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1

The phenol oxidases of the ascomycete Podospora anserina. XII. Affinity of laccases II and III to substrates with different substitution patterns.  

PubMed

For the low molecular weight laccases II and III of Podospora anserina the kinetic parameters Michaelis constant (KM) and maximum reaction velocity (V) were determined polarographically under pH optimum conditions for representative substrates of different substitution patterns. Laccase II showed two peaks in its pH optimum curve, each with a different substrate specificity, indicating structural differences to laccase III which exhibits only one broad peak. Under optimum conditions the affinities of various substrates are determined by their substitution patterns: high affinity for simple o- and p-diphenols, low affinity for m-henols. The maximal velocity remains largely uninfluenced. This study of the effect of substitution on substrate utilization leads to the assumption that there is no specific reactive site for m-phenols in either laccase. Oxidation of m-phenols, however, takes only place at high pH values. PMID:14600

Hoffmann, P; Esser, K

1977-02-01

2

Calorie restriction in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calorie restriction (CR) is a regimen of reduced food intake that, although the underlying mechanism is unknown, in many organisms leads to life span extension. Podospora anserina is one of the few known ageing filamentous fungi and the ageing process and concomitant degeneration of mitochondria have been well-studied. CR in P. anserina increases not only life span but also forestalls

Anne D. van Diepeningen; S. M. Slakhorst-Wandel; A. B. Koopmanschap-Memelink; Gerjon J. Ikink; Alfons J. M. Debets; Rolf F. Hoekstra

2010-01-01

3

Systematic Deletion of Homeobox Genes in Podospora anserina Uncovers Their Roles in Shaping the Fruiting Body  

PubMed Central

Higher fungi, which comprise ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, play major roles in the biosphere. Their evolutionary success may be due to the extended dikaryotic stage of their life cycle, which is the basis for their scientific name: the Dikarya. Dikaryosis is maintained by similar structures, the clamp in basidiomycetes and the crozier in ascomycetes. Homeodomain transcription factors are required for clamp formation in all basidiomycetes studied. We identified all the homeobox genes in the filamentous ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina and constructed deletion mutants for each of these genes and for a number of gene combinations. Croziers developed normally in these mutants, including those with up to six deleted homeogenes. However, some mutants had defects in maturation of the fruiting body, an effect that could be rescued by providing wild-type maternal hyphae. Analysis of mutants deficient in multiple homeogenes revealed interactions between the genes, suggesting that they operate as a complex network. Similar to their role in animals and plants, homeodomain transcription factors in ascomycetes are involved in shaping multicellular structures. PMID:22662159

Coppin, Evelyne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Bidard, Frédérique; Brun, Sylvain; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Espagne, Eric; Aït-Benkhali, Jinane; Goarin, Anne; Nesseir, Audrey; Planamente, Sara; Debuchy, Robert; Silar, Philippe

2012-01-01

4

Effect of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant on ageing of Podospora anserina : Ultrastructural study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A beneficial effect of mitochondria targeted antioxidant (MTA) SkQ1 added to the culture medium on life span of Podospora anserina was revealed. As was shown earlier, optimal concentration was 400 nM. SkQ1 was shown to increase P. anserina life span 2.4 times, at the same time maintaining native cell ultrastructure: degradative alterations were not revealed.\\u000a Significant reorganization of P. anserina

S. M. Ojovan; L. E. Bakeeva; O. V. Shtaer; O. V. Kamzolkina; M. Yu. Vyssokikh

2010-01-01

5

The Transcriptional Response to Nonself in the Fungus Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

In fungi, heterokaryon incompatibility is a nonself recognition process occurring when filaments of different isolates of the same species fuse. Compatibility is controlled by so-called het loci and fusion of strains of unlike het genotype triggers a complex incompatibility reaction that leads to the death of the fusion cell. Herein, we analyze the transcriptional changes during the incompatibility reaction in Podospora anserina. The incompatibility response was found to be associated with a massive transcriptional reprogramming: 2231 genes were up-regulated by a factor 2 or more during incompatibility. In turn, 2441 genes were down-regulated. HET, NACHT, and HeLo domains previously found to be involved in the control of heterokaryon incompatibility were enriched in the up-regulated gene set. In addition, incompatibility was characterized by an up-regulation of proteolytic and other hydrolytic activities, of secondary metabolism clusters and toxins and effector-like proteins. The up-regulated set was found to be enriched for proteins lacking orthologs in other species and chromosomal distribution of the up-regulated genes was uneven with up-regulated genes residing preferentially in genomic islands and on chromosomes IV and V. There was a significant overlap between regulated genes during incompatibility in P. anserina and Neurospora crassa, indicating similarities in the incompatibility responses in these two species. Globally, this study illustrates that the expression changes occurring during cell fusion incompatibility in P. anserina are in several aspects reminiscent of those described in host-pathogen or symbiotic interactions in other fungal species. PMID:23589521

Bidard, Frédérique; Clavé, Corinne; Saupe, Sven J.

2013-01-01

6

A Network of HMG-box Transcription Factors Regulates Sexual Cycle in the Fungus Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

High-mobility group (HMG) B proteins are eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins characterized by the HMG-box functional motif. These transcription factors play a pivotal role in global genomic functions and in the control of genes involved in specific developmental or metabolic pathways. The filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina contains 12 HMG-box genes. Of these, four have been previously characterized; three are mating-type genes that control fertilization and development of the fruit-body, whereas the last one encodes a factor involved in mitochondrial DNA stability. Systematic deletion analysis of the eight remaining uncharacterized HMG-box genes indicated that none were essential for viability, but that seven were involved in the sexual cycle. Two HMG-box genes display striking features. PaHMG5, an ortholog of SpSte11 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is a pivotal activator of mating-type genes in P. anserina, whereas PaHMG9 is a repressor of several phenomena specific to the stationary phase, most notably hyphal anastomoses. Transcriptional analyses of HMG-box genes in HMG-box deletion strains indicated that PaHMG5 is at the hub of a network of several HMG-box factors that regulate mating-type genes and mating-type target genes. Genetic analyses revealed that this network also controls fertility genes that are not regulated by mating-type transcription factors. This study points to the critical role of HMG-box members in sexual reproduction in fungi, as 11 out of 12 members were involved in the sexual cycle in P. anserina. PaHMG5 and SpSte11 are conserved transcriptional regulators of mating-type genes, although P. anserina and S. pombe diverged 550 million years ago. Two HMG-box genes, SOX9 and its upstream regulator SRY, also play an important role in sex determination in mammals. The P. anserina and S. pombe mating-type genes and their upstream regulatory factor form a module of HMG-box genes analogous to the SRY/SOX9 module, revealing a commonality of sex regulation in animals and fungi. PMID:23935511

Ait Benkhali, Jinane; Coppin, Evelyne; Brun, Sylvain; Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Martin, Tom; Dixelius, Christina; Lazar, Noureddine; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Debuchy, Robert

2013-01-01

7

Functions and regulation of the Nox family in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina: a new role in cellulose degradation.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidases are enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species. Studies in mammals, plants and fungi have shown that they play important roles in differentiation, defence, host/pathogen interaction and mutualistic symbiosis. In this paper, we have identified a Podospora anserina mutant strain impaired for processes controlled by PaNox1 and PaNox2, the two Nox isoforms characterized in this model ascomycete. We show that the gene mutated is PaNoxR, the homologue of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit p67(phox), conserved in mammals and fungi, and that PaNoxR regulates both PaNox1 and PaNox2. Genome sequence analysis of P. anserina reveals that this fungus posses a third Nox isoform, PaNox3, related to human Nox5/Duox and plant Rboh. We have generated a knock-out mutant of PaNox3 and report that PaNox3 plays a minor role in P. anserina, if any. We show that PaNox1 and PaNox2 play antagonist roles in cellulose degradation. Finally, we report for the first time that a saprobic fungus, P. anserina, develops special cell structures dedicated to breach and to exploit a solid cellulosic substrate, cellophane. Importantly, as for similar structures present in some plant pathogens, their proper differentiation requires PaNox1, PaNox2, PaNoxR and the tetraspanin PaPls1. PMID:19775249

Brun, Sylvain; Malagnac, Fabienne; Bidard, Frédérique; Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

2009-10-01

8

The mitochondrial plasmid pAL2-1 reduces calorie restriction mediated life span extension in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calorie restriction is the only life span extending regimen known that applies to all aging organisms. Although most fungi do not appear to senesce, all natural isolates of the modular filamentous fungus Podospora anserina have a limited life span. In this paper, we show that calorie restriction extends life span also in Podospora anserina. The response to glucose limitation varies

Marc F. P. M Maas; Hugo J. de Boer; Alfons J. M Debets; Rolf F Hoekstra

2004-01-01

9

Proteomic analysis of mitochondria from senescent Podospora anserina casts new light on ROS dependent aging mechanisms.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial free radical theory of aging (MFRTA) states that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated at the respiratory electron transport chain are active in causing age-related damage of biomolecules like lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. Accumulation of this kind of damage results in functional impairments, aging and death of biological systems. Here we report data of an analysis to monitor the age-related quantitative protein composition of the mitochondria of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina. The impact of senescence on mitochondrial protein composition was analyzed by LC-MS. In an untargeted proteomic approach, we identified 795 proteins in samples from juvenile and senescent wild-type cultures and obtained quantitative information for 226 of these proteins by spectral counting. Despite the broad coverage of the proteome, no substantial changes in known age-related pathways could be observed. For a more detailed analysis, a targeted proteome analysis was applied focusing on 15 proteins from respiratory, ROS-scavenging and quality control pathways. Analyzing six distinct age-stages from juvenile to senescent P. anserina cultures revealed low, but statistically significant changes for the mitochondrial respiratory complexes. A P. anserina PaSod3 over-expression mutant with a phenotype of mitochondrial ROS over-production was used for biological evaluation of changes observed during aging. LC-MS analysis of the mutant revealed severe changes to the mitochondrial proteome--substantially larger than observed during senescence. Interestingly the amount of ATP synthase subunit g, involved in cristae formation is significantly decreased in the mutant implicating ROS-induced impairments in ATP synthase dimer and cristae formation. The difference between protein-profiles of aging wild type and ROS stressed mutant suggests that oxidative stress within the mitochondria is not the dominating mechanism for the aging process in P. anserina. Collectively, while our data do not exclude an effect of ROS on specific proteins and in signaling and control of pathways which are governing aging of P. anserina, it contradicts increasing ROS as a cause of a gross general and non-selective accumulation of damaged proteins during senescence. Instead, ROS may be effective by controlling specific regulators of mitochondrial function. PMID:24556281

Plohnke, Nicole; Hamann, Andrea; Poetsch, Ansgar; Osiewacz, Heinz D; Rögner, Matthias; Rexroth, Sascha

2014-08-01

10

Structural and Biochemical Analyses of Glycoside Hydrolase Families 5 and 26 ?-(1,4)-Mannanases from Podospora anserina Reveal Differences upon Manno-oligosaccharide Catalysis*  

PubMed Central

The microbial deconstruction of the plant cell wall is a key biological process that is of increasing importance with the development of a sustainable biofuel industry. The glycoside hydrolase families GH5 (PaMan5A) and GH26 (PaMan26A) endo-?-1,4-mannanases from the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina contribute to the enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, P. anserina mannanases were further subjected to detailed comparative analysis of their substrate specificities, active site organization, and transglycosylation capacity. Although PaMan5A displays a classical mode of action, PaMan26A revealed an atypical hydrolysis pattern with the release of mannotetraose and mannose from mannopentaose resulting from a predominant binding mode involving the ?4 subsite. The crystal structures of PaMan5A and PaMan26A were solved at 1.4 and 2.85 ? resolution, respectively. Analysis of the PaMan26A structure supported strong interaction with substrate at the ?4 subsite mediated by two aromatic residues Trp-244 and Trp-245. The PaMan26A structure appended to its family 35 carbohydrate binding module revealed a short and proline-rich rigid linker that anchored together the catalytic and the binding modules. PMID:23558681

Couturier, Marie; Roussel, Alain; Rosengren, Anna; Leone, Philippe; Stålbrand, Henrik; Berrin, Jean-Guy

2013-01-01

11

Identification of a Hypothetical Protein from Podospora anserina as a Nitroalkane Oxidase  

SciTech Connect

The flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) from Fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Structurally, the enzyme is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. To date no enzymes other than that from F. oxysporum have been annotated as NAOs. To identify additional potential NAOs, the available database was searched for enzymes in which the active site residues Asp402, Arg409, and Ser276 were conserved. Of the several fungal enzymes identified in this fashion, PODANSg2158 from Podospora anserina was selected for expression and characterization. The recombinant enzyme is a flavoprotein with activity on nitroalkanes comparable to the F. oxysporum NAO, although the substrate specificity is somewhat different. Asp399, Arg406, and Ser273 in PODANSg2158 correspond to the active site triad in F. oxysporum NAO. The k{sub cat}/K{sub M}-pH profile with nitroethane shows a pK{sub a} of 5.9 that is assigned to Asp399 as the active site base. Mutation of Asp399 to asparagine decreases the k{sub cat}/K{sub M} value for nitroethane over 2 orders of magnitude. The R406K and S373A mutations decrease this kinetic parameter by 64- and 3-fold, respectively. The structure of PODANSg2158 has been determined at a resolution of 2.0 {angstrom}, confirming its identification as an NAO.

Tormos, Jose R.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Daubner, S. Colette; Hart, P. John; Fitzpatrick, Paul F. (Texas-HSC); (St. Mary)

2010-08-23

12

Carotenoids and carotenogenic genes in Podospora anserina: engineering of the carotenoid composition extends the life span of the mycelium.  

PubMed

Carotenoids have been identified in the fungus Podospora anserina and a parallel pathway to neurosporene and beta-carotene was established. Three genes for the beta-carotene branch have been cloned and their function elucidated. They correspond to the al-1, al-2 and al-3 genes from Neurospora crassa. They were individually and in combinations over-expressed in P. anserina in order to modify the carotenoid composition qualitatively and quantitatively. In the resulting transformants, carotenoid synthesis was up to eightfold increased and several intermediates of the pathway together with special cyclic carotenoids, beta-zeacarotene and 7,8-dihydro-beta-carotene, accumulated. All transformants with an over-expressed al-2 gene (encoding a phytoene synthase and a lycopene cyclase) displayed up to 31% prolonged life span. PMID:19277665

Strobel, Ingmar; Breitenbach, Jürgen; Scheckhuber, Christian Q; Osiewacz, Heinz D; Sandmann, Gerhard

2009-04-01

13

Characterization of the genomic organization of the region bordering the centromere of chromosome V of Podospora anserina by direct sequencing.  

PubMed

A Podospora anserina BAC library of 4800 clones has been constructed in the vector pBHYG allowing direct selection in fungi. Screening of the BAC collection for centromeric sequences of chromosome V allowed the recovery of clones localized on either sides of the centromere, but no BAC clone was found to contain the centromere. Seven BAC clones containing 322,195 and 156,244bp from either sides of the centromeric region were sequenced and annotated. One 5S rRNA gene, 5 tRNA genes, and 163 putative coding sequences (CDS) were identified. Among these, only six CDS seem specific to P. anserina. The gene density in the centromeric region is approximately one gene every 2.8kb. Extrapolation of this gene density to the whole genome of P. anserina suggests that the genome contains about 11,000 genes. Synteny analyses between P. anserina and Neurospora crassa show that co-linearity extends at the most to a few genes, suggesting rapid genome rearrangements between these two species. PMID:12892638

Silar, Philippe; Barreau, Christian; Debuchy, Robert; Kicka, Sébastien; Turcq, Béatrice; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Sellem, Carole H; Billault, Alain; Cattolico, Laurence; Duprat, Simone; Weissenbach, Jean

2003-08-01

14

Incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity of a growth defect as a consequence of knocking out two K(+) transporters in the euascomycete fungus Podospora anserina.  

PubMed Central

We describe an example of incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, two genetic properties classically associated with mutations in more complex organisms, such as green plants and animals. We show that the knockouts of two TRK-related K(+) transporters of this ascomycete present variability in their phenotype that cannot be attributed to fluctuations of the genetic background or the environment. Thalli of the knockout strains derived from independent monokaryotic ascospores or from a single monokaryotic ascospore and cultivated under standard growth conditions may or may not present impaired growth. When impaired, thalli exhibit a range of phenotypes. Environmental conditions control expressivity to a large extent and penetrance to a low extent. Restoration of functional potassium transport by heterologous expression of K(+) transporters from Neurospora crassa abolishes or strongly diminishes the growth impairment. These data show that incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity can be an intrinsic property of a single Mendelian loss-of-function mutation. They also show that such variability in the expression of a mutant phenotype can be promoted by a phenomenon not obviously related to the well-known chromatin structure modifications, i.e., potassium transport. They provide a framework to understand human channelopathies with similar properties. PMID:15020412

Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

2004-01-01

15

Does autophagy mediate age-dependent effect of dietary restriction responses in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina?  

PubMed

Autophagy is a well-conserved catabolic process, involving the degradation of a cell's own components through the lysosomal/vacuolar machinery. Autophagy is typically induced by nutrient starvation and has a role in nutrient recycling, cellular differentiation, degradation and programmed cell death. Another common response in eukaryotes is the extension of lifespan through dietary restriction (DR). We studied a link between DR and autophagy in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, a multicellular model organism for ageing studies and mitochondrial deterioration. While both carbon and nitrogen restriction extends lifespan in P. anserina, the size of the effect varied with the amount and type of restricted nutrient. Natural genetic variation for the DR response exists. Whereas a switch to carbon restriction up to halfway through the lifetime resulted in extreme lifespan extension for wild-type P. anserina, all autophagy-deficient strains had a shorter time window in which ageing could be delayed by DR. Under nitrogen limitation, only PaAtg1 and PaAtg8 mediate the effect of lifespan extension; the other autophagy-deficient mutants PaPspA and PaUth1 had a similar response as wild-type. Our results thus show that the ageing process impinges on the DR response and that this at least in part involves the genetic regulation of autophagy. PMID:24864315

van Diepeningen, Anne D; Engelmoer, Daniël J P; Sellem, Carole H; Huberts, Daphne H E W; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Zwaan, Bas J; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Debets, Alfons J M

2014-07-01

16

Altering a gene involved in nuclear distribution increases the repeat-induced point mutation process in the fungus Podospora anserina.  

PubMed Central

Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) is a homology-dependent gene-silencing mechanism that introduces C:G-to-T:A transitions in duplicated DNA segments. Cis-duplicated sequences can also be affected by another mechanism called premeiotic recombination (PR). Both are active over the sexual cycle of some filamentous fungi, e.g., Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina. During the sexual cycle, several developmental steps require precise nuclear movement and positioning, but connections between RIP, PR, and nuclear distributions have not yet been established. Previous work has led to the isolation of ami1, the P. anserina ortholog of the Aspergillus nidulans apsA gene, which is required for nuclear positioning. We show here that ami1 is involved in nuclear distribution during the sexual cycle and that alteration of ami1 delays the fruiting-body development. We also demonstrate that ami1 alteration affects loss of transgene functions during the sexual cycle. Genetically linked multiple copies of transgenes are affected by RIP and PR much more frequently in an ami1 mutant cross than in a wild-type cross. Our results suggest that the developmental slowdown of the ami1 mutant during the period of RIP and PR increases time exposure to the duplication detection system and thus increases the frequency of RIP and PR. PMID:15166143

Bouhouche, Khaled; Zickler, Denise; Debuchy, Robert; Arnaise, Sylvie

2004-01-01

17

Biological Roles of the Podospora anserina Mitochondrial Lon Protease and the Importance of Its N-Domain  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria have their own ATP-dependent proteases that maintain the functional state of the organelle. All multicellular eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi, possess the same set of mitochondrial proteases, unlike in unicellular yeasts, where ClpXP, one of the two matricial proteases, is absent. Despite the presence of ClpXP in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, deletion of the gene encoding the other matricial protease, PaLon1, leads to lethality at high and low temperatures, indicating that PaLON1 plays a main role in protein quality control. Under normal physiological conditions, the PaLon1 deletion is viable but decreases life span. PaLon1 deletion also leads to defects in two steps during development, ascospore germination and sexual reproduction, which suggests that PaLON1 ensures important regulatory functions during fungal development. Mitochondrial Lon proteases are composed of a central ATPase domain flanked by a large non-catalytic N-domain and a C-terminal protease domain. We found that three mutations in the N-domain of PaLON1 affected fungal life cycle, PaLON1 protein expression and mitochondrial proteolytic activity, which reveals the functional importance of the N-domain of the mitochondrial Lon protease. All PaLon1 mutations affected the C-terminal part of the N-domain. Considering that the C-terminal part is predicted to have an ? helical arrangement in which the number, length and position of the helices are conserved with the solved structure of its bacterial homologs, we propose that this all-helical structure participates in Lon substrate interaction. PMID:22693589

Adam, Céline; Picard, Marguerite; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Sellem, Carole H.; Denmat, Sylvie Hermann-Le; Contamine, Véronique

2012-01-01

18

Overexpression of Pa_1_10620 encoding a mitochondrial Podospora anserina protein with homology to superoxide dismutases and ribosomal proteins leads to lifespan extension.  

PubMed

In biological systems, reactive oxygen species (ROS) represent 'double edged swords': as signaling molecules they are essential for proper development, as reactive agents they cause molecular damage and adverse effects like degeneration and aging. A well-coordinated control of ROS is therefore of key importance. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are enzymes active in the detoxification of superoxide. The number of isoforms of these proteins varies among species. Here we report the characterization of the putative protein encoded by Pa_1_10620 that has been previously annotated to code for a mitochondrial ribosomal protein but shares also sequence domains with SODs. We report that the gene is transcribed in P. anserina cultures of all ages and that the encoded protein localizes to mitochondria. In strains overexpressing Pa_1_10620 in a genetic background in which PaSod3, the mitochondrial MnSOD of P. anserina, is deleted, no SOD activity could be identified in isolated mitochondria. However, overexpression of the gene leads to lifespan extension suggesting a pro-survival function of the protein in P. anserina. PMID:25151510

Grimm, Carolin; Böhl, Lena; Osiewacz, Heinz D

2015-02-01

19

Occurrence of a major protein associated with fruiting body development in Neurospora and related Ascomycetes.  

PubMed Central

Electrophoretic and immunological analysis of fruiting body (perithecial) extracts demonstrates the occurrence of a major phase-specific perithecial protein in all Neurospora species and in the closely related Gelasinospora cerealis and Sordariafimicola. The perithecial proteins from these different species fall into a number of groups with different electrophoretic mobilities. They appear to be immunologically closely related but not identical to one another even within the same genus, with only partial identity exhibited between the heterothallic and pseudohomothallic Neurospora on the one hand and the homothallic Neurospora on the other hand. In immunological analysis of fruiting body extracts of the other Ascomycetes, Podospora anserina, Cochliobolus maydis, and Aspergillus nidulans, and of ascus extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, no crossreaction with the Neurospora perithecial protein was found. Images PMID:410027

Nasrallah, J B; Srb, A M

1977-01-01

20

Pyruvate decarboxylase filaments are associated with the cortical cytoskeleton of asci and spores over the sexual cycle of filamentous ascomycetes.  

PubMed

We show that pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) 8- to 10-nm-diameter filaments, first described in vegetative cells of Neurospora crassa, are ubiquitously present in filamentous fungi. The cellular arrangement of these structures was examined over the entire sexual cycle of the ascomycetes N. crassa, N. tetraesperma, Podospora anserina, and Sordaria macrospora. PDC-filaments were found associated with the cortical microtubule array of asci and ascospores and absent from the vicinity of spindles and spindle pole bodies. Nocodazole-induced depolymerization of the cortical microtubules results in the loss of PDC-filaments. Moreover, a S. macrospora mutant defective in cortical MT distribution shows abnormal PDC organization. Neurospora asci generated on various metabolic conditions, which modify the presence and relative abundance of PDC-filaments in vegetative cells, have identical patterns of subcellular distribution of these structures. A N. crassa mutant (snowflake) that accumulates giant bundles of PDC-filaments during vegetative growth, shows normal distribution of the filaments during ascogenesis. Thus, the regulation conditioning the presence and supramolecular assembly of PDC-filaments in Neurospora differs between vegetative and sexual cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PDC in filamentous fungi may perform two functions, intervening as an enzyme in vegetative metabolism and as a structural protein associated with the cytoskeleton during sexual development. PMID:10072321

Thompson-Coffe, C; Borioli, G; Zickler, D; Rosa, A L

1999-02-01

21

A Genome-Wide Longitudinal Transcriptome Analysis of the Aging Model Podospora anserine  

PubMed Central

Aging of biological systems is controlled by various processes which have a potential impact on gene expression. Here we report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina. Total RNA of three individuals of defined age were pooled and analyzed by SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression). A bioinformatics analysis identified different molecular pathways to be affected during aging. While the abundance of transcripts linked to ribosomes and to the proteasome quality control system were found to decrease during aging, those associated with autophagy increase, suggesting that autophagy may act as a compensatory quality control pathway. Transcript profiles associated with the energy metabolism including mitochondrial functions were identified to fluctuate during aging. Comparison of wild-type transcripts, which are continuously down-regulated during aging, with those down-regulated in the long-lived, copper-uptake mutant grisea, validated the relevance of age-related changes in cellular copper metabolism. Overall, we (i) present a unique age-related data set of a longitudinal study of the experimental aging model P. anserina which represents a reference resource for future investigations in a variety of organisms, (ii) suggest autophagy to be a key quality control pathway that becomes active once other pathways fail, and (iii) present testable predictions for subsequent experimental investigations. PMID:24376646

Philipp, Oliver; Hamann, Andrea; Servos, Jörg; Werner, Alexandra; Koch, Ina; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

2013-01-01

22

Prions in Saccharomyces and Podospora spp.: Protein-Based Inheritance  

PubMed Central

Genetic evidence showed two non-Mendelian genetic elements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, called [URE3] and [PSI], to be prions of Ure2p and Sup35p, respectively. [URE3] makes cells derepressed for nitrogen catabolism, while [PSI] elevates the efficiency of weak suppressor tRNAs. The same approach led to identification of the non-Mendelian element [Het-s] of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, as a prion of the het-s protein. The prion form of the het-s protein is required for heterokaryon incompatibility, a normal fungal function, suggesting that other normal cellular functions may be controlled by prions. [URE3] and [PSI] involve a self-propagating aggregation of Ure2p and Sup35p, respectively. In vitro, Ure2p and Sup35p form amyloid, a filamentous protein structure, high in ?-sheet with a characteristic green birefringent staining by the dye Congo Red. Amyloid deposits are a cardinal feature of Alzheimer’s disease, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and many other diseases. The prion domain of Ure2p consists of Asn-rich residues 1 to 80, but two nonoverlapping fragments of the molecule can, when overproduced, induce the de nova appearance of [URE3]. The prion domain of Sup35 consists of residues 1 to 114, also rich in Asn and Gln residues. While runs of Asn and Gln are important for [URE3] and [PSI], no such structures are found in PrP or the Het-s protein. Either elevated or depressed levels of the chaperone Hsp104 interfere with propagation of [PSI]. Both [URE3] and [PSI] are cured by growth of cells in millimolar guanidine HCl. [URE3] is also cured by overexpression of fragments of Ure2p or fusion proteins including parts of Ure2p. PMID:10585968

Wickner, Reed B.; Taylor, Kimberly L.; Edskes, Herman K.; Maddelein, Marie-Lise; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Roberts, B. Tibor

1999-01-01

23

Rab-GDI Complex Dissociation Factor Expressed through Translational Frameshifting in Filamentous Ascomycetes  

PubMed Central

In the model fungus Podospora anserina, the PaYIP3 gene encoding the orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YIP3 Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expresses two polypeptides, one of which, the long form, is produced through a programmed translation frameshift. Inactivation of PaYIP3 results in slightly delayed growth associated with modification in repartition of fruiting body on the thallus, along with reduced ascospore production on wood. Long and short forms of PaYIP3 are expressed in the mycelium, while only the short form appears expressed in the maturing fruiting body (perithecium). The frameshift has been conserved over the evolution of the Pezizomycotina, lasting for over 400 million years, suggesting that it has an important role in the wild. PMID:24069231

Prigent, Magali; Rousset, Jean-Pierre; Namy, Olivier; Silar, Philippe

2013-01-01

24

A general framework for optimization of probes for gene expression microarray and its application to the fungus Podospora anserina  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The development of new microarray technologies makes custom long oligonucleotide arrays affordable for many experimental applications, notably gene expression analyses. Reliable results depend on probe design quality and selection. Probe design strategy should cope with the limited accuracy of de novo gene prediction programs, and annotation up-dating. We present a novel in silico procedure which addresses these issues and

Frédérique Bidard; Sandrine Imbeaud; Nancie Reymond; Olivier Lespinet; Philippe Silar; Corinne Clavé; Hervé Delacroix; Véronique Berteaux-Lecellier; Robert Debuchy

2010-01-01

25

Identification of six loci in which mutations partially restore peroxisome biogenesis and/or alleviate the metabolic defect of pex2 mutants in podospora.  

PubMed Central

Peroxins (PEX) are proteins required for peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations in PEX genes cause lethal diseases in humans, metabolic defects in yeasts, and developmental disfunctions in plants and filamentous fungi. Here we describe the first large-scale screening for suppressors of a pex mutation. In Podospora anserina, pex2 mutants exhibit a metabolic defect [inability to grow on medium containing oleic acid (OA medium) as sole carbon source] and a developmental defect (inability to differentiate asci in homozygous crosses). Sixty-three mutations able to restore growth of pex2 mutants on OA medium have been analyzed. They fall in six loci (suo1 to suo6) and act as dominant, allele-nonspecific suppressors. Most suo mutations have pleiotropic effects in a pex2(+) background: formation of unripe ascospores (all loci except suo5 and suo6), impaired growth on OA medium (all loci except suo4 and suo6), or sexual defects (suo4). Using immunofluorescence and GFP staining, we show that peroxisome biogenesis is partially restored along with a low level of ascus differentiation in pex2 mutant strains carrying either the suo5 or the suo6 mutations. The data are discussed with respect to beta-oxidation of fatty acids, peroxisome biogenesis, and cell differentiation. PMID:12136013

Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Zickler, Denise; Panvier-Adoutte, Arlette; Picard, Marguerite

2002-01-01

26

Interactive effects of pollination and heavy metals on resource allocation in Potentilla anserina L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors studied resource allocation between sexual reproduction and clonal propagation in a perennial stoloniferous clonal plant, Potentilla anserina, an obligate outcrosser. They manipulated reproductive effort of Potentilla anserina either by hand-pollinating all flowers or by preventing pollination. To test the effect of resource-limiting conditions on resource allocation and reproductive output, the authors used a control and two levels of

Kari Saikkonen; Sari Koivunen; Timo Vuorisalo; Pia Mutikainen

1998-01-01

27

Integration of mitochondrial gene sequences within the nuclear genome during senescence in a fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular senescence in the ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is associated with the appearance of an altered mitochondrial genome. Discrete mitochondrial DNA sequences are excised and amplified and isolated as multimerically arranged, head-to-tail repetitions1-4. We have referred to the most frequently observed excision\\/amplification product as alpha event senDNA5,6. It is a 2.6-kilobase pair (kbp) monomeric unit (see refs 1, 3, 7)

Richard M. Wright; Donald J. Cummings

1983-01-01

28

Introduction The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph  

E-print Network

of different carbon sources on cellulase production by Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) strains Mehdi; Published September 30, 2011 Abstract: The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina, an industrial (hemi)cellulase producer, can efficiently degrade plant polysaccharides. At present, the biology underlying cellulase

Qin, Wensheng

29

Podospora Lautarea sp. nov. from Southern Alps (France): description and physiological properties.  

PubMed

A taxonomic description of Podospora Lautarea sp. nov. is provided. This species is characterized by a reddish brown peridium, and by its large, asymmetric ascospores, small, hyaline, unique primary appendage, absence of secondary appendage and cylindrical asci. Due to the size of its appendage, this species may be related to Podospora minicaudaFaureal et Locquin-Linard. Asci and ascospores are close to those of P. fimbriata (Bayer) Cain, but the dimensions and ornamentation of perithecia are quite different. To summarize, this species belongs to the small group of Podospora exhibiting only one appendage (such as P. minicauda, P. carpinicola Mouchacca or P. horridula (Sacc.) Francis and Sparrow) but can not be assimilated to one of the described species in this group. The main cultural characteristics and physiological properties of this species are described. PMID:7710284

Guiraud, P; Sage, L; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R

1994-01-01

30

Species Diversity of Hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel  

PubMed Central

We conducted a species diversity study of the hypogeous Ascomycetes of Israel. The hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel include members of the families Pyronemataceae, Pezizaceae, and Tuberaceae, which are represented by seven species: Hydnocystis piligera, Terfezia arenaria, T. claveryi, T. oligosperma, Tirmania africana, Tuber asa, and T. nitidum; only T. asa is new to Israeli mycobiota. Synonymy, locations, collection data, general distribution, distribution in Israel, descriptions, a key to identification, illustrations, and taxonomic remarks are provided. PMID:23956647

Wasser, Solomon P.

2010-01-01

31

Species diversity of hypogeous ascomycetes in Israel.  

PubMed

We conducted a species diversity study of the hypogeous Ascomycetes of Israel. The hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel include members of the families Pyronemataceae, Pezizaceae, and Tuberaceae, which are represented by seven species: Hydnocystis piligera, Terfezia arenaria, T. claveryi, T. oligosperma, Tirmania africana, Tuber asa, and T. nitidum; only T. asa is new to Israeli mycobiota. Synonymy, locations, collection data, general distribution, distribution in Israel, descriptions, a key to identification, illustrations, and taxonomic remarks are provided. PMID:23956647

Barseghyan, Gayane S; Wasser, Solomon P

2010-09-01

32

Hepatoprotective triterpenes from traditional Tibetan medicine Potentilla anserina.  

PubMed

A methanol extract from the tuberous roots of Potentilla anserina (Rosaceae) exhibited hepatoprotective effects against d-galactosamine (d-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injuries in mice. Six triterpene 28-O-monoglucopyranosyl esters, potentillanosides A-F, were isolated from the extract along with 32 known compounds, including 15 triterpenes. The structures of potentillanosides A-F were determined on the basis of spectroscopic properties and chemical evidence. Four ursane-type triterpene 28-O-monoglycosyl esters, potentillanoside A (IC50=46.7?M), 28-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl pomolic acid (IC50=9.5?M), rosamutin (IC50=35.5?M), and kaji-ichigoside F1 (IC50=14.1?M), inhibited d-GalN-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Among these four triterpenes, potentillanoside A, rosamutin, and kaji-ichigoside F1 exhibited in vivo hepatoprotective effects at doses of 50-100mg/kg, p.o. The mode of action was ascribable to the reduction in cytotoxicity caused by d-GalN. PMID:24697904

Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Imura, Katsuya; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Akagi, Yoshinori; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Takao; Muraoka, Osamu

2014-06-01

33

A NEW SPECIES OF ASCOMYCETES FROM MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During a survey of tropical Ascomycetes from Mexico, an interesting fungus was isolated from sandy beach soil collected from the Gulf of Mexico seacoast. The fungus produces a rudimentary ascoma with oblate, smooth-walled, unornamented, greenish ascospores and lacks a distinctive peridium surroundi...

34

Coenzyme Q systems in ascomycetous black yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

72 Strains belonging to 44 species of ascomycetous black yeasts were analyzed for their coenzyme Q systems. Prevalent were Q-10 and dihydrogenated Q-10 systems. Members of the Dothidealean suborder Dothideineae have Q-10 (H2), while those belonging to the suborder Pseudosphaeriineae mostly have Q-10. The anamorph genus Exophiala Carmichael and the teleomorph genus Capronia Sacc. seem to be heterogenous.

