae Ho; Xie, Jianxin; Tucker, Meghan; Gu, Ting-Lei; Sudderth, Jessica; Jiang, Lei; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Wu, Shaoxiong; Li, Yuancheng; Mao, Hui; Chen, Peng R; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Georgia Zhuo; Lonial, Sagar; Arellano, Martha L; Khoury, Hanna J; Khuri, Fadlo R; Lee, Benjamin H; Brat, Daniel J; Ye, Keqiang; Boggon, Titus J; He, Chuan; Kang, Sumin; Fan, Jun; Chen, Jing

2014-08-21

160

Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in prostate growth and tumor progression  

PubMed Central

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reversal, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), are essential morphological processes during development and in the regulation of stem cell pluripotency, yet these processes are also activated in pathological contexts, such as in fibrosis and cancer progression. Multi-component signaling pathways cooperate in initiation of EMT and MET programs, via transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation. EMT is required for tissue regeneration and normal embryonic development as it enables epithelial cells to acquire the mesenchymal phenotype, conferring them migratory and dynamic properties towards forming three-dimensional structures during gastrulation and organ formation. Uncontrolled activation of such phenomenon and the pathways signaling EMT events in adult life, leads to cancer growth and orchestrated by signaling interactions from the microenvironment, epithelial tumor cells with enhanced polarity, become invasive and rapidly metastasize to distant sites. Loss of epithelial markers (E-cadherin) and gain of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin), at the leading edge of solid tumors is associated with progression to metastasis. This review will explore the contribution of EMT to embryonic development of GU organs and the functional consequences of EMT-MET cycles in prostate tumorigenesis. Recent insights identifying key players driving EMT and its reversal to MET during prostate cancer progression to metastatic castration-resistant disease will be discussed, with specific focus on androgen receptor (AR) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling in the context of their predictive and targeting value in prostate cancer progression.

Grant, Campbell M.; Kyprianou, Natasha

2014-01-01

161

Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: Improving target volume delineation  

E-print Network

Glioblastoma are known to infiltrate the brain parenchyma instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In clinical practice, a uniform margin is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth: Anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain...

Unkelbach, Jan; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A

2013-01-01

162

Reduced growth factor requirement of keloid-derived fibroblasts may account for tumor growth  

SciTech Connect

Keloids are benign dermal tumors that form during an abnormal wound-healing process is genetically susceptible individuals. Although growth of normal and keloid cells did not differ in medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid culture grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid cultures grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) plasma or 1% fetal bovine serum. Conditioned medium from keloid cultures did not stimulate growth of normal cells in plasma nor did it contain detectable platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Keloid fibroblasts responded differently than normal adult fibroblasts to transforming growth factor ..beta... Whereas transforming growth factor ..beta.. reduced growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from keloids. Normal and keloid fibroblasts also responded differently to hydrocortisone: growth was stimulated in normal adult cells and unaffected or inhibited in keloid cells. Fetal fibroblasts resembled keloid cells in their ability to grow in plasma and in their response to hydrocortisone. The ability of keloid fibroblasts to grow to higher cell densities in low-serum medium than cells from normal adult skin or from normal early or mature scars suggests that a reduced dependence on serum growth factors may account for their prolonged growth in vivo. Similarities between keloid and fetal cells suggest that keloids may result from the untimely expression of growth-control mechanism that is developmentally regulated.

Russell, S.B.; Trupin, K.M.; Rodriguez-Eaton, S.; Russell, J.D.; Trupin, J.S.

1988-01-01

163

Role of Constitutive Behavior and Tumor-Host Mechanical Interactions in the State of Stress and Growth of Solid Tumors  

PubMed Central

Mechanical forces play a crucial role in tumor patho-physiology. Compression of cancer cells inhibits their proliferation rate, induces apoptosis and enhances their invasive and metastatic potential. Additionally, compression of intratumor blood vessels reduces the supply of oxygen, nutrients and drugs, affecting tumor progression and treatment. Despite the great importance of the mechanical microenvironment to the pathology of cancer, there are limited studies for the constitutive modeling and the mechanical properties of tumors and on how these parameters affect tumor growth. Also, the contribution of the host tissue to the growth and state of stress of the tumor remains unclear. To this end, we performed unconfined compression experiments in two tumor types and found that the experimental stress-strain response is better fitted to an exponential constitutive equation compared to the widely used neo-Hookean and Blatz-Ko models. Subsequently, we incorporated the constitutive equations along with the corresponding values of the mechanical properties - calculated by the fit - to a biomechanical model of tumor growth. Interestingly, we found that the evolution of stress and the growth rate of the tumor are independent from the selection of the constitutive equation, but depend strongly on the mechanical interactions with the surrounding host tissue. Particularly, model predictions - in agreement with experimental studies - suggest that the stiffness of solid tumors should exceed a critical value compared with that of the surrounding tissue in order to be able to displace the tissue and grow in size. With the use of the model, we estimated this critical value to be on the order of 1.5. Our results suggest that the direct effect of solid stress on tumor growth involves not only the inhibitory effect of stress on cancer cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis, but also the resistance of the surrounding tissue to tumor expansion. PMID:25111061

Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Odysseos, Andreani D.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

2014-01-01

164

The A3 Adenosine Receptor Is Highly Expressed in Tumor versus Normal Cells: Potential Target for Tumor Growth Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) activation was shown to inhibit the growth of various tumor cells via the down-regulation of nuclear factor B and cyclin D1. To additionally elucidate whether A3AR is a specific target, a survey of its expression in tumor versus adjacent normal cells was conducted. Experimental Design: A3AR mRNA expression in vari- ous tumor tissues was tested

Lea Madi; Avivit Ochaion; Lea Rath-Wolfson; Sara Bar-Yehuda; Abigail Erlanger; Gil Ohana; Arie Harish; Ofer Merimski; Faina Barer; Pnina Fishman

2004-01-01

165

Increased sensitivity to triiodothyronine (T3) of broiler lines with a high susceptibility for ascites.  

PubMed

1. In the studies reported here, broiler lines divergently selected for susceptibility to ascites under low temperature conditions were tested for their sensitivity to 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) with respect to growth rate, rate of mortality, plasma concentrations of T3, right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and incidence of ascites. 2. Mean body weight of the ascites-susceptible line (BC-line) was higher than that of the ascites-resistant line (A-line). Adding 0.5 mg T3/kg of the diet depressed growth rate to the same extent in both lines. The effect of T3 on growth was more pronounced for males than for females. 3. T3-supplementation increased the relative weight of the heart and the incidence of RVH to the same extent in both lines. More of the T3-treated BC-line chickens had fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity than the T3-treated A-line chickens. 4. Dietary T3-treatment depressed the plasma concentration of growth hormone (GH) profoundly and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) slightly but to the same extent in both lines. The coefficient of variation of GH concentrations indicate that T3 treatment mainly decreased GH-pulsatility in young growing broilers. 5. Higher doses of dietary T3 (1 and 2 mg/kg) increased mortality in a dose-dependent manner. With 2 mg T3/kg, mortality in the BC-line was almost double that in the A-line. 6. These studies indicate that the development of ascites could be linked with thyroid function. Moreover, dietary T3 supplementation could be used to help identify ascites-inducing factors or genetic lines with differential sensitivity for ascites. PMID:8062112

Decuypere, E; Vega, C; Bartha, T; Buyse, J; Zoons, J; Albers, G A

1994-05-01

166

Inhibition of Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 Reduces Tumor Growth by Modulating B-Catenin Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) play important roles in development, angiogenesis, and cancer. FGF19 uniquely binds to FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4). Our previous study has shown that FGF19 transgenic tumors have an activated Wnt-pathway phenotype. Wnt signaling is implicated in initiating or promoting FGF signaling in various cell types and organs. In this study, we examined whether FGF19 or inhibition of

Rama Pai; Debra Dunlap; Jing Qing; Iman Mohtashemi; Kathy Hotzel; Dorothy M. French

2008-01-01

167

Inhibition of vascular endothelial cell growth factor suppresses the in vivo growth of human prostate tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line is androgenand stromal-dependent for in vivo growth. We co-inoculated LNCaP cells with human fetal fibroblasts, isolated from prostate, bone (male), and lung (male and female) derived from 18- to 22-week-old human fetal tissue, into non-castrate male nude mice. Co-inoculation of LNCaP with fetal prostatic fibroblasts resulted in high tumor take rates (27 of

Alexander Kirschenbaum; Jin-Ping Wang; Meiyue Ren; Jonathan D. Schiff; Stuart A. Aaronson; Michael J. Droller; Napoleone Ferrara; James F. Holland; Alice C. Levine

1997-01-01

168

Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging study of melanoma tumor growth in a rat colorectum in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a photoacoustic endoscopic imaging study of melanoma tumor growth in a nude rat in vivo. After inducing the tumor at the colorectal wall of the animal, we monitored the tumor development in situ by using a photoacoustic endoscopic system. This paper introduces our experimental method for tumor inoculation and presents imaging results showing the morphological changes of the blood vasculature near the tumor region according to the tumor progress. Our study could provide insights for future studies on tumor development in small animals.

Li, Chiye; Yang, Joon-Mo; Chen, Ruimin; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Younan; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

2013-03-01

169

Phosphocaveolin-1 enforces tumor growth and chemoresistance in rhabdomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) can ambiguously behave as either tumor suppressor or oncogene depending on its phosphorylation state and the type of cancer. In this study we show that Cav-1 was phosphorylated on tyrosine 14 (pCav-1) by Src-kinase family members in various human cell lines and primary mouse cultures of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most frequent soft-tissue sarcoma affecting childhood. Cav-1 overexpression in the human embryonal RD or alveolar RH30 cells yielded increased pCav-1 levels and reinforced the phosphorylation state of either ERK or AKT kinase, respectively, in turn enhancing in vitro cell proliferation, migration, invasiveness and chemoresistance. In contrast, reducing the pCav-1 levels by administration of a Src-kinase inhibitor or through targeted Cav-1 silencing counteracted the malignant in vitro phenotype of RMS cells. Consistent with these results, xenotransplantation of Cav-1 overexpressing RD cells into nude mice resulted in substantial tumor growth in comparison to control cells. Taken together, these data point to pCav-1 as an important and therapeutically valuable target for overcoming the progression and multidrug resistance of RMS. PMID:24427291

Faggi, Fiorella; Mitola, Stefania; Sorci, Guglielmo; Riuzzi, Francesca; Donato, Rosario; Codenotti, Silvia; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Cominelli, Manuela; Vescovi, Raffaella; Rossi, Stefania; Calza, Stefano; Colombi, Marina; Penna, Fabio; Costelli, Paola; Perini, Ilaria; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Monti, Eugenio; Fanzani, Alessandro

2014-01-01

170

The Contributions of HIF-Target Genes to Tumor Growth in RCC  

PubMed Central

Somatic mutations or loss of expression of tumor suppressor VHL happen in the vast majority of clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma, and it’s causal for kidney cancer development. Without VHL, constitutively active transcription factor HIF is strongly oncogenic and is essential for tumor growth. However, the contribution of individual HIF-responsive genes to tumor growth is not well understood. In this study we examined the contribution of important HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, CCND1, ANGPTL4, EGLN3, ENO2, GLUT1 and IGFBP3 to tumor growth in a xenograft model using immune-compromised nude mice. We found that the suppression of VEGF or CCND1 impaired tumor growth, suggesting that they are tumor-promoting genes. We further discovered that the lack of ANGPTL4, EGLN3 or ENO2 expression did not change tumor growth. Surprisingly, depletion of GLUT1 or IGFBP3 significantly increased tumor growth, suggesting that they have tumor-inhibitory functions. Depletion of IGFBP3 did not lead to obvious activation of IGFIR. Unexpectedly, the depletion of IGFIR protein led to significant increase of IGFBP3 at both the protein and mRNA levels. Concomitantly, the tumor growth was greatly impaired, suggesting that IGFBP3 might suppress tumor growth in an IGFIR-independent manner. In summary, although the overall transcriptional activity of HIF is strongly tumor-promoting, the expression of each individual HIF-responsive gene could either enhance, reduce or do nothing to the kidney cancer tumor growth. PMID:24260413

Zhang, Ting; Niu, Xiaohua; Liao, Lili; Cho, Eun-Ah; Yang, Haifeng

2013-01-01

171

A validated mathematical model of tumor growth including tumor-host interaction, cell-mediated immune response and chemotherapy.  

PubMed

We consider a dynamical model of cancer growth including three interacting cell populations of tumor cells, healthy host cells and immune effector cells. The tumor-immune and the tumor-host interactions are characterized to reproduce experimental results. A thorough dynamical analysis of the model is carried out, showing its capability to explain theoretical and empirical knowledge about tumor development. A chemotherapy treatment reproducing different experiments is also introduced. We believe that this simple model can serve as a foundation for the development of more complicated and specific cancer models. PMID:25348062

López, Alvaro G; Seoane, Jesús M; Sanjuán, Miguel A F

2014-11-01

172

Tumor-secreted miR-214 induces regulatory T cells: a major link between immune evasion and tumor growth  

PubMed Central

An increased population of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor-associated microenvironment plays an important role in cancer immune evasion. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed an increased secretion of miR-214 in various types of human cancers and mouse tumor models. Tumor-secreted miR-214 was sufficiently delivered into recipient T cells by microvesicles (MVs). In targeted mouse peripheral CD4+ T cells, tumor-derived miR-214 efficiently downregulated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and promoted Treg expansion. The miR-214-induced Tregs secreted higher levels of IL-10 and promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, in vivo studies indicated that Treg expansion mediated by cancer cell-secreted miR-214 resulted in enhanced immune suppression and tumor implantation/growth in mice. The MV delivery of anti-miR-214 antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) into mice implanted with tumors blocked Treg expansion and tumor growth. Our study reveals a novel mechanism through which cancer cell actively manipulates immune response via promoting Treg expansion. PMID:25223704

Yin, Yuan; Cai, Xing; Chen, Xi; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Jing; Wang, Zuoyun; Chen, Xiulan; Zhang, Wen; Yokoyama, Seiji; Wang, Cheng; Li, Liang; Li, Limin; Hou, Dongxia; Dong, Lei; Xu, Tao; Hiroi, Takachika; Yang, Fuquan; Ji, Hongbin; Zhang, Junfeng; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu

2014-01-01

173

Inhibition of Angiopoietin-2 in LuCaP 23.1 Prostate Cancer Tumors Decreases Tumor Growth and Viability  

PubMed Central

Background Angiopoietin-2 is expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) bone, liver, and lymph node metastases, whereas, its competitor angiopoietin-1 has limited expression in these tissues. Therefore, we hypothesized that the inhibition of angiopoietin-2 activity in PCa metastasis (removed) will impede angiogenesis, tumor growth and alter bone response in vivo. Methods To test our hypothesis we used L1–10, a peptide-Fc fusion that inhibits interactions between angiopoietin-2 and its receptor tie2. We blocked angiopoietin-2 activity using L1–10 in established subcutaneous and intra-tibial LuCaP 23.1 xenografts. We then determined the effect of L1–10 on survival, tumor growth, serum PSA, proliferation, microvessel density, and angiogenesis-associated gene expression in subcutaneous tumors. We also determined serum PSA, tumor area and bone response in intra-tibial tumors. Results The administration of L1–10 decreased tumor volume and serum PSA, and increased survival in SCID mice bearing subcutaneous LuCaP 23.1 tumors. Histomorphometric analysis, showed a further significant decrease in tumor epithelial area within the L1–10-treated LuCaP 23.1 subcutaneous tumors (p=0.0063). There was also a significant decrease in cell proliferation (p=0.012), microvessel density (p=0.012), and a significant increase in ANGPT-2 and HIF-1? mRNA expression (p?0.05) associated with L1–10 treatment. Alternatively, in LuCaP 23.1 intra-tibial tumors L1–10 treatment did not significantly change serum PSA, tumor area or bone response. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that inhibiting angiopoietin-2 activity impedes angiogenesis and growth of LuCaP 23.1 PCa xenografts. Based on these data, we hypothesize that angiopoietin-2 inhibition in combination with other therapies may represent a potential therapy for patients with metastatic disease. PMID:20583134

Morrissey, Colm; Dowell, Alex; Koreckij, Theodore D.; Nguyen, Holly; Lakely, Bryce; Fanslow, William C.; True, Lawrence D.; Corey, Eva; Vessella, Robert L.

2011-01-01

174

Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization  

SciTech Connect

In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

1993-06-01

175

Development of tumor-induced osteomalacia in a subcutaneous tumor, defined by venous blood sampling of fibroblast growth factor-23.  

PubMed

A 25-year-old man with severe lumbago was referred to our department for further evaluation. Serum phosphate and TmP/GFR levels were decreased. Physical examination revealed an elastic tumor in the instep of the right foot, which the patient reported having since the age of 10 years. He had no symptoms of osteomalacia at that time. Within the recent years, the tumor had grown in size and the patient developed lumbago. To examine the existence of a fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23)-producing tumor, venous blood was collected from four main veins. FGF-23 levels were significantly increased in the right femoral vein, compared with other veins. After the resection of the tumor, the histopathology was consistent with a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (mixed connective tissue variant). Taken together, these results indicated that the development of osteomalacia in this patient was associated with the production of FGF-23 in the subcutaneous tumor. PMID:18379151

Ogura, Eriko; Kageyama, Kazunori; Fukumoto, Seiji; Yagihashi, Norito; Fukuda, Yoshiko; Kikuchi, Toru; Masuda, Mitsuo; Suda, Toshihiro

2008-01-01

176

Tumor Growth Rate Determines the Timing of Optimal Chronomodulated Treatment Schedules  

E-print Network

Tumor Growth Rate Determines the Timing of Optimal Chronomodulated Treatment Schedules Samuel the best timing of treatments. However, the influence of variations in tumor kinetics has not been kinetics of the tumor. Then, we developed a theoretical analysis of treatment outcome (TATO) to relate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Effects of the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Imatinib on Neuroendocrine Tumor Cell Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: We investigated the effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib (Gleevec®) on neuroendocrine tumor cells. Methods: Neuroendocrine tumor cells were incubated without and with imatinib. The effects on growth were examined by methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) assay. The c-Kit expression in human endocrine tumor tissue and cell lines was determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, respectively. Cytotoxicity assay was performed

Brigitte Lankat-Buttgereit; Dieter Hörsch; Peter Barth; Rudolf Arnold; Silke Blöcker; Rüdiger Göke

2005-01-01

178

Antitumor effects of rhodium (II) citrate in mice bearing Ehrlich tumors.  

PubMed

Rhodium II citrate was tested in mice for acute toxicity, antitumoral activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and inhibition of DNA synthesis by Ehrlich tumor, malignant adrenocortical cells (Y-1) and normal adrenocortical cells (AR-1). At ip doses up to 260 mg/kg, the compound had no toxic effects for up to 14 days. The same total dose given over 4 days significantly increased the survival rate of mice bearing Ehrlich ascites cells. Thymidine incorporation by Ehrlich tumor, Y-1 and AR-1 cells in vitro was inhibited 50% by 0.1 to 0.2 mM concentrations of the compound. We conclude that the increased survival of the tumor-bearing mice was due at least in part to the inhibition of DNA synthesis with a consequent reduction of cell division and tumor growth. PMID:2804473

Zyngier, S; Kimura, E; Najjar, R

1989-01-01

179

The HMGB1/RAGE inflammatory pathway promotes pancreatic tumor growth by regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics  

PubMed Central

Tumor cells require increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to support anabolism and proliferation. The precise mechanisms regulating this process in tumor cells are unknown. Here, we show that the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and one of its primary ligands, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), are required for optimal mitochondrial function within tumors. We found that RAGE is present in the mitochondria of cultured tumor cells as well as primary tumors. RAGE and HMGB1 coordinately enhanced tumor cell mitochondrial complex I activity, ATP production, tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lack of RAGE or inhibition of HMGB1 release diminished ATP production and slowed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings link, for the first time, the HMGB1–RAGE pathway with changes in bioenergetics. Moreover, our observations provide a novel mechanism within the tumor microenvironment by which necrosis and inflammation promote tumor progression. PMID:23318458

Kang, R; Tang, D; Schapiro, NE; Loux, T; Livesey, KM; Billiar, TR; Wang, H; Van Houten, B; Lotze, MT; Zeh, HJ

2013-01-01

180

The HMGB1/RAGE inflammatory pathway promotes pancreatic tumor growth by regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics.  

PubMed

Tumor cells require increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to support anabolism and proliferation. The precise mechanisms regulating this process in tumor cells are unknown. Here, we show that the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and one of its primary ligands, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), are required for optimal mitochondrial function within tumors. We found that RAGE is present in the mitochondria of cultured tumor cells as well as primary tumors. RAGE and HMGB1 coordinately enhanced tumor cell mitochondrial complex I activity, ATP production, tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lack of RAGE or inhibition of HMGB1 release diminished ATP production and slowed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings link, for the first time, the HMGB1-RAGE pathway with changes in bioenergetics. Moreover, our observations provide a novel mechanism within the tumor microenvironment by which necrosis and inflammation promote tumor progression. PMID:23318458

Kang, R; Tang, D; Schapiro, N E; Loux, T; Livesey, K M; Billiar, T R; Wang, H; Van Houten, B; Lotze, M T; Zeh, H J

2014-01-30

181

On the Probability of Random Genetic Mutations for Various Types of Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

In this work, we consider the problem of estimating the probability for a specific random genetic mutation to be present in a tumor of a given size. Previous mathematical models have been based on stochastic methods where the tumor was assumed to be homogeneous and, on average, growing exponentially. In contrast, we are able to obtain analytical results for cases where the exponential growth of cancer has been replaced by other, arguably more realistic types of growth of a heterogeneous tumor cell population. Our main result is that the probability that a given random mutation will be present by the time a tumor reaches a certain size, is independent of the type of curve assumed for the average growth of the tumor, at least for a general class of growth curves. The same is true for the related estimate of the expected number of mutants present in a tumor of a given size, if mutants are indeed present. PMID:22311065

2013-01-01

182

Tumor STAT1 Transcription Factor Activity Enhances Breast Tumor Growth and Immune Suppression Mediated by Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells*  

PubMed Central

Previous studies had implicated the IFN-? transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) as a tumor suppressor. However, accumulating evidence has correlated increased STAT1 activation with increased tumor progression in multiple types of cancer, including breast cancer. Indeed, we present evidence that tumor up-regulation of STAT1 activity in human and mouse mammary tumors correlates with increasing disease progression to invasive carcinoma. A microarray analysis comparing low aggressive TM40D and highly aggressive TM40D-MB mouse mammary carcinoma cells revealed significantly higher STAT1 activity in the TM40D-MB cells. Ectopic overexpression of constitutively active STAT1 in TM40D cells promoted mobilization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and inhibition of antitumor T cells, resulting in aggressive tumor growth in tumor-transplanted, immunocompetent mice. Conversely, gene knockdown of STAT1 in the metastatic TM40D-MB cells reversed these events and attenuated tumor progression. Importantly, we demonstrate that in human breast cancer, the presence of tumor STAT1 activity and tumor-recruited CD33+ myeloid cells correlates with increasing disease progression from ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive carcinoma. We conclude that STAT1 activity in breast cancer cells is responsible for shaping an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, and inhibiting STAT1 activity is a promising immune therapeutic approach. PMID:23486482

Hix, Laura M.; Karavitis, John; Khan, Mohammad W.; Shi, Yihui H.; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Zhang, Ming

2013-01-01

183

Role of mTOR in solid tumor systems: a therapeutical target against primary tumor growth, metastases, and angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a controller of cell growth with multiple effects on cancer development and progression.\\u000a Being closely linked to key oncogenic pathways that regulate tumor cell growth and cell cycle progression, mTOR integrates\\u000a the cellular response to mitogenic and growth stimuli. Rapamycin and its analogs temsirolimus and everolimus are specific\\u000a inhibitors of mTOR that exert

Hendrik Seeliger; Markus Guba; Axel Kleespies; Karl-Walter Jauch; Christiane J. Bruns

2007-01-01

184

Chronic supplementation with shark liver oil for reducing tumor growth and cachexia in walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of chronic supplementation with shark liver oil (SLO), an antitumor supplement source of n-3 fatty acids and 1-O-alkylglycerols, alone and combined with coconut fat (CF), a source of saturated fatty acids, on Walker 256 tumor growth and cachexia. Male rats were supplemented daily and orally with SLO and/or CF (1 g per kg body weight) for 7 wk. After 7 wk, 50% of animals were subcutaneously inoculated with 3 × 10(7) Walker 256 tumor cells. After 14 days, the rats were killed, the tumors were removed for lipid peroxidation measurement, and blood was collected for glycemia, triacylglycerolemia, and lacticidemia evaluation. Liver samples were obtained for glycogen measurement. Unlike CF, supplementation with SLO promoted gain in body weight, reduction of tumor weight, and maintained glycemia, triacylglycerolemia, lacticidemia, and liver glycogen content to values similar to non-tumor-bearing rats. Combined supplementation of SLO with CF also showed a reversion of cachexia with gain in body mass, reduction of lacticidemia, maintaining the liver glycogen store, and reduction in tumor weight. SLO, alone or combined with CF, promoted increase of tumor lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, SLO supplemented chronically, alone or associated with CF, was able to reduce tumor growth and cachexia. PMID:21981555

Iagher, Fabíola; de Brito Belo, Sérgio Ricardo; Naliwaiko, Katya; Franzói, Andressa Machado; de Brito, Gleisson Alisson Pereira; Yamazaki, Ricardo Key; Muritiba, Ana Lúcia; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Steffani, Jovani Antonio; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

2011-11-01

185

In vivo delivery of siRNA targeting vasohibin-2 decreases tumor angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth in ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Vasohibin-2 (VASH2) is a homolog of vasohibin-1 and exhibits pro-angiogenic activity. We recently reported that VASH2 is expressed in certain ovarian cancers and promotes tumor growth through angiogenesis. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of molecular targeting of VASH2 for anticancer treatment, we applied in vivo delivery of siRNA targeting VASH2 (siVASH2) using atelocollagen to a xenograft model of ovarian cancer. We inoculated mice s.c. with DISS and SKOV-3, two representative human ovarian serous adenocarcinoma cell lines. When tumors were measurable, we initiated treatment with control or siVASH2 mixed with atelocollagen, which enveloped the whole tumor. Treatment with siVASH2 significantly inhibited s.c. tumor growth by abrogating tumor angiogenesis. We confirmed that expression of VASH2 mRNA in the tumor was downregulated by siVASH2 treatment. In addition, the siVASH2-treated tumor contained more blood vessels covered with pericytes, indicating that knockdown of VASH2 contributes to the normalization of tumor blood vessels. Based on these results, VASH2 may be a promising molecular target for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:24118388

Koyanagi, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Saga, Yasushi; Machida, Shizuo; Takei, Yuji; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Sato, Yasufumi

2013-12-01

186

Enalapril and ASS inhibit tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of islet cell tumors.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests a role for angiotensin-converting enzymes involving the angiotensin II-receptor 1 (AT1-R) and the cyclooxygenase pathway in carcinogenesis. The effects of ASS and enalapril were assessed in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs). The effects of enalapril and ASS on proliferation and expression of the AGTR1A and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) were assessed in the neuroendocrine cell line BON1. Rip1-Tag2 mice were treated daily with either 0.6?mg/kg bodyweight of enalapril i.p., 20?mg/kg bodyweight of ASS i.p., or a vehicle in a prevention (weeks 5-12) and a survival group (week 5 till death). Tumor surface, weight of pancreatic glands, immunostaining for AT1-R and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB), and mice survival were analyzed. In addition, sections from human specimens of 20 insulinomas, ten gastrinomas, and 12 non-functional pNENs were evaluated for AT1-R and NFKB (NFKB1) expression and grouped according to the current WHO classification. Proliferation was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in BON1 cells, with the combination being the most effective. Treatment with enalapril and ASS led to significant downregulation of known target genes Vegf and Rela at RNA level. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in the prevention group displayed by a reduction of tumor size (84%/67%) and number (30%/45%). Furthermore, daily treatment with enalapril and ASS prolonged the overall median survival compared with vehicle-treated Rip1-Tag2 (107 days) mice by 9 and 17 days (P=0.016 and P=0.013). The AT1-R and the inflammatory transcription factor NFKB were abolished completely upon enalapril and ASS treatment. AT1-R and NFKB expressions were observed in 80% of human pNENs. Enalapril and ASS may provide an approach for chemoprevention and treatment of pNENs. PMID:25121552

Fendrich, V; Lopez, C L; Manoharan, J; Maschuw, K; Wichmann, S; Baier, A; Holler, J P; Ramaswamy, A; Bartsch, D K; Waldmann, J

2014-10-01

187

Stochastic resonance induced by Lévy noise in a tumor growth model with periodic treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the stochastic resonance phenomenon in a tumor growth model under subthreshold periodic therapy and Lévy noise excitation is investigated. The possible reoccurrence of tumor due to stochastic resonance is discussed. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated numerically to measure the stochastic resonance. It is found that smaller stability index is better for avoiding tumor reappearance. Besides, the effect of the skewness parameter on the tumor regrowth is related to the stability index. Furthermore, increasing the intensity of periodic treatment does not always facilitate tumor therapy. These results are beneficial to the optimization of periodic tumor therapy.

Xu, Wei; Hao, Mengli; Gu, Xudong; Yang, Guidong

2014-05-01

188

Growth Patterns and Metastatic Behavior of Human Tumors Growing in Athymic Mice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth characteristics and metastatic behavior of human tumors growing in athymic nude mice were stud ied. Human tumor cell lines HEp-2 (carcinoma of larynx) and SW480 (colon carcinoma) were transplanted into athymic nude mice of BALB\\/c origin. Tumor cells (1 x 106 and 2 x 107) were given either s.c. or i.p. Following s.c. injection tumors developed rapidly to

Andreas P. Kyriazis; Linda DiPersio; Gabriel J. Michael; Amadeo J. Pesce; J. Dwight Stinnett

189

Ohio State study shows how normal cells can fuel tumor growth:  

Cancer.gov

A new study published in the journal Nature Cell Biology has discovered how normal cells in mouse tumors can fuel tumor growth. Led by researchers at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center–Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, the study examines what happens when normal cells called fibroblasts in mouse mammary tumors lose an important tumor-suppressor gene called Pten.

190

mTOR inhibitors block Kaposi sarcoma growth by inhibiting essential autocrine growth factors and tumor angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) originates from endothelial cells and it is one of the most overt angiogenic tumors. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV and the Kaposi Sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) are endemic, KS is the most common cancer overall, but model systems for disease study are insufficient. Here we report the development of a novel mouse model of KS where KSHV is retained stably and tumors are elicited rapidly. Tumor growth was sensitive to specific allosteric inhibitors (rapamycin, CCI-779, RAD001) of the pivotal cell growth regulator mTOR. Inhibition of tumor growth was durable up to 130 days and reversible. mTOR blockade reduced VEGF secretion and formation of tumor vasculature. Together, the results demonstrated that mTOR inhibitors exert a direct anti-KS effect by inhibiting angiogenesis and paracrine effectors, suggesting their application as a new treatment modality for KS and other cancers of endothelial origin. PMID:23382046

Roy, Debasmita; Sin, Sang-Hoon; Lucas, Amy; Venkataramanan, Raman; Wang, Ling; Eason, Anthony; Chavakula, Veenadhari; Hilton, Isaac B.; Damania, Blossom; Dittmer, Dirk P.

