Sample records for ascomycete podospora anserina

  1. Systematic Deletion of Homeobox Genes in Podospora anserina Uncovers Their Roles in Shaping the Fruiting Body

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, Evelyne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Bidard, Frédérique; Brun, Sylvain; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Espagne, Eric; Aďt-Benkhali, Jinane; Goarin, Anne; Nesseir, Audrey; Planamente, Sara; Debuchy, Robert; Silar, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Higher fungi, which comprise ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, play major roles in the biosphere. Their evolutionary success may be due to the extended dikaryotic stage of their life cycle, which is the basis for their scientific name: the Dikarya. Dikaryosis is maintained by similar structures, the clamp in basidiomycetes and the crozier in ascomycetes. Homeodomain transcription factors are required for clamp formation in all basidiomycetes studied. We identified all the homeobox genes in the filamentous ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina and constructed deletion mutants for each of these genes and for a number of gene combinations. Croziers developed normally in these mutants, including those with up to six deleted homeogenes. However, some mutants had defects in maturation of the fruiting body, an effect that could be rescued by providing wild-type maternal hyphae. Analysis of mutants deficient in multiple homeogenes revealed interactions between the genes, suggesting that they operate as a complex network. Similar to their role in animals and plants, homeodomain transcription factors in ascomycetes are involved in shaping multicellular structures. PMID:22662159

  2. The Transcriptional Response to Nonself in the Fungus Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Bidard, Frédérique; Clavé, Corinne; Saupe, Sven J.

    2013-01-01

    In fungi, heterokaryon incompatibility is a nonself recognition process occurring when filaments of different isolates of the same species fuse. Compatibility is controlled by so-called het loci and fusion of strains of unlike het genotype triggers a complex incompatibility reaction that leads to the death of the fusion cell. Herein, we analyze the transcriptional changes during the incompatibility reaction in Podospora anserina. The incompatibility response was found to be associated with a massive transcriptional reprogramming: 2231 genes were up-regulated by a factor 2 or more during incompatibility. In turn, 2441 genes were down-regulated. HET, NACHT, and HeLo domains previously found to be involved in the control of heterokaryon incompatibility were enriched in the up-regulated gene set. In addition, incompatibility was characterized by an up-regulation of proteolytic and other hydrolytic activities, of secondary metabolism clusters and toxins and effector-like proteins. The up-regulated set was found to be enriched for proteins lacking orthologs in other species and chromosomal distribution of the up-regulated genes was uneven with up-regulated genes residing preferentially in genomic islands and on chromosomes IV and V. There was a significant overlap between regulated genes during incompatibility in P. anserina and Neurospora crassa, indicating similarities in the incompatibility responses in these two species. Globally, this study illustrates that the expression changes occurring during cell fusion incompatibility in P. anserina are in several aspects reminiscent of those described in host-pathogen or symbiotic interactions in other fungal species. PMID:23589521

  3. Insights into exo- and endoglucanase activities of family 6 glycoside hydrolases from Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Poidevin, Laetitia; Feliu, Julia; Doan, Annick; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Bey, Mathieu; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; Heiss-Blanquet, Senta

    2013-07-01

    The ascomycete Podospora anserina is a coprophilous fungus that grows at late stages on droppings of herbivores. Its genome encodes a large diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Among them, four genes encode glycoside hydrolases from family 6 (GH6), the members of which comprise putative endoglucanases and exoglucanases, some of them exerting important functions for biomass degradation in fungi. Therefore, this family was selected for functional analysis. Three of the enzymes, P. anserina Cel6A (PaCel6A), PaCel6B, and PaCel6C, were functionally expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. All three GH6 enzymes hydrolyzed crystalline and amorphous cellulose but were inactive on hydroxyethyl cellulose, mannan, galactomannan, xyloglucan, arabinoxylan, arabinan, xylan, and pectin. PaCel6A had a catalytic efficiency on cellotetraose comparable to that of Trichoderma reesei Cel6A (TrCel6A), but PaCel6B and PaCel6C were clearly less efficient. PaCel6A was the enzyme with the highest stability at 45°C, while PaCel6C was the least stable enzyme, losing more than 50% of its activity after incubation at temperatures above 30°C for 24 h. In contrast to TrCel6A, all three studied P. anserina GH6 cellulases were stable over a wide range of pHs and conserved high activity at pH values of up to 9. Each enzyme displayed a distinct substrate and product profile, highlighting different modes of action, with PaCel6A being the enzyme most similar to TrCel6A. PaCel6B was the only enzyme with higher specific activity on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) than on Avicel and showed lower processivity than the others. Structural modeling predicts an open catalytic cleft, suggesting that PaCel6B is an endoglucanase. PMID:23645193

  4. Insights into Exo- and Endoglucanase Activities of Family 6 Glycoside Hydrolases from Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Poidevin, Laetitia; Feliu, Julia; Doan, Annick; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Bey, Mathieu; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete Podospora anserina is a coprophilous fungus that grows at late stages on droppings of herbivores. Its genome encodes a large diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Among them, four genes encode glycoside hydrolases from family 6 (GH6), the members of which comprise putative endoglucanases and exoglucanases, some of them exerting important functions for biomass degradation in fungi. Therefore, this family was selected for functional analysis. Three of the enzymes, P. anserina Cel6A (PaCel6A), PaCel6B, and PaCel6C, were functionally expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. All three GH6 enzymes hydrolyzed crystalline and amorphous cellulose but were inactive on hydroxyethyl cellulose, mannan, galactomannan, xyloglucan, arabinoxylan, arabinan, xylan, and pectin. PaCel6A had a catalytic efficiency on cellotetraose comparable to that of Trichoderma reesei Cel6A (TrCel6A), but PaCel6B and PaCel6C were clearly less efficient. PaCel6A was the enzyme with the highest stability at 45°C, while PaCel6C was the least stable enzyme, losing more than 50% of its activity after incubation at temperatures above 30°C for 24 h. In contrast to TrCel6A, all three studied P. anserina GH6 cellulases were stable over a wide range of pHs and conserved high activity at pH values of up to 9. Each enzyme displayed a distinct substrate and product profile, highlighting different modes of action, with PaCel6A being the enzyme most similar to TrCel6A. PaCel6B was the only enzyme with higher specific activity on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) than on Avicel and showed lower processivity than the others. Structural modeling predicts an open catalytic cleft, suggesting that PaCel6B is an endoglucanase. PMID:23645193

  5. Cello-Oligosaccharide Oxidation Reveals Differences between Two Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases (Family GH61) from Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Bey, Mathieu; Zhou, Simeng; Poidevin, Laetitia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    The genome of the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina encodes 33 different genes encoding copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) from glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61). In this study, two of these enzymes (P. anserina GH61A [PaGH61A] and PaGH61B), which both harbored a family 1 carbohydrate binding module, were successfully produced in Pichia pastoris. Synergistic cooperation between PaGH61A or PaGH61B with the cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on cellulose resulted in the formation of oxidized and nonoxidized cello-oligosaccharides. A striking difference between PaGH61A and PaGH61B was observed through the identification of the products, among which were doubly and triply oxidized cellodextrins, which were released only by the combination of PaGH61B with CDH. The mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of these oxidized products could be consistent with oxidation at the C-6 position with a geminal diol group. The different properties of PaGH61A and PaGH61B and their effect on the interaction with CDH are discussed in regard to the proposed in vivo function of the CDH/GH61 enzyme system in oxidative cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23124232

  6. WD-repeat instability and diversification of the Podospora anserina hnwd non-self recognition gene family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien Chevanne; Sven J Saupe; Corinne Clavé; Mathieu Paoletti

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genes involved in non-self recognition and host defence are typically capable of rapid diversification and exploit specialized genetic mechanism to that end. Fungi display a non-self recognition phenomenon termed heterokaryon incompatibility that operates when cells of unlike genotype fuse and leads to the cell death of the fusion cell. In the fungus Podospora anserina, three genes controlling this allorecognition

  7. Double reversal of gene conversion polarity and multiple conversion events in the locus “14” in Podospora anserina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bakary Touré; Paris XI

    1972-01-01

    The present study deals with conversion analysis within the polycistronic unit of transcription of locus “14” in Podospora anserina. Data from 74 two-point crosses involving 33 different mutants are in favour of a conversion polarity exhibiting two reversals (Fig. 1a, b), one being entirely located within the distal cistron. This pattern of polarized recombination suggests the existence of an intracistronic

  8. Interaction Between the oxa1 and rmp1 Genes Modulates Respiratory Complex Assembly and Life Span in Podospora anserina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole H. Sellem; Claire Lemaire; Severine Lorin; Genevieve Dujardin; Annie Sainsard-Chanet

    2004-01-01

    A causal link between deficiency of the cytochrome respiratory pathway and life span was previously shown in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. To gain more insight into the relationship between mitochondrial function and life span, we have constructed a strain carrying a thermosensitive mutation of the gene oxa1. OXA1 is a membrane protein conserved from bacteria to human. The mitochondrial

  9. Bilirubin oxidase-like proteins from Podospora anserina: promising thermostable enzymes for application in transformation of plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ning; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Silar, Philippe; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence

    2015-03-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi is a critical step for production of biofuels, and laccases are common ligninolytic enzymes envisioned for ligninolysis. Bilirubin oxidases (BODs)-like are related to laccases, but their roles during lignocellulose degradation have not yet been fully investigated. The two BODs of the ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina were characterized by targeted gene deletions. Enzymatic assay revealed that the bod1(?) and bod2(?) mutants lost partly a thermostable laccase activity. A triple mutant inactivated for bod1, bod2 and mco, a previously investigated multicopper oxidase gene distantly related to laccases, had no thermostable laccase activity. The pattern of fruiting body production in the bod1(?) bod2(?) double mutant was changed. The bod1(?) and bod2(?) mutants were reduced in their ability to grow on ligneous and cellulosic materials. Furthermore, bod1(?) and bod2(?) mutants were defective towards resistance to phenolic substrates and H2 O2 , which may also impact lignocellulose breakdown. Double and triple mutants were more affected than single mutants, evidencing redundancy of function among BODs and mco. Overall, the data show that bod1, bod2 and mco code for non-canonical thermostable laccases that participate in the degradation of lignocellulose. Thanks to their thermal stability, these enzymes may be more promising candidate for biotechnological application than canonical laccases. PMID:24947769

  10. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Is a Substrate Recognized by Two Metacaspases of Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    The two metacaspases MCA1 and MCA2 of the fungal aging model organism Podospora anserina (PaMCA1 and PaMCA2, respectively) have previously been demonstrated to be involved in the control of programmed cell death (PCD) and life span. In order to identify specific pathways and components which are controlled by the activity of these enzymes, we set out to characterize them further. Heterologous overexpression in Escherichia coli of the two metacaspase genes resulted in the production of proteins which aggregate and form inclusion bodies from which the active protein has been recovered via refolding in appropriate buffers. The renaturated proteins are characterized by an arginine-specific activity and are active in caspase-like self-maturation leading to the generation of characteristic small protein fragments. Both activities are dependent on the presence of calcium. Incubation of the two metacaspases with recombinant poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a known substrate of mammalian caspases, led to the identification of PARP as a substrate of the two P. anserina proteases. Using double mutants in which P. anserina Parp (PaParp) is overexpressed and PaMca1 is either overexpressed or deleted, we provide evidence for in vivo degradation of PaPARP by PaMCA1. These results support the idea that the substrate profiles of caspases and metacaspases are at least partially overlapping. Moreover, they link PCD and DNA maintenance in the complex network of molecular pathways involved in aging and life span control. PMID:23584991

  11. PaCATB, a secreted catalase protecting Podospora anserina against exogenous oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Zintel, Sandra; Bernhardt, Dominik; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2011-01-01

    A differential mass spectrometry analysis of secreted proteins from juvenile and senescent Podospora anserina cultures revealed age-related differences in protein profiles. Among other proteins with decreased abundance in the secretome of senescent cultures a catalase, termed PaCATB, was identified. Genetic modulation of the abundance of PaCATB identified differential effects on the phenotype of the corresponding strains. Deletion of PaCatB resulted in decreased resistance, over-expression in increased resistance against hydrogen peroxide. While the lifespan of the genetically modified strains was found to be unaffected under standard growth conditions, increased exogenous hydrogen peroxide stress in the growth medium markedly reduced the lifespan of the PaCatB deletion strain but extended the lifespan of PaCatB over-expressors. Overall our data identify a component of the secretome of P. anserina as a new effective factor to cope with environmental stress, stress that under natural conditions is constantly applied on organisms and influences aging processes. PMID:21865610

  12. The HET-s Prion Protein of the Filamentous Fungus Podospora anserina Aggregates in Vitro into Amyloid-like Fibrils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzana Dos Reis; Vincent Forge; Joel Begueret; Sven J. Saupe; Universitede Bordeaux

    2002-01-01

    The HET-s protein of Podospora anserina is a fungal prion. This protein behaves as an infectious cytoplasmic element that is transmitted horizontally from one strain to another. Under the prion form, the HET-s protein forms aggregates in vivo. The specificity of this prion model compared with the yeast prions resides in the fact that under the prion form HET-s causes

  13. Structural and biochemical analyses of glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 26 ?-(1,4)-mannanases from Podospora anserina reveal differences upon manno-oligosaccharide catalysis.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Marie; Roussel, Alain; Rosengren, Anna; Leone, Philippe; Stĺlbrand, Henrik; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2013-05-17

    The microbial deconstruction of the plant cell wall is a key biological process that is of increasing importance with the development of a sustainable biofuel industry. The glycoside hydrolase families GH5 (PaMan5A) and GH26 (PaMan26A) endo-?-1,4-mannanases from the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina contribute to the enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, P. anserina mannanases were further subjected to detailed comparative analysis of their substrate specificities, active site organization, and transglycosylation capacity. Although PaMan5A displays a classical mode of action, PaMan26A revealed an atypical hydrolysis pattern with the release of mannotetraose and mannose from mannopentaose resulting from a predominant binding mode involving the -4 subsite. The crystal structures of PaMan5A and PaMan26A were solved at 1.4 and 2.85 ? resolution, respectively. Analysis of the PaMan26A structure supported strong interaction with substrate at the -4 subsite mediated by two aromatic residues Trp-244 and Trp-245. The PaMan26A structure appended to its family 35 carbohydrate binding module revealed a short and proline-rich rigid linker that anchored together the catalytic and the binding modules. PMID:23558681

  14. Structural and Biochemical Analyses of Glycoside Hydrolase Families 5 and 26 ?-(1,4)-Mannanases from Podospora anserina Reveal Differences upon Manno-oligosaccharide Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Marie; Roussel, Alain; Rosengren, Anna; Leone, Philippe; Stĺlbrand, Henrik; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2013-01-01

    The microbial deconstruction of the plant cell wall is a key biological process that is of increasing importance with the development of a sustainable biofuel industry. The glycoside hydrolase families GH5 (PaMan5A) and GH26 (PaMan26A) endo-?-1,4-mannanases from the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina contribute to the enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, P. anserina mannanases were further subjected to detailed comparative analysis of their substrate specificities, active site organization, and transglycosylation capacity. Although PaMan5A displays a classical mode of action, PaMan26A revealed an atypical hydrolysis pattern with the release of mannotetraose and mannose from mannopentaose resulting from a predominant binding mode involving the ?4 subsite. The crystal structures of PaMan5A and PaMan26A were solved at 1.4 and 2.85 ? resolution, respectively. Analysis of the PaMan26A structure supported strong interaction with substrate at the ?4 subsite mediated by two aromatic residues Trp-244 and Trp-245. The PaMan26A structure appended to its family 35 carbohydrate binding module revealed a short and proline-rich rigid linker that anchored together the catalytic and the binding modules. PMID:23558681

  15. The Fungus-Specific HET Domain Mediates Programmed Cell Death in Podospora anserina? †

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, M.; Clavé, C.

    2007-01-01

    Vegetative incompatibility is a programmed cell death reaction that occurs when fungal cells of unlike genotypes fuse. Genes defining vegetative incompatibility (het genes) are highly polymorphic, and most if not all incompatibility systems include a protein partner bearing the fungus-specific domain termed the HET domain. The nonallelic het-C/het-E incompatibility system is the best-characterized incompatibility system in Podospora anserina. Cell death is triggered by interaction of specific alleles of het-C, encoding a glycolipid transfer protein, and het-E, encoding a HET domain and a WD repeat domain involved in recognition. We show here that overexpression of the isolated HET domain from het-E results in cell death. This cell death is characterized by induction of autophagy, increased vacuolization, septation, and production of lipid droplets, which are hallmarks of cell death by incompatibility. In addition, the HET domain lethality is suppressed by the same mutations as vegetative incompatibility, but not by the inactivation of het-C. These results establish the HET domain as the mediator of cell death by incompatibility and lead to a modular conception of incompatibility systems whereby recognition is ensured by the variable regions of incompatibility proteins and cell death is triggered by the HET domain. PMID:17873080

  16. Manganese rescues adverse effects on lifespan and development in Podospora anserina challenged by excess hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Carolin; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2015-03-01

    For biological systems, balancing cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is of great importance because ROS are both, essential for cellular signaling and dangerous in causing molecular damage. Cellular ROS abundance is controlled by a delicate network of molecular pathways. Within this network, superoxide dismutases (SODs) are active in disproportion of the superoxide anion leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. The fungal aging model Podospora anserina encodes at least three SODs. One of these is the mitochondrial PaSOD3 isoform containing manganese as a cofactor. Previous work resulted in the selection of strains in which PaSod3 is strongly overexpressed. These strains display impairments in growth and lifespan. A computational model suggests a series of events to occur in Sod3 overexpressing strains leading to adverse effects due to elevated hydrogen peroxide levels. In an attempt to validate this model and to obtain more detailed information about the cellular responses involved in ROS balancing, we further investigated the PaSod3 overexpressing strains. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide levels are indeed strongly increased in the mutant strain. Surprisingly, this phenotype can be rescued by the addition of manganese to the growth medium. Strikingly, while we obtained no evidence for an antioxidant effect of manganese, we found that the metal is required for induction of components of the ROS scavenging network and lowers the hydrogen peroxide level of the mutant. A similar effect of manganese on lifespan reversion was obtained in wild-type strains challenged with exogenous hydrogen peroxide. It appears that manganese is limited under high hydrogen peroxide and suggests that a manganese-dependent activity leads to the induction of ROS scavenging components. PMID:25616172

  17. The proteasome activity reporter GFP-Cl1 is degraded by autophagy in the aging model Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Matthias; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of damaged proteins is an important vital function especially during aging and stress. The ubiquitin proteasome system is one of the major cellular machineries for protein degradation. Health and longevity are associated with high proteasome activity. To demonstrate such a role in aging of Podospora anserina, we first analyzed the transcript and protein abundance of selected proteasome components in wild-type cultures of different age. No significant differences were observed. Next, in order to increase the overall proteasome abundance we generated strains overexpressing the catalytic proteasome subunits PaPRE2 and PaPRE3. Although transcript levels were strongly increased, no substantial effect on the abundance of the corresponding proteins was observed. Finally, the analysis of the P. anserina strains expressing the sequence coding for the CL1 degron fused to the Gfp gene revealed no evidence for degradation of the GFP-CL1 fusion protein by the proteasome. Instead, our results demonstrate the degradation of the CL1-degron sequence via autophagy, indicating that basal autophagy appears to be a very effective protein quality control pathway in P. anserina. PMID:25520781

  18. Altering a gene involved in nuclear distribution increases the repeat-induced point mutation process in the fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed Central

    Bouhouche, Khaled; Zickler, Denise; Debuchy, Robert; Arnaise, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) is a homology-dependent gene-silencing mechanism that introduces C:G-to-T:A transitions in duplicated DNA segments. Cis-duplicated sequences can also be affected by another mechanism called premeiotic recombination (PR). Both are active over the sexual cycle of some filamentous fungi, e.g., Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina. During the sexual cycle, several developmental steps require precise nuclear movement and positioning, but connections between RIP, PR, and nuclear distributions have not yet been established. Previous work has led to the isolation of ami1, the P. anserina ortholog of the Aspergillus nidulans apsA gene, which is required for nuclear positioning. We show here that ami1 is involved in nuclear distribution during the sexual cycle and that alteration of ami1 delays the fruiting-body development. We also demonstrate that ami1 alteration affects loss of transgene functions during the sexual cycle. Genetically linked multiple copies of transgenes are affected by RIP and PR much more frequently in an ami1 mutant cross than in a wild-type cross. Our results suggest that the developmental slowdown of the ami1 mutant during the period of RIP and PR increases time exposure to the duplication detection system and thus increases the frequency of RIP and PR. PMID:15166143

  19. Cytosolic Ribosomal Mutations That Abolish Accumulation of Circular Intron in the Mitochondria without Preventing Senescence of Podospora Anserina

    PubMed Central

    Silar, P.; Koll, F.; Rossignol, M.

    1997-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Podospora anserina presents a degeneration syndrome called Senescence associated with mitochondrial DNA modifications. We show that mutations affecting the two different and interacting cytosolic ribosomal proteins (S7 and S19) systematically and specifically prevent the accumulation of senDNA? (a circular double-stranded DNA plasmid derived from the first intron of the mitochondrial cox1 gene or intron ?) without abolishing Senescence nor affecting the accumulation of other usually observed mitochondrial DNA rearrangements. One of the mutant proteins is homologous to the Escherichia coli S4 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae S13 ribosomal proteins, known to be involved in accuracy control of cytosolic translation. The lack of accumulation of senDNA? seems to result from a nontrivial ribosomal alteration unrelated to accuracy control, indicating that S7 and S19 proteins have an additional function. The results strongly suggest that modified expression of nucleus-encoded proteins contributes to Senescence in P. anserina. These data do not fit well with some current models, which propose that intron ? plays the role of the cytoplasmic and infectious Determinant of Senescence that was defined in early studies. PMID:9055079

  20. DNA sequence, structure, and phylogenetic relationship of the small subunit rRNA coding region of mitochondrial DNA from Podospora anserina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald J. Cummings; Joanne M. Domenico; James Nelson; Mitchell L. Sogin

    1989-01-01

    Summary DNA sequence analysis and the localization of the 5? and 3? termini by S1 mapping have shown that the mitochondrial (mt) small subunit rRNA coding region fromPodospora anserina is 1980 bp in length. The analogous coding region for mt rRNA is 1962 bp in maize, 1686 bp inSaccharomyces cerevisiae, and 956 bp in mammals, whereas its counterpart inEscherichia coli

  1. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA from Podospora anserina. Pervasiveness of a class I intron in three separate genes.

    PubMed

    Cummings, D J; Domenico, J M

    1988-12-20

    A 48 kb region of the 95 kb mitochondrial genome of Podospora anserina has been mapped and sequenced (1 kb = 10(3) base-pairs). The DNA sequence of the genes for ND2, 3, 4, ATPase 6 and URFC are presented here. As in Neurospora crassa, the ND2 and 3 genes consist of a unit separated by one TAA stop codon. ND3, 4 and ATPase 6 are interrupted by class I introns. All three introns are remarkably similar in the C-domain of their secondary structure, sufficient enough to designate them as new subgroup, class IC introns. The open reading frames of the ND3 and 4 introns bear a high sequence similarity to the open reading frame of the class IB introns of ATPase 6 from N. crassa and ND1 from Neurospora intermedia Varkud. We also show that the tRNA Met-2 gene is duplicated and is involved in a recombinational event. The 5' region of URFC is also duplicated but no involvement of this gene with recombination or formation of plasmids is known. The evolutionary significance of the similarities of intron secondary structures and open reading frames of the ND3, 4 and ATPase 6 genes is discussed, including the possible separate evolution of structural and coding sequences. PMID:2975708

  2. The mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase of Podospora anserina is a bifunctional enzyme active in protein synthesis and RNA splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Kämper, U; Kück, U; Cherniack, A D; Lambowitz, A M

    1992-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (mt tyrRS), which is encoded by the nuclear gene cyt-18, functions not only in aminoacylation but also in the splicing of group I introns. Here, we isolated the cognate Podospora anserina mt tyrRS gene, designated yts1, by using the N. crassa cyt-18 gene as a hybridization probe. DNA sequencing of the P. anserina gene revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 641 amino acids which has significant similarity to other tyrRSs. The yts1 ORF is interrupted by two introns, one near its N terminus at the same position as the single intron in the cyt-18 gene and the other downstream in a region corresponding to the nucleotide-binding fold. The P. anserina yts1+ gene transformed the N. crassa cyt-18-2 mutant at a high frequency and rescued both the splicing and protein synthesis defects. Furthermore, the YTS1 protein synthesized in Escherichia coli was capable of splicing the N. crassa mt large rRNA intron in vitro. Together, these results indicate that YTS1 is a bifunctional protein active in both splicing and protein synthesis. The P. anserina YTS1 and N. crassa CYT-18 proteins share three blocks of amino acids that are not conserved in bacterial or yeast mt tyrRSs which do not function in splicing. One of these blocks corresponds to the idiosyncratic N-terminal domain shown previously to be required for splicing activity of the CYT-18 protein. The other two are located in the putative tRNA-binding domain toward the C terminus of the protein and also appear to be required for splicing. Since the E. coli and yeast mt tyrRSs do not function in splicing, the adaptation of the Neurospora and Podospora spp. mt tyrRSs to function in splicing most likely occurred after the divergence of their common ancestor from yeast. Images PMID:1531084

  3. Excision-amplification of mitochondrial DNA during senescence in Podospora anserina. DNA sequence analysis of three unique "plasmids".

    PubMed

    Cummings, D J; MacNeil, I A; Domenico, J; Matsuura, E T

    1985-10-20

    During senescence in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, specific regions of the mitochondrial genome, termed senDNA are excised, ligated and amplified. We have cloned in their entirety three such autonomously replicating plasmids, alpha, beta and epsilon senDNA. None of these plasmids displayed cross-hybridization nor did we detect any significant DNA homology by computer analysis. The complete DNA sequence of the 2.5 kb alpha, the 5.5 kb epsilon and about 3.4 kb of the 9.8 kb beta senDNA is presented (kb = 10(3) base-pairs). These sequences were analyzed for the presence of consensus sequences common to introns, and it was found that alpha senDNA has the characteristics of a group II intron, epsilon senDNA contains three group I introns, and beta senDNA did not show relevant sequences in the 3.4 kb examined. Comparison of the 5' and 3'-flanking sequences of alpha senDNA with oxi 3 (Co I) amino acid sequences from Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed significant homology and provided strong support that the excised alpha senDNA itself consists entirely of an intron. Upstream from the oxi 3 gene a transfer RNA cysteine sequence was detected. beta senDNA contained four tRNA sequences, aspartic acid, serine, valine and tryptophan, and sequences homologous to URFC (untranslated reading frame C) as well as two new URFs. epsilon senDNA contained sequences homologous to ATPase 8 and URFl; URFl was interrupted by three group I introns. The excision site sequences, as located by S1 nuclease mapping were unique for each senDNA. Analysis for repeated units showed that each plasmid contained elements which could be involved in secondary structure required for the alignment of distal ends preparatory to excision. These results are interpreted in terms of the structural requirements of mobile elements including the possible involvement of reverse transcriptase in the excision-ligation-amplification process. PMID:2997455

  4. Structure and Biophysical Characterization of the S-Adenosylmethionine-dependent O-Methyltransferase PaMTH1, a Putative Enzyme Accumulating during Senescence of Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Deep; Kudlinzki, Denis; Linhard, Verena; Saxena, Krishna; Schieborr, Ulrich; Gande, Santosh L; Wurm, Jan Philip; Wöhnert, Jens; Abele, Rupert; Rogov, Vladimir V; Dötsch, Volker; Osiewacz, Heinz D; Sreeramulu, Sridhar; Schwalbe, Harald

    2015-06-26

    Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as important signaling molecules, but in excess they can damage biomolecules. ROS regulation is therefore of key importance. Several polyphenols in general and flavonoids in particular have the potential to generate hydroxyl radicals, the most hazardous among all ROS. However, the generation of a hydroxyl radical and subsequent ROS formation can be prevented by methylation of the hydroxyl group of the flavonoids. O-Methylation is performed by O-methyltransferases, members of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase superfamily involved in the secondary metabolism of many species across all kingdoms. In the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, a well established aging model, the O-methyltransferase (PaMTH1) was reported to accumulate in total and mitochondrial protein extracts during aging. In vitro functional studies revealed flavonoids and in particular myricetin as its potential substrate. The molecular architecture of PaMTH1 and the mechanism of the methyl transfer reaction remain unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of PaMTH1 apoenzyme, PaMTH1-SAM (co-factor), and PaMTH1-S-adenosyl homocysteine (by-product) co-complexes refined to 2.0, 1.9, and 1.9 Ĺ, respectively. PaMTH1 forms a tight dimer through swapping of the N termini. Each monomer adopts the Rossmann fold typical for many SAM-binding methyltransferases. Structural comparisons between different O-methyltransferases reveal a strikingly similar co-factor binding pocket but differences in the substrate binding pocket, indicating specific molecular determinants required for substrate selection. Furthermore, using NMR, mass spectrometry, and site-directed active site mutagenesis, we show that PaMTH1 catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from SAM to one hydroxyl group of the myricetin in a cation-dependent manner. PMID:25979334

  5. Overexpression of Pa_1_10620 encoding a mitochondrial Podospora anserina protein with homology to superoxide dismutases and ribosomal proteins leads to lifespan extension.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Carolin; Böhl, Lena; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2015-02-01

    In biological systems, reactive oxygen species (ROS) represent 'double edged swords': as signaling molecules they are essential for proper development, as reactive agents they cause molecular damage and adverse effects like degeneration and aging. A well-coordinated control of ROS is therefore of key importance. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are enzymes active in the detoxification of superoxide. The number of isoforms of these proteins varies among species. Here we report the characterization of the putative protein encoded by Pa_1_10620 that has been previously annotated to code for a mitochondrial ribosomal protein but shares also sequence domains with SODs. We report that the gene is transcribed in P. anserina cultures of all ages and that the encoded protein localizes to mitochondria. In strains overexpressing Pa_1_10620 in a genetic background in which PaSod3, the mitochondrial MnSOD of P. anserina, is deleted, no SOD activity could be identified in isolated mitochondria. However, overexpression of the gene leads to lifespan extension suggesting a pro-survival function of the protein in P. anserina. PMID:25151510

  6. Plasticity of the mitochondrial genome in Podospora. Polymorphism for 15 optional sequences: group-I, group-II introns, intronic ORFs and an intergenic region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Léon Belcour; Michčle Rossignol; France Koll; Carole H. Sellem; Catherine Oldani

    1997-01-01

    The mitochondrial chromosome of 15 Podo-spora anserina and one Podospora comata wild-type strains have been extensively examined for the presence of optional elements and for sequence divergence. Among\\u000a the P. anserina strains, nine optional sequences were found. By comparing P. anserina with the closely related and weakly interfertile P. comata species, six additional optional sequences were detected. These optional elements

  7. Rab-GDI Complex Dissociation Factor Expressed through Translational Frameshifting in Filamentous Ascomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Prigent, Magali; Rousset, Jean-Pierre; Namy, Olivier; Silar, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In the model fungus Podospora anserina, the PaYIP3 gene encoding the orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YIP3 Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expresses two polypeptides, one of which, the long form, is produced through a programmed translation frameshift. Inactivation of PaYIP3 results in slightly delayed growth associated with modification in repartition of fruiting body on the thallus, along with reduced ascospore production on wood. Long and short forms of PaYIP3 are expressed in the mycelium, while only the short form appears expressed in the maturing fruiting body (perithecium). The frameshift has been conserved over the evolution of the Pezizomycotina, lasting for over 400 million years, suggesting that it has an important role in the wild. PMID:24069231

  8. A general framework for optimization of probes for gene expression microarray and its application to the fungus Podospora anserina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédérique Bidard; Sandrine Imbeaud; Nancie Reymond; Olivier Lespinet; Philippe Silar; Corinne Clavé; Hervé Delacroix; Véronique Berteaux-Lecellier; Robert Debuchy

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The development of new microarray technologies makes custom long oligonucleotide arrays affordable for many experimental applications, notably gene expression analyses. Reliable results depend on probe design quality and selection. Probe design strategy should cope with the limited accuracy of de novo gene prediction programs, and annotation up-dating. We present a novel in silico procedure which addresses these issues and

  9. Evolutionary history of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 20 ascomyceteous yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comp...

  10. Heavy metals modify costs of reproduction and clonal growth in the stoloniferous herb Potentilla anserina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari Koivunen; Kari Saikkonen; Timo Vuorisalo; Pia Mutikainen

    2004-01-01

    We examined costs of sexual reproduction and clonal propagation, and their consequences for resource allocation in the clonal stoloniferous herb, Potentilla anserina, a typical pioneer species in disturbed areas. We used heavy-metal treatment in soil to create unfavourable growing conditions, because costs of reproduction are more likely to be expressed when resources are limited. We also studied whether heavy metals

  11. A NEW SPECIES OF ASCOMYCETES FROM MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a survey of tropical Ascomycetes from Mexico, an interesting fungus was isolated from sandy beach soil collected from the Gulf of Mexico seacoast. The fungus produces a rudimentary ascoma with oblate, smooth-walled, unornamented, greenish ascospores and lacks a distinctive peridium surroundi...

  12. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and appears to be highly variable with some regulators widely conserved and others showing narrow distribution. Although genome-scale transcription factor surveys have been performed before, no global study into the prevalence of specific regulators across the fungal kingdom has been presented. Results In this study we have analysed the number of members for 37 regulator classes in 77 ascomycete and 31 basidiomycete fungal genomes and revealed significant differences between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. In addition, we determined the presence of 64 regulators characterised in ascomycetes across these 108 genomes. This demonstrated that overall the highest presence of orthologs is in the filamentous ascomycetes. A significant number of regulators lacked orthologs in the ascomycete yeasts and the basidiomycetes. Conversely, of seven basidiomycete regulators included in the study, only one had orthologs in ascomycetes. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant difference in the regulatory repertoire of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, at the level of both regulator class and individual regulator. This suggests that the current regulatory systems of these fungi have been mainly developed after the two phyla diverged. Most regulators detected in both phyla are involved in central functions of fungal physiology and therefore were likely already present in the ancestor of the two phyla. PMID:24650355

  13. Cloning, Sequencing, and Transgenic Expression of Podospora curvicollaand Sordaria macrosporaeEF1A Genes: Relationship between Cytosolic Translation and Longevity in Filamentous Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bénédicte Gagny; Michčle Rossignol; Philippe Silar

    1997-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the gene encoding the translation elongation factor eEF1A from two filamentous fungi,Podospora curvicollaandSordaria macrospora.These fungi are close relatives ofPodospora anserinaand also show senescence syndromes. Comparison of the sequences of the deduced proteins with that ofP. anserinareveals that the three proteins differ in several positions. Replacement of theP. anserinagene by either of the two exogenous genes

  14. Interactive effects of pollination and heavy metals on resource allocation in Potentilla anserina L.

    SciTech Connect

    Saikkonen, K. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology]|[Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Koivunen, S.; Vuorisalo, T. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Mutikainen, P. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology]|[ETH, Zuerich (Switzerland). Experimental Ecology

    1998-07-01

    The authors studied resource allocation between sexual reproduction and clonal propagation in a perennial stoloniferous clonal plant, Potentilla anserina, an obligate outcrosser. They manipulated reproductive effort of Potentilla anserina either by hand-pollinating all flowers or by preventing pollination. To test the effect of resource-limiting conditions on resource allocation and reproductive output, the authors used a control and two levels of heavy metals (copper and nickel) to limit plant growth. The experiment was conducted as a 2 {times} 3 factorial design to reveal possible interactions between reproductive manipulation and resource limitation. Heavy metals decreased the total biomass of the plants and number of flowers and ramets produced. Only 50% of the plants grown with the higher level of heavy metals produced flowers. Pollination treatment interacted significantly with the heavy-metal treatment. In the metal control and lower heavy-metal treatment, there were no significant differences in total vegetative biomass between the two pollination treatments. Costs of reproduction in terms of subsequent flowering in the later season appeared to be clear, because the number of flowers per whole plant was lower if the plants were hand-pollinated and because the proportion of flowering ramets decreased due to hand-pollination. However, flowering may also be partly hormonally controlled. In contrast, hand-pollinated plants exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals tended to have greater biomass of vegetative plant structures and higher number of flowers compared to nonpollinated plants.

  15. Two important “root” foods of the Northwest Coast Indians: Springbank clover (Trifolium wormskioldii) and Pacific silverweed (Potentilla anserina ssp. pacified)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy J. Turner; Harriet V. Kuhnlein

    1982-01-01

    Two edible “root” species, springbank clover (Trifolium wormskioldii), and Pacific silverweed (Potentilla anserina ssp. pacifica), are described and their use as food by Northwest Coast Indian peoples documented. Descriptions of traditional harvesting,\\u000a cooking and serving, and storage techniques for these foods are provided, and their future potential as a food source along\\u000a the Northwest Coast is discussed.

  16. ASCOMYCETOUS MITOSIS IN BASIDIOMYCETOUS YEASTS: ITS EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In budding cells of ascomycetous yeasts, mitosis occurs in the parent, while in basidiomyceteous yeasts it occurs in the bud. However, in the basidiomycete Agaricostilbum pulcherrimum mitosis occurs in the parent and parent-bud junction. To test whether A. pulcherrimum has a novel mitotic pattern, i...

  17. NOTES ON ASCOMYCETE SYSTEMATICS NOS 3303-3579

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The series "Notes on ascomycete systematics" has been published in Systema Ascomycetum (Eriksson & Hawksworth 1986-1998) and since 1999 in Myconet in an electronic version on the Internet (http://www.umu.se/myconet/notes.html) and as hard copies once or twice a year in a journal with the same name (...

  18. Identification of Oxaphenalenone Ketals from the Ascomycete Fungus Neonectria sp.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jinwei; Niu, Shubing; Li, Li; Geng, Zhufeng; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-06-26

    Neonectrolides B-E (4-7), four new oxaphenalenone ketals incorporating the new furo[2,3-b]isochromeno[3,4,5-def]chromen-11(6aH)-one skeleton, were isolated from the fermentation extract of the ascomycete fungus Neonectria sp. in an in-depth investigation guided by HPLC fingerprint and a cytotoxicity assay. The previously identified oxaphenalenone spiroketal neonectrolide A (1) and its putative biosynthetic precursors (2 and 3) were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 4-7 were primarily elucidated by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations were deduced by electronic circular dichroism calculations. Compound 6 showed cytotoxic effects against four of the six human tumor cell lines tested. Biosynthetically, compounds 4-7 could be derived via the Diels-Alder reaction cascades starting from derivatives of the co-isolated metabolites 2 and 3. PMID:25978132

  19. Assessing conserved function of conidiation regulators in two distantly related ascomycetes, Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa

    E-print Network

    Chung, Da Woon

    2012-07-16

    in the ancestral species, and became specialized in the extant species to lead to morphological and functional diversity. To address this hypothesis we assessed the conserved function of conidiation regulators in two distantly related ascomycetes, Aspergillus...

  20. Ascomycete fungal communities associated with early decaying leaves of Spartina spp. from central California estuaries.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Justine I; Alber, Merryl; Hollibaugh, James T

    2010-02-01

    Ascomycetous fungi play an important role in the early stages of decomposition of Spartina alterniflora, but their role in the decomposition of other Spartina species has not been investigated. Here we use fingerprint (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and phylogenetic analyses of the 18S to 28S internal transcribed spacer region to compare the composition of the ascomycete fungal communities on early decay blades of Spartina species (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina foliosa, and a hybrid (S. alterniflora x S. foliosa)) collected from three salt marshes in San Francisco Bay and one in Tomales Bay, California, USA. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola was found on all samples collected and was often dominant. Two other ascomycetes, Phaeosphaeria halima and Mycosphaerella sp. strain 2, were also common. These three species are the same ascomycetes previously identified as the dominant fungal decomposers on S. alterniflora on the east coast. Ascomycetes appeared to exhibit varying degrees of host specificity, demonstrated by grouping patterns on phylogenetic trees. Neither the exotic S. alterniflora nor the hybrid supported fungal flora different from that of the native S. foliosa. However, S. densiflora had a significantly different fungal community than the other species, and hosted at least two unique ascomycetes. Significant differences in the fungal decomposer communities were also detected within species (two clones of S. foliosa), but these were minor and may be due to morphological differences among the plants. PMID:19777266

  1. DIVERSITY OF ASCOMYCETE LACCASE SEQUENCES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF BACTERIA AND ASCOMYCETOUS FUNGI TO LIGNOCELLULOSE DEGRADATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN U.S. SALT MARSH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUSTINE ISABELLE; LYONS MORETA

    In the first part of this study, we used molecular tools to create a database of protein sequences for laccase genes of salt marsh ascomycetes. Laccase is one of the enzymes shown to be involved in fungally-mediated lignin degradation. We then used this database to identify laccase sequences in the natural decomposer community on blades of Spartina alterniflora in two

  2. Common amino acid domain among endopolygalacturonases of ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Keon, J P; Waksman, G

    1990-01-01

    The endopolygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) enzymes produced in vitro by three ascomycete fungi, Aspergillus niger, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum were studied by using thin-layer isoelectric focusing and activity stain overlay techniques. The polygalacturonases from A. niger and S. sclerotiorum consisted of numerous isoforms, whereas the endopolygalacturonase from C. lindemuthianum consisted of a single protein species. The most abundant endopolygalacturonase isoform produced by each of these organisms was purified and characterized. Biochemical parameters, including molecular weight, isoelectric point, kinetic parameters, temperature and pH optima, and thermal stability, were determined. Considerable differences in physical and chemical properties were demonstrated among these fungal polygalacturonases. Antibodies raised against individual proteins exhibited little cross-reaction, suggesting that these enzymes differ structurally as well as biochemically. In contrast, the analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the three proteins showed extensive homology, particularly in a region labeled domain 1 in which 84% of the amino acids were conserved. Images PMID:2403258

  3. Halide uptake by the filamentous ascomycete Neocosmospora vasinfecta.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A G; Budd, K

    1975-01-01

    The uptake of Cl minus by the ascomycetes Neocosmospora vasinfecta was investigated. Intramycelial concentrations of more than 55 mM (890-fold the external concentration) were reached. Accumulation was as inorganic Cl minus and nystatin induced total loss of mycelial Cl minus without extensive protein loss, implying that Cl minus retention was not due to binding to macromolecules. Cl minus transport was largely unidirectional with efflux being low under all conditions. Uptake was temperature dependent (maximal Arrhenius activation energy of 18.0 kcal/mol) and was severely reduced by KCN, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and anaerobiosis. A comparison with the inhibition of oxygen uptake under the same conditions implied that Cl minus transport was not directly coupled to aerobic electron transport. Cl minus uptake was a saturatable function of the external Cl minus concentration, and apparent Km values of 6.4 times 10-6 M and 10-4 M were calculated. Of the anions tested, only Br minus effectively inhibited Cl minus uptake and I minus, NO3 minus, SO4 minus 2, HCO3 minus, and H2PO4 minus were without effect. Cl minus uptake did not require concomitant cation uptake. PMID:234943

  4. 7/12/07 Trappe & Castellano 1 KEYS TO THE GENERA OF TRUFFLES (ASCOMYCETES)

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    they detect them (Maser et al., 1978). Humans are numbered among the animals that enjoy eating truffles7/12/07 Trappe & Castellano 1 KEYS TO THE GENERA OF TRUFFLES (ASCOMYCETES) James M. Trappe, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 INTRODUCTION Truffles are belowground (hypogeous) relatives of the cup fungi

  5. Diversity of Ascomycete Laccase Gene Sequences in a Southeastern US Salt Marsh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Lyons; S. Y. Newell; A. Buchan; M. A. Moran

    2003-01-01

    The diversity of ascomycete laccase sequences was surveyed in a southeastern US salt marsh using a degenerate primer set designed around copper binding sites conserved in fungal laccases. This gene was targeted for diversity analysis because of its potential function in lignin degradation in the salt marsh ecosystem and because few studies have assessed functional gene diversity in natural fungal

  6. Characterization of Azo Reduction Activity in a Novel Ascomycete Yeast Strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia A. Ramalho; M. Helena Cardoso; A. Cavaco-Paulo; M. Teresa Ramalho

    2004-01-01

    Several model azo dyes are reductively cleaved by growing cultures of an ascomycete yeast species, Issatch- enkia occidentalis. In liquid media containing 0.2 mM dye and 2% glucose in a mineral salts base, more than 80% of the dyes are removed in 15 h, essentially under microaerophilic conditions. Under anoxic conditions, decolorization does not occur, even in the presence of

  7. Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6 and Biotin as Growth Substances for some Ascomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Fries

    1943-01-01

    IN continuation of earlier published investigations1 on the significance of vitamin B1 (aneurin, thiamin) and biotin (vitamin H) for the growth of different fungi, the need for growth substances of a number of Ascomycetes has been more closely studied. Leaving aside yeast-fungi, only relatively few of these have been more thoroughly examined in this respect2.

  8. Chemical variation within and between individuals of the lichenized ascomycete Tephromela atra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonja Hesbacher; Lars Fröberg; Anette Baur; Bruno Baur; Peter Proksch

    1996-01-01

    HPLC-analysis was used to determine the concentrations of the lichen compounds alectoronic acid (depsidon), ?-collatolic acid (depsidon) and atranorin (depsid) in the lichenized ascomycete Tephromela atra (syn. Lecanon atra) (Hudson) Hafeliner from limestone walls on the Baltic island of Öland, Sweden. In 24 individuals of T. atra sampled on a stone wall, the pre-reproductive and reproductive tissue did not differ

  9. Genomic Exploration of the Hemiascomycetous Yeasts: 19. Ascomycetes-specific genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Malpertuy; Fredj Tekaia; Serge Casarégola; Michel Aigle; Francois Artiguenave; Gaëlle Blandin; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Elisabeth Bon; Philippe Brottier; Jacky de Montigny; Pascal Durrens; Claude Gaillardin; Andrée Lépingle; Bertrand Llorente; Cécile Neuvéglise; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Serge Potier; William Saurin; Claire Toffano-Nioche; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Patrick Wincker; Jean Weissenbach; Jean-Luc Souciet; Bernard Dujon

    2000-01-01

    Comparisons of the 6213 predicted Saccharomyces cerevisiae open reading frame (ORF) products with sequences from organisms of other biological phyla differentiate genes commonly conserved in evolution from ‘maverick’ genes which have no homologue in phyla other than the Ascomycetes. We show that a majority of the ‘maverick’ genes have homologues among other yeast species and thus define a set of

  10. Seasonal variations in the fine structure of Hypogymnia physodes (lichenized Ascomycetes ) and its Trebouxia photobiont

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Fiechter; Rosmarie Honegger

    1988-01-01

    The lichenized ascomyceteHypogymnia physodes was collected every second month during a one year period at the same site in a wood near the city of Zürich and investigated with light and electron microscopy techniques. Temperature and relative humidity were measured at the collecting site. Seasonal variations in the germination rate of soredia, in photobiont cell size and cell number, in

  11. Interactions of sterile-cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with asbestos fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Enrico FAVERO-LONGOa; Mariangela Girlanda; Rosmarie Honegger; Bice Fubini; Rosanna Piervittori

    2007-01-01

    Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming ascomycetes have not yet been used to investigate mycobiont–mineral substrate interactions under controlled conditions. In this study Candelariella vitellina, Xanthoparmelia tinctina and Lecanora rupicola mycobionts were isolated and inoculated with chrysotile fibres in the laboratory, in order to verify whether physical and chemical weathering processes, which were already described in the field, may be reproduced

  12. A new trihydroxy fatty acid from the ascomycete, Chinese truffle Tuber indicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Ming Gao; Chen-Ying Wang; An-Ling Zhang; Ji-Kai Liu

    2001-01-01

    From the chloroform\\/methanol extract of the fruiting bodies of the ascomycete Chinese truffle Tuber indicum Cooke et Massee, a new trihydroxylated monounsaturated fatty acid (1) has been isolated. The structure of this new linoleic acid-derived metabolite was established as 9,10,11-trihydroxy-(12Z)-12-octadecenoic\\u000a acid by means of spectroscopic and chemical methods. The fatty acid composition of the chloroform-soluble fraction of this\\u000a fungus was

  13. Papyracillic acid, a new penicillic acid analogue from the ascomycete Lachnum papyraceum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudong Shan; Heidrun Anke; Marc Stadler; Olov Sterner

    1996-01-01

    The ascomycete Lachnum papyraceum is an efficient producer of bioactive and chlorinated metabolites, in which chlorine to some extent can be exchanged for bromine in fermentations to which bromide has been added. However, large amounts of bromide (100 mM CaBr2 alter the secondary metabolism of the fungus, and it produces papyracillic acid as the main metabolite. Papyracillic acid is a

  14. PCR PRIMERS FOR THE AMPLIFICATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL SMALL SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL DNA OF LICHEN-FORMING ASCOMYCETES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Zoller; Christoph Scheidegger; Christoph Sperisen

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: Four primers for the amplification of mitochondrial DNA of lichen-forming ascomycetes are presented. The primers match the conserved regions U2, U4, and U6, respectively, of mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Polymerase chain reaction using different combinations of the primers produced single amplification products from DNA of eight lichen-forming fungal species but did not amplify DNA of two

  15. Efficient Cloning of Ascomycete Mating Type Genes by PCR Amplification of the Conserved MATHMG Box

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Arie; S. K. Christiansen; O. C. Yoder; B. G. Turgeon

    1997-01-01

    Cloning of mating type (MAT) genes from ascomycetes has been hampered by low conservation among them. One of the pair ofMATgenes, represented byMAT-2ofCochliobolus heterostrophus(a loculoascomycete) andmt aofNeurospora crassa(a pyrenomycete), encodes a protein with a conserved DNA binding motif called the high mobility group (HMG) box. PCR with primer pairs corresponding to the borders of theC. heterostrophusand theN. crassaHMG boxes generated

  16. A Search for the Phylogenetic Relationship of the Ascomycete Rhizoctonia leguminicola Using Genetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Alhawatema, Mohammad S; Sanogo, Soum; Baucom, Deana L; Creamer, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Rhizoctonia leguminicola, which causes fungal blackpatch disease of legumes and other plants, produces slaframine and swainsonine that are largely responsible for causing salivation, lacrimation, frequent urination, and diarrhea in grazing animals including cattle, sheep, and horses. The original identification of R. leguminicola was based only on morphological characters of the fungal mycelia in cultures because of the lack of fungal genetic markers. Recent investigations suggested that R. leguminicola does not belong to genus Rhizoctonia and is instead a member of the ascomycetes, necessitating an accurate reclassification. The objective of this study was to use both genetic and morphological characters of R. leguminicola to find taxonomic placement of this pathogen within ascomycetes. Internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) encoding gene were amplified from R. leguminicola isolates by PCR using universal primers and sequencing. Rhizoctonia leguminicola ITS and gpd sequences were aligned with other fungal sequences of close relatives, and phylogenetic trees were constructed using neighbor-joining and parsimony analyses. Rhizoctonia leguminicola isolates were clustered within a clade that contains several genera of ascomycetes belonging to the class dothideomycetes. We suggest that the fungus is misidentified in the genus Rhizoctonia and propose its reclassification in a new genus within the phylum Ascomycota. PMID:25585493

  17. Asexual Cephalosporin C Producer Acremonium chrysogenum Carries a Functional Mating Type Locus?

    PubMed Central

    Pöggeler, Stefanie; Hoff, Birgit; Kück, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Acremonium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the pharmaceutically relevant ?-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C, is classified as asexual because no direct observation of mating or meiosis has yet been reported. To assess the potential of A. chrysogenum for sexual reproduction, we screened an expressed sequence tag library from A. chrysogenum for the expression of mating type (MAT) genes, which are the key regulators of sexual reproduction. We identified two putative mating type genes that are homologues of the ?-box domain gene, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, encoding an HPG domain protein defined by the presence of the three invariant amino acids histidine, proline, and glycine. In addition, cDNAs encoding a putative pheromone receptor and pheromone-processing enzymes, as well as components of a pheromone response pathway, were found. Moreover, the entire A. chrysogenum MAT1-1 (AcMAT1-1) gene and regions flanking the MAT region were obtained from a genomic cosmid library, and sequence analysis revealed that in addition to AcMAT1-1-1 and AcMAT1-1-2, the AcMAT1-1 locus comprises a third mating type gene, AcMAT1-1-3, encoding a high-mobility-group domain protein. The ?-box domain sequence of AcMAT1-1-1 was used to determine the phylogenetic relationships of A. chrysogenum to other ascomycetes. To determine the functionality of the AcMAT1-1 locus, the entire MAT locus was transferred into a MAT deletion strain of the heterothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina (the Pa?MAT strain). After fertilization with a P. anserina MAT1-2 (MAT+) strain, the corresponding transformants developed fruiting bodies with mature ascospores. Thus, the results of our functional analysis of the AcMAT1-1 locus provide strong evidence to hypothesize a sexual cycle in A. chrysogenum. PMID:18689517

  18. Role of Reactive Intermediates in Manganese Oxide Formation By Filamentous Ascomycete Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiner, C. A.; Anderton, C.; Wu, S.; Purvine, S.; Zink, E.; Paša-Toli?, L.; Santelli, C. M.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in the environment, and their high reactivity can profoundly impact the fate of contaminants and cycling of carbon and nutrients. In contrast to bacteria, the pathways utilized by fungi to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III,IV) oxides remain largely unknown. Here, we explore the mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation by a phylogenetically diverse group of filamentous Ascomycete fungi using a combination of chemical assays and bulk and spatially-resolved mass spectrometry. We show that the mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation vary with fungal species, over time during secretome compositional changes, and in the presence of other fungi. Specifically, our work implicates a dynamic transition in Mn(II) oxidation pathways that varies between species. In particular, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced via transmembrane NADPH oxidases are involved in initial oxidation, over time, secreted enzymes become important Mn(II) oxidation mediators for some species. In addition, the overall secretome oxidation capacity varies with time and fungal species. Secretome analysis reveals a surprising absence of enzymes currently considered to be Mn(II)-oxidizing enzymes in these organisms, and instead highlights a wide variety of redox-active enzymes. Furthermore, we implicate fungal cell defense mechanisms in the formation of distinct Mn oxide patterns when fungi are grown in head-to-head competition. The identification and regulation of these secreted enzymes are under current investigation within the bulk secretome and within the interaction zone of structured fungal communities. Overall, our findings illustrate that Ascomycete Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms are highly variable and are dictated by complex environmental and ecological interactions. Future work will explore the connection between Ascomycete Mn(II) oxidation and the ability to degrade cellulose, a key carbon reservoir for biofuel production.