Y. Yamada; Kazue Sugihara; G. W. Eijk; H. J. Roeijmans; G. S. Hoog

1989-01-01

35

Heavy metals modify costs of reproduction and clonal growth in the stoloniferous herb Potentilla anserina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined costs of sexual reproduction and clonal propagation, and their consequences for resource allocation in the clonal stoloniferous herb, Potentilla anserina, a typical pioneer species in disturbed areas. We used heavy-metal treatment in soil to create unfavourable growing conditions, because costs of reproduction are more likely to be expressed when resources are limited. We also studied whether heavy metals

Sari Koivunen; Kari Saikkonen; Timo Vuorisalo; Pia Mutikainen

2004-01-01

36

Survivorship, reproduction and dynamics of ramets of Potentilla anserina on a Baltic seashore meadow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of a population of the stoloniferous Potentilla anserina was studied during four years. The mortality of established ramets followed a log-linear pattern superimposed on a seasonal fluctuation with an increased mortality during the period of vegetative spread. The major external mortality factors were unfavourable weather conditions such as drought and freezing. The turnover rate of the population was

Ove Eriksson

1986-01-01

37

Lignin biodegradation by the ascomycete Chrysonilia sitophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lignin biodegradation process has an important role in the carbon cycle of the biosphere. The study of this natural process\\u000a has developed mainly with the use of basidiomycetes in laboratory investigations. This has been a logical approach since most\\u000a of the microorganisms involved in lignocellulosic degradation belong to this class of fungi. However, other microorganisms\\u000a such as ascomycetes and

Jaime Rodríguez; André Ferraz; Raquel F. P. Nogueira; Irene Ferrer; Elisa Esposito; Nelson Durán

1997-01-01

38

Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi  

PubMed Central

Background Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and appears to be highly variable with some regulators widely conserved and others showing narrow distribution. Although genome-scale transcription factor surveys have been performed before, no global study into the prevalence of specific regulators across the fungal kingdom has been presented. Results In this study we have analysed the number of members for 37 regulator classes in 77 ascomycete and 31 basidiomycete fungal genomes and revealed significant differences between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. In addition, we determined the presence of 64 regulators characterised in ascomycetes across these 108 genomes. This demonstrated that overall the highest presence of orthologs is in the filamentous ascomycetes. A significant number of regulators lacked orthologs in the ascomycete yeasts and the basidiomycetes. Conversely, of seven basidiomycete regulators included in the study, only one had orthologs in ascomycetes. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant difference in the regulatory repertoire of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, at the level of both regulator class and individual regulator. This suggests that the current regulatory systems of these fungi have been mainly developed after the two phyla diverged. Most regulators detected in both phyla are involved in central functions of fungal physiology and therefore were likely already present in the ancestor of the two phyla. PMID:24650355

2014-01-01

39

Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Reade) Honey Kingdom: Fungi; Class: Ascomycetes  

E-print Network

1 Pathogen Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Reade) Honey Kingdom: Fungi; Class: Ascomycetes with blossom blight caused by other fungi, such as Phomopsis vaccinii or Botrytis cinerea. How- ever, the layer

40

Reproduction and clonal growth in Potentilla anserina L. (Rosaceae): the relation between growth form and dry weight allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allocation to clonal growth and reproduction were investigated in the stoloniferous plant Potentilla anserina L. The aim was to reveal how the dry weight allocation pattern is related to an aspect of grwoth form: apical meristem utilization. A density mediated change in size did not affect the relation between reproduction and clonal growth. This pattern resulted from a shift in

Ove Eriksson

1985-01-01

41

Interactive effects of pollination and heavy metals on resource allocation in Potentilla anserina L.  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied resource allocation between sexual reproduction and clonal propagation in a perennial stoloniferous clonal plant, Potentilla anserina, an obligate outcrosser. They manipulated reproductive effort of Potentilla anserina either by hand-pollinating all flowers or by preventing pollination. To test the effect of resource-limiting conditions on resource allocation and reproductive output, the authors used a control and two levels of heavy metals (copper and nickel) to limit plant growth. The experiment was conducted as a 2 {times} 3 factorial design to reveal possible interactions between reproductive manipulation and resource limitation. Heavy metals decreased the total biomass of the plants and number of flowers and ramets produced. Only 50% of the plants grown with the higher level of heavy metals produced flowers. Pollination treatment interacted significantly with the heavy-metal treatment. In the metal control and lower heavy-metal treatment, there were no significant differences in total vegetative biomass between the two pollination treatments. Costs of reproduction in terms of subsequent flowering in the later season appeared to be clear, because the number of flowers per whole plant was lower if the plants were hand-pollinated and because the proportion of flowering ramets decreased due to hand-pollination. However, flowering may also be partly hormonally controlled. In contrast, hand-pollinated plants exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals tended to have greater biomass of vegetative plant structures and higher number of flowers compared to nonpollinated plants.

Saikkonen, K. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology]|[Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Koivunen, S.; Vuorisalo, T. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Mutikainen, P. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology]|[ETH, Zuerich (Switzerland). Experimental Ecology

1998-07-01

42

Selenylation modification can enhance antioxidant activity of Potentilla anserina L. polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Potentilla anserina L. polysaccharide had been selenizingly modified by nitric acid-selenious acid method with microwave-assistant. The optimal reaction parameters on selenylation modification were time 116 min, temperature 63°C, microwave power 190 W and the actual value of selenium content was 2690.1±7.2 ?g/g. The scavenging ability of DPPH, OH and superoxide radicals, the metal chelating ability and reducing power in vitro were compared by antioxidant assay taking the non-modified PAP as a control. The results showed that selenylation modification could significantly enhance the antioxidant activity of SePAP and SePAP could be used as a potential antioxidant. PMID:23624168

Zhao, Baotang; Zhang, Ji; Yao, Jian; Song, Shen; Yin, Zhenxiong; Gao, Qingya

2013-07-01

43

Phenolic Profile of Potentilla anserina L. (Rosaceae) Herb of Siberian Origin and Development of a Rapid Method for Simultaneous Determination of Major Phenolics in P. anserina Pharmaceutical Products by Microcolumn RP-HPLC-UV.  

PubMed

A chemical study of Potentilla anserina L. herb (Rosaceae) of Siberian origin led to the isolation of 17 compounds. Three ellagitannins-potentillin, agrimonic acid A and B-are reported for the first time in this species. With a view to rapid quantitative analysis, a new method was developed for simultaneous determination of major phenolic compounds in P. anserina, including caffeic acid, myricetin-3-O-glucuronide, agrimoniin, ellagic acid, miquelianin, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside. The quantitative determination was conducted by microcolumn reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Separation was performed using a ProntoSIL-120-5-C18 AQ column (60 mm × 1 mm × 5 ?m) with six-step gradient elution of aqueous 0.2 ? LiClO4 in 0.006 M HClO4 and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The components were quantified by HPLC-UV at 270 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) within test ranges. The reproducibility was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and RSD values were less than 2.8%. The recoveries were between 97.15 and 102.38%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.21 to 1.94 ?g/mL, and limits of quantification ranged from 0.65 to 5.88 ?g/mL, respectively. Various solvents, extraction methods, temperatures, and times were evaluated to obtain the best extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of selected pharmaceutical products: 12 batches of P. anserina herb collected from three Siberian regions (Yakutia, Buryatia, Irkutsk), two commercial samples of P. anserina herb, and some preparations (liquid extract, tincture, decoction, infusion, and dry extract). PMID:25547725

Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I; Chirikova, Nadezhda K; Kuz'mina, Sargylana S

2014-01-01

44

ASCOMYCETOUS MITOSIS IN BASIDIOMYCETOUS YEASTS: ITS EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In budding cells of ascomycetous yeasts, mitosis occurs in the parent, while in basidiomyceteous yeasts it occurs in the bud. However, in the basidiomycete Agaricostilbum pulcherrimum mitosis occurs in the parent and parent-bud junction. To test whether A. pulcherrimum has a novel mitotic pattern, i...

45

Intronic GIY-YIG endonuclease gene in the mitochondrial genome of Podospora curvicolla: evidence for mobility  

PubMed Central

Endonuclease genes encoded in invasive introns are themselves supposed to be mobile elements which, during evolution, have colonized pre-existing introns converting them into invasive elements. This hypothesis is supported by numerous data concerning the LAGLI-DADG subclass of intronic endonucleases. Less is known about the GIY-YIG ORFs which constitute another family of endonucleases. In this paper we describe the presence of one optional GIY-YIG ORF in the second intron of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in the fungus Podospora curvicolla. We show that this GIY-YIG ORF is efficiently transferred from an ORF-containing intron to an ORF-less allele. We also show that the products of both the GIY-YIG ORF and the non-canonical LAGLI-DADG-GIY-YIG ORF, which is generated by its integration, have endonuclease activities which recognize and cut the insertion site of the optional sequence. This constitutes the first direct evidence for potential mobility of an intronic GIY-YIG endonuclease. We discuss the role that such a mobile sequence could have played during evolution. PMID:10684923

Saguez, Cyril; Lecellier, Gaël; Koll, France

2000-01-01

46

Two important “root” foods of the Northwest Coast Indians: Springbank clover (Trifolium wormskioldii) and Pacific silverweed (Potentilla anserina ssp. pacified)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two edible “root” species, springbank clover (Trifolium wormskioldii), and Pacific silverweed (Potentilla anserina ssp. pacifica), are described and their use as food by Northwest Coast Indian peoples documented. Descriptions of traditional harvesting,\\u000a cooking and serving, and storage techniques for these foods are provided, and their future potential as a food source along\\u000a the Northwest Coast is discussed.

Nancy J. Turner; Harriet V. Kuhnlein

1982-01-01

47

Catalytic Properties and Classification of Cellobiose Dehydrogenases from Ascomycetes? †  

PubMed Central

Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) genes are frequently discovered in various fungi by genome sequencing projects. The expression of CDH, an extracellular flavocytochrome, is well studied in white rot basidiomycetes and is attributed to extracellular lignocellulose degradation. CDH has also been reported for plant-pathogenic or saprotrophic ascomycetes, but the molecular and catalytic properties of these enzymes are currently less investigated. This study links various ascomycetous cdh genes with the molecular and catalytic characteristics of the mature proteins and suggests a differentiation of ascomycete class II CDHs into two subclasses, namely, class IIA and class IIB, in addition to the recently introduced class III of hypothetical ascomycete CDHs. This new classification is based on sequence and biochemical data obtained from sequenced fungal genomes and a screening of 40 ascomycetes. Thirteen strains showed CDH activity when they were grown on cellulose-based media, and Chaetomium atrobrunneum, Corynascus thermophilus, Dichomera saubinetii, Hypoxylon haematostroma, Neurospora crassa, and Stachybotrys bisbyi were selected for detailed studies. In these strains, one or two cdh-encoding genes were found that stem either from class IIA and contain a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module or from class IIB without such a module. In several strains, both genes were found. Regarding substrate specificity, class IIB CDHs show a less pronounced substrate specificity for cellobiose than class IIA enzymes. A pH-dependent pattern of the intramolecular electron transfer was also observed, and the CDHs were classified into three groups featuring acidic, intermediate, or alkaline pH optima. The pH optimum, however, does not correlate with the CDH subclasses and is most likely a species-dependent adaptation to different habitats. PMID:21216904

Harreither, Wolfgang; Sygmund, Christoph; Augustin, Manfred; Narciso, Melanie; Rabinovich, Mikhail L.; Gorton, Lo; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

2011-01-01

48

Phytochemical composition of Potentilla anserina L. analyzed by an integrative GC-MS and LC-MS metabolomics platform.  

PubMed

Potentilla anserina L. (Rosaceae) is known for its beneficial effects of prevention of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). For this reason P. anserina is processed into many food supplements and pharmaceutical preparations. Here we analyzed hydroalcoholic reference extracts and compared them with various extracts of different pharmacies using an integrative metabolomics platform comprising GC-MS and LC-MS analysis and software toolboxes for data alignment (MetMAX Beta 1.0) and multivariate statistical analysis (COVAIN 1.0). Multivariate statistics of the integrated GC-MS and LC-MS data showed strong differences between the different plant extract formulations. Different groups of compounds such as chlorogenic acid, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, acacetin 7-O-rutinoside, and genistein were reported for the first time in this species. The typical fragmentation pathway of the isoflavone genistein confirmed the identification of this active compound that was present with different abundances in all the extracts analyzed. As a result we have revealed that different extraction procedures from different vendors produce different chemical compositions, e.g. different genistein concentrations. Consequently, the treatment may have different effects. The integrative metabolomics platform provides the highest resolution of the phytochemical composition and a mean to define subtle differences in plant extract formulations. PMID:23678344

Mari, Angela; Lyon, David; Fragner, Lena; Montoro, Paola; Piacente, Sonia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Egelhofer, Volker; Weckwerth, Wolfram

2013-06-01

49

Relative incidence of ascomycetous yeasts in arctic coastal environments.  

PubMed

Previous studies of fungi in polar environments have revealed a prevalence of basidiomycetous yeasts in soil and in subglacial environments of polythermal glaciers. Ascomycetous yeasts have rarely been reported from extremely cold natural environments, even though they are known contaminants of frozen foods. Using media with low water activity, we have isolated various yeast species from the subglacial ice of four glaciers from the coastal Arctic environment of Kongsfjorden, Spitzbergen, including Debaryomyces hansenii and Pichia guillermondii, with counts reaching 10(4) CFU L(-1). Together with the basidiomycetes Cryptococcus liquefaciens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, these yeasts represent the stable core of the subglacial yeast communities. Other glacial ascomycetous species isolated included Candida parapsilosis and a putative new species that resembles Candida pseudorugosa. The archiascomycete Protomyces inouyei has seldom been detected anywhere in the world but was here recovered from ice in a glacier cave. The glacier meltwater contained only D. hansenii, whereas the seawater contained D. hansenii, Debaryomyces maramus, Pichia guilliermondii, what appears to represent a novel species resembling Candida galli and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Only P. guilliermondii was isolated from sea ice, while snow/ice in the fjord tidal zone included C. parapsilosis, D. hansenii, P. guilliermondii and Metschnikowia zobellii. All of these isolated strains were characterized as psychrotolerant and xero/halotolerant, with the exception of P. inouyei. PMID:21221569

Butinar, Lorena; Strmole, Tadeja; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

2011-05-01

50

Self/nonself recognition in Tuber melanosporum is not mediated by a heterokaryon incompatibility system.  

PubMed

Vegetative incompatibility is a widespread phenomenon in filamentous ascomycetes, which limits formation of viable heterokaryons. Whether this phenomenon plays a role in maintaining the homokaryotic state of the hyphae during the vegetative growth of Tuber spp. Gene expression, polymorphism analysis as well as targeted in vitro experiments allowed us to test whether a heterokaryon incompatibility (HI) system operates in Tuber melanosporum. HI is controlled by different genetic systems, often involving HET domain genes and their partners whose interaction can trigger a cell death reaction. Putative homologues to HI-related genes previously characterized in Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina were identified in the T. melanosporum genome. However, only two HET domain genes were found. In many other ascomycetes HET domains have been found within different genes including some members of the NWD (NACHT and WD-repeat associated domains) gene family of P. anserina. More than 50 NWD homologues were found in T. melanosporum but none of these contain a HET domain. All these T. melanosporum paralogs showed a conserved gene organization similar to the microexon genes only recently characterized in Schistosoma mansoni. Expression data of the annotated HI-like genes along with low allelic polymorphism suggest that they have cellular functions unrelated to HI. Moreover, morphological analyses did not provide evidence for HI reactions between pairs of genetically different T. melanosporum strains. Thus, the maintenance of the genetic integrity during the vegetative growth of this species likely depends on mechanisms that act before hyphal fusion. PMID:22289772

Iotti, Mirco; Rubini, Andrea; Tisserant, Emilie; Kholer, Annegret; Paolocci, Francesco; Zambonelli, Alessandra

2012-02-01

51

Common amino acid domain among endopolygalacturonases of ascomycete fungi.  

PubMed Central

The endopolygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) enzymes produced in vitro by three ascomycete fungi, Aspergillus niger, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum were studied by using thin-layer isoelectric focusing and activity stain overlay techniques. The polygalacturonases from A. niger and S. sclerotiorum consisted of numerous isoforms, whereas the endopolygalacturonase from C. lindemuthianum consisted of a single protein species. The most abundant endopolygalacturonase isoform produced by each of these organisms was purified and characterized. Biochemical parameters, including molecular weight, isoelectric point, kinetic parameters, temperature and pH optima, and thermal stability, were determined. Considerable differences in physical and chemical properties were demonstrated among these fungal polygalacturonases. Antibodies raised against individual proteins exhibited little cross-reaction, suggesting that these enzymes differ structurally as well as biochemically. In contrast, the analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the three proteins showed extensive homology, particularly in a region labeled domain 1 in which 84% of the amino acids were conserved. Images PMID:2403258

Keon, J P; Waksman, G

1990-01-01

52

Quantifying functional heterothallism in the pseudohomothallic ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma.  

PubMed

Neurospora tetrasperma is a pseudohomothallic filamentous ascomycete that has evolved from heterothallic ancestors. Throughout its life cycle, it is predominantly heterokaryotic for mating type, and thereby self-fertile. However, studies of N. tetrasperma have revealed the occasional production of self-sterile asexual and sexual spores of a single-mating type, indicating that it can be functionally heterothallic. Here, we report the extensive sampling and isolation of natural, heterokaryotic, strains of N. tetrasperma from the United Kingdom (UK): 99 strains were collected from Surrey, England, and four from Edinburgh, Scotland. We verified by phylogenetic analyses that these strains belong to N. tetrasperma. We isolated cultures from single germinated asexual spores (conidia) from 17 of these newly sampled UK strains from Surrey, and 16 previously sampled strains of N. tetrasperma from New Zealand (NZ). Our results show that the N. tetrasperma strains from the UK population produced a significantly greater proportion of self-sterile, homokaryotic conidia than the NZ population: the proportion of homokaryotic conidia was 42.6 % (133/312 spores) and 15.3 % (59/386) from the UK and the NZ populations, respectively. Although homokaryons recovered from several strains show a bias for one of the mating types, the total ratio of mat A to mat a mating type in homokaryons (UK: 72/61, NZ 28/31) did not deviate significantly from the expected 1:1 ratio for either of these populations. These results indicate that different populations exhibit differences in their life cycle characteristics, and that a higher degree of outcrossing might be expected from the UK population. This study points to the importance of studying multiple strains and populations when investigating life history traits of an organism with a complex life cycle, as previously undetected differences between populations may be revealed. PMID:22954339

Corcoran, Pádraic; Jacobson, David J; Bidartondo, Martin I; Hickey, Patrick C; Kerekes, Jennifer F; Taylor, John W; Johannesson, Hanna

2012-09-01

53

Development of Primer Sets Designed for Use with the PCR To Amplify Conserved Genes from Filamentous Ascomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed nine sets of oligonucleotide primers on the basis of the results of DNA hybridization of cloned genes fromNeurospora crassaandAspergillus nidulansto the genomes of selectfilamentous ascomycetes and deuteromycetes (withfilamentous ascomycete affiliations). Nine sets of primers were designed to amplify segments of DNA that span one or more introns in conserved genes. PCR DNA amplification with the nine primer sets

N. LOUISE GLASS; ANDGARY C. DONALDSON

1995-01-01

54

Exploring laccase-like multicopper oxidase genes from the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei: a functional, phylogenetic and evolutionary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The diversity and function of ligninolytic genes in soil-inhabiting ascomycetes has not yet been elucidated, despite their possible role in plant litter decay processes. Among ascomycetes, Trichoderma reesei is a model organism of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, used for its unique secretion ability especially for cellulase production. T. reesei has only been reported as a cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic organism

Anthony Levasseur; Markku Saloheimo; David Navarro; Martina Andberg; Pierre Pontarotti; Kristiina Kruus; Eric Record

2010-01-01

55

Soil Ecology of the Entomopathogenic Ascomycetes: A Critical Examination of What We (Think) We Know  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter provides an in-depth review of what is and is not known about the soil ecology of the entomopathogenic Ascomycetes, particularly the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi in soil is subject to a matrix of interlocking abiotic and bi...

56

Interactions of sterile-cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with asbestos fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming ascomycetes have not yet been used to investigate mycobiont–mineral substrate interactions under controlled conditions. In this study Candelariella vitellina, Xanthoparmelia tinctina and Lecanora rupicola mycobionts were isolated and inoculated with chrysotile fibres in the laboratory, in order to verify whether physical and chemical weathering processes, which were already described in the field, may be reproduced

Sergio Enrico FAVERO-LONGOa; Mariangela Girlanda; Rosmarie Honegger; Bice Fubini; Rosanna Piervittori

2007-01-01

57

Ascomycetous yeast communities of marine invertebrates in a Southeast Brazilian mangrove ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ascomycetous yeast communities associated with 3 bivalve mollusk, and 4 crab species were studied in the mangrove at Coroa Grande on Sepetiba Bay in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These were made up mostly of diverse but sparse and apparently allochtonous yeast populations. The striking exception was a prevalent population of the speciesKluyveromyces aestuarii, which predominated the yeast communities of

F. V. Araujo; C. A. G. Soares; A. N. Hagler; L. C. Mendonça-Hagler

1995-01-01

58

PCR PRIMERS FOR THE AMPLIFICATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL SMALL SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL DNA OF LICHEN-FORMING ASCOMYCETES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Four primers for the amplification of mitochondrial DNA of lichen-forming ascomycetes are presented. The primers match the conserved regions U2, U4, and U6, respectively, of mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Polymerase chain reaction using different combinations of the primers produced single amplification products from DNA of eight lichen-forming fungal species but did not amplify DNA of two

Stefan Zoller; Christoph Scheidegger; Christoph Sperisen

1999-01-01

59

Ascomycetous yeast communities of marine invertebrates in a southeast Brazilian mangrove ecosystem.  

PubMed

The ascomycetous yeast communities associated with 3 bivalve mollusk, and 4 crab species were studied in the mangrove at Coroa Grande on Sepetiba Bay in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These were made up mostly of diverse but sparse and apparently allochtonous yeast populations. The striking exception was a prevalent population of the species Kluyveromyces aestuarii, which predominated the yeast communities of 2 detritus feeding crabs, Sesarma rectum and Uca spp., and the shipworm Neoteredo reynei. However, K. aestuarii was absent from the omnivorous crabs Aratus pisonii and Goniopsis cruentata, and the clam Anomalocardia brasiliana, and was rare in the clam Tagelus plebeius from mostly submerged more sandy sediments. Pichia membranaefaciens, Candida valida-like, Candida krusei, Candida sorbosa, Candida colliculosa-like, Candida famata-like, Kloeckera spp., Candida guilliermondii, Candida albicans, Candida silvae, Geotrichum spp., Rhodotorula spp., Cryptococcus spp., and the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii were frequently isolated. The 322 ascomycetous yeast cultures representing 252 isolates from crabs and mollusks were classified as 40 species that fit standard descriptions, and 44 putative new species. The ascomycetous yeast communities of the mangrove ecosystem include many new biotypes that require better taxonomic definition. PMID:8546456

de Araujo, F V; Soares, C A; Hagler, A N; Mendonça-Hagler, L C

1995-08-01

60

Causes and consequences of variability in peptide mating pheromones of ascomycete fungi.  

PubMed

The reproductive genes of fungi, like those of many other organisms, are thought to diversify rapidly. This phenomenon could be associated with the formation of reproductive barriers and speciation. Ascomycetes produce two classes of mating type-specific peptide pheromones. These are required for recognition between the mating types of heterothallic species. Little is known regarding the diversity or the extent of species specificity in pheromone peptides among these fungi. We compared the putative protein-coding DNA sequences of the 2 pheromone classes from 70 species of Ascomycetes. The data set included previously described pheromones and putative pheromones identified from genomic sequences. In addition, pheromone genes from 12 Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex were amplified and sequenced. Pheromones were largely conserved among species in this complex and, therefore, cannot alone account for the reproductive barriers observed between these species. In contrast, pheromone peptides were highly diverse among many other Ascomycetes, with evidence for both positive diversifying selection and relaxed selective constraint. Repeats of the ?-factor-like pheromone, which occur in tandem arrays of variable copy number, were found to be conserved through purifying selection and not concerted evolution. This implies that sequence specificity may be important for pheromone reception and that interspecific differences may indeed be associated with functional divergence. Our findings also suggest that frequent duplication and loss causes the tandem repeats to experience "birth-and-death" evolution, which could in fact facilitate interspecific divergence of pheromone peptide sequences. PMID:21252281

Martin, Simon H; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J; Steenkamp, Emma T

2011-07-01

61

The Potential for pathogenicity was present in the ancestor of the Ascomycete subphylum Pezizomycotina  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies in Ascomycetes have shown that the function of gene families of which the size is considerably larger in extant pathogens than in non-pathogens could be related to pathogenicity traits. However, by only comparing gene inventories in extant species, no insights can be gained into the evolutionary process that gave rise to these larger family sizes in pathogens. Moreover, most studies which consider gene families in extant species only tend to explain observed differences in gene family sizes by gains rather than by losses, hereby largely underestimating the impact of gene loss during genome evolution. Results In our study we used a selection of recently published genomes of Ascomycetes to analyze how gene family gains, duplications and losses have affected the origin of pathogenic traits. By analyzing the evolutionary history of gene families we found that most gene families with an enlarged size in pathogens were present in an ancestor common to both pathogens and non-pathogens. The majority of these families were selectively maintained in pathogenic lineages, but disappeared in non-pathogens. Non-pathogen-specific losses largely outnumbered pathogen-specific losses. Conclusions We conclude that most of the proteins for pathogenicity were already present in the ancestor of the Ascomycete lineages we used in our study. Species that did not develop pathogenicity seemed to have reduced their genetic complexity compared to their ancestors. We further show that expansion of gained or already existing families in a species-specific way is important to fine-tune the specificities of the pathogenic host-fungus interaction. PMID:20964831

2010-01-01

62

Asexual Cephalosporin C Producer Acremonium chrysogenum Carries a Functional Mating Type Locus?  

PubMed Central

Acremonium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the pharmaceutically relevant ?-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C, is classified as asexual because no direct observation of mating or meiosis has yet been reported. To assess the potential of A. chrysogenum for sexual reproduction, we screened an expressed sequence tag library from A. chrysogenum for the expression of mating type (MAT) genes, which are the key regulators of sexual reproduction. We identified two putative mating type genes that are homologues of the ?-box domain gene, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, encoding an HPG domain protein defined by the presence of the three invariant amino acids histidine, proline, and glycine. In addition, cDNAs encoding a putative pheromone receptor and pheromone-processing enzymes, as well as components of a pheromone response pathway, were found. Moreover, the entire A. chrysogenum MAT1-1 (AcMAT1-1) gene and regions flanking the MAT region were obtained from a genomic cosmid library, and sequence analysis revealed that in addition to AcMAT1-1-1 and AcMAT1-1-2, the AcMAT1-1 locus comprises a third mating type gene, AcMAT1-1-3, encoding a high-mobility-group domain protein. The ?-box domain sequence of AcMAT1-1-1 was used to determine the phylogenetic relationships of A. chrysogenum to other ascomycetes. To determine the functionality of the AcMAT1-1 locus, the entire MAT locus was transferred into a MAT deletion strain of the heterothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina (the Pa?MAT strain). After fertilization with a P. anserina MAT1-2 (MAT+) strain, the corresponding transformants developed fruiting bodies with mature ascospores. Thus, the results of our functional analysis of the AcMAT1-1 locus provide strong evidence to hypothesize a sexual cycle in A. chrysogenum. PMID:18689517

Pöggeler, Stefanie; Hoff, Birgit; Kück, Ulrich

2008-01-01

63

A novel mode of chromosomal evolution peculiar to filamentous Ascomycete fungi  

PubMed Central

Background Gene loss, inversions, translocations, and other chromosomal rearrangements vary among species, resulting in different rates of structural genome evolution. Major chromosomal rearrangements are rare in most eukaryotes, giving large regions with the same genes in the same order and orientation across species. These regions of macrosynteny have been very useful for locating homologous genes in different species and to guide the assembly of genome sequences. Previous analyses in the fungi have indicated that macrosynteny is rare; instead, comparisons across species show no synteny or only microsyntenic regions encompassing usually five or fewer genes. To test the hypothesis that chromosomal evolution is different in the fungi compared to other eukaryotes, synteny was compared between species of the major fungal taxa. Results These analyses identified a novel form of evolution in which genes are conserved within homologous chromosomes, but with randomized orders and orientations. This mode of evolution is designated mesosynteny, to differentiate it from micro- and macrosynteny seen in other organisms. Mesosynteny is an alternative evolutionary pathway very different from macrosyntenic conservation. Surprisingly, mesosynteny was not found in all fungal groups. Instead, mesosynteny appears to be restricted to filamentous Ascomycetes and was most striking between species in the Dothideomycetes. Conclusions The existence of mesosynteny between relatively distantly related Ascomycetes could be explained by a high frequency of chromosomal inversions, but translocations must be extremely rare. The mechanism for this phenomenon is not known, but presumably involves generation of frequent inversions during meiosis. PMID:21605470

2011-01-01

64

Conservation and evolution of cis-regulatory systems in ascomycete fungi  

SciTech Connect

Relatively little is known about the mechanisms through which gene expression regulation evolves. To investigate this, we systematically explored the conservation of regulatory networks in fungi by examining the cis-regulatory elements that govern the expression of coregulated genes. We first identified groups of coregulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes enriched for genes with known upstream or downstream cis-regulatory sequences. Reasoning that many of these gene groups are coregulated in related species as well, we performed similar analyses on orthologs of coregulated S. cerevisiae genes in 13 other ascomycete species. We find that many species-specific gene groups are enriched for the same flanking regulatory sequences as those found in the orthologous gene groups from S. cerevisiae, indicating that those regulatory systems have been conserved in multiple ascomycete species. In addition to these clear cases of regulatory conservation, we find examples of cis-element evolution that suggest multiple modes of regulatory diversification, including alterations in transcription factor-binding specificity, incorporation of new gene targets into an existing regulatory system, and cooption of regulatory systems to control a different set of genes. We investigated one example in greater detail by measuring the in vitro activity of the S. cerevisiae transcription factor Rpn4p and its orthologs from Candida albicans and Neurospora crassa. Our results suggest that the DNA binding specificity of these proteins has coevolved with the sequences found upstream of the Rpn4p target genes and suggest that Rpn4p has a different function in N. crassa.

Gasch, Audrey P.; Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Fraser, Hunter B.; Berardini, Mark; Eisen, Michael B.

2004-03-15

65

Identification and phylogeny of ascomycetous yeasts from analysis of nuclear large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA partial sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 500 species of ascomycetous yeasts, including members of Candida and other anamorphic genera, were analyzed for extent of divergence in the variable D1\\/D2 domain of large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA. Divergence in this domain is generally sufficient to resolve individual species, resulting in the prediction that 55 currently recognized taxa are synonyms of earlier described species. Phylogenetic relationships among

Cletus P. Kurtzman; Christie J. Robnett

1998-01-01

66

A new trihydroxy fatty acid from the ascomycete, Chinese truffle Tuber indicum.  

PubMed

From the chloroform/methanol extract of the fruiting bodies of the ascomycete Chinese truffle Tuber indicum Cooke et Massee, a new trihydroxylated monounsaturated fatty acid (1) has been isolated. The structure of this new linoleic acid-derived metabolite was established as 9,10,11-trihydroxy-(12Z)-12-octadecenoic acid by means of spectroscopic and chemical methods. The fatty acid composition of the chloroform-soluble fraction of this fungus was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The content of the predominant unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids) is as high as 68%. The use of dimethyl disulfide adduct was effective in the determination of the position of the double bond, and the glycol oxidation fission reaction with sodium metaperiodate supported on silica gel was helpful in establishing the location of the trihydroxylic groups in the new fatty acid. PMID:11834089

Gao, J M; Wang, C Y; Zhang, A L; Liu, J K

2001-12-01

67

Freshwater ascomycetes: Alascospora evergladensis, a new genus and species from the Florida Everglades.  

PubMed

Alascospora evergladensis, a freshwater ascomycete collected from submerged dead petioles of Nymphaea odorata during a survey of aquatic fungi along a phosphorus gradient in the Florida Everglades, is described and illustrated as a new genus and species in the Pleosporales (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes). The new fungus is unique among genera in the Pleosporales based on a combination of morphological characters that include light brown, translucent, membranous, ostiolate ascomata with dark, amorphous material irregularly deposited on the peridium, especially around the ostiole; globose, fissitunicate, thick-walled asci; septate pseudoparaphyses; and 1-septate ascospores that are hyaline when young, and surrounded by a hyaline gelatinous sheath that is wing-shaped in outline on each side of the ascospore. The sheath is distinctive in that it first expands in water and is translucent, then condenses and darkens around older ascospores, giving them a dark brown, verruculose appearance. PMID:20120226

Raja, Huzefa A; Violi, Helen A; Shearer, Carol A

2010-01-01

68

The evolutionary history of Cytochrome P450 genes in four filamentous Ascomycetes  

PubMed Central

Background The Cytochrome P450 system is important in fungal evolution for adapting to novel ecological niches. To elucidate the evolutionary process of cytochrome P450 genes in fungi with different life styles, we studied the patterns of gene gains and losses in the genomes of four filamentous Ascomycetes, including two saprotrophs (Aspergillus nidulans (AN) and Neurospora crassa (NC)) and two plant pathogens (Fusarium graminearum (FG) and Magnaporthe grisea (MG)). Results A total of 376 P450 genes were assigned to 168 families according to standard nomenclature. On average, only 1 to 2 genes per family were in each genome. To resolve conflicting results between different clustering analyses and standard family designation, a higher order relationship was formulated. 376 genes were clustered into 115 clans. Subsequently a novel approach based on parsimony was developed to build the evolutionary models. Based on these analyses, a core of 30 distinct clans of P450s was defined. The core clans experienced contraction in all four fungal lineages while new clans expanded in all with exception of NC. MG experienced more genes and clans gains compared to the other fungi. Parsimonious analyses unanimously supported one species topology for the four fungi. Conclusion The four studied fungi exhibit unprecedented diversity in their P450omes in terms of coding sequence, intron-exon structures and genome locations, suggesting a complicated evolutionary history of P450s in filamentous Ascomycetes. Clan classification and a novel strategy were developed to study evolutionary history. Contraction of core clans and expansion of novel clans were identified. The exception was the NC lineage, which exhibited pure P450 gene loss. PMID:17324274

Deng, Jixin; Carbone, Ignazio; Dean, Ralph A

2007-01-01

69

Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra.  

PubMed

Arctic tundra regions have been responding to global warming with visible changes in plant community composition, including expansion of shrubs and declines in lichens and bryophytes. Even though it is well known that the majority of arctic plants are associated with their symbiotic fungi, how fungal community composition will be different with climate warming remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the effects of long-term (18 years) experimental warming on the community composition and taxonomic richness of soil ascomycetes in dry and moist tundra types. Using deep Ion Torrent sequencing, we quantified how OTU assemblage and richness of different orders of Ascomycota changed in response to summer warming. Experimental warming significantly altered ascomycete communities with stronger responses observed in the moist tundra compared with dry tundra. The proportion of several lichenized and moss-associated fungi decreased with warming, while the proportion of several plant and insect pathogens and saprotrophic species was higher in the warming treatment. The observed alterations in both taxonomic and ecological groups of ascomycetes are discussed in relation to previously reported warming-induced shifts in arctic plant communities, including decline in lichens and bryophytes and increase in coverage and biomass of shrubs. PMID:25522194

Semenova, Tatiana A; Morgado, Luis N; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

2015-01-01

70

Vesicular transport in Histoplasma capsulatum: an effective mechanism for trans-cell wall transfer of proteins and lipids in ascomycetes  

PubMed Central

Vesicular secretion of macromolecules has recently been described in the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans raising the question as to whether ascomycetes similarly utilize vesicles for transport. In the present study, we examine whether the clinically important ascomycete Histoplasma capsulatum produce vesicles and utilized these structures to secrete macromolecules. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show transcellular secretion of vesicles by yeast cells. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses of vesicles isolated from culture supernatants reveals a rich collection of macromolecules involved in diverse processes including metabolism, cell recycling, signaling, and virulence. The results demonstrate that H. capsulatum can utilize a trans-cell wall vesicular transport secretory mechanism to promote virulence. Additionally, TEM of supernatants collected from Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Sporothrix schenckii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae document that vesicles are similarly produced by additional ascomycetes. The vesicles from H. capsulatum react with immune serum from patients with histoplasmosis providing an association of the vesicular products with pathogenesis. The findings support the proposal that vesicular secretion is a general mechanism in fungi for the transport of macromolecules related to virulence and that this process could be a target for novel therapeutics. PMID:18419773

Albuquerque, Priscila Costa; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Almeida, Igor C.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

2008-01-01

71

Interactions of sterile-cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with asbestos fibres.  

PubMed

Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming ascomycetes have not yet been used to investigate mycobiont-mineral substrate interactions under controlled conditions. In this study Candelariella vitellina, Xanthoparmelia tinctina and Lecanora rupicola mycobionts were isolated and inoculated with chrysotile fibres in the laboratory, in order to verify whether physical and chemical weathering processes, which were already described in the field, may be reproduced in vitro. Tight adhesion of hyphae to chrysotile fibres was observed in all species. The adhering hyphae affected the chemical composition of asbestos fibres, with the selective depletion of magnesium being a prominent feature, as is the case in field conditions. Oxalic acid and pulvinic acid, mycobiont-derived metabolites of X. tinctina and C. vitellina, were involved in the weathering action. Time and environmental factors and the absence of biological synergisms strongly limited the chemical weathering in vitro compared with what was observed in the field. Nevertheless, the results show that in vitro incubation of sterile-cultured lichen-forming fungi with minerals is a practicable experimental system to investigate the weathering effects of different mycobionts and fungal compounds under controlled conditions. PMID:17512715

Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Girlanda, Mariangela; Honegger, Rosmarie; Fubini, Bice; Piervittori, Rosanna

2007-04-01

72

Conserved and essential transcription factors for cellulase gene expression in ascomycete fungi.  

PubMed

Rational engineering of filamentous fungi for improved cellulase production is hampered by our incomplete knowledge of transcriptional regulatory networks. We therefore used the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa to search for uncharacterized transcription factors associated with cellulose deconstruction. A screen of a N. crassa transcription factor deletion collection identified two uncharacterized zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors (clr-1 and clr-2) that were required for growth and enzymatic activity on cellulose, but were not required for growth or hemicellulase activity on xylan. Transcriptional profiling with next-generation sequencing methods refined our understanding of the N. crassa transcriptional response to cellulose and demonstrated that clr-1 and clr-2 were required for the bulk of that response, including induction of all major cellulase and some major hemicellulase genes. Functional CLR-1 was necessary for expression of clr-2 and efficient cellobiose utilization. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CLR-1 and CLR-2 are conserved in the genomes of most filamentous ascomycete fungi capable of degrading cellulose. In Aspergillus nidulans, a strain carrying a deletion of the clr-2 homolog (clrB) failed to induce cellulase gene expression and lacked cellulolytic activity on Avicel. Further manipulation of this control system in industrial production strains may significantly improve yields of cellulases for cellulosic biofuel production. PMID:22532664

Coradetti, Samuel T; Craig, James P; Xiong, Yi; Shock, Teresa; Tian, Chaoguang; Glass, N Louise

2012-05-01

73

Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants  

PubMed Central

Ant–fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant–fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build galleried structures on their myrmecophytic hosts in order to ambush prey. We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fungal haplotypes of an ascomycete species from the order Chaetothyriales that consistently grows on and has been isolated from the galleries. Both the ants' behaviour and an analysis of the genetic population structure of the ants and the fungus argue for host specificity in this interaction. The ants' behaviour reveals a major investment in manipulating, growing and cleaning the fungus. A molecular analysis of the fungus demonstrates the widespread occurrence of one haplotype and many other haplotypes with a lower occurrence, as well as significant variation in the presence of these fungal haplotypes between areas and ant species. Altogether, these results suggest that such an interaction might represent an as-yet undescribed type of specific association between ants and fungus in which the ants cultivate fungal mycelia to strengthen their hunting galleries. PMID:21084334

Ruiz-González, Mario X.; Malé, Pierre-Jean G.; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Gryta, Hervé; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Angélique; Orivel, Jérôme

2011-01-01

74

PfaH2: a novel hydrophobin from the ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus.  