2013-01-01

191

mTOR inhibitors block Kaposi sarcoma growth by inhibiting essential autocrine growth factors and tumor angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Kaposi sarcoma originates from endothelial cells and it is one of the most overt angiogenic tumors. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV and the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are endemic, Kaposi sarcoma is the most common cancer overall, but model systems for disease study are insufficient. Here, we report the development of a novel mouse model of Kaposi sarcoma, where KSHV is retained stably and tumors are elicited rapidly. Tumor growth was sensitive to specific allosteric inhibitors (rapamycin, CCI-779, and RAD001) of the pivotal cell growth regulator mTOR. Inhibition of tumor growth was durable up to 130 days and reversible. mTOR blockade reduced VEGF secretion and formation of tumor vasculature. Together, the results show that mTOR inhibitors exert a direct anti-Kaposi sarcoma effect by inhibiting angiogenesis and paracrine effectors, suggesting their application as a new treatment modality for Kaposi sarcoma and other cancers of endothelial origin. PMID:23382046

Roy, Debasmita; Sin, Sang-Hoon; Lucas, Amy; Venkataramanan, Raman; Wang, Ling; Eason, Anthony; Chavakula, Veenadhari; Hilton, Isaac B; Tamburro, Kristen M; Damania, Blossom; Dittmer, Dirk P

2013-04-01

192

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of human osteosarcoma.  

PubMed

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone. There is a critical need to identify the events that lead to the poorly understood mechanism of OS development and metastasis. The goal of this investigation is to identify and characterize a novel marker of OS progression. We have established and characterized a highly metastatic OS subline that is derived from the less metastatic human MG63 line through serial passages in nude mice via intratibial injections. Microarray analysis of the parental MG63, the highly metastatic MG63.2 subline, as well as the corresponding primary tumors and pulmonary metastases revealed insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) to be one of the significantly downregulated genes in the metastatic subline. Confirmatory quantitative RT-PCR on 20 genes of interest demonstrated IGFBP5 to be the most differentially expressed and was therefore chosen to be one of the genes for further investigation. Adenoviral mediated overexpression and knockdown of IGFBP5 in the MG63 and MG63.2 cell lines, as well as other OS lines (143B and MNNG/HOS) that are independent of our MG63 lines, were employed to examine the role of IGFBP5. We found that overexpression of IGFBP5 inhibited in vitro cell proliferation, migration and invasion of OS cells. Additionally, IGFBP5 overexpression promoted apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In an orthotopic xenograft animal model, overexpression of IGFBP5 inhibited OS tumor growth and pulmonary metastases. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of IGFBP5 promoted OS tumor growth and pulmonary metastases in vivo. Immunohistochemical staining of patient-matched primary and metastatic OS samples demonstrated decreased IGFBP5 expression in the metastases. These results suggest 1) a role for IGFBP5 as a novel marker that has an important role in the pathogenesis of OS, and 2) that the loss of IGFBP5 function may contribute to more metastatic phenotypes in OS. PMID:21460855

Su, Y; Wagner, E R; Luo, Q; Huang, J; Chen, L; He, B-C; Zuo, G-W; Shi, Q; Zhang, B-Q; Zhu, G; Bi, Y; Luo, J; Luo, X; Kim, S H; Shen, J; Rastegar, F; Huang, E; Gao, Y; Gao, J-L; Yang, K; Wietholt, C; Li, M; Qin, J; Haydon, R C; He, T-C; Luu, H H

2011-09-15

193

The Telomerase Antagonist Imetelstat Efficiently Targets Glioblastoma Tumor-Initiating Cells Leading to Decreased Proliferation and Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

Purpose Telomerase activity is one of the hallmarks of cancer and is a highly relevant therapeutic target. The effects of a novel human telomerase antagonist, imetelstat, on primary human glioblastoma (GBM) tumor-initiating cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Experimental design Tumor-initiating cells were isolated from primary GBM tumors and expanded as neurospheres in vitro. The GBM tumor-initiating cells were treated with imetelstat and examined for the effects on telomerase activity levels, telomere length, proliferation, clonogenicity and differentiation. Subsequently, mouse orthotopic and subcutaneous xenografts were used to assess the in vivo efficacy of imetelstat. Results Imetelstat treatment produced a dose-dependent inhibition of telomerase (IC50 0.45?M). Long-term imetelstat treatment led to progressive telomere shortening, reduced rates of proliferation and eventually cell death in GBM tumor-initiating cells. Imetelstat in combination with radiation and temozolomide had a dramatic effect on cell survival and activated the DNA damage response pathway. Imetelstat is able to cross the blood brain barrier in orthotopic GBM xenograft tumors. Fluorescently labeled GBM tumor cells isolated from orthotopic tumors, following systemic administration of imetelstat (30 mg/kg q3d) showed ?70% inhibition of telomerase activity. Chronic systemic treatment on the same dose schedule produced a marked decrease in the rate of xenograft subcutaneous tumor growth. Conclusion This pre-clinical study supports the feasibility of testing imetelstat in the treatment of GBM patients, alone or in combination with standard therapies. PMID:20048334

Marian, Calin O.; Cho, Steve K.; McEllin, Brian M.; Maher, Elizabeth A.; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Madden, Christopher J.; Mickey, Bruce E.; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.; Bachoo, Robert M.

2010-01-01

194

Antibody-guided irradiation of malignant ascites in ovarian cancer: a new therapeutic method possessing specificity against cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Immunocytology of ascitic fluid of a patient with ovarian cancer demonstrated reactivity with two tumor-associated monoclonal antibodies, AUA1 and HMFG2. AUA1 radiolabeled with 48.6 mCi /sup 131/I was given intraperitoneally. There was a reduction in the rate of reaccumulation of ascites. Cytology of recurrent ascites revealed reactivity with antibody HMFG2 but not AUA1. The patient was further treated intraperitoneally with 39.0 mCi /sup 131/I-labeled HMFG2. There has been no reaccumulation of ascites. It is concluded that antibody-guided irradiation may be an effective treatment of malignant ascites secondary to ovarian cancer. Furthermore, this case illustrates the specificity of antibody interactions in the mediation of therapeutic effect and the possibility of tumor selection after irradiation with a single monoclonal antibody. If specificity plays a role, all major specificities should be covered by an appropriate panel of radioactively labeled antibodies. It is recommended that for comprehensive therapy of malignant ascites secondary to ovarian cancer, a mixture of antibodies such as HMFG2 and AUA1 should be used.

Epenetos, A.A.; Hooker, G.; Krausz, T.; Snook, D.; Bodmer, W.F.; Taylor-Papadimitriou, J.

1986-09-01

195

RPA Inhibition increases Replication Stress and Suppresses Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

The ATR/Chk1 pathway is a critical surveillance network that maintains genomic integrity during DNA replication by stabilizing the replication forks during normal replication to avoid replication stress. One of the many differences between normal cells and cancer cells is the amount of replication stress that occurs during replication. Cancer cells with activated oncogenes generate increased levels of replication stress. This creates an increased dependency on the ATR/Chk1 pathway in cancer cells and opens up an opportunity to preferentially kill cancer cells by inhibiting this pathway. In support of this idea, we have identified a small molecule termed HAMNO ((1Z)-1-[(2-hydroxyanilino)methylidene]naphthalen-2-one), a novel protein interaction inhibitor of replication protein A (RPA), a protein involved in the ATR/Chk1 pathway. HAMNO selectively binds the N-terminal domain of RPA70, effectively inhibiting critical RPA protein interactions which rely on this domain. HAMNO inhibits both ATR autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of RPA32 Ser33 by ATR. By itself, HAMNO treatment creates DNA replication stress in cancer cells that are already experiencing replication stress, but not in normal cells, and it acts synergistically with etoposide to kill cancer cells in vitro and slow tumor growth in vivo. Thus, HAMNO illustrates how RPA inhibitors represent candidate therapeutics for cancer treatment, providing disease selectivity in cancer cells by targeting their differential response to replication stress. PMID:25070753

Glanzer, Jason G.; Liu, Shengqin; Wang, Ling; Mosel, Adam; Peng, Aimin; Oakley, Greg G.

2014-01-01

196

pH control mechanisms of tumor survival and growth.  

PubMed

A distinguishing phenotype of solid tumors is the presence of an alkaline cellular feature despite the surrounding acidic microenvironment. This phenotypic characteristic of tumors, originally described by Otto Warburg, arises due to alterations in metabolism of solid tumors. Hypoxic regions of solid tumors develop due to poor vascularization and in turn regulate the expression of numerous genes via the transcription factor HIF-1. Ultimately, the tumor microenvironment directs the development of tumor cells adapted to survive in an acidic surrounding where normal cells perish. The provision of unique pH characteristics in tumor cells provides a defining trait that has led to the pursuit of treatments that target metabolism, hypoxia, and pH-related mechanisms to selectively kill cancer cells. Numerous studies over the past decade involving the cancer-specific carbonic anhydrase IX have re-kindled an interest in pH disruption-based therapies. Although an acidification of the intracellular compartment is established as a means to induce normal cell death, the defining role of acid-base disturbances in tumor physiology and survival remains unclear. The aim of this review is to summarize recent data relating to the specific role of pH regulation in tumor cell survival. We focus on membrane transport and enzyme studies in an attempt to elucidate their respective functions regarding tumor cell pH regulation. These data are discussed in the context of future directions for the field of tumor cell acid-base-related research. PMID:20857482

Parks, Scott K; Chiche, Johanna; Pouyssegur, Jacques

2011-02-01

197

Antiangiogenic Therapy Using Sunitinib Combined with Rapamycin Retards Tumor Growth But Promotes Metastasis1  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the synergistic effect of sunitinib and rapamycin on tumor growth and metastasis in murine breast cancer model. METHODS: The synergistic antitumor effect of sunitinib and rapamycin on tumor growth and metastasis was investigated. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in spleens and lungs were assessed. Tumor hypoxia, vessel density and micrometastasis were evaluated. Versican, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), arginase 1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) in the lungs and tumors were examined. IL-6 and TGF-? in the blood were evaluated. RESULTS: Synergism between sunitinib and rapamycin on tumor growth was observed. Sunitinib plus rapamycin reduced splenomegaly, MDSCs in spleens and lungs, and microvessel density in tumor microenvironment, while exacerbated hypoxia and promoted cancer lung metastasis. Sunitinib plus rapamycin markedly induced versican, IDO, arginase 1, IL-6, and TGF-? expression in the lungs, whereas it reduced IDO and IL-10 expression in the primary tumor tissues. IL-6 levels in the circulation were increased after rapamycin and combination therapies. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of sunitinib plus rapamycin reduced the tumor growth but promoted tumor metastasis. This study warrants that further mTOR inhibition treatment should be closely watched in clinical setting, especially combined with antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:24742865

Yin, Tao; He, Sisi; Ye, Tinghong; Shen, Guobo; Wan, Yang; Wang, Yongsheng

2014-01-01

198

Amplifications of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (egfr) are common in phyllodes tumors of the breast and are associated with tumor progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare biphasic tumors with the potential for invasion and metastatic spread. An important role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in phyllodes tumors has been proposed. However, detailed pathogenetic mechanisms remained unclear. We investigated 58 phyllodes tumors of the breast (40 benign, 10 borderline and eight malignant) by means of egfr fluorescence in

Christian Kersting; Arno Kuijper; Hartmut Schmidt; Jens Packeisen; Cornelia Liedtke; Nicola Tidow; Christian Gustmann; Bernd Hinrichs; Pia Wülfing; Joke Tio; Werner Boecker; Paul van Diest; Burkhard Brandt; Horst Buerger

2006-01-01

199

Preliminary evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Premna herbacea Roxb. in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model and Dalton's lymphoma ascites model.  

PubMed

In the present study, the root nodules of Premna herbacea Roxb. (PH) was investigated for its in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity. Two extracts, aqueous and alcoholic; two fractions of alcoholic extract, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality (BSL) assay, trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT assay. Alcoholic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction were found to be the most effective in BSL assay, trypan blue exclusion assay. In vivo antitumor activity was screened in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model and the Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) model. The extracts and the fractions were tested at two dosages (250 and 500 mg/kg) by intraperitoneally (i.p.) route on every alternate day upto 13th day. Cisplatin was used as positive control in both studies in single dose (day 1) 3.5 mg/kg by i.p. route. In EAC model, ascites tumor was induced by inoculating 2.5 million of EAC cells i.p. alcoholic extract at 500 mg/kg was the most effective in elevating MST, reduction in body weight in EAC induced tumor. Only the effective extract i.e., alcoholic extract were studied for hematological and antioxidant parameter. It showed a restoring effect on altered hematological parameters and a significant improvement in biochemical parameters at 250 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract. These results explain the toxicity of 500 mg/kg might be high. In the Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) model, solid tumor was developed by i.m. injection of 1 million DLA cells. Both the extracts and the fractions possessed potent antitumor activity against solid tumor models by significantly reducing the solid tumor weight and volume. PMID:21920724

Dhamija, Isha; Kumar, Nitesh; Manjula, S N; Parihar, Vipan; Setty, M Manjunath; Pai, K S R

2013-03-01

200

Olmesartan Potentiates the Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Sorafenib in Mice Bearing Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma: Role of Angiotensin (1-7)  

PubMed Central

Local renin-angiotensin systems exist in various malignant tumor tissues; this suggests that the main effector peptide, angiotensin II, could act as a key factor in tumor growth. The underlying mechanisms for the anti-angiogenic effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers need to be further evaluated. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of olmesartan alone or in combination with sorafenib, an angiotensin (1–7) agonist or an angiotensin (1–7) antagonist in Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The tumor was induced by intradermal injection of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells into mice. Tumor discs were used to evaluate the microvessel density; the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I); and their intratumoral receptors, VEGF receptor-2 and IGF-I receptor, respectively. All parameters were determined following the treatment course, which lasted for 21 days post-inoculation. Monotherapy with olmesartan and its combination with sorafenib resulted in a significant reduction in microvessel density and serum levels of VEGF and IGF-I, as well as their intratumoral receptors. In addition, the combination of olmesartan (30 mg/kg) with an angiotensin (1–7) agonist reduced the microvessel density, IGF-I serum levels and the levels of its intratumoral receptor. In conclusion, olmesartan reduced the levels of the angiogenesis markers IGF-I and VEGF and down-regulated the intratumoral expression of their receptors in a dose-dependent manner, and these effects were dependent on the angiotensin (1–7) receptor. These results suggest that olmesartan is a promising adjuvant to sorafenib in the treatment of cancer. PMID:24465768

Abd-Alhaseeb, Mohammad M.; Zaitone, Sawsan A.; Abou-El-Ela, Soad H.; Moustafa, Yasser M.

2014-01-01

201

The enhancement of tumor growth after partial hepatectomy and the effect of sera obtained from hepatectomized rats on tumor cell growth.  

PubMed

In the process of liver regeneration, the participation of various types of growth stimulators and changes in immune responses have been reported. Here, we examined the growth of subcutaneously transplanted AH130 cells and Walker 256 cells after partial hepatectomy. In the case of tumor cells being transplanted on the same day as partial hepatectomy, the increase in tumor size in hepatectomized rats was significantly greater compared with that in non-treated rats or in those having undergone a simple laparotomy. When the transplantation of tumor cells was done on the 7th day after partial hepatectomy, however, the increase was less marked. We also examined the effect of serum obtained from rats after partial hepatectomy on the in vitro growth of these tumor cells. Growth enhancement was observed with medium containing serum drawn from rats 1 to 4 days after partial hepatectomy. These results suggest that the growth of tumor cells was stimulated during liver regeneration and that some humoral factors participated in the process. Furthermore, as the conditions of the in vitro method appear to mimic those of the in vivo method, the in vitro approach should be very useful for analysis of the factors responsible. PMID:1787614

Asaga, T; Suzuki, K; Umeda, M; Sugimasa, Y; Takemiya, S; Okamoto, T

1991-11-01

202

Mirk kinase inhibition targets ovarian cancer ascites  

PubMed Central

The Mirk/dyrk1B gene is commonly amplified or upregulated in ovarian cancers, and Mirk is an active kinase in these cancers. Mirk mediates cancer cell survival by decreasing toxic ROS levels through maintaining expression of a series of antioxidant genes, possibly through its transcriptional activator functions. Mirk has the unusual property of being most active in quiescent cancer cells because of marked transcriptional downregulation by Akt/mTOR signaling and by MEK/erk signaling in cycling cells. Metastatic ovarian cancer cells form ascites, non-adherent multicellular aggregates floating within the peritoneal fluid. Most ascites cancer cells are in a reversible quiescent, dormant state, suggesting that Mirk might be expressed in these quiescent cells and thus a therapeutic target. The current studies show that ovarian cancer cell line spheroids that mimic ascites cancer spheroids were largely quiescent in G0/G1, and enriched in Mirk and the quiescence proteins, p130/Rb2 and the CDKI p27. Mirk kinase inhibition in spheroids made from established cell lines and in patient-derived ascites cancer cell spheroids reduced spheroid volume, disrupted spheroid structure to single cells, increased apoptosis, and decreased cell numbers. Earlier studies had shown that the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 increased transcription of the Mirk/dyrk1B gene, so treatments combined RAD001 with the most active Mirk kinase inhibitor. The number of ascites cells from 9 patients was reduced a similar amount by cisplatin, Mirk kinase inhibition or RAD001, but reduced substantially more, about 90%, by concurrent treatment with both the Mirk kinase inhibitor EHT5372 and RAD001. Addition of RAD001 increased the amount of toxic ROS induced by Mirk kinase inhibition. Two ascites samples taken one month apart gave similar drug responses, showing reproducibility of the techniques. Thus Mirk/dyrk1B kinase may be a therapeutic target in ovarian cancer ascites. PMID:25061503

Deng, Xiaobing; Hu, Jing; Cunningham, Mary J.; Friedman, Eileen

2014-01-01

203

The Effect of Electroacupuncture on Osteosarcoma Tumor Growth and Metastasis: Analysis of Different Treatment Regimens  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor found in children and adolescents and is associated with many complications including cancer pain and metastasis. While cancer patients often seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches to treat cancer pain and fatigue or the side effects of chemotherapy and treatment, there is little known about the effect of acupuncture treatment on tumor growth and metastasis. Here we evaluate the effects of six different electroacupuncture (EA) regimens on osteosarcoma tumor growth and metastasis in both male and female mice. The most significant positive effects were observed when EA was applied to the ST-36 acupoint twice weekly (EA-2X/3) beginning at postimplantation day 3 (PID 3). Twice weekly treatment produced robust reductions in tumor growth. Conversely, when EA was applied twice weekly (EA-2X/7), starting at PID 7, there was a significant increase in tumor growth. We further demonstrate that EA-2X/3 treatment elicits significant reductions in tumor lymphatics, vasculature, and innervation. Lastly, EA-2X/3 treatment produced a marked reduction in pulmonary metastasis, thus providing evidence for EA's potential antimetastatic capabilities. Collectively, EA-2X/3 treatment was found to reduce both bone tumor growth and lung metastasis, which may be mediated in part through reductions in tumor-associated vasculature, lymphatics, and innervation. PMID:24228059

Smeester, Branden A.; O'Brien, Elaine E.; Ericson, Marna E.; Triemstra, Jennifer L.; Beitz, Alvin J.

2013-01-01

204

Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: effect of cold and normal temperature conditions.  

PubMed

(1) Ascites syndrome is a growth-related disorder of broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at low temperatures. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among ascites-related traits measured either under cold or under normal temperature conditions, and to estimate genetic correlations between ascites-related traits measured under cold and normal conditions. (2) Several traits related to ascites were measured on more than 4000 chickens under cold conditions and on more than 700 chickens under normal conditions. (3) The heritability estimates for body weight (BW) measured under cold and normal conditions were 0.42 and 0.50, respectively, for haematocrit value 0.46 and 0.17, respectively, and for ratio of right to total ventricular weight 0.45 and 0.12, respectively. (4) The genetic correlation between BW and haematocrit value under cold conditions was -0.23 and between BW and ratio of right to total ventricular weight -0.27. Under normal conditions, however, these genetic correlations were 0.55 and 0.50, respectively. (5) These results demonstrate that the heritability estimates of ascites-related traits as well as genetic correlations between ascites-related traits and BW depend on the temperature conditions under which animals are kept. (6) Strong positive genetic correlations (around 0.8) were observed between total mortality, fluid in the abdomen and ratio of right to total ventricular weight under cold conditions. The genetic correlation between ratio of right to total ventricular weight under cold and normal conditions was 0.91. (7) These results suggest that the ratio of right to total ventricular weight measured under normal temperature conditions might serve as a good indicator trait for ascites. PMID:15835250

Pakdel, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

2005-02-01

205

Effect of prebiotic on gut development and ascites incidence of broilers reared in a hypoxic environment.  

PubMed

Modern broilers have been genetically selected for an increased growth rate and improved feed conversion, but they are also more susceptible to ascites. Ascites occurs when there is an imbalance between available oxygen and the oxygen demand of the broiler. We hypothesized that promoting neonatal gut development with a prebiotic, such as Aspergillus meal (Prebiotic-AM), would enhance gut efficiency, decrease the oxygen demand of the gut, and reduce ascites incidence. In this study, we compared the effect of Prebiotic-AM on ascites incidence and gut development in commercial broilers reared at a local altitude (390 m above sea level) and a simulated high altitude (2,900 m above sea level). Half of the birds received a National Research Council recommended corn-soybean ration, and the other half received the same ration supplemented with 0.2% Prebiotic-AM. These 2 groups were further divided into a local altitude group and a simulated high altitude group for a total of 4 treatment combinations. Tissues were collected on d 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 from the duodenum and lower ileum and placed in 10% buffered formalin for morphometric analysis. At a simulated high altitude, ascites incidence was 68% for birds fed the Prebiotic-AM supplement compared with 92% ascites incidence in birds given the control feed. The simulated high altitude decreased (P < 0.05) gut development, but prebiotic-treated birds reared in hypoxic conditions had similar gut development to control birds reared at local altitude. These data suggest that a feed ration supplemented with Prebiotic-AM may reduce the effect of hypoxia on broiler gut development and ascites incidence. PMID:16050126

Solis de los Santos, F; Farnell, M B; Téllez, G; Balog, J M; Anthony, N B; Torres-Rodriguez, A; Higgins, S; Hargis, B M; Donoghue, A M

2005-07-01

206

Pharmacological Inhibition of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 Suppresses Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mediated Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Blockade of Prostaglandin (PG) E2 production via deletion of microsomal Prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) gene reduces tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo on xenograft tumors. So far the therapeutic potential of the pharmacological inhibition of mPGES-1 has not been elucidated. PGE2 promotes epithelial tumor progression via multiple signaling pathways including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we evaluated the antitumor activity of AF3485, a compound of a novel family of human mPGES-1 inhibitors, in vitro and in vivo, in mice bearing human A431 xenografts overexpressing EGFR. Treatment of the human cell line A431 with interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) increased mPGES-1 expression, PGE2 production and induced EGFR phosphorylation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression. AF3485 reduced PGE2 production, both in quiescent and in cells stimulated by IL-1?. AF3485 abolished IL-1?-induced activation of the EGFR, decreasing VEGF and FGF-2 expression, and tumor-mediated endothelial tube formation. In vivo, in A431 xenograft, AF3485, administered sub-chronically, decreased tumor growth, an effect related to inhibition of EGFR signalling, and to tumor microvessel rarefaction. In fact, we observed a decrease of EGFR phosphorylation, and VEGF and FGF-2 expression in tumours explanted from treated mice. Conclusion Our work demonstrates that the pharmacological inhibition of mPGES-1 reduces squamous carcinoma growth by suppressing PGE2 mediated-EGFR signalling and by impairing tumor associated angiogenesis. These results underscore the potential of mPGES-1 inhibitors as agents capable of controlling tumor growth. PMID:22815767

Bocci, Elena; Coletta, Isabella; Polenzani, Lorenzo; Mangano, Giorgina; Alisi, Maria Alessandra; Cazzolla, Nicola; Giachetti, Antonio; Ziche, Marina; Donnini, Sandra

2012-01-01

207

Sucrose octasulfate regulates fibroblast growth factor-2 binding, transport, and activity: potential for regulation of tumor growth.  

PubMed

The antithrombotic activity of heparin has largely been credited with the success found in some cancer treatment by heparin. There are, however, many potent growth factors involved in tumor and blood vessel growth that bind to heparin with high affinity and their regulation by heparin may play a role in heparin's efficacy. We therefore chose to study the activity of a heparin analog, sucrose octasulfate (SOS), which has been similarly shown to interact with heparin-binding growth factors. Using mouse melanoma and lung carcinoma models, we demonstrate in vivo inhibition of tumor growth by SOS. SOS, however, showed little effect in coagulation assays indicating that this activity was not a primary mechanism of action for this molecule. Studies were then performed to assess the effect of SOS on basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) activity, a growth factor which promotes tumor and blood vessel growth and is produced by B16 melanoma cells. SOS potently inhibited FGF-2 binding to endothelial cells and stripped pre-bound FGF-2 from cells. SOS also regulated FGF-2 stimulated proliferation. Further, SOS facilitated FGF-2 diffusion through Descemet's membrane, a heparan sulfate-rich basement membrane from the cornea, suggesting a possible role in FGF-2 clearance. Our results suggest that molecules such as SOS have the potential to remove growth factors from tumor microenvironments and the approach offers an attractive area for further study. PMID:18163458

Fannon, Michael; Forsten-Williams, Kimberly; Nugent, Matthew A; Gregory, Kalvin J; Chu, Chia Lin; Goerges-Wildt, Adrienne L; Panigrahy, Dipak; Kaipainen, Arja; Barnes, Carmen; Lapp, Cathy; Shing, Yuen

2008-05-01

208

Sucrose Octasulfate Regulates Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Binding, Transport, and Activity: Potential for Regulation of Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

The antithrombotic activity of heparin has largely been credited with the success found in some cancer treatment by heparin. There are, however, many potent growth factors involved in tumor and blood vessel growth that bind to heparin with high affinity and their regulation by heparin may play a role in heparin’s efficacy. We therefore chose to study the activity of a heparin analog, sucrose octasulfate (SOS), which has been similarly shown to interact with heparin-binding growth factors. Using mouse melanoma and lung carcinoma models, we demonstrate in vivo inhibition of tumor growth by SOS. SOS, however, showed little effect in coagulation assays indicating that this activity was not a primary mechanism of action for this molecule. Studies were then performed to assess the effect of SOS on basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) activity, a growth factor which promotes tumor and blood vessel growth and is produced by B16 melanoma cells. SOS potently inhibited FGF-2 binding to endothelial cells and stripped pre-bound FGF-2 from cells. SOS also regulated FGF-2 stimulated proliferation. Further, SOS facilitated FGF-2 diffusion through Descemet’s membrane, a heparan sulfate-rich basement membrane from the cornea, suggesting a possible role in FGF-2 clearance. Our results suggest that molecules such as SOS have the potential to remove growth factors from tumor microenvironments and the approach offers an attractive area for further study. PMID:18163458

FANNON, MICHAEL; FORSTEN-WILLIAMS, KIMBERLY; NUGENT, MATTHEW A.; GREGORY, KALVIN J.; CHU, CHIA LIN; GOERGES-WILDT, ADRIENNE L; PANIGRAHY, DIPAK; KAIPAINEN, ARJA; BARNES, CARMEN; LAPP, CATHY; SHING, YUEN

2008-01-01

209

Oncolytic HSV and Erlotinib Inhibit Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in a Novel Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Xenograft Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), driven in part by hyperactive Ras and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, are often incurable. Testing of therapeutics for MPNST has been hampered by lack of adequate xenograft models. We previously documented that human MPNST cells are permissive for lytic infection by oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (oHSV). Herein we developed and characterized a

Yonatan Y Mahller; Sachin S Vaikunth; Mark A Currier; Shyra J Miller; Maria C Ripberger; Ya-Hsuan Hsu; Ruty Mehrian-Shai; Margaret H Collins; Timothy M Crombleholme; Nancy Ratner; Timothy P Cripe

2007-01-01

210

On a Nonlinear Model for Tumor Growth: Global in Time Weak Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of a class of tumor growth models known as mixed models. The key characteristic of these type of tumor growth models is that the different populations of cells are continuously present everywhere in the tumor at all times. In this work we focus on the evolution of tumor growth in the presence of proliferating, quiescent and dead cells as well as a nutrient. The system is given by a multi-phase flow model and the tumor is described as a growing continuum ? with boundary ?? both of which evolve in time. Global-in-time weak solutions are obtained using an approach based on penalization of the boundary behavior, diffusion and viscosity in the weak formulation.

Donatelli, Donatella; Trivisa, Konstantina

2014-07-01

211

Evaluation of minimally invasive indices for predicting ascites susceptibility in three successive hatches of broilers exposed to cool temperatures.  

PubMed

Broilers from three consecutive hatches were exposed to cool temperatures to amplify the incidence of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites). The largest apparently healthy individuals on Day 42 were evaluated using minimally invasive diagnostic indices [percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen, hematocrit (HCT), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) Lead II, body weight), then they were subjected to the ongoing pressures of fast growth and cool temperatures to determine which of these indices are predictive of the subsequent onset of PHS. Approximately 20% of the males and females evaluated on Day 42 subsequently developed PHS by Day 51. When data for all hatches were pooled and broilers that subsequently developed ascites were compared with those that did not (nonascitic), body weights, heart rates, and percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen were lower on Day 42 for ascitic than for nonascitic males, and HCT was higher in ascitic males and females than in nonascitic males and females, respectively. Comparisons of the ECG Lead II wave amplitudes for all hatches pooled indicated that RS-wave amplitude was larger in ascitic than in nonascitic males, and that S-wave amplitude was more negative in ascitic males and females than in nonascitic males and females. Necropsies conducted on Day 51 revealed higher right:total ventricular weight ratios in ascitic than in nonascitic broilers, whereas normalizing the left ventricle plus septum weight for differences in body weight generated similar values for ascitic and nonascitic males and females, respectively. These results support a primary role for pulmonary hypertension but not cardiomyopathy in the pathogenesis of ascites triggered by cool temperatures. Values obtained for minimally invasive diagnostic indices on Day 42 also establish predictive thresholds that can be used to evaluate the PHS susceptibility of large and apparently healthy male and female broilers. PMID:9776067

Wideman, R F; Wing, T; Kirby, Y K; Forman, M F; Marson, N; Tackett, C D; Ruiz-Feria, C A

1998-10-01

212

Co-implanting orthotopic tissue creates stroma microenvironment enhancing growth and angiogenesis of multiple tumors  

PubMed Central

Tumor models are needed to study cancer. Noninvasive imaging of tumors under native conditions in vivo is critical but challenging. Intravital microscopy (IVM) of subcutaneous tumors provides dynamic, continuous, long-term imaging at high resolution. Although popular, subcutaneous tumor models are often criticized for being ectopic and lacking orthotopic tissue microenvironments critical for proper development. Similar IVM of orthotopic and especially spontaneous tumors is seldom possible. Here, we generate and characterize tumor models in mice for breast, lung, prostate and ovarian cancer by co-engrafting tumor spheroids with orthotopic tissue in dorsal skin window chambers for IVM. We use tumor cells and tissue, both genetically engineered to express distinct fluorescent proteins, in order to distinguish neoplastic cells from engrafted tissue. IVM of this new, two-colored model reveals classic tumor morphology with red tumor cell nests surrounded by green stromal elements. The co-implanted tissue forms the supportive stroma and vasculature of these tumors. Tumor growth and angiogenesis are more robust when tumor cells are co-implanted with orthotopic tissue versus other tissues, or in the skin alone. The orthotopic tissue promotes tumor cell mitosis over apoptosis. With time, tumor cells can adapt to new environments and ultimately even grow better in the non-orthotopic tissue over the original orthotopic tissue. These models offer a significant advance by recreating an orthotopic microenvironment in an ectopic location that is still easy to image by IVM. These “ectopic-orthotopic” models provide an exceptional way to study tumor and stroma cells in cancer, and directly show the critical importance of microenvironment in the development of multiple tumors. PMID:24715954

Schnitzer, Jan E

2013-01-01

213

Molecularly Targeted Drug Slows Tumor Growth in Patients with Metastatic Kidney Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported today that the molecularly targeted drug bevacizumab slowed tumor growth in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, the most common form of kidney cancer in adults.