  19. A novel mode of chromosomal evolution peculiar to filamentous Ascomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene loss, inversions, translocations, and other chromosomal rearrangements vary among species, resulting in different rates of structural genome evolution. Major chromosomal rearrangements are rare in most eukaryotes, giving large regions with the same genes in the same order and orientation across species. These regions of macrosynteny have been very useful for locating homologous genes in different species and to guide the assembly of genome sequences. Previous analyses in the fungi have indicated that macrosynteny is rare; instead, comparisons across species show no synteny or only microsyntenic regions encompassing usually five or fewer genes. To test the hypothesis that chromosomal evolution is different in the fungi compared to other eukaryotes, synteny was compared between species of the major fungal taxa. Results These analyses identified a novel form of evolution in which genes are conserved within homologous chromosomes, but with randomized orders and orientations. This mode of evolution is designated mesosynteny, to differentiate it from micro- and macrosynteny seen in other organisms. Mesosynteny is an alternative evolutionary pathway very different from macrosyntenic conservation. Surprisingly, mesosynteny was not found in all fungal groups. Instead, mesosynteny appears to be restricted to filamentous Ascomycetes and was most striking between species in the Dothideomycetes. Conclusions The existence of mesosynteny between relatively distantly related Ascomycetes could be explained by a high frequency of chromosomal inversions, but translocations must be extremely rare. The mechanism for this phenomenon is not known, but presumably involves generation of frequent inversions during meiosis. PMID:21605470

  20. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora can survive in ambient air without carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Lehneck, Ronny; Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) is catalysed by metalloenzymes termed carbonic anhydrases (CAs). CAs have been identified in all three domains of life and can be divided into five evolutionarily unrelated classes (?, ?, ?, ? and??) that do not share significant sequence similarities. The function of the mammalian, prokaryotic and plant ?-CAs has been intensively studied but the function of CAs in filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora codes for four CAs, three of the ?-class and one of the ?-class. Here, we present a functional analysis of CAS4, the S. macrospora ?-class CA. The CAS4 protein was post-translationally glycosylated and secreted. The knockout strain ?cas4 had a significantly reduced rate of ascospore germination. To determine the cas genes required for S.?macrospora growth under ambient air conditions, we constructed double and triple mutations of the four cas genes in all possible combinations and a quadruple mutant. Vegetative growth rate of the quadruple mutant lacking all cas genes was drastically reduced compared to the wild type and invaded the agar under normal air conditions. Likewise the fruiting bodies were embedded in the agar and completely devoid of mature ascospores. PMID:24720701

  1. A heme peroxidase of the ascomyceteous lichen Leptogium saturninum oxidizes high-redox potential substrates.

    PubMed

    Liers, Christiane; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin; Minibayeva, Farida V; Beckett, Richard P

    2011-12-01

    Lichens belonging to the order Peltigerales display strong activity of multi-copper oxidases (e.g. tyrosinase) as well as heme-containing peroxidases. The lichen peroxidase was purified to homogeneity from the thallus of Leptogium saturninum (LsaPOX) by fast protein liquid chromatography and then partially characterized. The oligomeric protein occurs as both 79 kDa dimeric and 42 kDa monomeric forms, and displayed broad substrate specificity. In addition to an ability to oxidize classic peroxidase substrates (e.g. 2,6-dimethoxyphenol), the enzyme could convert recalcitrant compounds such as synthetic dyes (e.g. Azure B and Reactive Blue 5), 4-nitrophenol and non-phenolic methoxylated aromatics (e.g. veratryl alcohol). Comparing LsaPOX with a basidiomycete dye-decolorizing (DyP)-type peroxidase from Auricularia auricula-judae showed that the lichen enzyme has a high-redox potential, with oxidation capabilities ranging between those of known plant and fungal peroxidases. Internal peptide fragments show homology (up to 60%) with putative proteins from free-living ascomycetes (e.g. Penicillium marneffei and Neosartorya fischeri), but not to sequences of algal or cyanobacterial peptides or to known fungal, bacterial or plant peroxidases. LsaPOX is the first heme peroxidase purified from an ascomyceteous lichen that may help the organism to successfully exploit the extreme micro-environments in which they often grow. PMID:22056522

  2. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-01-01

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development. PMID:25873638

  3. Autochthonous ascomycetes in depollution of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil and sediment.

    PubMed

    Sage, Lucile; Périgon, Sophie; Faure, Mathieu; Gaignaire, Carole; Abdelghafour, Mohamed; Mehu, Jacques; Geremia, Roberto A; Mouhamadou, Bello

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the capacity of a consortium of ascomycetous strains, Doratomyces nanus, Doratomyces purpureofuscus, Doratomyces verrucisporus, Myceliophthora thermophila, Phoma eupyrena and Thermoascus crustaceus in the mycoremediation of historically contaminated soil and sediment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Analyses of 15 PCB concentrations in three mesocosms containing soil from which the fungal strains had previously been isolated, revealed significant PCB depletions of 16.9% for the 6 indicator PCBs (i-PCBs) and 18.7% for the total 15 PCBs analyzed after 6months treatment. The degradation rate did not statistically vary whether the soil had been treated with non-inoculated straw or colonized straw or without straw and inoculated with the consortium of the six strains. Concerning the sediment, we evidenced significant depletions of 31.8% for the 6 i-PCBs and 33.3% for the 15 PCB congeners. The PCB depletions affected most of the 15 PCBs analyzed without preference for lower chlorinated congeners. Bioaugmented strains were evidenced in different mesocosms, but their reintroduction, after six months treatment, did not improve the rate of PCB degradation, suggesting that the biodegradation could affect the bioavailable PCB fraction. Our results demonstrate that the ascomycetous strains potentially adapted to PCBs may be propitious to the remediation of PCB contaminated sites. PMID:24880600

  4. The effect of the preservative sorbic acid on the lipid composition of the ascomycete fungus Penicillium roqueforti Thom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya. E. Sergeeva; L. A. Galanina; G. A. Kochkina; E. P. Feofilova

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of action of potassium sorbate, a widely used food preservative on the lipid composition of the Ascomycete fungus Penicillium roqueforti, the main contaminant of cheese, was investigated. The inhibition of fungal growth by potassium sorbate was found to be associated\\u000a with a change in the composition of phospholipids (a decrease in phosphatidylcholine content and an increase in phosphatidylethanolamine

  5. Large-Scale Introgression Shapes the Evolution of the Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Filamentous Ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Sun; Pádraic Corcoran; Audrius Menkis; Carrie A. Whittle; Siv G. E. Andersson; Hanna Johannesson

    2012-01-01

    The significance of introgression as an evolutionary force shaping natural populations is well established, especially in animal and plant systems. However, the abundance and size of introgression tracts, and to what degree interspecific gene flow is the result of adaptive processes, are largely unknown. In this study, we present medium coverage genomic data from species of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora,

  6. Freshwater ascomycetes: Alascospora evergladensis, a new genus and species from the Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Raja, Huzefa A; Violi, Helen A; Shearer, Carol A

    2010-01-01

    Alascospora evergladensis, a freshwater ascomycete collected from submerged dead petioles of Nymphaea odorata during a survey of aquatic fungi along a phosphorus gradient in the Florida Everglades, is described and illustrated as a new genus and species in the Pleosporales (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes). The new fungus is unique among genera in the Pleosporales based on a combination of morphological characters that include light brown, translucent, membranous, ostiolate ascomata with dark, amorphous material irregularly deposited on the peridium, especially around the ostiole; globose, fissitunicate, thick-walled asci; septate pseudoparaphyses; and 1-septate ascospores that are hyaline when young, and surrounded by a hyaline gelatinous sheath that is wing-shaped in outline on each side of the ascospore. The sheath is distinctive in that it first expands in water and is translucent, then condenses and darkens around older ascospores, giving them a dark brown, verruculose appearance. PMID:20120226

  7. Kazachstania aquatica sp. nov. and Kazachstania solicola sp. nov., novel ascomycetous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zuo-Wei; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2005-09-01

    The unidentified strains AS 2.0706(T), preserved in the China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center (CGMCC), Academia Sinica, Beijing, China, and CBS 6904(T), preserved in the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS), Utrecht, The Netherlands, were shown to represent two novel ascomycetous yeast species of the genus Kazachstania by 18S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (including 5.8S rDNA) and 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis and electrophoretic karyotype comparison. The names Kazachstania aquatica sp. nov. and Kazachstania solicola sp. nov. are proposed for strains AS 2.0706(T) and CBS 6904(T), respectively. Phylogenetically, the two novel species are closely related to Kazachstania aerobia, Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania unispora. PMID:16166736

  8. Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Sullivan, Thomas D; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A; Jenkins, Marc K; Klein, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad-spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4(+) T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae, and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes, including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats, induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4(+) T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogenicity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  9. Small insertions at a shared position in the SSU rDNA of Lecanorales (lichen-forming Ascomycetes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soili Stenroos; Paula T. DePriest

    1998-01-01

    Small insertions are reported from the SSU rDNA of the genera Cladonia, Cladina, Stereocaulon, Pertusaria and Physcia (lichen-forming Lecanorales, Ascomycetes). The insertions range in length from 56 to 81 nucleotides, and occur at a shared\\u000a position, 330 (relative to Escherichia coli), in a semi-conserved region of the SSU rDNA. These small insertions have a simple secondary structure with two stem-loops,

  10. 12 Evolution of Mating-Type Loci and Mating-Type Chromosomes in Model Species of Filamentous Ascomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carrie A. Whittle; Hanna Johannesson

    \\u000a Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by relatively small genomic regions containing the mating-type loci. In this chapter\\u000a we describe the genomic traits and evolutionary features of the mating-type loci and the mating-type chromosomes in model\\u000a systems of filamentous ascomycetes. The main focus of the chapter lies in the recent scientific advances from studies in Neurospora, particularly N. tetrasperma. The

  11. Molecular Cloning and Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a Laccase Gene from the Ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces

    PubMed Central

    Kiiskinen, Laura-Leena; Saloheimo, Markku

    2004-01-01

    The lac1 gene encoding an extracellular laccase was isolated from the thermophilic fungus Melanocarpus albomyces. This gene has five introns, and it encodes a protein consisting of 623 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the laccase was shown to have high homology with laccases from other ascomycetes. In addition to removal of a putative 22-amino-acid signal sequence and a 28-residue propeptide, maturation of the translation product of lac1 was shown to involve cleavage of a C-terminal 14-amino-acid extension. M. albomyces lac1 cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the inducible GAL1 promoter. Extremely low production was obtained with the expression construct containing laccase cDNA with its own signal and propeptide sequences. The activity levels were significantly improved by replacing these sequences with the prepro sequence of the S. cerevisiae ?-factor gene. The role of the C-terminal extension in laccase production in S. cerevisiae was also studied. Laccase production was increased sixfold with the modified cDNA that had a stop codon after the native processing site at the C terminus. PMID:14711635

  12. Kazachstania siamensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species from forest soil in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Tun, Moe Moe; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji

    2007-02-01

    Two strains (S-34T and S-35) of a novel ascomycetous yeast species belonging to the genus Kazachstania were isolated from soil from a mixed deciduous forest in Amphoe Wang Nam Khiao, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rDNA sequences of the two strains were identical and also indicated a close relationship with respect to Kazachstania aquatica, Kazachstania unispora, Kazachstania aerobia, Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania solicola. The most closely related species, K. aquatica, has 14 nucleotide substitutions and three gaps in 566 nt. The phenotypic characteristics of the two strains were typical of those of members of the genus Kazachstania. These characteristics include the formation of a single globose ascospore in an unconjugated and persistent ascus, multilateral budding, the absence of arthrospores and ballistospores, the fermentation of glucose, the inability to assimilate nitrate, negative diazonium blue B and urease reactions, and the presence of ubiquinone Q-6. The novel strains can be distinguished from K. aquatica on the basis of a number of phenotypic characteristics and represent a novel species in the genus Kazachstania, for which the name Kazachstania siamensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-34T (=CBS 10361T=NBRC 101968T=BCC 21230T). PMID:17267990

  13. A Putative Transcription Factor MYT2 Regulates Perithecium Size in the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yang; Son, Hokyoung; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2012-01-01

    The homothallic ascomycete fungus Gibberella zeae is a plant pathogen that is found worldwide, causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops and ear rot of maize. Ascospores formed in fruiting bodies (i.e., perithecia) are hypothesized to be the primary inocula for FHB disease. Perithecium development is a complex cellular differentiation process controlled by many developmentally regulated genes. In this study, we selected a previously reported putative transcription factor containing the Myb DNA-binding domain MYT2 for an in-depth study on sexual development. The deletion of MYT2 resulted in a larger perithecium, while its overexpression resulted in a smaller perithecium when compared to the wild-type strain. These data suggest that MYT2 regulates perithecium size differentiation. MYT2 overexpression affected pleiotropic phenotypes including vegetative growth, conidia production, virulence, and mycotoxin production. Nuclear localization of the MYT2 protein supports its role as a transcriptional regulator. Transcriptional analyses of trichothecene synthetic genes suggest that MYT2 additionally functions as a suppressor for trichothecene production. This is the first study characterizing a transcription factor required for perithecium size differentiation in G. zeae, and it provides a novel angle for understanding sexual development in filamentous fungi. PMID:22649560

  14. A putative transcription factor MYT2 regulates perithecium size in the ascomycete Gibberella zeae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang; Son, Hokyoung; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2012-01-01

    The homothallic ascomycete fungus Gibberella zeae is a plant pathogen that is found worldwide, causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops and ear rot of maize. Ascospores formed in fruiting bodies (i.e., perithecia) are hypothesized to be the primary inocula for FHB disease. Perithecium development is a complex cellular differentiation process controlled by many developmentally regulated genes. In this study, we selected a previously reported putative transcription factor containing the Myb DNA-binding domain MYT2 for an in-depth study on sexual development. The deletion of MYT2 resulted in a larger perithecium, while its overexpression resulted in a smaller perithecium when compared to the wild-type strain. These data suggest that MYT2 regulates perithecium size differentiation. MYT2 overexpression affected pleiotropic phenotypes including vegetative growth, conidia production, virulence, and mycotoxin production. Nuclear localization of the MYT2 protein supports its role as a transcriptional regulator. Transcriptional analyses of trichothecene synthetic genes suggest that MYT2 additionally functions as a suppressor for trichothecene production. This is the first study characterizing a transcription factor required for perithecium size differentiation in G. zeae, and it provides a novel angle for understanding sexual development in filamentous fungi. PMID:22649560

  15. Interactions of sterile-cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with asbestos fibres.

    PubMed

    Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Girlanda, Mariangela; Honegger, Rosmarie; Fubini, Bice; Piervittori, Rosanna

    2007-04-01

    Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming ascomycetes have not yet been used to investigate mycobiont-mineral substrate interactions under controlled conditions. In this study Candelariella vitellina, Xanthoparmelia tinctina and Lecanora rupicola mycobionts were isolated and inoculated with chrysotile fibres in the laboratory, in order to verify whether physical and chemical weathering processes, which were already described in the field, may be reproduced in vitro. Tight adhesion of hyphae to chrysotile fibres was observed in all species. The adhering hyphae affected the chemical composition of asbestos fibres, with the selective depletion of magnesium being a prominent feature, as is the case in field conditions. Oxalic acid and pulvinic acid, mycobiont-derived metabolites of X. tinctina and C. vitellina, were involved in the weathering action. Time and environmental factors and the absence of biological synergisms strongly limited the chemical weathering in vitro compared with what was observed in the field. Nevertheless, the results show that in vitro incubation of sterile-cultured lichen-forming fungi with minerals is a practicable experimental system to investigate the weathering effects of different mycobionts and fungal compounds under controlled conditions. PMID:17512715

  16. Genes That Bias Mendelian Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Grognet, Pierre; Lalucque, Hervé; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs), complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion. PMID:24830502

  17. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

    PubMed

    Grognet, Pierre; Lalucque, Hervé; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs), complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion. PMID:24830502

  18. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Colleen M.; Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems. PMID:22802654

  19. Carbohydrate and Amino Acid Metabolism in the Ectomycorrhizal Ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea during Glucose Utilization 1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francis; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Canet, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was utilized to study the metabolism of [1-13C]glucose in mycelia of the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea. The main purpose was to assess the biochemical pathways for the assimilation of glucose and to identify the compounds accumulated during glucose assimilation. The majority of the 13C label was incorporated into mannitol, while glycogen, trehalose and free amino acids were labeled to a much lesser extent. The high enrichment of the C1/C6 position of mannitol indicated that the polyol was formed via a direct route from absorbed glucose. Randomization of the 13C label was observed to occur in glucose and trehalose leading to the accumulation of [1,6-13C]trehalose and [1,6-13C]glucose. This suggests that the majority of the glucose carbon used to form trehalose was cycled through the metabolically active mannitol pool. The proportion of label entering the free amino acids represented 38% of the soluble 13C after 6 hours of continuous glucose labeling. Therefore, amino acid biosynthesis is an important sink of assimilated carbon. Carbon-13 was incorporated into [3-13C]alanine and [2-13C]-, [3-13C]-, and [4-13C]glutamate and glutamine. From the analysis of the intramolecular 13C enrichment of these amino acids, it is concluded that [3-13C]pyruvate, arising from [1-13C]glucose catabolism, was used by alanine aminotransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate carboxylase (or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). Intramolecular 13C labeling patterns of glutamate and glutamine were similar and are consistent with the operation of the Krebs cycle. There is strong evidence for (a) randomization of the label on C2 and C3 positions of oxaloacetate via malate dehydrogenase and fumarase, and (b) the dual biosynthetic and respiratory role of the citrate synthase, aconitase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase reactions. The high flux of carbon through the carboxylation (presumably pyruvate carboxylase) step indicates that CO2 fixation is an important component of the carbon metabolism in S. brunnea, and it is likely that this anaplerotic role is particularly prevalent during NH4+ assimilation. The most relevant information resulting from this investigation is (a) the occurrence of the mannitol cycle, (b) a large part of the trehalose pool is synthesized after the cycling of glucose-carbon through the mannitol cycle, and (c) pyruvate (or phosphoenolpyruvate) carboxylation plays an important role in the primary metabolism of glucose-fed mycelia. PMID:16666012

  20. Freshwater ascomycetes: Minutisphaera (Dothideomycetes) revisited, including one new species from Japan.

    PubMed

    Raja, Huzefa A; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Figueroa, Mario; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Hirayama, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Akira; Miller, Andrew N; Zelski, Steven E; Shearer, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    During investigations of freshwater ascomycetes we found one interesting taxon from Aomori (Japan), as well as three additional taxa from North Carolina (USA), which were morphologically similar to Minutisphaera, a recently described freshwater fungus in the Dothideomycetes. The ascomata of all the collections bore dark hair-like structures around the ostiolar region, obovoid to obclavate bitunicate asci, and one to three septate hyaline to brown ascospores with a sheath (in material from Japan), and with both sheath and appendages (in material from the USA). The apothecial ascomata of these taxa, however, differ from those of the type species of the genus, which are perithecial. Two collections of Minutisphaera-like fungi from the USA were morphologically quite similar but differed in ascospore size. To assess the phylogenetic affinities of Minutisphaera-like taxa with the type species, M. fimbriatispora, we sequenced 18S and 28S nrDNA of five newly collected strains of Minutisphaera. We also sequenced the nrDNA for the entire internal transcribed spacer region of 10 strains to assess interspecific and intraspecific variation with M. fimbriatispora. Additionally we examined the secondary metabolite profiles of two strains from USA. Based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined 18S and 28S, and separate ITS sequences, as well as examination of morphology, we describe and illustrate a new species, M. japonica. One collection from North Carolina is confirmed as M. fimbriatispora, while two other collections are Minutisphaera-like fungi that had a number of similar diagnostic morphological characters but differed only slightly in ascospore sizes. The phylogeny inferred from the internal transcribed spacer region suggested that two out of the three North Carolina collections may be novel and perhaps cryptic species within Minutisphaera. Organic extracts of Minutisphaera from USA, M. fimbriatispora (G155-1) and Minutisphaera-like taxon (G156-1), revealed the presence of palmitic acid and (E)-hexadec-9-en-1-ol as major chemical constituents. We discuss the placement of the Minutisphaera clade within the Dothideomycetes. The description of the genus Minutisphaera is emended to accommodate M. japonica within Minutisphaera. PMID:23709484

  1. RAPID IDENTFICATION OF ASCOMYCETOUS YEASTS FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS BY A MOLECULAR-BASED FLOW CYTOMETRY METHOD AND COMPARISION WITH IDENTIFICATIONS FROM PHENOTYPIC ASSAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to compare the identification of ascomycetous yeasts recovered from clinical specimens by using phenotypic assays (PA) and a molecular flow cytometric (FC) method. LSU rRNA D1/D2 gene sequence analysis was also performed and served as the reference for correct strain identif...

  2. Exploring laccase-like multicopper oxidase genes from the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei: a functional, phylogenetic and evolutionary study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The diversity and function of ligninolytic genes in soil-inhabiting ascomycetes has not yet been elucidated, despite their possible role in plant litter decay processes. Among ascomycetes, Trichoderma reesei is a model organism of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, used for its unique secretion ability especially for cellulase production. T. reesei has only been reported as a cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic organism although genome annotation revealed 6 laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes. The purpose of this work was i) to validate the function of a candidate LMCO gene from T. reesei, and ii) to reconstruct LMCO phylogeny and perform evolutionary analysis testing for positive selection. Results After homologous overproduction of a candidate LMCO gene, extracellular laccase activity was detected when ABTS or SRG were used as substrates, and the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity followed by biochemical characterization. The recombinant protein, called TrLAC1, has a molecular mass of 104 kDa. Optimal temperature and pH were respectively 40-45°C and 4, by using ABTS as substrate. TrLAC1 showed broad pH stability range of 3 to 7. Temperature stability revealed that TrLAC1 is not a thermostable enzyme, which was also confirmed by unfolding studies monitored by circular dichroism. Evolutionary studies were performed to shed light on the LMCO family, and the phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using maximum-likelihood method. LMCO and classical laccases were clearly divided into two distinct groups. Finally, Darwinian selection was tested, and the results showed that positive selection drove the evolution of sequences leading to well-known laccases involved in ligninolysis. Positively-selected sites were observed that could be used as targets for mutagenesis and functional studies between classical laccases and LMCO from T. reesei. Conclusions Homologous production and evolutionary studies of the first LMCO from the biomass-degrading fungus T. reesei gives new insights into the physicochemical parameters and biodiversity in this family. PMID:20735824

  3. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, Evgeny [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky Prospect 33/2, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Polyakov, Konstantin [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky Prospect 33/2, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Vavilova Str. 32, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kittl, Roman [BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien (Austria); Shleev, Sergey [RSC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Acad. Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Malmö University, 205 06 Malmö (Sweden); Dorovatovsky, Pavel [RSC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Acad. Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Tikhonova, Tamara, E-mail: ttikhonova@inbi.ras.ru [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky Prospect 33/2, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland [BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien (Austria); Popov, Vladimir [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky Prospect 33/2, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); RSC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Acad. Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-01

    The structures of the ascomycetous B. aclada laccase and its L499M T1-site mutant have been solved at 1.7 Ĺ resolution. The mutant enzyme shows a 140 mV lower redox potential of the type 1 copper and altered kinetic behaviour. The wild type and the mutant have very similar structures, which makes it possible to relate the changes in the redox potential to the L499M mutation Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 Ĺ resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E{sub 0} = 720 and 580 mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme.

  4. Gene Overexpression and RNA Silencing Tools for the Genetic Manipulation of the S-(+)-Abscisic Acid Producing Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhong-Tao; Zhang, Zhi; Luo, Di; Zhou, Jin-Yan; Zhong, Juan; Yang, Jie; Xiao, Liang; Shu, Dan; Tan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea produces several secondary metabolites that have biotechnical significance and has been particularly used for S-(+)-abscisic acid production at the industrial scale. To manipulate the expression levels of specific secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes of B. cinerea with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system, two expression vectors (pCBh1 and pCBg1 with different selection markers) and one RNA silencing vector, pCBSilent1, were developed with the In-Fusion assembly method. Both expression vectors were highly effective in constitutively expressing eGFP, and pCBSilent1 effectively silenced the eGFP gene in B. cinerea. Bcaba4, a gene suggested to participate in ABA biosynthesis in B. cinerea, was then targeted for gene overexpression and RNA silencing with these reverse genetic tools. The overexpression of bcaba4 dramatically induced ABA formation in the B. cinerea wild type strain Bc-6, and the gene silencing of bcaba4 significantly reduced ABA-production in an ABA-producing B. cinerea strain. PMID:25955649

  5. Functional characterization of sucrose non-fermenting 1 protein kinase complex genes in the Ascomycete Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jungheon; Son, Hokyoung; Park, Ae Ran; Lee, Seung-Ho; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-02-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting 1 (SNF1) protein kinase complex is a heterotrimer that functions in energy homeostasis in eukaryotes by regulating transcription of glucose-repressible genes. Our previous study revealed that SNF1 of the homothallic ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum plays important roles in vegetative growth, sexual development, and virulence. In this study, we further identified the components of the SNF1 complex in F. graminearum and characterized their functions. We found that the SNF1 complex in F. graminearum consists of one alpha subunit (FgSNF1), one beta subunit (FgGAL83), and one gamma subunit (FgSNF4). Deletion of Fggal83 and Fgsnf4 resulted in alleviated phenotype changes in vegetative growth and sexual development as compared to those of the Fgsnf1 deletion mutant. However, all of the single, double, and triple deletion mutants among Fgsnf1, Fggal83, and Fgsnf4 had similar levels of decreased virulence. In addition, there was no synergistic effect of the mutant (single, double, or triple deletions of SNF1 complex component genes) phenotypes except for sucrose utilization. In this study, we revealed that FgSNF1 is mainly required for SNF1 complex functions, and the other two SNF1 complex components have adjunctive roles with FgSNF1 in sexual development and vegetative growth but have a major role in virulence in F. graminearum. PMID:24057127

  6. Species-specific detection of Lobaria pulmonaria (lichenized ascomycete) diaspores in litter samples trapped in snow cover.

    PubMed

    Walser, J C; Zoller, S; Büchler, U; Scheidegger, C

    2001-09-01

    The foliose lichen Lobaria pulmonaria has suffered a substantial decline in central and northern Europe during the twentieth century and is now considered to be critically endangered in many European lowland regions. Based on demographic studies, it has been proposed that under the present environmental conditions and forest management regimes, dispersal of diaspores and subsequent establishment of new thalli are insufficient to maintain the remnant small lowland populations. Chances of long-term survival may therefore be reduced. The data and analytical power of these demographic studies are limited. Since lichen diaspores show very few species-specific morphological characteristics, and are therefore almost indistinguishable, the accurate assessment of diaspore flux would be a fundamental first step in better understanding the life cycle of L. pulmonaria. Here we present a new molecular approach to investigate the dispersal of L. pulmonaria diaspores in its natural environment by specifically identifying small amounts of DNA in snow litter samples at varying distances from known sources. We used a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pair to amplify the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA) and a sensitive automated PCR product detection system using fluorescent labelled primers. We detected considerable amounts of naturally dispersed diaspores, deposited as far as 50 m away from the closest potential source. Diaspores were only found in the direction of the prevailing wind. Diaspore deposition varied from 1.2 diaspores per m(2) per day at 50 m distance from the source to 15 diaspores per m(2) per day at 1 m distance. The method described in this paper opens up perspectives for studies of population dynamics and dispersal ecology mainly in lichenized ascomycetes but also in other organisms with small, wind-dispersed diaspores. PMID:11555256

  7. Cotranscriptional expression of mitochondrial genes for subunits of NADH dehydrogenase, nad5, nad4, nad2 , in Marchantia polymorpha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoko Nozato; Kenji Oda; Katsuyuki Yamato; Eiji Ohta; Miho Takemura; Kinya Akashi; Hideya Fukuzawa; Kanji Ohyama

    1993-01-01

    Three genes for the subunits of the NADH dehydrogenase (nad5, nad4, and nad2) are tandemly clustered on the liverwort mitochondrial genome. Their gene products showed high levels of amino acid sequence identity with the corresponding subunits from higher plant mitochondria (82.8–84.4%), and significant levels of identity with those from liverwort chloroplast (32.0–33.5%), Podospora anserina mitochondria (21.4–45.9%), and human mitochondria (18.4–27.9%).

  8. Infections with the ascomycete fungus Metschnikowia typographi sp.nov. in the bark beetles Ips typographus and Ips amitinus (Coleoptera, Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Weiser, J; Wegensteiner, R; Händel, U; Zizka, Z

    2003-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Metschnikowia typographi sp.nov. is described. It infects the spruce bark beetles Ips typographus L. and Ips amitinus Eichl. Masses of vegetative cells and navicular asci (I. typographus 13-17 x 2 microns; I. amitinus 17-22 x 2 microns) were found in cells of the midgut epithelium and in the body cavity of infected beetles. Each ascus contains two needle-shaped ascospores flattened in the central part, 0.5-1.5 x 0.3 x 13-15 microns and pointed at both ends. The parasitic species of Metschnikowia, M. bicuspidata, M. artemiae, M. unicuspidata, M. wickerhami and M. typographi are discussed as a special group of the genus characterized by morphological characters. PMID:14976717

  9. A Group I Intron in the Nuclear Small Subunit rRNA Gene of Cryptendoxyla hypophloia, an Ascomycetous Fungus: Evidence for a New Major Class of Group I Introns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Oui Suh; Kevin G. Jones; Meredith Blackwell

    1999-01-01

    .   The ascomycetous fungus Cryptendoxyla hypophloia contains an insertion of 433 base pairs in the genes encoding nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA. Secondary structure analyses\\u000a of the insert reveal characteristics indicative of a Group I intron, including elements P, Q, R, and S; however, the sequences\\u000a of these conserved regions deviate significantly from recognized consensus sequences for Group I introns.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU and SSU rDNA group I introns of lichen photobionts associated with the genera Xanthoria and Xanthomendoza (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes)

    PubMed Central

    Nyati, Shyam; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Werth, Silke; Honegger, Rosmarie

    2013-01-01

    We studied group I introns in sterile cultures of selected groups of lichen photobionts, focusing on Trebouxia species associated with Xanthoria s. lat. (including Xanthomendoza spp.; lichen-forming ascomycetes). Group I introns were found inserted after position 798 (Escherichia coli numbering) in the large subunit (LSU) rRNA in representatives of the green algal genera Trebouxia and Asterochloris. The 798 intron was found in about 25% of Xanthoria photobionts including several reference strains obtained from algal culture collections. An alignment of LSU-encoded rDNA intron sequences revealed high similarity of these sequences allowing their phylogenetic analysis. The 798 group I intron phylogeny was largely congruent with a phylogeny of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Region (ITS), indicating that the insertion of the intron most likely occurred in the common ancestor of the genera Trebouxia and Asterochloris. The intron was vertically inherited in some taxa, but lost in others. The high sequence similarity of this intron to one found in Chlorella angustoellipsoidea suggests that the 798 intron was either present in the common ancestor of Trebouxiophyceae, or that its present distribution results from more recent horizontal transfers, followed by vertical inheritance and loss. Analysis of another group I intron shared by these photobionts at small subunit (SSU) position 1512 supports the hypothesis of repeated lateral transfers of this intron among some taxa, but loss among others. Our data confirm that the history of group I introns is characterized by repeated horizontal transfers, and suggests that some of these introns have ancient origins within Chlorophyta. PMID:24415800

  11. Description of Taphrina antarctica f.a. sp. nov., a new anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species associated with Antarctic endolithic microbial communities and transfer of four Lalaria species in the genus Taphrina.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Turchetti, Benedetta; Yurkov, Andrey; Cecchini, Clarissa; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Buzzini, Pietro; Onofri, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of a large-scale rock sampling in Continental Antarctica, a number of yeasts have been isolated. Two strains that are unable to grow above 20 °C and that have low ITS sequence similarities with available data in the public domain were found. The D1/D2 LSU molecular phylogeny placed them in an isolated position in the genus Taphrina, supporting their affiliation to a not yet described species. Because the new species is able to grow in its anamorphic state only, the species Taphrina antarctica f.a. (forma asexualis) sp. nov. has been proposed to accommodate both strains (type strain DBVPG 5268(T), DSM 27485(T) and CBS 13532(T)). Lalaria and Taphrina species are dimorphic ascomycetes, where the anamorphic yeast represents the saprotrophic state and the teleomorph is the parasitic counterpart on plants. This is the first record for this genus in Antarctica; since plants are absent on the continent, we hypothesize that the fungus may have focused on the saprotrophic part of its life cycle to overcome the absence of its natural host and adapt environmental constrains. Following the new International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code 2011) the reorganization of Taphrina-Lalaria species in the teleomorphic genus Taphrina is proposed. We emend the diagnosis of the genus Taphrina to accommodate asexual saprobic states of these fungi. Taphrina antarctica was registered in MycoBank under MB 808028. PMID:24893860

  12. Introduction The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph

    E-print Network

    Qin, Wensheng

    deletions, leading to the loss of more than 100 Kb ge- nomic DNA. These led to mutations in 43 genes mainly years, random mutagenesis has been applied to improve cellulolytic activity of the strain for its repressor protein that renders the mutant strain carbon catabolite derep- ressed [8]. The second mutation

  13. Notes on African Pannariaceae (lichenized ascomycetes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per M. Jřrgensen

    2003-01-01

    Abstract:The African continent is shown to contain only 38 species in the lichen familyPannariaceae , all of which are listed in the conclusion. Four new species are described: Pannaria planiuscula (Republic of South Africa [RSA] and Kenya), Pannaria squamulosa (RSA), Parmeliella dactylifera (RSA), and Parmeliella triptophylloides (Kenya). Four species are recorded as new to the continent: Pannaria centrifuga P.M. Jřrg.

  14. Structural evidence for adaptive ligand binding of glycolipid transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Airenne, Tomi T; Kidron, Heidi; Nymalm, Yvonne; Nylund, Matts; West, Gun; Mattjus, Peter; Salminen, Tiina A

    2006-01-13

    Glycolipids participate in many important cellular processes and they are bound and transferred with high specificity by glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP). We have solved three different X-ray structures of bovine GLTP at 1.4 angstroms, 1.6 angstroms and 1.8 angstroms resolution, all with a bound fatty acid or glycolipid. The 1.4 angstroms structure resembles the recently characterized apo-form of the human GLTP but the other two structures represent an intermediate conformation of the apo-GLTPs and the human lactosylceramide-bound GLTP structure. These novel structures give insight into the mechanism of lipid binding and how GLTP may conformationally adapt to different lipids. Furthermore, based on the structural comparison of the GLTP structures and the three-dimensional models of the related Podospora anserina HET-C2 and Arabidopsis thaliana accelerated cell death protein, ACD11, we give structural explanations for their specific lipid binding properties. PMID:16309699

  15. Human CLPP reverts the longevity phenotype of a fungal ClpP deletion strain

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Fabian; Weil, Andrea; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial maintenance crucially depends on the quality control of proteins by various chaperones, proteases and repair enzymes. While most of the involved components have been studied in some detail, little is known on the biological role of the CLPXP protease complex located in the mitochondrial matrix. Here we show that deletion of PaClpP, encoding the CLP protease proteolytic subunit CLPP, leads to an unexpected healthy phenotype and increased lifespan of the fungal ageing model organism Podospora anserina. This phenotype can be reverted by expression of human ClpP in the fungal deletion background, demonstrating functional conservation of human and fungal CLPP. Our results show that the biological role of eukaryotic CLP proteases can be studied in an experimentally accessible model organism. PMID:23360988

  16. Human CLPP reverts the longevity phenotype of a fungal ClpP deletion strain.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian; Weil, Andrea; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial maintenance crucially depends on the quality control of proteins by various chaperones, proteases and repair enzymes. While most of the involved components have been studied in some detail, little is known on the biological role of the CLPXP protease complex located in the mitochondrial matrix. Here we show that deletion of PaClpP, encoding the CLP protease proteolytic subunit CLPP, leads to an unexpected healthy phenotype and increased lifespan of the fungal ageing model organism Podospora anserina. This phenotype can be reverted by expression of human ClpP in the fungal deletion background, demonstrating functional conservation of human and fungal CLPP. Our results show that the biological role of eukaryotic CLP proteases can be studied in an experimentally accessible model organism. PMID:23360988

  17. Glycolipid Intermembrane Transfer Is Accelerated by HET-C2, a Filamentous Fungus Gene Product Involved in the Cell—Cell Incompatibility Response†

    PubMed Central

    Mattjus, Peter; Turcq, Béatrice; Pike, Helen M.; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Brown, Rhoderick E.

    2008-01-01

    Among filamentous fungi capable of mycelial growth, het genes play crucial roles by regulating heterokaryon formation between different individuals. When fusion occurs between fungal mycelia that differ genetically at their het loci, the resulting heterokaryotic cells are quickly destroyed. It is unclear how het gene products of Podospora anserina trigger heterokaryon incompatibility. One unexplored possibility is that glycosphingolipids play a role because the het-c2 gene encodes a protein that displays 32% sequence identity and an additional 30% similarity to the mammalian glycolipid transfer protein. Here, P. anserina protoplasts containing wild-type het-c2 genes were shown to have greater glycosphingolipid transfer activity than protoplasts with disrupted het-c2 genes, a condition previously linked to altered cell compatibility following hyphal fusion. The observed glycolipid transfer activity could not be accounted for by nonspecific lipid transfer protein activity. Direct assessment showed that purified, recombinant HET-C2 accelerates the intermembrane transfer of glycolipid in vitro, but that the HET-C2 activity is mitigated much less by negatively charged membranes than the mammalian glycolipid transfer protein. The findings are discussed within the context of HET-C2 being a member of an emerging family of ancestral sphingolipid transfer proteins that play important roles in cell proliferation and accelerated death. PMID:12525182

  18. Bacidina genus novum familiae Lecideaceae s. lat. ( Ascomycetes lichenisati)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonín V?zda

    1990-01-01

    The following eleven species currently classified in the generaBacidia s. lat. andCatillaria s. lat. are transferred to the new genusBacidina\\u000a V?zda gen. n. (Lecideaceae s. lat.):Bacidina apiahica (Müll. Arg.) comb. n.,B. chloroticula (Nyl.)V?zda etPoelt comb. n.,B. egenula (Nyl.) comb. n.,B. inundata (Fr.) comb. n.,B. mirabilis (V?zda) comb. n.,B. neglecta (V?zda) comb.n.,B. pallidocarnea (Müll. Arg.) comb. n.,B. phacodes (Koerb.) comb.n.,B. scutellifera

  19. Cytotoxic Dimeric Epipolythiodiketopiperazines from the Ascomycetous Fungus Preussia typharum

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two new dimeric epipolythiodiketopiperazines, preussiadins A (1) and B (2), together with two known diastereomers, leptosins C (6) and A (7), were obtained from the mycelia of a Preussia typharum isolate. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned by chemical transformations and comparisons of quantum chemical ECD and VCD calculations to experimental data. Compound 1 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in the NCI-60 cell line panel with an average LC50 value of 251 nM. Further studies demonstrated that 1 circumvents P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance, yet had no significant antitumor activity in a xenograft UACC-62 melanoma model. PMID:24893224

  20. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, S P; Sigler, L; McAleer, R; McGough, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Mizell, G

    1995-01-01

    Three cases of fatal cerebral mycosis in males with prior histories of intravenous drug use from the United States and Australia are reported. Infection in each case was limited to brain abscess; no other sites of infection were observed. The fungus seen by histopathology and isolated from the brain tissue in each case was identified as Chaetomium strumarium. This is the first report of human infection by this species, and C. strumarium is the second species of Chaetomium known to cause primary brain infection. Chaetomium strumarium is unusual among members of the genus Chaetomium in forming ascocarps covered with pale, thin-walled, flexuous hairs, a feature leading to its original placement in the genus Achaetomium. Presence of pinkish exudate droplets and/or crystals associated with hyphae or ascocarps, sometimes accompanied by a pinkish diffusible pigment; good growth at 42 degrees C; and production of small conidia further distinguish this species. The brain abscess isolates were compared with isolates from prior cases of cerebral infection which had been identified as either Chaetomium atrobrunneum or Chaetomium globosum. With reidentification of one isolate originally identified as C. globosum to C. atrobrunneum, only C. strumarium and C. atrobrunneum have been confirmed to cause infection involving the brain. PMID:8567907

  1. Chemical investigation of novel ascomycetes using PCR based screening approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juangjun Jumpathong; John Peberdy; Isao Fujii; Saisamorn Lumyong

    Fungi are well known for a wealth of pharmacologically important activities and agrochemical properties. Polyketides that\\u000a are widely found in fungi, are a large group of secondary metabolites which exhibit diversity in their function and structure.\\u000a Here we described an investigation of three fungal strains which were prospected for production of polyketides. The aim of\\u000a this work was to employ

  2. Prions of yeast as epigenetic phenomena: high protein "copy number" inducing protein "silencing".

    PubMed

    Wickner, Reed B; Edskes, Herman K; Roberts, B Tibor; Pierce, Michael; Baxa, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Yeast infectious protein (prion) forms of the Ure2 and Sup35 proteins determine the nonchromosomal genes [URE3] and [PSI], and these are, therefore, the basis for a kind of epigenetic phenomena. In many systems, introduction of multiple copies of a DNA gene, or dsRNA copies of its sequence, results in the epigenetic silencing of that gene. In parallel with these homology effects, which act at the level of DNA or RNA, elevated copy number of the Ure2 and Sup35 proteins increases the frequency of their own "silencing" by prion formation. Both [URE3] and [PSI] appear to be due to self-propagating-amyloid formation of Ure2p and Sup35p, respectively. Another prion, [Het-s] of the filamentous fungus, Podospora anserina, is necessary for a normal cellular function, heterokaryon incompatibility. Since these prions are nonchromosomal genes, they are proteins acting as genes, a parallel to the fact that nucleic acids can catalyze enzymatic reactions. PMID:11931236

  3. A mitotically inheritable unit containing a MAP kinase module

    PubMed Central

    Kicka, Sébastien; Bonnet, Crystel; Sobering, Andrew K.; Ganesan, Latha P.; Silar, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Prions are novel kinds of hereditary units, relying solely on proteins, that are infectious and inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion. To date, they are either based on autocatalytic modification of a 3D conformation or on autocatalytic cleavage. Here, we provide further evidence that in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, a MAP kinase cascade is probably able to self-activate and generate C, a hereditary unit that bears many similarities to prions and triggers cell degeneration. We show that in addition to the MAPKKK gene, both the MAPKK and MAPK genes are necessary for the propagation of C, and that overexpression of MAPK as that of MAPKKK facilitates the appearance of C. We also show that a correlation exists between the presence of C and localization of the MAPK inside nuclei. These data emphasize the resemblance between prions and a self-positively regulated cascade in terms of their transmission. This thus further expands the concept of protein-base inheritance to regulatory networks that have the ability to self-activate. PMID:16938837

  4. Origins and evolution of the HET-s prion-forming protein: searching for other amyloid-forming solenoids.

    PubMed

    Gendoo, Deena M A; Harrison, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    The HET-s prion-forming domain from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is gaining considerable interest since it yielded the first well-defined atomic structure of a functional amyloid fibril. This structure has been identified as a left-handed beta solenoid with a triangular hydrophobic core. To delineate the origins of the HET-s prion-forming protein and to discover other amyloid-forming proteins, we searched for all homologs of the HET-s protein in a database of protein domains and fungal genomes, using a combined application of HMM, psi-blast and pGenThreader techniques, and performed a comparative evolutionary analysis of the N-terminal alpha-helical domain and the C-terminal prion-forming domain of HET-s. By assessing the tandem evolution of both domains, we observed that the prion-forming domain is restricted to Sordariomycetes, with a marginal additional sequence homolog in Arthroderma otae as a likely case of horizontal transfer. This suggests innovation and rapid evolution of the solenoid fold in the Sordariomycetes clade. In contrast, the N-terminal domain evolves at a slower rate (in Sordariomycetes) and spans many diverse clades of fungi. We performed a full three-dimensional protein threading analysis on all identified HET-s homologs against the HET-s solenoid fold, and present detailed structural annotations for identified structural homologs to the prion-forming domain. An analysis of the physicochemical characteristics in our set of structural models indicates that the HET-s solenoid shape can be readily adopted in these homologs, but that they are all less optimized for fibril formation than the P. anserina HET-s sequence itself, due chiefly to the presence of fewer asparagine ladders and salt bridges. Our combined structural and evolutionary analysis suggests that the HET-s shape has "limited scope" for amyloidosis across the wider protein universe, compared to the 'generic' left-handed beta helix. We discuss the implications of our findings on future identification of amyloid-forming proteins sharing the solenoid fold. PMID:22096554

  5. Contribution of Specific Residues of the ?-Solenoid Fold to HET-s Prion Function, Amyloid Structure and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlin, Thierry; Chi, Celestine N.; Wasmer, Christian; Schütz, Anne; Ceschin, Johanna; Clavé, Corinne; Cescau, Sandra; Meier, Beat; Riek, Roland; Saupe, Sven J.

    2014-01-01

    The [Het-s] prion of the fungus Podospora anserina represents a good model system for studying the structure-function relationship in amyloid proteins because a high resolution solid-state NMR structure of the amyloid prion form of the HET-s prion forming domain (PFD) is available. The HET-s PFD adopts a specific ?-solenoid fold with two rungs of ?-strands delimiting a triangular hydrophobic core. A C-terminal loop folds back onto the rigid core region and forms a more dynamic semi-hydrophobic pocket extending the hydrophobic core. Herein, an alanine scanning mutagenesis of the HET-s PFD was conducted. Different structural elements identified in the prion fold such as the triangular hydrophobic core, the salt bridges, the asparagines ladders and the C-terminal loop were altered and the effect of these mutations on prion function, fibril structure and stability was assayed. Prion activity and structure were found to be very robust; only a few key mutations were able to corrupt structure and function. While some mutations strongly destabilize the fold, many substitutions in fact increase stability of the fold. This increase in structural stability did not influence prion formation propensity in vivo. However, if an Ala replacement did alter the structure of the core or did influence the shape of the denaturation curve, the corresponding variant showed a decreased prion efficacy. It is also the finding that in addition to the structural elements of the rigid core region, the aromatic residues in the C-terminal semi-hydrophobic pocket are critical for prion propagation. Mutations in the latter region either positively or negatively affected prion formation. We thus identify a region that modulates prion formation although it is not part of the rigid cross-? core, an observation that might be relevant to other amyloid models. PMID:24945274

  6. Bistability and hysteresis of the 'Secteur' differentiation are controlled by a two-gene locus in Nectria haematococca

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Stéphane; Silar, Philippe; Daboussi, Marie-Josée

    2004-01-01

    Background Bistability and hysteresis are increasingly recognized as major properties of regulatory networks governing numerous biological phenomena, such as differentiation and cell cycle progression. The full scope of the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to bistability and hysteresis remains elusive. Nectria haemaotcocca, a saprophytic or pathogenic fungus with sexual reproduction, exhibits a bistable morphological modification characterized by a reduced growth rate and an intense pigmentation. Bistability is triggered by the presence or absence of ?, a cytoplasmic determinant. This determinant spreads in an infectious manner in the hyphae of the growing margin, insuring hysteresis of the differentiation. Results Seven mutants specifically affected in the generation of ? were selected through two different screening strategies. The s1 and s2 mutations completely abolish the generation of ? and of its morphological expression, the Secteur. The remaining five mutations promote its constitutive generation, which determines an intense pigmentation but not growth alteration. The seven mutations map at the same locus, Ses (for 'Secteur-specific'). The s2 mutant was obtained by an insertional mutagenesis strategy, which permitted the cloning of the Ses locus. Sequence and transcription analysis reveals that Ses is composed of two closely linked genes, SesA, mutated in the s1 and s2 mutant strains, and SesB, mutated in the s* mutant strains. SesB shares sequence similarity with animal and fungal putative proteins, with potential esterase/lipase/thioesterase activity, whereas SesA is similar to proteins of unknown function present only in the filamentous fungi Fusarium graminearum and Podospora anserina. Conclusions The cloning of Ses provides evidence that a system encoded by two linked genes directs a bistable and hysteretic switch in a eukaryote. Atypical regulatory relations between the two proteins may account for the hysteresis of Secteur differentiation. PMID:15312233

  7. Contribution of specific residues of the ?-solenoid fold to HET-s prion function, amyloid structure and stability.

    PubMed

    Daskalov, Asen; Gantner, Matthias; Wälti, Marielle Aulikki; Schmidlin, Thierry; Chi, Celestine N; Wasmer, Christian; Schütz, Anne; Ceschin, Johanna; Clavé, Corinne; Cescau, Sandra; Meier, Beat; Riek, Roland; Saupe, Sven J

    2014-06-01

    The [Het-s] prion of the fungus Podospora anserina represents a good model system for studying the structure-function relationship in amyloid proteins because a high resolution solid-state NMR structure of the amyloid prion form of the HET-s prion forming domain (PFD) is available. The HET-s PFD adopts a specific ?-solenoid fold with two rungs of ?-strands delimiting a triangular hydrophobic core. A C-terminal loop folds back onto the rigid core region and forms a more dynamic semi-hydrophobic pocket extending the hydrophobic core. Herein, an alanine scanning mutagenesis of the HET-s PFD was conducted. Different structural elements identified in the prion fold such as the triangular hydrophobic core, the salt bridges, the asparagines ladders and the C-terminal loop were altered and the effect of these mutations on prion function, fibril structure and stability was assayed. Prion activity and structure were found to be very robust; only a few key mutations were able to corrupt structure and function. While some mutations strongly destabilize the fold, many substitutions in fact increase stability of the fold. This increase in structural stability did not influence prion formation propensity in vivo. However, if an Ala replacement did alter the structure of the core or did influence the shape of the denaturation curve, the corresponding variant showed a decreased prion efficacy. It is also the finding that in addition to the structural elements of the rigid core region, the aromatic residues in the C-terminal semi-hydrophobic pocket are critical for prion propagation. Mutations in the latter region either positively or negatively affected prion formation. We thus identify a region that modulates prion formation although it is not part of the rigid cross-? core, an observation that might be relevant to other amyloid models. PMID:24945274

  8. Distribution and evolution of het gene homologs in the basidiomycota.

    PubMed

    Van der Nest, M A; Olson, A; Lind, M; Vélëz, H; Dalman, K; Brandström Durling, M; Karlsson, M; Stenlid, J

    2014-03-01

    In filamentous fungi a system known as somatic incompatibility (SI) governs self/non-self recognition. SI is controlled by a regulatory signaling network involving proteins encoded at the het (heterokaryon incompatible) loci. Despite the wide occurrence of SI, the molecular identity and structure of only a small number of het genes and their products have been characterized in the model fungi Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina. Our aim was to identify and study the distribution and evolution of putative het gene homologs in the Basidiomycota. For this purpose we used the information available for the model fungi to identify homologs of het genes in other fungi, especially the Basidiomycota. Putative het-c, het-c2 and un-24 homologs, as well as sequences containing the NACHT, HET or WD40 domains present in the het-e, het-r, het-6 and het-d genes were identified in certain members of the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The widespread phylogenetic distribution of certain het genes may reflect the fact that the encoded proteins are involved in fundamental cellular processes other than SI. Although homologs of het-S were previously known only from the Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota), we also identified a putative homolog of this gene in Gymnopus luxurians (Basidiomycota, class Agaricomycetes). Furthermore, with the exception of un-24, all of the putative het genes identified occurred mostly in a multi-copy fashion, some with lineage and species-specific expansions. Overall our results indicated that gene duplication followed by gene loss and/or gene family expansion, as well as multiple events of domain fusion and shuffling played an important role in the evolution of het gene homologs of Basidiomycota and other filamentous fungi. PMID:24380733

  9. [Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) with chemicals acaricides used in the control of cattle tick].

    PubMed

    Barci, Leila A G; Wenzel, Inajá M; de Almeida, José Eduardo M; de Campos Nogueira, Adriana H; do Prado, Angelo P

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess compatibility between IBCB66 and IBCB21 isolates of Beauveria bassiana and acaricides: Flumethrin+Coumaphos, Deltamethrin, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos+Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin High Cis, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin High Cis, Cypermethrin and Amitraz, utilized on the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in our country. The effect of commercial products on the isolates was assayed according to observation of vegetative growth, conidia production, and viability of strains of B. bassiana fungus. With concerning about IBCB66 isolate, products Deltamethrin, Cypermethrin High Cis and Amitraz were compatible, not affecting the entomopathogen development. Product Cypermethrin was toxic, and products Flumethrin+Coumaphos, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos+Chlorpyrifos and Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin High Cis were very toxic. In regard to IBCB21 isolate, products Flumethrin+Coumaphos, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos+Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin High Cis, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin High Cis and Cypermethrin were very toxic and product Amitraz was toxic. From the acaricides evaluated, product Deltamethrin was the single agent that did not produce toxic effect on the entomopathogen. PMID:20040194

  10. Assessing conserved function of conidiation regulators in two distantly related ascomycetes, Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa 

    E-print Network

    Chung, Da Woon

    2012-07-16

    of the Trichoderma virens ortholog (Trive1|34415) was obtained from the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Trive1/Trive1.home.html). Sequence alignment was performed using the ClustalW program online at EMBL-EBI (http...

  11. Characterisation of the mating-type locus in the genus Xanthoria (lichen-forming ascomycetes, Lecanoromycetes).

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Sandra; Zippler, Undine; Honegger, Rosmarie

    2005-12-01

    Conserved regions of mating-type genes were amplified in four representatives of the genus Xanthoria (X. parietina, X. polycarpa, X. flammea, and X. elegans) using PCR-based methods. The complete MAT locus, containing one ORF (MAT1-2-1) coding for a truncated HMG-box protein, and two partial flanking genes, were cloned by screening a genomic lambda phage library of the homothallic X. parietina. The flanking genes, a homologue of SLA2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a DNA lyase gene, served to amplify the two idiomorphs of the X. polycarpa MAT locus. Each idiomorph contains a single gene: MAT1-2-1 codes for a HMG-box protein, MAT1-1-1 encodes an alpha domain protein. The occurrence of mating-type genes in eight single spore isolates derived from one ascus was studied with a PCR assay. In the homothallic X. parietina a HMG fragment, but no alpha box fragment was found in all isolates, whereas in X. elegans, another homothallic species, all tested isolates contained a fragment of both idiomorphs. Conversely, isolates of the heterothallic X. polycarpa contained either a HMG or an alpha box fragment, but never both. PMID:16266815

  12. Characterisation of the mating-type locus in the genus Xanthoria (lichen-forming ascomycetes, Lecanoromycetes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Scherrer; Undine Zippler; Rosmarie Honegger

    2005-01-01

    Conserved regions of mating-type genes were amplified in four representatives of the genus Xanthoria (X. parietina, X. polycarpa, X. flammea, and X. elegans) using PCR-based methods. The complete MAT locus, containing one ORF (MAT1-2-1) coding for a truncated HMG-box protein, and two partial flanking genes, were cloned by screening a genomic lambda phage library of the homothallic X. parietina. The

  13. Sex, size, competition and escape—strategies of reproduction and dispersal in Lasallia pustulata (Umbilicariaceae, Ascomycetes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geir Hestmark

    1992-01-01

    The lichen Lasallia pustulata has a mixed strategy of asexual and sexual reproduction. Close-dispersed, asexual, symbiotic isidia are produced early, when the thalli are small. The asexual propagules are subsequently supplemented by far-dispersed, sexually generated ascospores when the thalli grow larger. This observation is consistent with evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) models of dispersal allocations in heterocarpic plants accordin to which

  14. The Ascomycete Verticillium longisporum Is a Hybrid and a Plant Pathogen with an Expanded Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Inderbitzin, Patrik; Davis, R. Michael; Bostock, Richard M.; Subbarao, Krishna V.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization plays a central role in plant evolution, but its overall importance in fungi is unknown. New plant pathogens are thought to arise by hybridization between formerly separated fungal species. Evolution of hybrid plant pathogens from non-pathogenic ancestors in the fungal-like protist Phytophthora has been demonstrated, but in fungi, the most important group of plant pathogens, there are few well-characterized examples of hybrids. We focused our attention on the hybrid and plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum, the causal agent of the Verticillium wilt disease in crucifer crops. In order to address questions related to the evolutionary origin of V. longisporum, we used phylogenetic analyses of seven nuclear loci and a dataset of 203 isolates of V. longisporum, V. dahliae and related species. We confirmed that V. longisporum was diploid, and originated three different times, involving four different lineages and three different parental species. All hybrids shared a common parent, species A1, that hybridized respectively with species D1, V. dahliae lineage D2 and V. dahliae lineage D3, to give rise to three different lineages of V. longisporum. Species A1 and species D1 constituted as yet unknown taxa. Verticillium longisporum likely originated recently, as each V. longisporum lineage was genetically homogenous, and comprised species A1 alleles that were identical across lineages. PMID:21455321

  15. Candida amazonensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast isolated from rotting wood in the Amazonian forest.

    PubMed

    Cadete, Raquel M; Melo, Monaliza A; Lopes, Mariana R; Pereira, Gilmara M D; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Gomes, Fátima C O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-06-01

    Five strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in an Amazonian forest site in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that this species belongs to the Scheffersomyces clade and is related to Candida coipomoensis, Candida lignicola and Candida queiroziae. The novel species Candida amazonensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of C. amazonensis sp. nov. is UFMG-HMD-26.3(T) ( = CBS 12363(T) = NRRL Y-48762(T)). PMID:21856981

  16. Mesosynteny; A novel mode of chromosomal evolution peculiar to filamentous Ascomycete fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report a novel form of evolution in which genes are conserved within homologous chromosomes, but with randomised orders and orientations. We propose to call this mode of evolution 'mesosynteny'. Mesosynteny is an alternative evolutionary pathway to macrosyntenic conservation. Mesosynteny would ...

  17. CZECH MYCOL. 59(2): 215226, 2007 The ascomycete Meliniomyces variabilis isolated from

    E-print Network

    Janouskova, Martina

    a sporocarp of Hydnotrya tulasnei (Pezizales) intracellularly colonises roots of ecto- and ericoid mycorrhizal HRSELOVÁ 5 , JANA ALBRECHTOVÁ 1, 2 and MIROSLAV VOSÁTKA 1 1 Department of Mycorrhizal Symbioses, Institute roots of ecto- and ericoid mycorrhizal host plants. ­ Czech Mycol. 59(2): 215­226. Attempts to isolate

  18. Mating systems in representatives of Parmeliaceae, Ramalinaceae and Physciaceae (Lecanoromycetes, lichen-forming ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Honegger, Rosmarie; Zippler, Undine

    2007-04-01

    The progeny of meiosis of eight Parmeliaceae, two Ramalinaceae and seven Physciaceae were subjected to fingerprint analysis using RAPD-PCR applied to single spore isolates. The sample set included common and widespread rarely fertile species (Parmelia sulcata, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Physcia tenella), local to common, infrequently fertile species (Melanelixia glabra, Parmelina tiliacea, Xanthoparmelia conspersa, X. stenophylla, Anaptychia runcinata, Diploicia canescen, Physconia distorta), local to rare, infrequently or regularly fertile species with declining distributions (Parmelina carporrhizans, P. quercina, Ramalina fastigiata, R. fraxinea, Anaptychia ciliaris), and local to common, regularly fertile species (Physcia aipolia, P. stellaris). All species turned out to be heterothallic, polymorphisms among RAPD markers ranging from 10-87%. The significance of these findings for population genetics and conservation biology, and potential reasons for infrequent ascoma formation in some of the species are discussed. PMID:17512182

  19. Mating systems in representatives of Parmeliaceae, Ramalinaceae and Physciaceae ( Lecanoromycetes, lichen-forming ascomycetes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosmarie Honegger; Undine Zippler

    2007-01-01

    The progeny of meiosis of eight Parmeliaceae, two Ramalinaceae and seven Physciaceae were subjected to fingerprint analysis using RAPD-PCR applied to single spore isolates. The sample set included common and widespread rarely fertile species (Parmelia sulcata, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Physcia tenella), local to common, infrequently fertile species (Melanelixia glabra, Parmelina tiliacea, Xanthoparmelia conspersa, X. stenophylla, Anaptychia runcinata, Diploicia canescen, Physconia distorta),

  20. Differential roles of pyruvate decarboxylase in aerial and embedded mycelia of the ascomycete Gibberella zeae.

    PubMed

    Son, Hokyoung; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2012-04-01

    The pyruvate-acetaldehyde-acetate (PAA) pathway has diverse roles in eukaryotes. Our previous study on acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 1 (ACS1) in Gibberella zeae suggested that the PAA pathway is important for lipid production, which is required for perithecia maturation. In this study, we deleted all three pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes, which encode enzymes that function upstream of ACS1 in the PAA pathway. Results suggest PDC1 is required for lipid accumulation in the aerial mycelia, and deletion of PDC1 resulted in highly wettable mycelia. However, the total amount of lipids in the PDC1 deletion mutants was similar to that of the wild-type strain, likely due to compensatory lipid production processes in the embedded mycelia. PDC1 was expressed both in the aerial and embedded mycelia, whereas ACS1 was observed only in the aerial mycelia in a PDC1-dependent manner. PDC1 is also involved in vegetative growth of embedded mycelia in G. zeae, possibly through initiating the ethanol fermentation pathway. Thus, PDC1 may function as a key metabolic enzyme crucial for lipid production in the aerial mycelia, but play a different role in the embedded mycelia, where it might be involved in energy generation by ethanol fermentation. PMID:22276936

  1. A new endophytic ascomycete from El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past two years a project has been undertaken to study endophytic fungi associated with plants growing in El Eden Ecological Reserve, located in the State of Quintana Roo in the northeastern part of the Yucatan Peninsula of México. Asymptomatic, healthy leaves were collected, surface steri...