PubMed

The pfah2 gene coding for a novel hydrophobin PfaH2 from the ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus was identified during sequencing of random clones from a cDNA library. The corresponding protein sequence of PfaH2 deduced from the cDNA comprised 134 amino acids (aa). A 16 aa signal sequence preceded the N-terminus of the mature protein. PfaH2 belonged to the class Ia hydrophobins. The protein was isolated using trifluoroacetic acid extraction and purified via SDS-PAGE and high-performance liquid chromatography. The surface activity of the recently described PfaH1 and of PfaH2 was compared by the determination of contact angles (CAs) on glass slides and Teflon tape, and the CA of distilled water droplets was measured on glass slides coated with hydrophobin PfaH1 or PfaH2. Surprisingly, both hydrophobins adsorbed to hydrophilic surfaces and changed their physicochemical properties to a similar quantitative extent, although little aa sequence homology was found. PMID:23600571

Zelena, Katerina; Takenberg, Meike; Lunkenbein, Stefan; Woche, Susanne K; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

2013-01-01

75

Bradymyces gen. nov. (Chaetothyriales, Trichomeriaceae), a new ascomycete genus accommodating poorly differentiated melanized fungi.  

PubMed

Three slow growing, melanized and morphologically poorly differentiated fungal strains were isolated from a hyperaemic focus near the enlarged spleen of a farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and from a rock collected at 3,200 m a. s. l. (Alps, Italy). Two phylogenetic analyses of the combined nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA and ITS rDNA and ?-tubulin sequences showed that these isolates belong to the Trichomeriaceae, a family of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales containing black yeasts that cause infections in humans and animals. The strains form a well-supported monophyletic clade. The new genus Bradymyces, with two new species, Bradymyces oncorhynchi and Bradymyces alpinus, is proposed based on phylogenetic, ecophysiological and morphological data. It is characterized by the presence of moniliform hyphae, blastic proliferation, endoconidia, multicellular and muriform bodies, and bodies with dark fragmented incrustations on the surface. Bradymyces most closely resembles members of Knufia. The ex-type isolate of B. oncorhynchi CCF 4369(T) ( = CBS 133066(T) = CCFEE 6134(T)) represents the first case of a Trichomeriaceae member isolated from cold-blooded water vertebrates. B. alpinus [ex-type strain CCFEE 5493(T) ( = CBS 138368(T) = CCF 4803(T))] is represented by two isolates from a single locality in the Alps and in contrast to B. oncorhynchi shows overall slower growth parameters and does not grow at 25 °C. PMID:25164483

Hubka, Vit; Réblová, Martina; Rehulka, Ji?í; Selbmann, Laura; Isola, Daniela; de Hoog, Sybren G; Kola?ík, Miroslav

2014-11-01

76

Functional properties and differential mode of regulation of the nitrate transporter from a plant symbiotic ascomycete  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen assimilation by plant symbiotic fungi plays a central role in the mutualistic interaction established by these organisms, as well as in nitrogen flux in a variety of soils. In the present study, we report on the functional properties, structural organization and distinctive mode of regulation of TbNrt2 (Tuber borchii NRT2 family transporter), the nitrate transporter of the mycorrhizal ascomycete T. borchii. As revealed by experiments conducted in a nitrate-uptake-defective mutant of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, TbNrt2 is a high-affinity transporter (Km=4.7 ?M nitrate) that is bispecific for nitrate and nitrite. It is expressed in free-living mycelia and in mycorrhizae, where it preferentially accumulates in the plasma membrane of root-contacting hyphae. The TbNrt2 mRNA, which is transcribed from a single-copy gene clustered with the nitrate reductase gene in the T. borchii genome, was specifically up-regulated following transfer of mycelia to nitrate- (or nitrite)-containing medium. However, at variance with the strict nitrate-dependent induction commonly observed in other organisms, TbNrt2 was also up-regulated (at both the mRNA and the protein level) following transfer to a nitrogen-free medium. This unusual mode of regulation differs from that of the adjacent nitrate reductase gene, which was expressed at basal levels under nitrogen deprivation conditions and required nitrate for induction. The functional and expression properties, described in the present study, delineate TbNrt2 as a versatile transporter that may be especially suited to cope with the fluctuating (and often low) mineral nitrogen concentrations found in most natural, especially forest, soils. PMID:16201972

Montanini, Barbara; Viscomi, Arturo R.; Bolchi, Angelo; Martin, Yusé; Siverio, José M.; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone

2005-01-01

77

Genome organization of a partitivirus from the filamentous ascomycete Atkinsonella hypoxylon.  

PubMed

We have identified viruses in several isolates of the filamentous ascomycete Atkinsonella hypoxylon. The virus from one isolate of the fungus, 2H, was selected for genomic characterization. Purified virus particles contained three dsRNAs with sizes estimated by gel electrophoresis to be 2.2, 2.1 and 1.8 kb. A library of cDNA clones representing the three dsRNA segments of isolate 2H was synthesized, mapped and sequenced. The three segments had no significant similarity to each other, as determined by Northern blot analysis, and had sizes of 2180, 2135 and 1790 nt as determined by nucleotide sequence analysis. Long open reading frames were deduced from the sequences of dsRNAs 1 (molecular mass 78 kDa) and 2 (74 kDa), but not from dsRNA 3. Both terminal regions of dsRNA 1 and dsRNA had similar nucleotide sequences, as determined from 5' RACE clones. Comparisons of the amino acid sequence deduced from dsRNA 1 revealed similarities with viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Translation in vitro of full-length cDNA clones representing dsRNAs 1 and 2 each yielded single major products of > 70 kDa by analysis on polyacrylamide gels. Based on properties of its dsRNA segments, the virus of A. hypoxylon strain 2H fits into the Partitiviridae family, and represents the first member of this family from a fungal host completely characterized at the level of primary nucleotide sequence. PMID:7782774

Oh, C S; Hillman, B I

1995-06-01

78

Comparative Xylose Metabolism among the Ascomycetes C. albicans, S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The ascomycetes Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis metabolize the pentose sugar xylose very differently. S. cerevisiae fails to grow on xylose, while C. albicans can grow, and S. stipitis can both grow and ferment xylose to ethanol. However, all three species contain highly similar genes that encode potential xylose reductases and xylitol dehydrogenases required to convert xylose to xylulose, and xylulose supports the growth of all three fungi. We have created C. albicans strains deleted for the xylose reductase gene GRE3, the xylitol dehydrogenase gene XYL2, as well as the gre3 xyl2 double mutant. As expected, all the mutant strains cannot grow on xylose, while the single gre3 mutant can grow on xylitol. The gre3 and xyl2 mutants are efficiently complemented by the XYL1 and XYL2 from S. stipitis. Intriguingly, the S. cerevisiae GRE3 gene can complement the Cagre3 mutant, while the ScSOR1 gene can complement the Caxyl2 mutant, showing that S. cerevisiae contains the enzymatic capacity for converting xylose to xylulose. In addition, the gre3 xyl2 double mutant of C. albicans is effectively rescued by the xylose isomerase (XI) gene of either Piromyces or Orpinomyces, suggesting that the XI provides an alternative to the missing oxido-reductase functions in the mutant required for the xylose-xylulose conversion. Overall this work suggests that C. albicans strains engineered to lack essential steps for xylose metabolism can provide a platform for the analysis of xylose metabolism enzymes from a variety of species, and confirms that S. cerevisiae has the genetic potential to convert xylose to xylulose, although non-engineered strains cannot proliferate on xylose as the sole carbon source. PMID:24236198

Lépine, Guylaine; Askew, Chris; Raymond, Martine; Whiteway, Malcolm; Wu, Cunle

2013-01-01

79

Correlation of structural elements and infectivity of the HET-s prion  

E-print Network

Correlation of structural elements and infectivity of the HET-s prion Christiane Ritter1 *, Marie & Roland Riek1 Prions are believed to be infectious, self-propagating polymers of otherwise soluble, host of recombinant prion proteins from yeast3­5 , Podospora anserina6 and mammals7 can induce prion phenotypes

Riek, Roland

80

Six immunosuppressive features from an ascomycete, Zopfiella longicaudata, found in a screening study monitored by immunomodulatory activity.  

PubMed

In a screening study on immunomodulatory fungal metabolites, three known anthraquinones, carviolin (roseo-purpurin) (1), 1-O-methylemodin (2), omega-hydroxyemodin (citreorosein) (4), and a new anthraquinone, omega-acetylcarviolin (3), together with a known steroid, ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (5) and a new steroid, 25-hydroxyergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (6) were isolated from an Ascomycete, Zopfiella longicaudata, and found to have moderate immunosuppressive activities. The structure-activity relationships of these metabolites are discussed. PMID:15305003

Fujimoto, Haruhiro; Nakamura, Etsuko; Okuyama, Emi; Ishibashi, Masami

2004-08-01

81

Genes That Bias Mendelian Segregation  

PubMed Central

Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs), complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion. PMID:24830502

Grognet, Pierre; Lalucque, Hervé; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe

2014-01-01

82

RAPID IDENTFICATION OF ASCOMYCETOUS YEASTS FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS BY A MOLECULAR-BASED FLOW CYTOMETRY METHOD AND COMPARISION WITH IDENTIFICATIONS FROM PHENOTYPIC ASSAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was designed to compare the identification of ascomycetous yeasts recovered from clinical specimens by using phenotypic assays (PA) and a molecular flow cytometric (FC) method. LSU rRNA D1/D2 gene sequence analysis was also performed and served as the reference for correct strain identif...

83

Simulated aerial sprays for field cage evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycetes: Hypocreales) against Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in Montana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field efficacy of the entomopathogenic Ascomycete Beauveria bassiana strain GHA and Metarhizium brunneum strain F52 was evaluated against nymphs of the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex. Fungi were applied with a new apparatus that allows simulated aerial sprays to 0.1m2 areas in the field. The Mormon...

84

Freshwater ascomycetes: Natipusillaceae, a new family of tropical fungi, including Natipusilla bellaspora sp. nov. from the Peruvian Amazon.  

PubMed

A new ascomycete species, Natipusilla bellaspora, collected from submerged woody debris in a freshwater stream at Los Amigos Biological Station, Madre De Dios in the Peruvian Amazon is described and illustrated. This fungus is characterized by small, globose to subglobose, hyaline ascomata; small, globose to subglobose, eight-spored fissitunicate asci; one-septate, multiguttulate ascospores with two different gelatinous sheaths, an outer amorphous sheath that enlarges in water and an inner sheath that has a distinctive persistent shape and is attached to the ascospore apex. Morphologically N. bellaspora differs from other Natipusilla species in having larger ascospores and two ascospore sheaths. A second Natipusilla species, N. limonensis, is reported for the first time from Peru. Based on the unique morphological characters of taxa in Natipusilla and results of previous molecular phylogenetic analyses with other members of the Dothideomycetes, we establish Natipusillaceae fam. nov. for this unique tropical freshwater clade. PMID:22067300

Raja, Huzefa A; Miller, Andrew N; Shearer, Carol A

2012-01-01

85

Identification, distribution and occurrence of the ascomycete Metschnikowia typographi in the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the ascomycete Metschnikowia typographi from the adults and larvae of the great spruce bark beetle Dendroctonus micans in Turkey. In total, 910 of 1928 adults and 44 of 149 larvae investigated during the two years were infected by the pathogen. In a fresh smear the asci of the pathogen measure 18.5 +/- 2.05 microm (14.7-22.3) in length and 2.1 +/- 0.4 microm in width (n = 35). The ascospores are about 2 microm shorter than asci, having an average length of 16.4 +/- 1.5 microm (14.2-18.0). The total infection rate of D. micans was 47.2 %. The prevalence of M. typographi infections differed between localities and years. Different infection rates of male and female beetles of D. micans were not recognized. PMID:19085078

Yaman, M; Radek, R

2008-01-01

86

Candida asparagi sp. nov., Candida diospyri sp. nov. and Candida qinlingensis sp. nov., novel anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species.  

PubMed

Among ascomycetous yeasts that were isolated from several nature reserve areas in China, three anamorphic strains isolated from soil (QL 5-5T) and fruit (QL 21-2T and SN 15-1T) were revealed, by conventional characterization and molecular phylogenetic analysis based on internal transcribed spacer and large subunit (26S) rRNA gene D1/D2 region sequencing, to represent three novel species in the genus Candida. Candida qinlingensis sp. nov. (type strain, QL 5-5T=AS 2.2524T=CBS 9768T) was related closely to a teleomorphic species, Williopsis pratensis. The close relatives of Candida diospyri sp. nov. (type strain, QL 21-2T=AS 2.2525T=CBS 9769T) are Candida friedrichii and Candida membranifaciens. Candida asparagi sp. nov. (type strain, SN 15-1T=AS 2.2526T=CBS 9770T) forms a clade with Candida fructus. PMID:15280322

Lu, Hui-Zhong; Jia, Jian-Hua; Wang, Qi-Ming; Bai, Feng-Yan

2004-07-01

87

Interfacial self-assembly of fungal hydrophobins of the lichen-forming ascomycetes Xanthoria parietina and X. ectaneoides.  

PubMed

In the symbiotic phenotype of the lichen-forming ascomycetes Xanthoria parietina and X. ectaneoides, a conglutinate, hydrophilic cortex surrounds a system of aerial hyphae with hydrophobic wall surfaces. In X. parietina freeze-fracture electron microscopy showed that a rodlet layer covers the fungal and algal wall surfaces. Extracts of hot SDS-insoluble wall residues isolated from both species contained a protein that revealed a rodlet layer upon interfacial self-assembly. The N-terminal sequence of the 10-kDa protein of X. ectaneoides served to clone cDNA fragments of XEH1 (H1 of X. ectaneoides) and XPH1 (H1 of X. parietina) by RT-PCR. Genomic DNA blot analysis with both lichenized species and the aposymbiotically cultured symbionts of X. parietina showed that XPH1 and XEH1 are fungal single copy genes. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two encoded proteins were 96% identical and showed the characteristics of class I hydrophobins. PMID:10955910

Scherrer, S; De Vries, O M; Dudler, R; Wessels, J G; Honegger, R

2000-06-01

88

Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties.  

PubMed

Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7?Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E0 = 720 and 580?mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme. PMID:25372682

Osipov, Evgeny; Polyakov, Konstantin; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir

2014-11-01

89

Species-specific detection of Lobaria pulmonaria (lichenized ascomycete) diaspores in litter samples trapped in snow cover.  

PubMed

The foliose lichen Lobaria pulmonaria has suffered a substantial decline in central and northern Europe during the twentieth century and is now considered to be critically endangered in many European lowland regions. Based on demographic studies, it has been proposed that under the present environmental conditions and forest management regimes, dispersal of diaspores and subsequent establishment of new thalli are insufficient to maintain the remnant small lowland populations. Chances of long-term survival may therefore be reduced. The data and analytical power of these demographic studies are limited. Since lichen diaspores show very few species-specific morphological characteristics, and are therefore almost indistinguishable, the accurate assessment of diaspore flux would be a fundamental first step in better understanding the life cycle of L. pulmonaria. Here we present a new molecular approach to investigate the dispersal of L. pulmonaria diaspores in its natural environment by specifically identifying small amounts of DNA in snow litter samples at varying distances from known sources. We used a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pair to amplify the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA) and a sensitive automated PCR product detection system using fluorescent labelled primers. We detected considerable amounts of naturally dispersed diaspores, deposited as far as 50 m away from the closest potential source. Diaspores were only found in the direction of the prevailing wind. Diaspore deposition varied from 1.2 diaspores per m(2) per day at 50 m distance from the source to 15 diaspores per m(2) per day at 1 m distance. The method described in this paper opens up perspectives for studies of population dynamics and dispersal ecology mainly in lichenized ascomycetes but also in other organisms with small, wind-dispersed diaspores. PMID:11555256

Walser, J C; Zoller, S; Büchler, U; Scheidegger, C

2001-09-01

90

Genetic variation and population differentiation in the lichen-forming ascomycete Xanthoria parietina on the island Storfosna, central Norway.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and fine-scale population structure in the lichen-forming ascomycete Xanthoria parietina was investigated using sequence variation in part of the intergenic spacer (IGS) and the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Sampling included 213 and 225 individuals, respectively, from seven populations in two different habitats, bark and rock, on the island Storfosna off the central west coast of Norway. Both markers revealed significant variation and a total of 10 IGS and 16 ITS haplotypes were found. There were no signs of significant positive spatial autocorrelation at any spatial size class down to 10% of transect length, nor did we find significant deviations from neutrality or signs of historical population expansion. Analysis of molecular variance (amova) indicated that most of the genetic variance observed was within populations, but when populations were grouped according to habitat, more than a quarter of the variance was explained among groups. Pairwise comparisons of populations (F(ST), exact tests of population differentiation) revealed significant differentiation between populations in different habitats (on bark or rock), but not between populations in the same habitat. Haplotype networks show that internal and presumably old haplotypes are shared between habitats, whereas terminal haplotypes tend to be unique to a habitat, mostly bark. We interpret the observed pattern to mean that there is no evidence of restricted gene flow between populations in the same habitat at the present spatial scale (interpopulation distances one or a few kilometres). On the other hand, differentiation between habitats is considerable, which we attribute to restricted gene flow between habitats (habitat isolation). Evidence suggests that the observed differentiation did not evolve locally. Estimates of divergence time between populations in the respective habitats indicate that an ancestral population started to diverge at least 34,000 years ago but probably much further back in time. PMID:16629810

Lindblom, Louise; Ekman, Stefan

2006-05-01

91

Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties  

PubMed Central

Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7?Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E 0 = 720 and 580?mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme. PMID:25372682

Osipov, Evgeny; Polyakov, Konstantin; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir

2014-01-01

92

Purifying Selection and Birth-and-Death Evolution in the Class II Hydrophobin Gene Families of the Ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea  

SciTech Connect

Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi, where their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air and during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or of themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and their solubility characteristics, they are classified in class I and class II hydrophobins, the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Here we have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three fully sequenced genomes (H. jecorina=T. reesei, H. atroviridis=T. atroviride; H. virens=T. virens) and a total of 14.000 ESTs of six others (T. asperellum, H. lixii=T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, which is the highest number found in any other ascomycete so far. They all showed the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these HFBs contained an extended N-terminus rich in either praline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades contain duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (2-4) from each species, and most of them were from Pyrenomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of other pyrenomycetes occured in shared clades. Our study shows that the genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea has a proliferated arsenal of class II hydrophobins which arose by purifying selection and birth-and-death evolution.

kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.; Gamauf, Christian; Kenerley, Chuck; Druzhinina, Irina S.

2008-01-10

93

Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 5. SkQ1 prolongs lifespan and prevents development of traits of senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very low (nano- and subnanomolar) concentrations of 10-(6?-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) were found to\\u000a prolong lifespan of a fungus (Podospora anserina), a crustacean (Ceriodaphnia affinis), an insect (Drosophila melanogaster), and a mammal (mouse). In the latter case, median lifespan is doubled if animals live in a non-sterile vivarium. The lifespan\\u000a increase is accompanied by rectangularization of the survival curves (an increase

V. N. Anisimov; L. E. Bakeeva; P. A. Egormin; O. F. Filenko; E. F. Isakova; V. N. Manskikh; V. M. Mikhelson; A. A. Panteleeva; E. G. Pasyukova; D. I. Pilipenko; T. S. Piskunova; I. G. Popovich; N. V. Roshchina; O. Yu. Rybina; V. B. Saprunova; T. A. Samoylova; A. V. Semenchenko; M. V. Skulachev; I. M. Spivak; E. A. Tsybul’ko; M. L. Tyndyk; M. Yu. Vyssokikh; M. N. Yurova; M. A. Zabezhinsky; V. P. Skulachev

2008-01-01

94

The Claviceps purpurea glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene: cloning, characterization, and use for the improvement of a dominant selection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GPD 1 gene of Claviceps purpurea coding for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was cloned and sequenced, including 1,800 bp of its 5' upstream region. This gene shows an identical structure to the gpd gene of Podospora anserina and Cryphonectria parasitica (one intron at an identical position) with high homology at both the DNA and amino-acid levels. Two fragments of the promoter

Uta Jungehiilsing; Claudia Arntz; Ralf Smit; Paul Tudzynski

1994-01-01

95

A Fox2-Dependent Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation Pathway Coexists Both in Peroxisomes and Mitochondria of the Ascomycete Yeast Candida lusitaniae  

PubMed Central

It is generally admitted that the ascomycete yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina possess a single fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway located exclusively in peroxisomes, and that they lost mitochondrial ß-oxidation early during evolution. In this work, we showed that mutants of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida lusitaniae which lack the multifunctional enzyme Fox2p, a key enzyme of the ß-oxidation pathway, were still able to grow on fatty acids as the sole carbon source, suggesting that C. lusitaniae harbored an alternative pathway for fatty acid catabolism. By assaying 14C?-palmitoyl-CoA consumption, we demonstrated that fatty acid catabolism takes place in both peroxisomal and mitochondrial subcellular fractions. We then observed that a fox2? null mutant was unable to catabolize fatty acids in the mitochondrial fraction, thus indicating that the mitochondrial pathway was Fox2p-dependent. This finding was confirmed by the immunodetection of Fox2p in protein extracts obtained from purified peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Finally, immunoelectron microscopy provided evidence that Fox2p was localized in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. This work constitutes the first demonstration of the existence of a Fox2p-dependent mitochondrial ?-oxidation pathway in an ascomycetous yeast, C. lusitaniae. It also points to the existence of an alternative fatty acid catabolism pathway, probably located in peroxisomes, and functioning in a Fox2p-independent manner. PMID:25486052

Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Salin, Bénédicte; Lucas-Guérin, Marine; Manon, Stephen; Dementhon, Karine; Noël, Thierry

2014-01-01

96

Accelerated Cell Death in Podospora Autophagy Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although autophagy is characteristic of type II programmed cell death (PCD), its role in cell death is currently debated. Both cell death-promoting and prosurvival roles of autophagy have been reported depending on the organism and the cell type. In filamentous fungi, a cell death reaction known as an incompatibility reaction occurs when cells of unlike genotype fuse. Cell death by

Berangere Pinan-Lucarre; Axelle Balguerie; Corinne Clave ´

2005-01-01

97

Crystal structure of the GalNAc/Gal-specific agglutinin from the phytopathogenic ascomycete Sclerotinia sclerotiorum reveals novel adaptation of a ?-trefoil domain  

PubMed Central

A lectin from the phytopathogenic ascomycete Sclerotina sclerotiorum that shares only weak sequence similarity with characterized fungal lectins has recently been identified. Sclerotina sclerotiorum agglutinin (SSA) is a homodimeric protein consisting of two identical subunits of ?17 kDa and displays specificity primarily towards Gal/GalNAc. Glycan array screening indicates that SSA readily interacts with Gal/GalNAc-bearing glycan chains. The crystal structures of SSA in the ligand-free form and in complex with the Gal-?1,3-GalNAc (T-antigen) disaccharide have been determined at 1.6 and 1.97 Å resolution, respectively. SSA adopts a ?-trefoil domain as previously identified for other carbohydrate-binding proteins of the ricin B-like lectin superfamily and accommodates terminal non-reducing galactosyl and N-acetylgalactosaminyl glycans. Unlike other structurally related lectins, SSA contains a single carbohydrate-binding site at site ?. SSA reveals a novel dimeric assembly markedly dissimilar to those described earlier for ricin-type lectins. The present structure exemplifies the adaptability of the ?-trefoil domain in the evolution of fungal lectins. PMID:20566411

Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Roig-Zamboni, Véronique; Peumans, Willy J.; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J.M.; Bourne, Yves

2010-01-01

98

Phylogenetic analysis of LSU and SSU rDNA group I introns of lichen photobionts associated with the genera Xanthoria and Xanthomendoza (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes)  

PubMed Central

We studied group I introns in sterile cultures of selected groups of lichen photobionts, focusing on Trebouxia species associated with Xanthoria s. lat. (including Xanthomendoza spp.; lichen-forming ascomycetes). Group I introns were found inserted after position 798 (Escherichia coli numbering) in the large subunit (LSU) rRNA in representatives of the green algal genera Trebouxia and Asterochloris. The 798 intron was found in about 25% of Xanthoria photobionts including several reference strains obtained from algal culture collections. An alignment of LSU-encoded rDNA intron sequences revealed high similarity of these sequences allowing their phylogenetic analysis. The 798 group I intron phylogeny was largely congruent with a phylogeny of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Region (ITS), indicating that the insertion of the intron most likely occurred in the common ancestor of the genera Trebouxia and Asterochloris. The intron was vertically inherited in some taxa, but lost in others. The high sequence similarity of this intron to one found in Chlorella angustoellipsoidea suggests that the 798 intron was either present in the common ancestor of Trebouxiophyceae, or that its present distribution results from more recent horizontal transfers, followed by vertical inheritance and loss. Analysis of another group I intron shared by these photobionts at small subunit (SSU) position 1512 supports the hypothesis of repeated lateral transfers of this intron among some taxa, but loss among others. Our data confirm that the history of group I introns is characterized by repeated horizontal transfers, and suggests that some of these introns have ancient origins within Chlorophyta. PMID:24415800

Nyati, Shyam; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Werth, Silke; Honegger, Rosmarie

2013-01-01

99

Candida alocasiicola sp. nov., Candida hainanensis sp. nov., Candida heveicola sp. nov. and Candida musiphila sp. nov., novel anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species isolated from plants.  

PubMed

In a taxonomic study on the ascomycetous yeasts isolated from plant materials collected in tropical forests in Yunnan and Hainan Provinces, southern China, four strains isolated from tree sap (YJ2E(T)) and flowers (YF9E(T), YWZH3C(T) and YYF2A(T)) were revealed to represent four undescribed yeast species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene D1/D2 domain sequences showed that strain YJ2E(T) was located in a clade together with Candida haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii. Strain YF9E(T) was most closely related to C. azyma and strain YWZH3C(T) to C. sorbophila and C. spandovensis. Strain YYF2A(T) was clustered in a clade containing small-spored Metschnikowia species and related anamorphic Candida species. The new strains differed from their closely related described species by more than 10% mismatches in the D1/D2 domain. No sexual states were observed for the four strains on various sporulation media. The new species are therefore assigned to the genus Candida and described as Candida alocasiicola sp. nov. (type strain, YF9E(T) = AS 2.3484(T) = CBS 10702(T)), Candida hainanensis sp. nov. (type strain, YYF2A(T) = AS 2.3478(T) = CBS 10696(T)), Candida heveicola sp. nov. (type strain, YJ2E(T) = AS 2.3483(T) = CBS 10701(T)) and Candida musiphila sp. nov. (type strain, YWZH3C(T) = AS 2.3479(T) = CBS 10697(T)). PMID:18344072

Wang, Shi-An; Jia, Jian-Hua; Bai, Feng-Yan

2008-08-01

100

Patterns of lignin degradation and oxidative enzyme secretion by different wood- and litter-colonizing basidiomycetes and ascomycetes grown on beech-wood.  

PubMed

The degradation of lignocellulose and the secretion of extracellular oxidoreductases were investigated in beech-wood (Fagus sylvatica) microcosms using 11 representative fungi of four different ecophysiological and taxonomic groups causing: (1) classic white rot of wood (e.g. Phlebia radiata), (2) 'nonspecific' wood rot (e.g. Agrocybe aegerita), (3) white rot of leaf litter (Stropharia rugosoannulata) or (4) soft rot of wood (e.g. Xylaria polymorpha). All strong white rotters produced manganese-oxidizing peroxidases as the key enzymes of ligninolysis (75-2200 mU g(-1)), whereas lignin peroxidase activity was not detectable in the wood extracts. Interestingly, activities of two recently discovered peroxidases - aromatic peroxygenase and a manganese-independent peroxidase of the DyP-type - were detected in the culture extracts of A. aegerita (up to 125 mU g(-1)) and Auricularia auricula-judae (up to 400 mU g(-1)), respectively. The activity of classic peroxidases correlated to some extent with the removal of wood components (e.g. Klason lignin) and the release of small water-soluble fragments (0.5-1.0 kDa) characterized by aromatic constituents. In contrast, laccase activity correlated with the formation of high-molecular mass fragments (30-200 kDa). The differences observed in the degradation patterns allow to distinguish the rot types caused by basidiomycetes and ascomycetes and may be suitable for following the effects of oxidative key enzymes (ligninolytic peroxidases vs. laccases, role of novel peroxidases) during wood decay. PMID:21631549

Liers, Christiane; Arnstadt, Tobias; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin

2011-10-01

101

Role of Hsp104 in the Propagation and Inheritance of the [Het-s] Prion  

PubMed Central

The chaperones of the ClpB/HSP100 family play a central role in thermotolerance in bacteria, plants, and fungi by ensuring solubilization of heat-induced protein aggregates. In addition in yeast, Hsp104 was found to be required for prion propagation. Herein, we analyze the role of Podospora anserina Hsp104 (PaHsp104) in the formation and propagation of the [Het-s] prion. We show that ?PaHsp104 strains propagate [Het-s], making [Het-s] the first native fungal prion to be propagated in the absence of Hsp104. Nevertheless, we found that [Het-s]-propagon numbers, propagation rate, and spontaneous emergence are reduced in a ?PaHsp104 background. In addition, inactivation of PaHsp104 leads to severe meiotic instability of [Het-s] and abolishes its meiotic drive activity. Finally, we show that ?PaHSP104 strains are less susceptible than wild type to infection by exogenous recombinant HET-s(218–289) prion amyloids. Like [URE3] and [PIN+] in yeast but unlike [PSI+], [Het-s] is not cured by constitutive PaHsp104 overexpression. The observed effects of PaHsp104 inactivation are consistent with the described role of Hsp104 in prion aggregate shearing in yeast. However, Hsp104-dependency appears less stringent in P. anserina than in yeast; presumably because in Podospora prion propagation occurs in a syncitium. PMID:17881723

Malato, Laurent; Dos Reis, Suzana; Benkemoun, Laura; Sabaté, Raimon

2007-01-01

102

Description of Taphrina antarctica f.a. sp. nov., a new anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species associated with Antarctic endolithic microbial communities and transfer of four Lalaria species in the genus Taphrina.  

PubMed

In the framework of a large-scale rock sampling in Continental Antarctica, a number of yeasts have been isolated. Two strains that are unable to grow above 20 °C and that have low ITS sequence similarities with available data in the public domain were found. The D1/D2 LSU molecular phylogeny placed them in an isolated position in the genus Taphrina, supporting their affiliation to a not yet described species. Because the new species is able to grow in its anamorphic state only, the species Taphrina antarctica f.a. (forma asexualis) sp. nov. has been proposed to accommodate both strains (type strain DBVPG 5268(T), DSM 27485(T) and CBS 13532(T)). Lalaria and Taphrina species are dimorphic ascomycetes, where the anamorphic yeast represents the saprotrophic state and the teleomorph is the parasitic counterpart on plants. This is the first record for this genus in Antarctica; since plants are absent on the continent, we hypothesize that the fungus may have focused on the saprotrophic part of its life cycle to overcome the absence of its natural host and adapt environmental constrains. Following the new International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code 2011) the reorganization of Taphrina-Lalaria species in the teleomorphic genus Taphrina is proposed. We emend the diagnosis of the genus Taphrina to accommodate asexual saprobic states of these fungi. Taphrina antarctica was registered in MycoBank under MB 808028. PMID:24893860

Selbmann, Laura; Turchetti, Benedetta; Yurkov, Andrey; Cecchini, Clarissa; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Buzzini, Pietro; Onofri, Silvano

2014-07-01

103

Growth and cultural-morphological characteristics of vegetative mycelia of medicinal caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis G.H. Sung et al. (Ascomycetes) isolates from Tibetan plateau (P.R.China).  

PubMed

The morphological and cultural characteristics of vegetative mycelia of 29 Tibetan strains of medicinal caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (= Cordyceps sinensis) were studied. Data on mycelial growth of the above-mentioned fungi strains on different types of nutrients, the macro- and micromorphological description of colonies grown on different agar media, and anamorph stage identification are provided. It was shown that strains of O. sinensis demonstrated moderately slow growth on selected nutrients compared with other ascomycetous fungi. The highest growth rate value from all analyzed strains is O. sinenis N14-2.7 mm/day was completed with a mycelial run on potato-dextrose agar (pH = 6.0) in 15 d. Most of the examined strains preferred Sabouraun?s dextrose agar; some of the strains preferred potato-dextrose agar as the medium for optimal development. The least favorable nutrient for all strains was Czapek solution agar. Analyses of morphological and microstructural peculiarities on different types of nutrients were conducted and detailed descriptions and illustrations were provided. Based on macro- and micromorphological characteristics, the investigated strains were identified as Hirsutella sinensis and Tolypocladium sinensis species, which were identified as the anamorphs of Ophiocordyceps sinensis. PMID:22181845

Barseghyan, Gayane S; Holliday, John C; Price, Thomas C; Madison, Leah M; Wasser, Solomon P

2011-01-01

104

Notes on African Pannariaceae (lichenized ascomycetes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:The African continent is shown to contain only 38 species in the lichen familyPannariaceae , all of which are listed in the conclusion. Four new species are described: Pannaria planiuscula (Republic of South Africa [RSA] and Kenya), Pannaria squamulosa (RSA), Parmeliella dactylifera (RSA), and Parmeliella triptophylloides (Kenya). Four species are recorded as new to the continent: Pannaria centrifuga P.M. Jørg.

Per M. Jørgensen

2003-01-01

105

Human CLPP reverts the longevity phenotype of a fungal ClpP deletion strain.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial maintenance crucially depends on the quality control of proteins by various chaperones, proteases and repair enzymes. While most of the involved components have been studied in some detail, little is known on the biological role of the CLPXP protease complex located in the mitochondrial matrix. Here we show that deletion of PaClpP, encoding the CLP protease proteolytic subunit CLPP, leads to an unexpected healthy phenotype and increased lifespan of the fungal ageing model organism Podospora anserina. This phenotype can be reverted by expression of human ClpP in the fungal deletion background, demonstrating functional conservation of human and fungal CLPP. Our results show that the biological role of eukaryotic CLP proteases can be studied in an experimentally accessible model organism. PMID:23360988

Fischer, Fabian; Weil, Andrea; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D

2013-01-01

106

Molecular species of ceramides from the ascomycete truffle Tuber indicum.  

PubMed

The ceramide fractions were isolated from the chloroform/methanolic extractable of the fruiting bodies of Tuber indicum and separated into three kinds of molecular species TI-1, TI-2, and TI-3 by normal and reverse phase silica gel-column chromatography. By means of (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), and chemical degradation experiment, their component sphingoid base for TI-1 and TI-2 was uniformly (2S,3S,4R)-2-amino-1,3,4-octadecantriol, while the sphingoid of TI-3 was d-erythro-sphingosine, and their structures have been determined unequivocally to be (2S,2'R,3S,4R)-2-(2'-d-hydroxyalkanoylamino) octadecane-1,3,4-triol, the fatty acid composition of which consists of 2-hydroxydocosanoic, 2-hydroxytetracosanoic, and 2-hydroxytricosanoic acids (from major to minor); (2S,3S,4R)-2-(alkanoylamino)octadecane-1,3,4-triol, the fatty acid composition of which is unusual and consists of docosanoic, hexadecanoic, tricosanoic, octadecanoic and nonadecanoic acids (from major to minor); and (2S,3R,4E)-2-(alkanoylamino)-4-octadecene-1,3-diol, the component fatty acids of which were hexadecanoic (predominant) and octadecanoic acids, respectively. PMID:15351272

Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, An-Ling; Chen, Hui; Liu, Ji-Kai

2004-09-01

107

Ogataea allantospora sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species from phylloplane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a two-step enrichment in methanol containing broth, methylotrophic yeast strains were isolated from about 45% of\\u000a the leaf samples collected from broad leafed deciduous trees and from herbs in Hungary. During the enrichment process protists\\u000a predating the yeasts were observed. Based on standard phenotypical tests and the D1\\/D2 domain sequences of the large subunit\\u000a (26S) rDNA of the yeast

Gábor Péter; Judit Tornai-Lehoczki; Dénes Dlauchy

2007-01-01

108

Mating systems in the genus Xanthoria (lichen-forming ascomycetes).  