214

Causes, consequences, and remedies for growth-induced solid stress in murine and human tumors  

E-print Network

The presence of growth-induced solid stresses in tumors has been suspected for some time, but these stresses were largely estimated using mathematical models. Solid stresses can deform the surrounding tissues and compress ...

Martin, John D.

215

Defining MAP3 kinases required for MDA-MB-231 cell tumor growth and metastasis.  

PubMed

Analysis of patient tumors suggests that multiple MAP3 kinases (MAP3Ks) are critical for growth and metastasis of cancer cells. MAP3Ks selectively control the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and ERK5 in response to receptor tyrosine kinases and GTPases. We used MDA-MB-231 cells because of their ability to metastasize from the breast fat pad to distant lymph nodes for an orthotopic xenograft model to screen the function of seven MAP3Ks in controlling tumor growth and metastasis. Stable short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown was used to inhibit the expression of each of the seven MAP3Ks, which were selected for their differential regulation of the MAPK network. The screen identified two MAP3Ks, MEKK2 and MLK3, whose shRNA knockdown caused significant inhibition of both tumor growth and metastasis. Neither MEKK2 nor MLK3 have been previously shown to regulate tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These results demonstrated that MAP3Ks, which differentially activate JNK, p38 and ERK5, are necessary for xenograft tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 tumors. The requirement for MAP3Ks signaling through multiple MAPK pathways explains why several members of the MAPK network are activated in cancer. MEKK2 was required for epidermal growth factor receptor and Her2/Neu activation of ERK5, with ERK5 being required for metastasis. Loss of MLK3 expression increased mitotic infidelity and apoptosis in vitro. Knockdown of MEKK2 and MLK3 resulted in increased apoptosis in orthotopic xenografts relative to control tumors in mice, inhibiting both tumor growth and metastasis; MEKK2 and MLK3 represent untargeted kinases in tumor biology for potential therapeutic development. PMID:22139075

Cronan, M R; Nakamura, K; Johnson, N L; Granger, D A; Cuevas, B D; Wang, J-G; Mackman, N; Scott, J E; Dohlman, H G; Johnson, G L

2012-08-23

216

Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: implications for spatial dose  

E-print Network

Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: implications for spatial dose glioblastoma patients by optimizing intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans. The dose fall-off rate concept, forming a diffuse spread of tumor cells. Most high grade gliomas, i.e. glioblastoma multiform (GBM), form

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Extracellular matrix-resident growth factors and enzymes: possible involvement in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoplastic cells require an appropriate pericellular environment and new formation of stroma and blood vessels in order to constitute a soilid tumor. Tumor progression also involves degradation of various extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents. In this review we have focused on the possible involvement of ECM-resident growth factors and enzymes in neovascularization and cell invasion. We demonstrate that the pluripotent angiogenic

Israel Vlodavsky; Gil Korner; Rivka Ishai-Michaeli; Pnina Bashkin; Rachel Bar-Shavit; Zvi Fuks

1990-01-01

218

Human primary brain tumor cell growth inhibition in serum-free medium optimized for neuron survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults from which about 15,000 patients die each year in the United States. Despite aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, median survival remains only 1 year. Here we evaluate growth of primary human brain tumor cells in a defined nutrient culture medium (Neuregen) that was optimized for neuron regeneration. We hypothesized that

Gregory J. Brewer; Peter D. LeRoux

2007-01-01

219

Pitt team finds protein that keeps balance between tumor cell growth and suppression  

Cancer.gov

Using an approach that combines molecular biology, genetics, cell biology and physiology, and pathology, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) and the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine have identified a protein that governs a key molecule involved in orchestrating the balance between tumor growth and tumor suppression.

220

Mast Cells in Tumor Growth: Angiogenesis, Tissue Remodeling and Immune-modulation  

PubMed Central

Summary There is a growing acceptance that tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells play an active role in tumor growth and mast cells are one of the earliest cell types to infiltrate developing tumors. Mast cells accumulate at the boundary between healthy tissues and malignancies and are often found in close association with blood vessels within the tumor microenvironment. They express many pro-angiogenic compounds, and may play an early role in angiogenesis within developing tumors. Mast cells also remodel extracellular matrix during wound healing, and this function is subverted in tumor growth, promoting tumor spread and metastasis. In addition, mast cells modulate immune responses by dampening immune rejection or directing immune cell recruitment, depending on local stimuli. In this review, we focus on key roles for mast cells in angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and immune modulation and highlight recent findings on the integral role that mast cells play in tumor growth. New findings suggest that mast cells may serve as a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment and that inhibiting mast cell function may lead to tumor regression. PMID:19233249

Maltby, Steven; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; McNagny, Kelly M.

2009-01-01

221

Myeloid-specific expression of Ron receptor kinase promotes prostate tumor growth.  

PubMed

Ron receptor kinase (MST1R) is important in promoting epithelial tumorigenesis, but the potential contributions of its specific expression in stromal cells have not been examined. Herein, we show that the Ron receptor is expressed in mouse and human stromal cells of the prostate tumor microenvironment. To test the significance of stromal Ron expression, prostate cancer cells were orthotopically implanted into the prostates of either wild-type or Ron tyrosine kinase deficient (TK(-/-); Mst1r(-/-)) hosts. In TK(-/-) hosts, prostate cancer cell growth was significantly reduced as compared with tumor growth in TK(+/+) hosts. Prostate tumors in TK(-/-) hosts exhibited an increase in tumor cell apoptosis, macrophage infiltration and altered cytokine expression. Reciprocal bone marrow transplantation studies and myeloid cell-specific ablation of Ron showed that loss of Ron in myeloid cells is sufficient to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. Interestingly, depletion of CD8(+) T cells, but not CD4(+) T cells, was able to restore prostate tumor growth in hosts devoid of myeloid-specific Ron expression. These studies show a critical role for the Ron receptor in the tumor microenvironment, whereby Ron loss in tumor-associated macrophages inhibits prostate cancer cell growth, at least in part, by derepressing the activity of CD8(+) T cells. PMID:23328584

Gurusamy, Devikala; Gray, Jerilyn K; Pathrose, Peterson; Kulkarni, Rishikesh M; Finkleman, Fred D; Waltz, Susan E

2013-03-15

222

Effects of Lévy noise and immune delay on the extinction behavior in a tumor growth model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined effects of Lévy noise and immune delay on the extinction behavior in a tumor growth model are explored. The extinction probability of tumor with certain density is measured by exit probability. The expression of the exit probability is obtained using the Taylor expansion and the infinitesimal generator theory. Based on numerical calculations, it is found that the immune delay facilitates tumor extinction when the stability index ? < 1, but inhibits tumor extinction when the stability index ? > 1. Moreover, larger stability index and smaller noise intensity are in favor of the extinction for tumor with low density. While for tumor with high density, the stability index and the noise intensity should be reduced to promote tumor extinction.

Hao, Meng-Li; Xu, Wei; Gu, Xu-Dong; Qi, Lu-Yuan

2014-09-01

223

Blocking CXCR4-Mediated Cyclic AMP Suppression Inhibits Brain Tumor Growth In vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemokine CXCL12 and its cognate receptor CXCR4 regulate malignant brain tumor growth and are potential chemotherapeutic targets. However, the molecular basis for CXCL12-induced tumor growth remains unclear, and the optimal approach to inhibiting CXCR4 function in cancer is unknown. To develop such a therapeutic approach, we investigated the signaling pathways critical for CXCL12 function in normal and malignant cells.

Lihua Yang; Erin Jackson; B. Mark Woerner; Arie Perry; David Piwnica-Worms; Joshua B. Rubin

2007-01-01

224

Malignant cells fuel tumor growth by educating infiltrating leukocytes to produce the mitogen Gas6.  

PubMed

The transforming and tumor growth-promoting properties of Axl, a member of the Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (TAMRs), are well recognized. In contrast, little is known about the role of the TAMR ligand growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) in tumor biology. By using Gas6-deficient (Gas6(-/-)) mice, we show that bone marrow-derived Gas6 promotes growth and metastasis in different experimental cancer models, including one resistant to vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors. Mechanistic studies reveal that circulating leukocytes produce minimal Gas6. However, once infiltrated in the tumor, leukocytes up-regulate Gas6, which is mitogenic for tumor cells. Consistent herewith, impaired tumor growth in Gas6(-/-) mice is rescued by transplantation of wild-type bone marrow and, conversely, mimicked by transplantation of Gas6(-/-) bone marrow into wild-type hosts. These findings highlight a novel role for Gas6 in a positive amplification loop, whereby tumors promote their growth by educating infiltrating leukocytes to up-regulate the production of the mitogen Gas6. Hence, inhibition of Gas6 might offer novel opportunities for the treatment of cancer. PMID:19965679

Loges, Sonja; Schmidt, Thomas; Tjwa, Marc; van Geyte, Katie; Lievens, Dirk; Lutgens, Esther; Vanhoutte, Davy; Borgel, Delphine; Plaisance, Stephane; Hoylaerts, Marc; Luttun, Aernout; Dewerchin, Mieke; Jonckx, Bart; Carmeliet, Peter

2010-03-18

225

The Methanol Extract of Angelica sinensis Induces Cell Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Human Malignant Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascularized and invasive neoplasm. The methanol extract of Angelica sinensis (AS-M) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several diseases, such as gastric mucosal damage, hepatic injury, menopausal symptoms, and chronic glomerulonephritis. AS-M also displays potency in suppressing the growth of malignant brain tumor cells. The growth suppression of malignant brain tumor cells by AS-M results from cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. AS-M upregulates expression of cyclin kinase inhibitors, including p16, to decrease the phosphorylation of Rb proteins, resulting in arrest at the G0-G1 phase. The expression of the p53 protein is increased by AS-M and correlates with activation of apoptosis-associated proteins. Therefore, the apoptosis of cancer cells induced by AS-M may be triggered through the p53 pathway. In in vivo studies, AS-M not only suppresses the growth of human malignant brain tumors but also significantly prolongs patient survival. In addition, AS-M has potent anticancer effects involving cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. The in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of AS-M indicate that this extract warrants further investigation and potential development as a new antibrain tumor agent, providing new hope for the chemotherapy of malignant brain cancer. PMID:24319475

Lai, Wen-Lin; Harn, Horng-jyh; Hung, Pei-Hsiu; Hsieh, Ming-Chang; Chang, Kai-Fu; Huang, Xiao-Fan; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Lee, Ming-Shih; Tsai, Nu-Man

2013-01-01

226

Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor from a Human Pancreatic Tumor that Caused Acromegaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 44 amino acid peptide with growth hormone-releasing activity has been isolated from a human tumor of the pancreas that had caused acromegaly. The primary structure of the tumor-derived peptide is H-Tyr-Ala-Asp-Ala-Ile-Phe-Thr-Asn-Ser-Tyr-Arg-Lys-Val-Leu-Gly-Gln-Leu- Ser-Ala-Arg-Lys-Leu-Leu-Gln-Asp-Ile-Met-Ser-Arg-Gln-Gln-Gly-Glu-Ser-Asn- Gln-Glu-Arg-Gly-Ala-Arg-Ala-Arg-Leu-NH2. The synthetic replicate has full biological activity in vitro and in vivo specifically to stimulate the secretion of immunoreactive growth hormone. The tumor-derived peptide is identical

Roger Guillemin; Paul Brazeau; Peter Bohlen; Frederick Esch; Nicholas Ling; William B. Wehrenberg

1982-01-01

227

[Effect of sodium fluoroacetate on Ehrlich solid tumor and autochthonous sarcoma growth in mice].  

PubMed

Due to biochemical characteristics of toxic action of fluoroacetate on energetics and metabolism of cells, including tumor cells, it was interesting to testify sodium fluoroacetate (SFA) for its antitumor activity in vivo. We have estimated that SFA significantly inhibits growth of Ehrlich tumor carcinoma. In experiments with autochthonous induced by benzo[a]pyrene subcutaneous tumors, SFA was not active in monotherapy regime, though potentiated antitumor effect of cyclophosphamide, significantly increasing the relative number of mice with stabilized or decreased tumor volume as well as the duration of this effect. The data obtained render basis for additional studies of mechanism of antitumor effect of SFA. PMID:24624791

Anikin, I V; Goncharov, N V; Tyndyk, M L; Vo?tenko, N G; Pliss, G B; Zabezhinski?, M A; Popovich, I G; Anisimov, V N

2013-01-01

228

Combination therapy with gefitinib and doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth in transgenic mice with adrenal neuroblastoma  

PubMed Central

Highly relevant mouse models of human neuroblastoma (NB) are needed to evaluate new therapeutic strategies against NB. In this study, we characterized transgenic mice with bilateral adrenal tumors. On the basis of information from the tumoral gene expression profiles, we examined the antitumor effects of unencapsulated and liposomal doxorubicin (DXR), alone and in combination with gefitinib, on adrenal NB. We showed that intravenous injection of unencapsulated or liposomal DXR alone inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, liposomal DXR did not exhibit greater antitumor effect than unencapsulated DXR. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the adrenal tumor vasculature with abundant pericyte coverage was a less leaky structure for liposomes. Combination therapy with unencapsulated or liposomal DXR plus gefitinib strongly suppressed tumor growth and delayed tumor regrowth than treatment with unencapsulated or liposomal DXR alone, even at a lower dose of DXR. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI analysis revealed that gefitinib treatment increased blood flow in the tumor, indicating that gefitinib treatment changes the tumor vascular environment in a manner that may increase the antitumor effect of DXR. In conclusion, the combination of gefitinib and DXR induces growth inhibition of adrenal NBs in transgenic mice. These findings will provide helpful insights into new treatments for NB. PMID:23930205

Kawano, Kumi; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Akamizu, Takashi; Maitani, Yoshie

2013-01-01

229

Tumor fibroblast-derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK.  

PubMed

Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms. PMID:23549083

Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Waldner, Maximilian J; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R; Threadgill, David W; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F

2013-04-01

230

Tumor fibroblast-derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms. PMID:23549083

Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Tureci, Ozlem; Waldner, Maximilian J.; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R.; Threadgill, David W.; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F.

2013-01-01

231

DNA vaccines designed to inhibit tumor growth by suppression of angiogenesis.  

PubMed

The development of new blood vessels, i.e. angiogenesis, is a rate-limiting step in the development of tumors since tumor growth is generally limited to 1-2 mm3 in the absence of a blood supply. Thus, the inhibition of tumor growth by attacking the tumor's vascular supply offers a primary target for antiangiogenic intervention by DNA-based vaccines. Here, we describe two novel orally delivered DNA vaccines which suppress tumor angiogenesis and induce a robust cell-mediated immune response that provides for long-lived protection against melanoma, colon, breast and non-small-cell lung carcinoma in mouse model systems. These vaccines, which are delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to secondary lymphoid organs, are directed against such targets as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (FLK-1) and transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1). Both vaccines break peripheral T cell tolerance against these self-antigens and induce a robust T cell-mediated immune response leading to suppression of tumor angiogenesis and resulting in effective suppression of tumor growth and metastases. Such research efforts may open up new possibilities for the rational design of future DNA vaccines effective for the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:14988601

Reisfeld, Ralph A; Niethammer, A G; Luo, Y; Xiang, R

2004-03-01

232

PPAR? agonist fenofibrate suppresses tumor growth through direct and indirect angiogenesis inhibition  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis and inflammation are central processes through which the tumor microenvironment influences tumor growth. We have demonstrated recently that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? deficiency in the host leads to overt inflammation that suppresses angiogenesis via excess production of thrombospondin (TSP)-1 and prevents tumor growth. Hence, we speculated that pharmacologic activation of PPAR? would promote tumor growth. Surprisingly, the PPAR? agonist fenofibrate potently suppressed primary tumor growth in mice. This effect was not mediated by cancer-cell-autonomous antiproliferative mechanisms but by the inhibition of angiogenesis and inflammation in the host tissue. Although PPAR?-deficient tumors were still susceptible to fenofibrate, absence of PPAR? in the host animal abrogated the potent antitumor effect of fenofibrate. In addition, fenofibrate suppressed endothelial cell proliferation and VEGF production, increased TSP-1 and endostatin, and inhibited corneal neovascularization. Thus, both genetic abrogation of PPAR? as well as its activation by ligands cause tumor suppression via overlapping antiangiogenic pathways. These findings reveal the potential utility of the well tolerated PPAR? agonists beyond their use as lipid-lowering drugs in anticancer therapy. Our results provide a mechanistic rationale for evaluating the clinical benefits of PPAR? agonists in cancer treatment, alone and in combination with other therapies. PMID:18199835

Panigrahy, Dipak; Kaipainen, Arja; Huang, Sui; Butterfield, Catherine E.; Barnes, Carmen M.; Fannon, Michael; Laforme, Andrea M.; Chaponis, Deviney M.; Folkman, Judah; Kieran, Mark W.

2008-01-01

233

PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate suppresses tumor growth through direct and indirect angiogenesis inhibition.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis and inflammation are central processes through which the tumor microenvironment influences tumor growth. We have demonstrated recently that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha deficiency in the host leads to overt inflammation that suppresses angiogenesis via excess production of thrombospondin (TSP)-1 and prevents tumor growth. Hence, we speculated that pharmacologic activation of PPARalpha would promote tumor growth. Surprisingly, the PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate potently suppressed primary tumor growth in mice. This effect was not mediated by cancer-cell-autonomous antiproliferative mechanisms but by the inhibition of angiogenesis and inflammation in the host tissue. Although PPARalpha-deficient tumors were still susceptible to fenofibrate, absence of PPARalpha in the host animal abrogated the potent antitumor effect of fenofibrate. In addition, fenofibrate suppressed endothelial cell proliferation and VEGF production, increased TSP-1 and endostatin, and inhibited corneal neovascularization. Thus, both genetic abrogation of PPARalpha as well as its activation by ligands cause tumor suppression via overlapping antiangiogenic pathways. These findings reveal the potential utility of the well tolerated PPARalpha agonists beyond their use as lipid-lowering drugs in anticancer therapy. Our results provide a mechanistic rationale for evaluating the clinical benefits of PPARalpha agonists in cancer treatment, alone and in combination with other therapies. PMID:18199835

Panigrahy, Dipak; Kaipainen, Arja; Huang, Sui; Butterfield, Catherine E; Barnés, Carmen M; Fannon, Michael; Laforme, Andrea M; Chaponis, Deviney M; Folkman, Judah; Kieran, Mark W

2008-01-22

234

Anti-CD73 antibody therapy inhibits breast tumor growth and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Extracellular adenosine is a potent immunosuppressor that accumulates during tumor growth. We performed proof-of-concept studies investigating the therapeutic potential and mechanism of action of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapy against CD73, an ecto-enzyme overexpressed on breast-cancer cells that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of adenosine monophosphates into adenosine. We showed that anti-CD73 mAb therapy significantly delayed primary 4T1.2 and E0771 tumor growth in immune-competent mice and significantly inhibited the development of spontaneous 4T1.2 lung metastases. Notably, anti-CD73 mAb therapy was essentially dependent on the induction of adaptive anti-tumor immune responses. Knockdown of CD73 in 4T1.2 tumor cells confirmed the tumor-promoting effects of CD73. In addition to its immunosuppressive effect, CD73 enhanced tumor-cell chemotaxis, suggesting a role for CD73-derived adenosine in tumor metastasis. Accordingly, administration of adenosine-5?-N-ethylcarboxamide to tumor-bearing mice significantly enhanced spontaneous 4T1.2 lung metastasis. Using selective adenosine-receptor antagonists, we showed that activation of A2B adenosine receptors promoted 4T1.2 tumor-cell chemotaxis in vitro and metastasis in vivo. In conclusion, our study identified tumor-derived CD73 as a mechanism of tumor immune escape and tumor metastasis, and it also established the proof of concept that targeted therapy against CD73 can trigger adaptive anti-tumor immunity and inhibit metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:20080644

Stagg, John; Divisekera, Upulie; McLaughlin, Nicole; Sharkey, Janelle; Pommey, Sandra; Denoyer, Delphine; Dwyer, Karen M.; Smyth, Mark J.

2010-01-01

235

A small-molecule antagonist of CXCR4 inhibits intracranial growth of primary brain tumors.  

PubMed

The vast majority of brain tumors in adults exhibit glial characteristics. Brain tumors in children are diverse: Many have neuronal characteristics, whereas others have glial features. Here we show that activation of the Gi protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 is critical for the growth of both malignant neuronal and glial tumors. Systemic administration of CXCR4 antagonist AMD 3100 inhibits growth of intracranial glioblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts by increasing apoptosis and decreasing the proliferation of tumor cells. This reflects the ability of AMD 3100 to reduce the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt, all of which are pathways downstream of CXCR4 that promote survival, proliferation, and migration. These studies (i) demonstrate that CXCR4 is critical to the progression of diverse brain malignances and (ii) provide a scientific rationale for clinical evaluation of AMD 3100 in treating both adults and children with malignant brain tumors. PMID:14595012

Rubin, Joshua B; Kung, Andrew L; Klein, Robyn S; Chan, Jennifer A; Sun, YanPing; Schmidt, Karl; Kieran, Mark W; Luster, Andrew D; Segal, Rosalind A

2003-11-11

236

A small-molecule antagonist of CXCR4 inhibits intracranial growth of primary brain tumors  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of brain tumors in adults exhibit glial characteristics. Brain tumors in children are diverse: Many have neuronal characteristics, whereas others have glial features. Here we show that activation of the Gi protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 is critical for the growth of both malignant neuronal and glial tumors. Systemic administration of CXCR4 antagonist AMD 3100 inhibits growth of intracranial glioblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts by increasing apoptosis and decreasing the proliferation of tumor cells. This reflects the ability of AMD 3100 to reduce the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt, all of which are pathways downstream of CXCR4 that promote survival, proliferation, and migration. These studies (i) demonstrate that CXCR4 is critical to the progression of diverse brain malignances and (ii) provide a scientific rationale for clinical evaluation of AMD 3100 in treating both adults and children with malignant brain tumors. PMID:14595012

Rubin, Joshua B.; Kung, Andrew L.; Klein, Robyn S.; Chan, Jennifer A.; Sun, YanPing; Schmidt, Karl; Kieran, Mark W.; Luster, Andrew D.; Segal, Rosalind A.

2003-01-01

237

Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: improving target volume delineation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glioblastoma differ from many other tumors in the sense that they grow infiltratively into the brain tissue instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In current clinical practice, a uniform margin, typically two centimeters, is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease that is not directly assessable through imaging. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth, which arises from different factors: anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain. The target volume for radiotherapy planning can be defined as an isoline of the simulated tumor cell density. This paper analyzes the model with respect to implications for target volume definition and identifies its most critical components. A retrospective study involving ten glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been performed. To illustrate the main findings of the study, a detailed case study is presented for a glioblastoma located close to the falx. In this situation, the falx represents a boundary for migrating tumor cells, whereas the corpus callosum provides a route for the tumor to spread to the contralateral hemisphere. We further discuss the sensitivity of the model with respect to the input parameters. Correct segmentation of the brain appears to be the most crucial model input. We conclude that the tumor growth model provides a method to account for anisotropic growth patterns of glioma, and may therefore provide a tool to make target delineation more objective and automated.

Unkelbach, Jan; Menze, Bjoern H.; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A.

2014-02-01

238

Pancreatic endocrine tumors with intraductal growth into the main pancreatic duct and tumor thrombus within the portal vein: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare tumors classified into "functioning" and "nonfunctioning" tumors. A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the chief compliant of abdominal pain. Various imaging studies demonstrated a mass in the head of the pancreas with intraductal growth into the main pancreatic duct and an intraportal mass. The patient underwent a curative surgical operation. Histopathological examination revealed that it was nonfunctioning endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. This is the first reported case of a pancreatic endocrine tumor with intraductal growth into the main pancreatic duct and tumor thrombus within the portal vein. PMID:17379993

Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Hirano, Satoshi; Kondo, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Itoh, Tomoo; Asaka, Masahiro

2007-01-01

239

Image Guided Personalization of Reaction-Diffusion Type Tumor Growth Models Using Modified Anisotropic Eikonal Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction-diffusion based tumor growth models have been widely used in the literature for modeling the growth of brain gliomas. Lately, recent models have started integrating medical images in their formulation. Including different tis sue types, geometry of the brain and the directions of white matter fiber tracts improved the spatial accuracy of reaction-diffusio n models. The adaptation of the general

Ender Konukoglu; Olivier Clatz; Bjoern H. Menze; Marc-Andre Weber; Bram Stieltjes; Emmanuel Mandonnet; Herve Delingette; Nicholas Ayache

2010-01-01

240

Antibody blockade of the Cripto CFC domain suppresses tumor cell growth in vivo  

PubMed Central

Cripto, a cell surface–associated protein belonging to the EGF-CFC family of growth factor–like molecules, is overexpressed in many human solid tumors, including 70–80% of breast and colon tumors, yet how it promotes cell transformation is unclear. During embryogenesis, Cripto complexes with Alk4 via its unique cysteine-rich CFC domain to facilitate signaling by the TGF-? ligand Nodal. We report, for the first time to our knowledge, that Cripto can directly bind to another TGF-? ligand, Activin B, and that Cripto overexpression blocks Activin B growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. This result suggests a novel mechanism for antagonizing Activin signaling that could promote tumorigenesis by deregulating growth homeostasis. We show that an anti–CFC domain antibody, A8.G3.5, both disrupts Cripto-Nodal signaling and reverses Cripto blockade of Activin B–induced growth suppression by blocking Cripto’s association with either Alk4 or Activin B. In two xenograft models, testicular and colon cancer, A8.G3.5 inhibited tumor cell growth by up to 70%. Both Nodal and Activin B expression was found in the xenograft tumor, suggesting that either ligand could be promoting tumorigenesis. These data validate that functional blockade of Cripto inhibits tumor growth and highlight antibodies that block Cripto signaling mediated through its CFC domain as an important class of antibodies for further therapeutic development. PMID:12925698

Adkins, Heather B.; Bianco, Caterina; Schiffer, Susan G.; Rayhorn, Paul; Zafari, Mohammad; Cheung, Anne E.; Orozco, Olivia; Olson, Dian; De Luca, Antonella; Chen, Ling Ling; Miatkowski, Konrad; Benjamin, Chris; Normanno, Nicola; Williams, Kevin P.; Jarpe, Matthew; LePage, Doreen; Salomon, David; Sanicola, Michele

2003-01-01

241

Cotargeting tumor and stroma in a novel chimeric tumor model involving the growth of both human prostate cancer and bone stromal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stromal–epithelial interaction contributes to local prostate tumor growth, androgen-independent progression and distant metastasis. We have established in vitro coculture and in vivo chimeric tumor models to evaluate the roles of stromal cells isolated from either osteosarcoma or normal bone, a site where prostate cancer cells frequently metastasize, in contributing to the growth and survival of human prostate cancer cells. We

Chia-Ling Hsieh; Thomas A Gardner; Li Miao; Gary Balian; Leland W K Chung; Leland WK Chung

2004-01-01

242

The von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein Regulates Gene Expression and Tumor Growth through Histone Demethylase JARID1C  

PubMed Central

In clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), inactivation of the tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) occurs in the majority of the tumors and is causal for the pathogenesis of ccRCC. Recently a large-scale genomic sequencing study of ccRCC tumors revealed that enzymes that regulate histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4Me3), such as JARID1C/KDM5C/SMCX and MLL2, were mutated in ccRCC tumors, suggesting that H3K4Me3 might play an important role in regulating gene expression and tumorigenesis. In this study, we report that in VHL-deficient ccRCC cells the overall H3K4Me3 levels were significantly lower than that of VHL+/+ counterparts. Furthermore, this was HIF-dependent, as depletion of HIF subunits by shRNA in VHL-deficient ccRCC cells restored H3K4Me3 levels. In addition, we demonstrated that only loss of JARID1C, not JARID1A or JARID1B, abolished the difference of H3K4Me3 levels between VHL?/? and VHL+/+ cells, and JARID1C displayed HIF-dependent expression pattern. JARID1C in VHL?/? cells was responsible for the suppression of HIF-responsive genes IGFBP3, DNAJC12, COL6A1, GDF15, and DEP-1. Consistent with these findings, the H3K4Me3 levels at the promoters of IGFBP3, DNAJC12, COL6A1, and GDF15 were lower in VHL?/? cells than in VHL+/+ cells, and the differences disappeared after JARID1C depletion. Although HIF2? is an oncogene in ccRCC, some of its targets might have tumor suppressive activity. Consistent with this, knockdown of JARID1C in 786-O VHL?/? ccRCC cells significantly enhanced tumor growth in a xenograft model, suggesting that JARID1C is tumor suppressive and its mutations are tumor-promoting in ccRCC. Thus, VHL inactivation decreases H3K4Me3 levels through JARID1C, which alters gene expression and suppresses tumor growth. PMID:21725364

Niu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Ting; Liao, Lili; Zhou, Liang; Lindner, Daniel J.; Zhou, Ming; Rini, Brian; Yan, Qin; Yang, Haifeng

2014-01-01

243

Inactivation of RASSF1C during in vivo tumor growth identifies it as a tumor suppressor gene.  