  2. Candidate effector gene identification in the ascomycete fungal phytopathogen Venturia inaequalis by expressed sequence tag analysis.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Joanna K; Mesarich, Carl H; Rees-George, Jonathan; Cui, Wei; Fitzgerald, Anna; Win, Joe; Plummer, Kim M; Templeton, Matthew D

    2009-05-01

    The hemi-biotrophic fungus Venturia inaequalis infects members of the Maloideae, causing the economically important apple disease, scab. The plant-pathogen interaction of Malus and V. inaequalis follows the gene-for-gene model. cDNA libraries were constructed, and bioinformatic analysis of the resulting expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was used to characterize potential effector genes. Effectors are small proteins, secreted in planta, that are assumed to facilitate infection. Therefore, a cDNA library was constructed from a compatible interaction. To distinguish pathogen from plant sequences, the library was probed with genomic DNA from V. inaequalis to enrich for pathogen genes, and cDNA libraries were constructed from in vitro-grown material. A suppression subtractive hybridization library enriched for cellophane-induced genes was included, as growth on cellophane may mimic that in planta, with the differentiation of structures resembling those formed during plant colonization. Clustering of ESTs from the in planta and in vitro libraries indicated a fungal origin of the resulting non-redundant sequence. A total of 937 ESTs was classified as putatively fungal, which could be assembled into 633 non-redundant sequences. Sixteen new candidate effector genes were identified from V. inaequalis based on features common to characterized effector genes from filamentous fungi, i.e. they encode a small, novel, cysteine-rich protein, with a putative signal peptide. Three of the 16 candidates, in particular, conformed to most of the protein structural characteristics expected of fungal effectors and showed significant levels of transcriptional up-regulation during in planta growth. In addition to candidate effector genes, this collection of ESTs represents a valuable genomic resource for V. inaequalis. PMID:19400844

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Lachancea lanzarotensis CBS 12615T, an Ascomycetous Yeast Isolated from Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Sarilar, Véronique; Devillers, Hugo; Freel, Kelle C.; Schacherer, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We report the genome sequencing of the yeast Lachancea lanzarotensis CBS 12615T. The assembly comprises 24 scaffolds, for a total size of 11.46 Mbp. The annotation revealed 5,058 putative protein-coding genes. Detection of seven centromeres supports a chromosome fusion, which occurred after divergence from Lachancea thermotolerans and Lachancea kluyveri. PMID:25883293

  4. Perithecial ascomycetes from the 400 million year old Rhynie chert: an example of ancestral polymorphism

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Thomas N.; Hass, H.; Kerp, H.; Krings, Michael; Hanlin, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    of com- paction due to the closely spaced asci and paraphy- ses. Raju (2002) suggests that in some modern spe- cies of Neurospora ascus shape is controlled geneti- cally and linked to dispersal adaptations. Asci in Paleopyrenomycites appear to be most... that su- perficially bear some morphological resemblance to Paleopyrenomycites are members of the Loculoasco- mycetes (Barr and Huhndorf 2001). In these fungi asci are produced in cavities or locules whose wall consists of stromal tissue. Two additional...

  5. Phylogenomic analysis of type I polyketide synthase genes in pathogenic and saprobic ascomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Kroken; N. Louise Glass; John W. Taylor; O. C. Yoder; B. Gillian Turgeon

    2003-01-01

    Fungal type I polyketides (PKs) are synthesized by PK synthases (PKSs) and include well known secondary metabolites such as the anticholesterol drug lovastatin and the potent natural carcinogen aflatoxin. Other type I PKs are known to be virulence factors for some plant pathogens and pigments such as melanin. In this study, a phylogenomic approach was used to investigate the origin

  6. Phylogenomic analysis of type I polyketide synthase genes in pathogenic and saprobic ascomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Kroken; N. Louise Glass; John W. Taylor; O. C. Yoder; B. Gillian Turgeon

    2004-01-01

    Fungal type I polyketides (PKs) are synthesized by PK synthases (PKSs) and include well known secondary metabolites such as the anticholesterol drug lovastatin and the potent natural carcinogen aflatoxin. Other type I PKs are known to be virulence factors for some plant pathogens and pigments such as melanin. In this study, a phylogenomic approach was used to investigate the origin

  7. Candida ecuadorensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species found in two separate regions of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen A; Carvajal Barriga, Enrique Javier; Barahona, Patricia Portero; Cross, Kathryn; Bond, Christopher J; Roberts, Ian N

    2013-01-01

    In the course of an on-going study aimed at cataloguing the natural yeast biodiversity found in Ecuador, two strains (CLQCA 13-025 and CLQCA 20-004(T)) were isolated from samples of cow manure and rotten wood collected in two separate provinces of the country (Orellana and Bolívar). These strains were found to represent a novel yeast species based on the sequences of their D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and their physiological characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis based on LSU D1/D2 sequences revealed this novel species to belong to the Metschnikowia clade and to be most closely related to Candida suratensis, a species recently discovered in a mangrove forest in Thailand. The species name of Candida ecuadorensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains, with strain CLQCA 20-004(T) (=CBS 12653(T) = NCYC 3782(T)) designated as the type strain. PMID:23104360

  8. Naumovozyma baii sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species isolated from rotten wood in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Qiu; Han, Pei-Jie; Qiu, Jun-Zhi; Wang, Qi-Ming

    2012-12-01

    Two strains isolated from rotten wood were included in the Saccharomyces group based on morphological characteristics. However, rRNA gene sequence analyses (including the 18S rRNA gene, 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region) indicated that these two strains represent a novel species of Naumovozyma, for which the name Naumovozyma baii sp. nov. is proposed (type strain: BW 22(T) = CGMCC 2.04520(T) = CBS 12642(T)). The MycoBank number of the new species is MB800484. PMID:22863990

  9. Anamylopsoraceae — a new family of lichenized ascomycetes with stipitate apothecia ( Lecanorales: Agyriineae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Thorsten Lumbsch; Thomas Lunke; G. Benno Feige; Siegfried Huneck

    1995-01-01

    The anatomy, chemistry and developmental morphology ofAnamylopsora pulcherrima is investigated. Some characters, including the ascus structure, suggest a close affinity with theAgyriaceae. However, the chemistry and the pycnidial structure differ as well as the ascoma ontogeny.Anamylopsora has a gymnocarpous ascoma development and the ascogonia are produced in stipes.Trapelia coarctata, as a typical member of theAgyriaceae, shows a hemiangiocarpous ascoma ontogeny.

  10. The artificial cultivation of medicinal Caterpillar Fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes): a review.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kai; Ye, Meng; Lin, Xiao; Zhou, Zuji

    2013-01-01

    Caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), is highly valued in China as a dietary supplement or tonic food and natural remedy. The combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for centuries, and evidence shows its efficacy on immunomodulatory potentials. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the last few years due to growing worldwide demand, driving research to determine methods of artificial cultivation to make O. sinensis a more affordable material for commercial trade. This study highlights many aspects of artificial cultivation of O. sinensis, including separation of the anamorph, culture of the mycelium, cultivation of the fruiting bodies, bioecological characteristics of the host insect, and two patterns of artificial cultivation. In addition, this review discusses the current state, limitations, remedies, and future prospects, aiming to draw researchers' attention to the new frontier of research needs in this context. PMID:24266368

  11. Two new pathogenic ascomycetes in Guignardia and Rosenscheldiella on New Zealand's pygmy mistletoes (Korthalsella: Viscaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Park, D.; Robertson, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    Two new pathogens, Guignardia korthalsellae and Rosenscheldiella korthalsellae, are described from New Zealand's pygmy mistletoes (Korthalsella, Viscaceae). Both form ascomata on living phylloclades with minimal disruption of the tissue. Fungal hyphae within the phylloclade are primarily intercellular. Guignardia korthalsellae disrupts a limited number of epidermal cells immediately around the erumpent ascoma, while the ascomata of Rosenscheldiella korthalsellae develop externally on small patches of stromatic tissue that form above stomatal cavities. Rosenscheldiella is applied in a purely morphological sense. LSU sequences show that R. korthalsellae as well as another New Zealand species, Rosenscheldiella brachyglottidis, are members of the Mycosphaerellaceae sensu stricto. Genetically, Rosenscheldiella, in the sense we are using it, is polyphyletic; LSU and ITS sequences place the two New Zealand species in different clades within the Mycosphaerellaceae. Rosenscheldiella is retained for these fungi until generic relationships within the family are resolved. Whether or not the type species of Rosenscheldiella, R. styracis, is also a member of the Mycosphaerellaceae is not known, but it has a similar morphology and relationship to its host as the two New Zealand species. PMID:21523197

  12. A heme peroxidase of the ascomyceteous lichen Leptogium saturninum oxidizes high-redox potential substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Liers; René Ullrich; Martin Hofrichter; Farida Minibayeva; Richard P. Beckett

    Lichens belonging to the order Peltigerales display strong activity of multi-copper oxidases (e.g. tyrosinase) as well as heme-containing peroxidases. The lichen peroxidase was purified to homogeneity from the thallus of Leptogium saturninum (LsaPOX) by fast protein liquid chromatography and then partially characterized.The oligomeric protein occurs as both 79kDa dimeric and 42kDa monomeric forms, and displayed broad substrate specificity. In addition

  13. AbaA Regulates Conidiogenesis in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Seo, Young-Su; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is a prominent pathogen that infects major cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and maize. Both sexual (ascospores) and asexual (conidia) spores are produced in F. graminearum. Since conidia are responsible for secondary infection in disease development, our objective of the present study was to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum based on the framework previously described in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we firstly identified and functionally characterized the ortholog of AbaA, which is involved in differentiation from vegetative hyphae to conidia and known to be absent in F. graminearum. Deletion of abaA did not affect vegetative growth, sexual development, or virulence, but conidium production was completely abolished and thin hyphae grew from abnormally shaped phialides in abaA deletion mutants. Overexpression of abaA resulted in pleiotropic defects such as impaired sexual and asexual development, retarded conidium germination, and reduced trichothecene production. AbaA localized to the nuclei of phialides and terminal cells of mature conidia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans AbaA and the conserved AbaA-WetA pathway demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for AbaA activity are conserved in F. graminearum as they are in A. nidulans. Results from RNA-sequencing analysis suggest that AbaA plays a pivotal role in conidiation by regulating cell cycle pathways and other conidiation-related genes. Thus, the conserved roles of the AbaA ortholog in both A. nidulans and F. graminearum give new insight into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24039821

  14. WetA Is Required for Conidiogenesis and Conidium Maturation in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a prominent fungal pathogen that infects major cereal crops, primarily utilizes asexual spores to spread disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum, we functionally characterized the F. graminearum ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans wetA, which has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation. Deletion of F. graminearum wetA did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the wetA deletion mutants produced longer conidia with fewer septa, and the conidia were sensitive to acute stresses, such as oxidative stress and heat stress. Furthermore, the survival rate of aged conidia from the F. graminearum wetA deletion mutants was reduced. The wetA deletion resulted in vigorous generation of single-celled conidia through autophagy-dependent microcycle conidiation, indicating that WetA functions to maintain conidial dormancy by suppressing microcycle conidiation in F. graminearum. Transcriptome analyses demonstrated that most of the putative conidiation-related genes are expressed constitutively and that only a few genes are specifically involved in F. graminearum conidiogenesis. The conserved and distinct roles identified for WetA in F. graminearum provide new insights into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24186953

  15. A Putative Transcription Factor MYT1 Is Required for Female Fertility in the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yang; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Jungkwan; Min, Kyunghun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2011-01-01

    Gibberella zeae is an important pathogen of major cereal crops. The fungus produces ascospores that forcibly discharge from mature fruiting bodies, which serve as the primary inocula for disease epidemics. In this study, we characterized an insertional mutant Z39P105 with a defect in sexual development and identified a gene encoding a putative transcription factor designated as MYT1. This gene contains a Myb DNA-binding domain and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. The MYT1 protein fused with green fluorescence protein localized in nuclei, which supports its role as a transcriptional regulator. The MYT1 deletion mutant showed similar phenotypes to the wild-type strain in vegetative growth, conidia production and germination, virulence, and mycotoxin production, but had defect in female fertility. A mutant overexpressing MYT1 showed earlier germination, faster mycelia growth, and reduced mycotoxin production compared to the wild-type strain, suggesting that improper MYT1 expression affects the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and secondary metabolite production. This study is the first to characterize a transcription factor containing a Myb DNA-binding domain that is specific to sexual development in G. zeae. PMID:21984921

  16. Kazachstania yasuniensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species found in mainland Ecuador and on the Galápagos.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen A; Carvajal Barriga, Enrique Javier; Portero Barahona, Patricia; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; Cross, Kathryn; Bond, Christopher J; Roberts, Ian N

    2015-04-01

    Seven strains representing a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Kazachstania were found at several collection sites on both mainland Ecuador (Yasuní National Park) and the Galápagos (Santa Cruz Island). Two strains (CLQCA 20-132(T) and CLQCA 24SC-045) were isolated from rotten wood samples, two further strains (CLQCA 20-280 and CLQCA 20-348) were isolated from soil samples, and three strains (CLQCA 20-198, CLQCA 20-374 and CLQCA 20-431) were isolated from decaying fruits. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that the novel species is most closely related to Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania unispora. Although the strains could not be distinguished from one another based upon their differing geographical origins, they could be differentiated according to their isolation source (fruit, soil or wood) by ITS sequencing. The species name Kazachstania yasuniensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains, with CLQCA 20-132(T) (?=?CBS 13946(T)?=?NCYC 4008(T)) designated the type strain. PMID:25644482

  17. Kazachstania aerobia sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species from aerobically deteriorating corn silage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui-Zhong; Cai, Yimin; Wu, Zuo-Wei; Jia, Jian-Hua; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2004-11-01

    In an investigation of the yeast biota involved in silage deterioration, a considerable number of strains belonging to Saccharomyces and related genera were isolated from aerobically deteriorating corn silage in Tochigi, Japan. Analysis of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and the large-subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and electrophoretic karyotyping indicated that two of the strains, NS 14(T) and NS 26, represent a novel species with close phylogenetic relationships to Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania unispora. It is proposed that the novel species be named Kazachstania aerobia sp. nov., with NS 14(T) (=AS 2.2384(T)=CBS 9918(T)) as the type strain. PMID:15545492

  18. Kazachstania ichnusensis sp. nov., a diploid homothallic ascomycetous yeast from Sardinian lentisk rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Gianluigi; Antonielli, Livio; Corte, Laura; Roscini, Luca; Bagnetti, Ambra; Pelliccia, Cristina; Puddu, Gianfranco

    2012-03-01

    During an investigation of yeast biota in the rhizosphere of lentisk in Sardinian semi-arid areas, a strain was isolated that could not be assigned to any known species. The sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rDNA gene revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Kazachstania and was phylogenetically related to a clade including Kazachstania aerobia, Kazachstania servazzii, Kazachstania solicola and Kazachstania unispora. The novel isolate differed from members of this clade in its ability to assimilate D-glucono-1,5-lactone and its very weak fermentation of glucose and sucrose; its assimilation profile was unique within the genus Kazachstania. Monosporal colonies were able to sporulate, indicating that the species is homothallic. It is proposed that the isolate represents a novel species, Kazachstania ichnusensis sp. nov., with LCF 1675(T) (=CBS 11859(T)) as type strain. PMID:21498662

  19. A new endophytic ascomycete from El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a preliminary survey to report the biodiversity of endophytic fungi associated with leaves of some woody plants from El Eden Ecological Reserve in Mexico, a new fungus was isolated from Callicarpa acuminata leaves. Cultures of this fungus on PDA form a white floccose colony with a reddish-bro...

  20. Evaluation of automated cell disruptor methods for oomycetous and ascomycetous model organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two automated cell disruptor-based methods for RNA extraction; disruption of thawed cells submerged in TRIzol Reagent (method QP), and direct disruption of frozen cells on dry ice (method CP), were optimized for a model oomycete, Phytophthora capsici, and compared with grinding in a mortar and pestl...

  1. Notes on Lichen Genus Buellia De Not. (lichenized Ascomycetes) from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Yogesh; Wang, Xin Yu; Lökös, László; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2010-03-01

    Based on a literature survey and assessment of the important features of lichen genus Buellia (spore shape and size, anatomy of the exciple as well as analysis of the lichen substances), the present paper describes four new records of B. maritima, B. polyspora, B. spuria and B. stellulata from South Korea. Among them, B. maritima and B. polyspora are firstly reported in East Asia including in China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Brief description of all the new records along with earlier described species placed under genus Amandinea and Hafellia are provided with their distribution and chemistry. A key to all the Buellia species reported so far from South Korea is also provided. PMID:23956628

  2. Barnettozyma siamensis f.a., sp. nov., a lipid-accumulating ascomycete yeast species.

    PubMed

    Polburee, Pirapan; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Limtong, Savitree

    2014-09-01

    Two strains, DMKU-UbN24(1)(T) and DMKU-CPN24(1), of a novel yeast species were obtained from soil and palm oil fruit, respectively, collected in Thailand by an enrichment isolation technique using a nitrogen-limited medium containing glycerol as the sole source of carbon. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the two strains were found to represent a novel species of the genus Barnettozyma although the formation of ascospores was not observed. The novel species was related most closely to the type strain of Candida montana but differed by 5.4?% nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and by 10.3-10.5?% nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region. The name Barnettozyma siamensis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DMKU-UbN24(1)(T) (?=?BCC 61189(T)?=?NBRC 109701(T)?=?CBS 13392(T)). PMID:24925597

  3. Effectiveness of modified White's solution at removing ascomycetes associated with the bark beetle Ips pini

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Kopper; K. D. Klepzig; K. F. Raffa

    2003-01-01

    Summary Modified White's solution (1 g HgCl2\\/l H2O) is widely used to surface disinfest bark beetles of their phoretic fungi. We investigated the effectiveness of this solution at disinfesting adult Ips pini from its associated ophiostomatoid fungi. A treatment for 1, 4 or 8 min does not completely rid beetles of phoretic fungi, but does substantially reduce the amount of

  4. A phylogenetic estimation of trophic transition networks for ascomycetous fungi: are lichens cradles of symbiotrophic fungal diversification?

    PubMed

    Arnold, A Elizabeth; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Higgins, K Lindsay; Sarvate, Snehal D; Gugger, Paul; Way, Amanda; Hofstetter, Valérie; Kauff, Frank; Lutzoni, François

    2009-06-01

    Fungi associated with photosynthetic organisms are major determinants of terrestrial biomass, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem productivity from the poles to the equator. Whereas most fungi are known because of their fruit bodies (e.g., saprotrophs), symptoms (e.g., pathogens), or emergent properties as symbionts (e.g., lichens), the majority of fungal diversity is thought to occur among species that rarely manifest their presence with visual cues on their substrate (e.g., the apparently hyperdiverse fungal endophytes associated with foliage of plants). Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous among all lineages of land plants and live within overtly healthy tissues without causing disease, but the evolutionary origins of these highly diverse symbionts have not been explored. Here, we show that a key to understanding both the evolution of endophytism and the diversification of the most species-rich phylum of Fungi (Ascomycota) lies in endophyte-like fungi that can be isolated from the interior of apparently healthy lichens. These "endolichenic" fungi are distinct from lichen mycobionts or any other previously recognized fungal associates of lichens, represent the same major lineages of Ascomycota as do endophytes, largely parallel the high diversity of endophytes from the arctic to the tropics, and preferentially associate with green algal photobionts in lichen thalli. Using phylogenetic analyses that incorporate these newly recovered fungi and ancestral state reconstructions that take into account phylogenetic uncertainty, we show that endolichenism is an incubator for the evolution of endophytism. In turn, endophytism is evolutionarily transient, with endophytic lineages frequently transitioning to and from pathogenicity. Although symbiotrophic lineages frequently give rise to free-living saprotrophs, reversions to symbiosis are rare. Together, these results provide the basis for estimating trophic transition networks in the Ascomycota and provide a first set of hypotheses regarding the evolution of symbiotrophy and saprotrophy in the most species-rich fungal phylum. [Ancestral state reconstruction; Ascomycota; Bayesian analysis; endolichenic fungi; fungal endophytes; lichens; pathogens; phylogeny; saprotrophy; symbiotrophy; trophic transition network.]. PMID:20525584

  5. Small, basic antifungal proteins secreted from filamentous ascomycetes: a comparative study regarding expression, structure, function and potential application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Marx

    2004-01-01

    Peptides and proteins with antimicrobial activity are produced throughout all kingdoms in nature, from prokaryotes to lower and higher eukaryotes, including fungi, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. These proteins contribute to an important constitutive or induced defense mechanism of the producer against microorganisms. According to their variety in structure and function, these proteins are classified arbitrarily into groups that are based

  6. FgFlbD regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. The fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. In a model filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. The objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism of action in F. graminearum. We characterized five fluffy gene homologs in F. graminearum and found that FlbD is the only conserved regulator for conidiogenesis in A. nidulans and F. graminearum. Deletion of fgflbD prevented hyphal differentiation and the formation of perithecia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans flbD demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for FlbD functions are conserved in F. graminearum. Moreover, abaA-wetA pathway is positively regulated by FgFlbD during conidiogenesis in F. graminearum. Deleting fgflbD abolished morphological effects of abaA overexpression, which suggests that additional factors for FgFlbD or an AbaA-independent pathway for conidiogenesis are required for F. graminearum conidiation. Importantly, this study led to the construction of a genetic pathway of F. graminearum conidiogenesis and provides new insights into the genetics of conidiogenesis in fungi. PMID:25277408

  7. Cultivation of medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), and production of cordycepin using the spent medium from levan fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang-Chen; Chen, Yi-Lin; Chang, Shu-Ming; Shih, Ing-Lung

    2013-01-01

    A process of tandem cultivation for the production of green and invaluable bioproducts (levan and Cordycepes militaris) useful for medical applications has been successfully developed. The process involves first cultivating Bacillus subtilis strain natto in sucrose medium to produce levan, followed by the subsequent cultivation of C. militaris in liquid- and solid-state cultures using the spent medium from levan fermentation as substrates. The factors affecting the cell growth and production of metabolites of C. militaris were investigated, and the various metabolites produced in the culture filtrate, mycelia, and fruiting body were analyzed. In addition, cordycepin was prepared from the solid waste medium of C. militaris. This is an excellent example in the development of cost effective biorefineries that maximize useful product formation from the available biomass. The preparation of cordycepin from solid waste medium of C. militaris using a method with high extraction efficiency and minimum solvent usage is also environmentally friendly. PMID:23796221

  8. [Insecticidal and immunosuppressive effect of ascomycete Cordyceps militaris on the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata].

    PubMed

    Kriukov, V Iu; Iaroslavtseva, O N; Dubovski?, I M; Tiurin, M V; Kriukova, N A; Glupov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The immunosuppressive and insecticidal activity of cultures of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris on the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata has been established for the first time. It was found that the peroral effect of the fungal culture resulted in dose-dependent decrease in survival, delayed in development time and molting, decreases in the total hemocyt counts, increased activity of phenoloxidases in the hemolymph, and reduced activity of the enzyme in the cuticle, as well as increased sensitivity of larvae to the fungus Beauveria bassiana at the level of the synergistic effect. PMID:25731041

  9. A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Léon, Céline; Gomčs, Eric; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14?500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S+R+), infected asymptomatic plants (S–R+), and healthy plants (S–R–). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S+R+ plants compared with S–R– plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040

  10. Integrity of a Zn finger-like domain in SamB is crucial for morphogenesis in ascomycetous fungi.

    PubMed

    Krüger, M; Fischer, R

    1998-01-01

    Genetic features determine the site of polarized growth in filamentous fungi and lead to hyphal tip extension or subapical branching. We have isolated the samB gene (suppressor of anucleate metulae) of Aspergillus nidulans which encodes a 66 kDa protein carrying an atypical Cys4 and an additional Cys2/His/Cys Zn finger motif at the carboxy-terminus. Such novel Zn finger-like domains have recently been found in several other developmental regulators in organisms ranging from yeast to man. Deletion of this domain at the carboxy-terminus of SamB led to premature hyphal ramification, mislocalization of septa and suppression of the asporogenous phenotype of the developmental mutant aps (anucleate primary sterigmata). A DeltasamB deletion strain displayed an identical phenotype. A homologous gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also characterized whose deletion resulted in a multi-budding phenotype; thus it was named MUB1. An underlying common mechanism for both genes in determination of the onset of polarized growth and its links to other cellular developmental processes is discussed. PMID:9427754

  11. Cell polarity and hyphal morphogenesis are controlled by multiple rho-protein modules in the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed Central

    Wendland, J; Philippsen, P

    2001-01-01

    Polarized cell growth requires a polarized organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho-family have been shown to be involved in the regulation of actin polarization as well as other processes. Hyphal growth in filamentous fungi represents an ideal model to investigate mechanisms involved in generating cell polarity and establishing polarized cell growth. Since a potential role of Rho-proteins has not been studied so far in filamentous fungi we isolated and characterized the Ashbya gossypii homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC42, CDC24, RHO1, and RHO3 genes. The AgCDC42 and AgCDC24 genes can both complement conditional mutations in the S. cerevisiae CDC42 and CDC24 genes and both proteins are required for the establishment of actin polarization in A. gossypii germ cells. Agrho1 mutants show a cell lysis phenotype. Null mutant strains of Agrho3 show periodic swelling of hyphal tips that is overcome by repolarization and polar hyphal growth in a manner resembling the germination pattern of spores. Thus different Rho-protein modules are required for distinct steps during polarized hyphal growth of A. gossypii. PMID:11156982

  12. Soudanones A-G: Antifungal Isochromanones from the Ascomycetous Fungus Cadophora sp. Isolated from an Iron Mine.

    PubMed

    Rusman, Yudi; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A; Wittlin, Sergio; Salomon, Christine E

    2015-06-26

    One new isochromane (pseudoanguillosporin C, 2), seven isochromanones (soudanones A-G, 3-9), and six known analogues including 10 and 11 were isolated from a culture of the fungus Cadophora sp. 10-5-2 M, collected from the subterranean 10th level of the Soudan Underground Iron Mine in Minnesota. All of the compounds were tested against a panel of microbial pathogens, and 2, 3, 10, and 11 were found to have activity against Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC = 35, 40, 20, and 30 ?g/mL, respectively). Compound 11 was also active against Candida albicans, with an MIC of 40 ?g/mL. PMID:26035018

  13. The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits ?-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses

    PubMed Central

    Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipilä, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g?1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g?1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg?1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative ?-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., ?-l-rhamnopyranoside and ?-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

  14. A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Lian, Tiantian

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is one of the most popular mushrooms and nutraceuticals in Eastern Asia. This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and fungi), whereas that from the fermented mycelia showed selective activity. The antioxidant potential of two extracts is significant in the four tested systems in vitro, including total antioxidant capacity, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. The fruiting bodies had stronger DPPH· radical scavenging activity, whereas the fermented mycelia had stronger total antioxidant capacity, chelating ability, and reducing power, which suggested that they had their own role and worked in different ways. Both extracts present strong activities against tumor cell line A549. The results obtained indicated that extracts from C. militaris might be valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic natural sources and seemed to be applicable in health and medicine as well as in the food industry. PMID:25271983

  15. SPORE-EXPULSION RATES AND EXTENTS OF BLADE OCCUPATION BY ASCOMYCETES OF THE SMOOTH-CORDGRASS STANDING-DECAY SYSTEM. (R825147)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. NPS6, Encoding a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase Involved in Siderophore-Mediated Iron Metabolism, is a Conserved Virulence Determinant of Plant Pathogenic Ascomycetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NPS6, encoding a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, is a virulence determinant in the corn pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus and is also involved in resistance to oxidative stress, generated by hydrogen peroxide. Deletion of NPS6 orthologs in the rice pathogen, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the cereal...

  17. Effect of UV-B Irradiation on Physiologically Active Substance Content and Antioxidant Properties of the Medicinal Caterpillar Fungus Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Jeng; Lin, Chun-Ping; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Li, Yu-Shan; Tsai, Shu-Yao

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light irradiation is a well-known technique for converting vitamin D2 from ergosterol in mushroom fruit bodies. Mushrooms are a natural and nonanimal food source of vitamin D2. We studied the effect of UV-B light irradiation on the amount of vitamin D2 and physiologically active substances in Cordyceps militaris and their antioxidant properties. After UV-B irradiation for 2 hours, the vitamin D2 content of freshly harvested C. militaris fruiting bodies, mycelia, whole submerged culture (WSC), and homogenized submerged culture (HSC) increased from 0 to 0.03 to 0.22 to 1.11 mg/g, but the ergosterol content was reduced from 1.36 to 2.50 to 1.24 to 2.06 mg/g, respectively. After UV-B irradiation, the amount of adenosine, cordycepin, and ergothioneine of fruiting bodies dramatically increased 32-128%, but the polysaccharide content slightly decreased 36%. The reverse trends were observed in mycelia, WSC, and HSC. UV-B irradiation could reduce the effective concentrations at 50% of fruiting bodies for ethanolic and hot water extracts in reducing power, scavenging, and chelating abilities, whereas mycelia, WSC, and HSC of ethanolic extracts increased effective concentrations at 50% in reducing power, scavenging, and chelating abilities. UV-B irradiation slightly increased flavonoid content (10-56%) and slightly affected total phenol content. PMID:25954908

  18. Evidence for a negative membrane potential and for movement of C1- against its electrochemical gradient in the ascomycete Neocosmospora vasinfecta.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A G; Budd, K

    1976-01-01

    The iodides of three lipid-soluble cations (dibenzyldimethylammonium; tribenzylmethylammonium, TBMA+; ethyldimethylbenzylammonium) were synthesized by the reaction of 14C-labeled methyl or 14C-labeled ethyl iodide with the appropriate secondary of tertiary amine and used in an attempt to measure the transmembrane electrical potential difference in Neocosmospora. Only mycelium containing high levels of Na+ accumulated measureable amounts of these cations and only above pH 6. Uptake was reduced in the presence of exogenous K+, Na+, Mg2+, or tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane. The velocity of TBMA+ uptake was proportional to its concentration between 46 and 427 muM. Neither the rate nor the extent of TBMB+ uptake was greatly affected by the presence of a fivefold excess of either dibenzyldimethylammonium or ethyldimethylbenzylammonium, even though these cations were themselves accumulated. The uncoupler m-chlorophenylhydrazone induced loss of previously accumulated TBMA+ from the mycelium. Anaerobiosis and cold (5 degrees C) temperature both inhibited TBMA+ uptake but did not induce the loss of previously accumulated TBMA+. The uptake of lipophilic cations by Na+-rich mycelium indicated a minimum transmembrane electrical potential of -60 to -70 mV (inside negative). Net uptake of these cations appeared to be strongly influenced by the availability of endogenous exchangeable cations and by the presence of other exogenous cations, as well as by the membrane potential. Despite these limitations, transport of C1- by Na+-rich mycelium appeared to take place against the electrochemical gradient for C1-. PMID:11206

  19. Cloning of mating-type gene MAT1-1 from the caterpillar medicinal mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) using TAIL-PCR technology.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei-Ran; Gong, Zhen-Hua; Shi, Dan-Dan; Guo, Hui; Zhou, Xuanwei

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), 2 well-known traditional Chinese medicines, contain the same bioactive components and share a similar developmental process. In this study, one C. militaris strain preserved in our laboratory was proven to be a MAT1 mating-type strain using a polymerase chain reaction-based mating-type assay. A 5000-bp nucleotide sequence of the mating-type MAT1-1 from C. militaris was amplified by thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction, but genes within the mating-type MAT1-2 remain undetectable. Sequence analysis shows that the mating-type gene MAT1-1 idiomorph contains 2 genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2. The MAT1-1-1 gene consists of 1480-bp nucleotides that encode 456 amino acids and contain the conserved a-box domain interrupted by 2 introns; the MAT1-1-2 gene consists of 1066 nucleotides that encode 377 amino acids interrupted by one intron. The intervening distance between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2 is 778 bp. The C. militaris MAT1-1 idiomorph organization is the same as that of Cordyceps takaomontana. The MAT1-1 mating-type idiomorph of both Cordyceps species lacks the MAT1-1-3 gene, which is typically present in Pyrenomycetes. These studies provide some insights for further study of the morphological development of C. militaris and will eventually benefit the domestication of O. sinensis. PMID:25271980

  20. Mitochondrial Carnitine-Dependent Acetyl Coenzyme A Transport Is Required for Normal Sexual and Asexual Development of the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    Fungi have evolved efficient metabolic mechanisms for the exact temporal (developmental stages) and spatial (organelles) production of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). We previously demonstrated mechanistic roles of several acetyl-CoA synthetic enzymes, namely, ATP citrate lyase and acetyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs), in the plant-pathogenic fungus Gibberella zeae. In this study, we characterized two carnitine acetyltransferases (CATs; CAT1 and CAT2) to obtain a better understanding of the metabolic processes occurring in G. zeae. We found that CAT1 functioned as an alternative source of acetyl-CoA required for lipid accumulation in an ACS1 deletion mutant. Moreover, deletion of CAT1 and/or CAT2 resulted in various defects, including changes to vegetative growth, asexual/sexual development, trichothecene production, and virulence. Although CAT1 is associated primarily with peroxisomal CAT function, mislocalization experiments showed that the role of CAT1 in acetyl-CoA transport between the mitochondria and cytosol is important for sexual and asexual development in G. zeae. Taking these data together, we concluded that G. zeae CATs are responsible for facilitating the exchange of acetyl-CoA across intracellular membranes, particularly between the mitochondria and the cytosol, during various developmental stages. PMID:22798392

  1. Long-term preservation, regeneration, and cultivation of Paecilomyces tenuipes (Peck) Samson (Ascomycetes), an entomopathogenic fungus inoculated into the silkworm larva of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung Hee; Li, Chun Ru; Li, Zeng-Zhi; Fan, Mei-Zhen; Kang, Seok Woo; Lee, Kwang Gill; Yeo, Joo Hong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Choi, Ji Young; Han, Sang Mi; Lee, Ki Man

    2011-01-01

    Paecilomyces tenuipes reportedly have anticancer and immune activities, along with various other medicinal uses. Cultured products with P. tenuipes are certified for use in food in South Korea, and processed goods containing this fungus have been developed in many countries, particularly South Korea, Japan, and China. Research on mass production technology-procured raw materials for the manufacture of P. tenuipes is very important; however, cultures of the fungus have been unstable. This study identified stable cultivation conditions, focusing on growth inhibition and revitalization. Moisture regulation and preservation of pupae inoculated with P. tenuipes were used to control growth inhibition and revitalization. When inoculated silkworm pupae were dehydrated to 4% moisture and preserved freeze-dried or at -70 degrees C, -20 degrees C, or 4 degrees C, the mycelia in their bodies were able to survive for 14 d. Inoculated silkworm pupae were rehydrated for 3 h and the mycelia within their bodies were recovered at 94.3-96.3%. Silkworm pupae at 4% moisture were able to survive for 135 d at temperatures < 4 degrees C and for 1 y after freeze-drying. Optimal conditions for synnemata induction were 25 degrees C and 100-300 1x. PMID:22135907

  2. Aging as Evolution-Facilitating Program and a Biochemical Approach to Switch It Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    A concept is presented considering aging of living organisms as a final step of their ontogenetic program. It is assumed that such an aging program was invented by biological evolution to facilitate the evolutionary process. Indications are summarized suggesting that controlled production of toxic forms of oxygen (so called reactive oxygen species) by respiring intracellular organelles (mitochondria) is an obligatory component of the aging program. First results of a research project devoted to an attempt to interrupt aging program by antioxidants specifically addressed to mitochondria have been described. Within the framework of the project, antioxidants of a new type (SkQ) were synthesized. SkQs are composed of (i) plastoquinone (an antioxidant moiety), (ii) a penetrating cation, and (iii) a decane or pentane linker. Using planar bilayer phospholipid membranes, we selected SkQ derivatives of the highest penetrability, namely plastoquinonyl decyl triphenylphosphonium (SkQ1), plastoquinonyl decyl rhodamine 19 (SkQR1), and methylplastoquinonyl decyl triphenylphosphonium (SkQ3). Anti- and prooxidant properties of these substances and also of ubiquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium (MitoQ) were tested in isolated mitochondria. Micromolar concentrations of cationic quinones are found to be very strong prooxidants, but in the lower (sub-micromolar) concentrations they display antioxidant activity which decreases in the series SkQ1 = SkQR1 > SkQ3 > MitoQ. Thus, the window between the anti- and prooxidant effects is the smallest for MitoQ and the largest for SkQ1 and SkQR1. SkQ1 is rapidly reduced by complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, i.e. it is a rechargeable antioxidant. Extremely low concentrations of SkQ1 and SkQR1 completely arrest the H2O2-induced apoptosis in human fibroblasts and HeLa cells (for SkQ1, C 1/2 = 8 · 10-9M). Higher concentrations of SkQ1 are required to block necrosis initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In mice, SkQ1 decelerates the development of three types of accelerated aging (progeria) and also of normal aging, and this effect is especially demonstrative at early stages of aging. The same pattern is shown in invertebrates (Drosophila and Daphnia), and fungus (Podospora anserina). In mammals, the effect of SkQs on aging is accompanied by inhibition of development of such age-related diseases as osteoporosis, involution of thymus, cataract, retinopathy, etc. SkQ1 manifests a strong therapeutic action on some already pronounced retinopathies, in particular, congenital retinal dysplasia. With drops containing 250 nM SkQ1, vision is recovered in 66 of 96 animals (dogs, cats and horses) who became blind because of retinopathy. SkQ1-containing drops instilled into eyes prevent the loss of sight in rabbits suffering from experimental uveitis and restore vision to animals that had already become blind due to this pathology. A favorable effect is also achieved in experimental glaucoma in rabbits. Moreover, the pretreatment of rats with 0.2 nM SkQ1 significantly decreases the H2O2-induced arrhythmia of the isolated heart. SkQ1 strongly reduces the damaged area in myocardial infarction or stroke and prevents the death of animals from kidney infarction. In p53-/- mice, SkQ1 decreases the ROS level in the spleen cells and inhibits appearance of lymphomas which are the main cause of death of such animals. As a result, the lifespan increases. SkQs look like promising drugs to treat aging and age-related diseases.

  3. Laccase production by the aquatic ascomycete Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 and the white rot basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 during submerged cultivation on banana peels and enzyme applicability for the removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Libardi, Nelson; Gern, Regina Maria Miranda; Furlan, Sandra Aparecida; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to study the production of laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 and Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 using banana peels as alternative carbon source, the subsequent partial purification and characterization of the enzyme, as well the applicability to degrade endocrine disruptors. The laccase stability with pH and temperature, the optimum pH, the K (m) and V(max) parameters, and the molar mass were determined. Tests were conducted for assessing the ability of degradation of the endocrine disruptors t-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and 17?-ethinylestradiol. Laccase production of 752 and 1,117 U?L?ą was obtained for Phoma sp. and P. ostreatus, respectively. Phoma sp. laccase showed higher stability with temperature and pH. The laccase from both species showed higher affinity by syringaldazine. The culture broth with banana peels induced the production of two isoforms of P. ostreatus (58.7 and 21 kDa) and one of Phoma sp. laccase (72 kDa). In the first day of incubation, the concentrations of bisphenol A and 17?-ethinylestradiol were reduced to values close to zero and after 3 days the concentration of t-nonylphenol was reduced in 90% by the P. ostreatus laccase, but there was no reduction in its concentration by the Phoma sp. laccase. PMID:22371062

  4. Optimization of solid state culture conditions for the production of adenosine, cordycepin, and D-mannitol in fruiting bodies of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris (L.:Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Lim, LekTeng; Lee, ChiaYen; Chang, EngThuan

    2012-01-01

    In general, Cordyceps sinensis is much more popular than C. militaris, though both species contain quite similar bioactive ingredients and exhibit medicinal activities. Many bioactive ingredients have been isolated from C. militaris, such as adenosine, cordycepin, D-mannitol, and exopolysaccharides. C. militaris is claimed to have extensive pharmacological properties, such as: anti-inflammatory; anti-fatigue; anti-bacterial; anti-diabetic; improve lung, liver, and kidney functions; to be beneficial for treating cancer as well as male and female sexual dysfunctions. C. militaris is fast gaining momentum for its so-called health benefits, and it is often used as a substitute for C. sinensis. In view of the growing popularity of C. militaris, nowadays C. militaris cultivation for stroma is also done. There is a great diversity of compounds from different strains of Cordyceps and different artificially cultivated products. This study is to determine the optimum culture parameters integrated with substrate of choice to bring the indoor-cultivated C. militaris to a higher and more consistent level of quality. To achieve the above objective, the resultant products after growth were analyzed for adenosine, cordycepin, and D-mannitol using the high-performance liquid chromatography method. The optimum culture condition to produce a high level of adenosine is by using millet as solid substrate. It must be cultivated in the dark for the first 7 days and harvested on day 40. The optimum culture condition to produce a high level of cordycepin is by using soybean as solid substrate. It must be cultivated in the dark for the first 14 days and harvested on day 50. While a high level of D-mannitol is achieved with millet as the solid substrate. It must be kept in the dark for the first 7 days and harvested on day 50. The adenosine level decreased and cordycepin increased from day 40 of culture to day 50 generally. PMID:22506578

  5. Yippie Yi Yo Mycota Ki Yay! A mycologist’s fervently biased account of how the American western frontier was molded by spores and mycelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discussed are white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), cereal rusts (Puccinia spp.), smuts (Tilletia spp.), fungi as agents of recycling in grasslands (e.g., Sporormiella and Podospora spp.), fungal symbionts of bark beetles (e.g., Ophiostoma spp.), impacts of clinical fungi (e.g., Valley Feve...

  6. S.-O. Enfors 2010! Basic Biological Concepts!

    E-print Network

    Enfors, Sven-Olof

    - ! Archae! Eubacteria! Fungi" Algae" Protozoa" Plants" Animals! Phycomycetes" Ascomycetes" Basidiomycetes" S" M! A" N" A" B" O" L" I" S" M! MACRO-" MOLECULE" SYNTHESIS! Energy! Precursors! Reducing! power

  7. S.-O. Enfors 2008 Basic Biological Concepts

    E-print Network

    Enfors, Sven-Olof

    - (outer membrane) Archae Eubacteria Fungi Algae Protozoa Plants Animals Phycomycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes yeasts filamentous fungi "molds": fungi with aerial mycelium KTH-Biotechnology #12;S.-O. Enfors

  8. Nutritional significance of two important root foods (springbank clover and pacific silverweed) used by native people on the coast of British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. V. Kuhnlein; N. J. Turner; P. D. Kluckner

    1982-01-01

    The roots of Pacific silvenveed (Potentilla anserina spp. pacifica) and the rhizomes of springbank clover (Trifolium wormskioldii) are two foods known to have been used extensively by native groups of British Columbia. Reported here are nutrient content and scores on acceptability of these foods gathered and prepared with two methods used by the Nitinaht and Nuxalk (Bella Coola) Indians. It

  9. Phylogenetic Characterization and In Situ Detection of a Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides Phylogroup Bacterium in Tuber borchii Vittad. Ectomycorrhizal Mycelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELENA BARBIERI; LUCIA POTENZA; ISMAELA ROSSI; DAVIDE SISTI; GIOVANNA GIOMARO; SIMONA ROSSETTI; CLAUDIA BEIMFOHR; VILBERTO STOCCHI

    2000-01-01

    Mycorrhizal ascomycetous fungi are obligate ectosymbionts that colonize the roots of gymnosperms and angiosperms. In this paper we describe a straightforward approach in which a combination of morphological and molecular methods was used to survey the presence of potentially endo- and epiphytic bacteria associated with the ascomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii Vittad. Universal eubacterial primers specific for the 5* and

  10. Microbial Diversity of the Harvard Yard Soil Ecosystem Ectomycorrhizalfungiofpinoak

    E-print Network

    Pringle, Anne

    were constructed and used to estimate the composition of microbial divesrity of Harvard Yard Soils. DNA). The most abundant fungi found in the soils were ascomycete fungi. The most common species of fungus found had a high similarity to a compost fungus in GenBank in the ascomycete genus Peziza. A surprising

  11. A new species of Jahnulales from Las Ilusiones Lagoon, Tabasco, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a study on biodiversity of freshwater ascomycetes from an urban tropical lagoon, an ascomycete with similar morphology to species of Jahnulales was obtained. Smooth surface test blocks of Pinus sp., Bucida sp., Cedrela sp. and Tabebuia sp. were submerged in pairs close to a private house whar...

  12. Microfungi potentially disfiguring CCA-treated wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-J. Kim; S.-M. Kang; Y.-S. Choi; G.-H. Kim

    2007-01-01

    The work reported here investigated the fungal community inhabiting from the CCA-treated radiata pine board stored at the yard of a commercial treatment plant in Incheon, Korea. From five treated boards, 22 fungal species were isolated and then characterized using both traditional morphology and molecular identification. The species identified included 16 ascomycetes and six basidiomycetes. Ascomycetous fungi predominated over basidiomycetous

  13. Involvement of birds in the epidemiology of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W

    1986-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was isolated from the liver of a passerine bird, Catharus fuscescens (veery), and from larval Ixodes dammini (tick) feeding on Pheucticus ludovicianus (rose-breasted grosbeak) and Geothlypis trichas (common yellowthroat). In indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests, isolates reacted with polyclonal and monoclonal (H5332) antibodies. Studies on the DNA composition of the veery liver isolate and the strain cultured from an I. dammini larva indicated that both were B. burgdorferi and not Borrelia anserina or Borrelia hermsii. The veery liver isolate infected hamsters and a chick. In contrast, B. anserina infected chicks but not hamsters. B. burgdorferi is unique among Borrelia spp. in being infectious to both mammals and birds. We suggest that the cosmopolitan distribution of B. burgdorferi may be caused by long-distance dispersal of infected birds that serve as hosts for ticks. PMID:3943893

  14. Nomenklatorische Anmerkungen zur Gattung Potentilla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji?í Soják

    1969-01-01

    Für folgende inkorrekte Epitheta schlägt der Autor richtige Namen vor, die in Klammern angeführt sind:Potentilla opizii\\u000a Dom. (=P. lindackeri\\u000a Tausch),P. dealbata\\u000a Bunge (=P. virgata\\u000a Lehm.),P. poterioides\\u000a Franch. (=P. limprichtii\\u000a J. Krause),P. fulgens\\u000a Wall. exHook. (=P. siemersiana\\u000a Lehm.),P. labradorica\\u000a Lehm. (=P. flexuosa\\u000a Raf.),P. ambigua\\u000a Camb. (=P. cuneifolia\\u000a Bertol.),P. anserina ssp.egedii\\u000a (Wormsk.) Hitt. (=P. anserina ssp.groenlandica\\u000a Tratt.),P. raddeana\\u000a (Wolf) Juz. (=P. bertramii

  15. Isolation, characterization, and systematic significance of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid in Rosaceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonja Wilkes; Heinrich Glasl

    2001-01-01

    2-Pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid was isolated from Potentilla anserina. Until now this substance was only found in bacteria and not in higher plants. By sterile cultivation it was verified that this compound is genuine also in plants. In addition the systematic relevance of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid within the Rosaceae was tested. The compound seems to be a chemotaxonomic marker for the Rosoideae sensu

  16. Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from blood of a bird captured in the Saint Croix River Valley.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, R G; Ubico, S R; Hughes, C A; Engstrom, S M; Johnson, R C

    1993-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to further evaluate the role of birds in the maintenance and dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi. Blood specimens were taken from 39 passerine birds of 17 species captured during June 1991 at the Saint Croix National Riverway in Wisconsin, and one isolate, WI91-23, was cultured from an adult song sparrow (Melospiza melodia). This isolate was shown to be infectious for Peromyscus leucopus and Mesocricetus auratus (golden hamster). Isolate WI91-23 was confirmed as B. burgdorferi by immunofluorescence assay by using species-specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibodies H3TS and H5332 and anti-OspB antibody H5TS. Isolate WI91-23 was compared with Borrelia anserina Es, Borrelia hermsii MAN-1, and other B. burgdorferi strains (ATCC 53210, CT-1, and Catharus fuscescens [veery] liver 10293). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of in situ-lysed spirochetes revealed that the DNA plasmid profile of WI91-23 was most similar to those of plasmids from B. burgdorferi and most different from those of plasmids from B. anserina and B. hermsii. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the protein profile of WI91-23 was like that of other B. burgdorferi strains studied, with dominant proteins corresponding to OspA and OspB, and that it differed from the protein profiles of B. anserina and B. hermsii. These findings indicate that passerine birds may serve as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi. Images PMID:8370728

  17. Sex, outcrossing and mating types: unsolved questions in fungi and beyond

    E-print Network

    López-Villavicencio, Manuela

    fuse. The long-term persistence of eukaryotes relying exclusively on asexual reproduction is rare Keywords: ascomycete; asexual reproduction; basidiomycete; breeding systems; diploid selfing; gametophytic- nance of asexual vs. sexual reproduction a

  18. Molecular Characterization of MADS-BOX Transcription Factors and Analysis of Field Population Diversity in the Maize Pathogen Fusarium verticillioides

    E-print Network

    Ortiz, Carlos S

    2013-04-10

    Fusarium verticillioides (Teleomorph Giberella moniliformis) is an ascomycete fungus responsible for ear and stalk rots of maize. Most importantly, it produces a group of mycotoxins called fumonisins upon colonization of maize kernels. Fumonisin B1...

  19. PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY OF MEDICALLY IMPORTANT FUSARIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the paucity of phenotypic traits, morphological species recognition greatly underestimates the number of clinically important species of the opportunistic filamentous ascomycete Fusarium. To address this problem, species limits are being investigated using multilocus DNA sequence data, using...

  20. Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina from multigene sequence analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most known species of the subphylum Saccharomycotina (budding ascomycetous yeasts) have now been placed in phylogenetically defined clades following multigene sequence analysis. Terminal clades, which are usually well supported from bootstrap analysis, are viewed as phylogenetically circumscribed ge...

  1. Didymella rabiei primary inoculum release from chickpea debris in relation to weather variables in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Didymella rabiei (anamorph: Ascochyta rabiei), the ascomycete fungus that causes Ascochyta blight of chickpea, produces pseudothecia on overwintered chickpea debris. Ascospores released from pseudothecia are thought to constitute an important primary inoculum source for Ascochyta blight epidemics i...

  2. A molecular phylogeny of anseriformes based on mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Donne-Goussé, Carole; Laudet, Vincent; Hänni, Catherine

    2002-06-01

    To study the phylogenetic relationships among Anseriformes, sequences for the complete mitochondrial control region (CR) were determined from 45 waterfowl representing 24 genera, i.e., half of the existing genera. To confirm the results based on CR analysis we also analyzed representative species based on two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2). These data allowed us to construct a robust phylogeny of the Anseriformes and to compare it with existing phylogenies based on morphological or molecular data. Chauna and Dendrocygna were identified as early offshoots of the Anseriformes. All the remaining taxa fell into two clades that correspond to the two subfamilies Anatinae and Anserinae. Within Anserinae Branta and Anser cluster together, whereas Coscoroba, Cygnus, and Cereopsis form a relatively weak clade with Cygnus diverging first. Five clades are clearly recognizable among Anatinae: (i) the Anatini with Anas and Lophonetta; (ii) the Aythyini with Aythya and Netta; (iii) the Cairinini with Cairina and Aix; (iv) the Mergini with Mergus, Bucephala, Melanitta, Callonetta, Somateria, and Clangula, and (v) the Tadornini with Tadorna, Chloephaga, and Alopochen. The Tadornini diverged early on from the Anatinae; then the Mergini and a large group that comprises the Anatini, Aythyini, Cairinini, and two isolated genera, Chenonetta and Marmaronetta, diverged. The phylogeny obtained with the control region appears more robust than the one obtained with mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2 and cytb. This suggests that the CR is a powerful tool for bird phylogeny, not only at a small scale (i.e., relationships between species) but also at the family level. Whereas morphological analysis effectively resolved the split between Anatinae and Anserinae and the existence of some of the clades, the precise composition of the clades are different when morphological and molecular data are compared. PMID:12099792

  3. The genome and development-dependent transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: a window into fungal evolution.

    PubMed

    Traeger, Stefanie; Altegoer, Florian; Freitag, Michael; Gabaldon, Toni; Kempken, Frank; Kumar, Abhishek; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Stajich, Jason E; Nowrousian, Minou

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ~13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion mutant, showing functional conservation of this developmental regulator. PMID:24068976

  4. The Genome and Development-Dependent Transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: A Window into Fungal Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Altegoer, Florian; Freitag, Michael; Gabaldon, Toni; Kempken, Frank; Kumar, Abhishek; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Stajich, Jason E.; Nowrousian, Minou

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ?13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion mutant, showing functional conservation of this developmental regulator. PMID:24068976

  5. Palaeofibulus Gen. nov., a Clamp-Bearing Fungus from the Triassic of Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Osborn, Jeffrey M.; Taylor, Thomas N.; White, James F. Jr.

    1989-07-01

    affin-ities with a modern ascomycete order, the Eu-rotiales. Other fungi associated with gymno-spermous wood from the Triassic of Antarctica have been reported with both simple and me-dallion clamp connections (Stubblefield and Taylor, 1986). Wood decay... in the Devonian pro-gymnosperm Callixylon was also suggested as the result of an ascomycetous or basidiomyce-tous fungus (Stubblefield et al., 1985). Although true clamps were not substantiated on these hy-phae, presence of occasional intercalary bulges along...

  6. Palaeofibulus gen. nov., a clamp-bearing fungus from the Triassic of Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Osborn, Jeffrey M.; Taylor, Thomas N.; White, James F. Jr.

    1989-01-05

    affin-ities with a modern ascomycete order, the Eu-rotiales. Other fungi associated with gymno-spermous wood from the Triassic of Antarctica have been reported with both simple and me-dallion clamp connections (Stubblefield and Taylor, 1986). Wood decay... in the Devonian pro-gymnosperm Callixylon was also suggested as the result of an ascomycetous or basidiomyce-tous fungus (Stubblefield et al., 1985). Although true clamps were not substantiated on these hy-phae, presence of occasional intercalary bulges along...

  7. Altering sexual reproductive mode by interspecific exchange of MAT loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual fungi can be self-sterile (heterothallic, requiring genetically distinct partners) or selffertile (homothallic, no partner required). In most ascomycetes, a single mating type locus (MAT) controls the ability to reproduce sexually. In the genus Cochliobolus, all heterothallic species have eit...

  8. INTRODUCTION Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in most forest soils, usually obtained in the form of nitrate.

    E-print Network

    Hibbett, David S.

    of nitrate. Acquisition of nitrate is mediated by NRT2, a high affinity transporter of nitrate in prokaryotes in the ascomycete Aspergillus revealed two nrt2 copies with different affinities for binding nitrate, although until this point there has been no indication of functional divergence in other fungi. Fine regulation of nitrate

  9. The synaptonemal complex and the spindle plaque during meiosis in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Zickler; Lauritz W. Olson

    1975-01-01

    Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae proceeds principally in the same manner as in other Ascomycetes. Leptotene is characterized by unpaired lateral components and pachytene by the presence of extensive synaptonemal complexes. The synaptonemal complex has the same dimensions and is similar in structure to those described for other organisms. Chromosome counts can now be made by reconstructing the synaptonemal complexes. Diplotene

  10. Blastobotrys von Klopotek (1967)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the anamorphic ascomycete genus Blastobotrys and is to be published in The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Blastobotrys, which represents the asexual state of the genus Trichomonascus, has been phylogenetically defined and has 21 assigned species. Blastobot...

  11. Debaryomyces Lodder & Kreger-van Rij (1952)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Debaryomyces and is to be published in The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Debaryomyces has nine described species, many of which are worldwide in distribution. Most notable species is D. hansenii, which is found in soil, plant de...

  12. Zygotorulaspora Kurtzman (2003)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Zygotorulaspora and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The two species in this genus were at different times placed in the genera Torulaspora, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces. Multigene phylogenetic analysis sho...

  13. Occurrence of Dumontinia tuberosa in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Soon Ja; Lee, Min Woo; Hong, Sung Kee

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-seven single spore isolates were obtained from specimens of ascomycetous fruiting bodies collected from Mt. Suri, Anyang in Korea. The fungal specimens and isolates were identified as Dumontinia tuberosa based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. This is the first record of this fungus occurring in Korea. PMID:23983526

  14. Studies on the solubilization of German coal by fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Reiss

    1992-01-01

    Summary The capability of seven basidiomycetes (Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. eryngii, Stropharia sp.), one ascomycete (Chaetomium globosum) and five hyphomycetes and moulds (Humicola grisea, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, Paecilomyces varioti, Papulaspora immersa) to solubilize medium and high volatile bituminous coals (types A and B) as well as four types of lignite B from

  15. Schwanniomyces Klocker emend. M. Suzuki & Kurtzman (2010)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Schwanniomyces and is to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edn. The genus Schwanniomyces has seven assigned species, many worldwide in distribution. Schwanniomyces is one of the few yeast genera with species that seem to live in th...

  16. Reevaluation of the Life Cycle of Tuber magnatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Paolocci; Andrea Rubini; Claudia Riccioni; Sergio Arcioni

    2006-01-01

    Tuber spp. are Ascomycetes fungi that establish an ecto- mycorrhizal symbiosis with trees and shrubs. As a result of this mutualistic symbiosis, ascocarps known as truffles are pro- duced. Some Tuber spp. produce edible truffles that, given their distinctive taste and aroma, are highly valued by gourmets. Research on these fungi has focused on promoting the culti- vation of these

  17. Understanding the coevolution of rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta and Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence gene AVR-Pita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae remains to be one of the most serious threats for food security globally. Using resistance (R) genes in integrated cultural practices has been the most powerful practice for rice crop protection. Genetic analysis s...

  18. Global analyses of Ceratocystis cacaofunesta mitochondria: from genome to proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is the causal agent of wilt disease in cacao, which results in significant economic losses in the affected producing areas. Despite the economic importance of the Ceratocystis complex of species, no genomic data are available for any of its ...

  19. H VILKEN ROLLE HAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Af David; B. Collinge

    Plantesygdomme forĺrsages af forskel- lige former for mikroorganismer som f.eks. virus, bakterier, ćgsporesvampe (Oomycetes), (ćgte) svampe (f.eks. Ascomycetes og Basidiomycetes) samt nematoder. Samlet kalder vi disse syg- domsfremkaldende mikroorganismer for patogener. I nogle lande (traditio- nelt ikke i Danmark) regnes ogsĺ ska- der forĺrsaget af andre planter, insekter og spindlere med til plantesygdomme- ne. Herudover kan sygdomme vćre ge- netisk

  20. Nakazawaea Y. Yamada, Maeda & Mikata (1994)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Nakazawaea and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study,” 5th edition. The genus Nakazawaea was derived from the genus Pichia and its validity was established from a multigene phylogenetic analysis. The genus contains a single species, ...

  1. Priceomyuces M. Suzuki & Kurtzman (2010)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Priceomyces and is to be published in "The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." The genus Priceomyces has five described species that were earlier assigned to the genus Pichia, but gene sequence analysis showed that the species, now reclassified...

  2. Otlora & al. Taxonomy of the Leptogium lichenoides groupTAXON 57 (3) August 2008: 907921 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Lutzoni, François M.