PubMed

Genetic variability among sterile cultured single ascospore isolates of Xanthoria parietina, X. calcicola, X. ectaneoides, X. capensis, X. polycarpa and X. resendei was investigated with RAPD-PCR. If available five out of eight ascospores per ascus were analysed. In some samples multispore and mycelial isolates from ascomata were included in the analysis. Ascospore germination rates and phenotypic features such as growth rate, pigmentation and secondary metabolites were uniform in X. parietina sporelings of the same ascus, but varied among the progeny of meiosis in all other species. Phenotypic features correlated with genetic variability. X. parietina revealed polymorphisms among specimens from different worldwide locations. In contrast nine out of ten sets of sibling spores were genetically uniform, with only 2% polymorphism in the remaining set, indicating that X. parietina might be homothallic. X. calcicola, X. ectaneoides, X. capensis, X. polycarpa and X. resendei revealed 9-66% polymorphic loci and therefore are considered heterothallic. PMID:15230000

Honegger, Rosmarie; Zippler, Undine; Gansner, Heidi; Scherrer, Sandra

2004-05-01

109

Reinforced postmating reproductive isolation barriers in Neurospora, an Ascomycete microfungus  

E-print Network

the evolution of post- mating barriers selectively advantageous for parents (Coyne, 1974; Coyne & Orr, 2004 reproduction less likely. Selection Correspondence: Elizabeth Turner, Department of Plant & Microbial Biology 642 4995; e-mail: eturner@berkeley.edu ª 2 0 1 0 T H E A U T H O R S . J . E V O L . B I O L . 2 3 ( 2

California at Berkeley, University of

110

MATHEMATICS Explosively launched spores of ascomycete fungi have  

E-print Network

and of Mayfly nymphs that cleave to rocks in rapidly flowing streams, or the precisely coordinated furling and mucilaginous sheathes promote spore cohesion during launch, increasing projectile mass but allowing spores

Koehl, Mimi

111

The NADPH Oxidase Complexes in Botrytis cinerea: Evidence for a Close Association with the ER and the Tetraspanin Pls1  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidases (Nox) are major enzymatic systems that generate reactive-oxygen species (ROS) in multicellular eukaryotes. In several fungi they have been shown to be involved in sexual differentiation and pathogenicity. However, in contrast to the well characterized mammalian systems, basic information on the composition, recruitment, and localization of fungal Nox complexes and on the molecular mechanisms of their cellular effects are still lacking. Here we give a detailed analysis of components of the Nox complexes in the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. It had previously been shown that the two catalytic transmembrane subunits BcNoxA and B are important for development of sclerotia and for full virulence, with BcNoxA being involved in spreading of lesions and BcNoxB in penetration; BcNoxR functions as a regulator of both subunits. Here we present evidence (using for the first time a functional GFP fusion able to complement the ?bcnoxA mutant) that BcNoxA localizes mainly to the ER and at the plasma membrane; BcNoxB shows a similar localization pattern, while the regulator BcNoxR is found in vesicles throughout the hyphae and at the hyphal tip. To identify possible interaction partners, which could be involved in the localization or recruitment of the Nox complexes, we functionally characterized the tetraspanin Pls1, a transmembrane protein, which had been suggested to be a NoxB-interacting partner in the saprophyte Podospora anserina. Knock-out experiments and GFP fusions substantiate a link between BcNoxB and BcPls1 because both deletion mutants have overlapping phenotypes (especially a defect in penetration), and the proteins show a similar localization pattern (ER). However, in contrast to the corresponding protein in P. anserina BcPls1 is important for female fertility, but not for ascospore germination. PMID:23418468

Siegmund, Ulrike; Heller, Jens; van Kann, Jan A. L.; Tudzynski, Paul

2013-01-01

112

Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and Their Tolerance to Aromatic Amines, a Major Class of Pollutants  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that enables acetyl coenzyme A-dependent detoxification of AA. To assess whether the N-acetylation pathway enables AA tolerance in Trichoderma spp., we cloned and characterized NATs from T. virens and T. reesei. We characterized recombinant enzymes by determining their catalytic efficiencies toward several toxic AA. Through a complementary approach, we also demonstrate that both Trichoderma species efficiently metabolize 3,4-DCA. Finally, we provide evidence that NAT-independent transformation is solely (in T. virens) or mainly (in T. reesei) responsible for the observed removal of 3,4-DCA. We conclude that T. virens and, to a lesser extent, T. reesei likely utilize another, unidentified, metabolic pathway for the detoxification of AA aside from acetylation. This is the first molecular and functional characterization of AA biotransformation in Trichoderma spp. Given the potential of Trichoderma for cleanup of contaminated soils, these results reveal new possibilities in the fungal remediation of AA-contaminated soil. PMID:23728813

Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

2013-01-01

113

Molecular Characterization of a New Alkaline-Tolerant Xylanase from Humicola insolens Y1  

PubMed Central

An endo-1,4-?-xylanase-encoding gene, xyn11B, was cloned from the thermophilic fungus Humicola insolens Y1. The gene encodes a multimodular xylanase that consists of a typical hydrophobic signal sequence, a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11, a glycine-rich linker, and a family 1 carbohydrate binding module (CBM1). Deduced Xyn11B shares the highest identity of 74% with a putative xylanase from Podospora anserina S mat+. Recombinant Xyn11B was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Xyn11B had a high specific activity of 382.0?U?mg?1 towards beechwood xylan and showed optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. Distinct from most reported acidic fungal xylanases, Xyn11B was alkaline-tolerant, retaining 30.7% of the maximal activity at pH 9.0. The Km and Vmax values for beechwood xylan were 2.2?mg?mL?1 and 462.8??mol?min?1?mg?1, respectively. The enzyme exhibited a wider substrate specificity and produced a mixture of xylooligosaccharides. All these favorable enzymatic properties make Xyn11B attractive for potential applications in various industries.

Shi, Pengjun; Du, Yanlong; Yang, Hong; Huang, Huoqing; Zhang, Xiu; Wang, Yaru; Yao, Bin

2015-01-01

114

Structural dependence of HET-s amyloid fibril infectivity assessed by cryoelectron microscopy  

PubMed Central

HET-s is a prion protein of the fungus Podospora anserina which, in the prion state, is active in a self/nonself recognition process called heterokaryon incompatibility. Its prionogenic properties reside in the C-terminal “prion domain.” The HET-s prion domain polymerizes in vitro into amyloid fibrils whose properties depend on the pH of assembly; above pH 3, infectious singlet fibrils are produced, and below pH 3, noninfectious triplet fibrils. To investigate the correlation between structure and infectivity, we performed cryo-EM analyses. Singlet fibrils have a helical pitch of approximately 410 ? and a left-handed twist. Triplet fibrils have three protofibrils whose lateral dimensions (36 × 25 ?) and axial packing (one subunit per 9.4 ?) match those of singlets but differ in their supercoiling. At 8.5-? resolution, the cross-section of the singlet fibril reconstruction is largely consistent with that of a ?-solenoid model previously determined by solid-state NMR. Reconstructions of the triplet fibrils show three protofibrils coiling around a common axis and packed less tightly at pH 3 than at pH 2, eventually peeling off. Taken together with the earlier observation that fragmentation of triplet fibrils by sonication does not increase infectivity, these observations suggest a novel mechanism for self-propagation, whereby daughter fibrils nucleate on the lateral surface of singlet fibrils. In triplets, this surface is occluded, blocking nucleation and thereby explaining their lack of infectivity. PMID:21300906

Mizuno, Naoko; Baxa, Ulrich; Steven, Alasdair C.

2011-01-01

115

Molecular Characterization of a New Alkaline-Tolerant Xylanase from Humicola insolens Y1.  

PubMed

An endo-1,4-?-xylanase-encoding gene, xyn11B, was cloned from the thermophilic fungus Humicola insolens Y1. The gene encodes a multimodular xylanase that consists of a typical hydrophobic signal sequence, a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11, a glycine-rich linker, and a family 1 carbohydrate binding module (CBM1). Deduced Xyn11B shares the highest identity of 74% with a putative xylanase from Podospora anserina S mat+. Recombinant Xyn11B was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Xyn11B had a high specific activity of 382.0?U?mg(-1) towards beechwood xylan and showed optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. Distinct from most reported acidic fungal xylanases, Xyn11B was alkaline-tolerant, retaining 30.7% of the maximal activity at pH 9.0. The K m and V max values for beechwood xylan were 2.2?mg?mL(-1) and 462.8??mol?min(-1)?mg(-1), respectively. The enzyme exhibited a wider substrate specificity and produced a mixture of xylooligosaccharides. All these favorable enzymatic properties make Xyn11B attractive for potential applications in various industries. PMID:25629035

Shi, Pengjun; Du, Yanlong; Yang, Hong; Huang, Huoqing; Zhang, Xiu; Wang, Yaru; Yao, Bin

2015-01-01

116

Clonal integration enhances survival and performance of Potentilla anserina , suffering from partial sand burial on Ordos plateau, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Ordos plateau, a semi-arid, desertified area in China, sand burial is a common stress factor for plants. The extent to which sand burial occurs is heterogeneous and unpredictable in space and in time. Therefore, clonal fragments (i.e., interconnected ramets of a clonal plant) often experience partial sand burial, with some ramets buried in sand while the rest may remain

Feihai Yu; Yufu Chen; Ming Dong

2001-01-01

117

Origins and evolution of the HET-s prion-forming protein: searching for other amyloid-forming solenoids.  

PubMed

The HET-s prion-forming domain from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is gaining considerable interest since it yielded the first well-defined atomic structure of a functional amyloid fibril. This structure has been identified as a left-handed beta solenoid with a triangular hydrophobic core. To delineate the origins of the HET-s prion-forming protein and to discover other amyloid-forming proteins, we searched for all homologs of the HET-s protein in a database of protein domains and fungal genomes, using a combined application of HMM, psi-blast and pGenThreader techniques, and performed a comparative evolutionary analysis of the N-terminal alpha-helical domain and the C-terminal prion-forming domain of HET-s. By assessing the tandem evolution of both domains, we observed that the prion-forming domain is restricted to Sordariomycetes, with a marginal additional sequence homolog in Arthroderma otae as a likely case of horizontal transfer. This suggests innovation and rapid evolution of the solenoid fold in the Sordariomycetes clade. In contrast, the N-terminal domain evolves at a slower rate (in Sordariomycetes) and spans many diverse clades of fungi. We performed a full three-dimensional protein threading analysis on all identified HET-s homologs against the HET-s solenoid fold, and present detailed structural annotations for identified structural homologs to the prion-forming domain. An analysis of the physicochemical characteristics in our set of structural models indicates that the HET-s solenoid shape can be readily adopted in these homologs, but that they are all less optimized for fibril formation than the P. anserina HET-s sequence itself, due chiefly to the presence of fewer asparagine ladders and salt bridges. Our combined structural and evolutionary analysis suggests that the HET-s shape has "limited scope" for amyloidosis across the wider protein universe, compared to the 'generic' left-handed beta helix. We discuss the implications of our findings on future identification of amyloid-forming proteins sharing the solenoid fold. PMID:22096554

Gendoo, Deena M A; Harrison, Paul M

2011-01-01

118

Characterization of a Broad-Specificity ?-Glucanase Acting on ?-(1,3)-, ?-(1,4)-, and ?-(1,6)-Glucans That Defines a New Glycoside Hydrolase Family  

PubMed Central

Here we report the cloning of the Pa_3_10940 gene from the coprophilic fungus Podospora anserina, which encodes a C-terminal family 1 carbohydrate binding module (CBM1) linked to a domain of unknown function. The function of the gene was investigated by expression of the full-length protein and a truncated derivative without the CBM1 domain in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Using a library of polysaccharides of different origins, we demonstrated that the full-length enzyme displays activity toward a broad range of ?-glucan polysaccharides, including laminarin, curdlan, pachyman, lichenan, pustulan, and cellulosic derivatives. Analysis of the products released from polysaccharides revealed that this ?-glucanase is an exo-acting enzyme on ?-(1,3)- and ?-(1,6)-linked glucan substrates and an endo-acting enzyme on ?-(1,4)-linked glucan substrates. Hydrolysis of short ?-(1,3), ?-(1,4), and ?-(1,3)/?-(1,4) gluco-oligosaccharides confirmed this striking feature and revealed that the enzyme performs in an exo-type mode on the nonreducing end of gluco-oligosaccharides. Excision of the CBM1 domain resulted in an inactive enzyme on all substrates tested. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an enzyme that displays bifunctional exo-?-(1,3)/(1,6) and endo-?-(1,4) activities toward beta-glucans and therefore cannot readily be assigned to existing Enzyme Commission groups. The amino acid sequence has high sequence identity to hypothetical proteins within the fungal taxa and thus defines a new family of glycoside hydrolases, the GH131 family. PMID:23023747

Lafond, Mickael; Navarro, David; Haon, Mireille; Couturier, Marie

2012-01-01

119

Metabolic engineering of muconic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The dicarboxylic acid muconic acid has garnered significant interest due to its potential use as a platform chemical for the production of several valuable consumer bio-plastics including nylon-6,6 and polyurethane (via an adipic acid intermediate) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (via a terephthalic acid intermediate). Many process advantages (including lower pH levels) support the production of this molecule in yeast. Here, we present the first heterologous production of muconic acid in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A three-step synthetic, composite pathway comprised of the enzymes dehydroshikimate dehydratase from Podospora anserina, protocatechuic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter cloacae, and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Candida albicans was imported into yeast. Further genetic modifications guided by metabolic modeling and feedback inhibition mitigation were introduced to increase precursor availability. Specifically, the knockout of ARO3 and overexpression of a feedback-resistant mutant of aro4 reduced feedback inhibition in the shikimate pathway, and the zwf1 deletion and over-expression of TKL1 increased flux of necessary precursors into the pathway. Further balancing of the heterologous enzyme levels led to a final titer of nearly 141mg/L muconic acid in a shake-flask culture, a value nearly 24-fold higher than the initial strain. Moreover, this strain has the highest titer and second highest yield of any reported shikimate and aromatic amino acid-based molecule in yeast in a simple batch condition. This work collectively demonstrates that yeast has the potential to be a platform for the bioproduction of muconic acid and suggests an area that is ripe for future metabolic engineering efforts. PMID:23164574

Curran, Kathleen A; Leavitt, John M; Karim, Ashty S; Alper, Hal S

2013-01-01

120

Distribution and evolution of het gene homologs in the basidiomycota.  

PubMed

In filamentous fungi a system known as somatic incompatibility (SI) governs self/non-self recognition. SI is controlled by a regulatory signaling network involving proteins encoded at the het (heterokaryon incompatible) loci. Despite the wide occurrence of SI, the molecular identity and structure of only a small number of het genes and their products have been characterized in the model fungi Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina. Our aim was to identify and study the distribution and evolution of putative het gene homologs in the Basidiomycota. For this purpose we used the information available for the model fungi to identify homologs of het genes in other fungi, especially the Basidiomycota. Putative het-c, het-c2 and un-24 homologs, as well as sequences containing the NACHT, HET or WD40 domains present in the het-e, het-r, het-6 and het-d genes were identified in certain members of the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The widespread phylogenetic distribution of certain het genes may reflect the fact that the encoded proteins are involved in fundamental cellular processes other than SI. Although homologs of het-S were previously known only from the Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota), we also identified a putative homolog of this gene in Gymnopus luxurians (Basidiomycota, class Agaricomycetes). Furthermore, with the exception of un-24, all of the putative het genes identified occurred mostly in a multi-copy fashion, some with lineage and species-specific expansions. Overall our results indicated that gene duplication followed by gene loss and/or gene family expansion, as well as multiple events of domain fusion and shuffling played an important role in the evolution of het gene homologs of Basidiomycota and other filamentous fungi. PMID:24380733

Van der Nest, M A; Olson, A; Lind, M; Vélëz, H; Dalman, K; Brandström Durling, M; Karlsson, M; Stenlid, J

2014-03-01

121

Signal Transduction by a Fungal NOD-Like Receptor Based on Propagation of a Prion Amyloid Fold.  

PubMed

In the fungus Podospora anserina, the [Het-s] prion induces programmed cell death by activating the HET-S pore-forming protein. The HET-s ?-solenoid prion fold serves as a template for converting the HET-S prion-forming domain into the same fold. This conversion, in turn, activates the HET-S pore-forming domain. The gene immediately adjacent to het-S encodes NWD2, a Nod-like receptor (NLR) with an N-terminal motif similar to the elementary repeat unit of the ?-solenoid fold. NLRs are immune receptors controlling cell death and host defense processes in animals, plants and fungi. We have proposed that, analogously to [Het-s], NWD2 can activate the HET-S pore-forming protein by converting its prion-forming region into the ?-solenoid fold. Here, we analyze the ability of NWD2 to induce formation of the ?-solenoid prion fold. We show that artificial NWD2 variants induce formation of the [Het-s] prion, specifically in presence of their cognate ligands. The N-terminal motif is responsible for this prion induction, and mutations predicted to affect the ?-solenoid fold abolish templating activity. In vitro, the N-terminal motif assembles into infectious prion amyloids that display a structure resembling the ?-solenoid fold. In vivo, the assembled form of the NWD2 N-terminal region activates the HET-S pore-forming protein. This study documenting the role of the ?-solenoid fold in fungal NLR function further highlights the general importance of amyloid and prion-like signaling in immunity-related cell fate pathways. PMID:25671553

Daskalov, Asen; Habenstein, Birgit; Martinez, Denis; Debets, Alfons J M; Sabaté, Raimon; Loquet, Antoine; Saupe, Sven J

2015-02-01

122

Barnettozyma siamensis f.a., sp. nov., a lipid-accumulating ascomycete yeast species.  

PubMed

Two strains, DMKU-UbN24(1)(T) and DMKU-CPN24(1), of a novel yeast species were obtained from soil and palm oil fruit, respectively, collected in Thailand by an enrichment isolation technique using a nitrogen-limited medium containing glycerol as the sole source of carbon. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the two strains were found to represent a novel species of the genus Barnettozyma although the formation of ascospores was not observed. The novel species was related most closely to the type strain of Candida montana but differed by 5.4?% nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and by 10.3-10.5?% nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region. The name Barnettozyma siamensis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DMKU-UbN24(1)(T) (?=?BCC 61189(T)?=?NBRC 109701(T)?=?CBS 13392(T)). PMID:24925597

Polburee, Pirapan; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Limtong, Savitree

2014-09-01

123

Mesosynteny; A novel mode of chromosomal evolution peculiar to filamentous Ascomycete fungi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report a novel form of evolution in which genes are conserved within homologous chromosomes, but with randomised orders and orientations. We propose to call this mode of evolution 'mesosynteny'. Mesosynteny is an alternative evolutionary pathway to macrosyntenic conservation. Mesosynteny would ...

124

Notes on Lichen Genus Buellia De Not. (lichenized Ascomycetes) from South Korea  

PubMed Central

Based on a literature survey and assessment of the important features of lichen genus Buellia (spore shape and size, anatomy of the exciple as well as analysis of the lichen substances), the present paper describes four new records of B. maritima, B. polyspora, B. spuria and B. stellulata from South Korea. Among them, B. maritima and B. polyspora are firstly reported in East Asia including in China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Brief description of all the new records along with earlier described species placed under genus Amandinea and Hafellia are provided with their distribution and chemistry. A key to all the Buellia species reported so far from South Korea is also provided. PMID:23956628

Joshi, Yogesh; Wang, Xin Yu; Lökös, László; Koh, Young Jin

2010-01-01

125

Effectiveness of modified White's solution at removing ascomycetes associated with the bark beetle Ips pini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Modified White's solution (1 g HgCl2\\/l H2O) is widely used to surface disinfest bark beetles of their phoretic fungi. We investigated the effectiveness of this solution at disinfesting adult Ips pini from its associated ophiostomatoid fungi. A treatment for 1, 4 or 8 min does not completely rid beetles of phoretic fungi, but does substantially reduce the amount of

B. J. Kopper; K. D. Klepzig; K. F. Raffa

2003-01-01

126

Two new pathogenic ascomycetes in Guignardia and Rosenscheldiella on New Zealand's pygmy mistletoes (Korthalsella: Viscaceae)  

PubMed Central

Two new pathogens, Guignardia korthalsellae and Rosenscheldiella korthalsellae, are described from New Zealand's pygmy mistletoes (Korthalsella, Viscaceae). Both form ascomata on living phylloclades with minimal disruption of the tissue. Fungal hyphae within the phylloclade are primarily intercellular. Guignardia korthalsellae disrupts a limited number of epidermal cells immediately around the erumpent ascoma, while the ascomata of Rosenscheldiella korthalsellae develop externally on small patches of stromatic tissue that form above stomatal cavities. Rosenscheldiella is applied in a purely morphological sense. LSU sequences show that R. korthalsellae as well as another New Zealand species, Rosenscheldiella brachyglottidis, are members of the Mycosphaerellaceae sensu stricto. Genetically, Rosenscheldiella, in the sense we are using it, is polyphyletic; LSU and ITS sequences place the two New Zealand species in different clades within the Mycosphaerellaceae. Rosenscheldiella is retained for these fungi until generic relationships within the family are resolved. Whether or not the type species of Rosenscheldiella, R. styracis, is also a member of the Mycosphaerellaceae is not known, but it has a similar morphology and relationship to its host as the two New Zealand species. PMID:21523197

Sultan, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Park, D.; Robertson, A.W.

2011-01-01

127

A new endophytic ascomycete from El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the past two years a project has been undertaken to study endophytic fungi associated with plants growing in El Eden Ecological Reserve, located in the State of Quintana Roo in the northeastern part of the Yucatan Peninsula of México. Asymptomatic, healthy leaves were collected, surface steri...

128

AbaA Regulates Conidiogenesis in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is a prominent pathogen that infects major cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and maize. Both sexual (ascospores) and asexual (conidia) spores are produced in F. graminearum. Since conidia are responsible for secondary infection in disease development, our objective of the present study was to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum based on the framework previously described in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we firstly identified and functionally characterized the ortholog of AbaA, which is involved in differentiation from vegetative hyphae to conidia and known to be absent in F. graminearum. Deletion of abaA did not affect vegetative growth, sexual development, or virulence, but conidium production was completely abolished and thin hyphae grew from abnormally shaped phialides in abaA deletion mutants. Overexpression of abaA resulted in pleiotropic defects such as impaired sexual and asexual development, retarded conidium germination, and reduced trichothecene production. AbaA localized to the nuclei of phialides and terminal cells of mature conidia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans AbaA and the conserved AbaA-WetA pathway demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for AbaA activity are conserved in F. graminearum as they are in A. nidulans. Results from RNA-sequencing analysis suggest that AbaA plays a pivotal role in conidiation by regulating cell cycle pathways and other conidiation-related genes. Thus, the conserved roles of the AbaA ortholog in both A. nidulans and F. graminearum give new insight into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24039821

Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Seo, Young-Su; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

2013-01-01

129

WetA Is Required for Conidiogenesis and Conidium Maturation in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium graminearum, a prominent fungal pathogen that infects major cereal crops, primarily utilizes asexual spores to spread disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum, we functionally characterized the F. graminearum ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans wetA, which has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation. Deletion of F. graminearum wetA did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the wetA deletion mutants produced longer conidia with fewer septa, and the conidia were sensitive to acute stresses, such as oxidative stress and heat stress. Furthermore, the survival rate of aged conidia from the F. graminearum wetA deletion mutants was reduced. The wetA deletion resulted in vigorous generation of single-celled conidia through autophagy-dependent microcycle conidiation, indicating that WetA functions to maintain conidial dormancy by suppressing microcycle conidiation in F. graminearum. Transcriptome analyses demonstrated that most of the putative conidiation-related genes are expressed constitutively and that only a few genes are specifically involved in F. graminearum conidiogenesis. The conserved and distinct roles identified for WetA in F. graminearum provide new insights into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24186953

Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee

2014-01-01

130

Three types of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from the medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).  

PubMed

Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) is a key enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the synthesis of its C20 precursor. In the present study, three types of ggpps genes were cloned and analyzed from the Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued carotenoid-producing species. The sequences were named as ggpps727, ggpps191, and ggpps595. The open reading frame codes for predicted polypeptides of 464, 550, and 431 aa. Three predicted GGPPSs had a high similarity to that from Beauveria bassiana ARSEF 2860 with identity of 73%, 71%, and 56%, respectively. Homology comparison of the deduced peptide sequences of the various GGPPSs revealed highly conserved domains. Both GGPPS727 and GGPPS191 from C. militaris contained all five domains highly conserved among prenyltransferases as well as two aspartate-rich DDXX(XX)D motifs in domains II and V, which have been proven essential for prenyltransferase activity. By constructing the phylogenetic tree of fungal GGPPSs, it was found that fungi-derived GGPPSs could be divided into three clusters, suggesting there were three types of GGPPSs in fungi. Each type may be responsible for a different metabolism. Three types of GGPPSs from C. militaris belonged to the different clusters separately. Expression analysis of three ggpps genes during the fruit body cultivation of C. militaris by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) suggested the ggpps 191 gene may be involved in the synthesis of carotenoids and ggpps 727 may be responsible for primary metabolism. This is the first report of the GGPPS from C. militaris, a valued edible and medicinal fungus. PMID:24941033

Lian, Tiantian; Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde

2014-01-01

131

Candida carvajalis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species from the Ecuadorian Amazon jungle.  

PubMed

In the course of a yeast biodiversity survey of different ecological habitats found in Ecuador, two yeast strains (CLQCA 20-011(T) and CLQCA20-014) were isolated from samples of rotten wood and fallen leaf debris collected at separate sites in the central region of the Ecuadorian Amazonia. These strains were found to represent a novel yeast species based on the sequences of their D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and their physiological characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis based on LSU D1/D2 sequences revealed this novel species to be most closely related to Candida asparagi, Candida fructus, Candida musae and two as yet undescribed Candida species, with the six yeast taxa collectively forming a distinct species group within the Clavispora clade. The species name of Candida carvajalis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains, with CLQCA 20-011(T) (NCYC 3509(T), CBS 11361(T)) designated as the type strain. PMID:19459983

James, Stephen A; Carvajal Barriga, Enrique Javier; Bond, Christopher J; Cross, Kathryn; Núñez, Norma C; Portero, Patricia B; Roberts, Ian N

2009-08-01

132

A new endophytic ascomycete from El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During a preliminary survey to report the biodiversity of endophytic fungi associated with leaves of some woody plants from El Eden Ecological Reserve in Mexico, a new fungus was isolated from Callicarpa acuminata leaves. Cultures of this fungus on PDA form a white floccose colony with a reddish-bro...

133

sterr. Z. Pilzk. 21 (2012) 1 A European record of Verrucaria marinomuralis (lichenised Ascomycetes,  

E-print Network

on seashore rocks that showed similarities with Verrucaria muralis ACH. and evidently represents V. marinomuralis HARADA. Verrucaria muralis is a common species on calcareous rocks and walls. Its distribution of Verrucaria muralis in connection with Japanese collections was provided by HARADA (1996), good descriptions

Wien, Universität

134

Molecular characterization of a partitivirus from the plant pathogenic ascomycete Rosellinia necatrix.  

PubMed

The W8 isolate of the phytopathogenic fungus, Rosellinia necatrix that causes white root rot, contained three segments of double-stranded (ds) RNA, namely L1, L2 and M. Purified viral particles of about 25 nm in diameter contained an RNA segment with almost the same mobility as M-dsRNA, but the band was sensitive to S1 nuclease. Molecular analysis revealed that M-dsRNA consisted of two (RNA 1 and RNA 2) similarly sized species of 2299 and 2279 bp excluding an interrupted poly (A or U) tail of 16-51 bp. The predicted largest open reading frame in RNA 1 and RNA 2 was similar to those of RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and coat protein (CP), respectively, encoded by the family Partitiviridae. The non-coding regions (NCR) of the two segments were similar (approximately 70% base identity) at the 5' end, but different at the 3' end. The NCR at the 3' end contained adenosine-uracil rich elements (AREs) in both segments. Northern analyses revealed RNA 1 and RNA 2 in mycelial and viral particle fractions. We coined the name Rosellinia necatrix partitivirus 1-W8 (RnPV1-W8) for M-dsRNA based on viral particle morphology and sequence information. PMID:15750865

Sasaki, A; Miyanishi, M; Ozaki, K; Onoue, M; Yoshida, K

2005-06-01

135

Evaluation of automated cell disruptor methods for oomycetous and ascomycetous model organisms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two automated cell disruptor-based methods for RNA extraction; disruption of thawed cells submerged in TRIzol Reagent (method QP), and direct disruption of frozen cells on dry ice (method CP), were optimized for a model oomycete, Phytophthora capsici, and compared with grinding in a mortar and pestl...

136

Characterisation of the mating-type locus in the genus Xanthoria (lichen-forming ascomycetes, Lecanoromycetes).  

PubMed

Conserved regions of mating-type genes were amplified in four representatives of the genus Xanthoria (X. parietina, X. polycarpa, X. flammea, and X. elegans) using PCR-based methods. The complete MAT locus, containing one ORF (MAT1-2-1) coding for a truncated HMG-box protein, and two partial flanking genes, were cloned by screening a genomic lambda phage library of the homothallic X. parietina. The flanking genes, a homologue of SLA2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a DNA lyase gene, served to amplify the two idiomorphs of the X. polycarpa MAT locus. Each idiomorph contains a single gene: MAT1-2-1 codes for a HMG-box protein, MAT1-1-1 encodes an alpha domain protein. The occurrence of mating-type genes in eight single spore isolates derived from one ascus was studied with a PCR assay. In the homothallic X. parietina a HMG fragment, but no alpha box fragment was found in all isolates, whereas in X. elegans, another homothallic species, all tested isolates contained a fragment of both idiomorphs. Conversely, isolates of the heterothallic X. polycarpa contained either a HMG or an alpha box fragment, but never both. PMID:16266815

Scherrer, Sandra; Zippler, Undine; Honegger, Rosmarie

2005-12-01

137

Mate-recognition and species boundaries in the ascomycetes Simon H. Martin & Emma T. Steenkamp &  

E-print Network

/Published online: 6 December 2012 # Mushroom Research Foundation 2012 Abstract Reproductive gene evolution is commonly in- voked as a source of reproductive isolation during specia- tion. This possibility has not been-recognition in this group are relatively simple: a "mating type" locus determines reproductive mode and sexual compatibility

138

Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).  

PubMed

Natural carotenoids have attracted great attention for their important beneficial effects on human health and food coloring function. Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus, is a potential source of natural carotenoids. The present study aimed to optimize the process parameters for carotenoid extraction from this mushroom. The effects of different methods of breaking the fungal cell wall and organic solvents were studied by the one-factor-at-a-time method. Subsequently, the process parameters including the duration of the extraction time, the number of extractions, and the solvent to solid ratio were optimized by using the Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions included using an acid-heating method to break the cell wall and later extracting three times, each for a 1 h duration, with a 4:1 mixture of acetone: petroleum ether and a solvent: solid ratio of 24:1. The carotenoid content varied from 2122.50 to 3847.50 µg/g dry weights in different commercially obtained fruit bodies of C. militaris. The results demonstrated that the C. militaris contained more carotenoid content in its fruit bodies than other known mushrooms. Stability monitoring by HPLC demonstrated that the carotenoids could be stored at 4°C for 40 d. It is suggested that the carotenoid content should be considered as the quality standard of commercial products of this valued mushroom. These findings will facilitate the exploration of carotenoids from C. militaris. PMID:24941034

Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde; Lian, Tiantian; Wang, Wenzhao; Dong, Cai-Hong

2014-01-01

139

Isolation and characterization of MAT genes in the symbiotic ascomycete Tuber melanosporum.  

PubMed

• The genome of Tuber melanosporum has recently been sequenced. Here, we used this information to identify genes involved in the reproductive processes of this edible fungus. The sequenced strain (Mel28) possesses only one of the two master genes required for mating, that is, the gene that codes for the high mobility group (HMG) transcription factor (MAT1-2-1), whereas it lacks the gene that codes for the protein containing the ?-box- domain (MAT1-1-1), suggesting that this fungus is heterothallic. • A PCR-based approach was initially employed to screen truffles for the presence of the MAT1-2-1 gene and amplify the conserved regions flanking the mating type (MAT) locus. The MAT1-1-1 gene was finally identified using primers designed from the conserved regions of strains that lack the MAT1-2-1 gene. • Mating type-specific primer pairs were developed to screen asci and gleba from truffles of different origins and to genotype single ascospores within the asci. These analyses provided definitive evidence that T. melanosporum is a heterothallic species with a MAT locus that is organized similarly to those of ancient fungal lineages. • A greater understanding of the reproductive mechanisms that exist in Tuber spp. allows for optimization of truffle plantation management strategies. PMID:20961294

Rubini, Andrea; Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Tisserant, Emilie; Arcioni, Sergio; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

2011-02-01

140

Ambrosiozyma kamigamensis sp. nov. and A. neoplatypodis sp. nov., two new ascomycetous yeasts from ambrosia beetle galleries.  

PubMed

Two new yeast species of the genus Ambrosiozyma are described on the basis of comparison of nucleotide sequences of large subunit of ribosomal DNA D1/D2 region. Ambrosiozyma kamigamensis and Ambrosiozyma neoplatypodis differ from Ambrosiozyma ambrosiae by 17 nucleotides (3.0%) and 16 nucleotides (2.8%), respectively, out of 565. The two species differ from each other by 13 nucleotides. Ambrosiozyma kamigamensis was isolated from galleries of the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, in specimens of Quercus laurifolia and Castanopsis cuspidata located in the southern part of Kyoto, Japan. Ambrosiozyma neoplatypodis was isolated from similar material, but only in Q. laurifolia. Ambrosiozyma kamigamensis can be distinguished from the other Ambrosiozyma species by the inability to assimilate erythritol, whereas A. neoplatypodis can be distinguished by the ability to assimilate both L: -arabinose and nitrate. The type strains of A. kamigamensis and A. neoplatypodis are JCM 14990(T) (=CBS 10899(T)) and JCM 14992(T) (=CBS 10900(T)), respectively. This is the first report of new Ambrosiozyma species since the genus was proposed. PMID:18516700

Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Benno, Yoshimi

2008-10-01

141

Lachancea lanzarotensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast isolated from grapes and wine fermentation in Lanzarote, Canary Islands.  

PubMed

During the characterization of the microbiota biodiversity associated with grapes and wineries in different bioclimatic conditions of the Canary Islands (Spain), a novel yeast species was isolated from Lanzarote, the driest wine-producing region of the archipelago. Seven strains isolated from grapes, microvinifications and wineries are described. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA gene and 5.8S-ITS regions revealed that the isolates were phylogenetically a member of the genus Lachancea and are closely related to Lachancea meyersii NRRL Y-27269(T) and Lachancea nothofagi NRRL Y-48670(T). On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and phylogenetic analysis, a novel ascosporogenous yeast species, Lachancea lanzarotensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is L2C-15(T) ( = CBS 12615(T) = CECT 13066(T)) which was isolated from grape berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Listán Negro red grape variety in Tinajo, Lanzarote. The MycoBank no. is MB 801390. PMID:23125316

González, Sara S; Alcoba-Flórez, Julia; Laich, Federico

2013-01-01

142

Structure and function of the mating-type locus in the homothallic ascomycete, Didymella zeae-maydis.  

PubMed

Homothallic Didymella zeae-maydis undergoes sexual reproduction by selfing. Sequence analysis of the mating type (MAT) locus from this fungus revealed that MAT carries both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes found in heterothallic Dothideomycetes, separated by ?1.0 kb of noncoding DNA. To understand the mechanistic basis of homothallism in D. zeae-maydis, each of the MAT genes was deleted and the effects on selfing and on ability to cross in a heterothallic manner were determined. The strain carrying an intact MAT1-1-1 but defective MAT1-2-1 gene (MAT1-1-1;?MAT1-2-1) was self-sterile, however strains carrying an intact MAT1-2-1 but defective MAT1-1-1 gene (?MAT1-1-1;MAT1-2-1), when selfed, showed delayed production of a few ascospores. Attempts to cross the two MAT deletion strains yielded fewer ?MAT1-1-1;MAT1-2-1 than MAT1-1-1;?MAT1-2-1 progeny and very few ascospores overall compared to WT selfs. This study demonstrates that, as in the other homothallic Dothideomycetes, both MAT genes are required for full fertility, but that, in contrast to other cases, the presence of a single MAT1-2-1 gene can induce homothallism, albeit inefficiently, in D. zeae-maydis. PMID:24385359

Yun, Sung-Hwan; Yoder, Olen C; Turgeon, B Gillian

2013-12-01

143

Toxin production in Pyrenophora teres, the ascomycete causing the net-spot blotch disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

Toxin production in a large number of Pyrenophora teres isolates have been investigated. During fungal growth, the pH of the medium decreases from 6.5 to about 3.0. Aspergillomarasmine A is the major toxin excreted into the culture medium. Nonenzymatic acid-catalyzed conversion of aspergillomarasmine A to anhydroaspergillomarasmine A proceeds at low pH and is prevented by repeated titration of the culture medium to pH 6.5. The four possible stereoisomers of N-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)aspartic acid have been chemically synthesized and their absolute configuration determined. From circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy and by measurements of specific optical rotation, the LL-form is identified as the stereoisomer produced by P. teres. Biosynthetic experiments using radioisotopes demonstrate that the LL-isomer of N-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl) aspartic acid is a direct precursor of aspergillomarasmine A. Consequently, L-configuration is assigned to the two corresponding asymmetric carbon atoms of aspergillomarasmine A. This is in contrast to earlier reports which had indicated D configuration. The phytotoxicity of anhydroaspergillomarasmine A is comparable with that of L-aspartic acid, whereas LL-N-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)aspartic acid exerts strong phytotoxicity in the bioassays as shown previously for aspergillomarasmine A. The amount of LL-N-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)aspartic acid which accumulates in the P. teres cultures is low, indicating that aspergillomarasmine A is the toxin which plays the major role in the pathological changes associated with the barley net-spot blotch disease. PMID:2071605

Friis, P; Olsen, C E; Møller, B L

1991-07-15

144

Molecular Evidence that the Asexual Industrial Fungus Trichoderma reesei is a Clonal Derivative of the Ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of the important cellulase producing asexual fungus Trichoderma reesei to its putative teleomorphic (sexual) ancestor Hypocrea jecorina and other species of the Trichoderma sect. Longibrachiatum was studied by PCR-fingerprinting and sequence analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA region containing the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene. The differences in the corresponding ITS sequences

K. Kuhls; E. Lieckfeldt; G. J. Samuels; W. Kovacs; W. Meyer; O. Petrini; W. Gams; T. Borner; C. P. Kubicek

1996-01-01

145

Ascomycetes of New Zealand 5. Mycocalicium schefflerae sp. nov., its ascal ultrastructure and Phialophora anamorph GARY J. SAMUELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycocalicium schefflerae sp. nov. is proposed. Colonies derived from isolated ascospores produced a Phialophora anamorph. Ultrastructure of the ascus was studied and found to be of the Parmelia type. Taxonomy of the Mycocaliciaceae is discussed.

Dianne E. Buchanan

1983-01-01

146

Genome and physiology of the ascomycete filamentous fungus Xeromyces bisporus, the most xerophilic organism isolated to date.  