PubMed

RASSF1A, a major member of the RASSF1 gene family, is silenced by promoter methylation at a high frequency in a large number of human solid tumors. Controlled expression of RASSF1A reverts the tumorigenic phenotype of several human cancer cell lines. Here we investigated another main isoform, RASSF1C, and compared it with RASSF1A in the gene inactivation test (GIT), based on a tetracycline regulation system. In the small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) line U2020, only RASSF1A has shown growth inhibitory activity in vitro, while in the prostate cell line LNCaP and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) line KRC/Y both RASSF1A and RASSF1C showed similar (approximately 90%) suppressing activity in vitro. Both RASSF1C and RASSF1A suppressed the tumorigenicity of the KRC/Y RCC cell line in SCID mice. Mutations, deletions and loss of expression of RASSF1A and RASSF1C transgenes were identified in all 15 grown SCID tumors. In contrast, the mutant RASSF1A containing Cys65Arg and Val211Ala had reduced growth suppression activity both in vitro and in vivo and did not show any further changes in four grown SCID tumors. In addition, RASSF1C was shown to induce cell cycle arrest in KRC/Y cells. These results strongly imply that like RASSF1A the RASSF1C gene could serve a tumor suppressor function. PMID:15208682

Li, Jingfeng; Wang, Fuli; Protopopov, Alexey; Malyukova, Alena; Kashuba, Vladimir; Minna, John D; Lerman, Michael I; Klein, George; Zabarovsky, Eugene

2004-08-01

244

Does tumor growth follow a "universal law" ? Caterina Guiot*,  

E-print Network

103 cm3 in size (which is reportedly lethal in primary breast cancer by Retsky, 1997), the clinical, including its relevance for tumor metastasis and recurrence, cell turnover rates, angiogenesis and invasion for the development of more successful treatment strategies. Given the lack of clinical data at non-symptomatic stages

Grether, Gregory

245

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Suppression of colorectal tumor growth by regulated  

E-print Network

. The potential of this system in cancer therapy was evaluated in experimental animals. Tumor xenograft models /Accepted: 11 August 2006 # Springer-Verlag 2006 Abstract A major goal in cancer gene therapy is to develop for cancer gene therapy. Specifically, they generated vectors for targeting survivin pathway. XINYUAN LIU

Tian, Weidong

246

Inhibition of tumor cell growth in the liver by RNA interference-mediated suppression of HIF-1? expression in tumor cells and hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a ubiquitously expressed oxygen-regulated transcription factor composed of ? and ? subunits. HIF-1 activates transcription of various genes including those involved in metastatic tumor growth. In the present study, HIF-1? expression in tumor-bearing mouse liver was examined after inoculation of tumor cells into portal vein. We found that tumor-bearing liver showed greatly increased HIF-1? expression. Plasmid

Y Takahashi; M Nishikawa; Y Takakura

2008-01-01

247

Rhein lysinate suppresses the growth of tumor cells and increases the anti-tumor activity of Taxol in mice.  

PubMed

In previous studies, rhein, one of the major bioactive constituents in the rhizome of rhubarb, inhibited the proliferation of various human cancer cells. However, because of its water insolubility, the anti-tumor efficacy of rhein was limited in vivo. In this study, we observed the anti-tumor activity of rhein lysinate (the salt of rhein and lysine easily dissolves in water) in vivo and investigated its mechanism. Inhibition of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay and the mechanism of action of rhein lysinate was investigated by Western blot analysis. The therapeutic efficacy of rhein lysinate was evaluated by intragastric and intraperitoneal administrations in H22 hepatocellular carcinoma mice. Rhein lysinate inhibited the proliferation of SKOV-3 cells and the IC50 value was 80 microM. Rhein lysinate inhibited the phosphorylation of MEK and ERK and increased the anti-tumor activity of Taxol in vitro. It inhibited tumor growth by both intragastric and intraperitoneal administrations and improved the therapeutic effect of Taxol in H22 hepatocellular carcinoma mice. In conclusion, rhein lysinate offers an anti-tumor activity in vivo and is hopeful to be a chemotherapeutic drug. PMID:19885952

Lin, Ya-Jun; Zhen, Yong-Zhan; Shang, Bo-Yang; Zhen, Yong-Su

2009-01-01

248

Systemic and local injections of lupeol inhibit tumor growth in a melanoma-bearing mouse model  

PubMed Central

Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and it is procured from activated or genetically altered epidermal melanocytes. In the present study, the tumor-suppressive effects of systemic and local injections of lupeol, a triterpene extracted from Indian lettuce (Lactuca indica), in a melanoma-bearing mouse model were evaluated. Mice were injected once with lupeol or olive oil (solvent control) subcutaneously into the skin of the back or into the tumor tissue. Seven days after the injection, the tumor growth rates were calculated and the tumor tissues were collected. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed. The tumor growth rates in the lupeol-injected group were significantly decreased compared to those observed in the non-treated (NT) and solvent control groups. Lupeol also significantly decreased the areas positively stained for Ki-67 and PCNA in the tumor tissues compared to those in the NT and solvent control groups. The results of the present study demonstrated that systemic and local injections of lupeol suppress tumor growth and induce cell cycle arrest in a melanoma-bearing mouse model. These data suggest that lupeol may be effective as a novel therapeutic option for melanoma patients. PMID:24649001

NITTA, MAKIKO; AZUMA, KAZUO; HATA, KEISHI; TAKAHASHI, SAORI; OGIWARA, KIKUMI; TSUKA, TAKESHI; IMAGAWA, TOMOHIRO; YOKOE, INORU; OSAKI, TOMOHIRO; MINAMI, SABURO; OKAMOTO, YOSHIHARU

2013-01-01

249

Neutralizing monoclonal antibody to periostin inhibits ovarian tumor growth and metastasis.  

PubMed

Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein, is reported to be overexpressed in a variety of human cancers and its functions seem to be linked to tumor metastasis. Our previous results show that engineered periostin overexpression promotes ovarian tumor growth and dissemination in vivo. In this study, we developed a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to periostin, named MZ-1, and investigated its effects on human ovarian tumor growth and metastasis. Our in vivo studies showed significant growth inhibition by MZ-1 on both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal (i.p.) tumors derived from the periostin-expressing ovarian cancer cell line A2780. In addition, MZ-1 treatment led to a reduction of the metastatic potential of these A2780 i.p. tumors. The in vivo antitumor effects of MZ-1 were linked to its specific inhibition of anchorage-independent growth and survival of periostin-expressing cells, as well as its neutralizing effects on periostin-induced cancer cell migration and invasion. The data suggest that blocking periostin expression may be a novel approach for treating the subset of invasive ovarian tumors that overexpress periostin protein. PMID:21670235

Zhu, Min; Saxton, Romaine E; Ramos, Lillian; Chang, David D; Karlan, Beth Y; Gasson, Judith C; Slamon, Dennis J

2011-08-01

250

Non-invasive optical imaging of tumor growth in intact animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe here a system for rapidly visualizing tumor growth in intact rodent mice that is simple, rapid, and eminently accessible and repeatable. We have established new rodent tumor cell line -- SP2/0-GFP cells that stably express high level of green fluorescent protein (GFP) by transfected with a plasmid that encoded GFP using electroporation and selected with G418 for 3 weeks. 1 x 104 - 1x107 SP2/0-GFP mouse melanoma cells were injected s.c. in the ears and legs of 6- to 7-week-old syngeneic male BALB/c mice, and optical images visualized real-time the engrafted tumor growth. The tumor burden was monitored over time by cryogenically cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera focused through a stereo microscope. The results show that the fluorescence intensity of GFP-expressing tumor is comparably with the tumor growth and/or depress. This in vivo optical imaging based on GFP is sensitive, external, and noninvasive. It affords continuous visual monitoring of malignant growth within intact animals, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating antineoplastic therapies.

Lu, Jinling; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

2003-12-01

251

Heparin Affinity: Purification of a Tumor-Derived Capillary Endothelial Cell Growth Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tumor-derived growth factor that stimulates the proliferation of capillary endothelial cells has a very strong affinity for heparin. This heparin affinity makes it possible to purify the growth factor to a single-band preparation in a rapid two-step procedure. The purified growth factor is a cationic polypeptide, has a molecular weight of about 18,000, and stimulates capillary endothelial cell proliferation

Y. Shing; J. Folkman; R. Sullivan; C. Butterfield; M. Klagsbrun

1984-01-01

252

Tumors induce coordinate growth of artery, vein, and lymphatic vessel triads  

PubMed Central

Background Tumors drive blood vessel growth to obtain oxygen and nutrients to support tumor expansion, and they also can induce lymphatic vessel growth to facilitate fluid drainage and metastasis. These processes have generally been studied separately, so that it is not known how peritumoral blood and lymphatic vessels grow relative to each other. Methods The murine B16-F10 melanoma and chemically-induced squamous cell carcinoma models were employed to analyze large red-colored vessels growing between flank tumors and draining lymph nodes. Immunostaining and microscopy in combination with dye injection studies were used to characterize these vessels. Results Each peritumoral red-colored vessel was found to consist of a triad of collecting lymphatic vessel, vein, and artery, that were all enlarged. Peritumoral veins and arteries were both functional, as detected by intravenous dye injection. The enlarged lymphatic vessels were functional in most mice by subcutaneous dye injection assay, however tumor growth sometimes blocked lymph drainage to regional lymph nodes. Large red-colored vessels also grew between benign papillomas or invasive squamous cell carcinomas and regional lymph nodes in chemical carcinogen-treated mice. Immunostaining of the red-colored vessels again identified the clustered growth of enlarged collecting lymphatics, veins, and arteries in the vicinity of these spontaneously arising tumors. Conclusions Implanted and spontaneously arising tumors induce coordinate growth of blood and lymphatic vessel triads. Many of these vessel triads are enlarged over several cm distance between the tumor and regional lymph nodes. Lymphatic drainage was sometimes blocked in mice before lymph node metastasis was detected, suggesting that an unknown mechanism alters lymph drainage patterns before tumors reach draining lymph nodes. PMID:24886322

2014-01-01

253

In vivo Cytokine Gene Transfer by Gene Gun Reduces Tumor Growth in Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implantation of tumor cells modified by in vitro cytokine gene transfer has been shown by many investigators to result in potent in vivo antitumor activities in mice. Here we describe an approach to tumor immunotherapy utilizing direct transfection of cytokine genes into tumorbearing animals by particle-mediated gene transfer. In vivo transfection of the human interleukin 6 gene into the tumor site reduced methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma growth, and a combination of murine tumor necrosis factor ? and interferon ? genes inhibited growth of a renal carcinoma tumor model (Renca). In addition, treatment with murine interleukin 2 and interferon ? genes prolonged the survival of Renca tumor-bearing mice and resulted in tumor eradication in 25% of the test animals. Transgene expression was demonstrated in treated tissues by ELISA and immunohistochemical analysis. Significant serum levels of interleukin 6 and interferon ? were detected, demonstrating effective secretion of transgenic proteins from treated skin into the bloodstream. This in vivo cytokine gene therapy approach provides a system for evaluating the antitumor properties of various cytokines in different tumor models and has potential utility for human cancer gene therapy.

Sun, Wenn H.; Burkholder, Joseph K.; Sun, Jian; Culp, Jerilyn; Turner, Joel; Lu, Xing G.; Pugh, Thomas D.; Ershler, William B.; Yang, Ning-Sun

1995-03-01

254

Targeting olfactomedin-like 3 inhibits tumor growth by impairing angiogenesis and pericyte coverage.  

PubMed

Antiangiogenic drugs have been used as anticancer agents to target tumor endothelial cells or pericytes. Because of limited efficacy of the current monotherapies, there is a strong demand for the dual targeting of endothelial cells and pericytes. Here, we identify Olfactomedin-like 3 (Olfml3) as a novel proangiogenic cue within the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-derived Olfml3 is produced by both tumor endothelial cells and accompanying pericytes and deposited in the perivascular compartment. Blockade of Olfml3 by anti-Olfml3 antibodies is highly effective in reducing tumor vascularization, pericyte coverage, and tumor growth. In vitro, Olfml3 targeting is sufficient to inhibit endothelioma cell migration and sprouting. Olfml3 alone or through binding to BMP4 enhances the canonical SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathway required for BMP4-induced angiogenesis. Therefore, Olfml3 blockade provides a novel strategy to control tumor growth by targeting two distinct cell types within the tumor microenvironment using a single molecule. PMID:23002094

Miljkovic-Licina, Marijana; Hammel, Philippe; Garrido-Urbani, Sarah; Lee, Boris P-L; Meguenani, Mehdi; Chaabane, Chiraz; Bochaton-Piallat, Marie-Luce; Imhof, Beat A

2012-12-01

255

A Mathematical Model of Prostate Tumor Growth Under Hormone Therapy with Mutation Inhibitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper extends Jackson’s model describing the growth of a prostate tumor with hormone therapy to a new one with hypothetical mutation inhibitors. The new model not only considers the mutation by which androgen-dependent (AD) tumor cells mutate into androgen-independent (AI) ones but also introduces inhibition which is assumed to change the mutation rate. The tumor consists of two types of cells (AD and AI) whose proliferation and apoptosis rates are functions of androgen concentration. The mathematical model represents a free-boundary problem for a nonlinear system of parabolic equations, which describe the evolution of the populations of the above two types of tumor cells. The tumor surface is a free boundary, whose velocity is equal to the cell’s velocity there. Global existence and uniqueness of solutions of this model is proved. Furthermore, explicit formulae of tumor volume at any time t are found in androgen-deprived environment under the assumption of radial symmetry, and therefore the dynamics of tumor growth under androgen-deprived therapy could be predicted by these formulae. Qualitative analysis and numerical simulation show that controlling the mutation may improve the effect of hormone therapy or delay a tumor relapse.

Tao, Youshan; Guo, Qian; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2010-04-01

256

Measuring Growth and Gene Expression Dynamics of Tumor-Targeted S. Typhimurium Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The goal of these experiments is to generate quantitative time-course data on the growth and gene expression dynamics of attenuated S. typhimurium bacterial colonies growing inside tumors. We generated model xenograft tumors in mice by subcutaneous injection of a human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-8 (NCI DCTD Tumor Repository, Frederick, MD). We transformed attenuated strains of S. typhimurium bacteria (ELH430:SL1344 phoPQ- 1) with a constitutively expressed luciferase (luxCDABE) plasmid for visualization2. These strains specifically colonize tumors while remaining essentially non-virulent to the mouse1. Once measurable tumors were established, bacteria were injected intravenously via the tail vein with varying dosage. Tumor-localized, bacterial gene expression was monitored in real time over the course of 60 hours using an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). At each time point, tumors were excised, homogenized, and plated to quantitate bacterial colonies for correlation with gene expression data. Together, this data yields a quantitative measure of the in vivo growth and gene expression dynamics of bacteria growing inside tumors. PMID:23851642

Hasty, Jeff; Bhatia, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

257

Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone suppress in vivo tumor growth and gene expression in triple negative breast cancers  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effects of a modern antagonistic analog of GHRH on tumor growth and on expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in two models of human triple negative breast cancers (TNBC). The TNBC subtype is refractory to the treatment options available for other hormone-independent breast cancers. Inflammatory cytokines play a major role in the cellular signaling associated with breast cancer pathogenesis and enhance epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT), drug resistance, and metastatic potential. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide which regulates the synthesis and release of growth hormone by the pituitary and is an autocrine/paracrine growth factor for multiple human cancers. The effects of analogs of GHRH on tumoral cytokine expression have not been previously investigated. Animals bearing xenografts of the human TNBC cell lines, HCC1806 and MX-1, were treated with MIA-602, an antagonistic analog of GHRH. Treatment with MIA-602 significantly reduced tumor growth. We quantified transcript levels of the genes for several inflammatory cytokines. Expression of INF?, IL-1?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF?, was significantly reduced by treatment with MIA-602. We conclude that treatment of TNBC with GHRH antagonists reduces tumor growth through an action mediated by tumoral GHRH receptors and produces a suppression of inflammatory cytokine signaling. Silencing of GHRH receptors in vitro with siRNA inhibited the expression of GHRH-R genes and inflammatory cytokine genes in HCC1806 and MX-1 cells. Further studies on GHRH antagonists may facilitate the development of new strategies for the treatment of resistant cancers. PMID:22941871

Perez, Roberto; Schally, Andrew V.; Vidaurre, Irving; Rincon, Ricardo; Block, Norman L.; Rick, Ferenc G.

2012-01-01

258

A ribonuclease inhibitor expresses anti-angiogenic properties and leads to reduced tumor growth in mice.  

PubMed Central

Our experiments were designed to determine whether recombinant ribonuclease inhibitor (RNasin) could inhibit angiogenesis and reduce tumor growth in adult mice. We used the Fajardo disc angiogenesis assay as the primary means of measuring new blood vessel growth. This assay measures the penetration of cells into a polyvinyl alcohol sponge with a central core of ELVAX-coated sponge containing test substances. Cell penetration was reduced to 29.3% of control (phosphate-buffered saline; heat-inactivated RNasin) values. Endothelial cell influx was measured by lectin staining and confirmed by culturing cells isolated from sponges by collagenase treatment. RNasin also reduced the augmented reaction evoked by either basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or sodium orthovanadate. To confirm the anti-angiogenic activity of RNasin, Hydron-coated polyvinyl sponges containing bFGF or bFGF plus RNasin were implanted into adult mouse corneas. bFGF induced a strong angiogenic response that was almost completely inhibited by RNasin. RNasin-containing ELVAX-coated sponges implanted subcutaneously underneath an intradermal inoculum of C755 mammary tumor cells caused significant reduction in tumor growth (P < 0.005). The antitumor effect of RNasin correlated with its effect on tumor-induced neovascularization, suggesting that the ability of RNasin to affect tumor growth was due to its ability to inhibit angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7688185

Polakowski, I. J.; Lewis, M. K.; Muthukkaruppan, V. R.; Erdman, B.; Kubai, L.; Auerbach, R.

1993-01-01

259

Tumor-induced osteomalacia associated with a maxillofacial tumor producing fibroblast growth factor 23: report of a case and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare acquired paraneoplastic disease characterized by renal phosphate wasting and hypophosphatemia. Recently, it was reported that tumors associated with TIO produce fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23, identified as the last member of the FGF family and of which excessive action causes several hypophosphatemic diseases whereas deficient FGF23 activity results in hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis. In this case, although it was difficult to locate the associated tumor, an abnormal mass in the left maxilla was detected by imaging. The tumor was removed by partial resection of the left maxillary alveolar region. Thereafter, serum level of FGF23 rapidly decreased, hypophosphatemia improved, and the clinical symptoms greatly improved. Histopathologic diagnosis of the tumor was phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant. Immunohistochemical findings confirmed that the removed tumor produced FGF23. These results indicate that development of osteomalacia in this patient was related to the maxillary tumor, which overexpressed FGF23. PMID:20219587

Mori, Yoshiyuki; Ogasawara, Toru; Motoi, Toru; Shimizu, Yuichiro; Chikazu, Daichi; Tamura, Kazumi; Fukumoto, Seiji; Takato, Tsuyoshi

2010-03-01

260

News Note: Gene Therapy Method Slows Tumor Growth in Mice  

Cancer.gov

NCI researchers have developed a novel method in mice of delivering genes to cancer cells, that when expressed, promote cell death. These genes, known as suicide genes, cause a cell to kill itself through a process known as apoptosis. The new technique uses the survivin gene promoter to express the suicide gene and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. This method of gene delivery effectively targeted tumor cells with a minimum effect on normal cells.

261

Impact of Circulating Cholesterol Levels on Growth and Intratumoral Androgen Concentration of Prostate Tumors  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) leads to tumor involution and reduction of tumor burden. However, tumors eventually reemerge that have overcome the absence of gonadal androgens, termed castration resistant PCa (CRPC). Theories underlying the development of CRPC include androgen receptor (AR) mutation allowing for promiscuous activation by non-androgens, AR amplification and overexpression leading to hypersensitivity to low androgen levels, and/or tumoral uptake and conversion of adrenally derived androgens. More recently it has been proposed that prostate tumor cells synthesize their own androgens through de novo steroidogenesis, which involves the step-wise synthesis of androgens from cholesterol. Using the in vivo LNCaP PCa xenograft model, previous data from our group demonstrated that a hypercholesterolemia diet potentiates prostatic tumor growth via induction of angiogenesis. Using this same model we now demonstrate that circulating cholesterol levels are significantly associated with tumor size (R?=?0.3957, p?=?0.0049) and intratumoral levels of testosterone (R?=?0.41, p?=?0.0023) in LNCaP tumors grown in hormonally intact mice. We demonstrate tumoral expression of cholesterol uptake genes as well as the spectrum of steroidogenic enzymes necessary for androgen biosynthesis from cholesterol. Moreover, we show that circulating cholesterol levels are directly correlated with tumoral expression of CYP17A, the critical enzyme required for de novo synthesis of androgens from cholesterol (R?=?0.4073, p?=?0.025) Since hypercholesterolemia does not raise circulating androgen levels and the adrenal gland of the mouse synthesizes minimal androgens, this study provides evidence that hypercholesterolemia increases intratumoral de novo steroidogenesis. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that cholesterol-fueled intratumoral androgen synthesis may accelerate the growth of prostate tumors, and suggest that treatment of CRPC may be optimized by inclusion of cholesterol reduction therapies in conjunction with therapies targeting androgen synthesis and the AR. PMID:22279565

Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R.; Montgomery, R. Bruce

2012-01-01

262

Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone suppress in vivo tumor growth and gene expression in triple negative breast cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of a modern antagonistic analog of GHRH on tumor growth and on expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in two models of human triple negative breast cancers (TNBC). The TNBC subtype is refractory to the treatment options available for other hormone-independent breast cancers. Inflammatory cytokines play a major role in the cellular signaling associated with breast

R. Perez; A. V. Schally; I. Vidaurre; R. Rincon; N. L. Block; F. G. Rick

2012-01-01

263

Various Human Hematopoietic Growth Factors (Interleukin3, GM-CSF, G-CSF) Stimulate Clonal Growth of Nonhematopoietic Tumor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

function after cytotoxic, myebosuppressive chemotherapy in patients with malignant tumors.3'4 This report describes the effects of rhIL-3, rhGM-CSF, and rhG-CSF on the clonal growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines HTB-38, WiDr (CCL 218),and CCL 187.

Wolfgang E. Berdel; Susanne Danhauser-Riedl; Gabriele Steinhauser; Elliott F. Winton

2010-01-01

264

The antiparasitic drug, potassium antimony tartrate, inhibits tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in nonsmall-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Repurposing existing drugs not only accelerates drug discovery but rapidly advances clinical therapeutic strategies. In this article, we identified potassium antimonyl tartrate (PAT), an antiparasitic drug, as a novel agent to block angiogenesis by screening US Food and Drug Administration-approved chemical drugs. By comparing the cytotoxicity of PAT in various nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with that observed in primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we found that HUVECs were much more sensitive to the PAT treatment. In in vivo tumor xenograft mouse models established either by PAT-resistant A549 cells or by patient primary tumors, PAT significantly decreased the tumor volume and tumor weight of NSCLC xenografts at dosage of 40 mg/kg (i.p., daily) and, more importantly, augmented the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin chemotherapy. Remarkable loss of vascularization in the treated xenografts indicated the in vivo antiangiogenesis property of PAT, which was well correlated with its tumor growth inhibition in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, in the in vitro angiogenic assays, PAT exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation in response to different stimuli. Consistently, PAT also abolished the vascular endothelial cell growth factor-induced angiogenesis in the Matrigel plugs assay. Mechanistically, we found that PAT inhibited the activities of several receptor tyrosine kinases and specifically blocked the activation of downstream Src and focal adhesion kinases in HUVECs. Taken together, our results characterized the novel antiangiogenic and antitumor function of PAT in NSCLC cells. Further study of PAT in anticancer clinical trials may be warranted. PMID:25352499

Wang, Beibei; Yu, Weiwei; Guo, Jiawei; Jiang, Xingwu; Lu, Weiqiang; Liu, Mingyao; Pang, Xiufeng

2015-01-01

265

Blocking epidermal growth factor receptor activation by 3,3'-diindolylmethane suppresses ovarian tumor growth in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Genetic alterations, including the overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (in approximately 70% of ovarian tumors), play a crucial role in the signal transduction pathways that regulate key cellular functions, such as cell survival and proliferation, and are responsible for compromising traditional chemotherapy. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is an indole compound present in Brassica vegetables. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that BR-DIM, a formulated version of DIM, suppressed the growth of ovarian cancer cells by causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In the present study, we delineated the mechanism by which DIM suppressed the growth of SKOV-3, OVCAR-3, and TOV-21G human ovarian cancer cells. DIM treatment caused significant down-regulation of the constitutive EGFR protein level as well as phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068, Tyr992, Tyr845, and Tyr1173 in various ovarian cancer cells. To determine whether DIM suppressed the activation of EGFR by activating phosphorylation, cells were treated with epidermal growth factor. Epidermal growth factor treatment significantly blocked the DIM-mediated inhibition of EGFR activation and apoptosis in both SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. In addition, DIM treatment drastically reduced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which are downstream to EGFR, without affecting their protein levels. DIM treatment also inhibited the kinase activity of ERK, as observed by the down-regulation of phospho-E twenty-six like transcription factor 1 (p-ELK1) in all three ovarian cancer cell lines. DIM significantly suppressed the growth of ovarian tumors in vivo. Tumor growth suppressive effects of DIM in SKOV-3 tumor xenografts were associated with reduced phosphorylation of EGFR, MEK, and ERK. These results indicate that DIM induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells by inhibiting the EGFR-ERK pathway in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22205686

Kandala, Prabodh K; Wright, Stephen E; Srivastava, Sanjay K

2012-04-01

266

Combined blockade of integrin-?4?1 plus cytokines SDF-1? or IL-1? potently inhibits tumor inflammation and growth.  

PubMed

Tumor-associated macrophages promote tumor growth by stimulating angiogenesis and suppressing antitumor immunity. Thus, therapeutics that inhibit macrophage recruitment to tumors may provide new avenues for cancer therapy. In this study, we showed how chemoattractants stromal cell-derived growth factor 1 alpha (SDF-1?) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) collaborate with myeloid cell integrin-?4?1 to promote tumor inflammation and growth. We found that SDF-1? and IL-1? are highly expressed in the microenvironments of murine lung, pancreatic, and breast tumors; surprisingly, SDF-1? was expressed only by tumor cells, whereas IL-1? was produced only by tumor-derived granulocytes and macrophages. In vivo, both factors directly recruited proangiogenic macrophages to tissues, whereas antagonists of both factors suppressed tumor inflammation, angiogenesis, and growth. Signals induced by IL-1? and SDF-1? promoted the interaction of talin and paxillin with the cytoplasmic tails of integrin-?4?1, thereby stimulating myeloid cell adhesion to endothelium in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of integrin-?4?1, SDF-1?, or IL-1? was sufficient to block tumor inflammation and growth, and the combined blockade of these molecules greatly accentuated these effects. Furthermore, antagonists of integrin-?4?1 inhibited chemotherapy-induced tumor inflammation and acted synergistically with chemotherapeutic agents to suppress tumor inflammation and growth. These results show that targeting myeloid cell recruitment mechanisms can be an effective approach to suppress tumor progression. PMID:21948958

Schmid, Michael C; Avraamides, Christie J; Foubert, Philippe; Shaked, Yuval; Kang, Sang Won; Kerbel, Robert S; Varner, Judith A

2011-11-15

267

Combined blockade of integrin ?4?1 plus cytokines SDF-1? or IL-1? potently inhibits tumor inflammation and growth  

PubMed Central

Tumor-associated macrophages promote tumor growth by stimulating angiogenesis and suppressing anti-tumor immunity. Thus, therapeutics that inhibit macrophage recruitment to tumors may provide new avenues for cancer therapy. Here we show how the chemoattractants SDF-1? and IL-1? collaborate with myeloid cell integrin ?4?1 to promote tumor inflammation and growth. We found that SDF-1? and IL-1? are highly expressed in the microenvironments of murine lung, pancreatic and breast tumors; surprisingly, SDF-1? was expressed only by tumor cells, while IL-1? was produced only by tumor-derived granulocytes and macrophages. In vivo, both factors directly recruited pro-angiogenic macrophages to tissues, while antagonists of both factors suppressed tumor inflammation, angiogenesis and growth. Signals induced by IL-1? and SDF-1? promoted the interaction of talin and paxillin with the cytoplasmic tails of integrin ?4?1, thereby stimulating myeloid cell adhesion to endothelium in vitro and in vivo. While inhibiting integrin ?4?1, SDF-1? or IL-1? was sufficient to block tumor inflammation and growth, the combined blockade of these molecules greatly accentuated these effects. Furthermore, antagonists of integrin ?4?1 inhibited chemotherapy-induced tumor inflammation and synergized with chemotherapeutic agents to suppress tumor inflammation and growth. These results demonstrate that targeting myeloid cell recruitment mechanisms can be an effective approach to suppress tumor progression. PMID:21948958

Schmid, Michael C.; Avraamides, Christie J.; Foubert, Philippe; Shaked, Yuval; Kang, Sang-Won; Kerbel, Robert S.; Varner, Judith A.

2011-01-01

268

A Comparison of Imaging Techniques to Monitor Tumor Growth and Cancer Progression in Living Animals  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Purpose. Monitoring solid tumor growth and metastasis in small animals is important for cancer research. Noninvasive techniques make longitudinal studies possible, require fewer animals, and have greater statistical power. Such techniques include FDG positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and optical imaging, comprising bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and fluorescence imaging (FLI). This study compared the performance and usability of these methods in the context of mouse tumor studies. Methods. B16 tumor-bearing mice (n = 4 for each study) were used to compare practicality, performance for small tumor detection and tumor burden measurement. Using RETAAD mice, which develop spontaneous melanomas, we examined the performance of MRI (n = 6 mice) and FDG-PET (n = 10 mice) for tumor identification. Results. Overall, BLI and FLI were the most practical techniques tested. Both BLI and FDG-PET identified small nonpalpable tumors, whereas MRI and FLI only detected macroscopic, clinically evident tumors. FDG-PET and MRI performed well in the identification of tumors in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value. Conclusion. Each of the four methods has different strengths that must be understood before selecting them for use. PMID:22121481

Puaux, Anne-Laure; Ong, Lai Chun; Jin, Yi; Teh, Irvin; Hong, Michelle; Chow, Pierce K. H.; Golay, Xavier; Abastado, Jean-Pierre

2011-01-01

269

Tumor-derived p53 mutants induce oncogenesis by transactivating growth-promoting genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the mechanism of mutant p53-mediated oncogenesis using several tumor-derived mutants. Using a colony formation assay, we found that the majority of the mutants increased the number of colonies formed compared to the vector. Expression of tumor-derived p53 mutants increases the rate of cell growth, suggesting that the p53 mutants have ‘gain of function’ properties. We have studied

Mariano J Scian; Katherine E R Stagliano; Debabrita Deb; Michelle A Ellis; Evie H Carchman; Anindita Das; Kristopher Valerie; Swati Palit Deb; Sumitra Deb

2004-01-01

270

Astroglial growth factors in normal human brain and brain tumors: comparison with embryonic brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of 18-day embryonic chicken brains, 15-day embryonic and adult rat brains and human brain tumors, as well as control histologically-normal adult human brain taken from around brain tumors or around arteriovenous malformations each stimulated the growth of cultured chick astrocytes. Eight mitogenic fractions were separated reproducibly by Bio-Gel P-10 molecular seive chromatography. They had apparent molecular weights (M.W.)