    ., 2004). Leptogium gelatinosum and L. intermedium are mor- phologically similar, although some907 Otálora & al. · Taxonomy of the Leptogium lichenoides groupTAXON 57 (3) · August 2008: 907­921 INTRODUCTION Leptogium (Ach.) Gray is a cosmopolitan genus of lichen-forming ascomycetes classified

  3. A Morphological and Molecular Perspective of Trichoderma viride: Is It One or Two Species?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELKE LIECKFELDT; GARY J. SAMUELS; HELGARD I. NIRENBERG; ORLANDO PETRINI; Systematic Botany

    1999-01-01

    Trichoderma (Ascomycetes, Hypocreales) strains that have warted conidia are traditionally identified as T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma. However, two morphologically distinct types of conidial warts (I and II) have been found. Because each type corresponds to a unique mitochondrial DNA pattern, it has been questioned whether T. viride comprises more than one species. Combined molecular data (sequences of

  4. Trigonopsis Schachner emend. Kurtzman & Robnett (2007)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter describes the asexual ascomycete yeast genus Trigonopsis and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The genus Trigonopsis has four known species and T. variabilis is famous for producing triangular cells, whereas the other described species do not. Multigen...

  5. A rock-inhabiting ancestor for mutualistic and pathogen-rich fungal lineages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gueidan; C. Ruibal Villase?or; Hoog de G. S; A. A. Gorbushina; W. A. Untereiner; F. Lutzoni

    2008-01-01

    Rock surfaces are unique terrestrial habitats in which rapid changes in the intensity of radiation, temperature, water supply and nutrient availability challenge the survival of microbes. A specialised, but diverse group of free-living, melanised fungi are amongst the persistent settlers of bare rocks. Multigene phylogenetic analyses were used to study relationships of ascomycetes from a variety of substrates, with a

  6. Production of Wood Decay Enzymes, Loss of Mass, and Lignin Solubilization in Wood by Diverse Tropical Freshwater Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. C. Bucher; S. B. Pointing; K. D. Hyde; C. A. Reddy

    2004-01-01

    In vitro production of cellulase and xylanase was common among diverse freshwater ascomycetes and their hyphomycetous anamorphs. Production of enzymes involved in lignin degradation was rare. Most isolates were capable of causing mass loss in angiosperm wood, although values were low, at ~10% during a 24-week period. A few isolates caused higher mass loss of up to 26.5%, and five

  7. FVABC1, A FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES GENE ENCODING AN ABC TRANSPORTER, MAY BE REQUIRED FOR TOLERANCE OF PHYTOANTICIPINS PRODUCED BY CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytopathogenic ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides is commonly found in corn (Zea mays) and is associated with the production of mycotoxins called fumonisins. The plant produces the phytoanticipins 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA) and 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA), yet F. verticillioides can metab...

  8. 2005 Nature Publishing Group Plectasin is a peptide antibiotic with

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    a saprophytic fungus Per H. Mygind1 *, Rikke L. Fischer2 *, Kirk M. Schnorr1 *, Mogens T. Hansen1 , Carsten P describe plectasin--the first defensin to be isolated from a fungus, the saprophytic ascomycete composition2,10 . Two families of AMPs predominate in vertebrates: cathelicidins and defensins. Cathelicidins

  9. Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

  10. Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Cercospora beticola in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect antigens from Cercospora beticola in soil. Amounts as small as 1.5 µg of freeze-dried C. beticola mycelia dispersed in carbonate buffer were detected. Fungi from different genera (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Hyphomycetes) show...

  12. Fungus-specific microsatellite primers of lichens: application for the assessment of genetic variation on different spatial scales in Lobaria pulmonaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Claude Walser; Christoph Sperisen; Marco Soliva; Christoph Scheidegger

    2003-01-01

    We isolated 12 microsatellite loci for the epiphytic lichen-forming ascomycete Lobaria pulmonaria and studied their patterns of variation within and among populations from Canada and Switzerland. Even though several microsatellites exhibited high levels of variability at different spatial scales, we did not find any evidence for intrathalline variation. Most of the genetic variation was attributed to differences among individuals within

  13. Babjeviella Kurtzman & M. Suzuki (2010)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Babjeviella and is to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Babjeviella has one known species, B. inositovora, which is represented by three strains, one each from the U.S., Canada and Russia. The genus is phylogenet...

  14. Multiyear patterns of fungal biomass dynamics and productivity within naturally decaying smooth cordgrass shoots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Y. Newell

    2001-01-01

    Ascomycetous fungi are predominant secondary microbial producers of the smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterni- flora ) shoot decay system. A 3-yr examination of concentrations of living fungal mass (as ergosterol content) in naturally decaying cordgrass, and of instantaneous rates of cordgrass-fungal production (as rates of incorporation of radiolabeled acetate into ergosterol at a standard temperature of 20 8C), was conducted in

  15. Hyphopichia von Arx & van der Walt (1976)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Hyphopichia and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The genus Hyphopichia was derived from the genus Pichia and accepted as valid following a multigene phylogenetic analysis. At present, there are two species assigne...

  16. Yamadazyma Billon-Grand (1989)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Yamadazyma and is to be published in "The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." The genus Yamadazyma was derived from the genus Pichia following a multigene phylogenetic analysis. At present, there are 6 known species assigned to the genus. Sev...

  17. A Review of the Phylogeny and Biology of the Diaporthales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete order Diaporthales is reviewed based on recent phylogenetic data that outline the families and integrate related asexual fungi. The order is now considered to consist of nine families one of which is newly recognized as the Schizoparmeaceae fam. nov. and two families are recircumscri...

  18. New Phomopsis species identified from wood cankers in eastern North American vineyards.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, caused by the Ascomycete fungus Phomopsis viticola, is a destructive fruit and foliar disease in eastern North American vineyards. The pathogen typically attacks green tissues, but can also cause wood cankers, presumably due to infection of pruning wounds, as is the cas...

  19. Biological and Chemical Complexity of Fusarium proliferatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium proliferatum (teleomorph Gibberella intermedia) is a genetically diverse biological and phylogenetic species with a worldwide distribution and an unusually broad host range. F. proliferatum is a frequent component of the Fusarium ear rot complexes of maize and ...

  20. Survival, germination, and growth of Epichloe typhina and significance of leaf wounds and insects in infection of orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epichloë typhina, [choke] is an important stroma-producing endophytic ascomycete that is responsible for significant yield loss in orchardgrass seed production fields. Although infections are presumed to occur through leaves and stems, details of the infection process and conditions that favor leaf ...

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Sydowiellaceae, resolving the position of Cainiella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cainiella is an ascomycete genus associated with arctic alpine plants. The systematic position of Cainiella has been unclear for a long time with current classifications placing the genus in either Sordariales or Xylariales. Our molecular results, based on mtSSU, ITS and nLSU rDNA data, clearly show...

  2. Characterization and complementation of a fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster deletion in banana isolates of Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides produces the fumonisin mycotoxins, which are of significant concern for their animal toxicity. This ascomycete is also reported from banana, but such strains do not produce fumonisins and are not pathogenic on maize seedlings. Southern analysis of several ...

  3. Polysaccharides and phenolic compounds as substrate for yeasts isolated from rotten wood and description of Cryptococcus fagi sp.nov

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter J. Middelhoven

    2006-01-01

    Pieces of rotten wood collected in the forest were screened for the presence of yeasts. In spring time 3 tree species were sampled, followed by 9 species in summer. Yeast strains were identified by traditional methods. Identifications were confirmed by sequencing of ribosomal DNA in case of doubt. In total 14 yeast species of ascomycetous affiliation and 6 anamorphic basidiomycetous

  4. Occultocarpon, a new monotypic genus of Gnomoniaceae on Alnus nepalensis from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new monotypic genus Occultocarpon and its species, O. ailaoshanense, was discovered on the bark of branches of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae) in Yunnan, China. A phylogeny based on three genes (LSU, rpb2, tef1-a) reveals that O. ailaoshanense belongs to the Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales, Ascomycetes) ...

  5. Concordance of Gene Genealogies Reveals Reproductive Isolation in the Pathogenic Fungus Coccidioides immitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassiliki Koufopanou; Austin Burt; John W. Taylor

    1997-01-01

    Simple cladogenetic theory suggests that gene genealogies can be used to detect mixis in a population and delineate reproductively isolated groups within sexual taxa. We have taken this approach in a study of Coccidioides immitis, an ascomycete fungus responsible for a recent epidemic of coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in California. To test whether this fungus represents a single sexual species throughout

  6. Immune Response of Mormon Crickets that Survived Infection by Beauveria Bassiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic Ascomycete fungus that serves as a biological control agent of Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex Haldeman) and other grasshopper pests. To measure the dose dependent response of Mormon crickets to fungal attack, we applied B. bassiana strain GHA topically to...

  7. The potential role of water in spread of conidia of the Neotyphodium endophyte of Poa ampla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endophytes of the genus Neotyphodium are mutualistic fungi that colonize many cool season grasses. Neotyphodium endophytes are asexual but related to the ascomycete genus Epichloe. They do not produce obvious structures external to the host and for most of the life cycle are asymptomatic and system...

  8. NRPS4 is responsible for the biosynthesis of destruxins in Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 2575

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Destruxins (DTXs) are a family of cyclic depsipeptides that include > 35 members produced by Ascomycetous fungi belonging to several different taxa. These metabolites display a plethora of biological activities including toxicity against insects, depolarization of Ca2+ gradient across the plasma mem...

  9. Characterization of the mating-type genes in Leptographium procerum and Leptographium profanum

    E-print Network

    in ascomycetes is governed by the mat- ing type (MAT) genes residing at the mating type locus (MAT-1) (Yoder et al. 1986; Turgeon & Yoder 2000). Although they occupy the same position in the genome, different to as idi- omorphs named MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 (Metzenberg & Glass 1990; Turgeon & Yoder 2000). In heterothallic

  10. In vivo stimulatory effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium and its fractions on reproductive functions in male mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Li Huang; Sew-Fen Leu; Bi-Ching Liu; Chia-Chin Sheu; Bu-Miin Huang

    2004-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (CS), an Ascomycetes fungus parasitic to Lepidoptera larvae, has been traditionally used as nutritious food for the enhancement on sexual performance and the restitution of impairment in sexual function in Chinese society. We have previously demonstrated the stimulatory effect of CS and its fractions on steroidogenesis both on primary mouse Leydig cells and MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  11. Wickerhamiella van der Walt (1973)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycetous yeast genus Wickerhamiella, which has five described species and has been defined from multigene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence analysis. The species reproduce by multilateral budding but do not form hyphae or pseudohyphae. Asci typically form a single a...

  12. Naumovozyma Kurtzman (2008)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycetous yeast genus Naumovozyma, which was recognized from multigene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence analysis. The genus has two describes species, which were formerly classified in the genus Saccharomyces. The species reproduce by multilateral budding but do not...

  13. KAROTYPE ANALYSIS OF PYRENOPHORA TERES F. TERERS USING TELOMERE ANALYSIS PULSED FIELDGEL ELECTROPHORESIS AND THE GERM TUBE BURST METHOD.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrenophora teres f. teres is an ascomycetous fungus that causes net blotch on barley, a serious foliar disease throughout the world. In order to obtain an accurate karyotype of this fungus, a combination of different methods, including pulse field gel electrophoreses, telomere probe hybridization, ...

  14. MVE1 Encoding the velvet gene product homolog in Mycosphaerella graminicola is associated with aerial mycelium formation, melanin biosynthesis, hyphal swelling, and light signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola is an important pathogen of wheat that causes the disease septoria tritici blotch. Despite the serious impact of M. graminicola on wheat production worldwide, knowledge about its molecular biology is limited. The velvet gene, veA, is one of the key re...

  15. Genetic Diversity of Polyketide Synthase/Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes in Isolates of the Barley Net Blotch Fungus Pyrenophora teres f. teres

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are multifunctional enzymes responsible for biosynthesis of diverse small molecules (e.g., mycotoxins and phytotoxins) in filamentous ascomycetes. Both PKS and NRPS genes are present in fungal genomes as large gene families but...

  16. Characterization and complementation of an apparent FUM gene cluster deletion in Fusarium verticillioides.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides is a worldwide pathogen of maize and produces the fumonisin mycotoxins. Contamination of maize kernels with fumonisin B1 (FB1) is of significant concern because of its causal role in equine leukoencephalomalacia, porcine pulmonary edema, liver and...

  17. Evolution of multinucleated Ashbya gossypii hyphae from a budding yeast-like ancestor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Peter Schmitz; Peter Philippsen

    2011-01-01

    In the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii polarity establishment at sites of germ tube and lateral branch emergence depends on homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae factors controlling bud site selection and bud emergence. Maintenance of polar growth involves homologues of well-known polarity factors of budding yeast. To achieve the much higher rates of sustained polar surface expansion of hyphae compared to mainly

  18. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Candida apicola NRRL Y-50540

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Gómez-Angulo, Jorge; Escalante-García, Zazil; Grande, Ricardo; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Candida apicola, a highly osmotolerant ascomycetes yeast, produces sophorolipids (biosurfactants), membrane fatty acids, and enzymes of biotechnological interest. The genome obtained has a high-quality draft for this species and can be used as a reference to perform further analyses, such as differential gene expression in yeast from Candida genera. PMID:26067948

  19. Molecular characterization of strawberry pathogen Gnomonia fragariae and its genetic relatedness to other Gnomonia species and members of Diaporthales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga Moro?ko; Jamshid Fatehi

    2007-01-01

    Gnomonia fragariae is a poorly studied ascomycete belonging to Diaporthales. Originally G. fragariae was considered a saprophyte occurring on dead tissues of strawberry plants. Recently this fungus was found in Latvia and Sweden, and it was proven to be the cause of severe root rot and petiole blight of strawberry. Thirteen isolates of this pathogen and several other Gnomonia species occurring

  20. Role of fungi in freshwater ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle K. M. Wong; Teik-Khiang Goh; I. John Hodgkiss; Kevin D. Hyde; V. Mala Ranghoo; Clement K. M. Tsui; Wai-Hong Ho; Wilson S. W. Wong; Tsz-Kit Yuen

    1998-01-01

    There are more than 600 species of freshwater fungi with a greater number known from temperate, as compared to tropical, regions. Three main groups can be considered which include Ingoldian fungi, aquatic ascomycetes and non-Ingoldian hyphomycetes, chytrids and, oomycetes. The fungi occurring in lentic habitats mostly differ from those occurring in lotic habitats. Although there is no comprehensive work dealing

  1. Candida Berkhout (1923)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the 314 species assigned to the genus Candida and is to be published in the Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. Ascomycete yeasts that do not form ascosporic state are assigned to the genus Candida, which is a highly polyphyletic taxonomic form genus. Assigned species in...

  2. Molecular systematics of the Amphisphaeriaceae based on cladistic analyses of partial LSU rDNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Jeewon, Rajesh; Liew, Edward C Y; Hyde, Kevin D

    2003-12-01

    The Amphisphaeriaceae is an important family of ascomycetes within the Xylariales. There has been, however, disagreement regarding the taxonomic placement of many genera within this family and whether it should be confined to ascomycetes producing Pestalotiopsis-like anamorphs. In this study, phylogenetic relationships among members of the Amphisphaeriaceae are investigated using partial sequences of the 28S rDNA. Molecular data provided further evidence to support the association of several coelomycetous genera with the ascomycetous Amphisphaeriaceae. Phylogenetic analyses also show that all ascomycetous genera possessing Pestalotiopsis-like anamorphs are monophyletic and confirm the anamorphic-teleomorphic connections of some. There is, however, insufficient evidence to support the restriction of Amphisphaeriaceae to genera, which produce Pestalotiopsis-like anamorphs, because the phylogenetic placement of Amphisphaeria umbrina is not fully resolved and its affinities with other members received low bootstrap support. The results also indicate that Iodosphaeria and Arecophila should be excluded from the Amphisphaeriaceae. The placement of Lanceispora in the Amphisphaeriaceae is doubtful. A broad concept of the family Amphisphaeriaceae is advocated until further data are available. PMID:15000240

  3. The Genome of Nectria haematococca: Contribution of Supernumerary Chromosomes to Gene Expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Coleman; Steve D. Rounsley; Marianela Rodriguez-Carres; Alan Kuo; Catherine C. Wasmann; Jane Grimwood; Jeremy Schmutz; Masatoki Taga; Gerard J. White; Shiguo Zhou; David C. Schwartz; Michael Freitag; Li-jun Ma; Etienne G. J. Danchin; Bernard Henrissat; Pedro M. Coutinho; David R. Nelson; Dave Straney; Carolyn A. Napoli; Bridget M. Barker; Michael Gribskov; Martijn Rep; Scott Kroken; István Molnár; Christopher Rensing; John C. Kennell; Jorge Zamora; Mark L. Farman; Eric U. Selker; Asaf Salamov; Harris Shapiro; Jasmyn Pangilinan; Erika Lindquist; Casey Lamers; Igor V. Grigoriev; David M. Geiser; Sarah F. Covert; Esteban Temporini; Hans D. VanEtten

    2009-01-01

    The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani), is a member of a group of >50 species known as the “Fusarium solani species complex”. Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on >100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this

  4. AGONOMYCETES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agonomycetes are fungi which usually produce neither sexual (meiotic) nor asexual (mitotic) spores. Some members of this artificial (non-phylogenetic) group are related to ascomycetes, while others are related to basidiomycetes. Many members form spore-like propagules called chlamydospores, papulos...

  5. Intracellular accommodation of microbes by plants: a common developmental program for symbiosis and disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Parniske

    2000-01-01

    Plant cells engage in mutualistic and parasitic endosymbioses with a wide variety of microoganisms, ranging from Gram-negative (Rhizobium, Nostoc) and Gram-positive bacteria (Frankia), to oomycetes (Phytophthora), Chytridiomycetes, Zygomycetes (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) and true fungi (Erysiphe, ascomycete; Puccinia, basidiomycete). Endosymbiosis is characterised by the 'symbiosome', a compartment within host cells in which the symbiotic microorganism is either partially or completely enclosed

  6. A spatial model for predicting effects of climate change on Swiss needle cast disease severity in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swiss needle cast disease of Douglas-fir is caused by the ascomycete fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Symptoms of the disease are foliage chlorosis and premature needle abscission due to occlusion of stomata by the ascocarps of the pathogen, resulting in impaired needle gas exchange. Severe defol...

  7. Isocitrate Lyase Is Essential for Pathogenicity of the Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans to Canola (Brassica napus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Idnurm; Barbara J. Howlett

    2002-01-01

    Received 17 June 2002\\/Accepted 29 July 2002 A pathogenicity gene has been identified in Leptosphaeria maculans, the ascomycetous fungus that causes blackleg disease of canola (Brassica napus). This gene encodes isocitrate lyase, a component of the glyoxylate cycle, and is essential for the successful colonization of B. napus. It was identified by a reverse genetics approach whereby a plasmid conferring

  8. NADH dehydrogenase subunit genes in the mitochondrial DNA of yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Nosek, J; Fukuhara, H

    1994-01-01

    The genes encoding the NADH dehydrogenase subunits of respiratory complex I have not been identified so far in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of yeasts. In the linear mtDNA of Candida parapsilosis, we found six new open reading frames whose sequences were unambiguously homologous to those of the genes known to code for NADH dehydrogenase subunit proteins of different organisms, i.e., ND1, ND2, ND3, ND4L, ND5, and ND6. The gene for ND4 also appears to be present, as judged from hybridization experiments with a Podospora gene probe. Specific transcripts from these open reading frames (ND genes) could be detected in the mitochondria. Hybridization experiments using C. parapsilosis genes as probes suggested that ND genes are present in the mtDNAs of a wide range of yeast species including Candida catenulata, Pichia guilliermondii, Clavispora lusitaniae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Hansenula polymorpha, and others. Images PMID:7521869

  9. Redox-mediated decolorization of synthetic dyes by fungal laccases.

    PubMed

    Claus, H; Faber, G; König, H

    2002-09-01

    Laccases from the lignin-degrading basidiomycetes Trametes versicolor, Polyporus pinisitus and the ascomycete Myceliophthora thermophila were found to decolorize synthetic dyes to different extents. Differences were attributed to the specific catalytic properties of the individual enzymes and to the structure of the dyes. Due to their higher oxidative capacities, the laccases from the two basidiomycetes decolorized dyes more efficiently than that of the ascomycete. The azo dye Direct Red 28, the indigoid Acid Blue 74 and anthraquinonic dyes were directly enzymatically decolorized within 16 h. The addition of 2 mM of the redox-mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole further improved and facilitated the decolorization of all nine dyes investigated. Laccases decolorized dyes both individually and in complex mixtures in the presence of bentonite or immobilized in alginate beads. Our data suggest that laccase/mediator systems are effective biocatalysts for the treatment of effluents from textile, dye or printing industries. PMID:12226723

  10. The sterile microfilamentous lichenized fungi Cystocoleus ebeneus and Racodium rupestre are relatives of plant pathogens and clinically important dothidealean fungi.

    PubMed

    Muggia, Lucia; Hafellner, Josef; Wirtz, Nora; Hawksworth, David L; Grube, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic positions of the always-sterile microfilamentous lichens Cystocoleus ebeneus and Racodium rupestre were studied in a phylogenetic framework using sequence data of 5' nuSSU, nuLSU, and mtSSU rDNA. The analysis reveals that both genera are ascomycetes and belong to Dothideomycetidae: they are not close to lichenized members within the subclass, but rather belong to Capnodiales. The macroscopically scarcely distinguishable C. ebeneus and R. rupestre do not form a monophyletic group. The well-supported clade of R. rupestre is basal to the one in which C. ebeneus is close to Mycosphaerellaceae. This study provides another example of ascomycetes with very different life-styles and ecologies being closely related. PMID:18207379

  11. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tonouchi, Akio

    2009-01-01

    A novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled those of some strains of the genus Thermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes. PMID:20148171

  12. Molecular characterisation of fungal endophytic morphospecies associated with the indigenous forest tree, Theobroma gileri, in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sarah E; Crozier, Jayne; Catherine Aime, M; Evans, Harry C; Holmes, Keith A

    2008-07-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy stems and pods of Theobroma gileri, an alternative host of the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao. Non-sporulating isolates were grouped into 46 different morphological species according to their colony morphology. Many of these morphospecies were assumed to be basidiomycetes and, therefore, were of particular interest. Basidiomycetous endophytes have received far less attention than ascomycetes and also have potential as biological control agents of the basidiomycetous pathogens of T. cacao: Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot pathogen) and M. perniciosa (witches' broom disease). The morphospecies were further characterised by molecular analyses. Amplification of the nuLSU was undertaken for phylogenetic placement of these non-sporulating cultures and revealed a total of 31 different taxa of which 15 were basidiomycetes belonging to the class Agaricomycetes, and 16 ascomycetes primarily belonging to the Sordariomycetes. PMID:18534836

  13. Dolabra nepheliae on rambutan and lychee represents a novel lineage of phytopathogenic Eurotiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, Conrad L.; Farr, David F.; Nishijima, Kate; Keith, Lisa; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and lychee (Litchi chinensis) are tropical trees in the Sapindaceae that produce delicious edible fruits and are increasingly cultivated in tropical regions. These trees are afflicted with a stem canker disease associated with the ascomycete Dolabra nepheliae. Previously known from Asia and Australia, this fungus was recently reported from Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The sexual and asexual states of Dolabra nepheliae are redescribed and illustrated. In addition, the ITS and large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA plus fragments from the genes RPB2, TEF1, and the mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit were sequenced for three isolates of D. nepheliae and compared with other sequences of ascomycetes. It was determined that D. nepheliae represents a new lineage within the Eurotiomycetes allied with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the causal agent of Petri grapevine decline. PMID:20802819

  14. Restriction endonuclease cleavage map of mitochondrial DNA from Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Stepie?, P P; Bernard, U; Cooke, H J; Küntzel, H

    1978-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a circular molecule of 31 500 base pairs, is cleaved by restriction endonucleases Eco R I, Hind II, Hind III and Bgl II into 3, 7, 9 and 5 fragments, respectively. The relative positions of the cleavage sites could be mapped by analysis of fragments obtained by double enzyme digestions of whole DNA and by complete and partial redigestion of isolated restriction fragments. Images PMID:345242

  15. Molecular and morphological identification of truffle-producing Tuber species in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon R. Bulman; Sandra B. Visnovsky; Ian R. Hall; Alexis Guerin-Laguette; Yun Wang

    2010-01-01

    Molecular and morphological techniques were used to examine New Zealand ascomycetous truffle (Tuber spp.) samples deposited in the Plant & Food Research and Landcare Research Fungi Herbarium collections. Truffles have been\\u000a found on the roots of many Northern Hemisphere tree species growing in New Zealand, but not on indigenous plant species. Comparisons\\u000a of ribosomal DNA sequences proved to be a

  16. The chsDand chsEGenes of Aspergillus nidulansand Their Roles in Chitin Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Specht; Yilun Liu; Phillips W. Robbins; Christine E. Bulawa; Natalia Iartchouk; Kenneth R. Winter; Perry J. Riggle; Judith C. Rhodes; Carol L. Dodge; David W. Culp; Peter T. Borgia

    1996-01-01

    Specht, C. A., Liu, Y., Robbins, P. W., Bulawa, C. E., Iartchouk, N., Winter, K. R., Riggle, P. J., Rhodes, J. C., Dodge, C. L., Culp, D. W., and Borgia, P. T. 1996. ThechsDandchsEgenes ofAspergillus nidulansand their roles in chitin synthesis.Fungal Genetics and Biology20,153–167. Two chitin synthase genes,chsDandchsE,were identified from the filamentous ascomyceteAspergillus nidulans.In a region that is conserved among

  17. Systematics of Halosarpheia based on morphological and molecular data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Campbell; J. L. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    The genus Halosarpheia (Halosphaeriales) was established for marine ascomycetes with obpyri- form to sub-globose, coriaceous, brown to black os- tiolate ascomata with long necks; hamathecia of ca- tenophyses; thin-walled, unitunicate, persistent asci with thick-walled apices; and ellipsoid, one septate, hyaline ascospores equipped with coiled, threadlike apical appendages that unfurl in water. Emphasis on ascospore appendage morphology has led to the

  18. Global diversity and distribution of macrofungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Mueller; John P. Schmit; Patrick R. Leacock; Bart Buyck; Joaquín Cifuentes; Dennis E. Desjardin; Roy E. Halling; Kurt Hjortstam; Teresa Iturriaga; Karl-Henrik Larsson; D. Jean Lodge; Tom W. May; David Minter; Mario Rajchenberg; Scott A. Redhead; Leif Ryvarden; James M. Trappe; Roy Watling; Qiuxin Wu

    2007-01-01

    Data on macrofungal diversity and distribution patterns were compiled for major geographical regions of the world. Macrofungi\\u000a are defined here to include ascomycetes and basidiomycetes with large, easily observed spore-bearing structures that form\\u000a above or below ground. Each coauthor either provided data on a particular taxonomic group of macrofungi or information on\\u000a the macrofungi of a specific geographic area. We

  19. 11 Carbonic Anhydrases in Fungi and Fungal-Like Organisms – Functional Distribution and Evolution of a Gene Family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Skander Elleuche

    \\u000a The gene family of carbonic anhydrases consists of enzymes that are capable to rapidly accelerate the spontaneous and reversible\\u000a interconversion from carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. To date, fungal carbonic anhydrases have been identified in the genomes\\u000a of some ‘basal fungi’, ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and also within the so-called group of non-fungal organisms studied by\\u000a mycologists. Based on the primary structure of

  20. Isolation and Partial Characterization of an Extracellular Low-Molecular Mass Component with High Phenoloxidase Activity from Thermoascus aurantiacus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Machuca; Hiroshi Aoyama; Nelson Durán

    1999-01-01

    An extracellular low-molecular mass component (LMMC) with catalytic properties was isolated from liquid cultures containing wheat bran of ascomycete thermophilicThermoascus aurantiacus.The partially purified LMMC showed very high activity with typical phenoloxidase substrates in the absence of hydrogen peroxide at acidic pH (2.8). However, in this pH range, the phenoloxidase (PO) activity was quickly lost. The LMMC showed a high optimum

  1. Detection of hyphal fusion in filamentous fungi using differently fluorescence-labeled histones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Rech; Ines Engh; Ulrich Kück

    2007-01-01

    Cell fusion occurs regularly during the vegetative and sexual phases of the life cycle in filamentous fungi. Here, we present\\u000a a simple and efficient method that can detect even rare hyphal fusion events. Using the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora as an experimental system, we developed a histone-assisted merged fluorescence (HAMF) assay for the investigation of hyphal\\u000a fusion between vegetative mycelia.

  2. Identification of the CRE1 Cellulolytic Regulon in Neurospora crassa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianping Sun; N. Louise Glass; Robert Alan Arkowitz

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundIn filamentous ascomycete fungi, the utilization of alternate carbon sources is influenced by the zinc finger transcription factor CreA\\/CRE-1, which encodes a carbon catabolite repressor protein homologous to Mig1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In Neurospora crassa, deletion of cre-1 results in increased secretion of amylase and ?-galactosidase.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere we show that a strain carrying a deletion of cre-1 has increased cellulolytic

  3. Genetic analysis of resistance to septoria tritici blotch in the French winter wheat cultivars Balance and Apache

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyed Mahmod Tabib Ghaffary; Olivier Robert; Valerie Laurent; Philippe Lonnet; Eric Margalé; Richard G. F. Visser; Gert H. J. Kema

    2011-01-01

    The ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola is the causal agent of septoria tritici blotch (STB), one of the most destructive foliar diseases of bread and durum wheat\\u000a globally, particularly in temperate humid areas. A screening of the French bread wheat cultivars Apache and Balance with 30\\u000a M. graminicola isolates revealed a pattern of resistant responses that suggested the presence of new genes

  4. Developmental change of the composition and content of the chitin-glucan complex in the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Feofilova; D. V. Nemtsev; V. M. Tereshina; A. S. Memorskaya

    2006-01-01

    The change of the content and composition of the chitin-glucan complex (CGC) of the ascomycete Aspergillus niger during its development has been studied. In submerged mycelium, the complex is dominated by glucan, whereas chitin is predominant\\u000a in sporophores and spores. The highest CGC content has been noted in sporophores in the terminal phase and in submerged mycelium\\u000a in the idiophase;

  5. Endophytic Mycoflora of Inner Bark of Prosopis cineraria - a Key Stone Tree Species of Indian Desert

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Praveen Gehlot; N. K. Bohra; D. K. Purohit

    2 Abstract: Endophytic fungi of inner bark of Prosopis cineraria have been investigated. 32 species belonging to 21 genera were isolated. The colonization frequency of the endophytic fungi was reported as 62.55%. Fungus composition included 13.6% zygomycetes 5.6% ascomycetes, 72.8% hyphomycetes, 4% coelomycetes and 4% sterile fungi have been found. Colored colonies of endophytic fungi with pigmented single cell conidia

  6. Characterization of a gene in the car cluster of Fusarium fujikuroi that codes for a protein of the carotenoid oxygenase family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Thewes; A. Prado-Cabrero; M. M. Prado; B. Tudzynski; J. Avalos

    2005-01-01

    The ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi produces carotenoids by means of the enzymes encoded by three car genes. The enzymes encoded by carRA and carB are responsible of the synthesis of ?-carotene and torulene, respectively, while the product encoded by carT cleaves torulene to produce the acidic xanthophyll neurosporaxanthin. carRA and carB are found in a cluster with a third gene, carO,

  7. Long-term changes in soil microbial communities during primary succession

    E-print Network

    Cutler, Nick A.; Chaput, Dominique L.; van der Gast, Christopher J.

    2013-12-06

    succession has been observed before: Osana and Trofymow (2012), for 518 example, reported succession in saprotrophic fungi living in moss, but this process has not, 519 to our knowledge, been observed on a timescale of centuries. 520 521 20... mycorrhizal associations over time (Bardgett et al., 2005). Jumpponen (2003) hypothesised 530 that early successional communities would be dominated by saprotrophic Ascomycetes and 531 Basidiomycetes, whereas fungal communities on older substrates would...

  8. Misting and nitrogen fertilization of shoots of a saltmarsh grass: effects upon fungal decay of leaf blades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Y. Newell; Thomas L. Arsuffi; Laura A. Palm

    1996-01-01

    We conducted a 12-week field manipulation experiment in which we raised the nitrogen availability (ammonium sulfate fertilization to roots) and\\/or water potential (freshwater misting) of decaying leaf blades of a saltmarsh grass (smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora) in triplicate 11-m2 plots, and compared the manipulated plots to unmanipulated, control plots. The ascomycetous fungi that dominate cordgrass leaf decomposition processes under natural

  9. Aspergillus niger genome-wide analysis reveals a large number of novel alpha-glucan acting enzymes with unexpected expression profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Lian Yuan; Rachel M. van der Kaaij; Cees A. M. J. J. van den Hondel; Peter J. Punt; Marc J. E. C. van der Maarel; Lubbert Dijkhuizen; Arthur F. J. Ram

    2008-01-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus niger is well known for its ability to produce a large variety of enzymes for the degradation of plant polysaccharide material.\\u000a A major carbon and energy source for this soil fungus is starch, which can be degraded by the concerted action of ?-amylase,\\u000a glucoamylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes, members of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 13, 15

  10. The influence of clear-cutting on ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity in a lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ) stand, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and Gallatin National Forest, Montana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin B. Byrd; V. Thomas Parker; Detlev R. Vogler; Ken W. Cullings

    2000-01-01

    Effects of clear-cutting on the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungus community in a Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. forest near Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A., were assessed using molecular techniques. Samples were taken by soil core in both undisturbed and clear-cut sites by randomized block design. Species overlap was compared between clear-cut and undisturbed sites and ascomycete-basidiomycete ratio was determined, using PCR-RFLP

  11. Metabolism of the tomato saponin ?-tomatine by Gibberella pulicaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus-Michael Weltring; Judith Wessels; Guido F. Pauli

    1998-01-01

    The ascomycete Gibberella pulicaris is able to metabolize the saponin ?-tomatine within 2 h by first removing the complete lycotetraose moiety leading to the aglycone tomatidine. This product is further converted into 7?-hydroxy-tomatidine and the corresponding ?5-dehydro product 7?-hydroxy-tomatidenol. Structural evidence for the hydroxylated main metabolite as well as the unsaturated minor product is based on MS and NMR measurements.

  12. Allantofuranone, a new antifungal antibiotic from Allantophomopsis lycopodina IBWF58B05A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Schüffler; Daniela Kautz; Johannes C Liermann; Till Opatz; Timm Anke

    2009-01-01

    In a screening for new bioactive compounds, the extract of Allantophomopsis lycopodina strain IBWF58B-05A, an imperfect ascomycete, was found to exhibit strong but rather selective antibiotic activity against Paecilomyces variotii. The bioactivity-guided isolation yielded allantofuranone, a new and uncommon ?-lactone. This compound showed antifungal activity against P. variotii and Penicillium species. This paper describes the isolation, structure elucidation and biological

  13. Tagged Mutations at the Tox1 Locus of Cochliobolus heterostrophus by Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunwen Lu; Linda Lyngholm; Ge Yang; Charlotte Bronson; O. C. Yoder; B. Gillian Turgeon

    1994-01-01

    We have used the restriction enzyme-mediated integration insertional mutagenesis procedure to tag the Tox1 locus in the filamentous Ascomycete Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Mutations at other, unselected, loci were also identified and a high proportion (30-50%) of them were tagged. This procedure may be of general utility for simultaneously mutating and tagging genes in fungi and in other eukaryotes. The Tox1 locus

  14. Organization of ribosomal RNA genes in the fungus Cochliobolus heterostrophus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Garber; B. Gillian Turgeon; Eric U. Selker; O. C. Yoder

    1988-01-01

    The genes encoding the 17S, 5.8S and 25S ribosomal RNAs in the Ascomycete Cochliobolus heterostrophus were cloned and analyzed. They are arranged in tandemly repeated units (rDNA) either 9.0 or 9.15 kilobases in length, depending upon the strain. The 5S rRNA genes are not part of the tandemly repeated rDNA. Instead, many and perhaps all of the 5S genes are

  15. Cloning and analysis of the mating type genes from Cochliobolus heterostrophus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gillian Turgeon; Holger Bohlmann; Lynda M. Ciuffetti; Solveig K. Christiansen; Ge Yang; Willi Schfifer; O. C. Yoder

    1993-01-01

    Cochliobolus heterostrophus, a heterothallic Ascomycete, has a single mating type locus with two alternate forms called MAT-1 and MAT-2. MAT-1 was cloned by complementing a MAT-2 strain using a cosmid library from a MAT-1 strain and screening for a homothallic transformant. The cosmid recovered from this transformant was able to re-transform a MAT-2 strain to homothallism and MAT identity was

  16. A new species of Stigmatomyces from Baltic amber, the first fossil record of Laboulbeniomycetes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Walter; Kotrba, Marion; Triebel, Dagmar

    2005-03-01

    A fossil ascomycete was found attached to the thorax of a stalk eyed fly (Diopsidae: Prosphyracephala succini) in a fragment of Baltic amber. The fungus is assigned to the extant genus Stigmatomyces and described as S. succini sp. nov. This find is the first fossil record of the order Laboulbeniales. At the same time it constitutes the oldest record of a parasitic fungus on an insect. The palaeohabitat is discussed with regard to the find. PMID:15912943

  17. Identification of host plants and description of sclerotia of the truffle Mattirolomyces terfezioides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gábor M. Kovács; Erzsébet Jakucs; István Bagi

    2007-01-01

    The truffle, Mattirolomyces terfezioides, is a hypogeous ascomycete with uncertain host relationships. The fungus has been regularly collected on sandy soils in the\\u000a Carpathian Basin. During the study of the natural host plants of the fungus, strange, amorphous, belowground hyphal aggregates\\u000a incorporating soil and sand particles have been found attached to the surface of the roots. The fruitbodies of M.

  18. Biosynthesis of Ergothioneine and Hercynine by Fungi and Actinomycetales

    PubMed Central

    Genghof, Dorothy S.

    1970-01-01

    Unlike other bacteria, aerobic members of the order Actinomycetales show a close biochemical relationship to the fungi by their capacity to synthesize hercynine and ergothioneine. The myxomycete Physarum polycephalum, possessing the same synthetic ability, also shows this relationship. Contrariwise, the unusual position of yeasts as fungi is indicated by the inability of all yeastlike Ascomycetes and all except a few false yeasts to synthesize these two betaines. PMID:5432011

  19. The Sfp-Type 4?-Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt1 of Fusarium fujikuroi Controls Development, Secondary Metabolism and Pathogenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp Wiemann; Sabine Albermann; Eva-Maria Niehaus; Lena Studt; Katharina W. von Bargen; Nelson L. Brock; Hans-Ulrich Humpf; Jeroen S. Dickschat; Bettina Tudzynski

    2012-01-01

    The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi is a notorious rice pathogen causing super-elongation of plants due to the production of terpene-derived gibberellic acids (GAs) that function as natural plant hormones. Additionally, F. fujikuroi is able to produce a variety of polyketide- and non-ribosomal peptide-derived metabolites such as bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins as well as metabolites from yet unidentified biosynthetic pathways, e.g.

  20. Phylogenetically Diverse Cultivable Fungal Community and Polyketide Synthase (PKS), Non-ribosomal Peptide Synthase (NRPS) Genes Associated with the South China Sea Sponges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kang Zhou; Xia Zhang; Fengli Zhang; Zhiyong Li

    Compared with sponge-associated bacteria, the phylogenetic diversity of fungi in sponge and the association of sponge fungi\\u000a remain largely unknown. Meanwhile, no detection of polyketide synthase (PKS) or non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) genes\\u000a in sponge-associated fungi has been attempted. In this study, diverse and novel cultivable fungi including 10 genera (Aspergillus, Ascomycete, Fusarium, Isaria, Penicillium, Plectosphaerella, Pseudonectria, Simplicillium, Trichoderma, and

  1. A REASSESSMENT OF THE FAMILY ALECTORIACEAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan-Eric Mattsson; Mats Wedin

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: The phylogenetic relationship between the Alectoriaceae and theParmeliaceae (lichenized ascomycetes) were studied using sequences of the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA). The Alectoriaceae was represented by specimens of Alectoria ochroleuca and A. sarmentosa, and theParmeliaceae by Bryoria capillaris, Cetraria islandica, Cornicularia normoerica, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia saxatilis, Platismatia glauca, Pleurosticta acetabulum, Usnea florida, Vulpicida

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizas and dark septate endophytes in bromeliads from South American arid environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Lugo; M. G. Molina; E. M. Crespo

    2009-01-01

    Most plant roots are associated with glomalean fungi forming arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) and a wide range are also colonized\\u000a by ascomycetous dark septate endophytes (DSE). Bromeliaceae species can be epiphytic, rupicolous or terrestrial but their\\u000a mycorrhizal status is poorly studied. We examined the AM and DSE status of 5 epiphytic and 4 terrestrial Bromeliaceae from\\u000a an arid area of Central

  3. Infection and colonization of strawberry by Gnomonia fragariae strain expressing green fluorescent protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga Moro?ko-Bi?evska; Jamshid Fatehi

    2011-01-01

    Gnomonia fragariae is a poorly studied ascomycete, which was recently demonstrated to be a cause of severe root rot and petiole blight of strawberry.\\u000a The pathogen was genetically transformed with the GFP as a vital marker and hygromycin resistance gene. Several stable transformants\\u000a were obtained, which did not differ in their phenotype from the wild type isolate. Using one of

  4. Mating-Type Structure, Evolution, and Function in Euascomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Debuchy; B. G. Turgeon

    The past several years have seen a rapid rise in the number of cloned and characterized mating-type loci from an ever-expanding\\u000a group of filamentous Ascomycetes. However, the available mating-type gene database still lacks some representatives of functionally\\u000a or taxonomically important groups. No complete mating-type sequences are available for the Euascomycetes that undergo mating-type\\u000a switching, or for lichen-forming fungi. The analysis

  5. Yeasts and fungi occurring in ensiled whole-crop maize and other ensiled vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Middelhoven, W J; de Jong, I M; de Winter, M

    1990-04-01

    The yeast flora of whole-crop maize ensiled for two weeks was predominated by Candida holmii, C. lambica, C. milleri, Hansenula anomala and Saccharomyces dairensis. Inoculation with other yeast species reported in the literature to prevail in maize or wheat silages did not alter the yeast flora. At 25 or 30 degrees C the ascomycetous fermentative species found at 20 degrees C were accompanied with ascomycetous non-fermentative fungi, i.c. Exophiala jeanselmei and Verticillium psalliotae, by the non-fermentative imperfect basidiomycetous yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and by the weakly fermentative imperfect ascomycetous yeast Trichosporon adeninovorans. The yeast flora of other vegetable crops, ensiled at 20 degrees C for two weeks, was predominated by the same species that prevailed in ensiled maize, provided the crop did not contain mustard oils or menthol. If these compounds occurred in the crops, the yeast flora was predominated by nonfermentative species like Candida famata, Stephanoascus ciferrii, Rhodotorula minuta, Rh. rubra and Trichosporon cutaneum. PMID:2321936

  6. Capnodiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Chomnunti, Putarak; Schoch, Conrad L.; Aguirre–Hudson, Begońa; Ko-Ko, Thida W.; Hongsanan, Sinang; Jones, E.B. Gareth; Kodsueb, Rampai; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Bahkali, Ali H.; Hyde, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the Capnodiaceae with notes on selected genera. Type specimens of the ascomycetous genera Aithaloderma, Anopeltis, Callebaea, Capnodaria, Echinothecium, Phragmocapnias and Scorias were re–examined, described and illustrated. Leptoxyphium is anamorphic Capnodiaceae and Polychaeton is a legitimate and earlier name for Capnodium, but in order to maintain nomenclatural stability we propose that the teleomorphic name should be conisdered for the approved lists of names currently in preparation for fungi. Notes are provided on the ascomycetous genus Scoriadopsis. However, we were unable to locate the type of this genus during the time frame of this study. The ascomycetous genera Aithaloderma, Ceramoclasteropsis, Hyaloscolecostroma and Trichomerium are excluded from Capnodiaceae on the basis of having ascostromata and trans-septate hyaline ascospores and should be accommodated in Chaetothyriaceae. Callebaea is excluded as the ascomata are thyriothecia and the genus is placed in Micropeltidaceae. Echinothecium is excluded as synonym of Sphaerellothecium and is transferred to Mycosphaerellaceae. The type specimen of Capnophaeum is lost and this should be considered as a doubtful genus. The coelomycetous Microxiphium is polyphyletic, while the status of Fumiglobus, Polychaetella and Tripospermum is unclear. Fourteen new collections of sooty moulds made in Thailand were isolated and sequenced. The nuclear large and small rDNA was partially sequenced and compared in a phylogeny used to build a more complete understanding of the relationships of genera in Capnodiaceae. Four new species are described and illustrated, while Phragmocapnias and Scorias are epitypified with fresh collections. PMID:22737101

  7. Two pentatricopeptide repeat domain proteins are required for the synthesis of respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Solotoff, V; Moseler, R; Schulte, U

    2015-02-01

    In this study pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in filamentous ascomycetes are identified and functionally characterized. PPR proteins, which have in common a degenerated 35 amino acid motif often arranged in multiple tandems, are known to be implicated in various steps of RNA metabolism in mitochondria and chloroplasts. In filamentous ascomycetes we identified a common set of nine PPR proteins. For seven of these proteins, which were not yet characterized, knockout mutants of Neurospora crassa were analyzed. The knockout of three genes appeared to be lethal while four mutants showed different degrees of alterations in respiratory chain complexes. Two mutants are specifically affected in the assembly of a functional complex I while the other enzymes of the respiratory chain are present. Both mutants demonstrate the presence of a peripheral arm and the absence of a detectable membrane arm. Analysis of the mitochondrial RNA revealed distinct alterations of the transcript patterns for certain complex I subunits. Synthesis and/or stability of the transcript for ND2-ND3 is grossly impaired in one mutant while in the other mutant splicing of the transcript for ND1-ND4 is hampered. Our analysis provides the basis for a comprehensive characterization of PPR proteins in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:25108509

  8. Prions of yeast from cytoplasmic genes to heritable amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Wickner, R B; Edskes, H K; Taylor, K L; Maddelein, M L; Moriyama, H; Tibor Roberts, B

    2001-01-01

    It was believed that only proteins could carry out enzymatic reactions, and only nucleic acids could mediate inheritance. In recent years, the work of Cech and Altman and others has shown that nucleic acids can catalyze reactions. Now it has been shown that, in yeast, proteins can mediate inheritance. The infectious protein (prion) concept arose from studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of mammals (1), and several lines of evidence suggest that TSEs are indeed caused by infectious forms of the PrP protein, but the absence of definitive proof has left substantial doubt and disagreement on this point (2-6). The ease of genetic manipulation of yeast offers experimental possibilities not yet available even in the mouse system. This enabled the discovery of yeast prions (7), and has facilitated the rapid characterization of these systems. The parallels between the yeast and mammalian systems are striking. Moreover, because both of the yeast prion systems appear to involve self-propagating amyloid forms of the respective proteins, these systems may also serve as models for the broader class of diseases for which amyloid accumulation is a central feature. The discovery of the [HET-s] prion of the filamentous fungus Podospora, another genetically manipulable system, adds a new dimension to prion studies (8). PMID:21374508

  9. Molecular systematics of Zopfiella and allied genera: evidence from multi-gene sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lei; Jeewon, Rajesh; Hyde, Kevin D

    2006-04-01

    This study aims to reveal the phylogenetic relationships of Zopfiella and allied genera in the Sordariales. Multiple gene sequences (partial 28S rDNA, ITS/5.8S rDNA and partial beta-tubulin) were analysed using MP and Bayesian analyses. Analyses of different gene datasets were performed individually and then combined to infer phylogenies. Phylogenetic analyses show that currently recognised Zopfiella species are polyphyletic. Based on sequence analyses and morphology, it appears that Zopfiella should be restricted to species having ascospores with a septum in the dark cell. Our molecular analysis also shows that Zopfiella should be placed in Lasiosphaeriaceae rather than Chaetomiaceae. Cercophora and Podospora are also polyphyletic, which is in agreement with previous studies. Our analyses show that species possessing a Cladorrhinum anamorph are phylogenetically closely related. In addition, there are several strongly supported clades, characterised by species possessing divergent morphological characters. It is difficult to predict which characters are phylogenetically informative for delimiting these clades. PMID:16546361

  10. Isolation and characterization of endophytic huperzine A-producing fungi from Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Zeng, Qing Gui; Zhang, Zhi Bin; Yan, Ri Ming; Wang, Ling Yun; Zhu, Du

    2011-09-01

    Huperzia serrata is a producer of huperzine A (HupA), a cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI). Over 120 endophytic fungi were recovered from this plant and screened for Hup-A and nine were found. These nine represented seven different fungal genera with the most significant producer being Shiraia sp. A total of 127 endophytic fungi isolates obtained from the root, stem, and leaf segments of H. serrata were grouped into 19 genera based on their morphological traits and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), indicating endophytic fungi in H. serrata are diverse and abundant. Aspergillus, Podospora, Penicillium, Colletotrichum, and Acremonium were the frequent genera, whereas the remaining genera were infrequent groups. Overall, 39 endophytic fungi isolates showed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition in vitro. Nine endophytic fungi isolates from seven distinct genera were capable of producing HupA verified by thin-layer chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among the HupA-producing fungi, the yield of HupA produced by the Shiraia sp. Slf14 was 327.8 ?g/l in potato dextrose broth, and the fungal HupA was further validated by mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The present study demonstrated that H. serrata was a fascinating fungal reservoir for producing HupA and other ChEIs. PMID:21107640

  11. Four marine-derived fungi for bioremediation of raw textile mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Verma, Pankaj; Shouche, Yogesh S; Naik, Chandrakant Govind

    2010-04-01

    Textile dye effluents pose environmental hazards because of color and toxicity. Bioremediation of these has been widely attempted. However, their widely differing characteristics and high salt contents have required application of different microorganisms and high dilutions. We report here decolorization and detoxification of two raw textile effluents, with extreme variations in their pH and dye composition, used at 20-90% concentrations by each of the four marine-derived fungi. Textile effluent A (TEA) contained an azo dye and had a pH of 8.9 and textile effluent B (TEB) with a pH of 2.5 contained a mixture of eight reactive dyes. The fungi isolated from mangroves and identified by 18S and ITS sequencing corresponded to two ascomycetes and two basidiomycetes. Each of these fungi decolorized TEA by 30-60% and TEB by 33-80% used at 20-90% concentrations and salinity of 15 ppt within 6 days. This was accompanied by two to threefold reduction in toxicity as measured by LC(50) values against Artemia larvae and 70-80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand and total phenolics. Mass spectrometric scan of effluents after fungal treatment revealed degradation of most of the components. The ascomycetes appeared to remove color primarily by adsorption, whereas laccase played a major role in decolorization by basidiomycetes. A process consisting of a combination of sorption by fungal biomass of an ascomycete and biodegradation by laccase from a basidiomycete was used in two separate steps or simultaneously for bioremediation of these two effluents. PMID:19763847

  12. Genomic mechanisms accounting for the adaptation to parasitism in nematode-trapping fungi.

    PubMed

    Meerupati, Tejashwari; Andersson, Karl-Magnus; Friman, Eva; Kumar, Dharmendra; Tunlid, Anders; Ahrén, Dag

    2013-11-01

    Orbiliomycetes is one of the earliest diverging branches of the filamentous ascomycetes. The class contains nematode-trapping fungi that form unique infection structures, called traps, to capture and kill free-living nematodes. The traps have evolved differently along several lineages and include adhesive traps (knobs, nets or branches) and constricting rings. We show, by genome sequencing of the knob-forming species Monacrosporium haptotylum and comparison with the net-forming species Arthrobotrys oligospora, that two genomic mechanisms are likely to have been important for the adaptation to parasitism in these fungi. Firstly, the expansion of protein domain families and the large number of species-specific genes indicated that gene duplication followed by functional diversification had a major role in the evolution of the nematode-trapping fungi. Gene expression indicated that many of these genes are important for pathogenicity. Secondly, gene expression of orthologs between the two fungi during infection indicated that differential regulation was an important mechanism for the evolution of parasitism in nematode-trapping fungi. Many of the highly expressed and highly upregulated M. haptotylum transcripts during the early stages of nematode infection were species-specific and encoded small secreted proteins (SSPs) that were affected by repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). An active RIP mechanism was revealed by lack of repeats, dinucleotide bias in repeats and genes, low proportion of recent gene duplicates, and reduction of recent gene family expansions. The high expression and rapid divergence of SSPs indicate a striking similarity in the infection mechanisms of nematode-trapping fungi and plant and insect pathogens from the crown groups of the filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina). The patterns of gene family expansions in the nematode-trapping fungi were more similar to plant pathogens than to insect and animal pathogens. The observation of RIP activity in the Orbiliomycetes suggested that this mechanism was present early in the evolution of the filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:24244185

  13. Yeasts in malting, with special emphasis on Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala).

    PubMed

    Laitila, Arja; Sarlin, Tuija; Raulio, Mari; Wilhelmson, Annika; Kotaviita, Erja; Huttunen, Timo; Juvonen, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Malted barley is a major raw material of beer, as well as distilled spirits and several food products. The production of malt (malting) exploits the biochemical reactions of a natural process, grain germination. In addition to germinating grain, the malting process includes another metabolically active component: a diverse microbial community that includes various types of bacteria and fungi. Therefore, malting can be considered as a complex ecosystem involving two metabolically active groups. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi are an important part of this ecosystem, but previously the significance of yeasts in malting has been largely underestimated. Characterization and identification of yeasts in industrial processes revealed 25 ascomycetous yeasts belonging to 10 genera, and 18 basidiomycetous yeasts belonging to 7 genera. In addition, two ascomycetous yeast-like fungi belonging to the genera Aureobasidium and Exophiala were commonly detected. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes with a potentially positive contribution to the malt enzyme spectrum. Several ascomycetous yeast strains showed strong antagonistic activity against field and storage moulds, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala) being the most effective species. Malting studies revealed that W. anomalus VTT C-04565 effectively restricted Fusarium growth and hydrophobin production during malting and prevented beer gushing. In order to broaden the antimicrobial spectrum and to improve malt brewhouse performance, W. anomalus could be combined with other starter cultures such as Lactobacillus plantarum. Well-characterized microbial mixtures consisting of barley and malt-derived microbes open up several possibilities to improve malt properties and to ensure the safety of the malting process. PMID:20872177

  14. Essential Gene Discovery in the Basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans for Antifungal Drug Target Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Ianiri, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungal diseases represent a major burden to health care globally. As with other pathogenic microbes, there is a limited number of agents suitable for use in treating fungal diseases, and resistance to these agents can develop rapidly. Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycete fungus that causes cryptococcosis worldwide in both immunocompromised and healthy individuals. As a basidiomycete, it diverged from other common pathogenic or model ascomycete fungi more than 500 million years ago. Here, we report C. neoformans genes that are essential for viability as identified through forward and reverse genetic approaches, using an engineered diploid strain and genetic segregation after meiosis. The forward genetic approach generated random insertional mutants in the diploid strain, the induction of meiosis and sporulation, and selection for haploid cells with counterselection of the insertion event. More than 2,500 mutants were analyzed, and transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertions in several genes required for viability were identified. The genes include those encoding the thioredoxin reductase (Trr1), a ribosome assembly factor (Rsa4), an mRNA-capping component (Cet1), and others. For targeted gene replacement, the C. neoformans homologs of 35 genes required for viability in ascomycete fungi were disrupted, meiosis and sporulation were induced, and haploid progeny were evaluated for their ability to grow on selective media. Twenty-one (60%) were found to be required for viability in C. neoformans. These genes are involved in mitochondrial translation, ergosterol biosynthesis, and RNA-related functions. The heterozygous diploid mutants were evaluated for haploinsufficiency on a number of perturbing agents and drugs, revealing phenotypes due to the loss of one copy of an essential gene in C. neoformans. This study expands the knowledge of the essential genes in fungi using a basidiomycete as a model organism. Genes that have no mammalian homologs and are essential in both Cryptococcus and ascomycete human pathogens would be ideal for the development of antifungal drugs with broad-spectrum activity. PMID:25827419

  15. Genomic and population analyses of the mating type loci in Coccidioides species reveal evidence for sexual reproduction and gene acquisition.

    PubMed

    Mandel, M Alejandra; Barker, Bridget M; Kroken, Scott; Rounsley, Steven D; Orbach, Marc J

    2007-07-01

    Coccidioides species, the fungi responsible for the valley fever disease, are known to reproduce asexually through the production of arthroconidia that are the infectious propagules. The possible role of sexual reproduction in the survival and dispersal of these pathogens is unexplored. To determine the potential for mating of Coccidioides, we analyzed genome sequences and identified mating type loci characteristic of heterothallic ascomycetes. Coccidioides strains contain either a MAT1-1 or a MAT1-2 idiomorph, which is 8.1 or 9 kb in length, respectively, the longest reported for any ascomycete species. These idiomorphs contain four or five genes, respectively, more than are present in the MAT loci of most ascomycetes. Along with their cDNA structures, we determined that all genes in the MAT loci are transcribed. Two genes frequently found in common sequences flanking MAT idiomorphs, APN2 and COX13, are within the MAT loci in Coccidioides, but the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 copies have diverged dramatically from each other. Data indicate that the acquisition of these genes in the MAT loci occurred prior to the separation of Coccidioides from Uncinocarpus reesii. An analysis of 436 Coccidioides isolates from patients and the environment indicates that in both Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, there is a 1:1 distribution of MAT loci, as would be expected for sexually reproducing species. In addition, an analysis of isolates obtained from 11 soil samples demonstrated that at three sampling sites, strains of both mating types were present, indicating that compatible strains were in close proximity in the environment. PMID:17513566

  16. ELECTRON BOMBARDMENT OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Whelden, Roy M.; Buchwald, Charles E.; Cooper, Franklin S.; Haskins, Caryl P.