PubMed

Xeromyces bisporus can grow on sugary substrates down to 0.61, an extremely low water activity. Its genome size is approximately 22?Mb. Gene clusters encoding for secondary metabolites were conspicuously absent; secondary metabolites were not detected experimentally. Thus, in its 'dry' but nutrient-rich environment, X.?bisporus appears to have relinquished abilities for combative interactions. Elements to sense/signal osmotic stress, e.g. HogA pathway, were present in X.?bisporus. However, transcriptomes at optimal (??0.89) versus low aw (0.68) revealed differential expression of only a few stress-related genes; among these, certain (not all) steps for glycerol synthesis were upregulated. Xeromyces bisporus increased glycerol production during hypo- and hyper-osmotic stress, and much of its wet weight comprised water and rinsable solutes; leaked solutes may form a protective slime. Xeromyces bisporus and other food-borne moulds increased membrane fatty acid saturation as water activity decreased. Such modifications did not appear to be transcriptionally regulated in X.?bisporus; however, genes modulating sterols, phospholipids and the cell wall were differentially expressed. Xeromyces bisporus was previously proposed to be a 'chaophile', preferring solutes that disorder biomolecular structures. Both X.?bisporus and the closely related xerophile, Xerochrysium xerophilum, with low membrane unsaturation indices, could represent a phylogenetic cluster of 'chaophiles'. PMID:25142400

Leong, Su-Lin L; Lantz, Henrik; Pettersson, Olga V; Frisvad, Jens C; Thrane, Ulf; Heipieper, Hermann J; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Grabherr, Manfred; Pettersson, Mats; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Schnürer, Johan

2014-08-20

147

Wickerhamomyces arborarius f.a., sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species found in arboreal habitats on three different continents.  

PubMed

Five strains representing a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Wickerhamomyces were independently isolated from Ecuador, Taiwan and the USA. One strain (CLQCA 10-161(T)) was isolated from the white flower of an unidentified plant species collected in the Maquipucuna cloud forest reserve, near Quito, in Ecuador. A second strain (GY7L12) was isolated from the leaf of a Chinese sumac or nutgall tree (Rhus chinensis 'roxburghiana') collected in the Taoyuan mountain area, Kachsiung, in Taiwan. Three additional strains (A543, A546 and A563) were isolated from two species of wood-boring beetle (Xyleborus glabratus and Xyleborinus saxeseni) collected near Clyo, Georgia, USA. Analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene indicated that the novel species belongs to the genus Wickerhamomyces, and is most closely related to Wickerhamomyces sydowiorum, an insect-associated species predominantly found in South Africa. The North American and Taiwanese strains have identical internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and can be distinguished from the Ecuadorian strain based on a single nucleotide substitution in the ITS1 region. The species name of Wickerhamomyces arborarius f.a., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains, with CLQCA 10-161(T) (?=?CBS 12941(T)?=?NCYC 3743(T)) designated the type strain. PMID:24453230

James, Stephen A; Barriga, Enrique Javier Carvajal; Barahona, Patricia Portero; Harrington, Thomas C; Lee, Ching-Fu; Bond, Christopher J; Roberts, Ian N

2014-03-01

148

A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata  

PubMed Central

Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14?500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S+R+), infected asymptomatic plants (S–R+), and healthy plants (S–R–). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S+R+ plants compared with S–R– plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040

Camps, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Léon, Céline; Gomès, Eric; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

2010-01-01

149

Small, basic antifungal proteins secreted from filamentous ascomycetes: a comparative study regarding expression, structure, function and potential application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptides and proteins with antimicrobial activity are produced throughout all kingdoms in nature, from prokaryotes to lower and higher eukaryotes, including fungi, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. These proteins contribute to an important constitutive or induced defense mechanism of the producer against microorganisms. According to their variety in structure and function, these proteins are classified arbitrarily into groups that are based

F. Marx

2004-01-01

150

Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSD1 orthologues are essential for host infection by the ascomycete plant pathogens Colletotrichum lagenarium and Magnaporthe grisea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fungal plant pathogens have evolved diverse strate- gies to overcome the multilayered plant defence responses that confront them upon host invasion. Here we show that pathogenicity of the cucumber anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum lagenarium, and the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, requires a gene orthologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSD1, a regulator of cell wall assembly. Screening for C. lagenarium insertional

Shigeyuki Tanaka; Kaori Yamada; Kayo Yabumoto; Satoshi Fujii; Aurélie Huser; Gento Tsuji; Hironori Koga; Koji Dohi; Masashi Mori; Tomonori Shiraishi; Richard O'Connell; Yasuyuki Kubo

2007-01-01

151

Various grain substrates for the production of fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds of the medicinal caterpillar mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).  

PubMed

In this study, several grains such as brown rice (Br), plumule rice (Pr), wheat (W) and pearl barley (Pb) supplemented with 1% (w/w) peptone (P), yeast extract (Ye), ammonia sulfate (As), and monosodium glutamate (Mg) as a nitrogen source, respectively, were used to produce fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds of two strains of Cordyceps militaris. Among these grain substrates, the substrate most suitable to mycelial growth was Pb+Ye for C. militaris H and L. The mushroom strains colonized this substrate in 12.8 and 12.6 days, respectively. For C. militaris L, the fewest days were required for primordial initiation on Br+Ye and Pr+P substrates. The highest yield and biological efficiency was observed with Pb substrate (25.16 g/bottle and 87.36%) and Br+P substrate (21.84 g/bottle and 75.83%) for C. militaris H and L, respectively. In the fruiting bodies of C. militaris H, the highest cordycepin content was cultivated on W+Mg substrate (25.07 mg/g), the highest mannitol content was cultivated with Pr+Mg (153.21 mg/g) and Pr (151.65 mg/g) substrates, and the highest adenosine content was cultivated with Pr+Ye (0.94 mg/g) and Pb+Ye (0.90 mg/g) substrates. In the fruiting bodies of C. militaris L, the highest cordycepin content was cultivated with W+Mg substrate (22.14 mg/g); the highest mannitol content was cultivated with Pb substrate (189.33 mg/g); and the highest adenosine content was cultivated with Pb+Ye substrate (0.71 mg/g). PMID:25404221

Liang, Zeng-Chin; Liang, Chih-Hung; Wu, Chiu-Yeh

2014-01-01

152

Contribución al estudio de los ascomicetes bitunicados de Cataluña. Contribution to the study of Bitunicate Ascomycetes in Catalonia (NE Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

El grupo de los Loculoascomicetes reúne aquellos ascomicetes con ascomas ascostromáticos, de ontogenia ascolocular; ascos bitunicados, con dehiscencia fisitunicada y ascósporas casi siempre septadas.\\u000aEl principal objetivo de este trabajo ha consistido en elaborar un catálogo de los Ascomicetes bitunicados no liquenificados ni liquenícolas de Cataluña, destinado a dar a conocer la diversidad florística, sobre todo de zonas áridas o

Dolores Sierra López

2006-01-01

153

Two novel ascomycetous yeast species, Wickerhamomyces scolytoplatypi sp. nov. and Cyberlindnera xylebori sp. nov., isolated from ambrosia beetle galleries.  

PubMed

Thirteen strains of yeasts were isolated from ambrosia beetle galleries at several sites in Japan. Based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene of the yeasts, 10 strains were shown to represent a novel species of the genus Wickerhamomyces, described as Wickerhamomyces scolytoplatypi sp. nov. (type strain NBRC 11029(T) = CBS 12186(T)), and were closely related to Wickerhamomyces hampshirensis. The three other strains represented a novel species of the genus Cyberlindnera, described as Cyberlindnera xylebori sp. nov. (type strain NBRC 11048(T) = CBS 12187(T)), and were closely related to Cyberlindnera euphorbiiphila. It is suggested that these species are associated with ambrosia beetles and we consider ambrosia beetle galleries as good sources of novel yeasts. PMID:23667144

Ninomiya, Shinya; Mikata, Kozaburo; Kajimura, Hisashi; Kawasaki, Hiroko

2013-07-01

154

Molecular analysis of the split cox1 gene from the Basidiomycota Agrocybe aegerita: relationship of its introns with homologous Ascomycota introns and divergence levels from common ancestral copies.  

PubMed

The Basidiomycota Agrocybe aegerita (Aa) mitochondrial cox1 gene (6790 nucleotides), encoding a protein of 527aa (58377Da), is split by four large subgroup IB introns possessing site-specific endonucleases assumed to be involved in intron mobility. When compared to other fungal COX1 proteins, the Aa protein is closely related to the COX1 one of the Basidiomycota Schizophyllum commune (Sc). This clade reveals a relationship with the studied Ascomycota ones, with the exception of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp) which ranges in an out-group position compared with both higher fungi divisions. When comparison is extended to other kingdoms, fungal COX1 sequences are found to be more related to algae and plant ones (more than 57.5% aa similarity) than to animal sequences (53.6% aa similarity), contrasting with the previously established close relationship between fungi and animals, based on comparisons of nuclear genes. The four Aa cox1 introns are homologous to Ascomycota or algae cox1 introns sharing the same location within the exonic sequences. The percentages of identity of the intronic nucleotide sequences suggest a possible acquisition by lateral transfers of ancestral copies or of their derived sequences. These identities extend over the whole intronic sequences, arguing in favor of a transfer of the complete intron rather than a transfer limited to the encoded ORF. The intron i4 shares 74% of identity, at the nucleotidic level, with the Podospora anserina (Pa) intron i14, and up to 90.5% of aa similarity between the encoded proteins, i.e. the highest values reported to date between introns of two phylogenetically distant species. This low divergence argues for a recent lateral transfer between the two species. On the contrary, the low sequence identities (below 36%) observed between Aa i1 and the homologous Sp i1 or Prototheca wickeramii (Pw) i1 suggest a long evolution time after the separation of these sequences. The introns i2 and i3 possessed intermediate percentages of identity with their homologous Ascomycota introns. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence and molecular organization of a mitochondrial cox1 gene of any member of the Basidiomycota division. PMID:9767103

Gonzalez, P; Barroso, G; Labarère, J

1998-10-01

155

Phylogenetic analysis of ascomycete yeasts that form coenzyme Q-9 and the proposal of the new genera Babjeviella, Meyerozyma, Millerozyma, Priceomyces and Scheffersomyces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Species assigned to the genera Debaryomyces, Lodderomyces, Spathaspora and Yamadazyma, as well as selected species of Pichia and Candida that also form coenzyme Q-9, were phylogenetically analyzed from the combined sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit and the small subunit rRNA genes....

156

DNA Sequence Characterization and Molecular Evolution of MAT1 and MAT2 Mating-Type Loci of the Self-Compatible Ascomycete Mold Neosartorya fischeri?  

PubMed Central

Degenerate PCR and chromosome-walking approaches were used to identify mating-type (MAT) genes and flanking regions from the homothallic (sexually self-fertile) euascomycete fungus Neosartorya fischeri, a close relative of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Both putative alpha- and high-mobility-group-domain MAT genes were found within the same genome, providing a functional explanation for self-fertility. However, unlike those in many homothallic euascomycetes (Pezizomycotina), the genes were not found adjacent to each other and were termed MAT1 and MAT2 to recognize the presence of distinct loci. Complete copies of putative APN1 (DNA lyase) and SLA2 (cytoskeleton assembly control) genes were found bordering the MAT1 locus. Partial copies of APN1 and SLA2 were also found bordering the MAT2 locus, but these copies bore the genetic hallmarks of pseudogenes. Genome comparisons revealed synteny over at least 23,300 bp between the N. fischeri MAT1 region and the A. fumigatus MAT locus region, but no such long-range conservation in the N. fischeri MAT2 region was evident. The sequence upstream of MAT2 contained numerous candidate transposase genes. These results demonstrate a novel means involving the segmental translocation of a chromosomal region by which the ability to undergo self-fertilization may be acquired. The results are also discussed in relation to their significance in indicating that heterothallism may be ancestral within the Aspergillus section Fumigati. PMID:17384199

Rydholm, C.; Dyer, P. S.; Lutzoni, F.

2007-01-01

157

Isolation and purification of a polysaccharide from the caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) fruit bodies and its immunomodulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages.  

PubMed

A novel polysaccharide (CP2-S) was purified from Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-400 high-resolution chromatography. The polysaccharide had a molecular weight of 5.938 × 10(6) g/mol and was mainly composed of glucose. CP2-S had carbohydrate content estimated to be 100% using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. Immunostimulating experiments in vitro indicated that CP2-S could stimulate nitric oxide production, phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and secretion of interleukin-1? and interleukin-2 of macrophages, suggesting that this water-soluble polysaccharide from the fruit body of C. militaris is a natural immunostimulating polysaccharide with potential for further application. PMID:24941166

Zhu, Lina; Tang, Qingjiu; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Zhong; Gao, Xinhua; Wang, Shiping; Wang, Zhaolong

2014-01-01

158

Cch1 and Mid1 Are Functionally Required for Vegetative Growth under Low-Calcium Conditions in the Phytopathogenic Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea  

PubMed Central

In the filamentous phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea, the Ca2+/calcineurin signaling cascade has been shown to play an important role in fungal growth, differentiation, and virulence. This study deals with the functional characterization of two components of this pathway, the putative calcium channel proteins Cch1 and Mid1. The cch1 and mid1 genes were deleted, and single and double knockout mutants were analyzed during different stages of the fungal life cycle. Our data indicate that Cch1 and Mid1 are functionally required for vegetative growth under conditions of low extracellular calcium, since the growth of both deletion mutants is strongly impaired when they are exposed to the Ca2+-chelating agents EGTA and 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). The impact of external Ca2+ was investigated by supplementing with CaCl2 and the ionophore A23187, both of which resulted in elevated growth for all mutants. However, deletion of either gene had no impact on germination, sporulation, hyphal morphology, or virulence. By use of the aequorin reporter system to measure intracellular calcium levels, no differences between the mutant strains and the wild type were obtained. Localization studies revealed a subcellular distribution of the Mid1–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in network-like filaments, probably the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, indicating that Mid1 is not a plasma membrane-located calcium channel in B. cinerea. PMID:23475703

Harren, Karin

2013-01-01

159

Starmerella aceti f.a., sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species isolated from fungus garden of the leafcutter ant Acromyrmex balzani.  

PubMed

A novel yeast species was recovered from the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The growth of the novel yeast species is limited by its ability to metabolize only a few carbon and nitrogenous compounds. A remarkable characteristic of this strain is the vigorous growth in 1?% acetic acid. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene showed that the novel species belongs to the Starmerella clade and is phenotypically and genetically divergent from currently recognized species in this clade. Described here as Starmerella aceti f.a., sp. nov., it differs by 37 nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region from Starmerella jinningensis CBS 11864(T), the most closely related species. The type strain of Starmerella aceti sp. nov. is TO 125(T) (?=?CBMAI 1594(T)?=?CBS 13086(T)). PMID:24566828

Melo, Weilan G P; Arcuri, Silvio L; Rodrigues, Andre; Morais, Paula B; Meirelles, Lucas A; Pagnocca, Fernando C

2014-04-01

160

A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).  

PubMed

Cordyceps militaris is one of the most popular mushrooms and nutraceuticals in Eastern Asia. This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and fungi), whereas that from the fermented mycelia showed selective activity. The antioxidant potential of two extracts is significant in the four tested systems in vitro, including total antioxidant capacity, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. The fruiting bodies had stronger DPPH· radical scavenging activity, whereas the fermented mycelia had stronger total antioxidant capacity, chelating ability, and reducing power, which suggested that they had their own role and worked in different ways. Both extracts present strong activities against tumor cell line A549. The results obtained indicated that extracts from C. militaris might be valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic natural sources and seemed to be applicable in health and medicine as well as in the food industry. PMID:25271983

Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Lian, Tiantian

2014-01-01

161

Cloning of mating-type gene MAT1-1 from the caterpillar medicinal mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) using TAIL-PCR technology.  

PubMed

Cordyceps militaris and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), 2 well-known traditional Chinese medicines, contain the same bioactive components and share a similar developmental process. In this study, one C. militaris strain preserved in our laboratory was proven to be a MAT1 mating-type strain using a polymerase chain reaction-based mating-type assay. A 5000-bp nucleotide sequence of the mating-type MAT1-1 from C. militaris was amplified by thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction, but genes within the mating-type MAT1-2 remain undetectable. Sequence analysis shows that the mating-type gene MAT1-1 idiomorph contains 2 genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2. The MAT1-1-1 gene consists of 1480-bp nucleotides that encode 456 amino acids and contain the conserved a-box domain interrupted by 2 introns; the MAT1-1-2 gene consists of 1066 nucleotides that encode 377 amino acids interrupted by one intron. The intervening distance between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2 is 778 bp. The C. militaris MAT1-1 idiomorph organization is the same as that of Cordyceps takaomontana. The MAT1-1 mating-type idiomorph of both Cordyceps species lacks the MAT1-1-3 gene, which is typically present in Pyrenomycetes. These studies provide some insights for further study of the morphological development of C. militaris and will eventually benefit the domestication of O. sinensis. PMID:25271980

Cong, Wei-Ran; Gong, Zhen-Hua; Shi, Dan-Dan; Guo, Hui; Zhou, Xuanwei

2014-01-01

162

The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits ?-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses  

PubMed Central

Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g?1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g?1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg?1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative ?-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., ?-l-rhamnopyranoside and ?-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipilä, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin

2012-01-01

163

Appendix 4. Supplementary Electronic Material -A list of all of the plant species from each community included in the analyses, together with the predicted pollinator [Euclidean distances to  

E-print Network

bistortoides fly X Potentilla anserina fly butterfly Potentilla glandulosa fly fly X Potentilla gracilis bee/hawkmoth Arnica cordifolia butterfly X Arnica parryi bee butterfly X Arnica rydbergii butterfly X Astragalus

Northampton, University of

164

Fungal relationships and structural identity of their ectomycorrhizae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aproximately 5,000–6,000 fungal species form ectomyorrhizae (ECM), the symbiotic organs with roots of predominantly trees. The contributing fungi are not evenly distributed over the system of fungi. Within Basidiomycota exclusively Hymenomycetes and within Ascomycota exclusively Ascomycetes contribute to the symbiosis. Hymenomycetes play a big part, Ascomycetes a minor role; Zygomycetes only form exceptionally ECM. Responsible for ascomycetous ECM are mostly

Reinhard Agerer

2006-01-01

165

Natural Antioxidant Constituents from Selected Aromatic Plants and Their Antimicrobial Activity Against Selected Pathogenic Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aromatic plants contain natural antioxidant constituents such as phenolic compounds, which have attracted a great deal of public and scientific interest because of their health- -promoting effects as antioxidants. Five plants, Filipendula ulmaria (meadow sweet), Cratae- gus monogyna (hawthorn), Polygonum aviculare (polygonum), Potentilla anserina (silverweed), and Pelargonium purpureum (little robin), have been examined in order to determine their phenolic

Charalampos Proestos; Ioannis Spyridon Boziaris; Maria Kapsokefalou; Michael Komaitis

2008-01-01

166

The Ecohydrological Implications of a Restored Rangeland in Central Texas  

E-print Network

60 ? 1 2 6 V, S Galium palustre 60 ? 3 4 9 V, Bs Poa pratensis 60 3 3 5 V, Bs Potentilla anserina 60 ? 2 5 7 V Potentilla reptans 60 3 5 5 V, Bs Ranunculus repens 60 ? 3 5 7 (V), Bs Trifolium repens 60 ? 3 4 5 (V), Bs Calamagrostis...

Haley, Patrick 1989-

2012-04-22

167

Antimicrobial activity of Potentilla species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial and antifungal activities of aqueous extracts obtained from aerial parts of Potentilla species: P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis var.‘MissWillmott’, P. recta, P. rupestris and P. thuringiaca were investigated. The extracts showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against H. pylori (MIC=0.1÷0.5 mg\\/ml).

Micha? Tomczyk; Katarzyna Leszczy?ska; Piotr Jakoniuk

2008-01-01

168

Antimicrobial activity of Potentilla species.  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antifungal activities of aqueous extracts obtained from aerial parts of Potentilla species: P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis var.'Miss Willmott', P. recta, P. rupestris and P. thuringiaca were investigated. The extracts showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against H. pylori (MIC=0.1/0.5 mg/ml). PMID:18664379

Tomczyk, Micha?; Leszczy?ska, Katarzyna; Jakoniuk, Piotr

2008-12-01

169

Observations on chytridiaceous parasites of Phanerogams  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A Physoderma on Agropyron repens, common quack grass, infects in the laboratory all other congeneric hosts used.2.Within the Tribe Hordeae, to which Agropyron belongs, representatives of nine genera support growth of some phase of the fungus. The roseaceous host Potentilla anserina is also infected. Other plants associated in the field with infected Agropyron and known to harbor Physoderma are not

F. K. Sparrow; Joyce E. Griffin

1964-01-01

170

Nutritional significance of two important root foods (springbank clover and pacific silverweed) used by native people on the coast of British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roots of Pacific silvenveed (Potentilla anserina spp. pacifica) and the rhizomes of springbank clover (Trifolium wormskioldii) are two foods known to have been used extensively by native groups of British Columbia. Reported here are nutrient content and scores on acceptability of these foods gathered and prepared with two methods used by the Nitinaht and Nuxalk (Bella Coola) Indians. It

H. V. Kuhnlein; N. J. Turner; P. D. Kluckner

1982-01-01

171

A new species of Jahnulales from Las Ilusiones Lagoon, Tabasco, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During a study on biodiversity of freshwater ascomycetes from an urban tropical lagoon, an ascomycete with similar morphology to species of Jahnulales was obtained. Smooth surface test blocks of Pinus sp., Bucida sp., Cedrela sp. and Tabebuia sp. were submerged in pairs close to a private house whar...

172

Microfungi potentially disfiguring CCA-treated wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work reported here investigated the fungal community inhabiting from the CCA-treated radiata pine board stored at the yard of a commercial treatment plant in Incheon, Korea. From five treated boards, 22 fungal species were isolated and then characterized using both traditional morphology and molecular identification. The species identified included 16 ascomycetes and six basidiomycetes. Ascomycetous fungi predominated over basidiomycetous

J.-J. Kim; S.-M. Kang; Y.-S. Choi; G.-H. Kim

2007-01-01

173

On the road to understanding truffles in the underground  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete Tubermelanosporum has recently been published and this has given researchers unique opportunities to learn more about the biology of this precious edible fungus. The epigeous ascomycete lives in Mediterranean countries in symbiotic interaction with roots of broad-leaf trees such as oaks and hazel. A most important new finding was the single mating type locus

Ursula Kües; Francis Martin

2011-01-01

174

Biodiversity of freshwater fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 600 species of freshwater fungi with more known from temperate, as compared to tropical regions. These includeca 340 ascomycetes, 300 deuteromycetes, and a number of lower fungi which are not discussed here.Aniptodera, Annulatascus, Massarina, Ophioceras andPseudohalonectria are common freshwater ascomycetes, which appear to be well adapted for this lifestyle either in their ascospore types or their

T K Goh; K D Hyde

1996-01-01

175

Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from blood of a bird captured in the Saint Croix River Valley.  

PubMed

Field investigations were conducted to further evaluate the role of birds in the maintenance and dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi. Blood specimens were taken from 39 passerine birds of 17 species captured during June 1991 at the Saint Croix National Riverway in Wisconsin, and one isolate, WI91-23, was cultured from an adult song sparrow (Melospiza melodia). This isolate was shown to be infectious for Peromyscus leucopus and Mesocricetus auratus (golden hamster). Isolate WI91-23 was confirmed as B. burgdorferi by immunofluorescence assay by using species-specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibodies H3TS and H5332 and anti-OspB antibody H5TS. Isolate WI91-23 was compared with Borrelia anserina Es, Borrelia hermsii MAN-1, and other B. burgdorferi strains (ATCC 53210, CT-1, and Catharus fuscescens [veery] liver 10293). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of in situ-lysed spirochetes revealed that the DNA plasmid profile of WI91-23 was most similar to those of plasmids from B. burgdorferi and most different from those of plasmids from B. anserina and B. hermsii. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the protein profile of WI91-23 was like that of other B. burgdorferi strains studied, with dominant proteins corresponding to OspA and OspB, and that it differed from the protein profiles of B. anserina and B. hermsii. These findings indicate that passerine birds may serve as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi. PMID:8370728

McLean, R G; Ubico, S R; Hughes, C A; Engstrom, S M; Johnson, R C

1993-08-01

176

Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from blood of a bird captured in the Saint Croix River Valley.  

PubMed Central

Field investigations were conducted to further evaluate the role of birds in the maintenance and dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi. Blood specimens were taken from 39 passerine birds of 17 species captured during June 1991 at the Saint Croix National Riverway in Wisconsin, and one isolate, WI91-23, was cultured from an adult song sparrow (Melospiza melodia). This isolate was shown to be infectious for Peromyscus leucopus and Mesocricetus auratus (golden hamster). Isolate WI91-23 was confirmed as B. burgdorferi by immunofluorescence assay by using species-specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibodies H3TS and H5332 and anti-OspB antibody H5TS. Isolate WI91-23 was compared with Borrelia anserina Es, Borrelia hermsii MAN-1, and other B. burgdorferi strains (ATCC 53210, CT-1, and Catharus fuscescens [veery] liver 10293). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of in situ-lysed spirochetes revealed that the DNA plasmid profile of WI91-23 was most similar to those of plasmids from B. burgdorferi and most different from those of plasmids from B. anserina and B. hermsii. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the protein profile of WI91-23 was like that of other B. burgdorferi strains studied, with dominant proteins corresponding to OspA and OspB, and that it differed from the protein profiles of B. anserina and B. hermsii. These findings indicate that passerine birds may serve as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi. Images PMID:8370728

McLean, R G; Ubico, S R; Hughes, C A; Engstrom, S M; Johnson, R C

1993-01-01

177

Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts  

E-print Network

The fission yeast clade—comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus—occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative ...

Regev, Aviv

178

Yeast (in press) Published online in Wiley InterScience  

E-print Network

.1002/yea.1512 Review Comparative genomics of the environmental stress response in ascomycete fungi Audrey P, WI 53706, USA *Correspondence to: Audrey P. Gasch, 3426 Genetics­Biotechnology Center, 425-g Henry

Gasch, Audrey P.

179

Microsatellite markers for Sclerotinia subarctica nom. prov., a new vegetable pathogen of the High North  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia subarctica nom. prov. In Alaska, this pathogen causes white mold vegetable diseases sympatrically with the cosmopolitan and closely related Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Eighteen alleles were observed across the 4...

180

Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina from multigene sequence analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most known species of the subphylum Saccharomycotina (budding ascomycetous yeasts) have now been placed in phylogenetically defined clades following multigene sequence analysis. Terminal clades, which are usually well supported from bootstrap analysis, are viewed as phylogenetically circumscribed ge...

181

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase CYP53 Family in Fungi: Comparative Structural and Evolutionary Analysis and Its Role as a Common Alternative Anti-Fungal Drug Target  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as a drug target against pathogenic microbes has been explored because of their stereo- and regio-specific oxidation activity. We aimed to assess the CYP53 family's role as a common alternative drug target against animal (including human) and plant pathogenic fungi and its role in fungal-mediated wood degradation. Genome-wide analysis of fungal species revealed the presence of CYP53 members in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. Basidiomycetes had a higher number of CYP53 members in their genomes than ascomycetes. Only two CYP53 subfamilies were found in ascomycetes and six subfamilies in basidiomycetes, suggesting that during the divergence of phyla ascomycetes lost CYP53 P450s. According to phylogenetic and gene-structure analysis, enrichment of CYP53 P450s in basidiomycetes occurred due to the extensive duplication of CYP53 P450s in their genomes. Numerous amino acids (103) were found to be conserved in the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s, against only seven in basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s. 3D-modelling and active-site cavity mapping data revealed that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s have a highly conserved protein structure whereby 78% amino acids in the active-site cavity were found to be conserved. Because of this rigid nature of ascomycetes CYP53 P450s' active site cavity, any inhibitor directed against this P450 family can serve as a common anti-fungal drug target, particularly toward pathogenic ascomycetes. The dynamic nature of basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s at a gene and protein level indicates that these P450s are destined to acquire novel functions. Functional analysis of CYP53 P450s strongly supported our hypothesis that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s ability is limited for detoxification of toxic molecules, whereas basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s play an additional role, i.e. involvement in degradation of wood and its derived components. This study is the first report on genome-wide comparative structural (gene and protein structure-level) and evolutionary analysis of a fungal P450 family. PMID:25222113

Jawallapersand, Poojah; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Kova?i?, Lidija; Stojan, Jure; Komel, Radovan; Pakala, Suresh Babu; Kraševec, Nada; Syed, Khajamohiddin

2014-01-01

182

The Genome and Development-Dependent Transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: A Window into Fungal Evolution  

PubMed Central

Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ?13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion mutant, showing functional conservation of this developmental regulator. PMID:24068976

Traeger, Stefanie; Altegoer, Florian; Freitag, Michael; Gabaldon, Toni; Kempken, Frank; Kumar, Abhishek; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Stajich, Jason E.; Nowrousian, Minou

2013-01-01

183

The genome and development-dependent transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: a window into fungal evolution.  

PubMed

Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ~13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion mutant, showing functional conservation of this developmental regulator. PMID:24068976

Traeger, Stefanie; Altegoer, Florian; Freitag, Michael; Gabaldon, Toni; Kempken, Frank; Kumar, Abhishek; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Stajich, Jason E; Nowrousian, Minou

2013-01-01

184

Fungal microflora biodiversity as a function of pollution in Oued Sebou (Morocco).  

PubMed

An inventory of the fungal microflora present in sediments collected at 11 sites along Oued Sebou has been established. The influence of some climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall) and of pollution on the composition of the fungal communities has been questioned. Emericella nidulans, Eurotium amstelodami, Neosartotya fisheri var. glabrum (Ascomycetes), Dreschslera biseptata (Dematiaceae), Penicillium citrinum (Mucedinaceae) and Phoma sp. (Sphaeropsidale) can be considered as strains sensitive to pollution. Penicillium janthelinum, Trichoderma koningii (Mucedinaceae) and Candida albicans (Yeast) were found only at the most polluted sites; Talaromyces flavus (Ascomycete) Rhodotorula rubra, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Yeasts) and Fusarium oxysporum (Tuberculariales) were more often found at heavily polluted sites than at lightly polluted ones. PMID:9253167

Sage, L; Bennasser, L; Steiman, R; Seigle-Murandi, F

1997-08-01

185

Molecular data and ploidal levels indicate several putative allopolyploidization events in the genus Potentilla (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Several naturally occurring hybrids in Potentilla (Rosaceae) have been reported, but no molecular evidence has so far been available to test these hypotheses of hybridization. We have compared a nuclear and a chloroplast gene tree to identify topological incongruences that may indicate hybridization events in the genus. Furthermore, the monophyly and phylogenetic position of the proposed segregated genera Argentina, Ivesia and Horkelia have been tested. The systematic signal from the two morphological characters, style- and anther shape, has also been investigated by ancestral state reconstruction, to elucidate how well these characters concur with the results of the molecular phylogenies. Six major clades, Anserina, Alba, Fragarioides, Reptans, ivesioid and Argentea, have been identified within genus Potentilla. Horkelia, Ivesia and Horkeliella (the ivesioid clade), form a monophyletic group nested within Potentilla. Furthermore, the origin of the proposed segregated genus Argentina (the Anserina clade) is uncertain but not in conflict with a new generic status of the group. We also found style morphology to be an informative character that reflects the phylogenetic relationships within Potentilla. Five well-supported incongruences were found between the nuclear and the chloroplast phylogenies, and three of these involved polyploid taxa. However, further investigations, using low copy molecular markers, are required to infer the phylogeny of these species and to test the hypothesis of hybrid origin. PMID:21603100

Töpel, Mats; Lundberg, Magnus; Eriksson, Torsten; Eriksen, Bente

2011-01-01

186

Mla- and Rom1-mediated control of microRNA398 and chloroplast copper/zinc superoxide dismutase regulates cell death in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley Mla (Mildew resistance locus a) confers allele-specific interactions with natural variants of the ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causal agent of powdery mildew disease. Significant reprogramming of host gene expression occurs upon infection by this obligate biotrop...

187

Cryptic speciation and recombination in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus, like approximately one- third of ascomycete fungi, is thought to be cosmopolitan and clonal because it has uniform asexual morphology. A. flavus produces af latoxin on nuts, grains, and cotton, and assump- tions about its life history are being used to develop strategies for its biological control. We tested the assumptions of clonality and conspecificity in a sample

DAVID M. GEISER; J OHN I. PITT; JOHN W. TAYLOR

1998-01-01

188

Intracellular accommodation of microbes by plants: a common developmental program for symbiosis and disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cells engage in mutualistic and parasitic endosymbioses with a wide variety of microoganisms, ranging from Gram-negative (Rhizobium, Nostoc) and Gram-positive bacteria (Frankia), to oomycetes (Phytophthora), Chytridiomycetes, Zygomycetes (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) and true fungi (Erysiphe, ascomycete; Puccinia, basidiomycete). Endosymbiosis is characterised by the 'symbiosome', a compartment within host cells in which the symbiotic microorganism is either partially or completely enclosed

Martin Parniske

2000-01-01

189

Phylogeny and redescription of Dolabra nepheliae on rambutan and litchi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) are tropical trees in the Sapindaceae that produce delicious edible fruits and are increasingly cultivated in tropical areas. Recently these trees have been afflicted with a stem canker disease caused by the ascomycete Dolabra nep...

190

Nitrous oxide production by soil microscopic fungi Production d'oxyde nitreux par les champignons microscopiques du sol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of soil microscopic fungi of classes Deuteromycetes and Ascomycetes were capable to produce nitrous oxide at the conditions of reduced pressure of oxygen and the presence of nitrite and nitrite with peptone in media. Few strains of Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani released of nitrous oxide on the medium with nitrate. Most active producers of nitrous oxide belonged

KURAKOV Alexander

191

Yarrowia van der Walt & von Arx (1980)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Yarrowia and is to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus has just one described species, Y. lipolytica, and is commonly known by its asexual name Candida lipolytica. The species is widely distributed in name and...

192

Identity and biodegradative abilities of yeasts isolated from plants growing in an arid climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants harvested in the Canary Islands Lanzarote and Fuerteventura were analyzed for the yeasts inhabiting their surface. Half of the isolates (22 out of 44) were identified as Debaryomyces hansenii. Black ascomycetes, viz. Hortaea werneckii and two Hormonema species were represented by 7 strains. Basidiomycetous yeasts, viz. Cryptococcus sp. (8 strains), Rhodotorula sp. (5 strains), Cerinosterus cyanescens (1 strain) and

Wouter J. Middelhoven

1997-01-01

193

Identification of potentially safe promising fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide natural food colorants using chemotaxonomic rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Colorants derived from natural sources look set to overtake synthetic colorants in market value as manufacturers continue to meet the rising demand for clean label ingredients – particularly in food applications. Many ascomycetous fungi naturally synthesize and secrete pigments and thus provide readily available additional and\\/or alternative sources of natural colorants that are independent of agro-climatic conditions. With an

Sameer AS Mapari; Anne S Meyer; Ulf Thrane; Jens C Frisvad

2009-01-01

194

Morphological and molecular identification of two strains of dermatophytes.  

PubMed

In this study, we used traditional morphological and molecular identification methods to preliminarily identify two strains of dermatophytes. The two strains were observed under the microscope. And then the dermatophytes were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA). The 18S rRNA regions of the two dermatophyte strains were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the PCR products were sequenced and compared with GenBank data. BLAST tools and DNAMAN software were used to analyze the sequences. To further determine highly homologous sequences, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Neighbor-Joining method. The two strains of dermatophytes were identified by traditional morphological identification as Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum ferrugineum. The 18S rRNA sequence analyses showed high similarities to Cladosporium cladosporioides isolate C115LM-UFPR and Ascomycete sp. LB68A1A2. Epidermophyton and Cladosporium belong to dermatophyte, while Microsporum ferrugineum and Ascomycete belong to microsporum. The two novel strains of dermatophytes were therefore identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides isolate C115LM-UFPR (JN650537, Cladosporium) and Ascomycete sp. LB68A1A2 (AY770409, Ascomycete sp). PMID:24337859

Chen, Li; Shi, Guo-you; Wang, Mei-mei; Zhao, Lin-lin; Huang, Yuan-yong; Chen, Xiao-lei; Yuan, Li-jie; Xiong, Ya-nan; Si, Dao-wen; Zhu, Li-hua

2013-12-01

195

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Modern and fossil non-pollen palynomorphs from the Basque  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Modern and fossil non-pollen palynomorphs from the Basque mountains (western to aid interpretation of the local fossil pollen record as an independent `proxy' to assess past pastoral. Keywords Non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) Á Modern and fossil NPPs Á Coprophilous Ascomycetes Á Grazing

Boyer, Edmond

196

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Modern and fossil non-pollen palynomorphs from the Basque  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Modern and fossil non-pollen palynomorphs from the Basque mountains (western of the local fossil pollen record as an independent `proxy' to assess past pastoral dynamics. This study-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) Á Modern and fossil NPPs Á Coprophilous Ascomycetes Á Grazing activities Á Pyrenees

Boyer, Edmond

197

Cloning, overexpression in Escherichia coli, and characterization of a thermostable fungal acetylxylan esterase from Talaromyces emersonii.  

PubMed

The gene encoding an acetylxylan esterase (AXE1) from the thermophilic ascomycete Talaromyces emersonii was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and characterized. This form of AXE1, rTeAXE1, exhibits increased thermostability and activity at a higher temperature than other known fungal acetyl esterases, thus having huge potential application in biomass bioconversion to high value chemicals or biofuels. PMID:22407679

Waters, Deborah M; Murray, Patrick G; Miki, Yuta; Martínez, Angel T; Tuohy, Maria G; Faulds, Craig B

2012-05-01

198

A ROLE FOR ASCOSPORES IN WHEAT HEAD BLIGHT EPIDEMICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Ascomycete Gibberella zeae (asexual state Fusarium graminearum) causes serious epidemics of wheat head blight worldwide and contaminates grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that are harmful to human and animal health. Anecdotal evidence dating back to the 19th century indicates that G. zeae asc...