Michel P. Rathbone; Galina K. Szlapetis; Rocco de Villiers; Rolando F. Del Maestro; Joseph Gilbert; John Groves; Kelly Erola; Jae-Kyoung Kim

1992-01-01

271

Combination of Phenylbutyrate and 13-cis Retinoic Acid Inhibits Prostate Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiation-inducing agents, such as retinoids and short-chain fatty acids, have an inhibitory effect on tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth in preclinical studies. Clinical trials involving these compounds as single agents have been suboptimal in terms of clinical benefit. Our study evaluated the combination of phenylbutyrate (PB) and 13-cis retinoic acid (CRA) as a differentiation and antiangiogenesis strategy for prostate

Roberto Pili; Mark P. Kruszewski; Brant W. Hager; Julie Lantz; Michael A. Carducci

2001-01-01

272

Extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth of human malignant melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3? activation, while p38? phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors. PMID:24789042

Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Watanabe, Risayo; Saito, Ken; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Susumu; Kaihata, Masaji; Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

2014-07-01

273

Oligomannurarate sulfate blocks tumor growth by inhibiting NF-?B activation  

PubMed Central

Aim: JG3, a novel marine-derived oligosaccharide, significantly inhibits angiogenesis and tumor metastasis by blocking heparanase activity. It also arrests tumor growth, an effect that is not fully explained by its anti-heparanase activity. Here we sought to identify the mechanisms underlying JG3-mediated inhibition of tumor growth. Methods: Heparanase expression was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. NF-?B activation status was determined using immunofluorescence, Western blotting, DNA-binding and transcription-activity assays. The effect of JG3 on upstream components of the NF-?B pathway and on selected transcription factors were monitored by Western blotting. The antitumor effect of JG3 and its relation to NF-?B activation were evaluated using four different tumor xenograft models. Results: We found that JG3 effectively inhibited NF-?B activation independent of heparanase expression. Our results indicate that JG3 inactivated NF-?B by interfering with the activation of upstream components of the NF-?B pathway without generally affecting the nuclear translocation of transcription factors. Further, in vivo studies demonstrated that JG3 effectively arrested the growth of tumors derived from cell lines in which NF-?B was constitutively active (BEL-7402 liver carcinoma and MDA-MB-435s breast carcinoma), but did not affect the growth of tumors derived from NF-?B-negative cell lines (SGC-7901 gastric cancer and HO-8910 ovarian carcinoma). Conclusion: Our data indicate that NF-?B mediates the JG3-induced arrest of tumor growth. These results define a new mechanism of action of JG3 and highlight the potential for JG3 as a promising lead molecule in cancer therapy. PMID:20154712

Zhang, Jing; Chen, Yi; Xin, Xian-liang; Li, Qiu-ning; Li, Ming; Lin, Li-ping; Geng, Mei-yu; Ding, Jian

2010-01-01

274

A Novel Monoclonal Antibody to Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 2 Inhibits Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

Secreted frizzled related protein 2 (SFRP2) is overexpressed in human angiosarcoma and breast cancer, and stimulates angiogenesis via activation of the calcineurin/ NFATc3 pathway. There are conflicting reports in the literature as to whether SFRP2 is an antagonist or agonist of ß-catenin. The aims of these studies were to assess the effects of SFRP2 antagonism on tumor growth and Wnt-signaling, and to evaluate whether SFRP2 is a viable therapeutic target. The anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor properties of SFRP2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) were assessed using in vitro proliferation, migration, and tube formation assays; and in vivo angiosarcoma and triple negative breast cancer models. Wnt-signaling was assessed in endothelial and tumor cells treated with SFRP2 mAb using Western blotting. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and biodistribution data were generated in tumor-bearing and non-tumor bearing mice. SFRP2 mAb was shown to induce anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects in vitro, and inhibit activation of ß-catenin and NFATc3 in endothelial and tumor cells. Treatment of SVR angiosarcoma allografts in nude mice with the SFRP2 mAb decreased tumor volume by 58% compared to control (p=0.004). Treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma xenografts with SFRP2 mAb decreased tumor volume by 52% (p=0.03) compared to control, while bevacizumab did not significantly reduce tumor volume. Pharmacokinetic studies show the antibody is long circulating in the blood and preferentially accumulates in SFRP2-positive tumors. In conclusion, antagonizing SFRP2 inhibits activation of ß-catenin and NFATc3 in endothelial and tumor cells, and is a novel therapeutic approach to inhibiting angiosarcoma and triple negative breast cancer. PMID:23604067

Fontenot, Emily; Rossi, Emma; Mumper, Russell; Snyder, Stephanie; Siamakpour-Reihani, Sharareh; Ma, Ping; Hilliard, Eleanor; Bone, Bradley; Ketelsen, David; Santos, Charlene; Patterson, Cam; Klauber-DeMore, Nancy

2013-01-01

275

Vascular CD39/ENTPD1 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular adenosine triphosphate.  

PubMed

Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to boost immune responses in the tumor microenvironment but might also contribute directly to cancer cell death. CD39/ENTPD1 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by endothelial cells and regulatory T cells and catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to AMP that is further degraded to adenosine by CD73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase. We have previously shown that deletion of Cd39 results in decreased growth of transplanted tumors in mice, as a result of both defective angiogenesis and heightened innate immune responses (secondary to loss of adenosinergic immune suppression). Whether alterations in local extracellular ATP and adenosine levels as a result of CD39 bioactivity directly affect tumor growth and cytotoxicity has not been investigated to date. We show here that extracellular ATP exerts antitumor activity by directly inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell death. ATP-induced antiproliferative effects and cell death are, in large part, mediated through P2X(7) receptor signaling. Tumors in Cd39 null mice exhibit increased necrosis in association with P2X(7) expression. We further demonstrate that exogenous soluble NTPDase, or CD39 expression by cocultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, stimulates tumor cell proliferation and limits cell death triggered by extracellular ATP. Collectively, our findings indicate that local expression of CD39 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular ATP. Pharmacological or targeted inhibition of CD39 enzymatic activity may find utility as an adjunct therapy in cancer management. PMID:21390184

Feng, Lili; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; Han, Lihui; Bian, Shu; Murakami, Takashi; Wang, Xin; Robson, Simon C; Wu, Yan

2011-03-01

276

Model of avascular tumor growth and response to low dose exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single level cellular automata model is described and used to simulate early tumor growth, and the response of the tumor cells under low dose radiation affects. In this model the cell cycle of the population of normal and cancer cells is followed. The invasion mechanism of the tumor is simulated by a local factor that takes into account the microenvironment hardness to cell development, in a picture similar to the AMTIH model. The response of normal and cancer cells to direct effects of radiation is tested for various models and a model of bystander response is implemented.

Rodriguez Aguirre, J. M.; Custidiano, E. R.

2011-12-01

277

Antiangiogenesis therapy using a novel angiogenesis inhibitor, anginex, following radiation causes tumor growth delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The present study investigated whether treatment with anginex, a novel antiangiogenic peptide, could block re-vascularization\\u000a after radiation treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A squamous cell (SCCVII) xenograft tumor mouse model was employed to assess the effects of anginex given post-radiation on\\u000a tumor growth, microvessel density (MVD), and oxygen levels. The oxygen status was determined by the partial pressure of O2.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Tumors in untreated mice

Morikazu Amano; Minoru Suzuki; Satoshi Andoh; Hajime Monzen; Kaoru Terai; Brent Williams; Chang W. Song; Kevin H. Mayo; Takeo Hasegawa; Ruud P. M. Dings; Robert J. Griffin

2007-01-01

278

Tumor growth reduction in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats performing anaerobic exercise: participation of Bcl-2, Bax, apoptosis, and peroxidation.  

PubMed

Physical activity has been used in cancer prevention and treatment. In this study, we investigated some of the mechanisms by which anaerobic exercise reduces tumor growth. To do so, rats were trained for 8 weeks. Training consisted of jumping in a swimming pool for ten 30-s sets, with a load that was 50% of body weight attached to the back, 4 times per week. At the sixth week, anaerobic exercise trained rats (EX group) were inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 tumor cells. Tumor weight, apoptotic tumor cells, tumor Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression, tumor lipid peroxidation, and tumor cell proliferation ex vivo were evaluated. Tumor weight was significantly lower in the EX group (?30%) than in rats that did not undergo training (sedentary group) (p < 0.05). Apoptosis in the tumor cells of EX rats was 2-fold higher than in the tumor cells of sedentary rats; in addition, Bax expression increased by 10% and Bcl-2 decreased by 13% in EX rats. Lipid peroxidation was 4-fold higher in the tumor cells of EX rats than in those of sedentary rats (p < 0.05). Tumor cell proliferation ex vivo was 29% lower in the EX group than in the sedentary group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Walker 256 tumor-bearing exercised rats presented more tumor cell apoptosis, a higher tumor content of lipid peroxides, pro-apoptotic protein expression balance, and reduced tumor weight and cell proliferation ex vivo, compared with sedentary rats. These events, together, account for the lower tumor growth we observed in the EX rats. PMID:21851206

de Lima, Carina; Alves, Luciana; Iagher, Fabíola; Machado, Andressa Franzoi; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Yamazaki, Ricardo Key; Brito, Gleisson Alisson Pereira; Nunes, Everson Araújo; Naliwaiko, Katya; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

2011-08-01

279

Fish oil supplementation reduces cachexia and tumor growth while improving renal function in tumor-bearing rats.  

PubMed

The objective of the present work was to study the renal function of healthy and tumor-bearing rats chronically supplemented with fish oil (FO), a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Weanling male rats were divided in two groups, one control (C) and another orally supplemented for 70 days with FO (1 g/kg body weight). After this time, half the animals of each group were injected in the right flank with a suspension of Walker 256 tumor cells (W and WFO). The W group had less proteinemia reflecting cachectic proteolysis, FO reversed this fact. Tumor weight gain was also reduced in WFO. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not different in FO or W compared to C, but was higher in WFO. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was higher in the FO supplemented groups. The W group had lower plasma osmolality than the C group, but FO supplementation resulted in normalization of this parameter. Fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na+)) of FO rats was similar to C. Proximal Na(+) reabsorption, evaluated by lithium clearance, was similar among the groups. Urinary thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) excretion was lower in the supplemented groups. The number of macrophages in renal tissue was higher in W compared to C rats, but was lower in WFO rats compared to W rats. In conclusion, FO supplementation resulted in less tumor growth and cachexia, and appeared to be renoprotective, as suggested by higher RPF and GFR. PMID:23015313

Coelho, Isabela; Casare, Fernando; Pequito, Danielle C T; Borghetti, Gina; Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Brito, Gleisson A P; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio; Coimbra, Terezila M; Fernandez, Ricardo

2012-11-01

280

FAVL elevation in human tumors disrupts Fanconi anemia pathway signaling and promotes genomic instability and tumor growth.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare human genetic disease caused by mutations in any one of 13 known genes that encode proteins functioning in one common signaling pathway, the FA pathway, or in unknown genes. One characteristic of FA is an extremely high incidence of cancer, indicating the importance of the FA pathway in tumor suppression. However, the role of this pathway in the development and progression of human cancers in individuals who do not have FA has not been clearly determined. Here, we report that elevated expression of what we believe to be a novel splice variant of FA complementation group L (FANCL), which we identified and named FAVL, can impair the FA pathway in non-FA human tumor cells and act as a tumor promoting factor. FAVL expression was elevated in half of the human carcinoma cell lines and carcinoma tissue samples tested. Expression of FAVL resulted in decreased FANCL expression by sequestering FANCL to the cytoplasm and enhancing its degradation. Importantly, this impairment of the FA pathway by FAVL elevation provided human cancer cells with a growth advantage, caused chromosomal instability in vitro, and promoted tumor development in a xenograft mouse model. These data indicate that FAVL impairment of the FA pathway likely contributes to the development of non-FA human cancers and therefore add a challenging layer of complexity to the pathogenesis of human cancer. We further believe that these data will prove useful for developing additional tools for fighting human cancer. PMID:20407210

Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Deping; Park, Hwan Ki; Wang, Hong; Dyer, Roy B; Liu, Wanguo; Klee, George G; McNiven, Mark A; Tindall, Donald J; Molina, Julian R; Fei, Peiwen

2010-05-01

281

FAVL elevation in human tumors disrupts Fanconi anemia pathway signaling and promotes genomic instability and tumor growth  

PubMed Central

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare human genetic disease caused by mutations in any one of 13 known genes that encode proteins functioning in one common signaling pathway, the FA pathway, or in unknown genes. One characteristic of FA is an extremely high incidence of cancer, indicating the importance of the FA pathway in tumor suppression. However, the role of this pathway in the development and progression of human cancers in individuals who do not have FA has not been clearly determined. Here, we report that elevated expression of what we believe to be a novel splice variant of FA complementation group L (FANCL), which we identified and named FAVL, can impair the FA pathway in non-FA human tumor cells and act as a tumor promoting factor. FAVL expression was elevated in half of the human carcinoma cell lines and carcinoma tissue samples tested. Expression of FAVL resulted in decreased FANCL expression by sequestering FANCL to the cytoplasm and enhancing its degradation. Importantly, this impairment of the FA pathway by FAVL elevation provided human cancer cells with a growth advantage, caused chromosomal instability in vitro, and promoted tumor development in a xenograft mouse model. These data indicate that FAVL impairment of the FA pathway likely contributes to the development of non-FA human cancers and therefore add a challenging layer of complexity to the pathogenesis of human cancer. We further believe that these data will prove useful for developing additional tools for fighting human cancer. PMID:20407210

Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Deping; Park, Hwan Ki; Wang, Hong; Dyer, Roy B.; Liu, Wanguo; Klee, George G.; McNiven, Mark A.; Tindall, Donald J.; Molina, Julian R.; Fei, Peiwen

2010-01-01

282

Growth hormone treatment and risk of recurrence or progression of brain tumors in children: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Brain tumors are one of the most common types of solid neoplasm in children. As life expectancy of these patients has increased\\u000a with new and improved therapies, the morbidities associated with the treatments and the tumor itself have become more important.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  One of the most common morbidities is growth hormone deficiency, and since recombinant growth hormone (GH) became available,\\u000a its

Roberto Bogarin; Paul Steinbok

2009-01-01

283

Novel monoclonal antibody inhibits tumor growth in breast cancer and angiosarcoma  

Cancer.gov

A monoclonal antibody targeting a protein known as SFPR2 has been shown by researchers at the University of North Carolina and its Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center to inhibit tumor growth in pre-clinical models of breast cancer and angiosarcoma. In a paper published in the April 19 issue of Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, a team used a monoclonal antibody to target SFRP2 expressed in cells from triple-negative breast cancer and the aggressive blood-vessel malignancy angiosarcoma, reducing the rate of tumor growth.

284

Vav1 promotes lung cancer growth by instigating tumor-microenvironment cross-talk via growth factor secretion.  

PubMed

Vav1 is a signal transducer that functions as a scaffold protein and a regulator of cytoskeleton organization in the hematopoietic system, where it is exclusively expressed. Recently, Vav1 was shown to be involved in diverse human cancers, including lung cancer. We demonstrate that lung cancer cells that abnormally express Vav1 secrete growth factors in a Vav1-dependent manner. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that Vav1 depletion results in a marked reduction in the expression of colony-stimulating-factor-1 (CSF1), a hematopoietic growth factor. The association between Vav1 expression and CSF1 was further supported by signal transduction experiments, supporting involvement of Vav1 in regulating lung cancer secretome. Blocking of ERK phosphorylation, led to a decrease in CSF1 transcription, thus suggesting a role for ERK, a downstream effector of Vav1, in CSF1 expression. CSF1-silenced cells exhibited reduced focus formation, proliferation abilities, and growth in NOD/SCID mice. CSF1-silenced H358 cells resulted in significantly smaller tumors, showing increased fibrosis and a decrease in tumor infiltrating macrophages. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis of primary human lung tumors revealed a positive correlation between Vav1 and CSF1 expression, which was associated with tumor grade. Additional results presented herein suggest a potential cross-talk between cancer cells and the microenvironment controlled by CSF1/Vav1 signaling pathways. PMID:25313137

Sebban, Shulamit; Farago, Marganit; Rabinovich, Shiran; Lazer, Galit; Idelchuck, Yulia; Ilan, Lena; Pikarsky, Eli; Katzav, Shulamit

2014-10-15

285

Hmgb1-IL-23-IL-17-IL-6-Stat3 Axis Promotes Tumor Growth in Murine Models of Melanoma  

PubMed Central

In order to understand how tumor cells can escape immune surveillance mechanisms and thus develop antitumor therapies, it is critically important to investigate the mechanisms by which the immune system interacts with the tumor microenvironment. In our current study, IL-17 deficiency results in reduced melanoma tumor size, diminished numbers of proliferating cells and blood vessels, and decreased percentage of CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSCs in tumor tissues. IL-17 promotes IL-6 induction and Stat3 activation. Treatment of Stat3 inhibitor WP1066 in B16-F10 tumor cells inoculated wild-type mice inhibits tumor growth. Additional administration of recombinant IL-6 into B16-F10 tumor-bearing IL-17?/? mice results in markedly increased tumor size and p-Stat3 expression, whereas additional recombinant IL-17 administration into B16-F10 tumor-bearing wild-type mice treated with anti-IL-6 mAb does not significantly alter the tumor growth and p-Stat3 expression. In our further study, blockade of Hmgb1-RAGE pathway inhibits melanoma tumor growth and reduces production of IL-23 and IL-17. All these data suggest that Hmgb1-IL-23-IL-17-IL-6-Stat3 axis plays a pivotal role in tumor development in murine models of melanoma, and blocking any portion of this axis will attenuate melanoma tumor growth. PMID:24453427

Tang, Qiu; Li, Jian; Li, Pan; Zou, Zhenwei; Xiao, Yin

2013-01-01

286

Hmgb1-IL-23-IL-17-IL-6-Stat3 axis promotes tumor growth in murine models of melanoma.  

PubMed

In order to understand how tumor cells can escape immune surveillance mechanisms and thus develop antitumor therapies, it is critically important to investigate the mechanisms by which the immune system interacts with the tumor microenvironment. In our current study, IL-17 deficiency results in reduced melanoma tumor size, diminished numbers of proliferating cells and blood vessels, and decreased percentage of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) MDSCs in tumor tissues. IL-17 promotes IL-6 induction and Stat3 activation. Treatment of Stat3 inhibitor WP1066 in B16-F10 tumor cells inoculated wild-type mice inhibits tumor growth. Additional administration of recombinant IL-6 into B16-F10 tumor-bearing IL-17(-/-) mice results in markedly increased tumor size and p-Stat3 expression, whereas additional recombinant IL-17 administration into B16-F10 tumor-bearing wild-type mice treated with anti-IL-6 mAb does not significantly alter the tumor growth and p-Stat3 expression. In our further study, blockade of Hmgb1-RAGE pathway inhibits melanoma tumor growth and reduces production of IL-23 and IL-17. All these data suggest that Hmgb1-IL-23-IL-17-IL-6-Stat3 axis plays a pivotal role in tumor development in murine models of melanoma, and blocking any portion of this axis will attenuate melanoma tumor growth. PMID:24453427

Tang, Qiu; Li, Jian; Zhu, Hongfei; Li, Pan; Zou, Zhenwei; Xiao, Yin

2013-01-01

287

Translation of a tumor microenvironment mimicking 3D tumor growth co-culture assay platform to high-content screening.  

PubMed

For drug discovery, cell-based assays are becoming increasingly complex to mimic more realistically the nature of biological processes and their diversifications in diseases. Multicellular co-cultures embedded in a three-dimensional (3D) matrix have been explored in oncology to more closely approximate the physiology of the human tumor microenvironment. High-content analysis is the ideal technology to characterize these complex biological systems, although running such complex assays at higher throughput is a major endeavor. Here, we report on adapting a 3D tumor co-culture growth assay to automated microscopy, and we compare various imaging platforms (confocal vs. nonconfocal) with correlating automated image analysis solutions to identify optimal conditions and settings for future larger scaled screening campaigns. The optimized protocol has been validated in repeated runs where established anticancer drugs have been evaluated for performance in this innovative assay. PMID:22923784

Krausz, Eberhard; de Hoogt, Ronald; Gustin, Emmanuel; Cornelissen, Frans; Grand-Perret, Thierry; Janssen, Lut; Vloemans, Nele; Wuyts, Dirk; Frans, Sandy; Axel, Amy; Peeters, Pieter Johan; Hall, Brett; Cik, Miroslav

2013-01-01

288

Systemic miRNA-7 delivery inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth in murine xenograft glioblastoma.  

PubMed

Tumor-angiogenesis is the multi-factorial process of sprouting of endothelial cells (EC) into micro-vessels to provide tumor cells with nutrients and oxygen. To explore miRNAs as therapeutic angiogenesis-inhibitors, we performed a functional screen to identify miRNAs that are able to decrease EC viability. We identified miRNA-7 (miR-7) as a potent negative regulator of angiogenesis. Introduction of miR-7 in EC resulted in strongly reduced cell viability, tube formation, sprouting and migration. Application of miR-7 in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay led to a profound reduction of vascularization, similar to anti-angiogenic drug sunitinib. Local administration of miR-7 in an in vivo murine neuroblastoma tumor model significantly inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. Finally, systemic administration of miR-7 using a novel integrin-targeted biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles that targets both EC and tumor cells, strongly reduced angiogenesis and tumor proliferation in mice with human glioblastoma xenografts. Transcriptome analysis of miR-7 transfected EC in combination with in silico target prediction resulted in the identification of OGT as novel target gene of miR-7. Our study provides a comprehensive validation of miR-7 as novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic miRNA that can be systemically delivered to both EC and tumor cells and offers promise for miR-7 as novel anti-tumor therapeutic. PMID:25149532

Babae, Negar; Bourajjaj, Meriem; Liu, Yijia; Van Beijnum, Judy R; Cerisoli, Francesco; Scaria, Puthupparampil V; Verheul, Mark; Van Berkel, Maaike P; Pieters, Ebel H E; Van Haastert, Rick J; Yousefi, Afrouz; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Storm, Gert; Berezikov, Eugene; Cuppen, Edwin; Woodle, Martin; Schaapveld, Roel Q J; Prevost, Gregoire P; Griffioen, Arjan W; Van Noort, Paula I; Schiffelers, Raymond M

2014-08-30

289

Short Hairpin RNA-Mediated Fibronectin Knockdown Delays Tumor Growth in a Mouse Glioma Model1  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor. Glioma progression depends on the rapid proliferation of tumor cells accompanied by an acute immunosuppressive environment, facilitated mainly by tumor infiltration of regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this study, we characterize the role of fibronectin, a high-molecular weight extracellular matrix glycoprotein secreted by tumor cells, in controlling glioma progression and in mediating immunosuppression. Fibronectin binds to membrane-spanning integrin receptors and plays an important role in cell signaling, in defining cellular shape, in mobility, and in regulating the cell cycle. We found that inhibition of fibronectin expression in glioma cells, using short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of gene expression, delayed cell proliferation in vitro. This delayed growth is explained, in part, by the observed reduced expression of integrin ?1 fibronectin receptor, which was restored by the inhibition of proteosomal activity. In our analysis of the downstream signaling targets of integrin ?1, we demonstrated reduced phosphorylation of Src kinase and STAT-3. We also observed reduced survivin expression that induced a three-fold increased accumulation of fibronectin-knockdown cells in the G2/M phase. In an experimental animal model, the fibronectin knockdown tumors had a mean survival advantage of 23 days over wild-type tumors. Moreover, brain samples of animals bearing fibronectin-knockdown tumors showed delayed Treg recruitment. Collectively, we propose that fibronectin is a key mediator of glioma progression because its inhibition delays both tumor progression and immunosuppression. PMID:20927322

Sengupta, Sadhak; Nandi, Suvobroto; Hindi, Enal S; Wainwright, Derek A; Han, Yu; Lesniak, Maciej S

2010-01-01

290

Increased Malignancy of Neu-Induced Mammary Tumors Overexpressing Active Transforming Growth Factor ?1  

PubMed Central

To determine if Neu is dominant over transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?), we crossed mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Neu mice with MMTV-TGF-?1S223/225 mice expressing active TGF-?1 in the mammary gland. Bigenic (NT) and Neu-induced mammary tumors developed with a similar latency. The bigenic tumors and their metastases were less proliferative than those occurring in MMTV-Neu mice. However, NT tumors exhibited less apoptosis and were more locally invasive and of higher histological grade. NT mice exhibited more circulating tumor cells and lung metastases than Neu mice, while NT tumors contained higher levels of phosphorylated (active) Smad2, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and p38, as well as vimentin content and Rac1 activity in situ than tumors expressing Neu alone. Ex vivo, NT cells exhibited higher levels of P-Akt and P-MAPK than Neu cells. These were inhibited by the TGF-? inhibitor-soluble TGF-? type II receptor (T?RII:Fc), suggesting they were activated by autocrine TGF-?. TGF-? stimulated migration of Neu cells into surrounding matrix, while the soluble TGF-? inhibitor abrogated motility and invasiveness of NT cells. These data suggest that (i) the antimitogenic and prometastatic effects of TGF-? can exist simultaneously and (ii) Neu does not abrogate TGF-?-mediated antiproliferative action but can synergize with TGF-? in accelerating metastatic tumor progression. PMID:14612410

Muraoka, Rebecca S.; Koh, Yasuhiro; Roebuck, L. Renee; Sanders, Melinda E.; Brantley-Sieders, Dana; Gorska, Agnieszka E.; Moses, Harold L.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

2003-01-01

291

Systemic miRNA-7 delivery inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth in murine xenograft glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Tumor-angiogenesis is the multi-factorial process of sprouting of endothelial cells (EC) into micro-vessels to provide tumor cells with nutrients and oxygen. To explore miRNAs as therapeutic angiogenesis-inhibitors, we performed a functional screen to identify miRNAs that are able to decrease EC viability. We identified miRNA-7 (miR-7) as a potent negative regulator of angiogenesis. Introduction of miR-7 in EC resulted in strongly reduced cell viability, tube formation, sprouting and migration. Application of miR-7 in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay led to a profound reduction of vascularization, similar to anti-angiogenic drug sunitinib. Local administration of miR-7 in an in vivo murine neuroblastoma tumor model significantly inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. Finally, systemic administration of miR-7 using a novel integrin-targeted biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles that targets both EC and tumor cells, strongly reduced angiogenesis and tumor proliferation in mice with human glioblastoma xenografts. Transcriptome analysis of miR-7 transfected EC in combination with in silico target prediction resulted in the identification of OGT as novel target gene of miR-7. Our study provides a comprehensive validation of miR-7 as novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic miRNA that can be systemically delivered to both EC and tumor cells and offers promise for miR-7 as novel anti-tumor therapeutic. PMID:25149532

Van Beijnum, Judy R.; Cerisoli, Francesco; Scaria, Puthupparampil V.; Verheul, Mark; Van Berkel, Maaike P.; Pieters, Ebel H. E.; Van Haastert, Rick J.; Yousefi, Afrouz; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Storm, Gert; Berezikov, Eugene; Cuppen, Edwin; Woodle, Martin; Schaapveld, Roel Q. J.; Prevost, Gregoire P.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Van Noort, Paula I.; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

2014-01-01

292

Hepatocyte growth factor-like protein is required for prostate tumor growth in the TRAMP mouse model.  

PubMed

The Ron receptor is deregulated in a variety of cancers. Hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFL) is the ligand for Ron and is constitutively secreted from hepatocytes into the circulation. While a few recent reports have emerged analyzing ectopic HGFL overexpression of in cancer cells, no studies have examined host-produced HGFL in tumorigenesis. To examine HGFL function in prostate cancer, the TRAMP mouse model, which is predisposed to develop prostate tumors, was utilized. Prostate tumors from TRAMP mice exhibit elevated levels of HGFL, which correlated with upregulation in human prostate cancer. To directly implicate HGFL in prostate tumorigenesis, TRAMP mice deficient in HGFL (HGFL-/-TRAMP+) were generated. HGFL-/- TRAMP+ mice developed significantly smaller prostate tumors compared to controls. Analysis of HGFL-/- tumors revealed reduced tumor vascularization. No differences in cancer cell proliferation were detected between HGFL-/- TRAMP+ and HGFL+/+ TRAMP+ mice. However, a significant increase in cancer cell death was detected in HGFL-/- TRAMP+ prostates which correlated with decreased pro-survival targets. In vitro analysis demonstrated robust STAT3 activation resulting in Bcl2-dependent survival following treatment of prostate cancer cells with HGFL. These data document a novel function for endogenous HGFL in prostate cancer by imparting a critical survival signal to tumor cells. PMID:24980820

Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Nashu, Madison A; Pathrose, Peterson; Starnes, Sandra L; Waltz, Susan E

2014-07-30

293

Circadian disruption accelerates tumor growth and angio/stromagenesis through a Wnt signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies show a high incidence of cancer in shift workers, suggesting a possible relationship between circadian rhythms and tumorigenesis. However, the precise molecular mechanism played by circadian rhythms in tumor progression is not known. To identify the possible mechanisms underlying tumor progression related to circadian rhythms, we set up nude mouse xenograft models. HeLa cells were injected in nude mice and nude mice were moved to two different cases, one case is exposed to a 24-hour light cycle (L/L), the other is a more "normal" 12-hour light/dark cycle (L/D). We found a significant increase in tumor volume in the L/L group compared with the L/D group. In addition, tumor microvessels and stroma were strongly increased in L/L mice. Although there was a hypervascularization in L/L tumors, there was no associated increase in the production of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF). DNA microarray analysis showed enhanced expression of WNT10A, and our subsequent study revealed that WNT10A stimulates the growth of both microvascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts in tumors from light-stressed mice, along with marked increases in angio/stromagenesis. Only the tumor stroma stained positive for WNT10A and WNT10A is also highly expressed in keloid dermal fibroblasts but not in normal dermal fibroblasts indicated that WNT10A may be a novel angio/stromagenic growth factor. These findings suggest that circadian disruption induces the progression of malignant tumors via a Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:21203463

Yasuniwa, Yoshihiro; Izumi, Hiroto; Wang, Ke-Yong; Shimajiri, Shohei; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi; Shimada, Takashi; Miyake, Koichi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Hirano, Gen; Kidani, Akihiko; Akiyama, Masaki; Han, Bin; Wu, Ying; Ieiri, Ichiro; Higuchi, Shun; Kohno, Kimitoshi

2010-01-01

294

Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: implications for spatial dose redistribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gliomas differ from many other tumors as they grow infiltratively into the brain parenchyma rather than forming a solid tumor mass with a well-defined boundary. Tumor cells can be found several centimeters away from the central tumor mass that is visible using current imaging techniques. The infiltrative growth characteristics of gliomas question the concept of a radiotherapy target volume that is irradiated to a homogeneous dose—the standard in current clinical practice. We discuss the use of the Fisher-Kolmogorov glioma growth model in radiotherapy treatment planning. The phenomenological tumor growth model assumes that tumor cells proliferate locally and migrate into neighboring brain tissue, which is mathematically described via a partial differential equation for the spatio-temporal evolution of the tumor cell density. In this model, the tumor cell density drops approximately exponentially with distance from the visible gross tumor volume, which is quantified by the infiltration length, a parameter describing the distance at which the tumor cell density drops by a factor of e. This paper discusses the implications for the prescribed dose distribution in the periphery of the tumor. In the context of the exponential cell kill model, an exponential fall-off of the cell density suggests a linear fall-off of the prescription dose with distance. We introduce the dose fall-off rate, which quantifies the steepness of the prescription dose fall-off in units of Gy mm-1. It is shown that the dose fall-off rate is given by the inverse of the product of radiosensitivity and infiltration length. For an infiltration length of 3 mm and a surviving fraction of 50% at 2 Gy, this suggests a dose fall-off of approximately 1 Gy mm-1. The concept is illustrated for two glioblastoma patients by optimizing intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans. The dose fall-off rate concept reflects the idea that infiltrating gliomas lack a defined boundary and are characterized by a continuous fall-off of the density of infiltrating tumor cells. The approach can potentially be used to individualize the prescribed dose distribution if better methods to estimate radiosensitivity and infiltration length on a patient by patient basis become available.