    1940-01-01

    A study has been undertaken of the rate of inactivation of spores of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus niger when bombarded in vacuum, with homogeneous beams of cathode rays of energies from 4 to 15 electron kv. and current densities of 1 x 10–7 to 3 x 10–6 amperes per square cm. These velocities and densities are in the range of those of showers of secondary electrons produced in biological materials irradiated with moderately soft x-rays, and so may be made to serve as quantitative indicators of the mechanics of x-ray action. Four qualitative effects are described. PMID:19873162

  17. Parallels in Amphibian and Bat Declines from Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Eskew, Evan A.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species—the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats—are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host–pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases. PMID:23622255

  18. Identification of potentially safe promising fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide natural food colorants using chemotaxonomic rationale

    PubMed Central

    Mapari, Sameer AS; Meyer, Anne S; Thrane, Ulf; Frisvad, Jens C

    2009-01-01

    Background Colorants derived from natural sources look set to overtake synthetic colorants in market value as manufacturers continue to meet the rising demand for clean label ingredients – particularly in food applications. Many ascomycetous fungi naturally synthesize and secrete pigments and thus provide readily available additional and/or alternative sources of natural colorants that are independent of agro-climatic conditions. With an appropriately selected fungus; using in particular chemotaxonomy as a guide, the fungal natural colorants could be produced in high yields by using the optimized cultivation technology. This approach could secure efficient production of pigments avoiding use of genetic manipulation. Results Polyketide pigment producing ascomycetous fungi were evaluated for their potential as production organisms based on a priori knowledge on species-specific pigment and potential mycotoxin production and BioSafety level (BSL) classification. Based on taxonomic knowledge, we pre-selected ascomycetous fungi belonging to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium that produced yellow, orange or red pigments while deselecting Penicillium marneffei; a well known human pathogen in addition to other mycotoxigenic fungi belonging to the same group. We identified 10 strains belonging to 4 species; viz. P. purpurogenum, P. aculeatum, P. funiculosum, and P. pinophilum as potential pigment producers that produced Monascus-like pigments but no known mycotoxins. The selection/deselection protocol was illustrated in the pigment extracts of P. aculeatum IBT 14259 and P. crateriforme IBT 5015 analysed by HPLC-DAD-MS. In addition, extracellular pigment producing ability of some of the potential pigment producers was evaluated in liquid media with a solid support and N-glutarylmonascorubramine was discovered in the partially purified pigment extract of P. purpurogenum IBT 11181 and IBT 3645. Conclusion The present work brought out that the use of chemotaxonomic tools and a priori knowledge of fungal extrolites is a rational approach towards selection of fungal polyketide pigment producers considering the enormous chemical diversity and biodiversity of ascomycetous fungi. This rationale could be very handy for the selection of potentially safe fungal cell factories not only for polyketide pigments but also for the other industrially important polyketides; the molecular and genetic basis for the biosynthesis of which has not yet been examined in detail. In addition, 4 out of the 10 chemotaxonomically selected promising Penicillium strains were shown to produce extracellular pigments in the liquid media using a solid support indicating future cell factory possibilities for polyketide natural food colorants. PMID:19397825

  19. Parallels in amphibian and bat declines from pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Eskew, Evan A; Todd, Brian D

    2013-03-01

    Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species-the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats-are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host-pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases. PMID:23622255

  20. Taming a wild beast: Developing molecular tools and new methods to understand the biology of Zymoseptoria tritici.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Nicholas J

    2015-06-01

    Septoria blotch of wheat is one of the world's most serious plant diseases, which is difficult to control due to the absence of durable host resistance and the increasing frequency of fungicide-resistance. The ascomycete fungus that causes the disease, Zymoseptoria tritici, has been very challenging to study. This special issue of Fungal Genetics and Biology showcases an integrated approach to method development and the innovation of new molecular tools to study the biology of Z. tritici. When considered together, these new methods will have a rapid and dramatic effect on our ability to combat this significant disease. PMID:25975217

  1. ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis. PMID:23616783

  2. Agrobacterium and PEG-mediated transformation of the phytopathogen Venturia inaequalis.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Anna M; Mudge, Agnieszka M; Gleave, Andrew P; Plummer, Kim M

    2003-07-01

    We report the development of two new transformation systems, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation of protoplasts and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of mycelium, for the filamentous ascomycete Venturia inaequalis. New binary vectors have been created for the latter. Although transformation was initially achieved using a PEG-mediated method, this was superseded by the A. tumefaciens-mediated approach. The advantages of the latter include: ease of the protocol, no requirement for protoplasts; higher transformation efficiency; and single-site integration. A comparison between the two transformation methods is presented. PMID:12967207

  3. Taming a wild beast: Developing molecular tools and new methods to understand the biology of Zymoseptoria tritici

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Septoria blotch of wheat is one of the world’s most serious plant diseases, which is difficult to control due to the absence of durable host resistance and the increasing frequency of fungicide-resistance. The ascomycete fungus that causes the disease, Zymoseptoria tritici, has been very challenging to study. This special issue of Fungal Genetics and Biology showcases an integrated approach to method development and the innovation of new molecular tools to study the biology of Z. tritici. When considered together, these new methods will have a rapid and dramatic effect on our ability to combat this significant disease. PMID:25975217

  4. TMpcp: a Tuber magnatum gene which encodes a putative mitochondrial phosphate carrier.

    PubMed

    Garnero, L; Bonfante, P

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about the genome of Tuber, Ascomycetes which comprise a number of ectomycorrhizal species. Screening of a genomic library of Tuber magnatum led to identification of a chitin synthase gene (chs). On sequencing upstream of it in the same phage, we found a 2000 bp long fragment that proved to contain a hypothetical gene with high homology with mitochondrial phosphate carriers from human and bovine heart, and from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sequence contains two putative introns and its open reading frame encodes for a protein 305 amino acids long. A primary sequence analysis revealed 6 hydrophobic segments and a signature pattern, similar to that of other mitochondrial carriers. PMID:10826699

  5. Uranium Biosorption by the Lichen Trapelia involuta at a Uranium Mine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. William Purvis; Elizabeth H. Bailey; Judith McLean; Takeshi Kasama; Ben J. Williamson

    2004-01-01

    Metal localisation was investigated in the lichenised ascomycete Trapelia involuta growing on a range of uraniferous minerals including metazeunerite [Cu(UO2)2(AsO4)2·8H2O], metatorbernite [Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2·8H2O], autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2·10H2O] and uranium-enriched iron oxide and hydroxide minerals at the abandoned South Terras mine site, Cornwall, UK. Apothecia from samples collected from waste dumps at the mine have an unusually dark colour that decolorized with NaOCl, an

  6. Purification and biochemical characterization of a laccase from the aquatic fungus Myrioconium sp. UHH 1-13-18-4 and molecular analysis of the laccase-encoding gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Martin; M. Pecyna; H. Kellner; N. Jehmlich; C. Junghanns; D. Benndorf; M. von Bergen; D. Schlosser

    2007-01-01

    Myrioconium sp. strain UHH 1-13-18-4 is an ascomycete anamorph isolated from the river Saale, Central Germany. An extracellular, monomeric,\\u000a and glycosylated laccase with a molecular mass of 72.7 kDa as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization-time\\u000a of flight-mass spectrometry and an isoelectric point below 2.8 was purified from CuSO4 and vanillic acid amended liquid fungal cultures grown in malt extract medium. The

  7. Detection of presumptive mycoparasites associated with Entomophaga maimaiga resting spores in forest soils.

    PubMed

    Castrillo, Louela A; Hajek, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga can provide high levels of control of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, an important forest defoliator. This fungus persists in the soil as resting spores and occurs naturally throughout many areas where gypsy moth is established. Studies on the spatial dynamics of gypsy moth population have shown high variability in infection levels, and one possible biological factor could be the variable persistence of E. maimaiga resting spores in the soil due to attacks by mycoparasites. We surveyed presumptive mycoparasites associated with parasitized E. maimaiga resting spores using baiting and molecular techniques and identified an ascomycete (Pochonia sp.) and oomycetes (Pythium spp.). PMID:25433313

  8. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  9. Communities of Endophytic Sebacinales Associated with Roots of Herbaceous Plants in Agricultural and Grassland Ecosystems Are Dominated by Serendipita herbamans sp. nov

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Kai; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are known to be commonly associated with herbaceous plants, however, there are few studies focusing on their occurrence and distribution in plant roots from ecosystems with different land uses. To explore the phylogenetic diversity and community structure of Sebacinales endophytes from agricultural and grassland habitats under different land uses, we analysed the roots of herbaceous plants using strain isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and co-cultivation experiments. A new sebacinoid strain named Serendipita herbamans belonging to Sebacinales group B was isolated from the roots of Bistorta vivipara, which is characterized by colourless monilioid cells (chlamydospores) that become yellow with age. This species was very common and widely distributed in association with a broad spectrum of herbaceous plant families in diverse habitats, independent of land use type. Ultrastructurally, the presence of S. herbamans was detected in the cortical cells of Plantago media, Potentilla anserina and Triticum aestivum. In addition, 13 few frequent molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) or species were found across agricultural and grassland habitats, which did not exhibit a distinctive phylogenetic structure. Laboratory-based assays indicate that S. herbamans has the ability to colonize fine roots and stimulate plant growth. Although endophytic Sebacinales are widely distributed across agricultural and grassland habitats, TEM and nested PCR analyses reinforce the observation that these microorganisms are present in low quantity in plant roots, with no evidence of host specificity. PMID:24743185

  10. Identification of a protein in several Borrelia species which is related to OspC of the Lyme disease spirochetes.

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, R T; Samuels, D S; Schwan, T G; Garon, C F

    1993-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide probes which have previously been shown to be specific for the ospC gene found in the Lyme disease spirochete species Borrelia burgdorferi, B. garinii, and group VS461, we detected an ospC homolog in other Borrelia species including B. coriaceae, B. hermsii, B. anserina, B. turicatae, and B. parkeri. In contrast to the Lyme disease spirochetes, which carry the ospC gene on a 26-kb circular plasmid, we mapped the gene in other Borrelia species to linear plasmids which varied in size among the isolates tested. Some isolates carry multiple copies of the gene residing on linear plasmids of different sizes. The analyses conducted here also demonstrate that these Borrelia species contain a linear chromosome. Northern (RNA) blot analyses demonstrated that the gene is transcriptionally expressed in all species examined. High levels of transcriptional expression were observed in some B. hermsii isolates. Transcriptional start site analyses revealed that the length of the untranslated leader sequence was identical to that observed in the Lyme disease spirochete species. By Western blotting (immunoblotting) with antiserum (polyclonal) raised against the OspC protein of B. burgdorferi, we detected an immunoreactive protein of the same molecular weight as the OspC found in Lyme disease spirochete species. The results presented here demonstrate the presence of a protein that is genetically and antigenically related to OspC which is expressed in all species of the genus Borrelia tested. Images PMID:8253952

  11. Functional analysis of the degradation of cellulosic substrates by a Chaetomium globosum endophytic isolate.

    PubMed

    Longoni, Paolo; Rodolfi, Marinella; Pantaleoni, Laura; Doria, Enrico; Concia, Lorenzo; Picco, Anna Maria; Cella, Rino

    2012-05-01

    Most photosynthetically fixed carbon is contained in cell wall polymers present in plant biomasses, the largest organic carbon source in the biosphere. The degradation of these polymers for biotechnological purposes requires the combined action of several enzymes. To identify new activities, we examined which enzymes are activated by an endophytic strain of Chaetomium globosum to degrade cellulose-containing substrates. After biochemical analyses of the secretome of the fungus grown on cellulose or woody substrates, we took advantage of the available genomic data to identify potentially involved genes. After in silico identification of putative genes encoding either proteins able to bind to cellulose or glycohydrolases (GHs) of family 7, we investigated their transcript levels by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Our data suggest that eight genes compose the core of the cellulose-degrading system of C. globosum. Notably, the related enzymes belong structurally to the well-described GH families 5, 6, 7, 16, and 45, which are known to be the core of the cellulose degradation systems of several ascomycetes. The high expression levels of cellobiose dehydrogenase and two GH 61 enzymes suggest the involvement of this oxidoreductive synergic system in C. globosum. Transcript analysis along with relevant coding sequence (CDS) isolation and expression of recombinant proteins proved to be a key strategy for the determination of the features of two endoglucanases used by C. globosum for the first attack of crystalline cellulose. Finally, the possible involvement of transcriptional regulators described for other ascomycetes is discussed. PMID:22389369

  12. Phenotype of a Mechanosensitive Channel Mutant, mid-1, in a Filamentous Fungus, Neurospora crassa?

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Roger R.; Abbas, Zohaib; Anderca, Marinela I.; Free, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MID1 (mating-induced death) gene encodes a stretch-activated channel which is required for successful mating; the mutant phenotype is rescued by elevated extracellular calcium. Homologs of the MID1 gene are found in fungi that are morphologically complex compared to yeast, both Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. We explored the phenotype of a mid-1 knockout mutant in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa. The mutant exhibits lower growth vigor than the wild type (which is not rescued by replete calcium) and mates successfully. Thus, the role of the MID-1 protein differs from that of the homologous gene product in yeast. Hyphal cytology, growth on diverse carbon sources, turgor regulation, and circadian rhythms of the mid-1 mutant are all similar to those of the wild type. However, basal turgor is lower than wild type, as is the activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase (measured by cyanide [CN?]-induced depolarization of the energy-dependent component of the membrane potential). In addition, the mutant is unable to grow at low extracellular Ca2+ levels or when cytoplasmic Ca2+ is elevated with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. We conclude that the MID-1 protein plays a role in regulation of ion transport via Ca2+ homeostasis and signaling. In the absence of normal ion transport activity, the mutant exhibits poorer growth. PMID:18296620

  13. Isolation and immunological characterization of a novel Cladosporium herbarum allergen structurally homologous to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold superfamily.

    PubMed

    Rid, Raphaela; Onder, Kamil; Hawranek, Thomas; Laimer, Martin; Bauer, Johann W; Holler, Claudia; Simon-Nobbe, Birgit; Breitenbach, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Because the ascomycete Cladosporium herbarum embodies one of the most important, world-wide occurring fungal species responsible for eliciting typical IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions ranging from rhinitis and ocular symptoms to severe involvement of the lower respiratory tract, a more comprehensive definition of its detailed allergen repertoire is unquestionably of critical medical as well as therapeutic significance. By screening a C. herbarum cDNA library with IgE antibodies pooled from 3 mold-reactive sera, we were able to identify, clone and affinity-purify a novel allergen candidate (29.9 kDa) exhibiting considerable (three-dimensional) homology to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold superfamily. The latter covers a collection of hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin as well as catalytic activity (operating in countless biological contexts) that in general exhibit only little sequence similarity yet show a remarkable conservation of structural topology. Our present study (i) characterizes recombinant non-fusion C. herbarum hydrolase as a natively folded, minor mold allergen that displays a prevalence of IgE reactivity of approximately 17% in our in vitro immunoblot experiments, (ii) proposes the existence of several putative (speculatively cross-reactive) ascomycete orthologues as determined via genome-wide in silico predictions, and (iii) finally implies that C. herbarum hydrolase could be included in forthcoming minimal testing sets when fungal allergy is suspected. PMID:20022636

  14. Cloning and sequence analysis of the MAT-B (MAT-2) genes from the three Dutch elm disease pathogens, Ophiostoma ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, and O. himal-ulmi.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Mathieu; Buck, Kenneth W; Brasier, Clive M

    2005-09-01

    There were two successive pandemics of Dutch Elm Disease (DED) in Europe, parts of Asia and North America in the last century, caused by two ascomycete fungal species, Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi. A third DED species, O. himal-ulmi, was later discovered in the Himalayas. For each of these three species, we now report on the cloning and analysis of a 2.2 kb sequence containing the coding region and 5' and 3' flanking sequences of the mating type B (MAT-B) gene, which is involved in the control of sexual compatibility. The amino acid sequence of the single protein encoded by the gene for each species contained a conserved DNA-binding motif called the high mobility group (HMG) box which showed significant sequence similarity to corresponding sequences in many ascomycete MAT-2 genes. Phylogenetic trees constructed from the MAT-B (renamed MAT-2) nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences showed distinct clades corresponding to the three Ophiostoma species and a clear separation of the O. novo-ulmi clade into the two subspecies americana and novo-ulmi. The 3' flanking regions have been shown to contain variable numbers of repeated oligonucleotide sequences, the number of which is species-specific and readily distinguished by a simple PCR assay. PMID:16209304

  15. The tempo and modes of evolution of reproductive isolation in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, T; Gourbičre, S

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive isolation is an essential ingredient of speciation, and much has been learned in recent years about the evolution of reproductive isolation and the genetics of reproductive barriers in animals and plants. Fungi have been neglected on these aspects, despite being tractable model eukaryotes. Here, we used a model fitting approach to look at the importance of different barriers to gene flow to explain the decrease of reproductive compatibility with genetic distance in fungi. We found support for the occurrence of reinforcement in the presyngamy compatibility among basidiomycetes. In contrast, no evidence for reinforcement was detected in ascomycetes, concurring with the idea that host/habitat adaptation in this group can pleiotropically cause reproductive isolation. We found no evidence of a snowballing accumulation of postsyngamic reproductive incompatibilities in either ascomycetes or the complex of anther smut fungi. Together with previous studies, our results suggest that ecologically based barriers to gene flow and karyotypic differences may have an important role in hybrid inviability and sterility in fungi. Interestingly, hybrid sterility appeared to evolve faster than hybrid inviability in fungi. PMID:22669076

  16. Zygomycetes in Vesicular Basanites from Vesteris Seamount, Greenland Basin – A New Type of Cryptoendolithic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Peckmann, Jörn; Tehler, Anders; Broman, Curt; Bach, Wolfgang; Behrens, Katharina; Reitner, Joachim; Böttcher, Michael E.; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Fungi have been recognized as a frequent colonizer of subseafloor basalt but a substantial understanding of their abundance, diversity and ecological role in this environment is still lacking. Here we report fossilized cryptoendolithic fungal communities represented by mainly Zygomycetes and minor Ascomycetes in vesicles of dredged volcanic rocks (basanites) from the Vesteris Seamount in the Greenland Basin. Zygomycetes had not been reported from subseafloor basalt previously. Different stages in zygospore formation are documented in the studied samples, representing a reproduction cycle. Spore structures of both Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes are mineralized by romanechite-like Mn oxide phases, indicating an involvement in Mn(II) oxidation to form Mn(III,VI) oxides. Zygospores still exhibit a core of carbonaceous matter due to their resistance to degradation. The fungi are closely associated with fossiliferous marine sediments that have been introduced into the vesicles. At the contact to sediment infillings, fungi produced haustoria that penetrated and scavenged on the remains of fragmented marine organisms. It is most likely that such marine debris is the main carbon source for fungi in shallow volcanic rocks, which favored the establishment of vital colonies. PMID:26181773

  17. Current state and perspectives of truffle genetics and sustainable biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Poma, Anna; Limongi, Tania; Pacioni, Giovanni

    2006-09-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi belonging to the genus Tuber produce, after the establishment of a productive interaction with a plant host, hypogeous fruitbodies of great economic value known as ''truffles''. This review summarizes the state of art on life cycle, genetic, and biotechnological investigations of Tuber spp. The ascocarp formation in truffles is a consequence of the activation of the sexual phase of the biological cycle. The formation of a dikaryotic secondary mycelium and the karyogamy in the ascal cell (followed by meiosis with ascospores formation) have been hypothesized by several authors but some doubts yet arise from the Tuber cycle by considering that a series of abnormalities have been pointed out in respect to other Ascomycetes. It is unclear if binucleated hyphal cells are derived from the fusion of mononucleated cells belonging to mycelia from different mating types or from one only. According to the karyotypes of Tuber melanosporum, Tuber magnatum, and Tuber borchii, the numbers of hyphal chromosomes suggest a chromosome number of eight (2n); these values are in the range of those of several Ascomycetes and observed for Tuber aestivum (2n=10). The importance and growth in interest during the last years in the fungi protoplasts isolation and transformation techniques can be related to current developments in Tuber genetics and biotechnology. T. borchii could be transformed through liposome-mediated delivery of genetic material as mycelial protoplasts isolation and fusion with liposomes has already been established. On the other hand, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been successfully established for T. borchii. PMID:16802150

  18. Starmerella syriaca f.a., sp. nov., an osmotolerant yeast species isolated from flowers in Syria.

    PubMed

    Sipiczki, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Four strains of a novel asexual ascomycetous yeast species were isolated from Malva sp. flowers in Syria. Sequencing of the regions spanning the small subunit, 5.8S, and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit ribosomal RNA genes showed that the isolates were conspecific. Comparative analysis of these sequences and the corresponding sequences of the type strains of ascomycetous yeasts revealed that the novel species is phylogenetically related to members of the Starmerella clade. Its closest relative is Candida vaccinii. For the new species the name Starmerella syriaca is proposed. Its strains are osmotolerant and produce pseudohypha-like structures capable of penetrating agar media. The type strain is 2-1362(T) (=CBS 13909(T) = NCAIM Y.02138(T) = CCY 090-003-001(T)). The GenBank accession numbers for its nucleotide sequences are: JX515986 (D1/D2 LSU), JX515987 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and JX515988 (SSU). Mycobank: MB 810090. PMID:25583140

  19. Functional Analysis of the Degradation of Cellulosic Substrates by a Chaetomium globosum Endophytic Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Longoni, Paolo; Rodolfi, Marinella; Pantaleoni, Laura; Doria, Enrico; Concia, Lorenzo; Cella, Rino

    2012-01-01

    Most photosynthetically fixed carbon is contained in cell wall polymers present in plant biomasses, the largest organic carbon source in the biosphere. The degradation of these polymers for biotechnological purposes requires the combined action of several enzymes. To identify new activities, we examined which enzymes are activated by an endophytic strain of Chaetomium globosum to degrade cellulose-containing substrates. After biochemical analyses of the secretome of the fungus grown on cellulose or woody substrates, we took advantage of the available genomic data to identify potentially involved genes. After in silico identification of putative genes encoding either proteins able to bind to cellulose or glycohydrolases (GHs) of family 7, we investigated their transcript levels by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Our data suggest that eight genes compose the core of the cellulose-degrading system of C. globosum. Notably, the related enzymes belong structurally to the well-described GH families 5, 6, 7, 16, and 45, which are known to be the core of the cellulose degradation systems of several ascomycetes. The high expression levels of cellobiose dehydrogenase and two GH 61 enzymes suggest the involvement of this oxidoreductive synergic system in C. globosum. Transcript analysis along with relevant coding sequence (CDS) isolation and expression of recombinant proteins proved to be a key strategy for the determination of the features of two endoglucanases used by C. globosum for the first attack of crystalline cellulose. Finally, the possible involvement of transcriptional regulators described for other ascomycetes is discussed. PMID:22389369

  20. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha. PMID:15756826

  1. Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Communities on Decaying Salt Marsh Grass†

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Alison; Newell, Steven Y.; Butler, Melissa; Biers, Erin J.; Hollibaugh , James T.; Moran, Mary Ann

    2003-01-01

    Both bacteria and fungi play critical roles in decomposition processes in many natural environments, yet only rarely have they been studied as an integrated microbial community. Here we describe the bacterial and fungal assemblages associated with two decomposition stages of Spartina alterniflora detritus in a productive southeastern U.S. salt marsh. 16S rRNA genes and 18S-to-28S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were used to target the bacterial and ascomycete fungal communities, respectively, based on DNA sequence analysis of isolates and environmental clones and by using community fingerprinting based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Seven major bacterial taxa (six affiliated with the ?-Proteobacteria and one with the Cytophagales) and four major fungal taxa were identified over five sample dates spanning 13 months. Fungal terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) were informative at the species level; however, bacterial T-RFs frequently comprised a number of related genera. Amplicon abundances indicated that the salt marsh saprophyte communities have little-to-moderate variability spatially or with decomposition stage, but considerable variability temporally. However, the temporal variability could not be readily explained by either successional shifts or simple relationships with environmental factors. Significant correlations in abundance (both positive and negative) were found among dominant fungal and bacterial taxa that possibly indicate ecological interactions between decomposer organisms. Most associations involved one of four microbial taxa: two groups of bacteria affiliated with the ?-Proteobacteria and two ascomycete fungi (Phaeosphaeria spartinicola and environmental isolate “4clt”). PMID:14602628

  2. Ribosomal and RPB2 DNA sequence analyses suggest that Sporidesmium and morphologically similar genera are polyphyletic.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Jeewon, Rajesh; Wu, Wenping P; Bhat, Darbhe Jayarama; Hyde, Kevin D

    2006-08-01

    Sporidesmium and morphologically similar dematiaceous, hyphomycetous genera are characterised by holoblastic phragmoconidia produced on proliferating or non-proliferating conidiophores. They include a number of asexual (anamorphic) genera taxonomically segregated from Sporidesmium sensu lato and are similar in having schizolytic conidial secession. The taxonomy of these ubiquitous asexual fungi and their affinities with known Ascomycetes are, however, still obscure. This study incorporates a phylogenetic investigation, based on the LSU nu-rDNA and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) gene sequence, to assess the possible familial placement of Ellisembia, Linkosia, Repetophragma, Sporidesmiella, Sporidesmium and Stanjehughesia, and justify whether anamorphic characters are proper phylogenetic indicators. Phylogenies provide conclusive evidence to suggest that Sporidesmium is not monophyletic and species are phylogenetically distributed in two major ascomycete classes, Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes. Morphologies currently used in their classification have undergone convergent evolution and are not phylogenetically reliable. The possible teleomorphic affinities of these anamorphic genera are discussed in light of morphology and molecular data. As these anamorphs, in most cases, are the sole known morph of the holomorph, it is proposed that in the absence of or failure to detect their teleomorphic phase, the anamorph names should be used for the holomorph. PMID:16908125

  3. Community composition of root-associated fungi in a Quercus-dominated temperate forest: “codominance” of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Toju, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Gilbert, Gregory S; Kadowaki, Kohmei

    2013-01-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, plant roots are colonized by various clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Focused on the root systems of an oak-dominated temperate forest in Japan, we used 454 pyrosequencing to explore how phylogenetically diverse fungi constitute an ecological community of multiple ecotypes. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi were found from 159 terminal-root samples from 12 plant species occurring in the forest. Due to the dominance of an oak species (Quercus serrata), diverse ectomycorrhizal clades such as Russula, Lactarius, Cortinarius, Tomentella, Amanita, Boletus, and Cenococcum were observed. Unexpectedly, the root-associated fungal community was dominated by root-endophytic ascomycetes in Helotiales, Chaetothyriales, and Rhytismatales. Overall, 55.3% of root samples were colonized by both the commonly observed ascomycetes and ectomycorrhizal fungi; 75.0% of the root samples of the dominant Q. serrata were so cocolonized. Overall, this study revealed that root-associated fungal communities of oak-dominated temperate forests were dominated not only by ectomycorrhizal fungi but also by diverse root endophytes and that potential ecological interactions between the two ecotypes may be important to understand the complex assembly processes of belowground fungal communities. PMID:23762515

  4. Scheffersomyces cryptocercus: a new xylose-fermenting yeast associated with the gut of wood roaches and new combinations in the Sugiyamaella yeast clade.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Hector; Frank, Robert; Blackwell, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    The gut of wood-feeding insects is a microhabitat for a specialized community of microbes, including bacteria and several groups of eukaryotes such as nematodes, parabasalids and fungi. The characterization of gut yeast communities from a variety of insects has shown that certain yeasts often are associated with the insects. The gut of wood-feeding insects is rich in ascomycete yeasts and in particular xylose-fermenting (X-F) and assimilating yeasts have been consistently present in the gut of lignicolous insects. The objective of this study was the characterization of the yeast flora from the gut of the wood roach Cryptocercus sp. (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae). Five wood roaches were collected along the Appalachian Trail near the border between Tennessee and North Carolina, USA. We isolated 18 yeast strains from the wood roaches identified as Sugiyamaella paludigena and Sugiyamaella lignohabitans, xylose-assimilating yeasts, and Scheffersomyces cryptocercus (NRRL Y-48824(T) = CBS 12658) a new species of X-F yeast. The presence of X-F and certain non X-F yeasts in the gut of the subsocial wood roach Cryptocercus sp. extends the previous findings of associations between certain ascomycete yeasts and lignicolous insects. New combinations were made for 13 asexual members of the Sugiyamaella clade. PMID:23233509

  5. The conserved global regulator VeA is necessary for symptom production and mycotoxin synthesis in maize seedlings by Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    Myung, K.; Zitomer, N. C.; Duvall, M.; Glenn, A. E.; Riley, R. T.; Calvo, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The veA or velvet gene is necessary for biosynthesis of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species. In addition, veA has also been demonstrated to be necessary for normal seed colonization in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The present study shows that veA homologues are broadly distributed in fungi, particularly in Ascomycetes. The Fusarium verticillioides veA orthologue, FvVE1, is also required for the synthesis of several secondary metabolites, including fumonisin and fusarins. This study also shows that maize plants grown from seeds inoculated with FvVE1 deletion mutants did not show disease symptoms, while plants grown from seeds inoculated with the F. verticillioides wildtype and complementation strains clearly showed disease symptoms under the same experimental conditions. In this latter case, the presence of lesions coincided with accumulation of fumonisins in the plant tissues, and only these plant tissues had elevated levels of sphingoid bases and their 1-phosphate derivatives, indicating inhibition of ceramide synthase and disruption of sphingolipid metabolism. The results strongly suggest that FvVE1 is necessary for pathogenicity by F. verticillioides against maize seedlings. The conservation of veA homologues among ascomycetes suggests that veA could play a pivotal role in regulating secondary metabolism and associated pathogenicity in other fungi. PMID:22247572

  6. Nematocera (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae and Culicidae) and control methods.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y

    1994-12-01

    The biology, veterinary importance and control of certain Nematocera are described and discussed. Culicoides spp. (family Ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and Akabane. Some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by Culicoides. These insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Haemoproteus nettionis, and the parasitic nematodes Onchocerca gutturosa, O. gibsoni and O. cervicalis. They also cause recurrent summer hypersensitivity in horses, ponies, donkeys, cattle and sheep. Farm animals can die as a result of mass attack by Simulium spp., which are also vectors of Leucocytozoon simondi, L. smithi and the filariae O. gutturosa, O. linealis and O. ochengi. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) have been isolated from simuliids, and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain has been replicated in Simulium vittatum. Simuliids are well known as vectors of O. volvulus, the cause of human onchocercosis (river blindness). The family Psychodidae includes the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia (subfamily Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania spp. in humans, dogs and other mammals. Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain has been regularly isolated from phlebotomine sandflies. Mass attack by mosquitoes can also prove fatal to farm animals. Mosquitoes are vectors of the viruses of Akabane, BEF, RVF, Japanese encephalitis, VEE, western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and west Nile meningoencephalitis, secondary vectors of AHS and suspected vectors of Israel turkey meningoencephalitis. The viruses of hog cholera, fowl pox and reticuloendotheliosis, the rickettsiae Eperythrozoon ovis and E. suis, and the bacterium Borrelia anserina are mechanically transmitted by mosquitoes. These insects also induce allergic dermatitis in horses. They transmit several filarial worms of both animals and humans, and are of great medical importance as vectors of major human diseases, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and many more diseases caused by arboviruses. PMID:7711309

  7. Do Clonal Plants Show Greater Division of Labour Morphologically and Physiologically at Higher Patch Contrasts?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengwen; Li, Yuanheng; During, Heinjo J.; Li, Linghao

    2011-01-01

    Background When growing in reciprocal patches in terms of availability of different resources, connected ramets of clonal plants will specialize to acquire and exchange locally abundant resources more efficiently. This has been termed division of labour. We asked whether division of labour can occur physiologically as well as morphologically and will increase with patch contrasts. Methodology/Principal Findings We subjected connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina to Control, Low, Medium and High patch contrast by manipulating light and nutrient levels for ramets in each pair. Little net benefit of inter-ramet connection in terms of biomass was detected. Shoot-root ratio did not differ significantly between paired ramets regardless of connection under Control, Low and Medium. Under High, however, disconnected shaded ramets with ample nutrients showed significantly larger shoot-root ratios (2.8?6.5 fold) than fully-lit but nutrient-deficient ramets, and than their counterparts under any other treatment; conversely, fully-lit but nutrient-deficient ramets, when connected to shaded ramets with ample nutrients, had significantly larger shoot-root ratios (2.0?4.9 fold) than the latter and than their counterparts under any other treatment. Only under High patch contrast, fully-lit ramets, if connected to shaded ones, had 8.9% higher chlorophyll content than the latter, and 22.4% higher chlorophyll content than their isolated counterparts; the similar pattern held for photosynthetic capacity under all heterogeneous treatments. Conclusions/Significance Division of labour in clonal plants can be realized by ramet specialization in morphology and in physiology. However, modest ramet specialization especially in morphology among patch contrasts may suggest that division of labour will occur when the connected ramets grow in reciprocal patches between which the contrast exceeds a threshold. Probably, this threshold patch contrast is the outcome of the clone-wide cost-benefit tradeoff and is significant for risk-avoidance, especially in the disturbance-prone environments. PMID:21980447

  8. How Past and Present Influence the Foraging of Clonal Plants?

    PubMed Central

    Louâpre, Philipe; Bittebičre, Anne-Kristel; Clément, Bernard; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Mony, Cendrine

    2012-01-01

    Clonal plants spreading horizontally and forming a network structure of ramets exhibit complex growth patterns to maximize resource uptake from the environment. They respond to spatial heterogeneity by changing their internode length or branching frequency. Ramets definitively root in the soil but stay interconnected for a varying period of time thus allowing an exchange of spatial and temporal information. We quantified the foraging response of clonal plants depending on the local soil quality sampled by the rooting ramet (i.e. the present information) and the resource variability sampled by the older ramets (i.e. the past information). We demonstrated that two related species, Potentilla reptans and P. anserina, responded similarly to the local quality of their environment by decreasing their internode length in response to nutrient-rich soil. Only P. reptans responded to resource variability by decreasing its internode length. In both species, the experience acquired by older ramets influenced the plastic response of new rooted ramets: the internode length between ramets depended not only on the soil quality locally sampled but also on the soil quality previously sampled by older ramets. We quantified the effect of the information perceived at different time and space on the foraging behavior of clonal plants by showing a non-linear response of the ramet rooting in the soil of a given quality. These data suggest that the decision to grow a stolon or to root a ramet at a given distance from the older ramet results from the integration of the past and present information about the richness and the variability of the environment. PMID:22675539

  9. Benzoquinones and Terphenyl Compounds as Phosphodiesterase-4B Inhibitors from a Fungus of the Order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445)#

    PubMed Central

    El-Elimat, Tamam; Figueroa, Mario; Raja, Huzefa A.; Graf, Tyler N.; Adcock, Audrey F.; Kroll, David J.; Day, Cynthia S.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2013-01-01

    Three bioactive compounds were isolated from an organic extract of an ascomycete fungus of the order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445) using bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Of these, two were benzoquinones [betulinan A (1) and betulinan C (3)] and the third was a terphenyl compound BTH-II0204-207:A (2). The structures were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques; the structure of the new compound (3) was confirmed via single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds (1–3) were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a human cancer cell panel, for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and for phosphodiesterase (PDE4B2) inhibitory activities. The putative binding mode of 1–3 with PDE4B2 was examined using a validated docking protocol, and the binding and enzyme inhibitory activities correlated. PMID:23301853

  10. Searching for gold beyond mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Peńalva, Miguel A.; Galindo, Antonio; Abenza, Juan F.; Pinar, Mario; Calcagno-Pizarelli, Ana M.; Arst Jr, Herbert N.; Pantazopoulou, Areti

    2012-01-01

    The genetically tractable filamentous ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans has been successfully exploited to gain major insight into the eukaryotic cell cycle. More recently, its amenability to in vivo multidimensional microscopy has fueled a potentially gilded second age of A. nidulans cell biology studies. This review specifically deals with studies on intracellular membrane traffic in A. nidulans. The cellular logistics are subordinated to the needs imposed by the polarized mode of growth of the multinucleated hyphal tip cells, whereas membrane traffic is adapted to the large intracellular distances. Recent work illustrates the usefulness of this fungus for morphological and biochemical studies on endosome and Golgi maturation, and on the role of microtubule-dependent motors in the long-distance movement of endosomes. The fungus is ideally suited for genetic studies on the secretory pathway, as mutations impairing secretion reduce apical extension rates, resulting in phenotypes detectable by visual inspection of colonies. PMID:22645705

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Soil Fungi from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sarah; Hansen, Ryan W; Schneegurt, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    The Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma is an inland terrestrial hypersaline environment where saturated brines leave evaporite crusts of NaCl. The current report examines the fungal community, complementing earlier reports on the bacterial and archaeal communities. Twenty-five fungal isolates from GSP soils were obtained on medium containing 10% NaCl and characterized. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all of the isolates fall within the Ascomycetes, with a predominance of Trichocomaceae, represented by Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium species. Representatives of Anthrinium, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Fusarium, and Ulocladium also were isolated. Overall the isolates were widely halotolerant, with best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism. The fungal genera observed were all cosmopolitan, without strong specialization. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that hypersaline environments do not have a characteristic community, in contrast to what was observed at the GSP for bacteria and archaea. PMID:25249710

  12. Comprehensive Metabolomic, Lipidomic and Microscopic Profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during Lipid Accumulation Identifies Targets for Increased Lipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Arey, Bruce W.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Orr, Galya; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shift in amino acid metabolism. We also report that exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains. PMID:25905710

  13. New, rare and remarkable microfungi from Macedonia (Greece).

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2003-01-01

    On the occasion of the great excursion of the Botanical Institute of the University of Essen in the year 2000 we were able to collect about 250 species of parasitic and saprophytic microfungi in eastern Greece. Dominant were Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes, for example Puccinia convolvuli on Calystegia silvatica, Puccinia caricina on Carex flava, Ramularia cynoglossi on Cynoglossum creticum, Phyllosticta juglandis and Marssonina juglandis on Juglans regia, Erysiphe cynoglossi on Echium italicum and Hendersonia culmiseda on Phragmites australis. Many of our collections contain rare and to a great extend unknown species for the area of investigation. All samples are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca parva, collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha. PMID:15151300

  14. Fusarium graminearum and Its Interactions with Cereal Heads: Studies in the Proteomics Era

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fen; Jacobsen, Susanne; Jřrgensen, Hans J. L.; Collinge, David B.; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph stage: Gibberella zeae) is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley. This disease leads to significant losses of crop yield, and especially quality through the contamination by diverse fungal mycotoxins, which constitute a significant threat to the health of humans and animals. In recent years, high-throughput proteomics, aiming at identifying a broad spectrum of proteins with a potential role in the pathogenicity and host resistance, has become a very useful tool in plant-fungus interaction research. In this review, we describe the progress in proteomics applications toward a better understanding of F. graminearum pathogenesis, virulence, and host defense mechanisms. The contribution of proteomics to the development of crop protection strategies against this pathogen is also discussed briefly. PMID:23450732

  15. Fungus-specific microsatellite primers of lichens: application for the assessment of genetic variation on different spatial scales in Lobaria pulmonaria.

    PubMed

    Walser, Jean-Claude; Sperisen, Christoph; Soliva, Marco; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2003-10-01

    We isolated 12 microsatellite loci for the epiphytic lichen-forming ascomycete Lobaria pulmonaria and studied their patterns of variation within and among populations from Canada and Switzerland. Even though several microsatellites exhibited high levels of variability at different spatial scales, we did not find any evidence for intrathalline variation. Most of the genetic variation was attributed to differences among individuals within populations. High genetic variation was also detected among L. pulmonaria samples taken from individual trees, suggesting that either multiple colonization events had occurred or that local recombination is frequent. The geographically structured distribution of alleles from several microsatellites indicated that L. pulmonaria from Canada and Switzerland represent two distinct evolutionary lineages. The potential to identify multiple alleles, and their transferability to closely related species, make microsatellites an ideal tool to study dispersal, population differentiation, and microevolution in lichens. PMID:12948515

  16. The effect of carbohydrate carbon sources on the production of constitutive and inducible laccases by Botryosphaeria sp.

    PubMed

    Alves da Cunha, Mário A; Barbosa, Aneli M; Giese, Ellen C; Dekker, Robert F H

    2003-01-01

    The influence of carbohydrates: glucose, fructose, galactose, galacturonic acid, xylose, lactose, sucrose, pectin and inulin, were evaluated as sole carbon source for the production of laccases by the ascomycete, Botryosphaeria sp. Veratryl alcohol, a laccase inducer, was added to culture media to study inducible laccase production on the same carbon sources. Inulinase and pectinase were also produced when Botryosphaeria sp. was grown on inulin, and galacturonic acid and pectin, respectively, and their levels were less in the presence of veratryl alcohol. Botryosphaeria sp. produced constitutive laccases on all carbon sources examined, and veratryl alcohol increased the laccase production on most of carbon sources studied except for inulin and galacturonic acid. Evidence is presented that Botryosphaeria sp. is also pectinolytic. PMID:12964181

  17. Fungal genomes mining to discover novel sterol esterases and lipases as catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sterol esterases and lipases are enzymes able to efficiently catalyze synthesis and hydrolysis reactions of both sterol esters and triglycerides and due to their versatility could be widely used in different industrial applications. Lipases with this ability have been reported in the yeast Candida rugosa that secretes several extracellular enzymes with a high level of sequence identity, although different substrate specificity. This versatility has also been found in the sterol esterases from the ascomycetes Ophiostoma piceae and Melanocarpus albomyces. Results In this work we present an in silico search of new sterol esterase and lipase sequences from the genomes of environmental fungi. The strategy followed included identification and search of conserved domains from these versatile enzymes, phylogenetic studies, sequence analysis and 3D modeling of the selected candidates. Conclusions Six potential putative enzymes were selected and their kinetic properties and substrate selectivity are discussed on the basis of their similarity with previously characterized sterol esterases/lipases with known structures. PMID:24138290

  18. Entomopathogenic fungi in cornfields and their potential to manage larval western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    PubMed

    Rudeen, Melissa L; Jaronski, Stefan T; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-11-01

    Entomopathogenic ascomycete fungi are ubiquitous in soil and on phylloplanes, and are important natural enemies of many soil-borne arthropods including larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which is a major pest of corn. We measured the prevalence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato in ten cornfields in Iowa, USA by baiting with larval insects. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae s.l. were present in 60% ± 6.3% and 55% ± 6.4% of soil samples, respectively. Subsequent laboratory bioassays found that some M. anisopliae s.l. strains collected from cornfields killed a greater proportion of D.v. virgifera larvae than a standard commercial strain. PMID:24120889

  19. Predicting dye biodegradation from redox potentials.

    PubMed

    Zille, Andrea; Ramalho, Patricia; Tzanov, Tzanko; Millward, Roy; Aires, Veronika; Cardoso, Maria Helena; Ramalho, Maria Teresa; Gübitz, Georg M; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2004-01-01

    Two biological approaches for decolorization of azo sulfonated dyes have been compared: reductive decolorization with the ascomycete yeast Issatchenkia occidentalis and enzymatic oxidative decolorization with Trametes villosa laccase alone or in the presence of the mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. The redox potential difference between the biological cofactor involved in the reductive activity of growing cells and the azo dye is a reliable indication for the decolorization ability of the biocatalyst. A linear relationship exists between the redox potential of the azo dyes and the decolorization efficiency of enzyme, enzyme/mediator, and yeast. The less positive the anodic peak of the dye, the more easily it is degraded oxidatively with laccase. The more positive the cathodic peak of the dye, the more rapidly the dye molecule is reduced with yeast. PMID:15458349

  20. Ancient fungi in Antarctic permafrost environments.

    PubMed

    Kochkina, Galina; Ivanushkina, Natalya; Ozerskaya, Svetlana; Chigineva, Nadezhda; Vasilenko, Oleg; Firsov, Sergey; Spirina, Elena; Gilichinsky, David

    2012-11-01

    Filamentous fungi in 36 samples of Antarctic permafrost sediments were studied. The samples collected during the Russian Antarctic expedition of 2007-2009 within the framework of the Antarctic Permafrost Age Project (ANTPAGE) were recovered from different depths in ice-free oases located along the perimeter of the continent. Fungal diversity was determined by conventional microbiological techniques combined with a culture-independent method based on the analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences in total DNA of the samples. The study revealed a rather low fungal population density in permafrost, although the diversity found was appreciable, representing more than 26 genera. Comparison of the data obtained by different techniques showed that the culture-independent method enabled the detection of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi not found by culturing. The molecular method failed to detect members of the genera Penicillium and Cladosporium that possess small-sized spores known to have a high resistance to environmental changes. PMID:22757669

  1. Host-specific differentiation among populations of Venturia inaequalis causing scab on apple, pyracantha and loquat.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, P; Caffier, V; Devaux, M; Le Cam, B

    2010-06-01

    Patterns of multilocus DNA sequence variation within and between closely related taxa can provide insights into the history of divergence. Here, we report on DNA polymorphism and divergence at six nuclear loci in globally distributed samples of the ascomycete Venturia inaequalis, responsible for scab on apple, loquat, and pyracantha. Isolates from different hosts were differentiated but did not form diagnosable distinct phylogenetic species. Parameters of an Isolation-with-Migration model estimated from the data suggested that the large amount of variation shared among groups more likely resulted from recent splitting than from extensive genetic exchanges. Inferred levels of gene flow among groups were low and more concentrated toward recent times, and we identified two potentially recent one-off shifters from apple and pyracantha to loquat. These findings support a scenario of recent divergence in allopatry followed by introgression through secondary contact, with groups from loquat and pyracantha being the most recently differentiated. PMID:20060485

  2. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans Using Radicicol.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunhee; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-12-01

    The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans causes ginseng root rot disease and produces various secondary metabolites such as brefeldin A and radicicol. The slow growth of this fungus compared with other plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi in soil disturbs isolation of this fungus from soil and infected ginseng. In this study, we developed a selective medium for C. destructans using radicicol produced by this fungus. Supplementing 50 mg/L of radicicol to medium inhibited the mycelia growth of other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria panax, but did not affect the growth of C. destructans. In addition, conidia germination of other fungal species except for C. destructans was inhibited in submerged culture supplemented with radicicol. This medium provides a very efficient tool for isolating C. destructans and also can be used as an enrichment medium for this fungus. PMID:25506308

  3. Plant biomass degradation by fungi.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general. In this review we provide a global view on the development of this research topic in saprobic ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and in plant pathogenic fungi and link this to the other papers of this special issue on plant biomass degradation by fungi. PMID:25192611

  4. Endophytic fungi diversity of aquatic/riparian plants and their antifungal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Chun-An; Liu, Chen-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Fei

    2010-02-01

    Two hundred and fourteen endophytic fungi were isolated from 500 segments of aquatic/riparian plants Ottelia acuminata, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Equisetum arvense, Cardamine multijuga, and Impatiens chinensis. They were identified to 31 taxa in which Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Geotrichum were the dominant genera. Among all isolates, 169 (79%) were anamorphic fungi, 1 (0.5%) was an teleomorphic ascomycete and 44 (21%) were sterile mycelia. There were significant differences in the colonization frequency of endophytes between the five plant species (X~2=51.128, P<0.001, Chi-square test). The riparian plants harboured more endophytes than the submerged plants. The antifungal activity of these isolates against Fusarium solani and Phytophthora nicotianae in vitro were tested and 28 (13.1%) isolates showed antifungal activities with more than 30% growth inhibition rate against the two pathogens. PMID:20221722

  5. Characterisation of ?-chitin extracted from a lichenised fungus species Xanthoria parietina.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Hal?c?, Mehmet Gökhan; Duman, Fatih; Erdo?an, Sevil; Baran, Talat

    2015-07-01

    Lichens are symbiotic associations formed mainly by ascomycete fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria. The presence of chitin in the fungal cell wall has been revealed by previous studies. Considering the presence of fungi in the lichens, this work determines the presence of chitin in a cosmopolitan lichen species Xanthoria parietina. In this study, chitin was derived from a lichen species for the first time and its physicochemical properties were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The dry weight chitin content of X. parietina was 4.23%, and this chitin was in the ?-form. The crystalline index value of the lichen chitin was calculated as 70.1%. The chitin from X. parietina had a smooth surface. PMID:25553773

  6. L-696,474, a novel cytochalasin as an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease. I. The producing organism and its fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, A W; Bills, G F; Sabnis, G; Koupal, L R; Meyer, R; Ondeyka, J G; Giacobbe, R A; Monaghan, R L; Lingham, R B

    1992-05-01

    A novel cytochalasin, L-696,474, (18-dehydroxy cytochalasin H) that inhibits HIV-1 protease was discovered in fermentations of a bark-inhabiting Ascomycete, Hypoxylon fragiforme. The product was first identified from extracts of an agar medium. Fermentation studies on a number of media indicated that the product can be made on several solid and liquid media. Optimum production was obtained from growth in a complex medium composed of glycerol, glucose, citrate, Ardamine, soybean meal, tomato paste, and inorganic salts. Other Hypoxylon spp., related species of Xylariales, and other fungi known to produce cytochalasins, were also surveyed for their ability to make L-696,474. Only one other Hypoxylon fragiforme isolate was found to make this novel cytochalasin; none of the other cultures surveyed made L-696,474 or any other compounds which inhibit HIV-1 protease. PMID:1624369

  7. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10-20% repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100-110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 × 107 daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5°C difference of Te50 (temperature at which 50% duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. PMID:10793700

  8. [Characteristic of the yeast isolated from patients with leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Fedorovskaia, E A; Rybal'skaia, A P; Skachkova, N K; Mel'nik, E A; Nemirovskaia, L N; Nagornaia, S S; Babich, T V; Polishchuk, L V

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that biotopes of upper respiratory system and intestine were contaminated with yeast in 44.6% of patients with leukaemia (of 112 examined ones). Their quantity exceeds the boundary value for practically healthy people and is > or = 10(2) KOE/ml in the nasal activity and fauces and < or = 10(4) KOE/g in the intestine. It was established that in patients with leucemia the mycotic complications are mainly caused by anamorphous yeast of ascomycetic affinity. Candida albicans, as well as C. glabrata, C. rugosa and Candida sp. play the leading role. The Candida genus species are mainly sensitive to amphotericine B, clotrisamol and nistatin. PMID:19044007

  9. Mate and fuse: how yeast cells do it

    PubMed Central

    Merlini, Laura; Dudin, Omaya; Martin, Sophie G.

    2013-01-01

    Many cells are able to orient themselves in a non-uniform environment by responding to localized cues. This leads to a polarized cellular response, where the cell can either grow or move towards the cue source. Fungal haploid cells secrete pheromones to signal mating, and respond by growing a mating projection towards a potential mate. Upon contact of the two partner cells, these fuse to form a diploid zygote. In this review, we present our current knowledge on the processes of mating signalling, pheromone-dependent polarized growth and cell fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, two highly divergent ascomycete yeast models. While the global architecture of the mating response is very similar between these two species, they differ significantly both in their mating physiologies and in the molecular connections between pheromone perception and downstream responses. The use of both yeast models helps enlighten both conserved solutions and species-specific adaptations to a general biological problem. PMID:23466674

  10. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeasts species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J. Bruce; Gillies, Laura A.; Almada, Luis A.G.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

  11. Small genetic differences between ericoid mycorrhizal fungi affect nitrogen uptake by Vaccinium.

    PubMed

    Grelet, Gwen-Aëlle; Meharg, Andrew A; Duff, Elizabeth I; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J

    2009-01-01

    Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to differ in their pattern of nitrogen (N) use in pure culture. Here, we investigate whether this functional variation is maintained in symbiosis using three ascomycetes from a clade not previously shown to include ericoid mycorrhizal taxa. Vaccinium macrocarpon and Vaccinium vitis-idaea were inoculated with three fungal strains known to form coils in Vaccinium roots, which differed in their patterns of N use in liquid culture. (15)N was used to trace the uptake of -N, -N and glutamine-N into shoots. (15)N transfer differed among the three fungal strains, including two that had identical internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and was quantitatively related to fungal growth in liquid culture at low carbon availability. These results demonstrate that functional differences among closely related ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are maintained in symbiosis with their hosts, and suggest that N transfer to plant shoots in ericoid mycorrhizas is under fungal control. PMID:19021867

  12. Reevaluation of the life cycle of Tuber magnatum.

    PubMed

    Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea; Riccioni, Claudia; Arcioni, Sergio

    2006-04-01

    Tuber spp. are ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes that produce ascocarps known as truffles. Basic aspects of Tuber biology have yet to be fully elucidated. In particular, there are conflicting hypotheses concerning the mating system and the ploidy level of the mycorrhizal and truffle hyphae. We used polymorphic microsatellites to compare the allelic configurations of asci with those from the network of the surrounding hyphae in single Tuber magnatum truffles. We then used these truffles to inoculate host plants and evaluated the microsatellite configurations of the resulting mycorrhizal root tips. These analyses provide direct evidence that T. magnatum outcrosses and that its life cycle is predominantly haploid. In addition to its scientific significance, this basic understanding of the T. magnatum life cycle may have practical importance in developing strategies to obtain and select nursery-produced mycorrhizal plants as well as in the management of artificial plantations of this and other Tuber spp. PMID:16597935

  13. A microbial population-species interface: nested cladistic and coalescent inference with multilocus data.

    PubMed

    Carbone, I; Kohn, L M

    2001-04-01

    Using sequence data from seven nuclear loci in 385 isolates of the haploid, plant parasitic, ascomycete fungus, Sclerotinia, divergence times of populations and of species were distinguished. The evolutionary history of haplotypes on both population and species scales was reconstructed using a combination of parsimony, maximum likelihood and coalescent methods, implemented in a specific order. Analysis of site compatibility revealed recombination blocks from which alternative (marginal) networks were inferred, reducing uncertainty in the network due to recombination. Our own modifications of Templeton and co-workers' cladistic inference method and a coalescent approach detected the same phylogeographic processes. Assuming neutrality and a molecular clock, the boundary between divergent populations and species is an interval of time between coalescence (to a common ancestor) of populations and coalescence of species. PMID:11348503

  14. Genetic Analysis of Suppressors of the Vea1 Mutation in Aspergillus Nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, J. L.; Hassett, D. E.; Yager, L. N.

    1990-01-01

    Light-dependent conidiation in the filamentous ascomycete, Aspergillus nidulans, is contingent on the allelic state of the velvet (veA) gene. Light dependence is abolished by a mutation in this gene (veA1), which allows conidiation to occur in the absence of light. We have isolated and characterized six extragenic suppressors of veA1 that restore the light-dependent conidiation phenotype. Alleles of four genes, defined by complementation tests, were subjected to extensive genetic and phenotypic analysis. The results of light-dark shifting experiments and the phenotypes of double mutant combinations are consistent with the possibility that the expression of the light-dependent phenotype is regulated by specific interactions of the suppressor gene products with the velvet gene product and with each other. PMID:2076818

  15. Comprehensive metabolomic, lipidomic and microscopic profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during lipid accumulation identifies targets for increased lipogenesis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce W.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Orr, Galya; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-04-23

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shiftmore »in amino acid metabolism. We also report that Y. lipolytica secretes disaccharides early in batch culture and reabsorbs them when extracellular glucose is depleted. Exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.« less

  16. Small subunit rDNA variation in a population of lichen fungi due to optional group-I introns.

    PubMed

    DePriest, P T

    1993-11-30

    A natural population of the lichen-forming ascomycetous fungus, Cladonia chlorophaea, contained individuals with small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) of at least four different size classes and nine restriction-site patterns. The source of these differences was the variable occurrence of 200-400-nucleotide insertions, previously identified as small group-I introns, at five different positions within the SSU coding region. By specific amplification of the sequences flanking these five intron positions with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a minimum of nine types of rDNA repeats were defined that differ in number, position, restriction pattern and size of introns. The positions of the introns were verified by sequence analysis. The variable distribution of these introns suggests that they are currently mobile--either by intron insertion, deletion or both--within this species complex. PMID:8244032

  17. Fungal populations on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) anthosphere and their relation to susceptibility or tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum attack.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M A; Venedikian, N; Godeas, A

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the fungal flora from different floret parts of various sunflower (Helianthus annuus) varieties showed that there are differences in both fungal species and frequency, depending on whether the sunflower variety is susceptible (SV) or tolerant (TV) to attack of the flower heads by the ascomycete pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The sunflower varieties analyzed were SV: HA 300 and Z 20028, and TV: HA 302, Z AV 8410 and Z 30629. The isolates showed different "in vitro" behavior as biocontrol agents. The most common types of interaction with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were D2 and D2+ (hyphal contact) for isolates from SV and TV, while some of the isolates from TV displayed antibiosis. The microorganisms that colonize TV florets play a part in an indirect mechanism that protects flowers from ascospore germination and pathogen growth. PMID:11469762

  18. Molecular characterization of Morchella species from the Western Himalayan region of India.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Harpreet Kaur; Acharya, Karan; Ramesh, G; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2011-04-01

    The molecular diversity of thirty-two different Morchella cultures/fruiting bodies, collected from the Western Himalayan region was studied in this investigation. Considerable taxonomic confusion exists regarding many species of Morchella. Although classical taxonomy is helpful in identification for many ascomycetes, morels exhibit considerable morphological diversity and there is disagreement in the identification of morel species. Phylogenetic analyses based on DNA sequences could help in sorting out morel taxonomy which is essential to better define the morel diversity. In this study, sequence analysis revealed that in the Western Himalayan region of India, both yellow (M. crassipes, M. spongiola) and black morels (M. elata, M. angusticeps, and M. gigas) were prominent along with two Verpa species. Phylogenetic analysis by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference revealed two different clades and a clear distinction between yellow and black morels. PMID:21188589

  19. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay of Fungal NADP+-Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francis; Botton, Bernard; Msatef, Yamina

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable method has been developed for the quantitation of NADP+-glutamate dehydrogenase from the phytopathogenic Ascomycete Sphaerostilbe repens using a two-step competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Purified enzyme was adsorbed noncovalently to polystyrene wells and rabbit immunserum was allowed to bind to antigensensitized wells. Bound specific antibody was visualized by goat antirabbit immunoglobulin covalently linked to alkaline phosphatase using paranitrophenylphosphate as the substrate. Increasing amounts of purified enzyme or crude fungal extracts were quantitated by their ability to inhibit specific antibody adsorption to antigen-coated polystyrene wells. This system proves to be useful in the range of 10 to 80 nanograms of enzyme level. Using this assay, identical amounts of NADP+-glutamate dehydrogenase were found in mycelia grown on nitrate and ammonia sources. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663014

  20. Total synthesis of (+)-chloriolide.

    PubMed

    Ostermeier, Michael; Schobert, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    (+)-Chloriolide, a metabolite of the ascomycete Chloridium virescens var. chlamydosporum, was synthesized in 16 linear steps from cellulose as a source of a levoglucosenone that contributed the (Z)-alkene and the R stereocenter. The attachment of a spacer derived from l-lactate gave an ?-hydroxyacetal which was added to the phosphorus ylide Ph3PCCO. The resulting ester ylide was treated with hydrochloric acid to liberate the hemiacetal shown. Addition of sodium hydroxide regenerated the corresponding ylide, which underwent a spontaneous intramolecular Wittig olefination to afford (+)-chloriolide in 65% yield without the necessity of high-dilution conditions. This is the third synthesis of (+)-chloriolide and the first one ever of a macrolide by a ring-closing Wittig olefination of a stabilized phosphorus ylide bearing an ?-hemiacetal. Our synthetic sample exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against cancer cells but no antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24708255

  1. Myco-fluidics: The fluid dynamics of fungal chimerism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Marcus; Hickey, Patrick; Dressaire, Emilie; Roch, Sebastien

    2012-11-01

    Chimeras-fantastical creatures formed as amalgams of many animals-have captured the human imagination since Ancient times. But they are also surprisingly common in Nature. The syncytial cells of filamentous fungi harbor large numbers of nuclei bathed in a single cytoplasm. As a fungus grows these nuclei become genetically diverse, either from mutation or from exchange of nuclei between different fungal individuals, a process that is known to increase the virulence of the fungus and its adaptability. By directly measuring nuclear movement in the model ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, we show that the fungus' tolerance for internal genetic diversity is enabled by hydrodynamic mixing of nuclei acting at all length scales within the fungal mycelium. Mathematical modeling and experiments in a mutant with altered mycelial morphology reveal some of the exquisite hydraulic engineering necessary to create these mixing flows from spatially coarse pressure gradients.