199

POPULATION STRUCTURE AND DIVERSITY OF EUTYPA LATA FROM MEDITERRANEAN GRAPE-GROWING REGIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eutypa lata is an ascomycete fungus causing dieback of grape (Vitis vinifera). We examined the genetic structure of eight vineyard collections using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. In California, isolates were collected from four vineyards (CS1, CS2, M1 and M2) separated by distances of 50 m t...

200

INTRODUCTION Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in most forest soils, usually obtained in the form of nitrate.  

E-print Network

of nitrate. Acquisition of nitrate is mediated by NRT2, a high affinity transporter of nitrate in prokaryotes in the ascomycete Aspergillus revealed two nrt2 copies with different affinities for binding nitrate, although until this point there has been no indication of functional divergence in other fungi. Fine regulation of nitrate

Hibbett, David S.

201

Sequence analysis of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes from the basidiomycetes Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

GPD genes encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were isolated from the homobasidiomycetes Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Agaricus bisporus. All three species contain one transcriptionally active GPD gene, but A. bisporus also contains an inactive GPD gene (tandemly linked to the active gene). These genes contain 5–9 introns located at conserved positions, differing (except in one case) from intron positions in ascomycetous

Martin C. Harmsen; Frank H. J. Schuren; Serge M. Moukha; Carin M. van Zuilen; Peter J. Punt; Joseph G. H. Wessels

1992-01-01

202

KAROTYPE ANALYSIS OF PYRENOPHORA TERES F. TERERS USING TELOMERE ANALYSIS PULSED FIELDGEL ELECTROPHORESIS AND THE GERM TUBE BURST METHOD.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyrenophora teres f. teres is an ascomycetous fungus that causes net blotch on barley, a serious foliar disease throughout the world. In order to obtain an accurate karyotype of this fungus, a combination of different methods, including pulse field gel electrophoreses, telomere probe hybridization, ...

203

Occultocarpon, a new monotypic genus of Gnomoniaceae on Alnus nepalensis from China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new monotypic genus Occultocarpon and its species, O. ailaoshanense, was discovered on the bark of branches of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae) in Yunnan, China. A phylogeny based on three genes (LSU, rpb2, tef1-a) reveals that O. ailaoshanense belongs to the Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales, Ascomycetes) ...

204

Global analyses of Ceratocystis cacaofunesta mitochondria: from genome to proteome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background The ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is the causal agent of wilt disease in cacao, which results in significant economic losses in the affected producing areas. Despite the economic importance of the Ceratocystis complex of species, no genomic data are available for any of its ...

205

Nakazawaea Y. Yamada, Maeda & Mikata (1994)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Nakazawaea and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study,” 5th edition. The genus Nakazawaea was derived from the genus Pichia and its validity was established from a multigene phylogenetic analysis. The genus contains a single species, ...

206

Comparative genomic analyses of the human fungal pathogens Coccidioides and their relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most Ascomycetes tend to associate principally with plants, the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are primary pathogens of immunocompetent mammals, including humans. Infection results from environmental exposure to Coccidiodies, which is believed to grow as a soil saprophyte in arid deserts. To investigate hypotheses about the life history and evolution of Coccidioides, the genomes of several Onygenales,

Thomas J. Sharpton; Jason E. Stajich; Steven D. Rounsley; Malcolm J. Gardner; Jennifer R. Wortman; Vinita S. Jordar; Rama Maiti; Chinnappa D. Kodira; Daniel E. Neafsey; Qiandong Zeng; Chiung-Yu Hung; Cody McMahan; Anna Muszewska; Marcin Grynberg; M. Alejandra Mandel; Ellen M. Kellner; Bridget M. Barker; John N. Galgiani; Marc J. Orbach; Theo N. Kirkland

2009-01-01

207

Development and seasonal variations of Lophodermium populations on Pinus thunbergii needle litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative method was developed to describe Lophodermium (Rhytismataceae, Ascomycetes) populations on Pinus thunbergii needle litter, and seasonal patterns of population variation were examined based on this method. We focused on the formation\\u000a of black zone lines across needles and the production of Lophodermium ascocarps on needle portions delimitated by zone lines. The study was carried out at a soil

Dai Hirose; Takashi Osono

2006-01-01

208

Ascosphaera subglobosa, a new species from North America associated with the solitary bee Megachile rotundata  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascosphaera is a widespread ascomycetous genus of mostly obligate associates of bees. These fungi have diversified to exploit seemingly every possible substrate available in their bee-associated habitat, occurring as pathogens of the bees, or as saprotrophs on honey, cocoons, nesting materials, poll...

209

Production of extracellular enzymes and degradation of biopolymers by saprotrophic microfungi from the upper layers of forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of extracellular enzymes participating in the degradation of biopolymers was studied in 29 strains of nonbasidiomycetous\\u000a microfungi isolated from Quercus petraea forest soil based on the frequency of occurrence. Most of the isolates were ascomycetes and belonged to the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Geomyces, Hypocrea, Myrothecium, Ochrocladosporium, and Penicillium (18 isolates), and two isolates were zygomycetes. Only six isolates

Petr Baldrian; Jana Vo?íšková; Petra Dobiášová; V?ra Merhautová; Ludmila Lisá; Vendula Valášková

2011-01-01

210

Biological and chemical complexity of Fusarium proliferatum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium proliferatum (teleomorph Gibberella intermedia) is a genetically diverse biological and phylogenetic species with a worldwide distribution and an unusually broad host range. F. proliferatum is a frequent component of the Fusarium ear rot complexes of maize and ...

211

CONSERVED REQUIREMENT FOR A PLANT HOST CELL PROTEIN IN POWDERY MILDEW PATHOGENESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the fungal phylum Ascomycota, the ability to cause disease in plants and animals was gained and lost repeatedly during phylogenesis. In monocotyledonous barley, loss-of-function mlo alleles result in effective immunity against the Ascomycete, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, the causal agent of t...

212

Back to basics and beyond: increasing the level of resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Septoria tritici), is one of the most ubiquitous and important diseases of wheat worldwide. Losses to STB can range from 30 to 50% in disease-conducive climates. Little progress was made in increasing the...

213

Kazachstania Zubkova (1971)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Kazachstania and is to be published in "The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." The genus Kazachstania is newly described and was constructed from certain species previously assigned to the genera Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces and Arxozyma follo...

214

Immune Response of Mormon Crickets that Survived Infection by Beauveria Bassiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic Ascomycete fungus that serves as a biological control agent of Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex Haldeman) and other grasshopper pests. To measure the dose dependent response of Mormon crickets to fungal attack, we applied B. bassiana strain GHA topically to...

215

Fungus-specific microsatellite primers of lichens: application for the assessment of genetic variation on different spatial scales in Lobaria pulmonaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated 12 microsatellite loci for the epiphytic lichen-forming ascomycete Lobaria pulmonaria and studied their patterns of variation within and among populations from Canada and Switzerland. Even though several microsatellites exhibited high levels of variability at different spatial scales, we did not find any evidence for intrathalline variation. Most of the genetic variation was attributed to differences among individuals within

Jean-Claude Walser; Christoph Sperisen; Marco Soliva; Christoph Scheidegger

2003-01-01

216

Chemotaxonomy of the genus Talaromyces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of the ascomycetous genus Talaromyces have been examined for profiles of secondary metabolites on TLC. The greatest number of specific metabolites were produced on oatmeal-, malt extract- and yeast-extract sucrose agars. Profiles of intracellular secondary metabolites produced on oatmeal agar were specific for each species and provided a means of simple differentiation of the taxa. Examination of the most

J. C. Frisvad; O. Filtenborg; R. A. Samson; A. C. Stolk

1990-01-01

217

Structural and functional analysis of mitochondrial plasmids in Claviceps purpurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strains of Claviceps purpurea, a phytopathogenic Ascomycete, contain mitochondrial (mt) plasmids in high molar excess relative to mtDNA. Comparative analysis of plasmids of four strains of different geographic origin revealed that all the plasmids are structurally related (size; linearity; restriction map; probably 5'-linked terminal protein; terminal inverted repeats, TIRs); two of them are even identical, indicating a possible mobility

Andrea Düvell; Heike Hessberg-Stutzke; Birgitt Oeser; Petra Rogmann-Backwinkel; Paul Tudzynski

1988-01-01

218

GIANT STEPS FORWARD IN THE HYPOCREALES: WHAT IS THE VISION?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Hypocreales includes ascomycetes that generally have light- to bright-colored perithecial ascomata with unitunicate asci and their related mitotic fungi. They are of considerable economic and ecological importance with species that are virulent plant pathogens, effective biological control str...

219

Naumovozyma Kurtzman (2008)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the ascomycetous yeast genus Naumovozyma, which was recognized from multigene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence analysis. The genus has two describes species, which were formerly classified in the genus Saccharomyces. The species reproduce by multilateral budding but do not...

220

Genetic Diversity of Human Pathogenic Members of the Fusarium oxysporum Complex Inferred from Multilocus DNA Sequence Data and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses: Evidence for the Recent Dispersion of a Geographically Widespread Clonal Lineage and Nosocomial Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum is a phylogenetically diverse monophyletic complex of filamentous ascomycetous fungi that are responsible for localized and disseminated life-threatening opportunistic infections in immunocom- petent and severely neutropenic patients, respectively. Although members of this complex were isolated from patients during a pseudoepidemic in San Antonio, Tex., and from patients and the water system in a Houston, Tex., hospital during the

Kerry O'Donnell; Deanna A. Sutton; Michael G. Rinaldi; Karen C. Magnon; Patricia A. Cox; Sanjay G. Revankar; Stephen Sanche; David M. Geiser; Jean H. Juba; Jo-Anne H. van Burik; Arvind Padhye; Elias J. Anaissie; Andrea Francesconi; Thomas J. Walsh; Jody S. Robinson

2004-01-01

221

www.newphytologist.org 581 Blackwell Publishing Ltd  

E-print Network

DNA sequences. · Thirty-three species are suggested as EcM symbionts, representing all three major clades that Pezizales species constitute a considerable propor- tion of the mycobionts in EcM fungal communities (EcM) lifestyle has developed in several distantly related lineages of ascomycetes, including

Bruns, Tom

222

Coevolution by Common Descent of Fungal Symbionts Grass Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epichlog species are ascomycetous fungi (family Clavicipitaceae) that are ecologically obligate symbionts of grasses. Because they can enhance host fitness by protection from biotic and abiotic stresses, but can also reduce host seed production, these symbionts span a continuum from antagonistic (highly pathogenic) to mutualistic. Their mutualistic or antagonistic effects are directly related to the relative importance of their sexual

Christopher L. Schardl; Adrian LeuchtmannJ; Kuang-Ren Chung; Malcolm R. Siegel; David Penny

223

Xyr1 (Xylanase Regulator 1) Regulates both the Hydrolytic Enzyme System and D-Xylose Metabolism in Hypocrea jecorina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xyr1 (xylanase regulator 1) of the ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) was recently demonstrated to play an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of the xyn1 (xylanase 1-encoding) gene expression. Consequently, this study reports on the deletion of the xyr1 gene from the H. jecorina genome. Comparative studies of the growth behavior of the different mutant strains (deleted and

Astrid R. Stricker; Karin Grosstessner-Hain; Elisabeth Wurleitner; Robert L. Mach

2006-01-01

224

Yamadazyma Billon-Grand (1989)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Yamadazyma and is to be published in "The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." The genus Yamadazyma was derived from the genus Pichia following a multigene phylogenetic analysis. At present, there are 6 known species assigned to the genus. Sev...

225

Hyphopichia von Arx & van der Walt (1976)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Hyphopichia and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The genus Hyphopichia was derived from the genus Pichia and accepted as valid following a multigene phylogenetic analysis. At present, there are two species assigne...

226

Babjeviella Kurtzman & M. Suzuki (2010)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Babjeviella and is to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Babjeviella has one known species, B. inositovora, which is represented by three strains, one each from the U.S., Canada and Russia. The genus is phylogenet...

227

Candida Berkhout (1923)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the 314 species assigned to the genus Candida and is to be published in the Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. Ascomycete yeasts that do not form ascosporic state are assigned to the genus Candida, which is a highly polyphyletic taxonomic form genus. Assigned species in...

228

Komagataella Y. Yamada, Matsuda, Maeda & Mikata (1995)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Komagataella and is to be published in "The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." The genus Komagataella was derived from the genus Pichia following a multigene phylogenetic analysis. The three known species assigned to Komagataella are indistin...

229

Wickerhamia Soneda (1960)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Wickerhamia and is to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Wickerhamia is known from one species, W. fluorescens. Based on multigene phylogenetic analysis, Wickerhamia appears most closely related to the genera Lodd...

230

Trichomonascus H.S. Jackson emend. Kurtzman & Robnett (2007)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Trichomonascus and is to be published in "The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." The genus Trichomonascus has six known species, two of which have not been grown in laboratory culture. Multigene phylogenetic analysis places the genus near the...

231

Detection and Identification of Decay Fungi in Spruce Wood by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Amplified Genes Encoding rRNA†  

PubMed Central

We have developed a DNA-based assay to reliably detect brown rot and white rot fungi in wood at different stages of decay. DNA, isolated by a series of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and organic extractions, was amplified by the PCR using published universal primers and basidiomycete-specific primers derived from ribosomal DNA sequences. We surveyed 14 species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes (brown-rot and white-rot fungi), as well as 25 species of wood-inhabiting ascomycetes (pathogens, endophytes, and saprophytes). DNA was isolated from pure cultures of these fungi and also from spruce wood blocks colonized by individual isolates of wood decay basidiomycetes or wood-inhabiting ascomycetes. The primer pair ITS1-F (specific for higher fungi) and ITS4 (universal primer) amplified the internal transcribed spacer region from both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes from both pure culture and wood, as expected. The primer pair ITS1-F (specific for higher fungi) and ITS4-B (specific for basidiomycetes) was shown to reliably detect the presence of wood decay basidiomycetes in both pure culture and wood; ascomycetes were not detected by this primer pair. We detected the presence of decay fungi in wood by PCR before measurable weight loss had occurred to the wood. Basidiomycetes were identified to the species level by restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the internal transcribed spacer region. PMID:11055916

Jasalavich, Claudia A.; Ostrofsky, Andrea; Jellison, Jody

2000-01-01

232

Mycocinogeny in the genus Bullera: taxonomic specificity of sensitivity to the mycocin produced by Bullera sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of Bullera sinensis that secretes a fungicidal thermolabile and protease-sensitive toxin was found. Its killer phenotype was cureless. Ascomycetous, ustilaginaceous yeasts and the members of the Sporidiales are insensitive to the B. sinensis killer toxin. The mycocin acts against tremellaceous yeasts only, except for Cystofilobasidium, Fellomyces and Trichosporon spp. The genera Mrakia, Bullera, Cryptococcus and Udeniomyces are heterogeneous

Wladyslav Golubev; Takashi Nakase

1997-01-01

233

Sequences of psychrophilic fungi amplified from glacier-preserved ascolichens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribosomal DNA sequences were amplified from subfossils of the ascolichen Umbilicaria cylindrica (L.) Delise ex Duby collected at the ablating edges of Greenland glaciers. Surprisingly, phylogenetic analysis indicated that the amplified rDNA sequences were not closely related to those of the lichen-forming fungus but rather represented two groups of psychrophilic basidiomycetes (orders Cystofilobasidiales and Sporidiales) and one group of ascomycetes

Paula T. DePriest; Natalia V. Ivanova; Dianne Fahselt; Vagn Alstrup; Andrea Gargas

2000-01-01

234

Emergence of a new disease as a result of interspecific virulence gene transfer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ToxA gene of the ascomycete fungal pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis controls specificity of the interaction with its host, wheat. Host genotypes carrying dominant alleles of Tsn1 are susceptible to isolates of the pathogen expressing ToxA. Pyrenophora tritici-repentis isolates lacking ToxA ...

235

CONIDIAL GERMINATION IN THE FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ascomycetous fungus Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen causing Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand early developmental stages of this organism, we followed the germination of macroconidia microscopically to understand the timing of key events. These e...

236

FAMILIES IN THE DIAPORTHALES: A NEW LOOK BASED ON LSU NUCLEAR RDNA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ascomycete order Diaporthales includes a number of plant pathogenic fungi, the most notorious of which is Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus. Relationships among genera in the Diaporthales were evaluated as a basis for the recognition of families and to provide a taxonomic fra...

237

The synaptonemal complex and the spindle plaque during meiosis in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae proceeds principally in the same manner as in other Ascomycetes. Leptotene is characterized by unpaired lateral components and pachytene by the presence of extensive synaptonemal complexes. The synaptonemal complex has the same dimensions and is similar in structure to those described for other organisms. Chromosome counts can now be made by reconstructing the synaptonemal complexes. Diplotene

Denise Zickler; Lauritz W. Olson

1975-01-01

238

Ectomycorrhizal fungi Ponge Jean-Francois, Musum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du  

E-print Network

Ectomycorrhizal fungi Ponge Jean-Francçois, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4). Fungal partners may be found in the three most common groups of soil fungi, i.e. zygomycetes, ascomycetes of these three groups of fungi according to the abovementioned relationships. Differences in the ability

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Plectasin is a peptide antibiotic with therapeutic potential from a saprophytic fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals and higher plants express endogenous peptide antibiotics called defensins. These small cysteine-rich peptides are active against bacteria, fungi and viruses. Here we describe plectasin-the first defensin to be isolated from a fungus, the saprophytic ascomycete Pseudoplectania nigrella. Plectasin has primary, secondary and tertiary structures that closely resemble those of defensins found in spiders, scorpions, dragonflies and mussels. Recombinant plectasin

Per H. Mygind; Rikke L. Fischer; Kirk M. Schnorr; Mogens T. Hansen; Carsten P. Sönksen; Svend Ludvigsen; Dorotea Raventós; Steen Buskov; Bjarke Christensen; Leonardo de Maria; Olivier Taboureau; Debbie Yaver; Signe G. Elvig-Jørgensen; Marianne V. Sørensen; Bjørn E. Christensen; Søren Kjærulff; Niels Frimodt-Moller; Robert I. Lehrer; Michael Zasloff; Hans-Henrik Kristensen

2005-01-01

240

Saccharomycopsis Schionning (1903)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Saccharomycopsis and is to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Saccharomycopsis has 11 assigned species, many worldwide in distribution. Certain species, such as S. fibuligera, are commonly found in fermented, cere...

241

A Comparative Study of the Cell Wall Structure of Basidiomycetous and Related Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wall of basidiomycetous and related yeasts showed a lamellar structure in sections of both budding cells and hyphae fixed with potassium permanganate. The yeasts also had a typical way of bud formation and septation. These features differ from those recorded for ascomycetous yeasts. In the hyphae of some species septal pores were observed which were either dolipores or simple

N. J. W. Kreger-van Rij; M. Veenhuis

1971-01-01

242

Parallel evolution of hysterothecial ascomata in ascolocularous fungi (Ascomycota, Fungi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascoma morphologies have traditionally been used to classify filamentous ascomycete fungi. Phylogenies generated using DNA sequence data have since shown most of the previously identified groups not to be monophyletic. The relationships of hysterothecia?bearing ascolocularous fungi have been unsettled for many years. Recent molecular studies have shown this group as currently circumscribed not to constitute natural groupings. This study targeted

George K. Mugambi; Sabine M. Huhndorf

2009-01-01

243

960 New Phytologist (2009) 181: 960973 The Authors (2009) 960 www.newphytologist.org Journal compilation New Phytologist (2009)  

E-print Network

: ascomycete and basidiomycete, forestry, fungal biodiversity, fungal biogeography, fungi, host specificity symbiotic ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and the move- ment of plants may have facilitated the introduction of EM fungi. · Here, we report data compiled from a newly created database of EM fungal intro- ductions

Silver, Whendee

244

Biodiversity and distribution of fungi associated with decomposing Nypa fruticans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi associated with the decomposition of Nypa fruticans in Malaysia are under investigation. Forty-one fungi have been identified including 35 ascomycetes, four mitosporic fungi and two basidiomycetes. The distribution of intertidal fungi on palm structures including leaves, leaf veins, rachides, petiole bases, and inflorescences, and fungi on terrestrial parts have also been examined. No fungi were found on the leaf

Kevin D. Hyde; Siti A. Alias

2000-01-01

245

Biological and Chemical Complexity of Fusarium proliferatum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium proliferatum (teleomorph Gibberella intermedia) is a genetically diverse biological and phylogenetic species with a worldwide distribution and an unusually broad host range. F. proliferatum is a frequent component of the Fusarium ear rot complexes of maize and ...

246

Meyerozyma Kurtzman & M. Suzuki (2010)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Meyerozyma and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study,” 5th edition. The genus Meyerozyma is newly described and was derived from the genus Pichia following a multigene phylogenetic analysis. At present, there are two species assigned...

247

FVABC1, A FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES GENE ENCODING AN ABC TRANSPORTER, MAY BE REQUIRED FOR TOLERANCE OF PHYTOANTICIPINS PRODUCED BY CORN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phytopathogenic ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides is commonly found in corn (Zea mays) and is associated with the production of mycotoxins called fumonisins. The plant produces the phytoanticipins 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA) and 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA), yet F. verticillioides can metab...

248

Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

249

Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

250

MVE1 Encoding the velvet gene product homolog in Mycosphaerella graminicola is associated with aerial mycelium formation, melanin biosynthesis, hyphal swelling, and light signaling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola is an important pathogen of wheat that causes the disease septoria tritici blotch. Despite the serious impact of M. graminicola on wheat production worldwide, knowledge about its molecular biology is limited. The velvet gene, veA, is one of the key re...

251

Screening of ecologically diverse fungi for their potential to pretreat lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock.  

PubMed

A widespread and hitherto by far underexploited potential among ecologically diverse fungi to pretreat wheat straw and digestate from maize silage in the future perspective of using such lignocellulosic feedstock for fermentative bioenergy production was inferred from a screening of nine freshwater ascomycetes, 76 isolates from constructed wetlands, nine peatland isolates and ten basidiomycetes. Wheat straw pretreatment was most efficient with three ascomycetes belonging to the genera Acephala (peatland isolate) and Stachybotrys (constructed wetland isolates) and two white-rot fungi (Hypholoma fasciculare and Stropharia rugosoannulata) as it increased the amounts of water-extractable total sugars by more than 50 % and sometimes up to 150 % above the untreated control. The ascomycetes delignified wheat straw at rates (lignin losses between about 31 and 40 % of the initial content) coming close to those observed with white-rot fungi (about 40 to 57 % lignin removal). Overall, fungal delignification was indicated as a major process facilitating the digestibility of wheat straw. Digestate was generally more resistant to fungal decomposition than wheat straw. Nevertheless, certain ascomycetes delignified this substrate to extents sometimes even exceeding delignification by basidiomycetes. Total sugar amounts of about 20 to 60 % above the control value were obtained with the most efficient fungi (one ascomycete of the genus Phoma, the unspecific wood-rot basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita and one unidentified constructed wetland isolate). This was accompanied by lignin losses of about 47 to 56 % of the initial content. Overall, digestate delignification was implied to be less decisive for high yields of fermentable sugars than wheat straw delignification. PMID:24504460

Singh, S; Harms, H; Schlosser, D

2014-04-01

252

A year-round study on functional relationships of airborne fungi with meteorological factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air sampling was conducted in Waterloo, Canada throughout 1992. Functional relationships between aeromycota and meteorological factors were analysed. The meteorological factors were, in descending order of importance: mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean wind speed, relative humidity (RH), rain, maximum wind speed and snow. The most important airborne fungal propagules in descending order were: total fungal spores, unidentified Ascomycetes, Cladosporium, Coprinus, unidentified Basidiomycetes, Alternaria and unidentified fungi. Most airborne fungal taxa had highly significant relationship with temperature, but Aspergillus/Penicillium, hyphal fragments and Epicoccum did not. Epicoccum and hyphal fragments were positively associated with wind speed. In comparison with other airborne fungal taxa, Leptosphaeria and unidentified Ascomycetes were more closely correlated with rain and RH during the growing season.

Li, De-Wei; Kendrick, Bryce

1995-06-01

253

Genomic perspectives on the evolution of fungal entomopathogenicity in Beauveria bassiana.  

PubMed

The ascomycete fungus Beauveria bassiana is a pathogen of hundreds of insect species and is commercially produced as an environmentally friendly mycoinsecticide. We sequenced the genome of B. bassiana and a phylogenomic analysis confirmed that ascomycete entomopathogenicity is polyphyletic, but also revealed convergent evolution to insect pathogenicity. We also found many species-specific virulence genes and gene family expansions and contractions that correlate with host ranges and pathogenic strategies. These include B. bassiana having many more bacterial-like toxins (suggesting an unsuspected potential for oral toxicity) and effector-type proteins. The genome also revealed that B. bassiana resembles the closely related Cordyceps militaris in being heterothallic, although its sexual stage is rarely observed. A high throughput RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis revealed that B. bassiana could sense and adapt to different environmental niches by activating well-defined gene sets. The information from this study will facilitate further development of B. bassiana as a cost-effective mycoinsecticide. PMID:22761991

Xiao, Guohua; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Zhang, Siwei; Xie, Xue-Qin; Shang, Yanfang; St Leger, Raymond J; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Wang, Chengshu; Feng, Ming-Guang

2012-01-01

254

On the road to understanding truffles in the underground.  

PubMed

The genome of the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete Tubermelanosporum has recently been published and this has given researchers unique opportunities to learn more about the biology of this precious edible fungus. The epigeous ascomycete lives in Mediterranean countries in symbiotic interaction with roots of broad-leaf trees such as oaks and hazel. A most important new finding was the single mating type locus in the genome that occurs with two alleles in natural populations. The life cycle is now confirmed to be heterothallic and the species is outcrossing. Unlike sexual development in the soil, mycorrhization of the roots by homokaryotic haploid mycelia is mating-type-independent. Gene regulation during mycorrhization and fruiting and environmental influences on it is now genome-wide addressed. Genome profiling for functions in specific metabolic pathways is undertaken. Insights in most enthralling features of tubers such as on odor formation are thus gained. PMID:21354318

Kües, Ursula; Martin, Francis

2011-06-01

255

[Yeast biodiversity in hydromorphic soils with reference to grass-Sphagnum swamp in Western Siberia and the hammocky tundra region( Barrow, Alaska)].  

PubMed

The microbiological analysis of 78 samples taken from a boreal bog in Western Siberia and from a tundra wetland soil in Alaska showed the presence of 23 yeast species belonging to the genera Bullera, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Mrakia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, Sporobolomyces, Torulaspora, and Trichosporon. Peat samples from the boreal bog were dominated by eurytopic anamorphic basidiomycetous species, such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Sporobolomyces roseus, and by the ascomycetous yeasts Candida spp. and Debaryomyces hansenii. These samples also contained two rare ascomycetous species (Candida paludigena and Schizoblastosporion starkeyi-henricii), which so far have been found only in taiga wetland soils. The wetland Alaskan soil was dominated by one yeast species (Cryptococcus gilvescens), which is a typical inhabitant of tundra soils. Therefore, geographic factors may serve for a more reliable prediction of yeast diversity in soils than the physicochemical or ecotopic parameters of these soils. PMID:11763794

Poliakova, A V; Chernov, I Iu; Panikov, N S

2001-01-01

256

A new species of Stigmatomyces from Baltic amber, the first fossil record of Laboulbeniomycetes.  

PubMed

A fossil ascomycete was found attached to the thorax of a stalk eyed fly (Diopsidae: Prosphyracephala succini) in a fragment of Baltic amber. The fungus is assigned to the extant genus Stigmatomyces and described as S. succini sp. nov. This find is the first fossil record of the order Laboulbeniales. At the same time it constitutes the oldest record of a parasitic fungus on an insect. The palaeohabitat is discussed with regard to the find. PMID:15912943

Rossi, Walter; Kotrba, Marion; Triebel, Dagmar

2005-03-01

257

A REASSESSMENT OF THE FAMILY ALECTORIACEAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The phylogenetic relationship between the Alectoriaceae and theParmeliaceae (lichenized ascomycetes) were studied using sequences of the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA). The Alectoriaceae was represented by specimens of Alectoria ochroleuca and A. sarmentosa, and theParmeliaceae by Bryoria capillaris, Cetraria islandica, Cornicularia normoerica, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia saxatilis, Platismatia glauca, Pleurosticta acetabulum, Usnea florida, Vulpicida

Jan-Eric Mattsson; Mats Wedin

1999-01-01

258

Tetracyclic terpenoids from Dasyscyphus niveus, dasyscyphins D and E.  

PubMed

Cultures of the ascomycete Dasyscyphus niveus have yielded two new tetracyclic dasyscyphin-type terpenoids (1 and 2), and their structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The absolute configuration of dasyscyphin D (1) was determined by synthesis and NMR spectroscopy of diastereomeric MTPA esters. Both compounds inhibited the germination of conidia of Magnaporthe grisea at 25 microg/mL. PMID:18771321

Liermann, Johannes C; Kolshorn, Heinz; Anke, Heidrun; Thines, Eckhard; Opatz, Till

2008-09-01

259

Main airborne Ascomycota spores: characterization by culture, spore morphology, ribosomal DNA sequences and enzymatic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to identify the main allergy-related Ascomycetes fungal spores present in the atmosphere of Porto,\\u000a using different and complementary techniques. The atmospheric sampling, performed in the atmosphere of Porto (Portugal) from\\u000a August 2006 to July 2008, indicated Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria as the main fungal spore taxa. Alternaria and Cladosporium peaks were registered during

Manuela Oliveira; M. Isabel Amorim; Elsa Ferreira; Luís Delgado; Ilda Abreu

2010-01-01

260

Effect of pH on the stability of Pleurotus eryngii versatile peroxidase during heterologous production in Emericella nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the new versatile peroxidase from the ligninolytic basidiomycete Pleurotus eryngii has been expressed in the ascomycete Emericella nidulans. In recombinant E. nidulans cultures, the pH reached values as high as 8.3, correlating with a sharp decrease in peroxidase activity. Peroxidase was rapidly inactivated at alkaline pH, but was comparatively stable at acidic pH. The peroxidase inactivation

T. A. Lú-Chau; F. J. Ruiz-Dueñas; S. Camarero; G. Feijoo; M. J. Martínez; J. M. Lema; A. T. Martínez

2004-01-01

261

Endophytic fungi diversity of aquatic\\/riparian plants and their antifungal activity in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and fourteen endophytic fungi were isolated from 500 segments of aquatic\\/riparian plants Ottelia acuminata, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Equisetum arvense, Cardamine multijuga, and Impatiens chinensis. They were identified to 31 taxa in which Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Geotrichum were the dominant genera. Among all isolates, 169 (79%) were anamorphic fungi, 1 (0.5%) was an teleomorphic ascomycete and\\u000a 44 (21%) were sterile

Hai-Yan Li; Chun-An Zhao; Chen-Jian Liu; Xiao-Fei Xu

2010-01-01

262

Slippery Scar: A New Mushroom Disease in Auricularia polytricha  

PubMed Central

A new disease, the slippery scar, was investigated in cultivated bags of Auricularia polytricha. This fungus was isolated from the infected mycelia of cultivated bags. Based on morphological observation, rDNA-internal transcribed spacer and 18S sequence analysis, this pathogen was identified as the Ascomycete Scytalidium lignicola. According to Koch's Postulation, the pathogenicity of S. lignicola to the mycelia of A. polytricha was confirmed. The parasitism of this fungus on mushroom mycelia in China has not been reported before. PMID:22870056

Sun, Jie

2012-01-01

263

The influence of clear-cutting on ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity in a lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ) stand, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and Gallatin National Forest, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of clear-cutting on the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungus community in a Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. forest near Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A., were assessed using molecular techniques. Samples were taken by soil core in both undisturbed and clear-cut sites by randomized block design. Species overlap was compared between clear-cut and undisturbed sites and ascomycete-basidiomycete ratio was determined, using PCR-RFLP

Kristin B. Byrd; V. Thomas Parker; Detlev R. Vogler; Ken W. Cullings

2000-01-01

264

Unique Regulatory Mechanism for d-Galactose Utilization in Aspergillus nidulans ? †  

PubMed Central

This study describes two novel regulators, GalX and GalR, that control d-galactose utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. This system is unique for A. nidulans since no GalR homologs were found in other ascomycetes. GalR shares significant sequence identity with the arabinanolytic and xylanolytic regulators AraR and XlnR, but GalX is more distantly related. PMID:21821745

Christensen, Ulla; Gruben, Birgit S.; Madrid, Susan; Mulder, Harm; Nikolaev, Igor; de Vries, Ronald P.

2011-01-01

265

Electron-microscopic localization of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase in cells of Claviceps purpurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructural localization of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was studied in two strains of the ascomycetous fungus Claviceps purpurea differing in the ergot alkaloid synthesis. Mycelia were harvested by centrifugation of saprophytic submerged cultures, fixed in cold 3% glutaraldehyde in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer pH 7.2 and washed repeatedly in the same buffer. The incubation medium of Yates et al. (1969)

J. Vo?íšek; Z. Lojda

1979-01-01

266

Transcripts and translation products of a mitochondrial plasmid of Claviceps purpurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of the linear mitochondrial (mt) plasmid pClK1 of strain K of the ascomycete Claviceps purpurea was studied at the RNA and protein level. Using strand-specific probes two major transcripts were detected, corresponding to ORF1 and ORF2 of the plasmid, which most likely code for a DNA-polymerase and an RNA-polymerase, respectively. Primer extension experiments showed that both transcripts start at

Katrin Gessner-Ulrich; Paul Tudzynski

1992-01-01

267

Sassafrins A–D, new antimicrobial azaphilones from the fungus Creosphaeria sassafras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new azaphilones named sassafrins A–D (1–4) were isolated from the methanol extract of the stromata of the fungus Creosphaeria sassafras (Xylariaceae, Ascomycetes). Their structures were elucidated by 2D NMR, HR-MS, IR, UV and CD spectroscopy. Sassafrin D (4) possesses a novel skeleton and its biosynthetic pathway is also discussed. In addition, all compounds showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Their apparently

Dang Ngoc Quang; Toshihiro Hashimoto; Jacques Fournier; Marc Stadler; Niko Radulovi?; Yoshinori Asakawa

2005-01-01

268

Fusarium graminearum Gene Deletion Mutants Map1 and tri5 Reveal Similarities and Differences in the Pathogenicity Requirements to Cause Disease on Arabidopsis and Wheat Floral Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ascomycete pathogen Fusarium graminearum can infect all cereal species and lower grain yield, quality and safety. The fungus can also cause disease on Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the disease-causing ability of two F. graminearum mutants was analysed to further explore the parallels between the wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Arabidopsis floral pathosystems. Wild-type F graminearum (strain PH-1) and two

Alayne Cuzick; Martin Urban; Kim Hammond-Kosack

2008-01-01

269

11 Carbonic Anhydrases in Fungi and Fungal-Like Organisms – Functional Distribution and Evolution of a Gene Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The gene family of carbonic anhydrases consists of enzymes that are capable to rapidly accelerate the spontaneous and reversible\\u000a interconversion from carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. To date, fungal carbonic anhydrases have been identified in the genomes\\u000a of some ‘basal fungi’, ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and also within the so-called group of non-fungal organisms studied by\\u000a mycologists. Based on the primary structure of

Skander Elleuche

270

Tagged Mutations at the Tox1 Locus of Cochliobolus heterostrophus by Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the restriction enzyme-mediated integration insertional mutagenesis procedure to tag the Tox1 locus in the filamentous Ascomycete Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Mutations at other, unselected, loci were also identified and a high proportion (30-50%) of them were tagged. This procedure may be of general utility for simultaneously mutating and tagging genes in fungi and in other eukaryotes. The Tox1 locus

Shunwen Lu; Linda Lyngholm; Ge Yang; Charlotte Bronson; O. C. Yoder; B. Gillian Turgeon

1994-01-01

271

Fungi on submerged wood in the Koito River, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woody substrates were collected from the Koito River in Japan, and the biodiversity of fungi on these substrates was investigated.\\u000a Twenty-eight species were identified, comprising 12 ascomycete and 16 anamorphic taxa. The common fungi included Chaetosphaeria sp., Ophioceras commune, Pseudohalonectria lignicola, and Savoryella lignicola. The occurrence of fungi on submerged wood is discussed, and three interesting taxa – Pseudohalonectria lignicola,

C. K. M. Tsui; K. D. Hyde; K. Fukushima

2003-01-01

272

Roles of diverse fungi in larch needle-litter decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional biodiversity of fungi in larch (Larix leptolepis) forests needle-litter decomposition was examined by a pure-culture test. Weight loss of larch-needle litter, utilization pattern of lignocellu- lose and chemical composition of remaining litter were investigated and compared for 31 isolates in 27 species of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes. Weight loss (% original weight) of litter ranged from 22.0% to 14.2%. Mean

Takashi Osono; Yu Fukasawa; Hiroshi Takeda

2003-01-01

273

Capnodiaceae.  