Unkelbach, Jan; Menze, Bjoern H.; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A.

2014-02-01

295

Hematein, a casein kinase II inhibitor, inhibits lung cancer tumor growth in a murine xenograft model  

PubMed Central

Casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors suppress cancer cell growth. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of a novel CK2 inhibitor, hematein, on tumor growth in a murine xenograft model. We found that in lung cancer cells, hematein inhibited cancer cell growth, Akt/PKB Ser129 phosphorylation, the Wnt/TCF pathway and increased apoptosis. In a murine xenograft model of lung cancer, hematein inhibited tumor growth without significant toxicity to the mice tested. Molecular docking showed that hematein binds to CK2? in durable binding sites. Collectively, our results suggest that hematein is an allosteric inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 and has antitumor activity to lung cancer. PMID:24008396

HUNG, MING-SZU; XU, ZHIDONG; CHEN, YU; SMITH, EMMANUEL; MAO, JIAN-HUA; HSIEH, DAVID; LIN, YU-CHING; YANG, CHENG-TA; JABLONS, DAVID M.; YOU, LIANG

2013-01-01

296

Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chemaitilly, Wassim [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2012-11-15

297

Phytochemical potential of Eruca sativa for inhibition of melanoma tumor growth.  

PubMed

Solvent extracts from the aerial and root parts and seed oil from E. sativa (rocket salad) were assayed for anticancer activity against melanoma cells. The seed oil (isothiocyanates rich) significantly (p<0.01) reduced the tumor growth comparable to the control. Remarkably, the seed oil inhibited melanoma growth and angiogenesis in mice without any major toxicity. The findings qualify seed oil for further investigations in the real of cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:21316427

Khoobchandani, M; Ganesh, N; Gabbanini, S; Valgimigli, L; Srivastava, M M

2011-06-01

298

Control of Breast Tumor Cell Growth Using a Targeted Cysteine Protease Inhibitor1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether inhibition of lysosomal proteolysis could be used to selectively inhibit proliferation of tumor cells. The lysosomal cysteine protease inhibitor 9-fluorenylmethy- loxycarbonyl-tyrosylalanyl-diazomethane was found to inhibit growth of the breast cancer cell lines SK-Br-3 and MCF-7. A humanized monoclonal antibody (huMAb 4D5) directed against the extracellular domain of p,85HKR2 specifically inhibited growth

Ruye Xing; Fei Wu; Robert W. Mason

299

Multiphase modeling and qualitative analysis of the growth of tumor cords  

E-print Network

In this paper a macroscopic model of tumor cord growth is developed, relying on the mathematical theory of deformable porous media. Tumor is modeled as a saturated mixture of proliferating cells, extracellular fluid and extracellular matrix, that occupies a spatial region close to a blood vessel whence cells get the nutrient needed for their vital functions. Growth of tumor cells takes place within a healthy host tissue, which is in turn modeled as a saturated mixture of non-proliferating cells. Interactions between these two regions are accounted for as an essential mechanism for the growth of the tumor mass. By weakening the role of the extracellular matrix, which is regarded as a rigid non-remodeling scaffold, a system of two partial differential equations is derived, describing the evolution of the cell volume ratio coupled to the dynamics of the nutrient, whose higher and lower concentration levels determine proliferation or death of tumor cells, respectively. Numerical simulations of a reference two-dimensional problem are shown and commented, and a qualitative mathematical analysis of some of its key issues is proposed.

Andrea Tosin

2009-06-27

300

Tetraspanin TSPAN12 regulates tumor growth and metastasis and inhibits ?-catenin degradation.  

PubMed

Ablation of tetraspanin protein TSPAN12 from human MDA-MB-231 cells significantly decreased primary tumor xenograft growth, while increasing tumor apoptosis. Furthermore, TSPAN12 removal markedly enhanced tumor-endothelial interactions and increased metastasis to mouse lungs. TSPAN12 removal from human MDA-MB-231 cells also caused diminished association between FZD4 (a key canonical Wnt pathway receptor) and its co-receptor LRP5. The result likely explains substantially enhanced proteosomal degradation of ?-catenin, a key effecter of canonical Wnt signaling. Consistent with disrupted canonical Wnt signaling, TSPAN12 ablation altered expression of LRP5, Naked 1 and 2, DVL2, DVL3, Axin 1, and GSK?3 proteins. TSPAN12 ablation also altered expression of several genes regulated by ?-catenin (e.g. CCNA1, CCNE2, WISP1, ID4, SFN, ME1) that may help to explain altered tumor growth and metastasis. In conclusion, these results provide the first evidence for TSPAN12 playing a role in supporting primary tumor growth and suppressing metastasis. TSPAN12 appears to function by stabilizing FZD4-LRP5 association, in support of canonical Wnt-pathway signaling, leading to enhanced ?-catenin expression and function. PMID:23955570

Knoblich, Konstantin; Wang, Hong-Xing; Sharma, Chandan; Fletcher, Anne L; Turley, Shannon J; Hemler, Martin E

2014-04-01

301

An uncleavable form of pro–scatter factor suppresses tumor growth and dissemination in mice  

PubMed Central

Scatter factor (SF), also known as hepatocyte growth factor, is ubiquitously present in the extracellular matrix of tissues in the form of an inactive precursor (pro-SF). In order to acquire biological activity, pro-SF must be cleaved by specific proteases present on the cell surface. The mature form of SF controls invasive cues in both physiological and pathological processes through activation of its receptor, the Met tyrosine kinase. By substituting a single amino acid in the proteolytic site, we engineered an unprocessable form of pro-SF (uncleavable SF). Using lentivirus vector technology, we achieved local or systemic delivery of uncleavable SF in mice. We provide evidence that (a) uncleavable SF inhibits both protease-mediated pro-SF conversion and active SF–induced Met activation; (b) local expression of uncleavable SF in tumors suppresses tumor growth, impairs tumor angiogenesis, and prevents metastatic dissemination; and (c) systemic expression of uncleavable SF dramatically inhibits the growth of transplanted tumors and abolishes the formation of spontaneous metastases without perturbing vital physiological functions. These data show that proteolytic activation of pro-SF is a limiting step in tumor progression, thus suggesting a new strategy for the treatment or prevention of the malignant conversion of neoplastic lesions. PMID:15545993

Mazzone, Massimiliano; Basilico, Cristina; Cavassa, Silvia; Pennacchietti, Selma; Risio, Mauro; Naldini, Luigi; Comoglio, Paolo M.; Michieli, Paolo

2004-01-01

302

Adaptation of an automatic bacterial colony counter for measuring lung tumor growth in mice.  

PubMed

Adaptation of an automatic bacterial colony counter proved to be an efficient procedure for detecting and quantitating tumor growth in mouse lungs prepared by the Wexler method of India ink insufflation. After correlation of the size discriminator settings on the automatic counter with the Wexler visual scale, the amount of tumor growth in the lungs of 52 mice was determined by eye and independently by the automatic counter. There was no statistical difference between the two procedures. When the mouse lungs were grouped according to the number of tumors computed by eye, there was no statistical difference between the two counting procedures in any of the groups. The standard deviation was independent of the number of tumors in the lungs. This caused the precision of the automatic counter to be poor in lungs with few tumors because the error was a greater percentage of the total. In lungs with a large number of tumors, which were difficult to count by eye, close agreement between the two methods of counting was demonstrated. PMID:326389

Filardi, M J; Lininger, L; McKneally, M F

1977-08-01

303

Crenolanib, a PDGFR inhibitor, suppresses lung cancer cell proliferation and inhibits tumor growth in vivo  

PubMed Central

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors (PDGFR), including PDGFR? and PDGFR?, play important roles in tumorigenesis, tumor progression, and the regulation of stromal cell function. Constitutive activation of PDGFR signaling, gene rearrangement, and activating mutations of PDGFR have been identified in various types of human tumors and malignancies. PDGFR? and PDGFR? belong to the family of type III receptor tyrosine kinases and, upon stimulation, activate downstream signaling cascades. Crenolanib is a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets and inhibits the kinase activity of PDGFR and the FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3. Its clinical efficacy in several human tumors is currently under investigation in Phase II clinical trials. In this study, we examined the potential role of crenolanib in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using A549 cells as a model system, we have shown that crenolanib is capable of suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Crenolanib-treated cells have reduced migratory activity in response to inducers of chemotaxis. Furthermore, the in vivo antitumor activity of crenolanib was confirmed in an NSCLC xenograft tumor model. Injection of crenolanib significantly inhibited the growth of tumor mass by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells. Our results provide strong evidence supporting the use of crenolanib as a potential therapeutic agent in treating NSCLC. This work sets a foundation for further development of targeted and personalized therapeutics for lung cancer.

Wang, Ping; Song, Liqiang; Ge, Hui; Jin, Pule; Jiang, Yifang; Hu, Wenxia; Geng, Nan

2014-01-01

304

SIRT1 promotes endometrial tumor growth by targeting SREBP1 and lipogenesis.  

PubMed

Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is involved in a number of cellular regulatory mechanisms affecting cellular life span, stress resistance, apoptosis and cellular metabolism. Recent studies have revealed that SIRT1 plays a dual role as a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter in multiple stages of carcinogenesis. Increased lipogenesis has been found in cancer cells, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) are nuclear lipogenic transcription factors, which mainly regulate lipogenic processes by activating genes involved in fatty acid and triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present study, we detected expression of SIRT1 in endometrial cancer (EC) and illustrated the relationship between SIRT1 and SREBP1, which indicated that SIRT1 could stimulate endometrial tumor growth through the lipogenic pathway. Gene expression levels of SIRT1 were assayed using quantitative real-time PCR and protein expression levels were detected by western blotting. RNA interference was conducted in order to explore the subsequent effect on tumor cells and on the expression of SREBP1. Expression levels of SIRT1 in EC were found to be significantly higher than in normal endometrium. Knockdown of SIRT1 could downregulate expression of SREBP1 and suppress cell proliferation. These results demonstrated that SIRT1 may play a role as a tumor promoter in EC and can promote endometrial tumor growth by promoting lipogenesis. Our findings suggest that targeting SIRT1 may provide a theoretical basis for the management of EC. PMID:25270091

Lin, Li; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Qiu, Chunping; Dongol, Samina; Lv, Qingtao; Jiang, Jie; Kong, Beihua; Wang, Chenguang

2014-12-01

305

Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor in sacral giant cell tumors and the correlation with tumor microvessel density  

PubMed Central

Although classified as benign, giant cell tumors of the bone (GCTB) may be aggressive, recur and even metastasize to the lungs. In addition, the pathogenesis and histogenesis remain unclear; thus, the driving factors behind the strong tumor growth capacity of GCTB require investigation. In the present study, the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are promoted by hypoxic conditions, were determined in 22 sacral GCTB samples using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Furthermore, CD34 expression was analyzed using these methods. The correlation between HIF-1? or VEGF expression and the tumor microvessel density (MVD) was then determined. The results demonstrated that HIF-1?, VEGF and CD34 were overexpressed in the 22 sacral GCTB specimens, and overexpression of HIF-1? and VEGF correlated with the tumor MVD. Thus, the present study has provided novel indicators for the tumor growth capacity of GCTBs. PMID:25289039

FU, SHAOFENG; BAI, RUI; ZHAO, ZHENQUN; ZHANG, ZHIFENG; ZHANG, GANG; WANG, YUXIN; WANG, YONG; JIANG, DIANMING; ZHU, DEZHI

2014-01-01

306

Chylous ascites in gynecologic malignancies: cases report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Chylous ascites is an infrequent postoperative complication after retroperitoneal surgical procedure. Despite its infrequent\\u000a occurrence, postoperative chylous ascites are associated with significant morbidity. Reports of chylous ascites or fistula\\u000a after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for gynecologic malignancies without radiation therapy are rare. A search in the\\u000a English literature showed only 31 cases of chylous fistula for gynecologic malignancies. Treatment may

Glauco Baiocchi; Carlos Chaves Faloppa; Raphael Leonardo Cunha Araujo; Elza Mieko Fukazawa; Lillian Yuri Kumagai; Ademir Narciso Oliveira Menezes; Levon Badiglian-Filho

2010-01-01

307

Higher Stromal Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II Receptors is Associated with Poorer Prognosis Breast Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) is a potent inhibitor of normal epithelial cell proliferation, and may be one of the regulatory factors that are perturbed during tumor development. While many tumor cell lines no longer respond to the inhibitory effects of TGFB due to a reduction or absence of the type II receptor (TGFBR2), the role of TGFBR2 in tumors from

John Barlow; David Yandell; Donald Weaver; Theresa Casey; Karen Plaut

2003-01-01

308

Digoxin and other cardiac glycosides inhibit HIF-1? synthesis and block tumor growth  

PubMed Central

A library of drugs that are in clinical trials or use was screened for inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Twenty drugs inhibited HIF-1-dependent gene transcription by >88% at a concentration of 0.4 ?M. Eleven of these drugs were cardiac glycosides, including digoxin, ouabain, and proscillaridin A, which inhibited HIF-1? protein synthesis and expression of HIF-1 target genes in cancer cells. Digoxin administration increased latency and decreased growth of tumor xenografts, whereas treatment of established tumors resulted in growth arrest within one week. Enforced expression of HIF-1? by transfection was not inhibited by digoxin, and xenografts derived from these cells were resistant to the anti-tumor effects of digoxin, demonstrating that HIF-1 is a critical target of digoxin for cancer therapy. PMID:19020076

Zhang, Huafeng; Qian, David Z.; Tan, Yee Sun; Lee, KangAe; Gao, Ping; Ren, Yunzhao R.; Rey, Sergio; Hammers, Hans; Chang, Daniel; Pili, Roberto; Dang, Chi V.; Liu, Jun O.; Semenza, Gregg L.

2008-01-01

309

Luteolin and its inhibitory effect on tumor growth in systemic malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Lamy et al have provided interesting data in their recent article in your esteemed journal. Luteolin augments apoptosis in a number of systemic malignancies. Luteolin reduces tumor growth in breast carcinomas. Luteolin mediates this effect by up-regulating the expression of Bax and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-xL. EGFR-induced MAPK activation is also attenuated. As a result there is increased G2/ M phase arrest. These effects have been seen both in vivo as well as in vitro. It also reduces ER? expression and causes inhibition of IGF-1 mediated PI3K–Akt pathway. Luteolin also activates p38 resulting in nuclear translocation of the apoptosis-inducing factor. Simultaneously it also activates ERK. As a result there is increased intra-tumoral apoptosis which is caspase dependent as well as caspase independent. - Highlights: ? Luteolin and tumor growth in breast carcinomas. ? Luteolin and pulmonary cancer. ? Luteolin and colon cancer.

Kapoor, Shailendra, E-mail: shailendrakapoor@yahoo.com [74 crossing place, Mechanicsville, VA (United States)

2013-04-01

310

Effect of Cyclooxygenase and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors on Tumor Growth in Mouse Tumor Models with and without Cancer Cachexia Related to Prostanoids1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential interaction between cyclooxygenase (Cox) and NO met- abolic pathways in the control of local tumor growth was evaluated. Mice bearing either a sarcoma-derived tumor (C57Bl; MCG 101) or a malig- nant melanoma (C3H\\/HeN; K1735-M2) were used. These models were principally different because they demonstrate, in tumor hosts, conditions with and without cancer cachexia, seemingly related to high and

Christian Cahlin; Johan Gelin; Dick Delbro; Christina Lonnroth; Chiharu Doi; Kent Lundholm

311

Picropodophyllin inhibits tumor growth of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a mouse model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •We identified that PPP inhibits IGF-1R/Akt pathway in NPC cells. •PPP dose-dependently inhibits NPC cell proliferation in vitro. •PPP suppresses tumor growth of NPC in nude mice. •PPP have little effect on microtubule assembly. -- Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a cell membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and plays important roles in cell transformation, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a selective IGF-1R inhibitor and shows promising antitumor effects for several human cancers. However, its antitumor effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of PPP in NPC using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model. We found that PPP dose-dependently decreased the IGF-induced phosphorylation and activity of IGF-1R and consequently reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, one downstream target of IGF-1R. In addition, PPP inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PPP for NPC cell line CNE-2 was ?1 ?M at 24 h after treatment and ?0.5 ?M at 48 h after treatment, respectively. Moreover, administration of PPP by intraperitoneal injection significantly suppressed the tumor growth of xenografted NPC in nude mice. Taken together, these results suggest targeting IGF-1R by PPP may represent a new strategy for treatment of NPCs with positive IGF-1R expression.

Yin, Shu-Cheng [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China) [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tao, Ze-Zhang, E-mail: zezhangtao@gmail.com [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China)

2013-09-13

312

A Generative Approach for Image-Based Modeling of Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

Extensive imaging is routinely used in brain tumor patients to monitor the state of the disease and to evaluate therapeutic options. A large number of multi-modal and multi-temporal image volumes is acquired in standard clinical cases, requiring new approaches for comprehensive integration of information from different image sources and different time points. In this work we propose a joint generative model of tumor growth and of image observation that naturally handles multimodal and longitudinal data. We use the model for analyzing imaging data in patients with glioma. The tumor growth model is based on a reaction-diffusion framework. Model personalization relies only on a forward model for the growth process and on image likelihood. We take advantage of an adaptive sparse grid approximation for efficient inference via Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling. The approach can be used for integrating information from different multi-modal imaging protocols and can easily be adapted to other tumor growth models. PMID:21761700

Menze, Bjoern H.; Van Leemput, Koen; Honkela, Antti; Konukoglu, Ender; Weber, Marc-Andre; Ayache, Nicholas; Golland, Polina

2011-01-01

313

Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow favor tumor cell growth in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in clinical application because of their potential use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, the therapeutic application of MSCs still remain limited unless the favorable effect of MSCs for tumor growth in vivo and the long-term safety of the clinical applications of MSCs are better understood. In this

Wei Zhu; Wenrong Xu; Runqiu Jiang; Hui Qian; Miao Chen; Jiabo Hu; Weike Cao; Chongxu Han; Yongchang Chen

2006-01-01

314

A multicompartment mathematical model of cancer stem cell-driven tumor growth dynamics.  

PubMed

Tumors are appreciated to be an intrinsically heterogeneous population of cells with varying proliferation capacities and tumorigenic potentials. As a central tenet of the so-called cancer stem cell hypothesis, most cancer cells have only a limited lifespan, and thus cannot initiate or reinitiate tumors. Longevity and clonogenicity are properties unique to the subpopulation of cancer stem cells. To understand the implications of the population structure suggested by this hypothesis--a hierarchy consisting of cancer stem cells and progeny non-stem cancer cells which experience a reduction in their remaining proliferation capacity per division--we set out to develop a mathematical model for the development of the aggregate population. We show that overall tumor progression rate during the exponential growth phase is identical to the growth rate of the cancer stem cell compartment. Tumors with identical stem cell proportions, however, can have different growth rates, dependent on the proliferation kinetics of all participating cell populations. Analysis of the model revealed that the proliferation potential of non-stem cancer cells is likely to be small to reproduce biologic observations. Furthermore, a single compartment of non-stem cancer cell population may adequately represent population growth dynamics only when the compartment proliferation rate is scaled with the generational hierarchy depth. PMID:24840956

Weekes, Suzanne L; Barker, Brian; Bober, Sarah; Cisneros, Karina; Cline, Justina; Thompson, Amanda; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Enderling, Heiko

2014-07-01

315

Epoxy metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibit angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis  

E-print Network

in circulation, caus- ing 70% inhibition of primary tumor growth and metastasis. Con- trary to the effects of angiogenic diseases such as macular degeneration (1­4) and cancers (5­8). However, the mechanisms by which of omega-3 fatty acids by cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes generates 3-series pros

Hammock, Bruce D.

316

Murine plasma cells secreting more than one class of immunoglobulin heavy chain. I. Frequency of two or more M-components in ascitic fluids from 788 primary plasmacytomas.  

PubMed

Primary ascites from 778 consecutive plasmacytomas of BALB/c and other mouse strains were tested by immunoelectrophoresis for the presence of paraproteins belonging to different immunoglobulin classes. gammaA was produced by 338 tumors: gamma Gs (gamma 1, gamma 2a, gamma 2b, or gamma 3) by 163 tumors; and gamma M by seven tumors. Free kappa- or lambda-typed light chains were produced by 14 tumors, and no detectable paraprotein was produced by 202 tumors. Two or more paraproteins were detected in the primary ascites of 54 plasmacytomas. Evidence suggests that in most cases, the multiple paraproteins are produced by simultaneously occurring, independent plasma cell tumors. However, two tumors, SAMM 368 and TEPC 609, produced two paraproteins for over 30 generations in transplantation. This finding implies that single clones of plasma cells have the capacity to produce more than one class of immunoglobulin. PMID:820802

Morse, H C; Pumphrey, J G; Potter, M; Asofsky, R

1976-08-01

317

Prediction of Food Intakes, Weight Gains, Organ Weights, and Tumor Size in Tumor-bearing Rats by the Four-Parameter Mathematical Model for Physiological Responses1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of male weanling rats bearing the transplantable Novikoff ascites hepatoma were fed diets containing graded levels of protein. The food intakes and weight gains were recorded daily. Seven days after inoculation of the rats with the tumor (6 days in Experiment 2), the rats were sacrificed, their organs were weighed, and the tumor and ascites fluid volumes were determined.

William T. Briscoe; L. Preston Mercer; Dixie Gimlin; Jim Ramlet

318

A thermally targeted c-Myc inhibitory polypeptide inhibits breast tumor growth.  

PubMed

Although surgical resection with adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are used to treat breast tumors, normal tissue tolerance, development of metastases, and inherent tumor resistance to radiation or chemotherapy can hinder a successful outcome. We have developed a thermally responsive polypeptide, based on the sequence of Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), that inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by blocking the activity of the oncogenic protein c-Myc. Following systemic administration, the ELP - delivered c-Myc inhibitory peptide was targeted to tumors using focused hyperthermia, and significantly reduced tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer. This work provides a new modality for targeted delivery of a specific oncogene inhibitory peptide, and this strategy may be expanded for delivery of other therapeutic peptides or small molecule drugs. PMID:22261328

Bidwell, Gene L; Perkins, Eddie; Raucher, Drazen

2012-06-28

319

Extinction Effects of Multiplicative Non-Gaussian Lévy Noise in a Tumor Growth System with Immunization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extinction phenomenon induced by multiplicative non-Gaussian Lévy noise in a tumor growth model with immune response is discussed. Under the influence of the stochastic immune rate, the model is analyzed in terms of a stochastic differential equation with multiplicative noise. By means of the theory of the infinitesimal generator of Hunt processes, the escape probability, which is used to measure the noise-induced extinction probability of tumor cells, is explicitly expressed as a function of initial tumor cell density, stability index and noise intensity. Based on the numerical calculations, it is found that for different initial densities of tumor cells, noise parameters play opposite roles on the escape probability. The optimally selected values of the multiplicative noise intensity and the stability index are found to maximize the escape probability.

Hao, Meng-Li; Xu, Wei; Li, Dong-Xi; Liu, Di

2014-05-01

320

Angiogenesis and the tumor microenvironment: vascular endothelial growth factor and beyond.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the dynamic tumor microenvironment (TME) has improved exponentially over the last few decades. In addition to traditional cytotoxic agents, anti-cancer strategies now include numerous molecular-targeted drugs that modulate distinct elements of the TME. Angiogenesis is an underlying promoter of tumor growth, invasion, and metastases. From traditional and emerging angiogenic cytokines and their receptors to novel immune checkpoint inhibitors, regulation of the tumor microenvironment is potentially key in countering tumor progression. In this article, an overview of the architecture of the TME and the orchestration of angiogenesis within the TME is provided. Additionally, traditional and novel angiogenic targets of current interest within the TME are reviewed. PMID:24787295

Mittal, Kriti; Ebos, John; Rini, Brian

2014-04-01

321

Molecularly targeted nanocarriers deliver the cytolytic peptide melittin specifically to tumor cells in mice, reducing tumor growth  

PubMed Central

The in vivo application of cytolytic peptides for cancer therapeutics is hampered by toxicity, nonspecificity, and degradation. We previously developed a specific strategy to synthesize a nanoscale delivery vehicle for cytolytic peptides by incorporating the nonspecific amphipathic cytolytic peptide melittin into the outer lipid monolayer of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle. Here, we have demonstrated that the favorable pharmacokinetics of this nanocarrier allows accumulation of melittin in murine tumors in vivo and a dramatic reduction in tumor growth without any apparent signs of toxicity. Furthermore, direct assays demonstrated that molecularly targeted nanocarriers selectively delivered melittin to multiple tumor targets, including endothelial and cancer cells, through a hemifusion mechanism. In cells, this hemifusion and transfer process did not disrupt the surface membrane but did trigger apoptosis and in animals caused regression of precancerous dysplastic lesions. Collectively, these data suggest that the ability to restrain the wide-spectrum lytic potential of a potent cytolytic peptide in a nanovehicle, combined with the flexibility of passive or active molecular targeting, represents an innovative molecular design for chemotherapy with broad-spectrum cytolytic peptides for the treatment of cancer at multiple stages. PMID:19726870

Soman, Neelesh R.; Baldwin, Steven L.; Hu, Grace; Marsh, Jon N.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Heuser, John E.; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Schlesinger, Paul H.

2009-01-01

322

Protein Kinase C Lies on the Signaling Pathway for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-mediated Tumor Development and Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of any solid tumor depends on angiogenesis. Among the known angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to play a pivotal role in tumor angiogenesis. However, to date, the signal transduction pathway initiated by VEGF is still not fully understood. It has been suggested that protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the

Hitoshi Yoshiji; Shigeki Kuriyama; D. Kirk Ways; Junichi Yoshii; Yoji Miyamoto; Mitsuhiro Kawata; Yasuhide Ikenaka; Hirohisa Tsujinoue; Toshiya Nakatani; Masabumi Shibuya; Hiroshi Fukui

1999-01-01

323

Conditional quantile regression models of melanoma tumor growth curves for assessing treatment effect in small sample studies.  

PubMed

Tumor growth curves provide a simple way to understand how tumors change over time. The traditional approach to fitting such curves to empirical data has been to estimate conditional mean regression functions, which describe the average effect of covariates on growth. However, this method ignores the possibility that tumor growth dynamics are different for different quantiles of the possible distribution of growth patterns. Furthermore, typical individual preclinical cancer drug study designs have very small sample sizes and can have lower power to detect a statistically significant difference in tumor volume between treatment groups. In our work, we begin to address these issues by combining several independent small sample studies of an experimental cancer treatment with differing study designs to construct quantile tumor growth curves. For modeling, we use a Penalized Fixed Effects Quantile Regression with added study effects to control for study differences. We demonstrate this approach using data from a series of small sample studies that investigated the effect of a naturally derived biological peptide, P28, on tumor volumes in mice grafted with human melanoma cells. We find a statistically significant quantile treatment effect on tumor volume trajectories and baseline values. In particular, the experimental treatment and a corresponding conventional chemotherapy had different effects on tumor growth by quantile. The conventional treatment, Dacarbazine (DTIC), tended to inhibit growth for smaller quantiles, while the experimental treatment P28 produced slower rates of growth in the upper quantiles, especially in the 95th quantile. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25231497

Revzin, Ella; Majumdar, Dibyen; Bassett, Gilbert W

2014-12-20

324

Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase ? (LPAAT?) Promotes the Tumor Growth of Human Osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Background Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone with poorly characterized molecular pathways important in its pathogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that elevated lipid biosynthesis is a characteristic feature of cancer. We sought to investigate the role of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase ? (LPAAT?, aka, AGPAT2) in regulating the proliferation and growth of human osteosarcoma cells. LPAAT? can generate phosphatidic acid, which plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis as well as in cell proliferation and survival. Although elevated expression of LPAAT? has been reported in several types of human tumors, the role of LPAAT? in osteosarcoma progression has yet to be elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous expression of LPAAT? in osteosarcoma cell lines is analyzed by using semi-quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of LPAAT? and silencing LPAAT? expression is employed to determine the effect of LPAAT? on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro and osteosarcoma tumor growth in vivo. We have found that expression of LPAAT? is readily detected in 8 of the 10 analyzed human osteosarcoma lines. Exogenous expression of LPAAT? promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration, while silencing LPAAT? expression inhibits these cellular characteristics. We further demonstrate that exogenous expression of LPAAT? effectively promotes tumor growth, while knockdown of LPAAT? expression inhibits tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model of human osteosarcoma. Conclusions/Significance Our results strongly suggest that LPAAT? expression may be associated with the aggressive phenotypes of human osteosarcoma and that LPAAT? may play an important role in regulating osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Thus, targeting LPAAT? may be exploited as a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical management of osteosarcoma. This is especially attractive given the availability of selective pharmacological inhibitors. PMID:21152068

Rastegar, Farbod; Gao, Jian-Li; Shenaq, Deana; Luo, Qing; Shi, Qiong; Kim, Stephanie H.; Jiang, Wei; Wagner, Eric R.; Huang, Enyi; Gao, Yanhong; Shen, Jikun; Yang, Ke; He, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Liang; Zuo, Guo-Wei; Luo, Jinyong; Luo, Xiaoji; Bi, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Mi; Hu, Ning; Wang, Linyuan; Luther, Gaurav; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; He, Tong-Chuan

2010-01-01

325

Enhancement of Cancer Vaccine Therapy by Systemic Delivery of a Tumor Targeting Salmonella-based STAT3 shRNA Suppresses the Growth of Established Melanoma Tumors  

PubMed Central

Cancer vaccine therapies have only achieved limited success when focusing on effector immunity with the goal of eliciting robust tumor-specific T cell responses. More recently, there is an emerging understanding that effective immunity can only be achieved by coordinate disruption of tumor-derived immune suppression. Towards that goal, we have developed a potent Salmonella-based vaccine expressing codon-optimized survivin (CO-SVN) referred to as 3342Max. When used alone as a therapeutic vaccine, 3342Max can attenuate growth of aggressive murine melanomas overexpressing SVN. However, under more immunosuppressive conditions, such as those associated with larger tumor volumes, we found that the vaccine was ineffective. Vaccine efficacy could be rescued if tumor-bearing mice were treated initially with Salmonella encoding a shRNA targeting the tolerogenic molecule STAT3 (YS1646-shSTAT3). In vaccinated mice, silencing STAT3 increased the proliferation and granzyme B levels of intratumoral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The combined strategy also increased apoptosis in tumors of treated mice, enhancing tumor-specific killing of tumor targets. Interestingly, mice treated with YS1646-shSTAT3 or 3342Max alone were similarly unsuccessful in rejecting established tumors, while the combined regimen was highly potent. Our findings establish that a combined strategy of silencing immunosuppressive molecules followed by vaccination can act synergistically to attenuate tumor growth, and they offer a novel translational direction to improve tumor immunotherapy. PMID:21527558

Manuel, Edwin R.; Blache, Celine A.; Paquette, Rebecca; Kaltcheva, Teodora I.; Ishizaki, Hidenobu; Ellenhorn, Joshua D.I.; Hensel, Michael; Metelitsa, Leonid; Diamond, Don J.