  2. Integration of the first and second generation bioethanol processes and the importance of by-products.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Patrik R; Erlandsson, Per; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has obstacles in the investment costs and uncertainties in the process. One solution is to integrate it with the running dry mills of ethanol from grains. However, the economy of these mills, which dominate the world market, are dependent on their by-products DDGS (Distiller's Dried Grains and Solubles), sold as animal feed. The quality of DDGS therefore must not be negatively influenced by the integration. This puts restraints on the choice of pretreatment of lignocelluloses and utilizing the pentose sugars by food-grade microorganisms. The proposed solution is to use food related filamentous Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes fungi, and to produce fungal biomass as a high-grade animal feed from the residues after the distillation (stillage). This also has the potential to improve the first generation process by increasing the amount of the thin stillage directly sent back into the process, and by decreasing the evaporator based problems. PMID:24582951

  3. What is Scirrhia?

    PubMed

    Crous, Pedro W; Minnis, Andrew M; Pereira, Olinto L; Alfenas, Acelino C; Alfenas, Rafael F; Rossman, Amy Y; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2011-12-01

    The ascomycetous genus Scirrhia is presently treated as a member of Dothideomycetidae, though uncertainty remains as to which family it belongs in Capnodiales, Ascomycota. Recent collections on stems of a fern, Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) in Brazil, led to the discovery of a new species of Scirrhia, described here as S.brasiliensis. Based on DNA sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (LSU), Scirrhia is revealed to represent a member of Dothideomycetes, Capnodiales, Mycosphaerellaceae. Scirrhia is the first confirmed genus in Mycosphaerellaceae to have well developed pseudoparaphyses and a prominent hypostroma in which ascomata are arranged in parallel rows. Given the extremely slow growth rate and difficulty in obtaining cultures of S. brasiliensis on various growth media, it appears that Scirrhia represents a genus of potentially obligate plant pathogens within Mycosphaerellaceae. PMID:22679597

  4. Berkleasmium crunisia sp. nov. and its phylogenetic affinities to the Pleosporales based on 18S and 28S rDNA sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Pinnoi, Aom; Jeewon, Rajesh; Sakayaroj, Jariya; Hyde, Kevin D; Jones, E B Gareth

    2007-01-01

    Berkleasmium crunisia sp. nov. is described from a decaying rachis of Calamus sp. (Arecaceae) from Khuan Ka Long, Satun Province, Thailand. This Berkleasmium species differs morphologically from other species in possessing subtending cells and larger conidia. The phylogenetic relationship of the genus Berkleasmium among sexual ascomycetes also was examined. Sequence analyses from 18S, 28S and ITS-5.8S rDNA were analyzed phylogenetically under maximum parsimony, Bayesian and neighbor joining criteria. Phylogenies revealed that Berkleasmium is not monophyletic. Berkleasmium micronesicum and B. nigroapicale are related to Westerdykella cylindrica and Sporormia australis, which are members of the family Sporormiaceae (Pleosporales). Other species, including our new taxon, appear to share phylogenetic affinities with other anamorphic fungi, whose classification within the Pleosporales is still obscure. Analyses of 18S, 28S, ITS (+5.8S) rDNA and combined (18S+28S) gene sequences fail to give sufficient phylogenetic resolution within the Pleosporales. PMID:17883029

  5. Mycosphaerella is polyphyletic

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella, one of the largest genera of ascomycetes, encompasses several thousand species and has anamorphs residing in more than 30 form genera. Although previous phylogenetic studies based on the ITS rDNA locus supported the monophyly of the genus, DNA sequence data derived from the LSU gene distinguish several clades and families in what has hitherto been considered to represent the Mycosphaerellaceae. Several important leaf spotting and extremotolerant species need to be disposed to the genus Teratosphaeria, for which a new family, the Teratosphaeriaceae, is introduced. Other distinct clades represent the Schizothyriaceae, Davidiellaceae, Capnodiaceae, and the Mycosphaerellaceae. Within the two major clades, namely Teratosphaeriaceae and Mycosphaerellaceae, most anamorph genera are polyphyletic, and new anamorph concepts need to be derived to cope with dual nomenclature within the Mycosphaerella complex. PMID:18490994

  6. Reevaluation of the Life Cycle of Tuber magnatum†

    PubMed Central

    Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea; Riccioni, Claudia; Arcioni, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Tuber spp. are ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes that produce ascocarps known as truffles. Basic aspects of Tuber biology have yet to be fully elucidated. In particular, there are conflicting hypotheses concerning the mating system and the ploidy level of the mycorrhizal and truffle hyphae. We used polymorphic microsatellites to compare the allelic configurations of asci with those from the network of the surrounding hyphae in single Tuber magnatum truffles. We then used these truffles to inoculate host plants and evaluated the microsatellite configurations of the resulting mycorrhizal root tips. These analyses provide direct evidence that T. magnatum outcrosses and that its life cycle is predominantly haploid. In addition to its scientific significance, this basic understanding of the T. magnatum life cycle may have practical importance in developing strategies to obtain and select nursery-produced mycorrhizal plants as well as in the management of artificial plantations of this and other Tuber spp. PMID:16597935

  7. Bioactive fungal polysaccharides as potential functional ingredients in food and nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Giavasis, Ioannis

    2014-04-01

    Fungal bioactive polysaccharides deriving mainly from the Basidiomycetes family (and some from the Ascomycetes) and medicinal mushrooms have been well known and widely used in far Asia as part of traditional diet and medicine, and in the last decades have been the core of intense research for the understanding and the utilization of their medicinal properties in naturally produced pharmaceuticals. In fact, some of these biopolymers (mainly ?-glucans or heteropolysaccharides) have already made their way to the market as antitumor, immunostimulating or prophylactic drugs. The fact that many of these biopolymers are produced by edible mushrooms makes them also very good candidates for the formulation of novel functional foods and nutraceuticals without any serious safety concerns, in order to make use of their immunomodulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and health-promoting properties. This article summarizes the most important properties and applications of bioactive fungal polysaccharides and discusses the latest developments on the utilization of these biopolymers in human nutrition. PMID:24518400

  8. On the trail of a cereal killer: recent advances in Fusarium graminearum pathogenomics and host resistance.

    PubMed

    Kazan, Kemal; Gardiner, Donald M; Manners, John M

    2012-05-01

    The ascomycete fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum (sexual stage: Gibberella zeae) causes the devastating head blight or scab disease on wheat and barley, and cob or ear rot disease on maize. Fusarium graminearum infection causes significant crop and quality losses. In addition to roles as virulence factors during pathogenesis, trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g. deoxynivalenol) produced by this pathogen constitute a significant threat to human and animal health if consumed in respective food or feed products. In the last few years, significant progress has been made towards a better understanding of the processes involved in F. graminearum pathogenesis, toxin biosynthesis and host resistance mechanisms through the use of high-throughput genomic and phenomic technologies. In this article, we briefly review these new advances and also discuss how future research can contribute to the development of sustainable plant protection strategies against this important plant pathogen. PMID:22098555

  9. Benzoquinones and terphenyl compounds as phosphodiesterase-4B inhibitors from a fungus of the order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445).

    PubMed

    El-Elimat, Tamam; Figueroa, Mario; Raja, Huzefa A; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Day, Cynthia S; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2013-03-22

    Three bioactive compounds were isolated from an organic extract of an ascomycete fungus of the order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445) using bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Of these, two were benzoquinones [betulinan A (1) and betulinan C (3)], and the third was a terphenyl compound, BTH-II0204-207:A (2). The structures were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques; the structure of the new compound (3) was confirmed via single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a human cancer cell panel, for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and for phosphodiesterase (PDE4B2) inhibitory activities. The putative binding mode of 1-3 with PDE4B2 was examined using a validated docking protocol, and the binding and enzyme inhibitory activities were correlated. PMID:23301853

  10. Membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants reveal diverse yeast and protist communities of potential significance in biofouling.

    PubMed

    Liébana, Raquel; Arregui, Lucía; Belda, Ignacio; Gamella, Luis; Santos, Antonio; Marquina, Domingo; Serrano, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The yeast community was studied in a municipal full-scale membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant (MBR-WWTP). The unexpectedly high diversity of yeasts indicated that the activated sludge formed a suitable environment for them to proliferate, with cellular concentrations of 2.2 ± 0.8?×?10(3) CFU ml(-1). Sixteen species of seven genera were present in the biological reactor, with Ascomycetes being the most prevalent group (93%). Most isolates were able to grow in a synthetic wastewater medium, adhere to polyethylene surfaces, and develop biofilms of variable complexity. The relationship between yeast populations and the protists in the MBR-WWTP was also studied, revealing that some protist species preyed on and ingested yeasts. These results suggest that yeast populations may play a role in the food web of a WWTP and, to some extent, contribute to membrane biofouling in MBR systems. PMID:25588128

  11. A small insertion in the SSU rDNA of the lichen fungus Arthonia lapidicola is a degenerate group-I intron.

    PubMed

    Grube, M; Gargas, A; DePriest, P T

    1996-05-01

    Insertions of less than 100 nt occurring in highly conserved regions of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) may represent degenerate forms of the group-I introns observed at the same positions in other organisms. A 63-nt insertion at SSU rDNA position 1512 (relative to the Escherichia coli SSU rDNA) of the lichen-forming fungus Arthonia lapidicola can be folded into a secondary structure with two stem loops and a pairing of the insertion and flanking sequences. The two stem loops may correspond to the P1 and P2, and the insertion-flanking pairing to the P10, of a group-I intron. Considering these small insertions as degenerate introns provides important clues to the evolution and catalytic function of group-I introns. Keywords Ribosomal DNA middle dot Small subunit middle dot 18s middle dot Degenerate introns middle dot Ascomycetes PMID:8662198

  12. ITS as an environmental DNA barcode for fungi: an in silico approach reveals potential PCR biases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background During the last 15 years the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear DNA has been used as a target for analyzing fungal diversity in environmental samples, and has recently been selected as the standard marker for fungal DNA barcoding. In this study we explored the potential amplification biases that various commonly utilized ITS primers might introduce during amplification of different parts of the ITS region in samples containing mixed templates ('environmental barcoding'). We performed in silico PCR analyses with commonly used primer combinations using various ITS datasets obtained from public databases as templates. Results Some of the ITS primers, such as ITS1-F, were hampered with a high proportion of mismatches relative to the target sequences, and most of them appeared to introduce taxonomic biases during PCR. Some primers, e.g. ITS1-F, ITS1 and ITS5, were biased towards amplification of basidiomycetes, whereas others, e.g. ITS2, ITS3 and ITS4, were biased towards ascomycetes. The assumed basidiomycete-specific primer ITS4-B only amplified a minor proportion of basidiomycete ITS sequences, even under relaxed PCR conditions. Due to systematic length differences in the ITS2 region as well as the entire ITS, we found that ascomycetes will more easily amplify than basidiomycetes using these regions as targets. This bias can be avoided by using primers amplifying ITS1 only, but this would imply preferential amplification of 'non-dikarya' fungi. Conclusions We conclude that ITS primers have to be selected carefully, especially when used for high-throughput sequencing of environmental samples. We suggest that different primer combinations or different parts of the ITS region should be analyzed in parallel, or that alternative ITS primers should be searched for. PMID:20618939

  13. Phylogenetic Characterization and In Situ Detection of a Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides Phylogroup Bacterium in Tuber borchii Vittad. Ectomycorrhizal Mycelium

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Elena; Potenza, Lucia; Rossi, Ismaela; Sisti, Davide; Giomaro, Giovanna; Rossetti, Simona; Beimfohr, Claudia; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2000-01-01

    Mycorrhizal ascomycetous fungi are obligate ectosymbionts that colonize the roots of gymnosperms and angiosperms. In this paper we describe a straightforward approach in which a combination of morphological and molecular methods was used to survey the presence of potentially endo- and epiphytic bacteria associated with the ascomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii Vittad. Universal eubacterial primers specific for the 5? and 3? ends of the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) were used for PCR amplification, direct sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. The 16S rDNA was amplified directly from four pure cultures of T. borchii Vittad. mycelium. A nearly full-length sequence of the gene coding for the prokaryotic small-subunit rRNA was obtained from each T. borchii mycelium studied. The 16S rDNA sequences were almost identical (98 to 99% similarity), and phylogenetic analysis placed them in a single unique rRNA branch belonging to the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) phylogroup which had not been described previously. In situ detection of the CFB bacterium in the hyphal tissue of the fungus T. borchii was carried out by using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for the eubacterial domain and the Cytophaga-Flexibacter phylum, as well as a probe specifically designed for the detection of this mycelium-associated bacterium. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that all three of the probes used bound to the mycelium tissue. This study provides the first direct visual evidence of a not-yet-cultured CFB bacterium associated with a mycorrhizal fungus of the genus Tuber. PMID:11055961

  14. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Saccharomyces based on 18S rRNA gene sequences: description of Saccharomyces kunashirensis sp. nov. and Saccharomyces martiniae sp. nov.

    PubMed

    James, S A; Cai, J; Roberts, I N; Collins, M D

    1997-04-01

    A phylogenetic investigation of the ascomycetous yeast genus Saccharomyces was performed by using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the genus is phylogenetically very heterogeneous. Saccharomyces species were found to be phylogenetically interdispersed with members of other ascomycetous genera (e.g., the genera Kluyveromyces, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces). The four species of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex (viz., Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus, and Saccharomyces pastorianus) were found to be phylogenetically closely related to one another, displaying exceptionally high levels of sequence similarity (> or = 99.9%). These four species formed a natural group that was quite separate from the other Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces species examined. Saccharomyces exiguus and its anamorph, Candida holmii, were found to be genealogically almost identical and, along with Saccharomyces barnettii, formed a stable group closely related to, but nevertheless distinct from, Kluyveromyces africanus, Kluyveromyces lodderae, Saccharomyces rosinii, Saccharomyces spencerorum, and Saccharomyces sp. strain CBS 7662T (T = type strain). Saccharomyces spencerorum and Kluyveromyces lodderae displayed a particularly close genealogical affinity with each other, as did Saccharomyces castellii and Saccharomyces dairensis. Similarly, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces unisporus, and Saccharomyces sp. strain CBS 6904 were found to be genotypically highly related and to form a phylogenetically distinct lineage. The recently reinstated species Saccharomyces transvaalensis was found to form a distinct lineage and displayed no specific association with any other Saccharomyces or non-Saccharomyces species. Saccharomyces kluyveri formed a very loose association with a group which included Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Kluyveromyces waltii, Zygosaccharomyces cidri, and Zygosaccharomyces fermentati. Saccharomyces spp. strain CBS 6334T, on the other hand, displayed no specific association with any of the other Saccharomyces spp. studied, although a neighbor-joining analysis did reveal that this strain exhibited a loose phylogenetic affinity with Kluyveromyces polysporus and Kluyveromyces yarrowii. On the basis of the phylogenetic findings, two new Saccharomyces species, Saccharomyces kunashirensis (with type strain CBS 7662) and Saccharomyces martiniae (with type strain CBS 6334), are described. PMID:9103636

  15. Mating Type Locus of Chinese Black Truffles Reveals Heterothallism and the Presence of Cryptic Species within the T. indicum Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T. melanosporum. PMID:24358175

  16. The diversity and extracellular enzymatic activities of yeasts isolated from water tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species in Brazil, and the description of Occultifur brasiliensis f.a., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fátima C O; Safar, Silvana V B; Marques, Andrea R; Medeiros, Adriana O; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Carvalho, Cláudia; Lachance, Marc-André; Sampaio, José Paulo; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of yeast species collected from the bromeliad tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species, and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes were studied. Water samples were collected from 30 tanks of bromeliads living in a rupestrian field site located at Serrada Piedade, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, during both the dry and rainy seasons. Thirty-six species were isolated, representing 22 basidiomycetous and 14 ascomycetous species. Occultifur sp., Cryptococcus podzolicus and Cryptococcus sp. 1 were the prevalent basidiomycetous species. The yeast-like fungus from the order Myriangiales, Candida silvae and Aureobasidium pullulans were the most frequent ascomycetous species. The diversity of the yeast communities obtained between seasons was not significantly different, but the yeast composition per bromeliad was different between seasons. These results suggest that there is significant spatial heterogeneity in the composition of populations of the yeast communities within bromeliad tanks, independent of the season. Among the 352 yeast isolates tested, 282 showed at least one enzymatic activity. Protease activity was the most widely expressed extracellular enzymatic activity, followed by xylanase, amylase, pectinase and cellulase activities. These enzymes may increase the carbon and nitrogen availability for the microbial food web in the bromeliad tank of V. minarum. Sequence analyses revealed the existence of 10 new species, indicating that bromeliad tanks are important sources of new yeasts. The novel species Occultifur brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the most frequently isolated yeast associated with V. minarum. The type strain of O. brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y375(T) (= CBS 12687(T)). The Mycobank number is MB 809816. PMID:25515414

  17. Transcriptome analysis of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis: implications for host pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We present a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the fungus Ascosphaera apis, an economically important pathogen of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) that causes chalkbrood disease. Our goals were to further annotate the A. apis reference genome and to identify genes that are candidates for being differentially expressed during host infection versus axenic culture. Results We compared A. apis transcriptome sequence from mycelia grown on liquid or solid media with that dissected from host-infected tissue. 454 pyrosequencing provided 252?Mb of filtered sequence reads from both culture types that were assembled into 10,087 contigs. Transcript contigs, protein sequences from multiple fungal species, and ab initio gene predictions were included as evidence sources in the Maker gene prediction pipeline, resulting in 6,992 consensus gene models. A phylogeny based on 12 of these protein-coding loci further supported the taxonomic placement of Ascosphaera as sister to the core Onygenales. Several common protein domains were less abundant in A. apis compared with related ascomycete genomes, particularly cytochrome p450 and protein kinase domains. A novel gene family was identified that has expanded in some ascomycete lineages, but not others. We manually annotated genes with homologs in other fungal genomes that have known relevance to fungal virulence and life history. Functional categories of interest included genes involved in mating-type specification, intracellular signal transduction, and stress response. Computational and manual annotations have been made publicly available on the Bee Pests and Pathogens website. Conclusions This comprehensive transcriptome analysis substantially enhances our understanding of the A. apis genome and its expression during infection of honey bee larvae. It also provides resources for future molecular studies of chalkbrood disease and ultimately improved disease management. PMID:22747707

  18. [Current aspects of fungal spores allergy].

    PubMed

    Helbling, A; Reese, G; Horner, W E; Lehrer, S B

    1994-05-28

    In industrialized countries the prevalence of allergic inhalant diseases is some 15-20%. More than 10% of these individuals are sensitized to fungal allergens. Many fungal spores are less than 10 microns in size, which permits penetration into the smaller airways of the lung. Bronchial provocation tests have demonstrated that fungal spores and spore extracts can cause both an early and a late phase reaction in sensitive subjects. Over 80 genera of fungi have been associated with symptoms of respiratory tract allergy. Ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and zygomycetes are the major fungal groups that contain genera known to induce and elicit allergic reactions. These groups contribute most of the spores found in air. Although ascomycetes include the greatest number of any fungal group, only a few species, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum, have been investigated in a scientific manner. In recent years spores of basidiomycetes have been tested for allergenicity and some species have been determined to be allergenic, such as Calvatia cyathiformis, Ganoderma applanatum, Pleurotus ostreatus, or Psilocybe cubensis. Compared to pollen-related allergies, diagnosis of fungal allergy is often difficult. Provocative challenge with specific fungal antigens can provide a definitive diagnosis. To date, only three controlled immunotherapy trials with standardized extracts of A. alternata and C. herbarum have shown clinical efficacy. In spite of these studies, immunotherapy with fungal antigens requires further investigations. Thus, the indication for immunotherapy with fungal extracts must be judged by an experienced allergist. Apart from pharmacological management, avoiding or minimizing exposure is the front-line measure. PMID:8016603

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes.

    PubMed Central

    Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Weisburg, W G; Tordoff, L A; Fraser, G J; Hespell, R B; Stanton, T B; Zablen, L; Mandelco, L; Woese, C R

    1991-01-01

    The 16S rRNA sequences were determined for species of Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, Leptonema, and Serpula, using a modified Sanger method of direct RNA sequencing. Analysis of aligned 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. The first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. The first treponeme subgroup consisted of Treponema pallidum, Treponema phagedenis, Treponema denticola, a thermophilic spirochete strain, and two species of Spirochaeta, Spirochaeta zuelzerae and Spirochaeta stenostrepta, with an average interspecies similarity of 89.9%. The second treponeme subgroup contained Treponema bryantii, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema saccharophilum, Treponema succinifaciens, and rumen strain CA, with an average interspecies similarity of 86.2%. The average interspecies similarity between the two treponeme subgroups was 84.2%. The division of the treponemes into two subgroups was verified by single-base signature analysis. The second spirochete group contained Spirochaeta aurantia, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirochaeta litoralis, and Spirochaeta isovalerica, with an average similarity of 87.4%. The Spirochaeta group was related to the treponeme group, with an average similarity of 81.9%. The third spirochete group contained borrelias, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia anserina, Borrelia hermsii, and a rabbit tick strain. The borrelias formed a tight phylogenetic cluster, with average similarity of 97%. THe borrelia group shared a common branch with the Spirochaeta group and was closer to this group than to the treponemes. A single spirochete strain isolated fromt the shew constituted the fourth group. The fifth group was composed of strains of Serpula (Treponema) hyodysenteriae and Serpula (Treponema) innocens. The two species of this group were closely related, with a similarity of greater than 99%. Leptonema illini, Leptospira biflexa, and Leptospira interrogans formed the sixth and most deeply branching group. The average similarity within this group was 83.2%. This study represents the first demonstration that pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species are phylogenetically related. The division of the spirochetes into six major phylogenetic clusters was defined also by sequence signature elements. These signature analyses supported the conclusion that the spirochetes represent a monophylectic bacterial phylum. PMID:1917844

  20. Sunlight-Exposed Biofilm Microbial Communities Are Naturally Resistant to Chernobyl Ionizing-Radiation Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Mřller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general diversity patterns, despite increased mutation levels at the single-OTU level. Therefore, biofilm communities growing in sunlight exposed substrates are capable of coping with increased mutation rates and appear pre-adapted to levels of ionizing radiation in Chernobyl due to their natural adaptation to periodical desiccation and ambient UV radiation. PMID:21765911

  1. Multiple, non-allelic, intein-coding sequences in eukaryotic RNA polymerase genes

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Timothy JD; Butler, Margaret I; Poulter, Russell TM

    2006-01-01

    Background Inteins are self-splicing protein elements. They are translated as inserts within host proteins that excise themselves and ligate the flanking portions of the host protein (exteins) with a peptide bond. They are encoded as in-frame insertions within the genes for the host proteins. Inteins are found in all three domains of life and in viruses, but have a very sporadic distribution. Only a small number of intein coding sequences have been identified in eukaryotic nuclear genes, and all of these are from ascomycete or basidiomycete fungi. Results We identified seven intein coding sequences within nuclear genes coding for the second largest subunits of RNA polymerase. These sequences were found in diverse eukaryotes: one is in the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase I (RPA2) from the ascomycete fungus Phaeosphaeria nodorum, one is in the RNA polymerase III (RPC2) of the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum and four intein coding sequences are in RNA polymerase II genes (RPB2), one each from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the zygomycete fungus Spiromyces aspiralis and the chytrid fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Coelomomyces stegomyiae. The remaining intein coding sequence is in a viral relic embedded within the genome of the oomycete Phytophthora ramorum. The Chlamydomonas and Dictyostelium inteins are the first nuclear-encoded inteins found outside of the fungi. These new inteins represent a unique dataset: they are found in homologous proteins that form a paralogous group. Although these paralogues diverged early in eukaryotic evolution, their sequences can be aligned over most of their length. The inteins are inserted at multiple distinct sites, each of which corresponds to a highly conserved region of RNA polymerase. This dataset supports earlier work suggesting that inteins preferentially occur in highly conserved regions of their host proteins. Conclusion The identification of these new inteins increases the known host range of intein sequences in eukaryotes, and provides fresh insights into their origins and evolution. We conclude that inteins are ancient eukaryote elements once found widely among microbial eukaryotes. They persist as rarities in the genomes of a sporadic array of microorganisms, occupying highly conserved sites in diverse proteins. PMID:17069655

  2. An Assessment of Fungal Diversity Using Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of rRNA Genes, A Macroarray-based Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, C. A.; Borneman, J.; Lansing, J. L.; Hughes, J. B.; Mack, M. C.; Treseder, K. K.

    2004-12-01

    Environmental controls over the diversity and community composition of microbial decomposers are poorly understood. In this experiment, we examined the effects of litter quality and competitive exclusion on fungal diversity. Specifically, we expected to see greater fungal diversity in litter containing higher nitrogen concentrations in that this high quality substrate would be able to support fungal groups with a range of nutrient requirements. Additionally, to test the competitive exclusion principle that a limited number of decomposer groups can be supported by a given substrate, we excluded from the litter one phylum of decomposer fungi, the Ascomycota. An increase in diversity within the remaining fungal phyla would indicate a release from competitive exclusion. To test these hypotheses, we performed a decomposition experiment in a boreal forest near Delta Junction, Alaska. Senescent leaves of Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) from two sites that varied in soil fertility were collected in fall 2002. Leaves from the more fertile site had nitrogen concentrations of 2.26%, and those from the less fertile site had nitrogen concentrations of 1.59%. Leaves were placed into 1-mm mesh bags and incubated in a third site from September 2002 to July 2003. The fungicide Benomyl, which eliminates Ascomycetes, was applied to a subset of the bags at the onset of decomposition. Directly following collection, active fungal DNA was isolated using a nucleotide analog probe. Fungal communities were characterized by oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes, a macroarray-based technique. Cluster analyses of fingerprints identified fungal groups representing taxonomic levels ranging from genus to class. The number of fungal groups in each treatment was approximated using the Chao1 estimator. A total of 524 ± 10 fungal groups were estimated to occur across all treatments, with less than 60 of these groups previously identified in Genbank. We found that litter quality did not strongly affect fungal diversity, since the number of fungal groups did not differ significantly between site of litter origin (P = 0.0691). However, the overall fungal diversity in the fungicide treatment was significantly reduced compared to the control (P = 0.0358). This indicates that the remaining fungal groups did not completely radiate to fill all available niches following the elimination of competitors. Thus, we did not find strong evidence for competitive exclusion as an important control over the microbial community composition in this system. An additional analysis of the diversity of non-Ascomycetes across treatments will be conducted to further elucidate any potential role of competitive exclusion.

  3. Mating type-dependent partner sensing as mediated by VEL1 in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Bazafkan, Hoda; Dattenböck, Christoph; Böhmdorfer, Stefan; Tisch, Doris; Stappler, Eva; Schmoll, Monika

    2015-06-01

    Sexual development in the filamentous model ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina) was described only a few years ago. In this study, we show a novel role for VELVET in fungi, which links light response, development and secondary metabolism. Vel1 is required for mating in darkness, normal growth and conidiation. In light, vel1 was dispensable for male fertility but essential for female fertility in both mating types. VEL1 impacted regulation of the pheromone system (hpr1, hpr2, hpp1, ppg1) in a mating type-dependent manner and depending on the mating partner of a given strain. These partner effects only occurred for hpp1 and hpr2, the pheromone precursor and receptor genes associated with the MAT1-2 mating type and for the mating type gene mat1-2-1. Analysis of secondary metabolite patterns secreted by wild type and mutants under asexual and sexual conditions revealed that even in the wild type, the patterns change upon encounter of a mating partner, with again distinct differences for wild type and vel1 mutants. Hence, T.?reesei applies a language of pheromones and secondary metabolites to communicate with mating partners and that this communication is at least in part mediated by VEL1. PMID:25757597

  4. Isolation and characterization of extracellular polysaccharide Thelebolan produced by a newly isolated psychrophilic Antarctic fungus Thelebolus.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sourav K; Chatterjee, Soumya; Gauri, Samiran S; Das, Shibendu S; Mishra, Abheepsa; Patra, Moumita; Ghosh, Ananta K; Das, Amit K; Singh, Shiv M; Dey, Satyahari

    2014-04-15

    The present investigation is on a newly isolated psychrophilic Antarctic filamentous Ascomycetous fungus that has been identified as Thelebolus sp. and given the designation of Thelebolus sp. IITKGP-BT12. The culture was primarily identified through morphological studies, and was further confirmed by 18S rRNA sequencing (GenBank Accession No. KC191572), which revealed its close relatedness with Thelebolus microsporus. The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced (1.94 g L(-1)) by the fungus was isolated, purified and characterized as glucan having an average molecular mass of 5×10(5)Da. The structure of EPS was determined by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies ((1)H, (13)C and HSQC). NMR analysis indicated the presence of (1?3)-linked ?-d-glucan backbone with (1?6)-linked branches of ?-d-glucopyranosyl units. Antiproliferative activity of EPS was demonstrated in B16-F0 cells, with IC50 of 275.42 ?g m L(-1). Flow cytometry analysis and DNA fragmentation studies revealed that the cytotoxic action of the EPS mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. This is the first ever report on bioactive EPS thelebolan from Thelebolus sp. PMID:24607179

  5. Hagleromyces gen. nov., a yeast genus in the Saccharomycetaceae, and description of Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov., isolated from water tanks of bromeliads.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisca M P; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-08-01

    Three strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from water tanks (phytotelmata) of a bromeliad species collected in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analysis of sequences for the region spanning the SSU rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S rRNA gene and the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and RNA polymerase II gene showed that these novel yeasts belong to a species that is distinct from all recognized ascomycetous yeast species. Based on the results of gene sequence analyses, a novel species representing a new genus in the Saccharomycetaceae is proposed. The novel species is assigned to the genus Hagleromyces gen. nov. The three isolates of the novel yeast species failed to form sexual spores alone or in mixtures. The name Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of H. aurorensis sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y311(T) (?=?CBS 13264(T)). PMID:24879649

  6. Halotolerance of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans LS3.

    PubMed

    Yang, X X; Wartmann, T; Stoltenburg, R; Kunze, G

    2000-05-01

    The non-pathogenic, dimorphic, ascomycetous yeast Arxula adeninivorans LS3 is halotolerant. It can grow in a minimal medium containing up to 20% NaCl. The growth parameters are only weakly influenced by 10% NaCl. However, NaCl in a concentration higher than 10% causes a decrease in the specific growth rate, a longer adaptation phase and a lower cell count in the stationary growth phase. Concentrations of glycerol and trehalose, which differed 100-fold in magnitude in a salt free medium, are also influenced differently by salt. NaCl induces accumulation of intracellular glycerol in exponentially growing cells but a reduced concentration of intracellular trehalose in stationary cells. Transcripts of the genes ARFC3, encoding a component of the replication factor C, and GAA, encoding a secretory glucoamylase, can be detected only in cells cultured in media with NaCl concentrations below 10%. Furthermore, NaCl in high concentration reduces the level of secreted proteins including glucoamylase end invertase. PMID:10959559

  7. Characterization of chasmoendolithic community in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yung, Charmaine C M; Chan, Yuki; Lacap, Donnabella C; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; de Los Rios-Murillo, Asuncion; Lee, Charles K; Cary, S Craig; Pointing, Stephen B

    2014-08-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys are unable to support higher plant and animal life and so microbial communities dominate biotic ecosystem processes. Soil communities are well characterized, but rocky surfaces have also emerged as a significant microbial habitat. Here, we identify extensive colonization of weathered granite on a landscape scale by chasmoendolithic microbial communities. A transect across north-facing and south-facing slopes plus valley floor moraines revealed 30-100 % of available substrate was colonized up to an altitude of 800 m. Communities were assessed at a multidomain level and were clearly distinct from those in surrounding soils and other rock-inhabiting cryptoendolithic and hypolithic communities. All colonized rocks were dominated by the cyanobacterial genus Leptolyngbya (Oscillatoriales), with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea, algae, and fungi also identified. Striking patterns in community distribution were evident with regard to microclimate as determined by aspect. Notably, a shift in cyanobacterial assemblages from Chroococcidiopsis-like phylotypes (Pleurocapsales) on colder-drier slopes, to Synechococcus-like phylotypes (Chroococcales) on warmer-wetter slopes. Greater relative abundance of known desiccation-tolerant bacterial taxa occurred on colder-drier slopes. Archaeal phylotypes indicated halotolerant taxa and also taxa possibly derived from nearby volcanic sources. Among the eukaryotes, the lichen photobiont Trebouxia (Chlorophyta) was ubiquitous, but known lichen-forming fungi were not recovered. Instead, fungal assemblages were dominated by ascomycetous yeasts. We conclude that chasmoendoliths likely constitute a significant geobiological phenomenon at lower elevations in granite-dominated Antarctic Dry Valley systems. PMID:24671755

  8. Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Bats with White-Nose Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; McGuire, Liam P; Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M; Willis, Craig K R; Risch, Thomas S

    2015-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is an ascomycetous fungus responsible for the disease dubbed white-nose syndrome (WNS) and massive mortalities of cave-dwelling bats. The fungus infects bat epidermal tissue, causing damage to integumentary cells and pilosebaceous units. Differences in epidermal lipid composition caused by P. destructans infection could have drastic consequences for a variety of physiological functions, including innate immune efficiency and water retention. While bat surface lipid and stratum corneum lipid composition have been described, the differences in epidermal lipid content between healthy tissue and P. destructans-infected tissue have not been documented. In this study, we analyzed the effect of wing damage from P. destructans infection on the epidermal polar lipid composition (glycerophospholipids [GPs] and sphingomyelin) of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). We hypothesized that infection would lead to lower levels of total lipid or higher oxidized lipid product proportions. Polar lipids from three damaged and three healthy wing samples were profiled by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. We found lower total broad lipid levels in damaged tissue, specifically ether-linked phospholipids, lysophospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine. Thirteen individual GP species from four broad GP classes were present in higher amounts in healthy tissue. Six unsaturated GP species were absent in damaged tissue. Our results confirm that P. destructans infection leads to altered lipid profiles. Clinical signs of WNS may include lower lipid levels and lower proportions of unsaturated lipids due to cellular and glandular damage. PMID:26052639

  9. Expanding genomics of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Alan; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis M; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2014-01-01

    The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant nutrition, soil health, and carbon cycling. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphotypes [e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] in multiple fungal clades (e.g., phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The accessibility and cultivability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first three mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing two morphotypes and three phyla. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other two fungi, symbiosis can involve similar solutions as symbiosis-induced SSPs and loss of PCWDEs. The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism. PMID:25408690

  10. Duplications and losses in gene families of rust pathogens highlight putative effectors.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Amanda L; Smith, Katherine E; Feau, Nicolas; Martin, Francis M; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hamelin, Richard; Nelson, C Dana; Burleigh, J Gordon; Davis, John M

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi are a group of fungal pathogens that cause some of the world's most destructive diseases of trees and crops. A shared characteristic among rust fungi is obligate biotrophy, the inability to complete a lifecycle without a host. This dependence on a host species likely affects patterns of gene expansion, contraction, and innovation within rust pathogen genomes. The establishment of disease by biotrophic pathogens is reliant upon effector proteins that are encoded in the fungal genome and secreted from the pathogen into the host's cell apoplast or within the cells. This study uses a comparative genomic approach to elucidate putative effectors and determine their evolutionary histories. We used OrthoMCL to identify nearly 20,000 gene families in proteomes of 16 diverse fungal species, which include 15 basidiomycetes and one ascomycete. We inferred patterns of duplication and loss for each gene family and identified families with distinctive patterns of expansion/contraction associated with the evolution of rust fungal genomes. To recognize potential contributors for the unique features of rust pathogens, we identified families harboring secreted proteins that: (i) arose or expanded in rust pathogens relative to other fungi, or (ii) contracted or were lost in rust fungal genomes. While the origin of rust fungi appears to be associated with considerable gene loss, there are many gene duplications associated with each sampled rust fungal genome. We also highlight two putative effector gene families that have expanded in Cqf that we hypothesize have roles in pathogenicity. PMID:25018762

  11. Rice straw-decomposing fungi and their cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangjoon; Jang, Yeongseon; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2011-12-01

    Filamentous fungi colonizing rice straw were collected from 11 different sites in Korea and were identified based on characterization of their morphology and molecular properties. The fungi were divided into 25 species belonging to 16 genera, including 14 ascomycetes, one zygomycete, and one basidiomycete. Fungal cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes were assessed through a two-step process, wherein highly active cellulase- and/or hemicellulaseproducing fungi were selected in a first screening step followed by a second step to isolate the best enzymeproducer. Twenty-five fungal species were first screened for the production of total cellulase (TC), endo-beta-1,4 glucanase (EG), and endo-beta-1,4 xylanase (XYL) using solid-state fermentation with rice straw as substrate. From this screening, six species, namely, Aspergillus niger KUC5183, A. ochraceus KUC5204, A. versicolor KUC5201, Mucor circinelloides KUC6014, Trichoderma harzianum 1 KUC5182, and an unknown basidiomycete species, KUC8721, were selected. These six species were then incubated in liquid Mandels' media containing cellulose, glucose, rice straw, or xylan as the sole carbon source and the activities of six different enzymes were measured. Enzyme production was highly influenced by media conditions and in some cases significantly increased. Through this screening process, Trichoderma harzianum 1 KUC5182 was selected as the best enzyme producer. Rice straw and xylan were good carbon sources for the screening of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. PMID:22210620

  12. Microbial Communities in Pre-Columbian Coprolites

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Narganes-Storde, Yvonne M.; Chanlatte, Luis; Crespo-Torres, Edwin; Toranzos, Gary A.; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Hamrick, Alice; Cano, Raul J.

    2013-01-01

    The study of coprolites from earlier cultures represents a great opportunity to study an “unaltered” composition of the intestinal microbiota. To test this, pre-Columbian coprolites from two cultures, the Huecoid and Saladoid, were evaluated for the presence of DNA, proteins and lipids by cytochemical staining, human and/or dog-specific Bacteroides spp. by PCR, as well as bacteria, fungi and archaea using Terminal Restriction Fragment analyses. DNA, proteins and lipids, and human-specific Bacteroides DNA were detected in all coprolites. Multidimensional scaling analyses resulted in spatial arrangements of microbial profiles by culture, further supported by cluster analysis and ANOSIM. Differences between the microbial communities were positively correlated with culture, and SIMPER analysis indicated 68.8% dissimilarity between the Huecoid and Saladoid. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and methanogens were found in all coprolite samples. Propionebacteria, Shewanella and lactic acid bacteria dominated in the Huecoid samples, while Acidobacteria, and peptococci were dominant in Saladoid samples. Yeasts, including Candida albicans and Crypotococcus spp. were found in all samples. Basidiomycetes were the most notable fungi in Huecoid samples while Ascomycetes predominated in Saladoid samples, suggesting differences in dietary habits. Our study provides an approach for the study of the microbial communities of coprolite samples from various cultures. PMID:23755194

  13. Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Za?tsev, V. N.; Mikha?lov, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    “Blue” copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

  14. Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. Results The laccase-like multicopper oxidases McoA, McoB and McoG from the commonly used cell factory Aspergillus niger were homologously expressed, purified and analyzed for their biocatalytic potential. All three recombinant enzymes were monomers with apparent molecular masses ranging from 80 to 110 kDa. McoA and McoG resulted to be blue, whereas McoB was yellow. The newly obtained oxidases displayed strongly different activities towards aromatic compounds and synthetic dyes. McoB exhibited high catalytic efficiency with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPPDA) and 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline) sulfonic acid (ABTS), and appeared to be a promising biocatalyst. Besides oxidizing a variety of phenolic compounds, McoB catalyzed successfully the decolorization and detoxification of the widely used textile dye malachite green. Conclusions The A. niger McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different catalytic properties. Yellow McoB showed broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of several phenolic compounds commonly present in different industrial effluents. It also harbored high decolorization and detoxification activity with the synthetic dye malachite green, showing to have an interesting potential as a new industrial biocatalyst. PMID:23270588

  15. Multilocus Phylogenetic Study of the Scheffersomyces Yeast Clade and Characterization of the N-Terminal Region of Xylose Reductase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Urbina, Hector; Blackwell, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Many of the known xylose-fermenting (X-F) yeasts are placed in the Scheffersomyces clade, a group of ascomycete yeasts that have been isolated from plant tissues and in association with lignicolous insects. We formally recognize fourteen species in this clade based on a maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analysis using a multilocus dataset. This clade is divided into three subclades, each of which exhibits the biochemical ability to ferment cellobiose or xylose. New combinations are made for seven species of Candida in the clade, and three X-F taxa associated with rotted hardwood are described: Scheffersomyces illinoinensis (type strain NRRL Y-48827T ?=? CBS 12624), Scheffersomyces quercinus (type strain NRRL Y-48825T ?=? CBS 12625), and Scheffersomyces virginianus (type strain NRRL Y-48822T ?=? CBS 12626). The new X-F species are distinctive based on their position in the multilocus phylogenetic analysis and biochemical and morphological characters. The molecular characterization of xylose reductase (XR) indicates that the regions surrounding the conserved domain contain mutations that may enhance the performance of the enzyme in X-F yeasts. The phylogenetic reconstruction using XYL1 or RPB1 was identical to the multilocus analysis, and these loci have potential for rapid identification of cryptic species in this clade. PMID:22720049

  16. Polyoxometalate/laccase-mediated oxidative polymerization of catechol for textile dyeing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suyeon; Silva, Carla; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Gamelas, José A F; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2011-02-01

    The synergistic effect between polyoxometalates (POMs), namely K(5)[SiW(11)V(V)O(40)]·11H(2)O and H(5)[PMo(10)V(V) (2)O(40)]·13H(2)O and laccase from ascomycete Myceliophthora thermophila has been employed for the first time in oxidative polymerization of catechol. Such a laccase-mediator system allowed the formation of a relatively high molecular weight polycatechol as confirmed by size exclusion chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) (3990 Da when using K(5)[SiW(11)V(V)O(40)]·11H(2)O and 3600 Da with H(5)[PMo(10)V(V) (2)O(40)]·13H(2)O). The synthesized polymers were applied as dyes for the dyeing of flax fabrics. The color intensity of flax fabrics colored with polymer solutions was evaluated by diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry via k/s measurements (+10% of fixation ratio). A new synthetic process allowed a dyeing polymer, provided upon flax coloration, better color fixation and color resistance when compared to that obtained by conventional synthesis with laccase solely or with addition of organic mediator (1-hydroxybenzotriazole). PMID:20953600

  17. Phylogenetic reconstruction of endophytic fungal isolates using internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region

    PubMed Central

    GokulRaj, Kathamuthu; Sundaresan, Natesan; Ganeshan, Enthai Jagan; Rajapriya, Pandi; Muthumary, Johnpaul; Sridhar, Jayavel; Pandi, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are inhabitants of plants, living most part of their lifecycle asymptomatically which mainly confer protection and ecological advantages to the host plant. In this present study, 48 endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves of three medicinal plants and characterized based on ITS2 sequence – secondary structure analysis. ITS2 secondary structures were elucidated with minimum free energy method (MFOLD version 3.1) and consensus structure of each genus was generated by 4SALE. ProfDistS was used to generate ITS2 sequence structure based phylogenetic tree respectively. Our elucidated isolates were belonging to Ascomycetes family, representing 5 orders and 6 genera. Colletotrichum/Glomerella spp., Diaporthae/Phomopsis spp., and Alternaria spp., were predominantly observed while Cochliobolus sp., Cladosporium sp., and Emericella sp., were represented by singletons. The constructed phylogenetic tree has well resolved monophyletic groups with >50% bootstrap value support. Secondary structures based fungal systematics improves not only the stability; it also increases the precision of phylogenetic inference. Above ITS2 based phylogenetic analysis was performed for our 48 isolates along with sequences of known ex-types taken from GenBank which confirms the efficiency of the proposed method. Further, we propose it as superlative marker for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels due to their lesser length. PMID:25097373

  18. Isolation and partial characterization of an extracellular low-molecular mass component with high phenoloxidase activity from Thermoascus aurantiacus.

    PubMed

    Machuca, A; Aoyama, H; Durán, N

    1999-03-01

    An extracellular low-molecular mass component (LMMC) with catalytic properties was isolated from liquid cultures containing wheat bran of ascomycete thermophilic Thermoascus aurantiacus. The partially purified LMMC showed very high activity with typical phenoloxidase substrates in the absence of hydrogen peroxide at acidic pH (2.8). However, in this pH range, the phenoloxidase (PO) activity was quickly lost. The LMMC showed a high optimum temperature (80 degrees C) and an elevated thermostability. The molecular mass of the component estimated by gel filtration chromatography was 530 Da. IR and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra indicated the presence of hydroxamic acid moiety. Qualitative determination of metal ions by several techniques revealed the presence of mainly iron associated with this structure. Iron may be the responsible for the ability for catalyze oxidation reactions, such as o-dianisidine oxidation, by the LMMC. These results suggested the existence of a hydroxamate-type metal-binding component, most likely hydroxamate siderophore. In addition, the chrome azurol S (CAS) universal assay for noncomplexed siderophores detection revealed the production of these compounds by T.aurantiacus in solid and liquid media. PMID:10066416

  19. Endogenous ergothioneine is required for wild type levels of conidiogenesis and conidial survival but does not protect against 254 nm UV-induced mutagenesis or kill.

    PubMed

    Bello, Marco H; Mogannam, John C; Morin, Dexter; Epstein, Lynn

    2014-12-01

    Ergothioneine, a histidine derivative, is concentrated in conidia of ascomycetous fungi. To investigate the function of ergothioneine, we crossed the wild type Neurospora crassa (Egt(+)) and an ergothioneine non-producer (Egt(-), ?egt-1, a knockout in NCU04343.5) and used the Egt(+) and Egt(-) progeny strains for phenotypic analyses. Compared to the Egt(+) strains, Egt(-) strains had a 59% reduction in the number of conidia produced on Vogel's agar. After storage of Egt(+) and Egt(-) conidia at 97% and 52% relative humidity (RH) for a time course to either 17 or 98 days, respectively, Egt(-) strains had a 23% and a 18% reduction in life expectancy at 97% and 52% RH, respectively, compared to the Egt(+) strains. Based on a Cu(II) reduction assay with the chelator bathocuproinedisulfonic acid disodium salt, ergothioneine accounts for 38% and 33% of water-soluble antioxidant capacity in N. crassa conidia from seven and 20 day-old cultures, respectively. In contrast, ergothioneine did not account for significant (?=0.05) anti-oxidant capacity in mycelia, which have lower concentrations of ergothioneine than conidia. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that ergothioneine has an antioxidant function in vivo. In contrast, experiments on the spontaneous mutation rate in Egt(+) and Egt(-) strains and on the effects of 254 nm UV light on mutation rate and conidial viability do not support the hypothesis that ergothioneine protects DNA in vivo. PMID:25446508

  20. Extrolites of Wallemia sebi, a very common fungus in the built environment.

    PubMed

    Desroches, T C; McMullin, D R; Miller, J D

    2014-10-01

    Wallemia sebi has been primarily known as a spoilage fungus of dried, salted fish and other foods that are salty or sweet. However, this fungus is also very common in house dust. The health effects of chronic exposure to mold and dampness are known to be associated with both allergens and various inflammatory compounds, including the secondary metabolites of building associated fungi and their allergens. IgE sensitization to W. sebi has been long reported from housing and occupational exposures. However, its allergens have not been described previously. Strains from food have been reported to produce a number of compounds with modest toxicity. Strains from the built environment in Canada produced a number of metabolites including the known compound walleminone and a new compound 1-benzylhexahydroimidazo [1,5-?] pyridine-3,5-dione which we call wallimidione. Based on an in silico analysis, wallimidione is likely the most toxic of the metabolites reported to date from W. sebi. We found that the primary human antigen of W. sebi is a 47 kDa excreted cellulase present in high concentrations in W. sebi arthrospores. This species is a basidiomycete and, unsurprisingly, the antigen was not found in extracts of other fungi common in the built environment, all ascomycetes. PMID:24471934

  1. Diversity and enzymatic profiling of halotolerant micromycetes from Sebkha El Melah, a Saharan salt flat in southern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Jaouani, Atef; Neifar, Mohamed; Prigione, Valeria; Ayari, Amani; Sbissi, Imed; Ben Amor, Sonia; Ben Tekaya, Seifeddine; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Cherif, Ameur; Gtari, Maher

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-one moderately halotolerant fungi have been isolated from sample ashes collected from Sebkha El Melah, a Saharan salt flat located in southern Tunisia. Based on morphology and sequence inference from the internal transcribed spacer regions, 28S rRNA gene and other specific genes such as ?-tubulin, actin, calmodulin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the isolates were found to be distributed over 15 taxa belonging to 6 genera of Ascomycetes: Cladosporium (n = 3), Alternaria (n = 4), Aspergillus (n = 3), Penicillium (n = 5), Ulocladium (n = 2), and Engyodontium (n = 2). Their tolerance to different concentrations of salt in solid and liquid media was examined. Excepting Cladosporium cladosporioides JA18, all isolates were considered as alkali-halotolerant since they were able to grow in media containing 10% of salt with an initial pH 10. All isolates were resistant to oxidative stresses and low temperature whereas 5 strains belonging to Alternaria, Ulocladium, and Aspergillus genera were able to grow at 45°C. The screening of fungal strains for sets of enzyme production, namely, cellulase (CMCase), amylase, protease, lipase, and laccase, in presence of 10%?NaCl, showed a variety of extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative profiles. Protease was the most abundant enzyme produced whereas laccase producers were members of the genus Cladosporium. PMID:25136587

  2. Mycotic proventriculitis in gray partridges (Perdix perdix) on two game bird farms.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Désirée S; Bröjer, Caroline; Mattsson, Roland; Feinstein, Ricardo; Mörner, Torsten; Hĺrd af Segerstad, Carl

    2008-09-01

    Proventriculitis and chronic respiratory disease were diagnosed in two flocks of gray partridges (Perdix perdix) on unrelated Swedish game bird farms. Affected birds showed loss of condition, respiratory signs, and flock mortality rates of 50 and 98%, respectively. The proventricular lesions were associated closely with fungal organisms that were microscopically indistinguishable from the ascomycetous yeast Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (former provisional name "megabacterium"). At necropsy, the proventriculi were swollen and hyperemic, and viscous mucus adhered to the mucosa. Proventricular hemorrhages were commonly detected, and one bird had proventricular rupture and peritonitis. Microscopically, mild to severe subacute to chronic lymphoplasmacytic proventriculitis, microabscesses, necrosis, epithelial metaplasia, disrupted koilin, ulcers, and hemorrhages were observed. Transmission electron microscopy of the proventricular microorganisms revealed a membrane-bound nucleus, vacuoles, ribosomes, microtubules in parallel arrays, and a two-layered cell wall but no mitochondria. Scanning electron microscopy of the proventricular epithelium demonstrated masses of organisms with occasional constrictions in parallel arrangement. Many of the birds also suffered from concurrent respiratory bacterial infections and/or gastrointestinal candidiasis. The clinical course and gross and microscopic proventricular lesions were similar to those described in psittacine and passerine pet birds colonized by M. ornithogaster-like microorganisms but differed from published case reports and experimental infections of chickens in which the clinical signs and lesions have been considerably milder. The findings presented in this paper suggest that mycotic proventriculitis, presumably associated with M. ornithogaster, may be a serious but possibly opportunistic, although unusual, disease problem in gray partridges on game farms. PMID:18817007

  3. Carbon sequestration is related to mycorrhizal fungal community shifts during long-term succession in boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Clemmensen, Karina E; Finlay, Roger D; Dahlberg, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Wardle, David A; Lindahl, Björn D

    2015-03-01

    Boreal forest soils store a major proportion of the global terrestrial carbon (C) and below-ground inputs contribute as much as above-ground plant litter to the total C stored in the soil. A better understanding of the dynamics and drivers of root-associated fungal communities is essential to predict long-term soil C storage and climate feedbacks in northern ecosystems. We used 454-pyrosequencing to identify fungal communities across fine-scaled soil profiles in a 5000 yr fire-driven boreal forest chronosequence, with the aim of pinpointing shifts in fungal community composition that may underlie variation in below-ground C sequestration. In early successional-stage forests, higher abundance of cord-forming ectomycorrhizal fungi (such as Cortinarius and Suillus species) was linked to rapid turnover of mycelial biomass and necromass, efficient nitrogen (N) mobilization and low C sequestration. In late successional-stage forests, cord formers declined, while ericoid mycorrhizal ascomycetes continued to dominate, potentially facilitating long-term humus build-up through production of melanized hyphae that resist decomposition. Our results suggest that cord-forming ectomycorrhizal fungi and ericoid mycorrhizal fungi play opposing roles in below-ground C storage. We postulate that, by affecting turnover and decomposition of fungal tissues, mycorrhizal fungal identity and growth form are critical determinants of C and N sequestration in boreal forests. PMID:25494880

  4. A comparison of fungal communities from four salt marsh plants using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA).

    PubMed

    Torzilli, Albert P; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Chalkley, David; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2006-01-01

    Fungal decomposers are important contributors to the detritus-based food webs of salt marsh ecosystems. Knowing the composition of salt marsh fungal communities is essential in understanding how detritus processing is affected by changes in community dynamics. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) was used to examine the composition of fungal communities associated with four temperate salt marsh plants, Spartina alterniflora (short and tall forms), Juncus roemerianus, Distichlis spicata and Sarcocornia perennis. Plant tissues were homogenized and subjected to a particle-filtration protocol that yielded 106 microm particulate fractions, which were used as a source of fungal isolates and fungal DNA. Genera identified from sporulating cultures demonstrated that the 106 microm particles from each host plant were reliable sources of fungal DNA for ARISA. Analysis of ARISA data by principal component analysis (PCA), principal coordinate analysis (PCO) and species diversity comparisons indicated that the fungal communities from the two grasses, S. alterniflora and D. spicata were more similar to each other than they were to the distinct communities associated with J. roemerianus and S. perennis. Principal component analysis also showed no consistent, seasonal pattern in the composition of these fungal communities. Comparisons of ARISA fingerprints from the different fungal communities and those from pure cultures of selected Spartina ascomycetes supported the host/substrate specificity observed for the fungal communities. PMID:17256573

  5. Regulatory mechanisms in Thielavia terrestris. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tuse, D.; Hokama, L.

    1982-03-15

    Thielavia terrestris is a filamentous ascomycete originally discovered and identified as Allescheria terrestris by Apinis (1963). Strain S-16 was isolated from a soil sample in California and found to grow at temperatures as high as 50/sup 0/C. The fungus produces a complete cellulase system that enables it to degrade native, crystalline cellulose to glucose. The enzymes display high heat and pH stability and an optimum temperature for hydrolysis of 65/sup 0/C, making it attractive for the eventual commercial conversion of cellulose into fuel and chemicals. We report on the enzyme activity of Thielavia terrestris S-16, the effects of medium composition and carbon source on enzyme production, the growth of the organism at different temperatures, the extracellular aryl-..beta..-glucosidase activitiy as a function of incubation temperature, the effects of small-molecular-weight metabolic regulators and membrane-active antibiotics on the cell-associated and extracellular enzyme levels, and the methods used in an attempt to find plasmids.