PubMed

In this paper we revisit the Capnodiaceae with notes on selected genera. Type specimens of the ascomycetous genera Aithaloderma, Anopeltis, Callebaea, Capnodaria, Echinothecium, Phragmocapnias and Scorias were re-examined, described and illustrated. Leptoxyphium is anamorphic Capnodiaceae and Polychaeton is a legitimate and earlier name for Capnodium, but in order to maintain nomenclatural stability we propose that the teleomorphic name should be conisdered for the approved lists of names currently in preparation for fungi. Notes are provided on the ascomycetous genus Scoriadopsis. However, we were unable to locate the type of this genus during the time frame of this study. The ascomycetous genera Aithaloderma, Ceramoclasteropsis, Hyaloscolecostroma and Trichomerium are excluded from Capnodiaceae on the basis of having ascostromata and trans-septate hyaline ascospores and should be accommodated in Chaetothyriaceae. Callebaea is excluded as the ascomata are thyriothecia and the genus is placed in Micropeltidaceae. Echinothecium is excluded as synonym of Sphaerellothecium and is transferred to Mycosphaerellaceae. The type specimen of Capnophaeum is lost and this should be considered as a doubtful genus. The coelomycetous Microxiphium is polyphyletic, while the status of Fumiglobus, Polychaetella and Tripospermum is unclear. Fourteen new collections of sooty moulds made in Thailand were isolated and sequenced. The nuclear large and small rDNA was partially sequenced and compared in a phylogeny used to build a more complete understanding of the relationships of genera in Capnodiaceae. Four new species are described and illustrated, while Phragmocapnias and Scorias are epitypified with fresh collections. PMID:22737101

Chomnunti, Putarak; Schoch, Conrad L; Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña; Ko-Ko, Thida W; Hongsanan, Sinang; Jones, E B Gareth; Kodsueb, Rampai; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Bahkali, Ali H; Hyde, Kevin D

2011-12-01

274

Two pentatricopeptide repeat domain proteins are required for the synthesis of respiratory complex I.  

PubMed

In this study pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in filamentous ascomycetes are identified and functionally characterized. PPR proteins, which have in common a degenerated 35 amino acid motif often arranged in multiple tandems, are known to be implicated in various steps of RNA metabolism in mitochondria and chloroplasts. In filamentous ascomycetes we identified a common set of nine PPR proteins. For seven of these proteins, which were not yet characterized, knockout mutants of Neurospora crassa were analyzed. The knockout of three genes appeared to be lethal while four mutants showed different degrees of alterations in respiratory chain complexes. Two mutants are specifically affected in the assembly of a functional complex I while the other enzymes of the respiratory chain are present. Both mutants demonstrate the presence of a peripheral arm and the absence of a detectable membrane arm. Analysis of the mitochondrial RNA revealed distinct alterations of the transcript patterns for certain complex I subunits. Synthesis and/or stability of the transcript for ND2-ND3 is grossly impaired in one mutant while in the other mutant splicing of the transcript for ND1-ND4 is hampered. Our analysis provides the basis for a comprehensive characterization of PPR proteins in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:25108509

Solotoff, V; Moseler, R; Schulte, U

2015-02-01

275

Aqueous Extracts of Selected Potentilla Species Modulate Biological Activity of Human Normal Colon Cells.  

PubMed

Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional and in folk medicine for many years. This study analyzed the biological activity of aqueous extracts from aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (Rosaceae): P. argentea, P. anserina, P. grandiflora and P. erecta as well as one species of closely related to the genus Potentilla, Drymocallis rupestris (syn. P. rupestris). The activities were tested using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on normal human colon epithelium (CCD 841 CoTr) and colon myofibroblast (CCD-18Co) cells. Moreover, cell morphology and cytoskeletal actin F-filaments organization and IL-6 and IL-10 levels by ELISA were analyzed after 24 h of incubation. Extracts were tested at dose levels between 25 and 250 ?g/mL. For ELISA, 15??g/mL and 30 ?g/mL were chosen. When mitochondrial succinyl dehydrogenase activity was tested (MTT assay) only extract obtained from P. erecta at lower concentrations (up to 125 ?g/mL) suppressed metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells mitochondrial enzyme activity increased after incubation with all extracts. In Neutral Red (NR) method cellular membrane disturbance of both cell cultures was found after D. rupestris and P. grandiflora addition. Moreover, strong influence on epithelial cells was also found for P. anserina. All extracts showed similar, concentration-dependent free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect. Potentilla extracts, especially at lower concentration, decreased IL-6 production in myofibroblasts but the level of the cytokine was found to be stable in epithelial cells. IL-10 analysis revealed that P. argentea, D. rupestris, P. erecta extracts decrease cytokine level in myofibroblasts, while only when higher concentration were applied, decreased cytokine level produced by epithelial cells was found. F-actin filaments staining revealed that Potentilla extracts significantly influence on cellular cytoskeleton organization. Potentilla extracts influence on cells of human colon wall lining modulating the main features of them (viability, cytokine production). Moreover as a free radical reducing agents may be potentially useful in the prophylaxis or healing of colon disorders. PMID:25483225

Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Locatelli, Marcello; Pleszczy?ska, Ma?gorzata; Tomczyk, Micha?

2014-12-01

276

Mycological evidence of coprophagy from the feces of an Alaskan Late Glacial mammoth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dung from a mammoth was preserved under frozen conditions in Alaska. The mammoth lived during the early part of the Late Glacial interstadial (ca 12,300 BP). Microfossils, macroremains and ancient DNA from the dung were studied and the chemical composition was determined to reconstruct both the paleoenvironment and paleobiology of this mammoth. Pollen spectra are dominated by Poaceae, Artemisia and other light-demanding taxa, indicating an open, treeless landscape ('mammoth steppe'). Fruits and seeds support this conclusion. The dung consists mainly of cyperaceous stems and leaves, with a minor component of vegetative remains of Poaceae. Analyses of fragments of the plastid rbcL gene and trnL intron and nrITS1 region, amplified from DNA extracted from the dung, supplemented the microscopic identifications. Many fruit bodies with ascospores of the coprophilous fungus Podospora conica were found inside the dung ball, indicating that the mammoth had eaten dung. The absence of bile acids points to mammoth dung. This is the second time that evidence for coprophagy of mammoths has been derived from the presence of fruit bodies of coprophilous fungi in frozen dung. Coprophagy might well have been a common habit of mammoths. Therefore, we strongly recommend that particular attention should be given to fungal remains in future fossil dung studies.

van Geel, Bas; Guthrie, R. Dale; Altmann, Jens G.; Broekens, Peter; Bull, Ian D.; Gill, Fiona L.; Jansen, Boris; Nieman, Aline M.; Gravendeel, Barbara

2011-08-01

277

Yeast diversity associated with invasive Dendroctonus valens killing Pinus tabuliformis in China using culturing and molecular methods.  

PubMed

Bark beetle-associated yeasts are much less studied than filamentous fungi, yet they are also considered to play important roles in beetle nutrition, detoxification, and chemical communication. The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, an invasive bark beetle introduced from North America, became one of the most destructive pests in China, having killed more than 10 million Pinus tabuliformis as well as other pine species. No investigation of yeasts associated with this bark beetle in its invaded ranges has been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of yeast communities in different microhabitats and during different developmental stages of Den. valens in China using culturing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches and to compare the yeast flora between China and the USA. The yeast identity was confirmed by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of LSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In total, 21 species (13 ascomycetes and eight basidiomycetes) were detected by culturing method, and 12 species (11 ascomycetes and one basidiomycetes) were detected by molecular methods from China. The most frequent five species in China were Candida piceae (Ogataea clade), Cyberlindnera americana, Candida oregonensis (Metschnikowia clade), Candida nitratophila (Ogataea clade) and an undescribed Saccharomycopsis sp., detected by both methods. Seven species were exclusively detected by DGGE. Ca. oregonensis (Metschnikowia clade) was the most frequently detected species by DGGE method. Eight species (all were ascomycetes) from the USA were isolated; seven of those were also found in China. We found significant differences in yeast total abundance as well as community composition between different developmental stages and significant differences between the surface and the gut. The frass yeast community was more similar to that of Den. valens surface or larvae than to the community of the gut or adults. Possible functions of the yeast associates are discussed. PMID:24691849

Lou, Qiao-Zhe; Lu, Min; Sun, Jiang-Hua

2014-08-01

278

Genomic Mechanisms Accounting for the Adaptation to Parasitism in Nematode-Trapping Fungi  

PubMed Central

Orbiliomycetes is one of the earliest diverging branches of the filamentous ascomycetes. The class contains nematode-trapping fungi that form unique infection structures, called traps, to capture and kill free-living nematodes. The traps have evolved differently along several lineages and include adhesive traps (knobs, nets or branches) and constricting rings. We show, by genome sequencing of the knob-forming species Monacrosporium haptotylum and comparison with the net-forming species Arthrobotrys oligospora, that two genomic mechanisms are likely to have been important for the adaptation to parasitism in these fungi. Firstly, the expansion of protein domain families and the large number of species-specific genes indicated that gene duplication followed by functional diversification had a major role in the evolution of the nematode-trapping fungi. Gene expression indicated that many of these genes are important for pathogenicity. Secondly, gene expression of orthologs between the two fungi during infection indicated that differential regulation was an important mechanism for the evolution of parasitism in nematode-trapping fungi. Many of the highly expressed and highly upregulated M. haptotylum transcripts during the early stages of nematode infection were species-specific and encoded small secreted proteins (SSPs) that were affected by repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). An active RIP mechanism was revealed by lack of repeats, dinucleotide bias in repeats and genes, low proportion of recent gene duplicates, and reduction of recent gene family expansions. The high expression and rapid divergence of SSPs indicate a striking similarity in the infection mechanisms of nematode-trapping fungi and plant and insect pathogens from the crown groups of the filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina). The patterns of gene family expansions in the nematode-trapping fungi were more similar to plant pathogens than to insect and animal pathogens. The observation of RIP activity in the Orbiliomycetes suggested that this mechanism was present early in the evolution of the filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:24244185

Meerupati, Tejashwari; Andersson, Karl-Magnus; Friman, Eva; Kumar, Dharmendra; Tunlid, Anders; Ahrén, Dag

2013-01-01

279

Parallels in Amphibian and Bat Declines from Pathogenic Fungi  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species—the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats—are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host–pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases. PMID:23622255

Eskew, Evan A.

2013-01-01

280

Purification and biochemical characterization of a laccase from the aquatic fungus Myrioconium sp. UHH 1-13-18-4 and molecular analysis of the laccase-encoding gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myrioconium sp. strain UHH 1-13-18-4 is an ascomycete anamorph isolated from the river Saale, Central Germany. An extracellular, monomeric,\\u000a and glycosylated laccase with a molecular mass of 72.7 kDa as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization-time\\u000a of flight-mass spectrometry and an isoelectric point below 2.8 was purified from CuSO4 and vanillic acid amended liquid fungal cultures grown in malt extract medium. The

C. Martin; M. Pecyna; H. Kellner; N. Jehmlich; C. Junghanns; D. Benndorf; M. von Bergen; D. Schlosser

2007-01-01

281

Parallels in amphibian and bat declines from pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species-the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats-are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host-pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases. PMID:23622255

Eskew, Evan A; Todd, Brian D

2013-03-01

282

Detection of presumptive mycoparasites associated with Entomophaga maimaiga resting spores in forest soils.  

PubMed

The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga can provide high levels of control of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, an important forest defoliator. This fungus persists in the soil as resting spores and occurs naturally throughout many areas where gypsy moth is established. Studies on the spatial dynamics of gypsy moth population have shown high variability in infection levels, and one possible biological factor could be the variable persistence of E. maimaiga resting spores in the soil due to attacks by mycoparasites. We surveyed presumptive mycoparasites associated with parasitized E. maimaiga resting spores using baiting and molecular techniques and identified an ascomycete (Pochonia sp.) and oomycetes (Pythium spp.). PMID:25433313

Castrillo, Louela A; Hajek, Ann E

2015-01-01

283

Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand* §  

PubMed Central

Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

2008-01-01

284

Mycocinogeny in the genus Bullera: taxonomic specificity of sensitivity to the mycocin produced by Bullera sinensis.  

PubMed

A strain of Bullera sinensis that secretes a fungicidal thermolabile and protease-sensitive toxin was found. Its killer phenotype was cureless. Ascomycetous, ustilaginaceous yeasts and the members of the Sporidiales are insensitive to the B. sinensis killer toxin. The mycocin acts against tremellaceous yeasts only, except for Cystofilobasidium, Fellomyces and Trichosporon spp. The genera Mrakia, Bullera, Cryptococcus and Udeniomyces are heterogeneous in sensitivity pattern. The different responses of some anamorphic species to this mycocin are often consistent with the origin of the strains and the differences in sexual, chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics between them. PMID:8997707

Golubev, W; Nakase, T

1997-01-01

285

?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis. PMID:23616783

Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latgé, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

286

Degradation of three phenylurea herbicides (chlortoluron, isoproturon and diuron) by micromycetes isolated from soil.  

PubMed

As part of a study conducted on the fate of xenobiotics in the environment, a selection of 100 strains of micromycetes (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Yeasts) have been cultivated in liquid synthetic medium with 3 phenylurea herbicides: chlortoluron and isoproturon (100mg L-1) and diuron (20mg L-1). While 17 strains depleted isoproturon over 50% only 4 depleted diuron and 2 chlortoluron at the same level. The best results were obtained with Bjerkandera adusta and Oxysporus sp which were the most efficient towards the 3 substrates. After 2 weeks Bjerkandera adusta depleted chlortoluron 98%, diuron 92% and isoproturon 88%. PMID:10230047

Khadrani, A; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Vroumsia, T

1999-06-01

287

Development of chromatographic methods for determination of agrimoniin and related polyphenols in pharmaceutical products.  

PubMed

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and liquid chromatography (LC) methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of agrimoniin, pedunculagin, ellagic acid, gallic acid, and catechin in selected herbal medicinal products from Rosaceae: Anserinae herba, Tormentillae rhizoma, Alchemillae herba, Agrimoniae herba, and Fragariae folium. Unmodified silica gel (TLC Si60, HPTLC LiChrospher Si60) and silica gel chemically modified with octadecyl or aminopropyl groups (HPTLC RP18W and HPTLC NH2) were used for TLC. The best resolution and selectivity were achieved with the following mobile phases: diisopropyl ether-acetone-formic acid-water (40 + 30 + 20 + 10, v/v/v/v), tetrahydrofuran-acetonitrile-water (30 + 10 + 60, v/v/v), and acetone-formic acid (60 + 40, v/v). Concentrations of the studied herbal drugs were determined by using a Chromolith Performance RP-18e column with acetonitrile-water-formic acid as the mobile phase. Determinations of linearity, range, detection and quantitation limits, accuracy, precision, and robustness showed that the HPLC method was sufficiently precise for estimation of the tannins and related polyphenols mentioned above. Investigations of suitable solvent selection, sample extraction procedure, and short-time stability of analytes at storage temperatures of 4 and 20 degrees C were also performed. The percentage of agrimoniin in pharmaceutical products was between 0.57 and 3.23%. PMID:19485199

Fecka, Izabela

2009-01-01

288

Identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid.  

PubMed

By HPLC, a taurine-conjugated bile acid with a retention time different from that of taurocholate was found to be present in the bile of the black-necked swan, Cygnus melanocoryphus. The bile acid was isolated and its structure, established by (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry, was that of the taurine N-acyl amidate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. The compound was shown to have chromatographic and spectroscopic properties that were identical to those of the taurine conjugate of authentic 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid, previously synthesized by us from ursodeoxycholic acid. By HPLC, the taurine conjugate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid was found to be present in 6 of 6 species in the subfamily Dendrocygninae (tree ducks) and in 10 of 13 species in the subfamily Anserinae (swans and geese) but not in other subfamilies in the Anatidae family. It was also not present in species from the other two families of the order Anseriformes. 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid is a new primary bile acid that is present in the biliary bile acids of swans, tree ducks, and geese and may be termed 15alpha-hydroxy-chenodeoxycholic acid. PMID:16648547

Kakiyama, Genta; Iida, Takashi; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio; Hagey, Lee R; Schteingart, Claudio D; Hofmann, Alan F

2006-07-01

289

Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

1998-01-01

290

From pattern to process: species and functional diversity in fungal endophytes of Abies beshanzuensis.  

PubMed

The biodiversity-functional relationship in fungal ecology was recently developed and debated, but has rarely been addressed in endophytes. In this study, an integrative culture system was designed to capture a rich fungal consortium from the conifer Abies beshanzuensis. Results indicate an impressive diversity of fungal lineages (a total of 84 taxa classified in Dikarya) and a relatively high proportion of hitherto unknown species (27.4%). The laccase gene was used as a functional marker due to its involvement in lignocellulose degradation. Remarkable diversity of laccase genes was found across a wide range of taxa, with at least 35 and 19 distinct sequences in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes respectively, were revealed. Many groups displayed variable ability to decompose needles. Furthermore, many ascomycetes, including three volatile-producing Muscodor species (Xylariaceae), showed the ability to inhibit pathogens. Notably, most laccase-producing species showed little or no antibiosis and vice versa. Clavicipitalean and ustilaginomycetous fungi, specifically toxic to insects, were inferred from taxonomic information. Intra-specific physiological variation in Pezicula sporulosa, a second dominant species, was clearly high. We conclude that a suite of defensive characteristics in endophytes contributes to improving host fitness under various stresses and that a diversity of laccase genes confers an ecological advantage in competition for nutrients. Intra-specific diversity may be of great ecological significance for ecotypic adaptation. These findings suggest a fair degree of functional complementarity rather than redundancy among endemic symbionts of natural plant populations. PMID:21354526

Yuan, Zhi-Lin; Rao, Long-Bing; Chen, Yi-Cun; Zhang, Chu-Long; Wu, You-Gui

2011-03-01

291

Main airborne Ascomycota spores: characterization by culture, spore morphology, ribosomal DNA sequences and enzymatic analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to identify the main allergy-related Ascomycetes fungal spores present in the atmosphere of Porto, using different and complementary techniques. The atmospheric sampling, performed in the atmosphere of Porto (Portugal) from August 2006 to July 2008, indicated Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria as the main fungal spore taxa. Alternaria and Cladosporium peaks were registered during summer. Aspergillus and Penicillium highest values were registered from late winter to early spring. Additionally, the Andersen sampler allowed the culture and isolation of the collected viable spores subsequently used for different identification approaches. The internal-transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat unit sequences of airborne Ascomycetes fungi isolates revealed 11 taxonomically related fungal species. Among the identified taxa, Penicillum and Aspergillus presented the highest diversity, while only one species of Cladosporium and Alternaria, respectively, were identified. All selected fungal spore taxa possessed phosphatase, esterase, leucine arylamidase and beta-glucosidase enzymatic activity, while none had lipase, cystine arylamidase, trypsin or beta-glucuronidase activity. The association between the spore cell wall morphology, DNA-based techniques and enzymatic activity approaches allowed a more reliable identification procedure of the airborne Ascomycota fungal spores. PMID:20143229

Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, M Isabel; Ferreira, Elsa; Delgado, Luís; Abreu, Ilda

2010-04-01

292

Identity and biodegradative abilities of yeasts isolated from plants growing in an arid climate.  

PubMed

Plants harvested in the Canary Islands Lanzarote and Fuerteventura were analyzed for the yeasts inhabiting their surface. Half of the isolates (22 out of 44) were identified as Debaryomyces hansenii. Black ascomycetes, viz. Hortaea werneckii and two Hormonema species were represented by 7 strains. Basidiomycetous yeasts, viz. Cryptococcus sp. (8 strains), Rhodotorula sp. (5 strains), Cerinosterus cyanescens (1 strain) and Pseudozyma sp. (1 strain) constituted a minority of 33%. Thirty strains were screened for their ability to assimilate various plant constituents including lipids of the cuticle and the cell membrane, hemicelluloses, nitrogenous compounds (protein, nucleic acids, amino acids) and benzene compounds. All strains were able to assimilate or to hydrolyze lipids, lecithin included. Many strains of D. hansenii, H. dematioides, H. werneckii, C. cyanescens, Cr. laurentii, Pseudozyma sp. and Rh. glutinis were proteolytic. Hemicelluloses like xylan and pectin were assimilated by black ascomycetous yeasts, Cryptococcus sp., Pseudozyma sp. and Rh. glutinis. Ferulic and hydroxycinnamic acids, gallic and tannic acids were assimilated by some strains of H. dematioides, C. cyanescens, Pseudozyma sp. and Rhodotorula sp. PMID:9298186

Middelhoven, W J

1997-08-01

293

Identification of the CRE-1 Cellulolytic Regulon in Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Background In filamentous ascomycete fungi, the utilization of alternate carbon sources is influenced by the zinc finger transcription factor CreA/CRE-1, which encodes a carbon catabolite repressor protein homologous to Mig1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In Neurospora crassa, deletion of cre-1 results in increased secretion of amylase and ?-galactosidase. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that a strain carrying a deletion of cre-1 has increased cellulolytic activity and increased expression of cellulolytic genes during growth on crystalline cellulose (Avicel). Constitutive expression of cre-1 complements the phenotype of a N. crassa ?cre-1 strain grown on Avicel, and also results in stronger repression of cellulolytic protein secretion and enzyme activity. We determined the CRE-1 regulon by investigating the secretome and transcriptome of a ?cre-1 strain as compared to wild type when grown on Avicel versus minimal medium. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR of putative target genes showed that CRE-1 binds to only some adjacent 5?-SYGGRG-3? motifs, consistent with previous findings in other fungi, and suggests that unidentified additional regulatory factors affect CRE-1 binding to promoter regions. Characterization of 30 mutants containing deletions in genes whose expression level increased in a ?cre-1 strain under cellulolytic conditions identified novel genes that affect cellulase activity and protein secretion. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide comprehensive information on the CRE-1 regulon in N. crassa and contribute to deciphering the global role of carbon catabolite repression in filamentous ascomycete fungi during plant cell wall deconstruction. PMID:21980519

Sun, Jianping; Glass, N. Louise

2011-01-01

294

Distribution and evolution of glycoside hydrolase family 45 cellulases in nematodes and fungi  

PubMed Central

Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been suggested as the mechanism by which various plant parasitic nematode species have obtained genes important in parasitism. In particular, cellulase genes have been acquired by plant parasitic nematodes that allow them to digest plant cell walls. Unlike the typical glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 cellulase genes which are found in several nematode species from the order Tylenchida, members of the GH45 cellulase have only been identified in a cluster including the families Parasitaphelenchidae (with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and Aphelenchoididae, and their origins remain unknown. Results In order to investigate the distribution and evolution of GH45 cellulase genes in nematodes and fungi we performed a wide ranging screen for novel putative GH45 sequences. This revealed that the sequences are widespread mainly in Ascomycetous fungi and have so far been found in a single major nematode lineage. Close relationships between the sequences from nematodes and fungi were found through our phylogenetic analyses. An intron position is shared by sequences from Bursaphelenchus nematodes and several Ascomycetous fungal species. Conclusions The close phylogenetic relationships and conserved gene structure between the sequences from nematodes and fungi strongly supports the hypothesis that nematode GH45 cellulase genes were acquired via HGT from fungi. The rapid duplication and turnover of these genes within Bursaphelenchus genomes demonstrate that useful sequences acquired via HGT can become established in the genomes of recipient organisms and may open novel niches for these organisms to exploit. PMID:24690293

2014-01-01

295

Mycological and ecotoxicological characterisation of landfill leachate before and after traditional treatments.  

PubMed

Pollution caused by landfill leachates is one of the main problems of urbanised areas, on account of their chemical composition, which turn in an ineffective treatment. A characterisation of leachates, which takes into account chemical, ecotoxicological and mycological aspects, is basilar for the evaluation of environmental impact of leachate and the development of suitable treatment techniques. In this study, the toxicity of a raw leachate and an effluent coming from traditional wastewater treatment plant was assessed by means of 4 ecotoxicological assays. Both the samples exceed the legal threshold value according to all the tested organisms, indicating the ineffectiveness of activated sludge treatment in the reduction of toxicity. The autochthonous mycoflora of the two samples was evaluated by filtration. The fungal load was 73 CFU for leachate and 102 CFU for the effluent. Ascomycetes were the dominant fraction (81% and 61%, for leachate and effluent respectively), followed by basidiomycetes (19% and 39%, respectively). Most of them were potential emerging pathogens. A decolourisation screening with autochthonous fungi was set up towards both samples in the presence or absence of glucose. Eleven fungi (basidiomycetes and ascomycetes) achieved up to 38% decolourisation yields, showing to be promising fungi for the bioremediation of leachates. Further experiment will be aimed to the study of decolourisation mechanism and toxicity reduction. PMID:24793330

Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

2014-07-15

296

Protoplasmic Organization of Hyphal Tips Among Fungi: Vesicles and Spitzenkörper  

PubMed Central

Hyphal tips of fungi representing Oömycetes, Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Deuteromycetes were examined by light and electron microscopy and compared with respect to their protoplasmic organization. In all fungi studied, there is a zone at the hyphal apex which is rich in cytoplasmic vesicles but nearly devoid of other cell components. Some vesicle profiles are continuous with the plasma membrane at the apices of these tip-growing cells. The subapical zones of hyphae contain an endomembrane system which includes smooth-surfaced cisternae associated with small clusters of vesicles. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that vesicles produced by the endomembrane system in the subapical region become concentrated in the apex where they are incorporated at the expanding surface. Septate fungi (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Deuteromycetes) have an apical body (Spitzenkörper) which is associated with growing hyphal tips. In electron micrographs of these fungi, an additional specialized region within the accumulation of apical vesicles is shown for the first time. This region corresponds on the bases of distribution among fungi, location in hyphae, size, shape and boundary characteristics to the Spitzenkörper seen by light microscopy. This structure is not universally associated with tip growth, whereas apical vesicles are widespread among tip-growing systems. Images PMID:4099103

Grove, Stanley N.; Bracker, Charles E.

1970-01-01

297

Molecular evolution and functional divergence of tubulin superfamily in the fungal tree of life.  

PubMed

Microtubules are essential for various cellular activities and ?-tubulins are the target of benzimidazole fungicides. However, the evolution and molecular mechanisms driving functional diversification in fungal tubulins are not clear. In this study, we systematically identified tubulin genes from 59 representative fungi across the fungal kingdom. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ?-/?-tubulin genes underwent multiple independent duplications and losses in different fungal lineages and formed distinct paralogous/orthologous clades. The last common ancestor of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes likely possessed two paralogs of ?-tubulin (?1/?2) and ?-tubulin (?1/?2) genes but ?2-tubulin genes were lost in basidiomycetes and ?2-tubulin genes were lost in most ascomycetes. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicated that ?1, ?2, and ?2-tubulins have been under strong divergent selection and adaptive positive selection. Many positively selected sites are at or adjacent to important functional sites and likely contribute to functional diversification. We further experimentally confirmed functional divergence of two ?-tubulins in Fusarium and identified type II variations in FgTub2 responsible for function shifts. In this study, we also identified ?-/?-/?-tubulins in Chytridiomycetes. Overall, our results illustrated that different evolutionary mechanisms drive functional diversification of ?-/?-tubulin genes in different fungal lineages, and residues under positive selection could provide targets for further experimental study. PMID:25339375

Zhao, Zhongtao; Liu, Huiquan; Luo, Yongping; Zhou, Shanyue; An, Lin; Wang, Chenfang; Jin, Qiaojun; Zhou, Mingguo; Xu, Jin-Rong

2014-01-01

298

Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of 1698 Yeast Reference Strains Revealing Potential Emerging Human Pathogens  

PubMed Central

New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites) were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes). Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001). Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically “resistant” to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens. PMID:22396754

Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Robert, Vincent; Raoux-Barbot, Dorothée; Groenewald, Marizeth; Dromer, Françoise

2012-01-01

299

Accumulation of phosphate and polyphosphate by Cryptococcus humicola and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the absence of nitrogen.  

PubMed

The search for new phosphate-accumulating microorganisms is of interest in connection with the problem of excess phosphate in environment. The ability of some yeast species belonging to ascomycetes and basidiomycetes for phosphate (P (i) ) accumulation in nitrogen-deficient medium was studied. The ascomycetous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kuraishia capsulata and basidiomycetous Cryptococcus humicola, Cryptococcus curvatus, and Pseudozyma fusiformata were the best in P (i) removal. The cells of Cryptococcus humicola and S. cerevisiae took up 40% P (i) from the media containing P (i) and glucose (5 and 30 mM, respectively), and up to 80% upon addition of 5 mM MgSO(4) (.) The cells accumulated P (i) mostly in the form of polyphosphate (PolyP). In the presence of Mg(2+) , the content of PolyP with longer average chain length increased in both yeasts; they both had numerous inclusions fluorescing in the yellow region of the spectrum, typical of DAPI-PolyP complexes. Among the yeast species tested, Cryptococcus humicola is a new promising model organisms to study phosphorus removal from the media and biomineralization in microbial cells. PMID:22591314

Breus, Natalia A; Ryazanova, Lubov P; Dmitriev, Vladimir V; Kulakovskaya, Tatiana V; Kulaev, Igor S

2012-09-01

300

The conserved global regulator VeA is necessary for symptom production and mycotoxin synthesis in maize seedlings by Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

The veA or velvet gene is necessary for biosynthesis of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species. In addition, veA has also been demonstrated to be necessary for normal seed colonization in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The present study shows that veA homologues are broadly distributed in fungi, particularly in Ascomycetes. The Fusarium verticillioides veA orthologue, FvVE1, is also required for the synthesis of several secondary metabolites, including fumonisin and fusarins. This study also shows that maize plants grown from seeds inoculated with FvVE1 deletion mutants did not show disease symptoms, while plants grown from seeds inoculated with the F. verticillioides wildtype and complementation strains clearly showed disease symptoms under the same experimental conditions. In this latter case, the presence of lesions coincided with accumulation of fumonisins in the plant tissues, and only these plant tissues had elevated levels of sphingoid bases and their 1-phosphate derivatives, indicating inhibition of ceramide synthase and disruption of sphingolipid metabolism. The results strongly suggest that FvVE1 is necessary for pathogenicity by F. verticillioides against maize seedlings. The conservation of veA homologues among ascomycetes suggests that veA could play a pivotal role in regulating secondary metabolism and associated pathogenicity in other fungi. PMID:22247572

Myung, K; Zitomer, N C; Duvall, M; Glenn, A E; Riley, R T; Calvo, A M

2012-02-01

301

Characteristics of nucleosomes and linker DNA regions on the genome of the basidiomycete Mixia osmundae revealed by mono- and dinucleosome mapping  

PubMed Central

We present findings on the nucleosomal arrangement in the genome of the basidiomycete Mixia osmundae, focusing on nucleosomal linker DNA regions. We have assembled the genomic sequences of M. osmundae, annotated genes and transcription start sites (TSSs) on the genome, and created a detailed nucleosome map based on sequencing mono- and dinucleosomal DNA fragments. The nucleosomal DNA length distribution of M. osmundae is similar to that of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus fumigatus, but differs from that of ascomycetous yeasts, strongly suggesting that nucleosome positioning has evolved primarily through neutral drift in fungal species. We found clear association between dinucleotide frequencies and linker DNA regions mapped as the midpoints of dinucleosomes. We also describe a unique pattern found in the nucleosome-depleted region upstream of the TSS observed in the dinucleosome map and the precursor status of dinucleosomes prior to the digestion into mononucleosomes by comparing the mono- and dinucleosome maps. We demonstrate that observation of dinucleosomes as well as of mononucleosomes is valuable in investigating nucleosomal organization of the genome. PMID:22724063

Nishida, Hiromi; Kondo, Shinji; Matsumoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Taylor, Todd D.; Sugiyama, Junta

2012-01-01

302

Community composition of root-associated fungi in a Quercus-dominated temperate forest: “codominance” of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi  

PubMed Central

In terrestrial ecosystems, plant roots are colonized by various clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Focused on the root systems of an oak-dominated temperate forest in Japan, we used 454 pyrosequencing to explore how phylogenetically diverse fungi constitute an ecological community of multiple ecotypes. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi were found from 159 terminal-root samples from 12 plant species occurring in the forest. Due to the dominance of an oak species (Quercus serrata), diverse ectomycorrhizal clades such as Russula, Lactarius, Cortinarius, Tomentella, Amanita, Boletus, and Cenococcum were observed. Unexpectedly, the root-associated fungal community was dominated by root-endophytic ascomycetes in Helotiales, Chaetothyriales, and Rhytismatales. Overall, 55.3% of root samples were colonized by both the commonly observed ascomycetes and ectomycorrhizal fungi; 75.0% of the root samples of the dominant Q. serrata were so cocolonized. Overall, this study revealed that root-associated fungal communities of oak-dominated temperate forests were dominated not only by ectomycorrhizal fungi but also by diverse root endophytes and that potential ecological interactions between the two ecotypes may be important to understand the complex assembly processes of belowground fungal communities. PMID:23762515

Toju, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Gilbert, Gregory S; Kadowaki, Kohmei

2013-01-01

303

Mycorrhizal interactions of orchids colonizing Estonian mine tailings hills.  

PubMed

Northeastern Estonia is home to extensive oil shale mines. Associated with these are desolate and environmentally damaging hills of ash and semicoke tailings. Interestingly, some of the first plants to colonize these hills are rare orchids. Here, we assess the identities of the mycorrhizal fungi associated with these orchids, in particular Epipactis atrorubens, Orchis militaris, and Dactylorhiza baltica, and compare them with mycorrhizal fungi from orchids from pristine habitat. Epipactis atrorubens associated with the widest breadth of fungi, including unnamed members of the basidiomycete family Tulasnellaceae and the potentially ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes Trichophaea woolhopeia and Geopora cooperi. Orchis militaris also associated with unnamed members of the Tulasnellaceae. Dactylorhiza baltica associated with Ceratobasidium albasitensis. In Epipactis and Orchis, the same fungi associated with plants in the pristine habitat as with those on ash hills. The tulasnelloid and ceratobasidioid fungi mycorrhizal with these orchids appear closely related to common orchid mycorrhizal fungi, while one of the ascomycetes mycorrhizal with E. atrorubens is closely related to a mycorrhizal fungus with E. microphylla. Our results suggest that these orchids and their fungi are not limited to pristine habitats and that environmentally polluted sites may present novel habitats that may be exploited for endangered plant conservation. PMID:21632341

Shefferson, Richard P; Kull, Tiiu; Tali, Kadri

2008-02-01

304

The conserved global regulator VeA is necessary for symptom production and mycotoxin synthesis in maize seedlings by Fusarium verticillioides  

PubMed Central

The veA or velvet gene is necessary for biosynthesis of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species. In addition, veA has also been demonstrated to be necessary for normal seed colonization in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The present study shows that veA homologues are broadly distributed in fungi, particularly in Ascomycetes. The Fusarium verticillioides veA orthologue, FvVE1, is also required for the synthesis of several secondary metabolites, including fumonisin and fusarins. This study also shows that maize plants grown from seeds inoculated with FvVE1 deletion mutants did not show disease symptoms, while plants grown from seeds inoculated with the F. verticillioides wildtype and complementation strains clearly showed disease symptoms under the same experimental conditions. In this latter case, the presence of lesions coincided with accumulation of fumonisins in the plant tissues, and only these plant tissues had elevated levels of sphingoid bases and their 1-phosphate derivatives, indicating inhibition of ceramide synthase and disruption of sphingolipid metabolism. The results strongly suggest that FvVE1 is necessary for pathogenicity by F. verticillioides against maize seedlings. The conservation of veA homologues among ascomycetes suggests that veA could play a pivotal role in regulating secondary metabolism and associated pathogenicity in other fungi. PMID:22247572

Myung, K.; Zitomer, N. C.; Duvall, M.; Glenn, A. E.; Riley, R. T.; Calvo, A. M.

2011-01-01

305

Genome-wide inventory of metal homeostasis-related gene products including a functional phytochelatin synthase in the hypogeous mycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi are thought to enhance mineral nutrition of their host plants and to confer increased tolerance toward toxic metals. However, a global view of metal homeostasis-related genes and pathways in these organisms is still lacking. Building upon the genome sequence of Tuber melanosporum and on transcriptome analyses, we set out to systematically identify metal homeostasis-related genes in this plant-symbiotic ascomycete. Candidate gene products (101) were subdivided into three major functional classes: (i) metal transport (58); (ii) oxidative stress defence (32); (iii) metal detoxification (11). The latter class includes a small-size metallothionein (TmelMT) that was functionally validated in yeast, and phytochelatin synthase (TmelPCS), the first enzyme of this kind to be described in filamentous ascomycetes. Recombinant TmelPCS was shown to support GSH-dependent, metal-activated phytochelatin synthesis in vitro and to afford increased Cd/Cu tolerance to metal hypersensitive yeast strains. Metal transporters, especially those related to Cu and Zn trafficking, displayed the highest expression levels in mycorrhizae, suggesting extensive translocation of both metals to root cells as well as to fungal metalloenzymes (e.g., laccase) that are strongly upregulated in symbiotic hyphae. PMID:21094264

Bolchi, Angelo; Ruotolo, Roberta; Marchini, Gessica; Vurro, Emanuela; di Toppi, Luigi Sanità; Kohler, Annegret; Tisserant, Emilie; Martin, Francis; Ottonello, Simone

2011-06-01

306

Current state and perspectives of truffle genetics and sustainable biotechnology.  

PubMed

Mycorrhizal fungi belonging to the genus Tuber produce, after the establishment of a productive interaction with a plant host, hypogeous fruitbodies of great economic value known as ''truffles''. This review summarizes the state of art on life cycle, genetic, and biotechnological investigations of Tuber spp. The ascocarp formation in truffles is a consequence of the activation of the sexual phase of the biological cycle. The formation of a dikaryotic secondary mycelium and the karyogamy in the ascal cell (followed by meiosis with ascospores formation) have been hypothesized by several authors but some doubts yet arise from the Tuber cycle by considering that a series of abnormalities have been pointed out in respect to other Ascomycetes. It is unclear if binucleated hyphal cells are derived from the fusion of mononucleated cells belonging to mycelia from different mating types or from one only. According to the karyotypes of Tuber melanosporum, Tuber magnatum, and Tuber borchii, the numbers of hyphal chromosomes suggest a chromosome number of eight (2n); these values are in the range of those of several Ascomycetes and observed for Tuber aestivum (2n=10). The importance and growth in interest during the last years in the fungi protoplasts isolation and transformation techniques can be related to current developments in Tuber genetics and biotechnology. T. borchii could be transformed through liposome-mediated delivery of genetic material as mycelial protoplasts isolation and fusion with liposomes has already been established. On the other hand, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been successfully established for T. borchii. PMID:16802150

Poma, Anna; Limongi, Tania; Pacioni, Giovanni

2006-09-01

307

How past and present influence the foraging of clonal plants?  