2011-01-01

326

Cyclophilin A enhances cell proliferation and tumor growth of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclophilin A (CypA) expression is associated with malignant phenotypes in many cancers. However, the role and mechanisms of CypA in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) are not presently known. In this study, we investigated the expression of CypA in CCA tumor tissues and CCA cell lines as well as regulation mechanisms of CypA in tumor growth using CCA cell lines. Methods CypA expression was determined by real time RT-PCR, Western blot or immunohistochemistry. CypA silence or overexpression in CCA cells was achieved using gene delivery techniques. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTS assay or Ki-67 staining. The effect of silencing CypA on CCA tumor growth was determined in nude mice. The effect of CypA knockdown on ERK1/2 activation was assessed by Western blot. Results CypA was upregulated in 68% of CCA tumor tissues. Silencing CypA significantly suppressed cell proliferation in several CCA cell lines. Likewise, inhibition of CypA peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity using cyclosporin A (CsA) decreased cell proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of CypA resulted in 30% to 35% increases in proliferation of CCA cell lines. Interestingly, neither silence nor overexpression of CypA affected cell proliferation of a non-tumor human cholangiocyte cell line, MMNK1. Suppression of CypA expression attenuated ERK1/2 activity in CCA M139 cells by using both transient and stable knockdown methods. In the in vivo study, there was a 43% reduction in weight of tumors derived from CypA-silenced CCA cell lines compared with control vector CCA tumors in mice; these tumors with stable CypA silencing showed a reduced cell proliferation. Conclusions CypA is upregulated in majority of CCA patients' tissues and confers a significant growth advantage in CCA cells. Suppression of CypA expression decreases proliferation of CCA cell lines in vitro and reduces tumor growth in the nude mouse model. Inhibition of CypA activity also reduces CCA cell proliferation. The ERK1/2 pathway may be involved in the CypA-mediated CCA cell proliferation. Thus, CypA may represent an important new therapeutic target for liver fluke-associated CCA. PMID:21871105

2011-01-01

327

Versican G3 Promotes Mouse Mammary Tumor Cell Growth, Migration, and Metastasis by Influencing EGF Receptor Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased versican expression in breast tumors is predictive of relapse and has negative impact on survival rates. The C-terminal G3 domain of versican influences local and systemic tumor invasiveness in pre-clinical murine models. However, the mechanism(s) by which G3 influences breast tumor growth and metastasis is not well characterized. Here we evaluated the expression of versican in mouse mammary tumor

William Weidong Du; Burton B. Yang; Tatiana A. Shatseva; Bing L. Yang; Zhaoqun Deng; Sze Wan Shan; Daniel Y. Lee; Arun Seth; Albert J. Yee

2010-01-01

328

The zinc finger transcription factor EGR-1 impedes interleukin-1-inducible tumor growth arrest.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a growth arrest signal for diverse human tumor cell lines. We report here that the action of this cytokine in melanoma cells is associated with induction of EGR-1, a zinc finger protein that activates gene transcription. Both growth arrest and EGR-1 are induced via the type I receptor of IL-1. To determine the role of EGR-1 in IL-1 action in melanoma cells, we used a chimera expressing the transrepression domain of the Wilm's tumor gene, WT1, and the DNA binding domain of Egr-1. This chimera competitively inhibited EGR-1-dependent transactivation via the GC-rich DNA binding sequence, indicating that it acted as a functional dominant negative mutant of Egr-1. Melanoma cell lines stably transfected with the dominant negative mutant construct were supersensitive to IL-1 and showed accelerated G0/G1 growth arrest compared with the parental cell line. The effect of the dominant negative mutant construct was mimicked by addition of an antisense Egr-1 oligomer to the culture medium of the parental cells: the oligomer inhibited EGR-1 expression and accelerated the growth-inhibitory response to IL-1. These data imply that EGR-1 acts to delay IL-1-mediated tumor growth arrest. PMID:7823937

Sells, S F; Muthukumar, S; Sukhatme, V P; Crist, S A; Rangnekar, V M

1995-01-01

329

Investigation of HT1080 tumor growth dynamics and ECM invasion in 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumors are complex arrangements of tissues made up of several components, including dense masses of cancer cells and re-organized extracellular matrix (ECM). Recent studies have revealed the crucial role that extracellular matrix components have on single cancer cell behavior, but how the interaction of ECM components affects the growth dynamics of an entire tumor is not fully understood. Here, we use human derived fibrosarcoma cell (HT1080) aggregates in combination with live cell imaging, cryo-stat sectioning, immunostaining, and confocal imaging to study changes in cell aggregate size, proliferation, and spatial distribution within 3 dimensional (3D) matrices. We compare our experimental observations with a coupled partial differential equations based mathematical model to predict cell aggregate growth and cell density distribution and determine how cell interactions play a significant role in this dynamic growth. Using this model, we investigate the distinct contributions from cell migration, proliferation, cell-matrix interactions, and matrix remodeling to the aggregate dynamics.

Yogurtcu, Osman N.; Jimenez Valencia, Angela M.; Lee, Meng-Horng; Sun, Sean X.; Wirtz, Denis

2013-03-01

330

The effect of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 on the growth and metastasis of fibrosarcoma tumors in athymic mice.  

PubMed

Human tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) is a matrix-associated Kunitz inhibitor that inhibits the plasmin- and trypsin-mediated activation of zymogen matrix metalloproteinases involved in tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. To directly assess its role in tumor growth and metastasis in vivo, we stably transfected HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells expressing either fully active wild-type human TFPI-2 (WT) or inactive R24Q TFPI-2 (QT) and examined their ability to form tumors and metastasize in athymic mice in comparison to mock-transfected cells (MT). MT and QT fibrosarcoma tumors grew 2 to 3 times larger than WT tumors. Tumor metastasis was confined to the lung and was observed in 75% of mice treated with either MT or QT cells, whereas only 42% of mice treated with WT cells developed lung metastases. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of each tumor group revealed 3- to 6-fold lower levels of murine vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression in WT tumors in relation to either MT or QT tumors. Comparative tumor gene expression analysis revealed that several human genes implicated in oncogenesis, invasion, metastasis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis had significantly altered levels of expression in WT tumors. Our collective data demonstrate that secretion of inhibitory TFPI-2 by a highly metastatic tumor cell markedly inhibits its growth and metastasis in vivo by regulating pericellular extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and angiogenesis. PMID:14525759

Chand, Hitendra Singh; Du, Xin; Ma, Duan; Inzunza, Hector David; Kamei, Shintaro; Foster, Donald; Brodie, Steven; Kisiel, Walter

2004-02-01

331

Causes, consequences, and remedies for growth-induced solid stress in murine and human tumors  

PubMed Central

The presence of growth-induced solid stresses in tumors has been suspected for some time, but these stresses were largely estimated using mathematical models. Solid stresses can deform the surrounding tissues and compress intratumoral lymphatic and blood vessels. Compression of lymphatic vessels elevates interstitial fluid pressure, whereas compression of blood vessels reduces blood flow. Reduced blood flow, in turn, leads to hypoxia, which promotes tumor progression, immunosuppression, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis and lowers the efficacy of chemo-, radio-, and immunotherapies. Thus, strategies designed to alleviate solid stress have the potential to improve cancer treatment. However, a lack of methods for measuring solid stress has hindered the development of solid stress-alleviating drugs. Here, we present a simple technique to estimate the growth-induced solid stress accumulated within animal and human tumors, and we show that this stress can be reduced by depleting cancer cells, fibroblasts, collagen, and/or hyaluronan, resulting in improved tumor perfusion. Furthermore, we show that therapeutic depletion of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts with an inhibitor of the sonic hedgehog pathway reduces solid stress, decompresses blood and lymphatic vessels, and increases perfusion. In addition to providing insights into the mechanopathology of tumors, our approach can serve as a rapid screen for stress-reducing and perfusion-enhancing drugs. PMID:22932871

Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Martin, John D.; Chauhan, Vikash P.; Diop-Frimpong, Benjamin; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Smith, Barbara L.; Ferrone, Cristina R.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Boucher, Yves; Munn, Lance L.; Jain, Rakesh K.

2012-01-01

332

A molecular mechanism regulating circadian expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in tumor cells.  

PubMed

Because angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, inhibition of angiogenesis has emerged as a new therapy to treat cancers. Hypoxia-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in tumor-induced angiogenesis. In this study, we found that expression of VEGF in hypoxic tumor cells was affected by the circadian organization of molecular clockwork. The core circadian oscillator is composed of an autoregulatory transcription-translation feedback loop in which CLOCK and BMAL1 are positive regulators, and Period and Cryptochrome genes act as negative ones. The levels of VEGF mRNA in tumor cells implanted in mice rose substantially in response to hypoxia, but the levels fluctuated rhythmically in a circadian fashion. Luciferase reporter gene analysis revealed that Period2 and Cryptochrome1, whose expression in the implanted tumor cells showed a circadian oscillation, inhibited the hypoxia-induced VEGF promoter activity. These results suggest that the negative limbs of the molecular loop periodically inhibit the hypoxic induction of VEGF transcription, resulting in the circadian fluctuation of its mRNA expression. We also showed that the antitumor efficacy of antiangiogenic agents could be enhanced by administering the drugs at the time when VEGF production increased. These findings support the notion that monitoring of the circadian rhythm in VEGF production is useful for choosing the most appropriate time of day for administration of antiangiogenic agents. PMID:14612524

Koyanagi, Satoru; Kuramoto, Yukako; Nakagawa, Hiroo; Aramaki, Hironori; Ohdo, Shigehiro; Soeda, Shinji; Shimeno, Hiroshi

2003-11-01

333

Evidence for Control of Nitric Oxide Synthesis by Intracellular Transforming Growth Factor-?1 in Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) has been shown to down-regulate NO synthesis in a variety of normal cells. In the present study, we investigated the influence of TGF-?1 upon NO production in tumor cells and its consequences for tumor development. During the growth of PROb colon carcinoma cells intraperitoneally injected in syngeneic BDIX rats, intratumoral concentration of TGF-?1 increases while NO concentration stays very low. Tumor regression induced by intraperitoneal injections of a lipid A is associated with a decrease in TGF-?1 and an increase in NO intratumoral concentration. In these tumors, PROb tumor cells are the NO- and TGF-?1-secreting cells. Using PROb cells transfected with an expression vector coding for TGF-?1 antisense mRNA, we demonstrate in vitro that there is an inverse correlation between the amount of TGF-?1 secreted and the ability of PROb cells to secrete NO. As the same results were obtained in the presence of an anti-TGF-? type II receptor neutralizing antibody, and as exogenous TGF-?1 is without any effect on NO secretion by PROb cells, TGF-?1 apparently down-regulates NO synthesis in PROb cells by an intracellular mechanism. These results suggest that endogenous TGF-?1 constitutes a potential target in a search for new antitumoral agents. PMID:10362813

Lagadec, Patricia; Raynal, Stephane; Lieubeau, Blandine; Onier, Nathalie; Arnould, Laurent; Saint-Giorgio, Valerie; Lawrence, David A.; Jeannin, Jean-Francois

1999-01-01

334

Imatinib and Dasatinib Inhibit Hemangiosarcoma and Implicate PDGFR-? and Src in Tumor Growth12  

PubMed Central

Hemangiosarcoma, a natural model of human angiosarcoma, is an aggressive vascular tumor diagnosed commonly in dogs. The documented expression of several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) by these tumors makes them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, we possess limited knowledge of the effects of TKIs on hemangiosarcoma as well as other soft tissue sarcomas. We report here on the use of the TKIs imatinib and dasatinib in canine hemangiosarcoma and their effects on platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFR-?) and Src inhibition. Both TKIs reduced cell viability, but dasatinib was markedly more potent in this regard, mediating cytotoxic effects orders of magnitude greater than imatinib. Dasatinib also inhibited the phosphorylation of the shared PDGFR-? target at a concentration approximately 1000 times less than that needed by imatinib and effectively blocked Src phosphorylation. Both inhibitors augmented the response to doxorubicin, suggesting that clinical responses likely will be improved using both drugs in combination; however, dasatinib was significantly (P < .05) more effective in this context. Despite the higher concentrations needed in cell-based assays, imatinib significantly inhibited tumor growth (P < .05) in a tumor xenograft model, highlighting that disruption of PDGFR-?/PDGF signaling may be important in targeting the angiogenic nature of these tumors. Treatment of a dog with spontaneously occurring hemangiosarcoma established that clinically achievable doses of dasatinib may be realized in dogs and provides a means to investigate the effect of TKIs on soft tissue sarcomas in a large animal model. PMID:23544168

Dickerson, Erin B; Marley, Kevin; Edris, Wade; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Schalk, Vidya; MacDonald, Valerie; Loriaux, Marc; Druker, Brian J; Helfand, Stuart C

2013-01-01

335

A novel isoform of the 8p22 tumor suppressor gene DLC1 suppresses tumor growth and is frequently silenced in multiple common tumors  

PubMed Central

The critical 8p22 tumor suppressor deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) is frequently inactivated by aberrant CpG methylation and/or genetic deletion and implicated in tumorigeneses of multiple tumor types. Here, we report the identification and characterization of its new isoform, DLC1 isoform 4 (DLC1-i4). This novel isoform encodes an 1125-aa (amino acid) protein with distinct N-terminus as compared with other known DLC1 isoforms. Similar to other isoforms, DLC1-i4 is expressed ubiquitously in normal tissues and immortalized normal epithelial cells, suggesting a role as a major DLC1 transcript. However, differential expression of the four DLC1 isoforms is found in tumor cell lines: Isoform 1 (longest) and 3 (short thus probably nonfunctional) share a promoter and are silenced in almost all cancer and immortalized cell lines, whereas isoform 2 and 4 utilize different promoters and are frequently downregulated. DLC1-i4 is significantly down-regulated in multiple carcinoma cell lines, including 2/4 nasopharyngeal, 8/16 (50%) esophageal, 4/16 (25%) gastric, 6/9 (67%) breast, 3/4 colorectal, 4/4 cervical and 2/8(25%) lung carcinoma cell lines. The functional DLC1-i4 promoter is within a CpG island and is activated by wild-type p53. CpG methylation of the DLC1-i4 promoter is associated with its silencing in tumor cells and was detected in 38–100% of multiple primary tumors. Treatment with 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine or genetic double knockout of DNMT1 and DNMT3B led to demethylation of the promoter and reactivation of its expression, indicating a predominantly epigenetic mechanism of silencing. Ectopic expression of DLC1-i4 in silenced tumor cells strongly inhibited their growth and colony formation. Thus, we identified a new isoform of DLC1 with tumor suppressive function. The differential expression of various DLC1 isoforms suggests interplay in modulating the complex activities of DLC1 during carcinogenesis. PMID:21217778

Low, JSW; Tao, Q; Ng, KM; Goh, HK; Shu, X-S; Woo, WL; Ambinder, RF; Srivastava, G; Shamay, M; Chan, ATC; Popescu, NC; Hsieh, W-S

2011-01-01

336

Tyrosine Phosphorylation Inhibits PKM2 to Promote the Warburg Effect and Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

The Warburg effect describes a pro-oncogenic metabolism switch such that cancer cells take up more glucose than normal tissue and favor incomplete oxidation of glucose even in the presence of oxygen. To better understand how tyrosine kinase signaling, which is commonly increased in tumors, regulates the Warburg effect, we performed phosphoproteomic studies. We found that oncogenic forms of fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 inhibit the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform by direct phosphorylation of PKM2 tyrosine residue 105 (Y105). This inhibits the formation of active, tetrameric PKM2 by disrupting binding of the PKM2 cofactor fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Furthermore, we found that phosphorylation of PKM2 Y105 is common in human cancers. The presence of a PKM2 mutant in which phenylalanine is substituted for Y105 (Y105F) in cancer cells leads to decreased cell proliferation under hypoxic conditions, increased oxidative phosphorylation with reduced lactate production, and reduced tumor growth in xenografts in nude mice. Our findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation regulates PKM2 to provide a metabolic advantage to tumor cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. PMID:19920251

Hitosugi, Taro; Kang, Sumin; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Chung, Tae-Wook; Elf, Shannon; Lythgoe, Katherine; Dong, Shaozhong; Lonial, Sagar; Wang, Xu; Chen, Georgia Z.; Xie, Jianxin; Gu, Ting-Lei; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Roesel, Johannes L.; Boggon, Titus J.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Gilliland, D. Gary; Cantley, Lewis C.; Kaufman, Jonathan; Chen, Jing

2010-01-01

337

G-rich Oligonucleotides Inhibit HIF-1? and HIF-2? and Block Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays crucial roles in tumor promotion by upregulating its target genes, which are involved in energy metabolism, angiogenesis, cell survival, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. The HIF-1? subunit, which is regulated by O2-dependent hydroxylation, ubiquitination, and degradation, has been identified as an important molecular target for cancer therapy. We have rationally designed G-rich oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) as inhibitors of HIF-1? for human cancer therapy. The lead compounds, JG243 and JG244, which form an intramolecular parallel G-quartet structure, selectively target HIF-1? and decreased levels of both HIF-1? and HIF-2? (IC50 < 2 µmol/l) and also inhibited the expression of HIF-1-regulated proteins [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Bcl-2, and Bcl-XL], but did not disrupt the expression of p300, Stat3, or p53. JG-ODNs induced proteasomal degradation of HIF-1? and HIF-2? that was dependent on the hydroxylase activity of prolyl-4-hydroxylase-2. JG243 and JG244 dramatically suppressed the growth of prostate, breast, and pancreatic tumor xenografts. Western blots from tumor tissues showed that JG-ODNs significantly decreased HIF-1? and HIF-2? levels and blocked the expression of VEGF. The JG-ODNs are novel anticancer agents that suppress tumor growth by inhibiting HIF-1. PMID:19755960

Guan, Yongli; Ramasamy Reddy, Kavitha; Zhu, Qiqing; Li, Yifei; Lee, KangAe; Weerasinghe, Priya; Prchal, Josef; Semenza, Gregg L; Jing, Naijie

2009-01-01

338

G-rich oligonucleotides inhibit HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha and block tumor growth.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays crucial roles in tumor promotion by upregulating its target genes, which are involved in energy metabolism, angiogenesis, cell survival, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. The HIF-1alpha subunit, which is regulated by O2-dependent hydroxylation, ubiquitination, and degradation, has been identified as an important molecular target for cancer therapy. We have rationally designed G-rich oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) as inhibitors of HIF-1alpha for human cancer therapy. The lead compounds, JG243 and JG244, which form an intramolecular parallel G-quartet structure, selectively target HIF-1alpha and decreased levels of both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha (IC50 < 2 micromol/l) and also inhibited the expression of HIF-1-regulated proteins [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Bcl-2, and Bcl-XL], but did not disrupt the expression of p300, Stat3, or p53. JG-ODNs induced proteasomal degradation of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha that was dependent on the hydroxylase activity of prolyl-4-hydroxylase-2. JG243 and JG244 dramatically suppressed the growth of prostate, breast, and pancreatic tumor xenografts. Western blots from tumor tissues showed that JG-ODNs significantly decreased HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha levels and blocked the expression of VEGF. The JG-ODNs are novel anticancer agents that suppress tumor growth by inhibiting HIF-1. PMID:19755960

Guan, Yongli; Reddy, Kavitha Ramasamy; Zhu, Qiqing; Li, Yifei; Lee, KangAe; Weerasinghe, Priya; Prchal, Josef; Semenza, Gregg L; Jing, Naijie

2010-01-01

339

Contour instabilities and micro-structures in early tumor growth models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical diagnosis of skin cancers is based on several morphological criteria, among which growth, color, border instabilities and microstructures (e.g. dots, nests) sparsely distributed within the tumor lesion. We use the multiphase mixture models adapted to the skin to explain various patterning occurring in the avascular phase. Restricting to a simple but realistic version of these models with an elastic cell-to-cell interaction and a growth rate dependent on diffusing nutrients, we prove analytically that the tumor cell concentration at the border acts as a control parameter inducing a bifurcation with loss of circular symmetry which explains the instabilities of the tumor border. The finite wavelength at threshold has the size of the proliferating peritumoral zone. We apply our predictions to melanoma growth since these instabilities are crucial for the early diagnosis. The same model is used to show the existence of micro-structures. Taking into account a reaction-diffusion coupling between nutrient consumption and cellular proliferation, we show that two-phase models may undergo a spinodal decomposition even when considering mass exchanges between the phases. The cell-nutrient interaction defines a typical diffusive length in the problem, which is found to control the saturation of a growing separated domain, thus stabilizing the microstructural pattern. The distribution and the evolution of such emerging cluster morphologies are successfully compared to the clinical observation of microstructural patterns in tumor lesions.

Ben Amar, Martine; Ciarletta, Pasquale; Chatelain, Clément; Balois, Thibaut

2012-02-01

340

Lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 expression in cancer cells attenuates tumor growth and metastasis in mice.  

PubMed

Lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1) degrades lysophosphatidate (LPA) and attenuates receptor-mediated signaling. LPP1 expression is low in many cancer cells and tumors compared with normal tissues. It was hypothesized from studies with cultured cells that increasing LPP1 activity would decrease tumor growth and metastasis. This hypothesis has never been tested in vivo. To do this, we inducibly expressed LPP1 or a catalytically inactive mutant in cancer cells. Expressing active LPP1 increased extracellular LPA degradation by 5-fold. It also decreased the stimulation of Ca(2+) transients by LPA, a nondephosphorylatable LPA1/2 receptor agonist and a protease-activated receptor-1 peptide. The latter results demonstrate that LPP1 has effects downstream of receptor activation. Decreased Ca(2+) mobilization and Rho activation contributed to the effects of LPP1 in attenuating the LPA-induced migration of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and their growth in 3D culture. Increasing LPP1 expression in breast and thyroid cancer cells decreased tumor growth and the metastasis by up to 80% compared with expression of inactive LPP1 or green fluorescent protein in syngeneic and xenograft mouse models. The present work demonstrates for the first time that increasing the LPP1 activity in three lines of aggressive cancer cells decreases their abilities to produce tumors and metastases in mice. PMID:25210149

Tang, Xiaoyun; Benesch, Matthew G K; Dewald, Jay; Zhao, Yuan Y; Patwardhan, Neeraj; Santos, Webster L; Curtis, Jonathan M; McMullen, Todd P W; Brindley, David N

2014-11-01

341

The c-Met Inhibitor MSC2156119J Effectively Inhibits Tumor Growth in Liver Cancer Models.  

PubMed

The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) is a receptor tyrosine kinase with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as its only high-affinity ligand. Aberrant activation of c-Met is associated with many human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the in vivo antitumor and antimetastatic efficacy of the c-Met inhibitor MSC2156119J (EMD 1214063) in patient-derived tumor explants. BALB/c nude mice were inoculated with MHCC97H cells or with tumor fragments of 10 patient-derived primary liver cancer explants selected according to c-Met/HGF expression levels. MSC2156119J (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) and sorafenib (50 mg/kg) were administered orally as single-agent treatment or in combination, with vehicle as control. Tumor response, metastases formation, and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels were measured. MSC2156119J inhibited tumor growth and induced complete regression in mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic MHCC97H tumors. AFP levels were undetectable after 5 weeks of MSC2156119J treatment, and the number of metastatic lung foci was reduced. Primary liver explant models with strong c-Met/HGF activation showed increased responsiveness to MSC2156119J, with MSC2156119J showing similar or superior activity to sorafenib. Tumors characterized by low c-Met expression were less sensitive to MSC2156119J. MSC2156119J was better tolerated than sorafenib, and combination therapy did not improve efficacy. These findings indicate that selective c-Met/HGF inhibition with MSC2156119J is associated with marked regression of c-Met high-expressing tumors, supporting its clinical development as an antitumor treatment for HCC patients with active c-Met signaling. PMID:25256830

Bladt, Friedhelm; Friese-Hamim, Manja; Ihling, Christian; Wilm, Claudia; Blaukat, Andree

2014-01-01

342

The c-Met Inhibitor MSC2156119J Effectively Inhibits Tumor Growth in Liver Cancer Models  

PubMed Central

The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) is a receptor tyrosine kinase with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as its only high-affinity ligand. Aberrant activation of c-Met is associated with many human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the in vivo antitumor and antimetastatic efficacy of the c-Met inhibitor MSC2156119J (EMD 1214063) in patient-derived tumor explants. BALB/c nude mice were inoculated with MHCC97H cells or with tumor fragments of 10 patient-derived primary liver cancer explants selected according to c-Met/HGF expression levels. MSC2156119J (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) and sorafenib (50 mg/kg) were administered orally as single-agent treatment or in combination, with vehicle as control. Tumor response, metastases formation, and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels were measured. MSC2156119J inhibited tumor growth and induced complete regression in mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic MHCC97H tumors. AFP levels were undetectable after 5 weeks of MSC2156119J treatment, and the number of metastatic lung foci was reduced. Primary liver explant models with strong c-Met/HGF activation showed increased responsiveness to MSC2156119J, with MSC2156119J showing similar or superior activity to sorafenib. Tumors characterized by low c-Met expression were less sensitive to MSC2156119J. MSC2156119J was better tolerated than sorafenib, and combination therapy did not improve efficacy. These findings indicate that selective c-Met/HGF inhibition with MSC2156119J is associated with marked regression of c-Met high-expressing tumors, supporting its clinical development as an antitumor treatment for HCC patients with active c-Met signaling. PMID:25256830

Bladt, Friedhelm; Friese-Hamim, Manja; Ihling, Christian; Wilm, Claudia; Blaukat, Andree

2014-01-01

343

Toxicarioside A Inhibits Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis: Involvement of TGF-?/Endoglin Signaling  

PubMed Central

Toxicarioside A is a cardenolide isolated mainly from plants and animals. Emerging evidence demonstrate that cardenolides not only have cardiac effects but also anticancer effects. In this study, we used in vivo models to investigate the antitumor activities of toxicarioside A and the potential mechanisms behind them. Murine colorectal carcinoma (CT26) and Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/2) models were established in syngeneic BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, respectively. We found that the optimum effective dose of toxicarioside A treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth and angiogenesis in CT and LL/2 tumor models in vivo. Northern and Western blot analysis showed significant inhibition of endoglin expression in toxicarioside A-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and tumor tissues in vivo. Toxicarioside A treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, but did not cause significant cell apoptosis and affected other membrane protein (such as CD31 and MHC I) expression. In addition, TGF-? expression was also significantly inhibited in CT26 and LL/2 tumor cells treated with toxicarioside A. Western blot analysis indicated that Smad1 and phosphorylated Smad1 but not Smad2/3 and phosphorylated Smad2/3 were attenuated in HUVECs treated with toxicarioside A. Smad1 and Smad2/3 signaling remained unchanged in CT26 and LL/2 tumor cells treated with toxicarioside A. Endoglin knockout by small interfering RNA against endoglin induced alternations in Smad1 and Smad2/3 signaling in HUVECs. Our results indicate that toxicarioside A suppresses tumor growth through inhibition of endoglin-related tumor angiogenesis, which involves in the endoglin/TGF-? signal pathway. PMID:23209720

Tan, Guang-hong; Dai, Hao-fu; Guo, Jun-li; Wang, Hua; Huang, Yong-hao; Zhao, Huan-ge; Zhou, Song-lin; Lin, Ying-ying

2012-01-01

344

IL-12 Suppresses Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Expression on Tumor Vessels by Two Distinct IFN-?-Dependent Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

IL-12 has been shown to be effective in enhancing antitumor responses. However, how IL-12 exerts its antiangiogenic effect is largely unknown. In this study, we elucidate this mechanism using B16 transfected to express IL-12 (B16/IL-12), a system that provides constant, local production of IL-12 within the tumor microenvironment. Intratumoral IL-12 resulted in a significant delay in tumor growth and phenotypic changes in the vasculature. Vessels found within B16 tumors are chaotic and poorly formed and express vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3), a growth factor receptor not expressed on normal adult vessels. However, the vessels within B16/IL-12 tumors have a more normal morphology and do not express VEGFR3. We have shown that IFN-? is required for IL-12 to suppress the aberrant expression of VEGFR3. Indeed, the presence of intratumoral IL-12 stimulates the immune system resulting in more IFN-?–producing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes per tumor when compared with parental B16 tumors, which may have a marked effect on control of tumor growth. Interestingly, within B16/IL-12 tumors, T cells are necessary to suppress VEGFR3 expression on tumor vessels. Finally, using IFN-? receptor knockout mice in a bone marrow chimera system, we show that the IFN-? produced within the tumor suppresses VEGFR3 expression in two ways: 1) acting directly on tumor vessel endothelial cells, and 2) acting on the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes to indirectly alter endothelial cells’ VEGFR3 expression. Our data indicate a mechanism in which tumor-infiltrating immune cells regulate tumor vessel phenotype. PMID:20061409

Sorensen, Elizabeth W.; Gerber, Scott A.; Frelinger, John G.; Lord, Edith M.

2011-01-01

345

ALK-Dependent Control of Hypoxia-Inducible Factors Mediates Tumor Growth and Metastasis.  