  6. Cellulolytic potential of thermophilic species from four fungal orders.

    PubMed

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of fungal biomass degradation is important for understanding the turnover of biological materials in nature and has important implications for industrial biomass conversion. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in elucidating the biological role of thermophilic fungi and in characterization of their industrially useful enzymes. In the present study we investigated the cellulolytic potential of 16 thermophilic fungi from the three ascomycete orders Sordariales, Eurotiales and Onygenales and from the zygomycete order Mucorales thus covering all fungal orders that include thermophiles. Thermophilic fungi are the only described eukaryotes that can grow at temperatures above 45°C. All 16 fungi were able to grow on crystalline cellulose but their secreted enzymes showed widely different cellulolytic activities, pH optima and thermostabilities. Interestingly, in contrast to previous reports, we found that some fungi such as Melanocarpus albomyces readily grew on crystalline cellulose and produced cellulases. These results indicate that there are large differences in the cellulolytic potential of different isolates of the same species. Furthermore, all the selected species were able to degrade cellulose but the differences in cellulolytic potential and thermostability of the secretome did not correlate to the taxonomic position. PCR amplification and sequencing of 22 cellulase genes from the fungi showed that the level of thermostability of the cellulose-degrading activity could not be inferred from the phylogenetic relationship of the cellulases. PMID:23958135

  7. Oxidoreductive cellulose depolymerization by the enzymes cellobiose dehydrogenase and glycoside hydrolase 61.

    PubMed

    Langston, James A; Shaghasi, Tarana; Abbate, Eric; Xu, Feng; Vlasenko, Elena; Sweeney, Matt D

    2011-10-01

    Several members of the glycoside hydrolase 61 (GH61) family of proteins have recently been shown to dramatically increase the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass by microbial hydrolytic cellulases. However, purified GH61 proteins have neither demonstrable direct hydrolase activity on various polysaccharide or lignacious components of biomass nor an apparent hydrolase active site. Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a secreted flavocytochrome produced by many cellulose-degrading fungi with no well-understood biological function. Here we demonstrate that the binary combination of Thermoascus aurantiacus GH61A (TaGH61A) and Humicola insolens CDH (HiCDH) cleaves cellulose into soluble, oxidized oligosaccharides. TaGH61A-HiCDH activity on cellulose is shown to be nonredundant with the activities of canonical endocellulase and exocellulase enzymes in microcrystalline cellulose cleavage, and while the combination of TaGH61A and HiCDH cleaves highly crystalline bacterial cellulose, it does not cleave soluble cellodextrins. GH61 and CDH proteins are coexpressed and secreted by the thermophilic ascomycete Thielavia terrestris in response to environmental cellulose, and the combined activities of T. terrestris GH61 and T. terrestris CDH are shown to synergize with T. terrestris cellulose hydrolases in the breakdown of cellulose. The action of GH61 and CDH on cellulose may constitute an important, but overlooked, biological oxidoreductive system that functions in microbial lignocellulose degradation and has applications in industrial biomass utilization. PMID:21821740

  8. Fitness measurement reveals contrasting costs in homologous recombinant mutants of Botrytis cinerea resistant to succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lalčve, A; Fillinger, S; Walker, A-S

    2014-06-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a pathogenic ascomycete fungus that causes gray mold on many crops. Chemical control remains the principal method for curbing this disease. However, fungicide efficacy may be compromised by the selection of resistant strains. Assessments of the fitness of resistant strains is important, to evaluate the risk of their establishment in populations. Strains resistant to boscalid, the first succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) registered for the treatment of gray mold on grapevine in France, have recently been detected in the field. Most of these strains harbor mutations of the sdhB gene, encoding subunit B of SDH. In this study, we used sdhB recombinant mutants to investigate the impact of mutations conferring SDHI resistance on the fitness of B. cinerea. We have shown that sdhB mutations (except for the sdhB(H272Y) mutation) affect SDH activity and respiration rate. Our results suggest that different sdhB mutations have different effects on fitness. In particular, mutants displaying an inhibition of SDH activity do not suffer the same effects on fitness. We discuss the results in the context of mutant frequencies in field populations and the possible occurrence of compensatory mechanisms that modulate fitness losses. PMID:24694728

  9. I-OmiI and I-OmiII: two intron-encoded homing endonucleases within the Ophiostoma minus rns gene.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mohamed; Guha, Tuhin Kumar; Hausner, Georg

    2014-08-01

    The mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA (rns) gene of the ascomycetous fungus Ophiostoma minus [strain WIN(M)371] was found to contain a group IC2 and a group IIB1 intron at positions mS569 and mS952 respectively. Both introns have open reading frames (ORFs) embedded that encode double motif LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases (I-OmiI and I-OmiII respectively). Codon-optimized versions of I-OmiI and I-OmiII were synthesized for overexpression in Escherichia coli. The in vitro characterization of I-OmiII showed that it is a functional homing endonuclease that cleaves the rns target site two nucleotides upstream (sense strand) of the intron insertion site generating 4 nucleotide 3' overhangs. The endonuclease activity of I-OmiII was tested using linear and circular substrates and cleavage activity was evaluated at various temperatures. The I-OmiI protein was expressed in E. coli, but purification was difficult, thus the endonuclease activity of this protein was tested via in vivo assays. Overall this study showed that there are many native forms of functional homing endonucleases yet to be discovered among fungal mtDNA genomes. PMID:25110134

  10. Clinical Significance of Filamentous Basidiomycetes Illustrated by Isolates of the Novel Opportunist Ceriporia lacerata from the Human Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Kshitij; Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Roy, P.; Gaur, S. N.; de Hoog, G. S.; Meis, Jacques F.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous basidiomycete Ceriporia lacerata, an agent of white rot on wood, has never been reported in human disease and its clinical significance is not yet known. We describe 4 patients with respiratory diseases where C. lacerata was implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from saprobic colonization to fungal pneumonia. The isolates did not show the morphological characteristics that facilitate recognition of filamentous basidiomycetes, such as the presence of clamp connections, spicules along hyphae, or fruiting bodies. The identity of the mold was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 4 (ITS-1 and ITS-4) and D1/D2 regions of the rRNA gene. All of the isolates exhibited the lowest MICs of posaconazole and isavuconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.125 ?g/ml), followed by itraconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.5 ?g/ml), voriconazole (MIC range, 0.125 to 0.5 ?g/ml), and amphotericin B (MIC range, 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml). The infections reported here occurred in patients with preexisting lung damage induced by tuberculosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic, sometimes fatal infections by the ascomycete Aspergillus fumigatus and the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are well established in the presence of an anatomical pulmonary defect or in the background of immunodeficiency. It is postulated that C. lacerata, a novel opportunist basidiomycete, may be involved in similar pathological processes. PMID:23241374

  11. Genomic and proteomic dissection of the ubiquitous plant pathogen, Armillaria mellea: toward a new infection model system.

    PubMed

    Collins, Cassandra; Keane, Thomas M; Turner, Daniel J; O'Keeffe, Grainne; Fitzpatrick, David A; Doyle, Sean

    2013-06-01

    Armillaria mellea is a major plant pathogen. Yet, no large-scale "-omics" data are available to enable new studies, and limited experimental models are available to investigate basidiomycete pathogenicity. Here we reveal that the A. mellea genome comprises 58.35 Mb, contains 14473 gene models, of average length 1575 bp (4.72 introns/gene). Tandem mass spectrometry identified 921 mycelial (n = 629 unique) and secreted (n = 183 unique) proteins. Almost 100 mycelial proteins were either species-specific or previously unidentified at the protein level. A number of proteins (n = 111) was detected in both mycelia and culture supernatant extracts. Signal sequence occurrence was 4-fold greater for secreted (50.2%) compared to mycelial (12%) proteins. Analyses revealed a rich reservoir of carbohydrate degrading enzymes, laccases, and lignin peroxidases in the A. mellea proteome, reminiscent of both basidiomycete and ascomycete glycodegradative arsenals. We discovered that A. mellea exhibits a specific killing effect against Candida albicans during coculture. Proteomic investigation of this interaction revealed the unique expression of defensive and potentially offensive A. mellea proteins (n = 30). Overall, our data reveal new insights into the origin of basidiomycete virulence and we present a new model system for further studies aimed at deciphering fungal pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:23656496

  12. An improved high-throughput Nile red fluorescence assay for estimating intracellular lipids in a variety of yeast species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, I.R.; Ignatia, L.; Franz, A. K.; Wong, D. M.; Faulina, S.A.; Tsui, M.; Kanti, A.; Boundy-Mills, K.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method for estimating lipid content of yeasts is needed for screening large numbers of yeasts samples. Nile red is a fluorescent lipophilic dye used for detection and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets in various biological system including algae, yeasts and filamentous fungi. However, a published assay for yeast is affected by variable diffusion across the cell membrane, and variation in the time required to reach maximal fluorescence emission. In this study, parameters that may influence the emission were varied to determine optimal assay conditions. An improved assay with a high-throughput capability was developed that includes the addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to improve cell permeability, elimination of the washing step, the reduction of Nile red concentration, kinetic readings rather than single time-point reading, and utilization of a black 96-well microplate. The improved method was validated by comparison to gravimetric determination of lipid content of a broad variety of ascomycete and basidiomycete yeast species. PMID:22985718

  13. Application of response surface methodology for rapid chrysene biodegradation by newly isolated marine-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Jwalant K; Ghevariya, Chirag M; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

    2014-11-01

    For the first time, Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D, a marine-derived ascomycete fungus isolated from historically contaminated crude oil polluted shoreline of Alang-Sosiya ship-breaking yard, at Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat has been reported showing the rapid and enhanced biodegradation of chrysene, a four ringed high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Mineral Salt Broth (MSB) components such as ammonium tartrate and glucose along with chrysene, pH and trace metal solution have been successfully optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD). A validated, two-step optimization protocol has yielded a substantial 93.10% chrysene degradation on the 4(th) day, against unoptimized 56.37% degradation on the 14(th) day. The results depict 1.65 fold increase in chrysene degradation and 1.40 fold increase in biomass with a considerable decrement in time. Based on the successful laboratory experiments, C. lunatus strain CHR4D can thus be predicted as a potential candidate for mycoremediation of HMW PAHs impacted environments. PMID:25359268

  14. Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi of Emblica officinalis, an Ethnomedicinal Plant of India

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Archana; Raghunatha, Prajwal

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp. The antioxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay, and total phenol were evaluated using ethanolic extract of endophytic fungi. DPPH activities in all the ethanolic extract increased with the increase in concentrations. Endophytes, Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. showed highest antioxidant activity and also had the higher levels of phenolics. Antimicrobial activity of fungal extract were tested against four bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC730, Enteroccocus faecalis MTCC2729, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, and the fungus Candida albicans MTCC183. In general, the fungal extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms except E. coli. PMID:22783128

  15. Fusion of two divergent fungal individuals led to the recent emergence of a unique widespread pathogen species

    PubMed Central

    Stukenbrock, Eva Holtgrewe; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge; Hansen, Troels Toftebjerg; Dutheil, Julien Yann; Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    2012-01-01

    In a genome alignment of five individuals of the ascomycete fungus Zymoseptoria pseudotritici, a close relative of the wheat pathogen Z. tritici (synonym Mycosphaerella graminicola), we observed peculiar diversity patterns. Long regions up to 100 kb without variation alternate with similarly long regions of high variability. The variable segments in the genome alignment are organized into two main haplotype groups that have diverged ?3% from each other. The genome patterns in Z. pseudotritici are consistent with a hybrid speciation event resulting from a cross between two divergent haploid individuals. The resulting hybrids formed the new species without backcrossing to the parents. We observe no variation in 54% of the genome in the five individuals and estimate a complete loss of variation for at least 30% of the genome in the entire species. A strong population bottleneck following the hybridization event caused this loss of variation. Variable segments in the Z. pseudotritici genome exhibit the two haplotypes contributed by the parental individuals. From our previously estimated recombination map of Z. tritici and the size distribution of variable chromosome blocks untouched by recombination we estimate that the hybridization occurred ?380 sexual generations ago. We show that the amount of lost variation is explained by genetic drift during the bottleneck and by natural selection, as evidenced by the correlation of presence/absence of variation with gene density and recombination rate. The successful spread of this unique reproductively isolated pathogen highlights the strong potential of hybridization in the emergence of pathogen species with sexual reproduction. PMID:22711811

  16. Effect of different carbon sources on cellulase production by Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) strains

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Buchkowski, Robert; Qin, Wensheng

    2011-01-01

    The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina, an industrial (hemi)cellulase producer, can efficiently degrade plant polysaccharides. At present, the biology underlying cellulase hyperproduction of T. reesei, and the conditions for the enzyme induction, are not completely understood. In the current study, three different strains of T. reesei, including QM6a (wild-type), and mutants QM9414 and RUT-C30, were grown on 7 soluble and 7 insoluble carbon sources, with the later group including 4 pure polysaccharides and 3 lignocelluloses. Time course experiments showed that maximum cellulase activity of QM6a and QM9414 strains, for the majority of tested carbon sources, occurred at 120 hrs, while RUT-C30 had the greatest cellulase activity around 72 hrs. Maximum cellulase production was observed to be 0.035, 0.42 and 0.33 µmol glucose equivalents using microcrystalline celluloses for QM6a, QM9414, and RUTC-30, respectively. Increased cellulase production was positively correlated in QM9414 and negatively correlated in RUT-C30 with ability to grow on microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:22003440

  17. Regulation of exit from mitosis in multinucleate Ashbya gossypii cells relies on a minimal network of genes

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Mark R.; Helfer-Hungerbühler, A. Katrin; Philippsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mitosis is coupled to cell division by the action of the Cdc fourteen early anaphase release (FEAR) and mitotic exit network (MEN) regulatory networks, which mediate exit from mitosis by activation of the phosphatase Cdc14. The closely related filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii provides a unique cellular setting to study the evolution of these networks. Within its multinucleate hyphae, nuclei are free to divide without the spatial and temporal constraints described for budding yeast. To investigate how this highly conserved system has adapted to these circumstances, we constructed a series of mutants lacking homologues of core components of MEN and FEAR and monitored phenomena such as progression through mitosis and Cdc14 activation. MEN homologues in A. gossypii were shown to have diverged from their anticipated role in Cdc14 release and exit from mitosis. We observed defects in septation, as well as a partial metaphase arrest, in Agtem1?, Agcdc15?, Agdbf2/dbf20?, and Agmob1?. A. gossypii homologues of the FEAR network, on the other hand, have a conserved and more pronounced role in regulation of the M/G1 transition. Agcdc55? mutants are unable to sequester AgCdc14 throughout interphase. We propose a reduced model of the networks described in yeast, with a low degree of functional redundancy, convenient for further investigations into these networks. PMID:21737675

  18. The 203 kbp mitochondrial genome of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia borealis reveals multiple invasions of introns and genomic duplications.

    PubMed

    Mardanov, Andrey V; Beletsky, Alexey V; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Ignatov, Alexander N; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the complete sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia borealis, a member of the order Helotiales of Ascomycetes. The 203,051 bp long mtDNA of S. borealis represents one of the largest sequenced fungal mt genomes. The large size is mostly determined by the presence of mobile genetic elements, which include 61 introns. Introns contain a total of 125,394 bp, are scattered throughout the genome, and are found in 12 protein-coding genes and in the ribosomal RNA genes. Most introns contain complete or truncated ORFs that are related to homing endonucleases of the LAGLIDADG and GIY-YIG families. Integrations of mobile elements are also evidenced by the presence of two regions similar to fragments of inverton-like plasmids. Although duplications of some short genome regions, resulting in the appearance of truncated extra copies of genes, did occur, we found no evidences of extensive accumulation of repeat sequences accounting for mitochondrial genome size expansion in some other fungi. Comparisons of mtDNA of S. borealis with other members of the order Helotiales reveal considerable gene order conservation and a dynamic pattern of intron acquisition and loss during evolution. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that horizontal DNA transfer has played a significant role in the evolution and size expansion of the S. borealis mt genome. PMID:25216190

  19. The Tomato Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares Common Ancestors with Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from Wild Tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A.; Peever, Tobin L.; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity. PMID:24909710

  20. Unisexual reproduction in Huntiella moniliformis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A M; Godlonton, T; van der Nest, M A; Wilken, P M; Wingfield, M J; Wingfield, B D

    2015-07-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is controlled by genes present at the mating type (MAT) locus, which typically harbors transcription factors that influence the expression of many sex-related genes. The MAT locus exists as two alternative idiomorphs in ascomycetous fungi and sexual reproduction is initiated when genes from both idiomorphs are expressed. Thus, the gene content of this locus determines whether a fungus is heterothallic (self-sterile) or homothallic (self-fertile). Recently, a unique sub-class of homothallism has been described in fungi, where individuals possessing a single MAT idiomorph can reproduce sexually in the absence of a partner. Using various mycological, molecular and bioinformatic techniques, we investigated the sexual strategies and characterized the MAT loci in two tree wound-infecting fungi, Huntiella moniliformis and Huntiella omanensis. H. omanensis was shown to exhibit a typically heterothallic sexual reproductive cycle, with isolates possessing either the MAT1-1 or MAT1-2 idiomorph. This was in contrast to the homothallism via unisexual reproduction that was shown in H. moniliformis, where only the MAT1-2-1 gene was present in sexually reproducing cultures. While the evolutionary benefit and mechanisms underpinning a unisexual mating strategy remain unknown, it could have evolved to minimize the costs, while retaining the benefits, of normal sexual reproduction. PMID:25910452

  1. Clustering of Two Genes Putatively Involved in Cyanate Detoxification Evolved Recently and Independently in Multiple Fungal Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, M. Holly; McGary, Kriston L.; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Slot, Jason C.; Geiser, David M.; Sink, Stacy; O’Donnell, Kerry; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Fungi that have the enzymes cyanase and carbonic anhydrase show a limited capacity to detoxify cyanate, a fungicide employed by both plants and humans. Here, we describe a novel two-gene cluster that comprises duplicated cyanase and carbonic anhydrase copies, which we name the CCA gene cluster, trace its evolution across Ascomycetes, and examine the evolutionary dynamics of its spread among lineages of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (hereafter referred to as the FOSC), a cosmopolitan clade of purportedly clonal vascular wilt plant pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal cyanase and carbonic anhydrase genes reveals that the CCA gene cluster arose independently at least twice and is now present in three lineages, namely Cochliobolus lunatus, Oidiodendron maius, and the FOSC. Genome-wide surveys within the FOSC indicate that the CCA gene cluster varies in copy number across isolates, is always located on accessory chromosomes, and is absent in FOSC’s closest relatives. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the CCA gene cluster in 163 FOSC strains from a wide variety of hosts suggests a recent history of rampant transfers between isolates. We hypothesize that the independent formation of the CCA gene cluster in different fungal lineages and its spread across FOSC strains may be associated with resistance to plant-produced cyanates or to use of cyanate fungicides in agriculture. PMID:25663439

  2. Multilayer regulatory mechanisms control cleavage factor I proteins in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, J; Franceschetti, M; Bueno, E; Sesma, A

    2015-01-01

    Cleavage factor I (CFI) proteins are core components of the polyadenylation machinery that can regulate several steps of mRNA life cycle, including alternative polyadenylation, splicing, export and decay. Here, we describe the regulatory mechanisms that control two fungal CFI protein classes in Magnaporthe oryzae: Rbp35/CfI25 complex and Hrp1. Using mutational, genetic and biochemical studies we demonstrate that cellular concentration of CFI mRNAs is a limited indicator of their protein abundance. Our results suggest that several post-transcriptional mechanisms regulate Rbp35/CfI25 complex and Hrp1 in the rice blast fungus, some of which are also conserved in other ascomycetes. With respect to Rbp35, these include C-terminal processing, RGG-dependent localization and cleavage, C-terminal autoregulatory domain and regulation by an upstream open reading frame of Rbp35-dependent TOR signalling pathway. Our proteomic analyses suggest that Rbp35 regulates the levels of proteins involved in melanin and phenylpropanoids synthesis, among others. The drastic reduction of fungal CFI proteins in carbon-starved cells suggests that the pre-mRNA processing pathway is altered. Our findings uncover broad and multilayer regulatory mechanisms controlling fungal polyadenylation factors, which have profound implications in pre-mRNA maturation. This area of research offers new avenues for fungicide design by targeting fungal-specific proteins that globally affect thousands of mRNAs. PMID:25514925

  3. Phylogenomic Analyses Indicate that Early Fungi Evolved Digesting Cell Walls of Algal Ancestors of Land Plants.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying; Wang, Sishuo; Sekimoto, Satoshi; Aerts, Andrea L; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; LaButti, Kurt M; Lindquist, Erika A; Yee Ngan, Chew; Ohm, Robin A; Salamov, Asaf A; Grigoriev, Igor V; Spatafora, Joseph W; Berbee, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    As decomposers, fungi are key players in recycling plant material in global carbon cycles. We hypothesized that genomes of early diverging fungi may have inherited pectinases from an ancestral species that had been able to extract nutrients from pectin-containing land plants and their algal allies (Streptophytes). We aimed to infer, based on pectinase gene expansions and on the organismal phylogeny, the geological timing of the plant-fungus association. We analyzed 40 fungal genomes, three of which, including Gonapodya prolifera, were sequenced for this study. In the organismal phylogeny from 136 housekeeping loci, Rozella diverged first from all other fungi. Gonapodya prolifera was included among the flagellated, predominantly aquatic fungal species in Chytridiomycota. Sister to Chytridiomycota were the predominantly terrestrial fungi including zygomycota I and zygomycota II, along with the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that comprise Dikarya. The Gonapodya genome has 27 genes representing five of the seven classes of pectin-specific enzymes known from fungi. Most of these share a common ancestry with pectinases from Dikarya. Indicating functional and sequence similarity, Gonapodya, like many Dikarya, can use pectin as a carbon source for growth in pure culture. Shared pectinases of Dikarya and Gonapodya provide evidence that even ancient aquatic fungi had adapted to extract nutrients from the plants in the green lineage. This implies that 750 million years, the estimated maximum age of origin of the pectin-containing streptophytes represents a maximum age for the divergence of Chytridiomycota from the lineage including Dikarya. PMID:25977457

  4. Phylogeny of rock-inhabiting fungi related to Dothideomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Ruibal, C.; Gueidan, C.; Selbmann, L.; Gorbushina, A.A.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Muggia, L.; Grube, M.; Isola, D.; Schoch, C.L.; Staley, J.T.; Lutzoni, F.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2009-01-01

    The class Dothideomycetes (along with Eurotiomycetes) includes numerous rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF), a group of ascomycetes that tolerates surprisingly well harsh conditions prevailing on rock surfaces. Despite their convergent morphology and physiology, RIF are phylogenetically highly diverse in Dothideomycetes. However, the positions of main groups of RIF in this class remain unclear due to the lack of a strong phylogenetic framework. Moreover, connections between rock-dwelling habit and other lifestyles found in Dothideomycetes such as plant pathogens, saprobes and lichen-forming fungi are still unexplored. Based on multigene phylogenetic analyses, we report that RIF belong to Capnodiales (particularly to the family Teratosphaeriaceae s.l.), Dothideales, Pleosporales, and Myriangiales, as well as some uncharacterised groups with affinities to Dothideomycetes. Moreover, one lineage consisting exclusively of RIF proved to be closely related to Arthoniomycetes, the sister class of Dothideomycetes. The broad phylogenetic amplitude of RIF in Dothideomycetes suggests that total species richness in this class remains underestimated. Composition of some RIF-rich lineages suggests that rock surfaces are reservoirs for plant-associated fungi or saprobes, although other data also agree with rocks as a primary substrate for ancient fungal lineages. According to the current sampling, long distance dispersal seems to be common for RIF. Dothideomycetes lineages comprising lichens also include RIF, suggesting a possible link between rock-dwelling habit and lichenisation. PMID:20169026

  5. A Nudix Hydrolase Protein, Ysa1, Regulates Oxidative Stress Response and Antifungal Drug Susceptibility in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyojeong; Lee, Dohyun

    2014-01-01

    A nucleoside diphosphate-linked moiety X (Nudix) hydrolase-like gene, YSA1, has been identified as one of the gromwell plant extract-responsive genes in Cryptococcus neoformans. Ysa1 is known to control intracellular concentrations of ADP-ribose or O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, and has diverse biological functions, including the response to oxidative stress in the ascomycete yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we characterized the role of YSA1 in the stress response and adaptation of the basidiomycete yeast, C. neoformans. We constructed three independent deletion mutants for YSA1, and analyzed their mutant phenotypes. We found that ysa1 mutants did not show increased sensitivity to reactive oxygen species-producing oxidative damage agents, such as hydrogen peroxide and menadione, but exhibited increased sensitivity to diamide, which is a thiol-specific oxidant. Ysa1 was dispensable for the response to most environmental stresses, such as genotoxic, osmotic, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In conclusion, modulation of YSA1 may regulate the cellular response and adaptation of C. neoformans to certain oxidative stresses and contribute to the evolution of antifungal drug resistance. PMID:24808735

  6. Bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria: X-ray determination of the complete crystal structure and a rational surface modification for enhanced electrocatalytic O2 reduction.

    PubMed

    Cracknell, James A; McNamara, Thomas P; Lowe, Edward D; Blanford, Christopher F

    2011-07-01

    The blue multi-copper oxidase bilirubin oxidase (BOx) from the ascomycete plant pathogen Myrothecium verrucaria (Mv) efficiently catalyses the oxidation of bilirubin to biliverdin, with the concomitant reduction of O(2) to water, a reaction of considerable interest for low-temperature bio-fuel cell applications. We have solved the complete X-ray determined structure of Mv BOx at 2.4 Ĺ resolution, using molecular replacement with the Spore Coat Protein A (CotA) enzyme from Bacillus subtilis (PDB code 1GSK) as a template. The structure reveals an unusual environment around the blue type 1 copper (T1 Cu) that includes two non-coordinating hydrophilic amino acids, asparagine and threonine. The presence of a long, narrow and hydrophilic pocket near the T1 Cu suggests that structure of the substrate-binding site is dynamically determined in vivo. We show that the interaction between the binding pocket of Mv BOx and its highly conjugated natural organic substrate, bilirubin, can be used to stabilise the enzyme on a pyrolytic graphite electrode, more than doubling its electrocatalytic activity relative to the current obtained by simple adsorption of the protein to the carbon surface. PMID:21544308

  7. Fungal Planet description sheets: 128-153.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Shivas, R G; Wingfield, M J; Summerell, B A; Rossman, A Y; Alves, J L; Adams, G C; Barreto, R W; Bell, A; Coutinho, M L; Flory, S L; Gates, G; Grice, K R; Hardy, G E St J; Kleczewski, N M; Lombard, L; Longa, C M O; Louis-Seize, G; Macedo, F; Mahoney, D P; Maresi, G; Martin-Sanchez, P M; Marvanová, L; Minnis, A M; Morgado, L N; Noordeloos, M E; Phillips, A J L; Quaedvlieg, W; Ryan, P G; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Seifert, K A; Swart, W J; Tan, Y P; Tanney, J B; Thu, P Q; Videira, S I R; Walker, D M; Groenewald, J Z

    2012-12-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Catenulostroma corymbiae from Corymbia, Devriesia stirlingiae from Stirlingia, Penidiella carpentariae from Carpentaria, Phaeococcomyces eucalypti from Eucalyptus, Phialophora livistonae from Livistona, Phyllosticta aristolochiicola from Aristolochia, Clitopilus austroprunulus on sclerophyll forest litter of Eucalyptus regnans and Toxicocladosporium posoqueriae from Posoqueria. Several species are also described from South Africa, namely: Ceramothyrium podocarpi from Podocarpus, Cercospora chrysanthemoides from Chrysanthemoides, Devriesia shakazului from Aloe, Penidiella drakensbergensis from Protea, Strelitziana cliviae from Clivia and Zasmidium syzygii from Syzygium. Other species include Bipolaris microstegii from Microstegium and Synchaetomella acerina from Acer (USA), Brunneiapiospora austropalmicola from Rhopalostylis (New Zealand), Calonectria pentaseptata from Eucalyptus and Macadamia (Vietnam), Ceramothyrium melastoma from Melastoma (Indonesia), Collembolispora aristata from stream foam (Czech Republic), Devriesia imbrexigena from glazed decorative tiles (Portugal), Microcyclospora rhoicola from Rhus (Canada), Seiridium phylicae from Phylica (Tristan de Cunha, Inaccessible Island), Passalora lobeliae-fistulosis from Lobelia (Brazil) and Zymoseptoria verkleyi from Poa (The Netherlands). Valsalnicola represents a new ascomycete genus from Alnus (Austria) and Parapenidiella a new hyphomycete genus from Eucalyptus (Australia). Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are also provided. PMID:23606771

  8. Investigation of the mediated electron transfer mechanism of cellobiose dehydrogenase at cytochrome c-modified gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sarauli, David; Ludwig, Roland; Haltrich, Dietmar; Gorton, Lo; Lisdat, Fred

    2012-10-01

    The present study reports on the comparison of direct and mediated electron transfer pathways in the interaction of the fungal enzyme cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) with the redox protein cytochrome c (cyt c) immobilised at a modified gold electrode surface. Two types of CDHs were chosen for this investigation: a basidiomycete (white rot) CDH from Trametes villosa and a recently discovered ascomycete from the thermophilic fungus Corynascus thermophilus. The choice was based on the pH-dependent interaction of these enzymes with cyt c in solution containing the substrate cellobiose (CB). Both enzymes show rather similar catalytic behaviour at lower pH, dominated by a direct electron exchange with the electrode. With increasing pH, however, also cyt c-mediated electron transfer becomes possible. The pH-dependent behaviour in the presence and in the absence of cyt c is analysed and the potential reaction mechanism for the two enzymes with a different pH-behaviour is discussed. PMID:21849263

  9. Electrochemical investigation of cellobiose dehydrogenase from new fungal sources on Au electrodes.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Leonard; Dimcheva, Nina; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Gorton, Lo

    2005-04-15

    Following previous electrochemical investigations of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), the present investigation reports on the initial screening of the electrochemistry of three new CDHs, two from the white rot basidiomycetes Trametes villosa and Phanerochaete sordida and one from the soft rot ascomycete Myriococcum thermophilum, for their ability to directly exchange electrons with 10 different alkanethiol-modified Au electrodes. Direct electron transfer (DET) between the enzymes and some of the modified Au electrodes was shown, both, in the presence and in the absence of cellobiose. However, the length and the head functionality of the alkanethiols drastically influenced the efficiency of the DET reaction and also influenced the effect of pH on the biocatalytic/redox currents, suggesting the importance of structural/sequence differences between these CDH enzymes. In this respect, the white rot CDHs exhibit excellent biocatalytic and redox currents, whereas for the soft rot CDH the DET communication is much less efficient. Cyclic voltammograms indicate that the heme domain of the CDHs is the part of the enzymes that most readily exchanges electrons with the electrode. However, for P. sordida CDH on 11-mercaptoundecanol or dithiopropionic acid-modified Au electrodes, a second voltammetric wave was noticed suggesting that for some orientations of the enzyme, DET communication with the FAD cofactor can also be obtained. PMID:15741070

  10. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, T M; Boominathan, K; Reddy, C A

    1996-01-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. PMID:8837429

  11. Identification and characterization of a novel gene encoding the NBS1 protein in Pyricularia oryzae.

    PubMed

    Narukawa-Nara, Megumi; Sasaki, Kengo; Ishii, Akira; Baba, Kouhei; Amano, Kanako; Kuroki, Misa; Saitoh, Ken-Ichiro; Kamakura, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    The ascomycete Pyricularia oryzae (teleomorph: Magnaporthe oryzae) causes one of the most serious diseases known as rice blast. The Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein (NBS1) is essential for DNA repair; thus, we studied the P. oryzae NBS1 homolog (PoNBS1). A PoNBS1 null mutant exhibited high sensitivity to DNA damage-inducing agents. The mutant also exhibited the retarded hyphal growth, and induced abnormal conidial germination and shape, but showed normal appressorium formation. The phenotypes of the null mutant were complemented by introducing the cDNA of PoNBS1 driven by a TrpC promoter of Aspergillus nidulans. In addition, the null mutant similarly complemented with the PoNBS1 cDNA lacking the FHA domain that had a normal phenotype except for hyphal growth. These results suggest that PoNBS1 is involved in DNA repair and normal development in P. oryzae. Moreover, the FHA domain of PoNBS1 participates in normal hyphal growth. PMID:25774746

  12. Increasing oxidative stress tolerance and subculturing stability of Cordyceps militaris by overexpression of a glutathione peroxidase gene.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chenghui; Xia, Yongliang; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Chengshu

    2013-03-01

    Like other filamentous fungi, the medicinal ascomycete Cordyceps militaris frequently degenerates during continuous maintenance in culture by showing loss of the ability to reproduce sexually or asexually. Degeneration of fungal cultures has been related with cellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) gene from Aspergillus nidulans was engineered into two C. militaris strains, i.e., the Cm01 strain which can fruit normally and the Cm04 strain which has lost the ability to form fruiting bodies on different media through subculturing. The results showed that the mitotically stable mutants had higher Gpx activities and stronger capacity to scavenge cellular ROS than their parental strains. Most significantly, the fruiting ability of Cm04 strain was restored by overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme. However, after being successively transferred for up to ten generations, two of three Cm04 mutants again lost the ability to fruit on insect pupae while Cm01 transformants remained fertile. This study confirms the relationship between fungal culture degeneration and cellular ROS accumulation. Our results indicate that genetic engineering with an antioxidant gene can be an effective way to reverse fungal degeneration during subculturing. PMID:22828981

  13. Temporal variation in mycorrhizal diversity and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope abundance in the wintergreen meadow orchid Anacamptis morio.

    PubMed

    Ercole, Enrico; Adamo, Martino; Rodda, Michele; Gebauer, Gerhard; Girlanda, Mariangela; Perotto, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    Many adult orchids, especially photoautotrophic species, associate with a diverse range of mycorrhizal fungi, but little is known about the temporal changes that might occur in the diversity and functioning of orchid mycorrhiza during vegetative and reproductive plant growth. Temporal variations in the spectrum of mycorrhizal fungi and in stable isotope natural abundance were investigated in adult plants of Anacamptis morio, a wintergreen meadow orchid. Anacamptis morio associated with mycorrhizal fungi belonging to Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium and a clade of Pezizaceae (Ascomycetes). When a complete growing season was investigated, multivariate analyses indicated significant differences in the mycorrhizal fungal community. Among fungi identified from manually isolated pelotons, Tulasnella was more common in autumn and winter, the pezizacean clade was very frequent in spring, and Ceratobasidium was more frequent in summer. By contrast, relatively small variations were found in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope natural abundance, A. morio samples showing similar (15)N enrichment and (13)C depletion at the different sampling times. These observations suggest that, irrespective of differences in the seasonal environmental conditions, the plant phenological stages and the associated fungi, the isotopic content in mycorrhizal A. morio remains fairly constant over time. PMID:25382295

  14. Genome Sequencing of the Plant Pathogen Taphrina deformans, the Causal Agent of Peach Leaf Curl

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, Ousmane H.; Almeida, Joăo M. G. C. F.; Fonseca, Álvaro; Kumar, Ajay Anand; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Overmyer, Kirk; Hauser, Philippe M.; Pagni, Marco

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Taphrina deformans is a fungus responsible for peach leaf curl, an important plant disease. It is phylogenetically assigned to the Taphrinomycotina subphylum, which includes the fission yeast and the mammalian pathogens of the genus Pneumocystis. We describe here the genome of T. deformans in the light of its dual plant-saprophytic/plant-parasitic lifestyle. The 13.3-Mb genome contains few identifiable repeated elements (ca. 1.5%) and a relatively high GC content (49.5%). A total of 5,735 protein-coding genes were identified, among which 83% share similarities with other fungi. Adaptation to the plant host seems reflected in the genome, since the genome carries genes involved in plant cell wall degradation (e.g., cellulases and cutinases), secondary metabolism, the hallmark glyoxylate cycle, detoxification, and sterol biosynthesis, as well as genes involved in the biosynthesis of plant hormones. Genes involved in lipid metabolism may play a role in its virulence. Several locus candidates for putative MAT cassettes and sex-related genes akin to those of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were identified. A mating-type-switching mechanism similar to that found in ascomycetous yeasts could be in effect. Taken together, the findings are consistent with the alternate saprophytic and parasitic-pathogenic lifestyles of T. deformans. PMID:23631913

  15. Velvet-mediated repression of ?-glucan synthesis in Aspergillus nidulans spores

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Soo; Man Yu, Yeong; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jae Maeng, Pil; Chang Kim, Sun; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Beta-glucans are a heterologous group of fibrous glucose polymers that are a major constituent of cell walls in Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes fungi. Synthesis of ? (1,3)- and (1,6)-glucans is coordinated with fungal cell growth and development, thus, is under tight genetic regulation. Here, we report that ?-glucan synthesis in both asexual and sexual spores is turned off by the NF-kB like fungal regulators VosA and VelB in Aspergillus nidulans. Our genetic and genomic analyses have revealed that both VosA and VelB are necessary for proper down-regulation of cell wall biosynthetic genes including those associated with ?-glucan synthesis in both types of spores. The deletion of vosA or velB results in elevated accumulation of ?-glucan in asexual spores. Double mutant analyses indicate that VosA and VelB play an inter-dependent role in repressing ?-glucan synthesis in asexual spores. In vivo chromatin immuno-precipitation analysis shows that both VelB and VosA bind to the promoter region of the ?-glucan synthase gene fksA in asexual spores. Similarly, VosA is required for proper repression of ?-glucan synthesis in sexual spores. In summary, the VosA-VelB hetero-complex is a key regulatory unit tightly controlling proper levels of ?-glucan synthesis in asexual and sexual spores. PMID:25960370

  16. Development of a rapid multiplex SSR genotyping method to study populations of the fungal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus causing leaf blotch of wheat that often decreases yield severely. Populations of the fungus are known to be highly diverse and poorly differentiated from each other. However, a genotyping tool is needed to address further questions in large collections of isolates, regarding regional population structure, adaptation to anthropogenic selective pressures, and dynamics of the recently discovered accessory chromosomes. This procedure is limited by costly and time-consuming simplex PCR genotyping. Recent development of genomic approaches and of larger sets of SSRs enabled the optimization of microsatellite multiplexing. Findings We report here a reliable protocol to amplify 24 SSRs organized in three multiplex panels, and covering all Z. tritici chromosomes. We also propose an automatic allele assignment procedure, which allows scoring alleles in a repeatable manner across studies and laboratories. All together, these tools enabled us to characterize local and worldwide populations and to calculate diversity indexes consistent with results reported in the literature. Conclusion This easy-to-use, accurate, repeatable, economical, and faster technical strategy can provide useful genetic information for evolutionary inferences concerning Z. tritici populations. Moreover, it will facilitate the comparison of studies from different scientific groups. PMID:24943709

  17. Construction of a contig of BAC clones spanning the region of the apple scab avirulence gene AvrVg.

    PubMed

    Broggini, G A L; Le Cam, B; Parisi, L; Wu, C; Zhang, H-B; Gessler, C; Patocchi, A

    2007-01-01

    The ascomycete Venturia inaequalis, causal pathogen of apple scab, underlies a gene-for-gene relationship with its host plant apple (Malus spp.). 'Golden Delicious', one of the most common cultivated apples in the world, carries the ephemeral resistance gene Vg. Avirulence gene AvrVg, matching resistance gene Vg has recently been mapped on the V. inaequalis genome. In this paper, we present the construction of a BAC library from a V. inaequalis AvrVg isolate. The library is composed of 7680 clones, with an average insert size of 80kb. By hybridization, it has been estimated that the library contains six haploid genome equivalents. Thus the V. inaequalis genome can be predicted to be approximately 100Mb in size. A chromosome walk, starting from the marker VirQ5 co-segregating with AvrVg, has been performed using the BAC library. Twelve BAC clones were identified during four steps of the chromosome walking. The size of the resulting contig is approximately 330kb. PMID:16904351

  18. Ecology of Subglacial Lake Vostok (Antarctica), Based on Metagenomic/Metatranscriptomic Analyses of Accretion Ice

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Scott O.; Shtarkman, Yury M.; Koçer, Zeynep A.; Edgar, Robyn; Veerapaneni, Ram; D’Elia, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Lake Vostok is the largest of the nearly 400 subglacial Antarctic lakes and has been continuously buried by glacial ice for 15 million years. Extreme cold, heat (from possible hydrothermal activity), pressure (from the overriding glacier) and dissolved oxygen (delivered by melting meteoric ice), in addition to limited nutrients and complete darkness, combine to produce one of the most extreme environments on Earth. Metagenomic/metatranscriptomic analyses of ice that accreted over a shallow embayment and over the southern main lake basin indicate the presence of thousands of species of organisms (94% Bacteria, 6% Eukarya, and two Archaea). The predominant bacterial sequences were closest to those from species of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the predominant eukaryotic sequences were most similar to those from species of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous Fungi. Based on the sequence data, the lake appears to contain a mixture of autotrophs and heterotrophs capable of performing nitrogen fixation, nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation and nutrient recycling. Sequences closest to those of psychrophiles and thermophiles indicate a cold lake with possible hydrothermal activity. Sequences most similar to those from marine and aquatic species suggest the presence of marine and freshwater regions. PMID:24832801

  19. In situ laccase-assisted overdyeing of denim using flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Guimarăes, Clara; Kim, Suyeon; Silva, Carla; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2011-10-01

    A laccase-mediated system for denim overdyeing using phenolic compounds was developed. Laccase from ascomycete Myceliophthora thermophila was able to oxidize phenolic compounds such as catechol and catechin and mediate their attachment to denim surfaces. Laccase-generated polymers gave rise to new coloration states from dark brown to green-yellow and replaced dyes in the overdyeing process. Process parameters, such as enzyme dosage, incubation time and presence of mediator, were studied by considering a compromise between the highest overdyeing level and lower energy/products consumption (2 U/mL laccase; 4 h incubation in the absence of mediator). Enzyme-generated polymers were followed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry and their level of attachment to denim surfaces was evaluated by means of spectral values quantification [k/s, Kubelka-Munk relationship (k=absorption coefficient, s=scattering coefficient)]. Overdyeing of denim with phenolics, such as catechol or catechin, was successfully achieved with acceptable levels in terms of durability. PMID:21751397

  20. Structure and composition of bacterial and fungal community in soil under soybean monoculture in the Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Bresolin, J.D; Bustamante, M.M.C; Krüger, R.H; Silva, M.R.S.S; Perez, K.S

    2010-01-01

    Soybean is the most important oilseed cultivated in the world and Brazil is the second major producer. Expansion of soybean cultivation has direct and indirect impacts on natural habitats of high conservation value, such as the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado). In addition to deforestation, land conversion includes the use of fertilizers and pesticides and can lead to changes in the soil microbial communities. This study evaluated the soil bacterial and fungal communities and the microbial biomass C in a native Cerrado and in a similar no-tillage soybean monoculture area using PCR-DGGE and sequencing of bands. Compared to the native area, microbial biomass C was lower in the soybean area and cluster analysis indicated that the structure of soil microbial communities differed. 16S and 18S rDNA dendrograms analysis did not show differences between row and inter-row samples, but microbial biomass C values were higher in inter-rows during soybean fructification and harvest. The study pointed to different responses and alterations in bacterial and fungal communities due to soil cover changes (fallow x growth period) and crop development. These changes might be related to differences in the pattern of root exudates affecting the soil microbial community. Among the bands chosen for sequencing there was a predominance of actinobacteria, ?-proteobacteria and ascomycetous divisions. Even under no-tillage management methods, the soil microbial community was affected due to changes in the soil cover and crop development, hence warning of the impacts caused by changes in land use. PMID:24031510

  1. Efficiency of uronic acid uptake in marine alginate-degrading fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, K.; Weide, G.

    1995-03-01

    Despite the fact that many marine fungi, including phycomycetes, yeasts, ascomycetes and hyphomycetes, have been recorded from living and/or dead phaeophytes, only a few of these have been shown to be capable of degrading alginic acid or alginates. The degradation is achieved by the action of an exoenzyme complex, comprising alginate lyase, as well as alginate hydrolase activities. The latter was detected only recently by the authors. In this study, the growth of two marine sodiumalginate-degrading deuteromycetes, Asteromyces cruciatus and Dendryphiella salina, was investigated, and the assimilation efficiency of sodiumalginate and its uronic acid degradation products, respectively, was estimated from the economic coefficient (E). E is calculated from the mycelial dry weight, divided by the weight of substrate consumed for this production. The economic coefficient for A. cruciatus was 48.6%, and that of D. salina 38.9%. This indicates that the former species uses the alginate degradation products more efficiently than the latter. The observed E-values for the marine deuteromycetes agree with those from other fungi, e.g. terrestrial species. In general, it is concluded that the marine fungi appear to play a more important role in kelp-based ecosystems than was realized previously.

  2. Fluorescent markers for the Spitzenkörper and exocytosis in Zymoseptoria tritici?

    PubMed Central

    Guo, M.; Kilaru, S.; Schuster, M.; Latz, M.; Steinberg, G.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal hyphae are highly polarized cells that invade their substrate by tip growth. In plant pathogenic fungi, hyphal growth is essential for host invasion. This makes polarity factors and secretion regulators potential new targets for novel fungicides. Polarization requires delivery of secretory vesicles to the apical Spitzenkörper, followed by polarized exocytosis at the expanding cell tip. Here, we introduce fluorescent markers to visualize the apical Spitzenkörper and the apical site of exocytosis in hyphae of the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We fused green fluorescent protein to the small GTPase ZtSec4, the myosin light chain ZtMlc1 and the small GTPase ZtRab11 and co-localize the fusion proteins with the dye FM4-64 in the hyphal apex, suggesting that the markers label the hyphal Spitzenkörper in Z. tritici. In addition, we localize GFP-fusions to the exocyst protein ZtExo70, the polarisome protein ZtSpa2. Consistent with results in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa, these markers did localize near the plasma membrane at the hyphal tip and only partially co-localize with FM4-64. Thus, these fluorescent markers are useful molecular tools that allow phenotypic analysis of mutants in Z. tritici. These tools will help develop new avenues of research in our quest to control STB infection in wheat. PMID:26092802

  3. Coral-associated marine fungi form novel lineages and heterogeneous assemblages.

    PubMed

    Amend, Anthony S; Barshis, Daniel J; Oliver, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Coral stress tolerance is intricately tied to the animal's association with microbial symbionts. The most well-known of these symbioses is that between corals and their dinoflagellate photobionts (Symbiodinium spp.), whose genotype indirectly affects whether a coral can survive cyclical and anthropogenic warming events. Fungi comprise a lesser-known coral symbiotic community whose taxonomy, stability and function is largely un-examined. To assess how fungal communities inside a coral host correlate with water temperature and the genotype of co-occurring Symbiodinium, we sampled Acropora hyacinthus coral colonies from adjacent natural pools with different water temperatures and Symbiodinium identities. Phylogenetic analysis of coral-associated fungal ribosomal DNA amplicons showed a high diversity of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes, including several clades separated from known fungal taxa by long and well-supported branches. Community similarity did not correlate with any measured variables, and total fungal community composition was highly variable among A. hyacinthus coral colonies. Colonies in the warmer pool contained more phylogenetically diverse fungal communities than the colder pool and contained statistically significant 'indicator' species. Four taxa were present in all coral colonies sampled, and may represent obligate associates. Messenger RNA sequenced from a subset of these same colonies contained an abundance of transcripts involved in metabolism of complex biological molecules. Coincidence between the taxonomic diversity found in the DNA and RNA analysis indicates a metabolically active and diverse resident marine fungal community. PMID:22189500

  4. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Ergoline Alkaloids in a Mutualistic Association between Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) and a Clavicipitalean Fungus1

    PubMed Central

    Markert, Anne; Steffan, Nicola; Ploss, Kerstin; Hellwig, Sabine; Steiner, Ulrike; Drewke, Christel; Li, Shu-Ming; Boland, Wilhelm; Leistner, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    Ergoline alkaloids occur in taxonomically unrelated taxa, such as fungi, belonging to the phylum Ascomycetes and higher plants of the family Convolvulaceae. The disjointed occurrence can be explained by the observation that plant-associated epibiotic clavicipitalean fungi capable of synthesizing ergoline alkaloids colonize the adaxial leaf surface of certain Convolvulaceae plant species. The fungi are seed transmitted. Their capacity to synthesize ergoline alkaloids depends on the presence of an intact differentiated host plant (e.g. Ipomoea asarifolia or Turbina corymbosa [Convolvulaceae]). Here, we present independent proof that these fungi are equipped with genetic material responsible for ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis. The gene (dmaW) for the determinant step in ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis was shown to be part of a cluster involved in ergoline alkaloid formation. The dmaW gene was overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the encoded DmaW protein purified to homogeneity, and characterized. Neither the gene nor the biosynthetic capacity, however, was detectable in the intact I. asarifolia or the taxonomically related T. corymbosa host plants. Both plants, however, contained the ergoline alkaloids almost exclusively, whereas alkaloids are not detectable in the associated epibiotic fungi. This indicates that a transport system may exist translocating the alkaloids from the epibiotic fungus into the plant. The association between the fungus and the plant very likely is a symbiotum in which ergoline alkaloids play an essential role. PMID:18344419

  5. Novel Substrate Specificity and Temperature-Sensitive Activity of Mycosphaerella graminicola CYP51 Supported by the Native NADPH Cytochrome P450 Reductase.

    PubMed

    Price, Claire L; Warrilow, Andrew G S; Parker, Josie E; Mullins, Jonathan G L; Nes, W David; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2015-05-15

    Mycosphaerella graminicola (Zymoseptoria tritici) is an ascomycete filamentous fungus that causes Septoria leaf blotch in wheat crops. In Europe the most widely used fungicides for this major disease are demethylation inhibitors (DMIs). Their target is the essential sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51), which requires cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) as its redox partner for functional activity. The M. graminicola CPR (MgCPR) is able to catalyze the sterol 14?-demethylation of eburicol and lanosterol when partnered with Candida albicans CYP51 (CaCYP51) and that of eburicol only with M. graminicola CYP51 (MgCYP51). The availability of the functional in vivo redox partner enabled the in vitro catalytic activity of MgCYP51 to be demonstrated for the first time. MgCYP51 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) studies with epoxiconazole, tebuconazole, triadimenol, and prothioconazole-desthio confirmed that MgCYP51 bound these azole inhibitors tightly. The characterization of the MgCPR/MgCYP51 redox pairing has produced a functional method to evaluate the effects of agricultural azole fungicides, has demonstrated eburicol specificity in the activity observed, and supports the conclusion that prothioconazole is a profungicide. PMID:25746994

  6. The Freshwater Sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis Harbours Diverse Pseudomonas Species (Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadales) with Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Keller-Costa, Tina; Jousset, Alexandre; van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Costa, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria are believed to play an important role in the fitness and biochemistry of sponges (Porifera). Pseudomonas species (Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadales) are capable of colonizing a broad range of eukaryotic hosts, but knowledge of their diversity and function in freshwater invertebrates is rudimentary. We assessed the diversity, structure and antimicrobial activities of Pseudomonas spp. in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis. Polymerase Chain Reaction – Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of the global regulator gene gacA revealed distinct structures between sponge-associated and free-living Pseudomonas communities, unveiling previously unsuspected diversity of these assemblages in freshwater. Community structures varied across E. fluviatilis specimens, yet specific gacA phylotypes could be detected by PCR-DGGE in almost all sponge individuals sampled over two consecutive years. By means of whole-genome fingerprinting, 39 distinct genotypes were found within 90 fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates retrieved from E. fluviatilis. High frequency of in vitro antibacterial (49%), antiprotozoan (35%) and anti-oomycetal (32%) activities was found among these isolates, contrasting less-pronounced basidiomycetal (17%) and ascomycetal (8%) antagonism. Culture extracts of highly predation-resistant isolates rapidly caused complete immobility or lysis of cells of the protozoan Colpoda steinii. Isolates tentatively identified as P. jessenii, P. protegens and P. oryzihabitans showed conspicuous inhibitory traits and correspondence with dominant sponge-associated phylotypes registered by cultivation-independent analysis. Our findings suggest that E. fluviatilis hosts both transient and persistent Pseudomonas symbionts displaying antimicrobial activities of potential ecological and biotechnological value. PMID:24533086

  7. Temporal and Spatial Regulation of Gene Expression During Asexual Development of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Charles J.; Kasuga, Takao; Glass, N. Louise; Shaw, Brian D.; Ebbole, Daniel J.; Wilkinson, Heather H.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we profiled spatial and temporal transcriptional changes during asexual sporulation in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Aerial tissue was separated from the mycelium to allow detection of genes specific to each tissue. We identified 2641 genes that were differentially expressed during development, which represents ?25% of the predicted genes in the genome of this model fungus. On the basis of the distribution of functional annotations of 1102 of these genes, we identified gene expression patterns that define key physiological events during conidial development. Not surprisingly, genes encoding transcription factors, cell wall remodeling proteins, and proteins involved in signal transduction were differentially regulated during asexual development. Among the genes differentially expressed in aerial tissues the majority were unclassified and tended to be unique to ascomycete genomes. This finding is consistent with the view that these genes evolved for asexual development in the Pezizomycotina. Strains containing deletions of several differentially expressed genes encoding transcription factors exhibited asexual development-associated phenotypes. Gene expression patterns during asexual development suggested that cAMP signaling plays a critical role in the transition from aerial growth to proconidial chain formation. This observation prompted us to characterize a deletion of the gene encoding a high-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase (NCU00478). NCU00478 was determined to be allelic to aconidiate-2, a previously identified genetic locus controlling conidiation. PMID:20876563

  8. Surveys of microfungi in a former industrial area in Duisburg-Nord.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Dachowski, M; Kricke, R

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and forty microfungi (Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes) were collected in the "Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord" located in North Rhine-Westphalia. New hosts for rarely found fungi are recorded for the first time. New for Germany are Massaria inquinans (Tode) De Not. and Nitschkia grevillei (Rhem) Nannf. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Pirottaea nigrostriata Graddon on Artemisia vulgaris L., Ceratopycnis clematidis Höhn. on Clematis vitalba L., Dasyscyphus aff. humuli (W. Phillips) Dennis on Humulus lupulus L. and Leptosphaeria derasa (Berk. & Br.) Auersw. on Senecio inaequidens DC. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Chaetosphaerella phaeostroma (Durieu & Mont.) E. Müller & Booth and Phomopsis platanoides (Cooke) Died. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Microsphaeropsis pseudaspera Sutton, Mycosphaerella osborniae D. Hawksw. & Sivan. and Phomopsis oblita Sacc. on Artemisia vulgaris L., Leptosphaeria acuta (Fr.) P. Karst. and Leptosphaeria doliolum (Pers.) Ces. & De Not. on Bryonia dioica Jacq., Ophiobolus erythrosporus (Riess) G. Winter and Pleospora herbarum (Pers.) Rabenh. ex Ces. & De Not. on Dipsacus sylvestris (Huds), Keissleriella ocellata (Niessl) Bose on Hypericum perforatum L., Dactylaria aff. graminicola on Lolium perenne L., Siroplacodium aff. atrum on Oenothera beinnis L., Diatrypella favacea (Fr.) Sacc. on Prunus spec., Hapalosphaeria deformans (Syd.) Syd. and Microdiscula rubicola (Bres.) Höhn. on Rubus fructicosus agg. L., Cryptodiaporthe salicina (Pers.) Wehm. on Salix alba L. and Pleurophoma pleurospora (Sacc.) Höhn. on Salix caprea L. PMID:12701427

  9. The 203 kbp Mitochondrial Genome of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Sclerotinia borealis Reveals Multiple Invasions of Introns and Genomic Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Mardanov, Andrey V.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Ignatov, Alexander N.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the complete sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia borealis, a member of the order Helotiales of Ascomycetes. The 203,051 bp long mtDNA of S. borealis represents one of the largest sequenced fungal mt genomes. The large size is mostly determined by the presence of mobile genetic elements, which include 61 introns. Introns contain a total of 125,394 bp, are scattered throughout the genome, and are found in 12 protein-coding genes and in the ribosomal RNA genes. Most introns contain complete or truncated ORFs that are related to homing endonucleases of the LAGLIDADG and GIY-YIG families. Integrations of mobile elements are also evidenced by the presence of two regions similar to fragments of inverton-like plasmids. Although duplications of some short genome regions, resulting in the appearance of truncated extra copies of genes, did occur, we found no evidences of extensive accumulation of repeat sequences accounting for mitochondrial genome size expansion in some other fungi. Comparisons of mtDNA of S. borealis with other members of the order Helotiales reveal considerable gene order conservation and a dynamic pattern of intron acquisition and loss during evolution. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that horizontal DNA transfer has played a significant role in the evolution and size expansion of the S. borealis mt genome. PMID:25216190

  10. Host associations between fungal root endophytes and boreal trees.

    PubMed

    Kernaghan, Gavin; Patriquin, Glenn

    2011-08-01

    Fungal root endophytes colonize root tissue concomitantly with mycorrhizal fungi, but their identities and host preferences are largely unknown. We cultured fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized Cenococcum geophilum ectomycorrhizae of Betula papyrifera, Abies balsamea, and Picea glauca from two boreal sites in eastern Canada. Isolates were initially grouped on the basis of cultural morphology and then identified by internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequencing or by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data revealed 31 distinct phylotypes among the isolates, comprising mainly members of the ascomycete families Helotiaceae, Dermateaceae, Myxotrichaceae, and Hyaloscyphaceae, although other fungi were also isolated. Multivariate analyses indicate a clear separation among the endophyte communities colonizing each host tree species. Some phylotypes were evenly distributed across the roots of all three host species, some were found preferentially on particular hosts, and others were isolated from single hosts only. The results indicate that fungal root endophytes of boreal trees are not randomly distributed, but instead form relatively distinct assemblages on different host tree species. PMID:21475991

  11. Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-12-01

    Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects. PMID:25606002

  12. Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi

    2014-01-01

    Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects. PMID:25606002

  13. Yeasts isolated from industrial maltings can suppress Fusarium growth and formation of gushing factors.

    PubMed

    Laitila, Arja; Sarlin, Tuija; Kotaviita, Erja; Huttunen, Timo; Home, Silja; Wilhelmson, Annika

    2007-11-01

    Fusarium infection of barley and malt can cause severe problems in the malting and brewing industry. In addition to being potential mycotoxin producers, Fusarium fungi are known to cause beer gushing (spontaneous overfoaming of beer). Cereal-derived bacteria and yeasts are potential biocontrol agents. In this study, the antifungal potential of selected yeasts (12 strains) derived from the industrial malting ecosystem was studied in vitro with a plate-screening assay. Several ascomycetous yeast strains showed antagonistic activity against field and storage moulds, Pichia anomala being the most effective strain. The effects of P. anomala VTT C-04565 (C565) were examined in laboratory scale malting with naturally contaminated barley exhibiting gushing potential. P. anomala C565 restricted Fusarium growth and hydrophobin production during malting and prevented beer gushing. Grain germination was not disturbed by the presence of yeast. Addition of P. anomala C565 into the steeping seemed to retard wort filtration, but the filtration performance was recovered when yeast culture was combined with Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-78076. Well-characterized microbial cultures could be used as food-grade biocontrol agents and they offer a natural tool for tailoring of malt properties. PMID:17680285

  14. PCR-Based Identification of MAT-1 and MAT-2 in the Gibberella fujikuroi Species Complex†

    PubMed Central

    Steenkamp, Emma T.; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Zeller, Kurt A.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Marasas, Walter F. O.; Leslie, John F.

    2000-01-01

    All sexually fertile strains in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex are heterothallic, with individual mating types conferred by the broadly conserved ascomycete idiomorphs MAT-1 and MAT-2. We sequenced both alleles from all eight mating populations, developed a multiplex PCR technique to distinguish these idiomorphs, and tested it with representative strains from all eight biological species and 22 additional species or phylogenetic lineages from this species complex. In most cases, either an ?800-bp fragment from MAT-2 or an ?200-bp fragment from MAT-1 is amplified. The amplified fragments cosegregate with mating type, as defined by sexual cross-fertility, in a cross of Fusarium moniliforme (Fusarium verticillioides). Neither of the primer pairs amplify fragments from Fusarium species such as Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium pseudograminearum, and Fusarium culmorum, which have, or are expected to have, Gibberella sexual stages but are thought to be relatively distant from the species in the G. fujikuroi species complex. Our results suggest that MAT allele sequences are useful indicators of phylogenetic relatedness in these and other Fusarium species. PMID:11010886

  15. Identification of internal transcribed spacer sequence motifs in truffles: a first step toward their DNA bar coding.

    PubMed

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

    2007-08-01

    This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (< or = 50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

  16. Identification of Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Motifs in Truffles: a First Step toward Their DNA Bar Coding? †

    PubMed Central

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

    2007-01-01

    This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (?50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

  17. Functional and Phylogenetic Divergence of Fungal Adenylate-Forming Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Daniel; Lackner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    A key step in fungal l-lysine biosynthesis is catalyzed by adenylate-forming l-?-aminoadipic acid reductases, organized in domains for adenylation, thiolation, and the reduction step. However, the genomes of numerous ascomycetes and basidiomycetes contain an unexpectedly large number of additional genes encoding similar but functionally distinct enzymes. Here, we describe the functional in vitro characterization of four reductases which were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli. The Ceriporiopsis subvermispora serine reductase Nps1 features a terminal ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) domain and thus belongs to a hitherto undescribed class of fungal multidomain enzymes. The second major class is characterized by the canonical terminal short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase domain and represented by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora Nps3 as the first biochemically characterized l-?-aminoadipic acid reductase of basidiomycete origin. Aspergillus flavus l-tyrosine reductases LnaA and LnbA are members of a distinct phylogenetic clade. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that fungal adenylate-forming reductases are more diverse than previously recognized and belong to four distinct classes. PMID:25085485

  18. Population genetic structure of the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda on Bromus tectorum in western North America.

    PubMed

    Boose, David; Harrison, Steven; Clement, Suzette; Meyer, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We examined genetic variation in the ascomycete pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda cultured from seeds of the invasive grass Bromus tectorum in the Intermountain West of North America. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA genome in 417 monoconidial cultures collected from 20 sites in Washington, Idaho, Utah and Colorado, USA. ITS sequence diversity was surprisingly high; 12 unique haplotypes were identified, averaging 1.3% pairwise sequence divergence. All sites had at least two haplotypes present, and three sites had seven or more. One haplotype composed 60% of the isolates and occurred at all 20 locations; the remaining haplotypes generally occurred at low frequencies within sites but at multiple sites throughout the region. Sites in Washington and Idaho were more diverse than those in Utah and Colorado, averaging two more haplotypes and 67% more pairwise differences among haplotypes at a site. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that more than 80% of the genetic variation was found within sampling locations, while 7-11% of the variation can be attributed to differences between northern (Washington and Idaho) and southern (Utah and Colorado) populations. The wide distribution of even uncommon haplotypes among sampling sites and weak correlations between genetic and geographic distances among populations (< 0.2) suggested that these populations recently were established from a common source. We hypothesize that the strains of P. semeniperda infecting B. tectorum in western North America probably arrived with the invasive grass from its native Eurasian range. PMID:20943557

  19. Analyses of dynein heavy chain mutations reveal complex interactions between dynein motor domains and cellular dynein functions.

    PubMed

    Sivagurunathan, Senthilkumar; Schnittker, Robert R; Razafsky, David S; Nandini, Swaran; Plamann, Michael D; King, Stephen J

    2012-08-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein transports cargoes for a variety of crucial cellular functions. However, since dynein is essential in most eukaryotic organisms, the in-depth study of the cellular function of dynein via genetic analysis of dynein mutations has not been practical. Here, we identify and characterize 34 different dynein heavy chain mutations using a genetic screen of the ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, in which dynein is nonessential. Interestingly, our studies show that these mutations segregate into five different classes based on the in vivo localization of the mutated dynein motors. Furthermore, we have determined that the different classes of dynein mutations alter vesicle trafficking, microtubule organization, and nuclear distribution in distinct ways and require dynactin to different extents. In addition, biochemical analyses of dynein from one mutant strain show a strong correlation between its in vitro biochemical properties and the aberrant intracellular function of that altered dynein. When the mutations were mapped to the published dynein crystal structure, we found that the three-dimensional structural locations of the heavy chain mutations were linked to particular classes of altered dynein functions observed in cells. Together, our data indicate that the five classes of dynein mutations represent the entrapment of dynein at five separate points in the dynein mechanochemical and transport cycles. We have developed N. crassa as a model system where we can dissect the complexities of dynein structure, function, and interaction with other proteins with genetic, biochemical, and cell biological studies. PMID:22649085

  20. Convergent evolution of a fused sexual cycle promotes the haploid lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Racquel Kim; Scaduto, Christine M.; Torres, Sandra E.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2014-02-01

    Sexual reproduction is restricted to eukaryotic species and involves the fusion of haploid gametes to form a diploid cell that subsequently undergoes meiosis to generate recombinant haploid forms. This process has been extensively studied in the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which exhibits separate regulatory control over mating and meiosis. Here we address the mechanism of sexual reproduction in the related hemiascomycete species Candida lusitaniae. We demonstrate that, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, C. lusitaniae exhibits a highly integrated sexual program in which the programs regulating mating and meiosis have fused. Profiling of the C. lusitaniae sexual cycle revealed that gene expression patterns during mating and meiosis were overlapping, indicative of co-regulation. This was particularly evident for genes involved in pheromone MAPK signalling, which were highly induced throughout the sexual cycle of C. lusitaniae. Furthermore, genetic analysis showed that the orthologue of IME2, a `diploid-specific' factor in S. cerevisiae, and STE12, the master regulator of S. cerevisiae mating, were each required for progression through both mating and meiosis in C. lusitaniae. Together, our results establish that sexual reproduction has undergone significant rewiring between S. cerevisiae and C. lusitaniae, and that a concerted sexual cycle operates in C. lusitaniae that is more reminiscent of the distantly related ascomycete, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We discuss these results in light of the evolution of sexual reproduction in yeast, and propose that regulatory coupling of mating and meiosis has evolved multiple times as an adaptation to promote the haploid lifestyle.

  1. Numerous group I introns with variable distributions in the ribosomal DNA of a lichen fungus.

    PubMed

    DePriest, P T; Been, M D

    1992-11-20

    The length of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) differs significantly among individuals from natural populations of the ascomycetous lichen complex Cladonia chlorophaea. The sequence of the 3' region of the SSU rDNA from two individuals, chosen to represent the shortest and longest sequences, revealed multiple insertions within a region that otherwise aligned with a 520-nucleotide sequence of the SSU rDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The high degree of variability in SSU rDNA size can be accounted for by different numbers of insertions; one individual had two group I introns and the second had five introns, two of which were clearly related to introns at identical positions in the other individual. Yet, introns in different positions, whether within an individual or between individuals, were not similar in sequence. The distribution of introns at three of the positions is consistent with either intron loss or acquisition, and clearly indicates the dynamic variability in this region of the nuclear genome. All seven insertions, which ranged in size from 210 to 228 nucleotides, had the conserved sequence and secondary structural elements of group I introns. The variation in distribution and sequence of group I introns within a short highly conserved region of rDNA presents a unique opportunity for examining the molecular evolution and mobility of group I introns within a systematics framework. PMID:1453441

  2. Identification of Medically Relevant Species of Arthroconidial Yeasts by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kolecka, Anna; Khayhan, Kantarawee; Groenewald, Marizeth; Theelen, Bart; Arabatzis, Michael; Velegraki, Aristea; Kostrzewa, Markus; Mares, Mihai; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used for an extensive identification study of arthroconidial yeasts, using 85 reference strains from the CBS-KNAW yeast collection and 134 clinical isolates collected from medical centers in Qatar, Greece, and Romania. The test set included 72 strains of ascomycetous yeasts (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete, and Magnusiomyces spp.) and 147 strains of basidiomycetous yeasts (Trichosporon and Guehomyces spp.). With minimal preparation time, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool that provided reliable identification of most (98%) of the tested strains to the species level, with good discriminatory power. The majority of strains were correctly identified at the species level with good scores (>2.0) and seven of the tested strains with log score values between 1.7 and 2.0. The MALDI-TOF MS results obtained were consistent with validated internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and/or large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA sequencing results. Expanding the mass spectrum database by increasing the number of reference strains for closely related species, including those of nonclinical origin, should enhance the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS-based diagnostic analysis of these arthroconidial fungi in medical and other laboratories. PMID:23678074

  3. Nonribosomal peptide synthesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the architectures of ferrichrome-type siderophore synthetases in fungi.

    PubMed

    Schwecke, Torsten; Göttling, Kirsten; Durek, Pawel; Dueńas, Ines; Käufer, Norbert F; Zock-Emmenthal, Susanne; Staub, Eike; Neuhof, Torsten; Dieckmann, Ralf; von Döhren, Hans

    2006-04-01

    A nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which possesses an unusual structure incorporating three adenylation domains, six thiolation domains and six condensation domains, has been shown to produce the cyclohexapeptide siderophore ferrichrome. One of the adenylation domains is truncated and contains a distorted key motif. Substrate-binding specificities of the remaining two domains were assigned by molecular modelling to glycine and to N-acetyl-N-hydroxy-L-ornithine. Hexapeptide siderophore synthetase genes of Magnaporthe grisea and Fusarium graminearum were both identified and analyzed with respect to substrate-binding sites, and the predicted product ferricrocin was identified in each. A comparative analysis of these synthetase systems, including those of the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, the homobasidiomycete Omphalotus olearius and the ascomycetes Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium graminearum, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, Neurospora crassa and Aureobasidium pullulans, revealed divergent domain compositions with respect to their number and positioning, although all produce similar products by iterative processes. A phylogenetic analysis of both NRPSs and associated L-N5-ornithine monooxygenases revealed that ferrichrome-type siderophore biosynthesis has coevolved in fungi with varying in trans interactions of NRPS domains. PMID:16502473

  4. Expression profiling and functional analyses of BghPTR2, a peptide transporter from Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei.

    PubMed

    Droce, Aida; Holm, Kirsten B; Olsson, Stefan; Frandsen, Rasmus J N; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Sřrensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    2015-07-01

    The obligate ascomycete parasitic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) has a unique lifestyle as it is completely dependent on living barley leaves as substrate for growth. Genes involved in inorganic nitrogen utilization are notably lacking, and the fungus relies on uptake of host-derived peptides and amino acids. The PTR2 transporter family takes up di- and tri- peptides in a proton coupled process and filamentous fungi typically have two or more di/tri peptide transporters. Here we show that Bgh appear to have one PTR2 that can restore dipeptide uptake in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae PTR2 deletion strain. The Bgh PTR2 gene is expressed in conidia and germinating conidia. During Bgh infection of barley the expression level of the BghPTR2 gene is high in the appressorial germ tube, low in the haustoria and high again during conidiation and secondary infection in the compatible and intermediate resistant interactions. BghPTR2 appears to be important for the initial establishment of fungal infection but not for uptake of di-tri-peptides at the haustorial interface. Based on the expression profile we suggest that BghPTR2 is active in internal transport of nutrient reserves and/or uptake of break down products from the plant surface during the early infection stages. PMID:26058531

  5. Endophytic fungal diversity of 2 sand dune wild legumes from the southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Seena, S; Sridhar, K R

    2004-12-01

    Endophytic fungi of 3 age classes (seeds, seedlings, and mature plants) and 5 tissue classes (cotyledons, seed coats, roots, stems, and leaves) of coastal sand dune legumes Canavalia cathartica and Canavalia maritima were assessed by plating surface-sterilized segments on malt extract agar. Forty-six fungal taxa comprising 6 ascomycetes, 33 mitosporic fungi, 2 zygomycetes, and 5 sterile morphospecies were recovered. There was no significant difference in the colonization frequency of endophytes between plant species (p = 0.4098, Student's t test). Among the age classes, endophytic fungi colonized over 90% of seedlings and mature plants. Similarly, among tissue classes, endophytic fungi colonized over 90% of root, stem, and leaf segments. Diversity and richness of endophytic fungi were higher in C. cathartica than in C. maritima. Rarefaction curves revealed a "higher expected number of species" in mature plants of C. cathartica and seedlings of C. maritima, whereas it was highest in leaves of both plant species. The most dominant endophyte, Chaetomium globosum, colonized over 50% of the root, stem, and leaf segments of C. maritima and over 50% of the root segments of C. cathartica. The colonization frequency of C. globosum was found to be 5%-12.5% in seeds and increased up to 40%-64.4% in seedlings or mature plants. Halosarpheia sp. was the only marine fungus recovered among the endophytes. PMID:15714232

  6. Black fungi: clinical and pathogenic approaches.

    PubMed

    De Hoog, G S; Queiroz-Telles, F; Haase, G; Fernandez-Zeppenfeldt, G; Attili Angelis, D; Gerrits Van Den Ende, A H; Matos, T; Peltroche-Llacsahuanga, H; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A A; Rainer, J; Richard-Yegres, N; Vicente, V; Yegres, F

    2000-01-01

    Data are presented on the clinically relevant black yeasts and their relatives, i.e., members of the Ascomycete order Chaetothyriales. In order to understand the pathology of these fungi it is essential to know their natural ecological niche. From a relatively low degree of molecular variability of the black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis, potential agent of brain infections in patients from East Asia, it is concluded that this species is an emerging pathogen, currently going through a process of active speciation. It is found to be an oligotrophic fungus in hot, moist environments, such as steambaths. Cladophialophora-, Fonsecaea- and Ramichloridium-like strains, known in humans as agents of chromoblastomycosis, are frequently found on rotten plant material, but the fungal molecular diversity in the environment is much higher than that on the human patient, so that it is difficult to trace the etiological agents of the disease with precision. This approach has been successful with Cladophialophora carrionii, of which cells resembling muriform cells, the tissue form of chromoblastomycosis, were found to occur in drying spines of cacti. Phagocytosis assays provide a method to distinguish between pathogens and non-pathogens, as the killing rates of strict saprobes proved to be consistently higher than of those species frequently known as agents of disease. The therapeutic possibilities for patients with chromoblastomycosis are reviewed. PMID:11204152

  7. Molecular phylogeny of the Leptosphaeria maculans-L. biglobosa species complex.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Pereira, Edouard; Balesdent, Marie-Hélčne; Brun, Hortense; Rouxel, Thierry

    2003-11-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans (anamorph Phoma lingam), the ascomycete causing stem canker of crucifers, is a species complex that can be separated into at least seven distinct subgroups using a combination of biochemical and molecular criteria. In the present study sequences of the entire ITS region, including the 5.8S rDNA, of 38 isolates representing the seven subgroups, along with specimens from culture collections, were analysed, compared to those of closely related Leptosphaperia species, and the phylogeny inferred using parsimony and distance analyses. A well-supported clade encompassed all isolates of the seven subgroups along with L. conferta, a known saprobe of dried crucifer stems. The L. maculans isolates were further separated into two well-supported clades corresponding to L. maculans s. str. and the recently named L. biglobosa. Parsimony and distance analyses further separated groups within both species, usually corresponding to specific host plants or geographic origin, e.g. L. maculans 'brassicae' from cultivated Brassica, L. maculans 'lepidii'. from Lepidium sp., L. biglobosa 'brassicae', from various Brassica species, L. biglobosa 'thlaspii' from Thlaspi arvense, L. biglobosa 'erysimii' from Erysimum sp., and L. biglobosa 'canadensis' mostly found in central Canada. The oldest L. maculans specimens maintained in international collections clustered with either L. maculans 'brassicae', L. biglobosa 'brassicae', or a still different group closely related to L. biglobosa 'thlaspii'. The evolutionary relationships between the seven infraspecific groups are discussed in terms of phytopathological relevance and species isolation linked with specific life cycle, geographic isolation or host specificity. PMID:15000231

  8. Analysis of Fungal Flora in Indoor Dust by Ribosomal DNA Sequence Analysis, Quantitative PCR, and Culture? †

    PubMed Central

    Pitkäranta, M.; Meklin, T.; Hyvärinen, A.; Paulin, L.; Auvinen, P.; Nevalainen, A.; Rintala, H.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years increasing attention has been given to the potential health effects of fungal exposure in indoor environments. We used large-scale sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA to describe the mycoflora of two office buildings over the four seasons. DNA sequencing was complemented by cultivation, ergosterol determination, and quantitative PCR analyses. Sequences of 1,339 clones were clustered into 394 nonredundant fungal operational taxonomical units containing sequences from 18 fungal subclasses. The observed flora differed markedly from that recovered by cultivation, the major differences being the near absence of several typical indoor mold genera such as Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. and a high prevalence of basidiomycetes in clone libraries. A total of 55% of the total diversity constituted of unidentifiable ITS sequences, some of which may represent novel fungal species. Dominant species were Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. herbarum, Cryptococcus victoriae, Leptosphaerulina americana and L. chartarum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Thekopsora areolata, Phaeococcomyces nigricans, Macrophoma sp., and several Malassezia species. Seasonal differences were observed for community composition, with ascomycetous molds and basidiomycetous yeasts predominating in the winter and spring and Agaricomycetidae basidiomycetes predominating in the fall. The comparison of methods suggested that the cloning, cultivation, and quantitative PCR methods complemented each other, generating a more comprehensive picture of fungal flora than any of the methods would give alone. The current restrictions of the methods are discussed. PMID:17981947

  9. Cytoplasmic Dynamics of the General Nuclear Import Machinery in Apically Growing Syncytial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Markina-Ińarrairaegui, Ane; Araújo-Bazán, Lidia; Espeso, Eduardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Karyopherins are transporters involved in the bidirectional, selective and active transport of macromolecules through nuclear pores. Importin-?1 is the paradigm of karyopherins and, together with its cargo-adapter importin-?, mediates the general nuclear import pathway. Here we show the existence of different cellular pools of both importin-? and -?1 homologues, KapA and KapB, in the coenocytic ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans. Fluorescence analysis of haploid and diploid strains expressing KapB::GFP and/or KapA::mRFP showed patches of both karyopherins concurrently translocating long distances in apically-growing cells. Anterograde and retrograde movements allowed those patches to reach cell tips and distal regions with an average speed in the range of ?m/s. This bidirectional traffic required microtubules as well as kinesin and dynein motors, since it is blocked by benomyl and also by the inactivation of the dynein/dynactin complex through nudA1 or nudK317 mutations. Deletion of Kinesin-3 motor UncA, required for the transport through detyrosinated microtubules, strongly inhibited KapA and KapB movement along hyphae. Overall, this is the first report describing the bidirectional dynamics of the main nuclear import system in coenocytic fungi. A functional link is proposed between two key cellular machines of the filamentous fungal cell: nuclear transport and the tip-growth apparatus. PMID:24376868

  10. The Vip1 Inositol Polyphosphate Kinase Family Regulates Polarized Growth and Modulates the Microtubule Cytoskeleton in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Constanze; Pohlmann, Thomas; Jakopec, Visnja; Walla, Eva; Ramrath, Pascal; Takeshita, Norio; Baumann, Sebastian; Feldbrügge, Michael; Fischer, Reinhard; Fleig, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are pivotal for numerous eukaryotic processes ranging from cellular morphogenesis, chromosome segregation to intracellular transport. Execution of these tasks requires intricate regulation of MT dynamics. Here, we identify a new regulator of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe MT cytoskeleton: Asp1, a member of the highly conserved Vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family. Inositol pyrophosphates generated by Asp1 modulate MT dynamic parameters independent of the central +TIP EB1 and in a dose-dependent and cellular-context-dependent manner. Importantly, our analysis of the in vitro kinase activities of various S. pombe Asp1 variants demonstrated that the C-terminal phosphatase-like domain of the dual domain Vip1 protein negatively affects the inositol pyrophosphate output of the N-terminal kinase domain. These data suggest that the former domain has phosphatase activity. Remarkably, Vip1 regulation of the MT cytoskeleton is a conserved feature, as Vip1-like proteins of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans and the distantly related pathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis also affect the MT cytoskeleton in these organisms. Consistent with the role of interphase MTs in growth zone selection/maintenance, all 3 fungal systems show aspects of aberrant cell morphogenesis. Thus, for the first time we have identified a conserved biological process for inositol pyrophosphates. PMID:25254656

  11. Soil yeast communities under the aggressive invasion of Sosnowsky's hogweed ( Heracleum sosnowskyi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2015-02-01

    The year-round dynamics of the number and taxonomic composition of yeast communities in the soddy-podzolic soils under invasive thickets of Heracleum sosnowskyi were investigated. The yeast groups that are formed in the soil under the continuous Sosnowsky's hogweed thickets significantly differ from the indigenous yeast communities under the adjacent meadows. In the soils of both biotopes, typical eurybiotic yeast species predominate. In the soil under Heracleum sosnowskyi, the share of the ascomycetes Candida vartiovaarae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus is much lower, and the portion of yeast-like fungi with high hydrolytic activity such as Trichosporon moniliforme and Trichosporon porosum is greater. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that Sosnowsky's hogweed, unlike most aboriginal meadow grasses, does not hibernate with green leaves that do not gradually die out with the formation of semidecomposed plant residues—the main source of nutrients for the soil-litter microbial complex. In addition, grasses of the lower layer do not develop under Sosnowsky's hogweed due to the strong shading and allelopathic impact preventing the development of typical epiphytic copiotrophic species of yeasts.

  12. In Planta Stage-Specific Fungal Gene Profiling Elucidates the Molecular Strategies of Fusarium graminearum Growing inside Wheat Coleoptiles[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Jia, Lei-Jie; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Gang; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The ascomycete Fusarium graminearum is a destructive fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum). To better understand how this pathogen proliferates within the host plant, we tracked pathogen growth inside wheat coleoptiles and then examined pathogen gene expression inside wheat coleoptiles at 16, 40, and 64 h after inoculation (HAI) using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis. We identified 344 genes that were preferentially expressed during invasive growth in planta. Gene expression profiles for 134 putative plant cell wall–degrading enzyme genes suggest that there was limited cell wall degradation at 16 HAI and extensive degradation at 64 HAI. Expression profiles for genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS)–related enzymes suggest that F. graminearum primarily scavenges extracellular ROS before a later burst of extracellular ROS is produced by F. graminearum enzymes. Expression patterns of genes involved in primary metabolic pathways suggest that F. graminearum relies on the glyoxylate cycle at an early stage of plant infection. A secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster was specifically induced at 64 HAI and was required for virulence. Our results indicate that F. graminearum initiates infection of coleoptiles using covert penetration strategies and switches to overt cellular destruction of tissues at an advanced stage of infection. PMID:23266949

  13. The Sch9 Kinase Regulates Conidium Size, Stress Responses, and Pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum is an important disease of wheat and barley worldwide. In a previous study on functional characterization of the F. graminearum kinome, one protein kinase gene important for virulence is orthologous to SCH9 that is functionally related to the cAMP-PKA and TOR pathways in the budding yeast. In this study, we further characterized the functions of FgSCH9 in F. graminearum and its ortholog in Magnaporthe oryzae. The ?Fgsch9 mutant was slightly reduced in growth rate but significantly reduced in conidiation, DON production, and virulence on wheat heads and corn silks. It had increased tolerance to elevated temperatures but became hypersensitive to oxidative, hyperosmotic, cell wall, and membrane stresses. The ?Fgsch9 deletion also had conidium morphology defects and produced smaller conidia. These results suggest that FgSCH9 is important for stress responses, DON production, conidiogenesis, and pathogenesis in F. graminearum. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the ?Mosch9 mutant also was defective in conidiogenesis and pathogenesis. Interestingly, it also produced smaller conidia and appressoria. Taken together, our data indicate that the SCH9 kinase gene may have a conserved role in regulating conidium size and plant infection in phytopathogenic ascomycetes. PMID:25144230

  14. Exploring micromycetes biodiversity for screening benzo[a]pyrene degrading potential.

    PubMed

    Rafin, Catherine; de Foucault, Bruno; Veignie, Etienne

    2013-05-01

    Twenty-five strains of filamentous fungi, encompassing 14 different species and belonging mainly to Ascomycetes, were tested for their ability to degrade benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in mineral liquid medium. The most performing isolates for BaP degradation (200 mg l(-1)) in mineral medium were Cladosporium sphaerospermum with 29 % BaP degradation, i.e., 82.8 ?g BaP degraded per day (day(-1)), Paecilomyces lilacinus with 20.5 % BaP degradation, i.e., 58.5 ?g BaP day(-1), and Verticillium insectorum with 22.3 % BaP degradation, i.e., 64.3 ?g BaP day(-1), after only 7 days of incubation. Four variables, e.g., biomass growth on hexadecane and glucose, BaP solubilization, activities of extracellular- and mycelium-associated peroxidase, and polyethylene glycol degradation, were also studied as selective criteria presumed to be involved in BaP degradation. Among these variables, the tests based on polyethylene glycol degradation and on fungal growth on hexadecane and glucose seemed to be the both pertinent criteria for setting apart isolates competent in BaP degradation, suggesting the occurrence of different mechanisms presumed to be involved in pollutant degradation among the studied micromycetes. PMID:23093417

  15. Phylogenetic-comparative analysis of the eukaryal ribonuclease P RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, D N; Adamidi, C; Ehringer, M A; Pitulle, C; Pace, N R

    2000-01-01

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that cleaves 5'-leader sequences from precursor-tRNAs. Bacterial and eukaryal RNase P RNAs differ fundamentally in that the former, but not the latter, are capable of catalyzing pre-tRNA maturation in vitro in the absence of proteins. An explanation of these functional differences will be assisted by a detailed comparison of bacterial and eukaryal RNase P RNA structures. However, the structures of eukaryal RNase P RNAs remain poorly characterized, compared to their bacterial and archaeal homologs. Hence, we have taken a phylogenetic-comparative approach to refine the secondary structures of eukaryal RNase P RNAs. To this end, 20 new RNase P RNA sequences have been determined from species of ascomycetous fungi representative of the genera Arxiozyma, Clavispora, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, Torulaspora, Wickerhamia, and Zygosaccharomyces. Phylogenetic-comparative analysis of these and other sequences refines previous eukaryal RNase P RNA secondary structure models. Patterns of sequence conservation and length variation refine the minimum-consensus model of the core eukaryal RNA structure. In comparison to bacterial RNase P RNAs, the eukaryal homologs lack RNA structural elements thought to be critical for both substrate binding and catalysis. Nonetheless, the eukaryal RNA retains the main features of the catalytic core of the bacterial RNase P. This indicates that the eukaryal RNA remains intrinsically a ribozyme. PMID:11142387

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps militaris Might Be Related to Its Linear (1?3)-?-D-Glucan

    PubMed Central

    Smiderle, Fhernanda R.; Baggio, Cristiane H.; Borato, Débora G.; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P.; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; Iacomini, Marcello; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    2014-01-01

    The Ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, an entomopathogenic fungus, is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicines. Studies related to its pharmacological properties suggest that this mushroom can exert interesting biological activities. Aqueous (CW and HW) and alkaline (K5) extracts containing polysaccharides were prepared from this mushroom, and a ?-D-glucan was purified. This polymer was analysed by GC-MS and NMR spectrometry, showing a linear chain composed of ?-D-Glcp (1?3)-linked. The six main signals in the 13C-NMR spectrum were assigned by comparison to reported data. The aqueous (CW, HW) extracts stimulated the expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, and COX-2 by THP-1 macrophages, while the alkaline (K5) extract did not show any effect. However, when the extracts were added to the cells in the presence of LPS, K5 showed the highest inhibition of the pro-inflammatory genes expression. This inhibitory effect was also observed for the purified ?-(1?3)-D-glucan, that seems to be the most potent anti-inflammatory compound present in the polysaccharide extracts of C. militaris. In vivo, ?-(1?3)-D-glucan also inhibited significantly the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced nociceptive response, and, in addition, it reduced the migration of total leukocytes but not the neutrophils induced by LPS. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the anti-inflammatory effect of ?-(1?3)-D-glucan. PMID:25330371

  17. Assessment of degradation potential of aliphatic hydrocarbons by autochthonous filamentous fungi from a historically polluted clay soil.

    PubMed

    Covino, Stefano; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Stazi, Silvia Rita; Cajthaml, Tomas; ?van?arová, Monika; Stella, Tatiana; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    The present work was aimed at isolating and identifying the main members of the mycobiota of a clay soil historically contaminated by mid- and long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (AH) and to subsequently assess their hydrocarbon-degrading ability. All the isolates were Ascomycetes and, among them, the most interesting was Pseudoallescheria sp. 18A, which displayed both the ability to use AH as the sole carbon source and to profusely colonize a wheat straw:poplar wood chip (70:30, w/w) lignocellulosic mixture (LM) selected as the amendment for subsequent soil remediation microcosms. After a 60 d mycoaugmentation with Pseudoallescheria sp. of the aforementioned soil, mixed with the sterile LM (5:1 mass ratio), a 79.7% AH reduction and a significant detoxification, inferred by a drop in mortality of Folsomia candida from 90 to 24%, were observed. However, similar degradation and detoxification outcomes were found in the non-inoculated incubation control soil that had been amended with the sterile LM. This was due to the biostimulation exerted by the amendment on the resident microbiota, fungi in particular, the activity and density of which were low, instead, in the non-amended incubation control soil. PMID:25461057

  18. Characterization and application of a novel class II thermophilic peroxidase from Myceliophthora thermophila in biosynthesis of polycatechol.

    PubMed

    Zerva, Anastasia; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    A peroxidase from the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila that belongs to ascomycete Class II based on PeroxiBase classification was functionally expressed in methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The putative peroxidase from the genomic DNA was successfully cloned in P. pastoris X-33 under the transcriptional control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter. The heterologous production was greatly enhanced by the addition of hemin with a titer of 0.41UmL(-1) peroxidase activity at the second day of incubation. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity (50kDa) and characterized using a series of phenolic substrates that indicated similar characteristics with those of generic peroxidases. In addition, the enzyme was found thermostable, retaining its activity for temperatures up to 60°C after eight hours incubation. Moreover, the enzyme displayed remarkable H2O2 stability, retaining more than 80% of its initial activity after 24h incubation in 5000-fold molar excess of H2O2. The ability of the peroxidase to polymerize catechol at high superoxide concentrations, together with its high thermostability and substrate specificity, indicate a potential commercial significance of the enzyme. PMID:26047916

  19. Biology and biotechnology of Trichoderma

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, André

    2010-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are soilborne, green-spored ascomycetes that can be found all over the world. They have been studied with respect to various characteristics and applications and are known as successful colonizers of their habitats, efficiently fighting their competitors. Once established, they launch their potent degradative machinery for decomposition of the often heterogeneous substrate at hand. Therefore, distribution and phylogeny, defense mechanisms, beneficial as well as deleterious interaction with hosts, enzyme production and secretion, sexual development, and response to environmental conditions such as nutrients and light have been studied in great detail with many species of this genus, thus rendering Trichoderma one of the best studied fungi with the genome of three species currently available. Efficient biocontrol strains of the genus are being developed as promising biological fungicides, and their weaponry for this function also includes secondary metabolites with potential applications as novel antibiotics. The cellulases produced by Trichoderma reesei, the biotechnological workhorse of the genus, are important industrial products, especially with respect to production of second generation biofuels from cellulosic waste. Genetic engineering not only led to significant improvements in industrial processes but also to intriguing insights into the biology of these fungi and is now complemented by the availability of a sexual cycle in T. reesei/Hypocrea jecorina, which significantly facilitates both industrial and basic research. This review aims to give a broad overview on the qualities and versatility of the best studied Trichoderma species and to highlight intriguing findings as well as promising applications. PMID:20461510

  20. Phylogenomic Analyses Indicate that Early Fungi Evolved Digesting Cell Walls of Algal Ancestors of Land Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ying; Wang, Sishuo; Sekimoto, Satoshi; Aerts, Andrea L.; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Yee Ngan, Chew; Ohm, Robin A.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Berbee, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    As decomposers, fungi are key players in recycling plant material in global carbon cycles. We hypothesized that genomes of early diverging fungi may have inherited pectinases from an ancestral species that had been able to extract nutrients from pectin-containing land plants and their algal allies (Streptophytes). We aimed to infer, based on pectinase gene expansions and on the organismal phylogeny, the geological timing of the plant–fungus association. We analyzed 40 fungal genomes, three of which, including Gonapodya prolifera, were sequenced for this study. In the organismal phylogeny from 136 housekeeping loci, Rozella diverged first from all other fungi. Gonapodya prolifera was included among the flagellated, predominantly aquatic fungal species in Chytridiomycota. Sister to Chytridiomycota were the predominantly terrestrial fungi including zygomycota I and zygomycota II, along with the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that comprise Dikarya. The Gonapodya genome has 27 genes representing five of the seven classes of pectin-specific enzymes known from fungi. Most of these share a common ancestry with pectinases from Dikarya. Indicating functional and sequence similarity, Gonapodya, like many Dikarya, can use pectin as a carbon source for growth in pure culture. Shared pectinases of Dikarya and Gonapodya provide evidence that even ancient aquatic fungi had adapted to extract nutrients from the plants in the green lineage. This implies that 750 million years, the estimated maximum age of origin of the pectin-containing streptophytes represents a maximum age for the divergence of Chytridiomycota from the lineage including Dikarya. PMID:25977457

  1. Seasonal Pattern of Lesion Development in Diseased Fraxinus excelsior Infected by Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Stina Barbro Katrin; Barklund, Pia; von Brömssen, Claudia; Stenlid, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Ash dieback is a recent widespread disease on ash (Fraxinus sp.) that is causing important economic and ecological losses throughout Europe. The disease is initiated by the ascomycetous fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea). The main aim of this study was to investigate seasonal pattern of lesion development associated with ash dieback. We present data on the spread of 324 natural lesions in ash shoots, branches and stems surveyed over a 32 month period. Most lesions were active and showed the greatest rate of growth during the summer; however, lesions were active throughout the year. Tree mortality was high, with more than a third of the surveyed trees dying during the study. Although many lesions permanently ceased to develop, the rate at which new lesions emerged was greater than the rate at which lesions entered a resting phase. The most common cause for a lesion going into a permanent state of rest was that it had encountered a branch-base. Genotype analysis showed that multiple infections can occur in a single tree given that different genotypes were identified in different lesions as well as in single lesions. A weak positive correlation was noted between tree health and tree size and a weak negative correlation was noted between tree overall health and lesion activity. The lower limit for H. pseudoalbidus growth in culture was between 4.0°C and 0.5°C. PMID:24759550

  2. A novel glucosylation enzyme: molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of Trichoderma viride JCM22452 alpha-amylase and enzymatic synthesis of some flavonoid monoglucosides and oligoglucosides.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Akio; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Ishibashi, Noriko; Fukami, Harukazu; Nakayama, Toru; Nakao, Masahiro

    2008-12-24

    It was found that commercial cellulase preparations from Trichoderma viride showed transglucosylation activity toward (+)-catechin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using dextrin as a glucosyl donor. To isolate the enzyme exhibiting transglucosylation activity toward (+)-catechin and EGCG, the present study isolated the cDNA encoding the T. viride JCM22452 alpha-amylase homologue (TRa2), which showed high amino acid sequence identity to functionally uncharacterized alpha-amylase homologues from other ascomycetes, which also produced some (+)-catechin and EGCG glucosides. TRa2 was able to glucosylate a wide range of natural flavonoids, particularly (+)-catechin and EGCG, and to hydrolyze maltooligosaccharides (k(cat)/K(m) for maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose, and maltoheptaose were 1.98, 45.2, 58.3, 97.4, and 92.6 s(-1) mM(-1), respectively) except maltose but could not transfer the monoglucosyl residue to maltooligosaccharides. By (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR, the structures of several novel glucosides obtained by commercial cellulase preparations from T. viride and TRa2 were determined as (+)-catechin 5-O-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, (+)-catechin 5-O-alpha-D-maltoside, (+)-catechin 4'-O-alpha-D-maltoside, EGCG 5-O-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, and EGCG 7-O-alpha-D-maltoside. One of these glucosides, EGCG 5-O-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, showed higher heat stability and solubility and lower astringency and astringent stimulation than its aglycon, suggesting that EGCG glucosides are functionally superior to EGCG as food additives. PMID:19049410

  3. Root Infection and Systemic Colonization of Maize by Colletotrichum graminicola?

    PubMed Central

    Sukno, Serenella A.; García, Verónica M.; Shaw, Brian D.; Thon, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Colletotrichum graminicola is a filamentous ascomycete that causes anthracnose disease of maize. While the fungus can cause devastating foliar leaf blight and stalk rot diseases, little is known about its ability to infect roots. Previously published reports suggest that C. graminicola may infect maize roots and that root infections may contribute to the colonization of aboveground plant tissues, leading to disease. To determine whether C. graminicola can infect maize roots and whether root infections can result in the colonization of aboveground plant tissues, we developed a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain and used it to study the plant root colonization and infection process in vivo. We observed structures produced by other root pathogenic fungi, including runner hyphae, hyphopodia, and microsclerotia. A mosaic pattern of infection resulted from specific epidermal and cortical cells becoming infected by intercellular hyphae while surrounding cells were uninfected, a pattern that is distinctly different from that described for leaves. Interestingly, falcate conidia, normally restricted to acervuli, were also found filling epidermal cells and root hairs. Twenty-eight percent of plants challenged with soilborne inoculum became infected in aboveground plant parts (stem and/or leaves), indicating that root infection can lead to asymptomatic systemic colonization of the plants. Many of the traits observed for C. graminicola have been previously reported for other root-pathogenic fungi, suggesting that these traits are evolutionally conserved in multiple fungal lineages. These observations suggest that root infection may be an important component of the maize anthracnose disease cycle. PMID:18065625

  4. Mutual Exclusion between Fungal Species of the Fusarium Head Blight Complex in a Wheat Spike.

    PubMed

    Siou, Dorothée; Gélisse, Sandrine; Laval, Valérie; Suffert, Frédéric; Lannou, Christian

    2015-07-15

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. FHB is caused by a species complex that includes two genera of Ascomycetes: Microdochium and Fusarium. Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium poae, and Microdochium nivale are among the most common FHB species in Europe and were chosen for these experiments. Field studies and surveys show that two or more species often coexist within the same field or grain sample. In this study, we investigated the competitiveness of isolates of different species against isolates of F. graminearum at the scale of a single spike. By performing point inoculations of a single floret, we ensured that each species was able to establish independent infections and competed for spike colonization only. The fungal colonization was assessed in each spike by quantitative PCR. After establishing that the spike colonization was mainly downwards, we compared the relative colonization of each species in coinoculations. Classical analysis of variance suggested a competitive interaction but remained partly inconclusive because of a large between-spike variance. Further data exploration revealed a clear exclusion of one of the competing species and the complete absence of coexistence at the spike level. PMID:25934622

  5. A novel family of dehydrin-like proteins is involved in stress response in the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Hoi, Joanne Wong Sak; Lamarre, Claude; Beau, Rémi; Meneau, Isabelle; Berepiki, Adokiye; Barre, Annick; Mellado, Emilia; Read, Nick D.; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    ?During a search for genes controlling conidial dormancy in Aspergillus fumigatus, two dehydrin-like genes, DprA and DprB, were identified. The deduced proteins had repeated stretches of 23 amino acids that contained a conserved dehydrin-like protein (DPR) motif. Disrupted DprA? mutants were hypersensitive to oxidative stress and to phagocytic killing, whereas DprB? mutants were impaired in osmotic and pH stress responses. However, no effect was observed on their pathogenicity in our experimental models of invasive aspergillosis. Molecular dissection of the signaling pathways acting upstream showed that expression of DprA was dependent on the stress-activated kinase SakA and the cyclic AMP-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathways, which activate the bZIP transcription factor AtfA, while expression of DprB was dependent on the SakA mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and the zinc finger transcription factor PacC. Fluorescent protein fusions showed that both proteins were associated with peroxisomes and the cytosol. Accordingly, DprA and DprB were important for peroxisome function. Our findings reveal a novel family of stress-protective proteins in A. fumigatus and, potentially, in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:21490150

  6. Clustering of two genes putatively involved in cyanate detoxification evolved recently and independently in multiple fungal lineages.

    PubMed

    Elmore, M Holly; McGary, Kriston L; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Slot, Jason C; Geiser, David M; Sink, Stacy; O'Donnell, Kerry; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-03-01

    Fungi that have the enzymes cyanase and carbonic anhydrase show a limited capacity to detoxify cyanate, a fungicide employed by both plants and humans. Here, we describe a novel two-gene cluster that comprises duplicated cyanase and carbonic anhydrase copies, which we name the CCA gene cluster, trace its evolution across Ascomycetes, and examine the evolutionary dynamics of its spread among lineages of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (hereafter referred to as the FOSC), a cosmopolitan clade of purportedly clonal vascular wilt plant pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal cyanase and carbonic anhydrase genes reveals that the CCA gene cluster arose independently at least twice and is now present in three lineages, namely Cochliobolus lunatus, Oidiodendron maius, and the FOSC. Genome-wide surveys within the FOSC indicate that the CCA gene cluster varies in copy number across isolates, is always located on accessory chromosomes, and is absent in FOSC's closest relatives. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the CCA gene cluster in 163 FOSC strains from a wide variety of hosts suggests a recent history of rampant transfers between isolates. We hypothesize that the independent formation of the CCA gene cluster in different fungal lineages and its spread across FOSC strains may be associated with resistance to plant-produced cyanates or to use of cyanate fungicides in agriculture. PMID:25663439

  7. Horizontal gene transfer and gene dosage drives adaptation to wood colonization in a tree pathogen.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Braham; Feau, Nicolas; Aerts, Andrea L; Beauseigle, Stéphanie; Bernier, Louis; Copeland, Alex; Foster, Adam; Gill, Navdeep; Henrissat, Bernard; Herath, Padmini; LaButti, Kurt M; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika A; Majoor, Eline; Ohm, Robin A; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Pribowo, Amadeus; Saddler, John N; Sakalidis, Monique L; de Vries, Ronald P; Grigoriev, Igor V; Goodwin, Stephen B; Tanguay, Philippe; Hamelin, Richard C

    2015-03-17

    Some of the most damaging tree pathogens can attack woody stems, causing lesions (cankers) that may be lethal. To identify the genomic determinants of wood colonization leading to canker formation, we sequenced the genomes of the poplar canker pathogen, Mycosphaerella populorum, and the closely related poplar leaf pathogen, M. populicola. A secondary metabolite cluster unique to M. populorum is fully activated following induction by poplar wood and leaves. In addition, genes encoding hemicellulose-degrading enzymes, peptidases, and metabolite transporters were more abundant and were up-regulated in M. populorum growing on poplar wood-chip medium compared with M. populicola. The secondary gene cluster and several of the carbohydrate degradation genes have the signature of horizontal transfer from ascomycete fungi associated with wood decay and from prokaryotes. Acquisition and maintenance of the gene battery necessary for growth in woody tissues and gene dosage resulting in gene expression reconfiguration appear to be responsible for the adaptation of M. populorum to infect, colonize, and cause mortality on poplar woody stems. PMID:25733908

  8. Revisiting ectomycorrhizal fungi of the genus Alnus: differential host specificity, diversity and determinants of the fungal community.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Suvi, Triin; Jairus, Teele; Ostonen, Ivika; Pőlme, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    Actinorhizal plants, including those of the genus Alnus (alders; Betulaceae), and their nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts rely on mycorrhizal fungi for phosphorus and other mineral nutrients. To date, alders are known to associate with only 20-30 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi which are highly host-specific. This study aimed to determine the species richness and the relative importance of host species, soil and site variables on the community composition of Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungi on root tips. Using rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) sequence analysis, 40 species of putatively ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from seven sites dominated by Alnus incana or Alnus glutinosa. Alnicola spp. and Tomentella aff. sublilacina were most prevalent in all sites. Species of the /pseudotomentella, /inocybe, /peziza michelii-peziza succosa, /genea-humaria, /pachyphloeus-amylascus, /helvella-tuber and /tarzetta-geopyxis lineages were recorded as natural symbionts of alders for the first time. All basidiomycetes were specific to Alnus, whereas four out of seven Pezizales spp. (ascomycetes) were nonspecific. The complex of soil variables and geographical (site) effect drives the community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi in alder forests. Alder-associated fungi have independently evolved and subsequently radiated in several ectomycorrhizal lineages, indicating frequent and persistent host shifts after the divergence of Alnus and Betula. PMID:19320837

  9. Phylogenetic Relationships Matter: Antifungal Susceptibility among Clinically Relevant Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Schmalreck, A. F.; Becker, K.; Fegeler, W.; Czaika, V.; Ulmer, H.; Lass-Flörl, C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was 2-fold: to evaluate whether phylogenetically closely related yeasts share common antifungal susceptibility profiles (ASPs) and whether these ASPs can be predicted from phylogeny. To address this question, 9,627 yeast strains were collected and tested for their antifungal susceptibility. Isolates were reidentified by considering recent changes in taxonomy and nomenclature. A phylogenetic (PHYLO) code based on the results of multilocus sequence analyses (large-subunit rRNA, small-subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor 1?, RNA polymerase II subunits 1 and 2) and the classification of the cellular neutral sugar composition of coenzyme Q and 18S ribosomal DNA was created to group related yeasts into PHYLO groups. The ASPs were determined for fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole in each PHYLO group. The majority (95%) of the yeast strains were Ascomycetes. After reclassification, a total of 23 genera and 54 species were identified, resulting in an increase of 64% of genera and a decrease of 5% of species compared with the initial identification. These taxa were assigned to 17 distinct PHYLO groups (Ascomycota, n = 13; Basidiomycota, n = 4). ASPs for azoles were similar among members of the same PHYLO group and different between the various PHYLO groups. Yeast phylogeny may be an additional tool to significantly enhance the assessment of MIC values and to predict antifungal susceptibility, thereby more rapidly initiating appropriate patient management. PMID:24366735

  10. Influence of nutrients on enhancing laccase production by Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Robert F H; Barbosa, Aneli M; Giese, Ellen C; Godoy, Saulo D S; Covizzi, Luiz G

    2007-09-01

    The physiological requirements needed to enhance the production of laccases by the ascomycete Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 in submerged cultivation were examined under non-induced and induced (veratryl alcohol, VA) conditions. Under non-induced conditions (-VA), the initial pH, C:N ratio, and inorganic N source did not influence laccase production, in contrast to Tween 80, soybean oil, and copper, which significantly increased laccase production, and proline and urea, which suppressed laccase formation. In addition, Tween 60 could serve as the sole carbon source for the production of these enzymes. Under VA-induced conditions of fungal growth, factors such as inoculum type, time-point of addition of inducer, initial pH, C:N ratio, and type of N source, influenced the production of laccases; however, unlike the non-induced conditions, proline and urea did not act as suppressors. Each of these physiological conditions exerted different effects on biomass production. The nutritional conditions examined for B. rhodina MAMB-05 are discussed in relation to their influence on fungal growth and laccase production. PMID:18075999

  11. Plant-ants use symbiotic fungi as a food source: new insight into the nutritional ecology of ant-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Blatrix, Rumsaďs; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Mondolot, Laurence; La Fisca, Philippe; Voglmayr, Hermann; McKey, Doyle

    2012-10-01

    Usually studied as pairwise interactions, mutualisms often involve networks of interacting species. Numerous tropical arboreal ants are specialist inhabitants of myrmecophytes (plants bearing domatia, i.e. hollow structures specialized to host ants) and are thought to rely almost exclusively on resources derived from the host plant. Recent studies, following up on century-old reports, have shown that fungi of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales live in symbiosis with plant-ants within domatia. We tested the hypothesis that ants use domatia-inhabiting fungi as food in three ant-plant symbioses: Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana, Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa and Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. Labelling domatia fungal patches in the field with either a fluorescent dye or (15)N showed that larvae ingested domatia fungi. Furthermore, when the natural fungal patch was replaced with a piece of a (15)N-labelled pure culture of either of two Chaetothyriales strains isolated from T. aethiops colonies, these fungi were also consumed. These two fungi often co-occur in the same ant colony. Interestingly, T. aethiops workers and larvae ingested preferentially one of the two strains. Our results add a new piece in the puzzle of the nutritional ecology of plant-ants. PMID:22859596

  12. Screening, isolation, and characterization of glycosyl-hydrolase-producing fungi from desert halophyte plants.

    PubMed

    Luziatelli, Francesca; Crognale, Silvia; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Moresi, Mauro; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Ruzzi, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    Fungal strains naturally occurring on the wood and leaves of the salt-excreting desert tree Tamarix were isolated and characterized for their ability to produce cellulose- and starch-degrading enzymes. Of the 100 isolates, six fungal species were identified by ITS1 sequence analysis. No significant differences were observed among taxa isolated from wood samples of different Tamarix species, while highly salt-tolerant forms related to the genus Scopulariopsis (an anamorphic ascomycete) occurred only on the phylloplane of T. aphylla. All strains had cellulase and amylase activities, but the production of these enzymes was highest in strain D, a Schizophyllum-commune-related form. This strain, when grown on pretreated Tamarix biomass, produced an enzymatic complex containing levels of filter paperase (414 +/- 16 IU/ml) that were higher than those of other S. commune strains. The enzyme complex was used to hydrolyze different lignocellulosic substrates, resulting in a saccharification rate ofpretreated milk thistle (73.5 +/- 1.2%) that was only 10% lower than that obtained with commercial cellulases. Our results support the use of Tamarix biomass as a useful source of cellulolytic and amylolytic fungi and as a good feedstock for the economical production of commercially relevant cellulases and amylases. PMID:25296445

  13. Molecular characterization of strawberry pathogen Gnomonia fragariae and its genetic relatedness to other Gnomonia species and members of Diaporthales.

    PubMed

    Morocko, Inga; Fatehi, Jamshid

    2007-05-01

    Gnomonia fragariae is a poorly studied ascomycete belonging to Diaporthales. Originally G. fragariae was considered a saprophyte occurring on dead tissues of strawberry plants. Recently this fungus was found in Latvia and Sweden, and it was proven to be the cause of severe root rot and petiole blight of strawberry. Thirteen isolates of this pathogen and several other Gnomonia species occurring on rosaceous hosts were characterized by molecular analysis using nucleotide sequences of partial LSU rRNA gene and the total ITS region. The homologous regions from relevant diaporthalean taxa available in the GenBank were also included and compared with the taxa sequenced in this study. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that G. fragariae, G. rubi, and Gnomonia sp. (CBS 850.79) were genetically different from G. gnomon, the type species of the genus, and other members of Gnomoniaceae. The analyses showed that G. fragariae and Hapalocystis were genetically very closely related, forming a phylogenetic clade, which is possibly presenting a new family in the Diaporthales. Morphological comparisons of the Gnomonia species on the basis of commonly used criteria for the taxonomy of Diaporthales, so far did not reveal any evident features for the polyphyletic status of Gnomonia. PMID:17509844

  14. Identification of the galactosyltransferase of Cryptococcus neoformans involved in the biosynthesis of basidiomycete-type glycosylinositolphosphoceramide

    PubMed Central

    Wohlschlager, Therese; Buser, Reto; Skowyra, Michael L; Haynes, Brian C; Henrissat, Bernard; Doering, Tamara L; Künzler, Markus; Aebi, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans synthesizes a complex family of glycosylinositolphosphoceramide (GIPC) structures. These glycosphingolipids (GSLs) consist of mannosylinositolphosphoceramide (MIPC) extended by ?1-6-linked galactose, a unique structure that has to date only been identified in basidiomycetes. Further extension by up to five mannose residues and a branching xylose has been described. In this study, we identified and determined the gene structure of the enzyme Ggt1, which catalyzes the transfer of a galactose residue to MIPC. Deletion of the gene in C. neoformans resulted in complete loss of GIPCs containing galactose, a phenotype that could be restored by the episomal expression of Ggt1 in the deletion mutant. The entire annotated open reading frame, encoding a C-terminal GT31 galactosyltransferase domain and a large N-terminal domain of unknown function, was required for complementation. Notably, this gene does not encode a predicted signal sequence or transmembrane domain. The demonstration that Ggt1 is responsible for the transfer of a galactose residue to a GSL thus raises questions regarding the topology of this biosynthetic pathway and the function of the N-terminal domain. Phylogenetic analysis of the GGT1 gene shows conservation in hetero- and homobasidiomycetes but no homologs in ascomycetes or outside of the fungal kingdom. PMID:23926231

  15. Network-based data integration for selecting candidate virulence associated proteins in the cereal infecting fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Lysenko, Artem; Urban, Martin; Bennett, Laura; Tsoka, Sophia; Janowska-Sejda, Elzbieta; Rawlings, Chris J; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Saqi, Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    The identification of virulence genes in plant pathogenic fungi is important for understanding the infection process, host range and for developing control strategies. The analysis of already verified virulence genes in phytopathogenic fungi in the context of integrated functional networks can give clues about the underlying mechanisms and pathways directly or indirectly linked to fungal pathogenicity and can suggest new candidates for further experimental investigation, using a 'guilt by association' approach. Here we study 133 genes in the globally important Ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum that have been experimentally tested for their involvement in virulence. An integrated network that combines information from gene co-expression, predicted protein-protein interactions and sequence similarity was employed and, using 100 genes known to be required for virulence, we found a total of 215 new proteins potentially associated with virulence of which 29 are annotated as hypothetical proteins. The majority of these potential virulence genes are located in chromosomal regions known to have a low recombination frequency. We have also explored the taxonomic diversity of these candidates and found 25 sequences, which are likely to be fungal specific. We discuss the biological relevance of a few of the potentially novel virulence associated genes in detail. The analysis of already verified virulence genes in phytopathogenic fungi in the context of integrated functional networks can give clues about the underlying mechanisms and pathways directly or indirectly linked to fungal pathogenicity and can suggest new candidates for further experimental investigation, using a 'guilt by association' approach. PMID:23861834

  16. Yeast diversity in hypersaline habitats.

    PubMed

    Butinar, L; Santos, S; Spencer-Martins, I; Oren, A; Gunde-Cimerman, N

    2005-03-15

    Thus far it has been considered that hypersaline natural brines which are subjected to extreme solar heating, do not contain non-melanized yeast populations. Nevertheless we have isolated yeasts in eight different salterns worldwide, as well as from the Dead Sea, Enriquillo Lake (Dominican Republic) and the Great Salt Lake (Utah). Among the isolates obtained from hypersaline waters, Pichia guilliermondii, Debaryomyces hansenii, Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida parapsilosis are known contaminants of low water activity food, whereas Rhodosporidium sphaerocarpum, R. babjevae, Rhodotorula laryngis, Trichosporon mucoides, and a new species resembling C. glabrata were not known for their halotolerance and were identified for the first time in hypersaline habitats. Moreover, the ascomycetous yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata, known to be a parasite of the brine shrimp, was isolated as a free-living form from the Great Salt Lake brine. In water rich in magnesium chloride (bitterns) from the La Trinitat salterns (Spain), two new species provisionally named C. atmosphaerica - like and P. philogaea - like were discovered. PMID:15766773

  17. A MAT1–2 wild-type strain from Penicillium chrysogenum: functional mating-type locus characterization, genome sequencing and mating with an industrial penicillin-producing strain

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Julia; Dahlmann, Tim A; Gümü?er, Hendrik; Kück, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In heterothallic ascomycetes, mating is controlled by two nonallelic idiomorphs that determine the ‘sex’ of the corresponding strains. We recently discovered mating-type loci and a sexual life cycle in the penicillin-producing fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum. All industrial penicillin production strains worldwide are derived from a MAT1-1 isolate. No MAT1-2 strain has been investigated in detail until now. Here, we provide the first functional analysis of a MAT1-2 locus from a wild-type strain. Similar to MAT1-1, the MAT1-2 locus has functions beyond sexual development. Unlike MAT1-1, the MAT1-2 locus affects germination and surface properties of conidiospores and controls light-dependent asexual sporulation. Mating of the MAT1-2 wild type with a MAT1-1 high penicillin producer generated sexual spores. We determined the genomic sequences of parental and progeny strains using next-generation sequencing and found evidence for genome-wide recombination. SNP calling showed that derived industrial strains had an uneven distribution of point mutations compared with the wild type. We found evidence for meiotic recombination in all chromosomes. Our results point to a strategy combining the use of mating-type genes, genetics, and next-generation sequencing to optimize conventional strain improvement methods. PMID:25521009

  18. Functional Annotation of the Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Genome: Insights into the Phytopathogenicity of the Fungal Agent of Dutch Elm Disease

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, André M.; Dufour, Josée; Bouvet, Guillaume F.; Jacobi, Volker; Nigg, Martha; Henrissat, Bernard; Laroche, Jérôme; Levesque, Roger C.; Bernier, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi is responsible for the pandemic of Dutch elm disease that has been ravaging Europe and North America for 50 years. We proceeded to annotate the genome of the O. novo-ulmi strain H327 that was sequenced in 2012. The 31.784-Mb nuclear genome (50.1% GC) is organized into 8 chromosomes containing a total of 8,640 protein-coding genes that we validated with RNA sequencing analysis. Approximately 53% of these genes have their closest match to Grosmannia clavigera kw1407, followed by 36% in other close Sordariomycetes, 5% in other Pezizomycotina, and surprisingly few (5%) orphans. A relatively small portion (?3.4%) of the genome is occupied by repeat sequences; however, the mechanism of repeat-induced point mutation appears active in this genome. Approximately 76% of the proteins could be assigned functions using Gene Ontology analysis; we identified 311 carbohydrate-active enzymes, 48 cytochrome P450s, and 1,731 proteins potentially involved in pathogen–host interaction, along with 7 clusters of fungal secondary metabolites. Complementary mating-type locus sequencing, mating tests, and culturing in the presence of elm terpenes were conducted. Our analysis identified a specific genetic arsenal impacting the sexual and vegetative growth, phytopathogenicity, and signaling/plant–defense–degradation relationship between O. novo-ulmi and its elm host and insect vectors. PMID:25539722

  19. Cofermentation of Glucose, Xylose, and Cellobiose by the Beetle-Associated Yeast Spathaspora passalidarum

    PubMed Central

    Long, Tanya M.; Su, Yi-Kai; Headman, Jennifer; Higbee, Alan; Willis, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    Fermentation of cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars from biomass could resolve food-versus-fuel conflicts inherent in the bioconversion of grains. However, the inability to coferment glucose and xylose is a major challenge to the economical use of lignocellulose as a feedstock. Simultaneous cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose is problematic for most microbes because glucose represses utilization of the other saccharides. Surprisingly, the ascomycetous, beetle-associated yeast Spathaspora passalidarum, which ferments xylose and cellobiose natively, can also coferment these two sugars in the presence of 30 g/liter glucose. S. passalidarum simultaneously assimilates glucose and xylose aerobically, it simultaneously coferments glucose, cellobiose, and xylose with an ethanol yield of 0.42 g/g, and it has a specific ethanol production rate on xylose more than 3 times that of the corresponding rate on glucose. Moreover, an adapted strain of S. passalidarum produced 39 g/liter ethanol with a yield of 0.37 g/g sugars from a hardwood hydrolysate. Metabolome analysis of S. passalidarum before onset and during the fermentations of glucose and xylose showed that the flux of glycolytic intermediates is significantly higher on xylose than on glucose. The high affinity of its xylose reductase activities for NADH and xylose combined with allosteric activation of glycolysis probably accounts in part for its unusual capacities. These features make S. passalidarum very attractive for studying regulatory mechanisms enabling bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials by yeasts. PMID:22636012

  20. Molecular approach to characterize ectomycorrhizae fungi from Mediterranean pine stands in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ragonezi, Carla; Caldeira, A. Teresa; Martins, M. Rosário; Salvador, Cátia; Santos-Silva, Celeste; Ganhăo, Elsa; Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Zavattieri, Amely

    2013-01-01

    Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.), like other conifers, forms ectomycorrhizas (ECM), which have beneficial impact on plant growth in natural environments and forest ecosystems. An in vitro co-culture of stone pine microshoots with pure mycelia of isolated ECM sporocarps was used to overcome the root growth cessation not only in vitro but also to improve root development during acclimation phase. Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.) Rauschert and Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray fungi, were collected, pure cultured and used in in vitro co-culture with stone pine microshoots. Samples of P. arhizus and L. deliciosus for the in vitro co-cultures were collected from the pine stands southwest Portugal. The in situ characterization was based on their morphotypes. To confirm the identity of the collected material, ITS amplification was applied using the pure cultures derived from the sporocarps. Additionally, a molecular profile using PCR based genomic fingerprinting comparison was executed with other genera of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Our results showed the effectiveness of the techniques used to amplify DNA polymorphic sequences, which enhances the characterization of the genetic profile of ECM fungi and also provides an option to verify the fungus identity at any stage of plant mycorrhization. PMID:24294266