PubMed

Rearrangements involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene are defining events in several tumors, including anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In such cancers, the oncogenic activity of ALK stimulates signaling pathways that induce cell transformation and promote tumor growth. In search for common pathways activated by oncogenic ALK across different tumors types, we found that hypoxia pathways were significantly enriched in ALK-rearranged ALCL and NSCLC, as compared with other types of T-cell lymphoma or EGFR- and K-RAS-mutated NSCLC, respectively. Consistently, in both ALCL and NSCLC, we found that under hypoxic conditions, ALK directly regulated the abundance of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), which are key players of the hypoxia response in normal tissues and cancers. In ALCL, the upregulation of HIF1? and HIF2? in hypoxic conditions required ALK activity and its downstream signaling proteins STAT3 and C/EBP?. In vivo, ALK regulated VEGFA production and tumor angiogenesis in ALCL and NSCLC, and the treatment with the anti-VEGFA antibody bevacizumab strongly impaired ALCL growth in mouse xenografts. Finally, HIF2?, but not HIF1?, was required for ALCL growth in vivo whereas the growth and metastasis potential of ALK-rearranged NSCLC required both HIF1? and HIF2?. In conclusion, we uncovered an ALK-specific regulation of the hypoxia response across different ALK(+) tumor types and propose HIFs as a powerful specific therapeutic target in ALK-rearranged ALCL and NSCLC. Cancer Res; 74(21); 6094-106. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25193384

Martinengo, Cinzia; Poggio, Teresa; Menotti, Matteo; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Mastini, Cristina; Ambrogio, Chiara; Pellegrino, Elisa; Riera, Ludovica; Piva, Roberto; Ribatti, Domenico; Pastorino, Fabio; Perri, Patrizia; Ponzoni, Mirco; Wang, Qi; Voena, Claudia; Chiarle, Roberto

2014-11-01

346

Stanford researchers find antibody hinders growth of Gleevec-resistant gastrointestinal tumors in lab tests  

Cancer.gov

An antibody that binds to a molecule on the surface of a rare but deadly tumor of the gastrointestinal tract inhibits the growth of the cancer cells in mice, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine (home of the Stanford Cancer Institute). The effect remains even when the cancer cells have become resistant to other treatments, and the findings may one day provide a glimmer of hope for people with the cancer, known as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, or GIST. The scientists hope to move into human clinical trials of the antibody within two years.

347

Effect of chronic hypoxia during embryonic development on physiological functioning and on hatching and post-hatching parameters related to ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of different atmospheric pressure on the endogenous functions of broiler chickens during embryonic, hatching and growing periods related to ascites. Eggs from a commercial broiler line were incubated in two similar commercial incubators at high and low altitudes. The effect on embryonic development and physiological functions including hatching parameters, incidence of ascites and growth performance were examined. Embryos incubated at high altitude had higher plasma tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, corticosteroid and lactic acid levels, and hatched earlier than those incubated at low altitude. Embryonic mortality was higher at high altitude. Chickens that had been incubated at high altitude showed less right ventricular hypertrophy and ascites mortality than those incubated at low altitude. It was concluded that different atmospheric pressure during incubation interacts with the endocrine functions of the embryo and hence affects hatching parameters, thereby influencing ascites susceptibility. PMID:15763722

Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Fard, M H Bozorgmehri; Buyse, Johan; Bruggeman, Veerle; Decuypere, Eddy

2004-12-01

348

Embelin inhibits endothelial mitochondrial respiration and impairs neoangiogenesis during tumor growth and wound healing  

PubMed Central

In the normal quiescent vasculature, only 0.01% of endothelial cells (ECs) are proliferating. However, this proportion increases dramatically following the angiogenic switch during tumor growth or wound healing. Recent evidence suggests that this angiogenic switch is accompanied by a metabolic switch. Here, we show that proliferating ECs increasingly depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) for their increased energy demand. Under growth conditions, ECs consume three times more oxygen than quiescent ECs and work close to their respiratory limit. The increased utilization of the proton motif force leads to a reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in proliferating ECs and sensitizes to mitochondrial uncoupling. The benzoquinone embelin is a weak mitochondrial uncoupler that prevents neoangiogenesis during tumor growth and wound healing by exhausting the low respiratory reserve of proliferating ECs without adversely affecting quiescent ECs. We demonstrate that this can be exploited therapeutically by attenuating tumor growth in syngenic and xenograft mouse models. This novel metabolic targeting approach might be clinically valuable in controlling pathological neoangiogenesis while sparing normal vasculature and complementing cytostatic drugs in cancer treatment. PMID:24648500

Coutelle, Oliver; Hornig-Do, Hue-Tran; Witt, Axel; Andree, Maria; Schiffmann, Lars M; Piekarek, Michael; Brinkmann, Kerstin; Seeger, Jens M; Liwschitz, Maxim; Miwa, Satomi; Hallek, Michael; Krönke, Martin; Trifunovic, Aleksandra; Eming, Sabine A; Wiesner, Rudolf J; Hacker, Ulrich T; Kashkar, Hamid

2014-01-01

349

Digital holographic microscopy for imaging growth and treatment response in 3D tumor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While three-dimensional tumor models have emerged as valuable tools in cancer research, the ability to longitudinally visualize the 3D tumor architecture restored by these systems is limited with microscopy techniques that provide only qualitative insight into sample depth, or which require terminal fixation for depth-resolved 3D imaging. Here we report the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a viable microscopy approach for quantitative, non-destructive longitudinal imaging of in vitro 3D tumor models. Following established methods we prepared 3D cultures of pancreatic cancer cells in overlay geometry on extracellular matrix beds and obtained digital holograms at multiple timepoints throughout the duration of growth. The holograms were digitally processed and the unwrapped phase images were obtained to quantify nodule thickness over time under normal growth, and in cultures subject to chemotherapy treatment. In this manner total nodule volumes are rapidly estimated and demonstrated here to show contrasting time dependent changes during growth and in response to treatment. This work suggests the utility of DHM to quantify changes in 3D structure over time and suggests the further development of this approach for time-lapse monitoring of 3D morphological changes during growth and in response to treatment that would otherwise be impractical to visualize.

Li, Yuyu; Petrovic, Ljubica; Celli, Jonathan P.; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.

2014-03-01

350

Peritoneovenous shunting is an effective treatment for intractable ascites  

PubMed Central

Aim and methods: A retrospective review was carried out of children undergoing peritoneovenous shunting for intractable ascites. Results: 11 children, aged 3 months to 12 years (median 31 months) underwent peritoneovenous shunting over the past 17 years. The duration of ascites ranged from one month to 2.5 years (median two months). The primary pathology consisted of previous surgery in eight (three neuroblastoma, one renal carcinoma, one hepatoblastoma, one adrenal teratoma, one renal artery stenosis, and one diaphragmatic hernia), and cytomegalovirus hepatitis, lymphatic hypoplasia, and lymphohistiocytosis in one patient each. All patients had failed to respond to previous treatment including peritoneal drainage in six patients, diuretics in five, and parenteral nutrition in five. There were no intraoperative problems. Postoperative complications included pulmonary oedema in three patients, shunt occlusion in three, infection in two, and wound leakage in one. Ascites resolved after shunting in 10 patients. Five shunts were removed one to three years after insertion without recurrence of ascites. Three others are free of ascites with shunts in place for less than one year postoperatively. Three children died from their underlying disease: two after resolution of ascites (neuroblastoma) and one in whom the ascites failed to resolve (lymphohisticytosis). Conclusions: Peritoneovenous shunting is an effective treatment for symptomatic intractable ascites in children (10 of 11 successful cases in this series). Elective removal of the shunt after one year is recommended. PMID:15811892

Sooriakumaran, P; McAndrew, H; Kiely, E; Spitz, L; Pierro, A

2005-01-01

351

Massive ascites in severe pre-eclampsia: a rare complication.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of massive maternal ascites complicating severe pre- eclampsia toxaemia (PET) seen in April 2013. This complication developed in association with the rise of blood pressure of 160/110 mmHg or more, worsening of proteinuria and hyperuricaemia. The onset of massive ascites caused respiratory compromise to the patient, thus necessitating immediate termination of pregnancy. PMID:24579549

Pradhan, P; Sherpa, K; Joshi, A; Pathak, S

2012-12-01

352

Ascites syndrome in broilers: physiological and nutritional perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broiler chickens are intensively selected for productive traits. The management of these highly productive animals must be optimal to allow their full genetic potential to be expressed. If this is not done, inefficient production and several metabolic diseases such as ascites become apparent. The causes of the ascites are multifactorial but diet and, particularly, interactions between diet, other environmental and

A. Baghbanzadeh; E. Decuypere

2008-01-01

353

Unilateral pleural effusion without ascites in liver cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

The source of massive pleural effusion was not apparent in a 58-year-old man who had cirrhosis but no demonstrable ascites. Intraperitoneal injection of technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid established the presence of peritoneopleural communication. This diagnostic technique can be helpful in evaluating patients with cirrhosis of the liver and pleural effusion with or without ascites.

Faiyaz, U.; Goyal, P.C.

1983-09-01

354

Dietary flaxseed lignan or oil combined with tamoxifen treatment affects MCF-7 tumor growth through estrogen receptor- and growth factor-signaling pathways.  

PubMed

This study aimed to elucidate which component of flaxseed, i.e. secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan or flaxseed oil (FO), makes tamoxifen (TAM) more effective in reducing growth of established estrogen receptor positive breast tumors (MCF-7) at low circulating estrogen levels, and potential mechanisms of action. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, ovariectomized athymic mice with established tumors were treated for 8 wk with TAM together with basal diet (control), or basal diet supplemented with SDG (1 g/kg diet), FO (38.5 g/kg diet), or combined SDG and FO. SDG and FO were at levels in 10% flaxseed diet. Palpable tumors were monitored and after animal sacrifice, analyzed for cell proliferation, apoptosis, ER-mediated (ER-alpha, ER-beta, trefoil factor 1, cyclin D1, progesterone receptor, AIBI), growth factor-mediated (epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, insulin-like growth factor receptor-1, phosphorylated mitogen activated protein kinase, PAKT, BCL2) signaling pathways and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor). All treatments reduced the growth of TAM-treated tumors by reducing cell proliferation, expression of genes, and proteins involved in the ER- and growth factor-mediated signaling pathways with FO having the greatest effect in increasing apoptosis compared with TAM treatment alone. SDG and FO reduced the growth of TAM-treated tumors but FO was more effective. The mechanisms involve both the ER- and growth factor-signaling pathways. PMID:19904759

Saggar, Jasdeep Kaur; Chen, Jianmin; Corey, Paul; Thompson, Lilian U

2010-03-01

355

Granulocytes as effective anticancer agent in experimental solid tumor models.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to elucidate the effects of murine granulocytes on the growth of solid murine tumors when administrated in the vicinity of W256 carcinoma growing in Sprague Dawley rats, and in the vicinity of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) growing in BALBc mice. The administration of granulocytes significantly improved the survival of W256-bearing rats, and increased the tumor regression incidence from 17% up to 75%. Rats with regressing tumors had 2.5 times increased levels of granulocytes in peripheral blood, which were also cytotoxic in vitro for W256 carcinoma cells. However, blood levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2, tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin 6 were similar between rats with regressing tumors and control healthy rats, suggesting that the observed regression of W256 carcinoma was caused by specific anticancer effects of the applied granulocytes. Anticancer effects of granulocytes were also found in BALBc mice bearing solid form of EAT, resulting in a 20% increase of survival in EAT-bearing mice. Therefore, the administration of granulocytes, isolated from healthy animals and applied at the site of solid tumors in rats and in mice, reduced experimental tumor growth, and extended the survival of tumor-bearing animals, while in some rats it even caused a W256 regression. PMID:20122752

Jaganjac, Morana; Poljak-Blazi, Marija; Kirac, Iva; Borovic, Suzana; Joerg Schaur, Rudolf; Zarkovic, Neven

2010-12-01

356

Endometriosis: a rare and interesting cause of recurrent haemorrhagic ascites.  

PubMed

Recurrent haemorrhagic ascites as a cause of endometriosis is rare. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman presenting acutely with abdominal distension, ascites and an elevated CA-125 raising the suspicion of ovarian malignancy. Tissue biopsies retrieved during laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of endometriosis associated with haemorrhagic ascites. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues were started to manage symptoms, with good effect. Subsequently, in vitro fertilisation resulted in a successful singleton pregnancy and by the second trimester, there was full resolution in symptoms. During the early puerperal period, the development of massive ascites recurred, requiring symptomatic relief through repeated ascitic drainage and GnRH analogues. Long-term follow-up is planned with the hope of continuing with medical management at least until the patient's family is complete when the surgical option of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without hysterectomy will be discussed. PMID:25355738

Bignall, Jenine; Arambage, Kirana; Vimplis, Sotirios

2014-01-01

357

Influence of Anti-Mouse Interferon Serum on the Growth and Metastasis of Tumor Cells Persistently Infected with Virus and of Human Prostatic Tumors in Athymic Nude Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baby hamster kidney or HeLa cells form tumors in 100% of athymic nude mice. When such cells are persistently infected (PI) with RNA viruses, such as mumps or measles virus, the tumor cells either fail to grow or form circumscribed benign nodules. Neither the parental nor the virus PI tumor cells form invasive or metastatic lesions in nude mice. Previous studies have indicated a correlation between the susceptibility of virus-PI tumor cells in vitro and the cytolytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and their failure to grow in vivo. Because interferon (IF) is the principal regulatory molecule governing the differentiation of NK cells, it was possible to test the relevance of the IF--NK cell system in vivo to restriction of tumor growth by treatment of nude mice with anti-IF globulin. This treatment was shown to reduce both IF production and NK activity in spleen cells. Both parental and virus-PI tumor cells grew and formed larger tumors in nude mice treated with anti-IF globulin than in control nude mice. The viral-PI tumor cells and the uninfected parental cells formed tumors in treated mice that were highly invasive and often metastatic. Some human tumor types have been notoriously difficult to establish as tumor lines in nude mice (e.g., primary human prostatic carcinomas). When transplanted into nude mice treated either with anti-IF globulin or anti-lymphocyte serum, two prostatic carcinomas grew and produced neoplasms with local invasiveness and some metastases. The results are consistent with the view that interferon may be important in restricting the growth, invasiveness, and metastases of tumor cells by acting indirectly through components of the immune system, such as NK cells.

Reid, Lola M.; Minato, Nagahiro; Gresser, Ion; Holland, John; Kadish, Anna; Bloom, Barry R.

1981-02-01

358

Optimization of vascular-targeting drugs in a computational model of tumor growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A biophysical tool is introduced that seeks to provide a theoretical basis for helping drug design teams assess the most promising drug targets and design optimal treatment strategies. The tool is grounded in a previously validated computational model of the feedback that occurs between a growing tumor and the evolving vasculature. In this paper, the model is particularly used to explore the therapeutic effectiveness of two drugs that target the tumor vasculature: angiogenesis inhibitors (AIs) and vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). Using sensitivity analyses, the impact of VDA dosing parameters is explored, as is the effects of administering a VDA with an AI. Further, a stochastic optimization scheme is utilized to identify an optimal dosing schedule for treatment with an AI and a chemotherapeutic. The treatment regimen identified can successfully halt simulated tumor growth, even after the cessation of therapy.

Gevertz, Jana

2012-04-01

359

Subverting sterols: rerouting an oxysterol-signaling pathway to promote tumor growth  

PubMed Central

Oxysterols are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol that are generated enzymatically or through autoxidation. Initially identified as important lipid signaling molecules in the context of atherosclerosis and inflammation, accumulated evidence indicates that these lipid-signaling molecules can have pleiotropic effects on the fate and function of the immune system. These effects range from the regulation of immune cell survival and proliferation to chemotaxis and antiviral immunity. New studies now indicate that tumor-derived oxysterols can serve to subvert the immune system by recruiting protumorigenic neutrophils into the tumor microenvironment. The consequence of this recruitment is the generation of proangiogenic factors and matrix metalloproteinase proteins that provide a tumor a significant growth and survival advantage. In combination with other recent studies, these data highlight the ongoing cross talk between sterol metabolism and the immune system, and they raise the intriguing possibility that targeting oxysterol pathways could serve as a novel therapeutic approach in the war on cancer. PMID:23980123

York, Autumn G.

2013-01-01

360

Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. PMID:22841774

Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing

2012-01-01

361

Relationship Between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Nuclear Factor-?B in Renal Cell Tumors  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess the relationship between protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and subcellular localization of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), proliferation rate of tumor cells, and clinicopathological characteristics of renal cell tumors. Methods We analyzed 31 one renal cell tumors – 22 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (CCRCC) and 9 other histologic types (non-CCRCC). VEGF expression and subcellular localization of p65 member of NF-?B and Ki67 were immunohistochemically evaluated for the proliferation rate of tumor cells. Expression of VEGF mRNA was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction after total RNA extraction from snap-frozen tumor tissue samples. Results Cytoplasmic localization of VEGF protein in renal cell tumors showed a perimembranous and diffuse pattern, the former being more evident in CCRCC (27.1 ± 18.9 vs 3.3?±?10 % tumors, P?=?0.001) and the latter in non-CCRCC type (71.7 ± 23.2 vs 31.1?±?22.1 % tumors, P?tumor cells. A significant association was recorded between cytoplasmic NK-?B/65 staining and VEGF staining of diffuse pattern (P?=?0.026). Association between NF-?B/65 and proliferation rate of tumor cells was significant for cytoplasmic staining (P?=?0.039) but not for nuclear NFkB/p65 staining (P?=?0.099). Conclusion Higher but inhomogeneous expression of VEGF in tumor cells, especially in CCRCCs, is associated with NF-?B/65 activity. This indicates that both VEGF and NF-?B/65 may be important in renal carcinogenesis, representing a possible molecular target in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:18925694

?or?evi?, Gordana; Matušan-Ilijaš, Koviljka; Sinoži?, Emina; Damante, Giuseppe; Fabbro, Dora; Grahovac, Blaženka; Lu?in, Ksenija; Jonji?, Nives

2008-01-01

362

STAT3 silencing inhibits glioma single cell infiltration and tumor growth  

PubMed Central

Background Diffuse infiltration remains the fulcrum of glioblastoma's incurability, leading inevitably to recurrence. Therefore, uncovering the pathological mechanism is imperative. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) correlates with glioma malignancy and predicts poor clinical outcome, we determined its role in glioma single cell infiltration and tumor growth. Methods STAT3 was silenced in Tu-2449 glioma cells via lentiviral gene transfer. Target gene expression was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Microvilli were visualized by staining with wheat germ agglutinin. Migration and invasion were measured by Scratch and Matrigel chamber assays. Diffuse infiltration was studied in 350-?m-thick organotypic tissue cultures over 14 days using cells tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein and live confocal laser scanning microscopy. Survival of tumor-bearing syngeneic, immunocompetent B6C3F1 mice was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier plots. Results STAT3 silencing reduced cell migration and invasion in vitro and stopped single cell infiltration ex vivo, while STAT3-expressing cells disseminated through the neuropil at ?100 µm/day. STAT3 silencing reduced transcription of several tumor progression genes. Mice with intracranial STAT3 knockdown tumors had a significant (P< .0007) survival advantage over controls, yielding 27% long-term survival. STAT3 knockdown reduced podoplanin expression 50-fold and inhibited concurrent microvilli formation. STAT3 knockdown tumors exhibited a weaker podoplanin immunoreactivity compared with controls. Podoplanin staining was diffuse, preferentially at tumor margins, and absent in normal brain. Conclusions Our results show compelling evidence that STAT3 is a key driver of diffuse infiltration and glioma growth and might therefore represent a promising target for an anti-invasive therapy. PMID:23486688

Priester, Maike; Copanaki, Ekaterini; Vafaizadeh, Vida; Hensel, Sandra; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Seifert, Volker; Groner, Bernd; Kogel, Donat; Weissenberger, Jakob

2013-01-01

363

Recombinant TIMP-1-GPI inhibits growth of fibrosarcoma and enhances tumor sensitivity to doxorubicin.  

PubMed

Fibrosarcomas show a high incidence of recurrence and general resistance to apoptosis. Limiting tumor regrowth and increasing their sensitivity to chemotherapy and apoptosis represent key issues in developing more effective treatments of these tumors. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) broadly blocks matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and can moderate tumor growth and metastasis. We previously described generation of a recombinant fusion protein linking TIMP-1 to glycosylphophatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (TIMP-1-GPI) that efficiently directs the inhibitor to cell surfaces. In the present report, we examined the effect of TIMP-1-GPI treatment on fibrosarcoma biology. Exogenously applied TIMP-1-GPI efficiently incorporated into surface membranes of human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. It inhibited their proliferation, migration, suppressed cancer cell clone formation, and enhanced apoptosis. Doxorubicin, the standard chemotherapeutic drug for fibrosarcoma, was tested alone or in combination with TIMP-1-GPI. In parallel, the influence of treatment on HT1080 side population cells (exhibiting tumor stem cell-like characteristics) was investigated using Hoechst 33342 staining. The sequential combination of TIMP-1-GPI and doxorubicin showed more than additive effects on apoptosis, while TIMP-1-GPI treatment alone effectively decreased "stem-cell like" side population cells of HT1080. TIMP-1-GPI treatment was validated using HT1080 fibrosarcoma murine xenografts. Growing tumors treated with repeated local injections of TIMP-1-GPI showed dramatically inhibited fibrosarcoma growth and reduced angiogenesis. Intraoperative peritumoral application of GPI-anchored TIMP-1 as an adjuvant to surgery may help maintain tumor control by targeting microscopic residual fibrosarcoma cells and increasing their sensitivity to chemotherapy. PMID:23934106

Bao, Q; Niess, H; Djafarzadeh, R; Zhao, Y; Schwarz, B; Angele, M K; Jauch, K-W; Nelson, P J; Bruns, C J

2014-09-01

364

DNA vaccines suppress tumor growth and metastases by the induction of anti-angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Four novel oral DNA vaccines provide long-lived protection against melanoma, colon, breast, and non-small cell lung carcinoma in mouse model systems. The vaccines are delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to secondary lymphoid organs and are directed against targets such as carcinoembryonic antigen, tyrosine-related protein, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 [also called fetal liver kinase-1 (FLK-1)], and transcription factor Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1). The FLK-1 and Fra-1 vaccines are effective in suppressing angiogenesis in the tumor vasculature. All four vaccines are capable of inducing potent cell-mediated protective immunity, breaking peripheral T-cell tolerance against these self-antigens resulting in effective suppression of tumor growth and metastasis. It is anticipated that such research efforts will contribute toward the rational design of future DNA vaccines that will be effective for prevention and treatment of human cancer. PMID:15233734

Reisfeld, Ralph A; Niethammer, Andreas G; Luo, Yunping; Xiang, Rong

2004-06-01

365

A Synthetic Manassantin A Derivative Inhibits Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 and Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

The dineolignan manassantin A from Saururaceae was recently identified as a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitor, but its in-vivo anti-tumor effect has not been explored. We synthesized a series of manassantin A derivatives, and found that replacing the central tetrahydrofuran moiety with a cyclopentane ring yielded a compound (LXY6006) with increased HIF-1-inhibitory activity yet decreased stereochemically complexity amenable to a simplified synthesis scheme. LXY6006 inhibited HIF-1? nuclear accumulation induced by hypoxia, and inhibited cancer cell growth as a consequence of G2/M arrest. Oral administration of LXY6006 significantly inhibited growth of breast, lung, and pancreatic tumors implanted in nude mice. These results indicate that LXY6006 represents a novel class of agents targeting a broad range of human cancers. PMID:24925080

Li, Yan; Zhou, Qing; Xie, Ping; Yan, Chunhong; Chen, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

366

Transmembrane Domain Targeting Peptide Antagonizing ErbB2/Neu Inhibits Breast Tumor Growth and Metastasis.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is still a deadly disease despite major achievements in targeted therapies designed to block ligands or ligand-binding subunits of major tyrosine kinase receptors. Relapse is significant and metastases deleterious, which demands novel strategies for fighting this disease. Here, we report a proof-of-concept experiment demonstrating that small peptides interfering with the transmembrane domain of the tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor ErbB2 exhibit anticancer properties when used at micromolar dosages in a genetically engineered mouse model of breast cancer. Different assays demonstrate the specificity of the ErbB2-targeting peptide, which induces long-term reduction of ErbB2 phosphorylation and Akt signaling consistent with reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased survival. Microcomputed tomography analysis established the antimetastatic activity of the peptide and its impact on primary tumor growth. This reveals the interior of the cell membrane as an unexplored dimension for drug design. PMID:25220456

Arpel, Alexia; Sawma, Paul; Spenlé, Caroline; Fritz, Justine; Meyer, Lionel; Garnier, Norbert; Velázquez-Quesada, Inés; Hussenet, Thomas; Aci-Sčche, Samia; Baumlin, Nadčge; Genest, Monique; Brasse, David; Hubert, Pierre; Crémel, Gérard; Orend, Gertraud; Laquerričre, Patrice; Bagnard, Dominique

2014-09-25

367

A novel function for platelet-derived growth factor D: induction of osteoclastic differentiation for intraosseous tumor growth  

PubMed Central

Although increasing evidence suggests a critical role for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor ? (?-PDGFR) signaling in prostate cancer (PCa) progression, the precise roles of ?-PDGFR and PDGF isoform-specific cell signaling have not been delineated. Recently, we identified the PDGF-D isoform as a ligand for ?-PDGFR in PCa and showed that PDGF-D is activated by serine protease-mediated proteolytic removal of the CUB domain in a two-step process, yielding first a hemidimer (HD) and then a growth factor domain dimer. Herein, we demonstrate that the expression of PDGF-D in human PCa LNCaP cells leads to enhanced bone tumor growth and bone responses in immunodeficient mice. Histopathological analyses of bone tumors generated by PDGF-D-expressing LNCaP cells (LNCaP-PDGF-D) revealed osteolytic and osteoblastic responses similar to those observed in human PCa bone metastases. Importantly, we discovered a novel function of PDGF-D in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation, independent of the RANKL/RANK signaling axis. Although both PDGF-B and -D were able to activate ?-PDGFR, only PDGF-D was able to induce osteoclastic differentiation in vitro, and upregulate the expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells 1, a master transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. Taken together, these results reveal a new function of PDGF-D as a regulator of osteoclastic differentiation, an activity critical for the establishment of skeletal metastatic deposit in PCa patients. PMID:22158043

Huang, W; Fridman, Y; Bonfil, R D; Ustach, C V; Conley-LaComb, M K; Wiesner, C; Saliganan, A; Cher, M L; Kim, H-R C

2012-01-01

368

Growth Hormone Secretion After Conformal Radiation Therapy in Pediatric Patients With Localized Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) after radiation therapy negatively affects growth and development and quality of life in children with brain tumors. Patients and Materials Between 1997 and 2008, 192 pediatric patients with localized primary brain tumors (ependymoma, n = 88; low-grade glioma, n = 51; craniopharyngioma, n = 28; high-grade glioma, n = 23; and other tumor types, n = 2) underwent provocative testing of GH secretion by using the secretogogues arginine and l-dopa before and after (6, 12, 36, and 60 months) conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A total of 664 arginine/l-dopa test procedures were performed. Results Baseline testing revealed preirradiation GHD in 22.9% of tested patients. On the basis of data from 118 patients, peak GH was modeled as an exponential function of time after CRT and mean radiation dose to the hypothalamus. The average patient was predicted to develop GHD with the following combinations of the time after CRT and mean dose to the hypothalamus: 12 months and more than 60 Gy; 36 months and 25 to 30 Gy; and 60 months and 15 to 20 Gy. A cumulative dose of 16.1 Gy to the hypothalamus would be considered the mean radiation dose required to achieve a 50% risk of GHD at 5 years (TD50/5). Conclusion GH secretion after CRT can be predicted on the basis of dose and time after irradiation in pediatric patients with localized brain tumors. These findings provide an objective radiation dose constraint for the hypothalamus. PMID:22042949

Merchant, Thomas E.; Rose, Susan R.; Bosley, Christina; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Lustig, Robert H.

2011-01-01

369

Silencing of Doublecortin-Like (DCL) Results in Decreased Mitochondrial Activity and Delayed Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

Doublecortin-like (DCL) is a microtubule-binding protein crucial for neuroblastoma (NB) cell proliferation. We have investigated whether the anti-proliferative effect of DCL knockdown is linked to reduced mitochondrial activity. We found a delay in tumor development after DCL knockdown in vivo in doxycycline-inducible NB tumor xenografts. To understand the mechanisms underlying this tumor growth retardation we performed a series of in vitro experiments in NB cell lines. DCL colocalizes with mitochondria, interacts with the mitochondrial outer membrane protein OMP25/ SYNJ2BP and DCL knockdown results in decreased expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, DCL knockdown decreases cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP synthesis. We identified the C-terminal Serine/Proline-rich domain and the second microtubule-binding area as crucial DCL domains for the regulation of cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP synthesis. Furthermore, DCL knockdown causes a significant reduction in the proliferation rate of NB cells under an energetic challenge induced by low glucose availability. Together with our previous studies, our results corroborate DCL as a key player in NB tumor growth in which DCL controls not only mitotic spindle formation and the stabilization of the microtubule cytoskeleton, but also regulates mitochondrial activity and energy availability, which makes DCL a promising molecular target for NB therapy. PMID:24086625

Verissimo, Carla S.; Elands, Rachel; Cheng, Sou; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan; ter Horst, Judith P.; Alme, Maria N.; Pont, Chantal; van de Water, Bob; Havik, Bjarte; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.; Vreugdenhil, Erno

2013-01-01

370

Targeting hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met) positive tumor cells using internalizing nanobody-decorated albumin nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, c-Met or Met) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and wound healing. Abnormal activation of this proto-oncogene product is implicated in the development, progression and metastasis of many cancers. Current therapies directed against Met, such as ligand- or, dimerization-blocking antibodies or kinase inhibitors, reduce tumor growth but hardly eradicate the tumor. In order to improve anti-Met therapy, we have designed a drug delivery system consisting of crosslinked albumin nanoparticles decorated with newly selected anti-Met nanobodies (anti-Met-NANAPs). The anti-Met NANAPs bound specifically to and were specifically taken up by Met-expressing cells and transported to lysosomes for degradation. Treatment of tumor cells with anti-Met NANAPs also resulted in downregulation of the total Met protein. This study shows that anti-Met NANAPs offer a potential system for lysosomal delivery of drugs into Met-positive tumor cells. PMID:24139763

Heukers, Raimond; Altintas, Isil; Raghoenath, Smiriti; De Zan, Erica; Pepermans, Richard; Roovers, Rob C; Haselberg, Rob; Hennink, Wim E; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Kok, Robbert J; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M P

2014-01-01

371

Metastasis Suppressor Genes: At the Interface Between the Environment and Tumor Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms and genetic programs required for cancer metastasis are sometimes overlapping, but components are clearly distinct from those promoting growth of a primary tumor. Every sequential, rate-limiting step in the sequence of events leading to metastasis requires coordinated expression of multiple genes, necessary signaling events, and favorable environmental conditions or the ability to escape negative selection pressures. Metastasis suppressors are molecules that inhibit the process of metastasis without preventing growth of the primary tumor. The cellular processes regulated by metastasis suppressors are diverse and function at every step in the metastatic cascade. As we gain knowledge into the molecular mechanisms of metastasis suppressors and cofactors with which they interact, we learn more about the process, including appreciation that some are potential targets for therapy of metastasis, the most lethal aspect of cancer. Until now, metastasis suppressors have been described largely by their function. With greater appreciation of their biochemical mechanisms of action, the importance of context is increasingly recognized especially since tumor cells exist in myriad microenvironments. In this review, we assemble the evidence that selected molecules are indeed suppressors of metastasis, collate the data defining the biochemical mechanisms of action, and glean insights regarding how metastasis suppressors regulate tumor cell communication to–from microenvironments. PMID:21199781

Hurst, Douglas R.; Welc