PubMed

Clonal plants spreading horizontally and forming a network structure of ramets exhibit complex growth patterns to maximize resource uptake from the environment. They respond to spatial heterogeneity by changing their internode length or branching frequency. Ramets definitively root in the soil but stay interconnected for a varying period of time thus allowing an exchange of spatial and temporal information. We quantified the foraging response of clonal plants depending on the local soil quality sampled by the rooting ramet (i.e. the present information) and the resource variability sampled by the older ramets (i.e. the past information). We demonstrated that two related species, Potentilla reptans and P. anserina, responded similarly to the local quality of their environment by decreasing their internode length in response to nutrient-rich soil. Only P. reptans responded to resource variability by decreasing its internode length. In both species, the experience acquired by older ramets influenced the plastic response of new rooted ramets: the internode length between ramets depended not only on the soil quality locally sampled but also on the soil quality previously sampled by older ramets. We quantified the effect of the information perceived at different time and space on the foraging behavior of clonal plants by showing a non-linear response of the ramet rooting in the soil of a given quality. These data suggest that the decision to grow a stolon or to root a ramet at a given distance from the older ramet results from the integration of the past and present information about the richness and the variability of the environment. PMID:22675539

Louâpre, Philipe; Bittebière, Anne-Kristel; Clément, Bernard; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Mony, Cendrine

2012-01-01

308

Do Clonal Plants Show Greater Division of Labour Morphologically and Physiologically at Higher Patch Contrasts?  

PubMed Central

Background When growing in reciprocal patches in terms of availability of different resources, connected ramets of clonal plants will specialize to acquire and exchange locally abundant resources more efficiently. This has been termed division of labour. We asked whether division of labour can occur physiologically as well as morphologically and will increase with patch contrasts. Methodology/Principal Findings We subjected connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina to Control, Low, Medium and High patch contrast by manipulating light and nutrient levels for ramets in each pair. Little net benefit of inter-ramet connection in terms of biomass was detected. Shoot-root ratio did not differ significantly between paired ramets regardless of connection under Control, Low and Medium. Under High, however, disconnected shaded ramets with ample nutrients showed significantly larger shoot-root ratios (2.8?6.5 fold) than fully-lit but nutrient-deficient ramets, and than their counterparts under any other treatment; conversely, fully-lit but nutrient-deficient ramets, when connected to shaded ramets with ample nutrients, had significantly larger shoot-root ratios (2.0?4.9 fold) than the latter and than their counterparts under any other treatment. Only under High patch contrast, fully-lit ramets, if connected to shaded ones, had 8.9% higher chlorophyll content than the latter, and 22.4% higher chlorophyll content than their isolated counterparts; the similar pattern held for photosynthetic capacity under all heterogeneous treatments. Conclusions/Significance Division of labour in clonal plants can be realized by ramet specialization in morphology and in physiology. However, modest ramet specialization especially in morphology among patch contrasts may suggest that division of labour will occur when the connected ramets grow in reciprocal patches between which the contrast exceeds a threshold. Probably, this threshold patch contrast is the outcome of the clone-wide cost-benefit tradeoff and is significant for risk-avoidance, especially in the disturbance-prone environments. PMID:21980447

Wang, Zhengwen; Li, Yuanheng; During, Heinjo J.; Li, Linghao

2011-01-01

309

Ecological study of the fungal populations of the acidic Tinto River in southwestern Spain.  

PubMed

The characterization of the microbial ecology of the Tinto River, an extreme habitat with an extremely low pH and a high concentration of heavy metals, revealed an unexpected level of microbial richness. A variety of microbial eukaryotes was isolated, among them several fungal strains that were identified and their physiological characteristics studied. Ninety strains of yeast were isolated from the Tinto River. Fifty-two percent of them were capable of growth in vitro using medium amended with river water. They belong to 6 genera of basidiomycetes (Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Tremella, Holtermannia, Leucosporidium, and Mrakia) and 2 of ascomycetes (Candida and Williopsis). In addition, 349 strains of hyphomycetes belonging to 17 genera (most of them ascomycetes) were isolated and studied. Forty-four percent of the isolated filamentous fungi (154 strains) were capable of growing in vitro using medium amended with Tinto River water. Of this percentage, 19% (29 strains) belonged to the genus Penicillium (16 species) and 66% (102 strains) were included in the genera Scytalidium, Bahusakala, Phoma, and Heteroconium or showed dark sterile mycelia, which probably are of dematiaceous hyphomycetes. In addition, we characterized strains of the ascomycete genera Lecythophora and Acremonium and of the zygomycete genus Mortierella, all of them capable of growing in medium amended with river water. Statistical correlation of biological and physicochemical variables suggested a positive relationship between the dematiaceous hyphomycetes and the most extreme physicochemical conditions found in the Tinto River. Principal components analysis confirmed this relationship and also showed that the Acremonium and Lecythophora groups had environmental preferences similar to those of dematiaceous fungi. The spatial positions of the sampling sites were grouped in 2 main clusters: (i) sampling sites in the mine zone in which most of the dematiaceous, Acremonium, and Lecythophora strains were isolated and (ii) sites that were not in the mine zone and sampling station 5 from which were isolated mainly strains of fungi that were not capable of growing in the medium amended with river water and species of the Penicillium genus. PMID:15644909

López-Archilla, A I; González, A E; Terrón, M C; Amils, R

2004-11-01

310

Aspergillus Niger Genomics: Past, Present and into the Future  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.

Baker, Scott E.

2006-09-01

311

Ergothioneine Biosynthetic Methyltransferase EgtD Reveals the Structural Basis of Aromatic Amino Acid Betaine Biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Ergothioneine is an N-?-trimethyl-2-thiohistidine derivative that occurs in human, plant, fungal, and bacterial cells. Biosynthesis of this redox-active betaine starts with trimethylation of the ?-amino group of histidine. The three consecutive methyl transfers are catalyzed by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase EgtD. Three crystal structures of this enzyme in the absence and in the presence of N-?-dimethylhistidine and S-adenosylhomocysteine implicate a preorganized array of hydrophilic interactions as the determinants for substrate specificity and apparent processivity. We identified two active site mutations that change the substrate specificity of EgtD 10(7) -fold and transform the histidine-methyltransferase into a proficient tryptophan-methyltransferase. Finally, a genomic search for EgtD homologues in fungal genomes revealed tyrosine and tryptophan trimethylation activity as a frequent trait in ascomycetous and basidomycetous fungi. PMID:25404173

Vit, Allegra; Misson, Laëtitia; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Seebeck, Florian P

2015-01-01

312

Systematics, distribution, and host specificity of grass endophytes.  

PubMed

Clavicipitaceous endophytes (Ascomycetes) are distributed worldwide in many grasses and sedges forming a perennial and often mutualistic association with their hosts. Most endophytes appear to produce alkaloid toxins in infected plants. The high frequency of infection in many grasses and in certain grassland communities may indicate a selective advantage of infected over non-infected host plants due to their toxic effects on grazing animals and insects. Field observations and artificial inoculations of seedlings have demonstrated a high degree of specificity of most endophytes to their host plant, particularly in asexual, seed-borne endophytes. Specific isozyme genotypes found on several host species suggest that host-specific physiological races may occur. Knowledge of host range and host specificity is vital for potential applications of endophytes in pest control. PMID:1344916

Leuchtmann, A

1992-01-01

313

Calicioid lichens from European Tertiary amber.  

PubMed

Two species of calicioid lichens (Ascomycota) are reported from Baltic amber dating back 55-35 million years ago. The fossils are very similar to some modern Calicium and Chaenotheca species, but because ascus characteristics and photobiont identities cannot be determined they are not assigned to any extant species. Calicioid lichens seem to show a conservative maintenance of morphological adaptations to successful ecological niches, as do several other groups of ascomycetes. The fossils demonstrate that distinguishing features in the morphology of both genera have remained unchanged for at least tens of millions of years. The palaeohabitat of the fossil lichens, viz. that of conifer trunks in a humid, mixed forest, is consistent with the habitat preferences of many modern Calicium and Chaenotheca species. PMID:21149012

Rikkinen, Jouko

2003-01-01

314

Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent for Fusarium head blight in cereals and produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. Isolation of the fungal strains from air or cereals can be hampered by various other airborne fungal pathogens and saprophytic fungi. In this study, we developed a selective medium specific to F. graminearum using toxoflavin produced by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. F. graminearum was resistant to toxoflavin, while other fungi were sensitive to this toxin. Supplementing toxoflavin into medium enhanced the isolation of F. graminearum from rice grains by suppressing the growth of saprophytic fungal species. In addition, a medium with or without toxoflavin exposed to wheat fields for 1 h had 84% or 25%, respectively, of colonies identified as F. graminearum. This selection medium provides an efficient tool for isolating F. graminearum, and can be adopted by research groups working on genetics and disease forecasting. PMID:25288974

Jung, Boknam; Lee, Sehee; Ha, Jiran; Park, Jong-Chul; Han, Sung-Sook; Hwang, Ingyu; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

2013-01-01

315

Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Soil Fungi from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma  

PubMed Central

The Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma is an inland terrestrial hypersaline environment where saturated brines leave evaporite crusts of NaCl. The current report examines the fungal community, complementing earlier reports on the bacterial and archaeal communities. Twenty-five fungal isolates from GSP soils were obtained on medium containing 10% NaCl and characterized. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all of the isolates fall within the Ascomycetes, with a predominance of Trichocomaceae, represented by Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium species. Representatives of Anthrinium, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Fusarium, and Ulocladium also were isolated. Overall the isolates were widely halotolerant, with best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism. The fungal genera observed were all cosmopolitan, without strong specialization. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that hypersaline environments do not have a characteristic community, in contrast to what was observed at the GSP for bacteria and archaea. PMID:25249710

EVANS, Sarah; HANSEN, Ryan W.; SCHNEEGURT, Mark A.

2014-01-01

316

Secondary metabolites from higher fungi in China and their biological activity.  

PubMed

As a part of our search for naturally occurring bioactive metabolites from higher fungi, we investigated the chemical constituents of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes fungi (Albatrellus confluens, Albatrellus dispansus, Boletus edulis, Boletopsis grisea, Bondarzewia berkeleyi, Cortinarius tenuipes, Cortinarius vibratilis, Daldinia concentrica, Engleromyces goetzii, Hydnum repandum, Hebeloma versipelle, Hygrophorus eburnesus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius hatsudake, Lactarius hirtipes, Lactarius mitissimus, Lactarius rufus, Paxillus panuoides, Pulveroboletus ravenelii, Russula cyanoxantha, Russula foetens, Russula lepida, Russula nigricans, Sarcodon laevigatum, Sarcodon scabrosus, Shiraia bambusicola, Thelephora aurantiotincta, Thelephora ganbajun, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Tylopilus virens, Tuber indicum, Xylaria euglossa, etc.), and isolated a number of novel terpenoids, phenolics, and nitrogen-containing compounds. The isolation, structural elucidation, and biologically activity of the new compounds are discussed. PMID:22504394

Liu, J K

2007-10-01

317

Msi1-Like (MSIL) Proteins in Fungi  

PubMed Central

Msi1-like (MSIL) proteins, which are eukaryote-specific and contain a series of WD40 repeats, have pleiotropic roles in chromatin assembly, DNA damage repair, and regulation of nutrient/stress-sensing signaling pathways. In the fungal kingdom, the functions of MSIL proteins have been studied most intensively in the budding yeast model Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an ascomycete. Yet their functions are largely unknown in other fungi. Recently, an MSIL protein, Msl1, was discovered and functionally characterized in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, a basidiomycete. Interestingly, MSIL proteins appear to have redundant and unique roles in both fungi, suggesting that MSIL proteins may have evolutionarily divergent roles in different parts of the fungal kingdom. In this review, we will describe the current findings regarding the role of MSIL proteins in fungi and discuss future directions for research on this topic. PMID:23610533

Yang, Dong-Hoon; Maeng, Shinae

2013-01-01

318

Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeasts species  

PubMed Central

Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J. Bruce; Gillies, Laura A.; Almada, Luis A.G.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

2013-01-01

319

Mycosphaerella is polyphyletic  

PubMed Central

Mycosphaerella, one of the largest genera of ascomycetes, encompasses several thousand species and has anamorphs residing in more than 30 form genera. Although previous phylogenetic studies based on the ITS rDNA locus supported the monophyly of the genus, DNA sequence data derived from the LSU gene distinguish several clades and families in what has hitherto been considered to represent the Mycosphaerellaceae. Several important leaf spotting and extremotolerant species need to be disposed to the genus Teratosphaeria, for which a new family, the Teratosphaeriaceae, is introduced. Other distinct clades represent the Schizothyriaceae, Davidiellaceae, Capnodiaceae, and the Mycosphaerellaceae. Within the two major clades, namely Teratosphaeriaceae and Mycosphaerellaceae, most anamorph genera are polyphyletic, and new anamorph concepts need to be derived to cope with dual nomenclature within the Mycosphaerella complex. PMID:18490994

Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.

2007-01-01

320

Pichia insulana sp. nov., a novel cactophilic yeast from the Caribbean.  

PubMed

A novel species of ascomycetous yeast, Pichia insulana sp. nov., is described from necrotic tissue of columnar cacti on Caribbean islands. P. insulana is closely related to and phenotypically very similar to Pichia cactophila and Pichia pseudocactophila. There are few distinctions between these taxa besides spore type, host preference and locality. Sporogenous strains of P. insulana that produce asci with four hat-shaped spores have been found only on Curaçao, whereas there was no evidence of sporogenous P. cactophila from that island. In addition, sequences of the D1/D2 fragment of the large-subunit rDNA from 12 Curaçao strains showed consistent differences from the sequences of the type strains of P. cactophila and P. pseudocactophila. The type strain of P. insulana is TSU00-106.5(T) (=CBS 11169(T) =UCD-FST 09-160(T)). PMID:19661524

Ganter, Philip F; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Boundy-Mills, Kyria

2010-04-01

321

Integration of the first and second generation bioethanol processes and the importance of by-products.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic ethanol has obstacles in the investment costs and uncertainties in the process. One solution is to integrate it with the running dry mills of ethanol from grains. However, the economy of these mills, which dominate the world market, are dependent on their by-products DDGS (Distiller's Dried Grains and Solubles), sold as animal feed. The quality of DDGS therefore must not be negatively influenced by the integration. This puts restraints on the choice of pretreatment of lignocelluloses and utilizing the pentose sugars by food-grade microorganisms. The proposed solution is to use food related filamentous Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes fungi, and to produce fungal biomass as a high-grade animal feed from the residues after the distillation (stillage). This also has the potential to improve the first generation process by increasing the amount of the thin stillage directly sent back into the process, and by decreasing the evaporator based problems. PMID:24582951

Lennartsson, Patrik R; Erlandsson, Per; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2014-08-01

322

Comparative genomics of Taphrina fungi causing varying degrees of tumorous deformity in plants.  

PubMed

Taphrina fungi are biotrophic plant pathogens that cause plant deformity diseases. We sequenced the genomes of four Taphrina species-Taphrina wiesneri, T. deformans, T. flavorubra, and T. populina-which parasitize Prunus, Cerasus, and Populus hosts with varying severity of disease symptoms. High levels of gene synteny within Taphrina species were observed, and our comparative analysis further revealed that these fungi may utilize multiple strategies in coping with the host environment that are also found in some specialized dimorphic species. These include species-specific aneuploidy and clusters of highly diverged secreted proteins located at subtelomeres. We also identified species differences in plant hormone biosynthesis pathways, which may contribute to varying degree of disease symptoms. The genomes provide a rich resource for investigation into Taphrina biology and evolutionary studies across the basal ascomycetes clade. PMID:24682155

Tsai, Isheng J; Tanaka, Eiji; Masuya, Hayato; Tanaka, Ryusei; Hirooka, Yuuri; Endoh, Rikiya; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

2014-04-01

323

Entomopathogenic fungi in cornfields and their potential to manage larval western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic ascomycete fungi are ubiquitous in soil and on phylloplanes, and are important natural enemies of many soil-borne arthropods including larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which is a major pest of corn. We measured the prevalence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato in ten cornfields in Iowa, USA by baiting with larval insects. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae s.l. were present in 60% ± 6.3% and 55% ± 6.4% of soil samples, respectively. Subsequent laboratory bioassays found that some M. anisopliae s.l. strains collected from cornfields killed a greater proportion of D.v. virgifera larvae than a standard commercial strain. PMID:24120889

Rudeen, Melissa L; Jaronski, Stefan T; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Gassmann, Aaron J

2013-11-01

324

Fungus-specific microsatellite primers of lichens: application for the assessment of genetic variation on different spatial scales in Lobaria pulmonaria.  

PubMed

We isolated 12 microsatellite loci for the epiphytic lichen-forming ascomycete Lobaria pulmonaria and studied their patterns of variation within and among populations from Canada and Switzerland. Even though several microsatellites exhibited high levels of variability at different spatial scales, we did not find any evidence for intrathalline variation. Most of the genetic variation was attributed to differences among individuals within populations. High genetic variation was also detected among L. pulmonaria samples taken from individual trees, suggesting that either multiple colonization events had occurred or that local recombination is frequent. The geographically structured distribution of alleles from several microsatellites indicated that L. pulmonaria from Canada and Switzerland represent two distinct evolutionary lineages. The potential to identify multiple alleles, and their transferability to closely related species, make microsatellites an ideal tool to study dispersal, population differentiation, and microevolution in lichens. PMID:12948515

Walser, Jean-Claude; Sperisen, Christoph; Soliva, Marco; Scheidegger, Christoph

2003-10-01

325

MICROBIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF TETRACYCLINES  

PubMed Central

Meyers, Edward (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and Dorothy A. Smith. Microbiological degradation of tetracyclines. J. Bacteriol. 84:797–802. 1962—The degradation of tetracyclines by an ascomycete, Xylaria digitata, was demonstrated. Washedcell suspensions were capable of degrading tetracycline, 5-hydroxytetracycline, 7-chlortetracycline, 7-chlor-6-demethyltetracycline, 2-acetyl-2-decarboxamido-5-hydroxytetracycline, and 12-?-deoxytetracycline. The influence of environmental conditions upon the degradation of tetracycline was investigated. A nonantibacterial, nonfluorescent product was located from the degradation of 14C 5-hydroxytetracycline. Evidence indicated that neither the A nor D ring of 5-hydroxytetracycline is attacked. Acetone powders, lyophilized powders, and cell-free extracts exhibited a relatively limited substrate specificity compared to the washed cells. PMID:13935339

Meyers, Edward; Smith, Dorothy A.

1962-01-01

326

Secretion of acid phosphatase in Claviceps purpurea--an ultracytochemical study.  

PubMed

The lead phosphate precipitation method showed the reaction product of acid phosphatase (which reflects the presence of the enzyme glycoprotein) in peripheral cytoplasmic vesicles in the ascomycetous fungus Claviceps purpurea. The product appeared to diffuse from these vesicles (diameter 100-200 nm) towards the cell wall, usually to its sites covered by the capsular fibres exhibiting also acid phosphatase activity. This observation of diffusion of secretory glycoprotein in the cytoplasmic matrix and its orientation to the plasmalemma and capsular fibrils suggests an alternative to the well-described secretory mechanism of transport and exocytosis of glycoproteins via membrane-bound transport conveyors fusing with the cell membrane. It confirms and enlarges our previous finding of the reaction product of acid phosphatase performed by ultrastructural cytochemistry in vacuoles (lysosomes), in the growing cell septum, in cytoplasmic vesicles and in the fibres of the external capsule. PMID:15058189

Vorísek, J; Kalachová, L

2003-01-01

327

Psychrotrophic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCYC 789 mediates the synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles via cell-associated melanin  

PubMed Central

A psychrotrophic marine strain of the ascomycetous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (NCYC 789) synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a cell-associated manner. These nanostructures were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) analysis. The brown pigment (melanin) involved in metal-interactions was obtained from the cells. This extracted pigment also mediated the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that were characterized by a variety of analytical techniques. The melanin-derived nanoparticles displayed antibiofilm activity. This paper thus reports the synthesis of AgNPs by the biotechnologically important yeast Y. lipolytica; proposes a possible mechanism involved in the synthetic process and describes the use of the bio-inspired nanoparticles as antibiofilm agents. PMID:23758863

2013-01-01

328

Unisexual Reproduction Enhances Fungal Competitiveness by Promoting Habitat Exploration via Hyphal Growth and Sporulation  

PubMed Central

Unisexual reproduction is a novel homothallic sexual cycle recently discovered in both ascomycetous and basidiomycetous pathogenic fungi. It is a form of selfing that induces the yeast-to-hyphal dimorphic transition in isolates of the ? mating type of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Unisexual reproduction may benefit the pathogen by facilitating sexual reproduction in the absence of the opposite a mating type and by generating infectious propagules called basidiospores. Here, we report an independent potential selective advantage of unisexual reproduction beyond genetic exchange and recombination. We competed a wild-type strain capable of undergoing unisexual reproduction with mutants defective in this developmental pathway and found that unisexual reproduction provides a considerable dispersal advantage through hyphal growth and sporulation. Our results show that unisexual reproduction may serve to facilitate access to both nutrients and potential mating partners and may provide a means to maintain the capacity for dimorphic transitions in the environment. PMID:23794511

Phadke, Sujal S.; Feretzaki, Marianna

2013-01-01

329

MRSP1, encoding a novel Trichoderma secreted protein, is negatively regulated by MAPK.  

PubMed

A novel gene, MRSP1 (MAP kinase repressed secreted protein 1) is strongly overexpressed in the tmkA MAPK mutant of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens. Transcriptional regulation of MRSP1 is determined by presence or absence of TmkA, rather than by light or sporulation, making it a molecular marker for the unusual, negative, regulation by TmkA. The predicted protein is 15.9 kDa, has a secretory signal, and the four-cysteine pattern, C-X29-CP(G)C-X31-C, may define a new cysteine-rich motif. This is a novel protein with functions not known from any other organism. Conservation in ascomycete, basidiomycete, and Dictyostelium homologs, as well as tight MAPK regulation, might indicate important cellular functions. PMID:17027919

Mukherjee, Prasun K; Hadar, Ruthi; Pardovitz-Kedmi, Ella; Trushina, Naomi; Horwitz, Benjamin A

2006-11-24

330

A Morphological and Molecular Perspective of Trichoderma viride: Is It One or Two Species?  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma (Ascomycetes, Hypocreales) strains that have warted conidia are traditionally identified as T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma. However, two morphologically distinct types of conidial warts (I and II) have been found. Because each type corresponds to a unique mitochondrial DNA pattern, it has been questioned whether T. viride comprises more than one species. Combined molecular data (sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 [ITS-1] and ITS-2 regions and of part of the 28S rRNA gene along with results of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the endochitinase gene and PCR fingerprinting), morphology, physiology, and colony characteristics distinguish type I and type II as different species. Type I corresponds to “true” T. viride, the anamorph of Hypocrea rufa. Type II represents a new species, T. asperellum, which is, in terms of molecular characteristics, close to the neotype of T. hamatum. PMID:10347022

Lieckfeldt, Elke; Samuels, Gary J.; Nirenberg, Helgard I.; Petrini, Orlando

1999-01-01

331

Endophytic fungi diversity of aquatic/riparian plants and their antifungal activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Two hundred and fourteen endophytic fungi were isolated from 500 segments of aquatic/riparian plants Ottelia acuminata, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Equisetum arvense, Cardamine multijuga, and Impatiens chinensis. They were identified to 31 taxa in which Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Geotrichum were the dominant genera. Among all isolates, 169 (79%) were anamorphic fungi, 1 (0.5%) was an teleomorphic ascomycete and 44 (21%) were sterile mycelia. There were significant differences in the colonization frequency of endophytes between the five plant species (X~2=51.128, P<0.001, Chi-square test). The riparian plants harboured more endophytes than the submerged plants. The antifungal activity of these isolates against Fusarium solani and Phytophthora nicotianae in vitro were tested and 28 (13.1%) isolates showed antifungal activities with more than 30% growth inhibition rate against the two pathogens. PMID:20221722

Li, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Chun-An; Liu, Chen-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Fei

2010-02-01

332

Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola reveals that ascorbate reduces disease severity.  

PubMed

The interaction between the pathogenic ascomycete Alternaria brassicicola and Arabidopsis was investigated by metabolite profiling. The effect of A. brassicicola challenge on metabolite levels was substantial, with nearly 50% of detected compounds undergoing significant changes. Mutations blocking ethylene, jasmonic acid, or ethylene signaling had little effect on metabolite levels. The effects of altering levels of some metabolites were tested by exogenous application during A. brassicicola inoculation. Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) or xylitol promoted, while trehalose and ascorbate inhibited, disease severity. GABA promoted, and ascorbate strongly inhibited, fungal growth in culture. Arabidopsis vtc1 and vtc2 mutants, that have low levels of ascorbate, were more susceptible to A. brassicicola. Ascorbate levels declined following A. brassicicola inoculation while levels of dehydroascorbate increased, resulting in a shift of the redox balance between these compounds in the direction of oxidation. These results demonstrate that ascorbate is an important component of resistance to this pathogen. PMID:23134520

Botanga, Christopher J; Bethke, Gerit; Chen, Zhong; Gallie, Daniel R; Fiehn, Oliver; Glazebrook, Jane

2012-12-01

333

Control and possible applications of a novel carrot-spoilage basidiomycete, Fibulorhizoctonia psychrophila  

PubMed Central

A novel cold-tolerant fungus, Fibulorhizoctonia psychrophila, was isolated from a refrigerated carrot storage facility and identified as an anamorph of Athelia, often classified in Rhizoctonia s.l. Growth of this fungus was observed between 0 and 20°C with an optimum at 9–12°C, while incubation of mycelium grown at 15–32°C resulted in absence of growth even after the fungus was transferred back to 15°C. Growth was inhibited in the presence of the antifungals sorbic acid or natamycin, in particular when the fungus was incubated at 18°C. F. psychrophila produces polysaccharide degrading enzymes that, when compared to enzymes from the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus niger, retain a larger proportion of their activity at lower temperatures. This indicates that F. psychrophila could be used as a source for novel industrial enzymes that are active at 4–15°C. PMID:18183497

de Lange, Elvira S.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Stalpers, Joost A.

2008-01-01

334

Transformation of Botrytis cinerea by direct hyphal blasting or by wound-mediated transformation of sclerotia  

PubMed Central

Background Botrytis cinerea is a haploid necrotrophic ascomycete which is responsible for 'grey mold' disease in more than 200 plant species. Broad molecular research has been conducted on this pathogen in recent years, resulting in the sequencing of two strains, which has generated a wealth of information toward developing additional tools for molecular transcriptome, proteome and secretome investigations. Nonetheless, transformation protocols have remained a significant bottleneck for this pathogen, hindering functional analysis research in many labs. Results In this study, we tested three different transformation methods for B. cinerea: electroporation, air-pressure-mediated and sclerotium-mediated transformation. We demonstrate successful transformation with three different DNA constructs using both air-pressure- and sclerotium-mediated transformation. Conclusions These transformation methods, which are fast, simple and reproducible, can expedite functional gene analysis of B. cinerea. PMID:22188865

2011-01-01

335

Fusarium graminearum and Its Interactions with Cereal Heads: Studies in the Proteomics Era  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph stage: Gibberella zeae) is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley. This disease leads to significant losses of crop yield, and especially quality through the contamination by diverse fungal mycotoxins, which constitute a significant threat to the health of humans and animals. In recent years, high-throughput proteomics, aiming at identifying a broad spectrum of proteins with a potential role in the pathogenicity and host resistance, has become a very useful tool in plant-fungus interaction research. In this review, we describe the progress in proteomics applications toward a better understanding of F. graminearum pathogenesis, virulence, and host defense mechanisms. The contribution of proteomics to the development of crop protection strategies against this pathogen is also discussed briefly. PMID:23450732

Yang, Fen; Jacobsen, Susanne; Jørgensen, Hans J. L.; Collinge, David B.; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

2013-01-01

336

Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov., Candida taylorii sp. nov. and Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov., novel yeasts from mangrove and coral reef ecosystems.  

PubMed

Three species of yeasts are taxonomically described for strains isolated from marine environments. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10894T =NRRL Y-48663T) and Candida taylorii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8508T =NRRL Y-27213T) are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts in a phylogenetic cluster of marine yeasts in the Debaryomyces/Lodderomyces clade of the Saccharomycetales. The two species were isolated from multiple locations among coral reefs and mangrove habitats. Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8380T =NRRL Y-17380T) is an anamorphic basidiomycete that is related to the smut fungi of the genus Ustilago in the Ustilaginales. P. abaconensis was collected from waters adjacent to a coral reef. PMID:19783617

Statzell-Tallman, Adele; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W

2010-08-01

337

Germling fusion via conidial anastomosis tubes in the grey mould Botrytis cinerea requires NADPH oxidase activity.  

PubMed

In many filamentous ascomycete species, the early steps of colony development include fusion between germinating vegetative spores (conidial germlings). Often these fusion events are mediated by specialized hyphal structures, so-called conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs). Here, we show that germling fusion in the grey mould Botrytis cinerea is mediated by hyphal structures possessing the typical features of CATs. Formation of these structures is delayed when spores are germinating on complex media compared to growth on poor substrates. Fusion frequency is also influenced by the growth conditions of the precultures from which spores were obtained. During germination on hydrophobic plant surfaces, which induce pathogenic development, CAT formation is significantly suppressed. Screening of existing B. cinerea gene knockout mutants identified strains lacking the NADPH oxidase BcNoxA or the potential Nox regulator BcNoxR as fusion deficient, suggesting a potential role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling in CAT formation and fusion. PMID:22385620

Roca, M Gabriela; Weichert, Martin; Siegmund, Ulrike; Tudzynski, Paul; Fleissner, André

2012-03-01

338

A review of soybean (Glycine max) seed, pod, and flower mycofloras in North America, with methods and a key for identification of selected fungi.  

PubMed

A review of the fungi associated with soybean seeds, pods, or flowers was conducted in North America. Species of Deuteromycetes are the most common fungi in each of the soybean flower organs followed by the Ascomycetes and Phycomycetes which comprise about one-fourth of the total mycoflora. Eighty genera and about 135 or more species occur in seeds, pods, or flowers. With regard to numbers of taxa from separate mycofloras, 63 genera and about 108 or more species occur in seeds, 65 genera and about 88 or more species occur in pods, and 36 genera and approximately 47 or more species occur in flowers. Most of the fungi which occur in flowers can be cultured from pods, and the majority of those fungi occur in seeds. Methods for and a key are provided for the identification of the 30 most important selected fungi. PMID:11392564

Roy, K W; Baird, R E; Abney, T S

2001-01-01

339

Membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants reveal diverse yeast and protist communities of potential significance in biofouling.  

PubMed

The yeast community was studied in a municipal full-scale membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant (MBR-WWTP). The unexpectedly high diversity of yeasts indicated that the activated sludge formed a suitable environment for them to proliferate, with cellular concentrations of 2.2 ± 0.8?×?10(3) CFU ml(-1). Sixteen species of seven genera were present in the biological reactor, with Ascomycetes being the most prevalent group (93%). Most isolates were able to grow in a synthetic wastewater medium, adhere to polyethylene surfaces, and develop biofilms of variable complexity. The relationship between yeast populations and the protists in the MBR-WWTP was also studied, revealing that some protist species preyed on and ingested yeasts. These results suggest that yeast populations may play a role in the food web of a WWTP and, to some extent, contribute to membrane biofouling in MBR systems. PMID:25588128

Liébana, Raquel; Arregui, Lucía; Belda, Ignacio; Gamella, Luis; Santos, Antonio; Marquina, Domingo; Serrano, Susana

2015-01-01

340

Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans Using Radicicol  

PubMed Central

The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans causes ginseng root rot disease and produces various secondary metabolites such as brefeldin A and radicicol. The slow growth of this fungus compared with other plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi in soil disturbs isolation of this fungus from soil and infected ginseng. In this study, we developed a selective medium for C. destructans using radicicol produced by this fungus. Supplementing 50 mg/L of radicicol to medium inhibited the mycelia growth of other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria panax, but did not affect the growth of C. destructans. In addition, conidia germination of other fungal species except for C. destructans was inhibited in submerged culture supplemented with radicicol. This medium provides a very efficient tool for isolating C. destructans and also can be used as an enrichment medium for this fungus. PMID:25506308

Kang, Yunhee; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan

2014-01-01

341

Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts  

PubMed Central

The fission yeast clade, comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus and S. japonicus, occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative annotation of these genomes identified a near extinction of transposons and the associated innovation of transposon-free centromeres. Expression analysis established that meiotic genes are subject to antisense transcription during vegetative growth, suggesting a mechanism for their tight regulation. In addition, trans-acting regulators control new genes within the context of expanded functional modules for meiosis and stress response. Differences in gene content and regulation also explain why, unlike the Saccharomycotina, fission yeasts cannot use ethanol as a primary carbon source. These analyses elucidate the genome structure and gene regulation of fission yeast and provide tools for investigation across the Schizosaccharomyces clade. PMID:21511999

Rhind, Nicholas; Chen, Zehua; Yassour, Moran; Thompson, Dawn A; Haas, Brian J; Habib, Naomi; Wapinski, Ilan; Roy, Sushmita; Lin, Michael F.; Heiman, David I; Young, Sarah K; Furuya, Kanji; Guo, Yabin; Pidoux, Alison; Chen, Huei Mei; Robbertse, Barbara; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Aoki, Keita; Bayne, Elizabeth H.; Berlin, Aaron M; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Dobbs, Edward; Dukaj, Livio; Fan, Lin; FitzGerald, Michael G; French, Courtney; Gujja, Sharvari; Hansen, Klavs; Keifenheim, Dan; Levin, Joshua Z.; Mosher, Rebecca A.; Müller, Carolin A.; Pfiffner, Jenna; Priest, Margaret; Russ, Carsten; Smialowska, Agata; Swoboda, Peter; Sykes, Sean M; Vaughn, Matthew; Vengrova, Sonya; Yoder, Ryan; Zeng, Qiandong; Allshire, Robin; Baulcombe, David; Birren, Bruce W.; Brown, William; Ekwall, Karl; Kellis, Manolis; Leatherwood, Janet; Levin, Henry; Margalit, Hanah; Martienssen, Rob; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Friedman, Nir; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Baumann, Peter; Niki, Hironori; Regev, Aviv; Nusbaum, Chad

2011-01-01

342

Comparative functional genomics of the fission yeasts.  

PubMed

The fission yeast clade--comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus--occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative annotation of these genomes identified a near extinction of transposons and the associated innovation of transposon-free centromeres. Expression analysis established that meiotic genes are subject to antisense transcription during vegetative growth, which suggests a mechanism for their tight regulation. In addition, trans-acting regulators control new genes within the context of expanded functional modules for meiosis and stress response. Differences in gene content and regulation also explain why, unlike the budding yeast of Saccharomycotina, fission yeasts cannot use ethanol as a primary carbon source. These analyses elucidate the genome structure and gene regulation of fission yeast and provide tools for investigation across the Schizosaccharomyces clade. PMID:21511999

Rhind, Nicholas; Chen, Zehua; Yassour, Moran; Thompson, Dawn A; Haas, Brian J; Habib, Naomi; Wapinski, Ilan; Roy, Sushmita; Lin, Michael F; Heiman, David I; Young, Sarah K; Furuya, Kanji; Guo, Yabin; Pidoux, Alison; Chen, Huei Mei; Robbertse, Barbara; Goldberg, Jonathan M; Aoki, Keita; Bayne, Elizabeth H; Berlin, Aaron M; Desjardins, Christopher A; Dobbs, Edward; Dukaj, Livio; Fan, Lin; FitzGerald, Michael G; French, Courtney; Gujja, Sharvari; Hansen, Klavs; Keifenheim, Dan; Levin, Joshua Z; Mosher, Rebecca A; Müller, Carolin A; Pfiffner, Jenna; Priest, Margaret; Russ, Carsten; Smialowska, Agata; Swoboda, Peter; Sykes, Sean M; Vaughn, Matthew; Vengrova, Sonya; Yoder, Ryan; Zeng, Qiandong; Allshire, Robin; Baulcombe, David; Birren, Bruce W; Brown, William; Ekwall, Karl; Kellis, Manolis; Leatherwood, Janet; Levin, Henry; Margalit, Hanah; Martienssen, Rob; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Spatafora, Joseph W; Friedman, Nir; Dalgaard, Jacob Z; Baumann, Peter; Niki, Hironori; Regev, Aviv; Nusbaum, Chad

2011-05-20

343

Scytalidium and scytalidiosis: what's new in 2012?  

PubMed

Fungi belonging to the genus Scytalidium are widespread around the world. Among them, two species are responsible for human superficial infections mimicking dermatophytosis: Neoscytalidium dimidiatum and Scytalidium hyalinum. Whereas these ascomycetous fungi are endemic in tropical or subtropical countries, both species have a different geographical distribution. Scytalidiosis represents approximately 40% of dermatomycoses in these areas. A few cases of invasive infections due to Scytalidium sp. have also been reported, assessing the ability of these fungi to behave as opportunists. Here we have reviewed the data on N. dimidiatum and S. hyalinum concerning their classification, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment. We also have presented the example of a specific consultation dedicated to nails in Martinique, in order to optimize the diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis, many of which being due to Scytalidium sp. Even if Scytalidium cases are still rare in temperate countries, imported cases may increase in the future due to immigration and travel. PMID:23416171

Machouart, M; Menir, P; Helenon, R; Quist, D; Desbois, N

2013-03-01

344

Saccharicola, a new genus for two Leptosphaeria species on sugar cane.  

PubMed

Leptosphaeria bicolor, causal agent of a leaf scorch disease of sugar cane, is referred to the new genus Saccharicola. The ascospores are 1-3 transseptate and hyaline at first but become melanized and rough after release, as is the case in some members of Massarina and Lophiostoma. SSU rDNA data indicate that it is closely related to M. eburnea but is biotrophic in leaves of sugar cane and not corticolous, the ascomata are less melanized, and it has Stagonospora- and Phoma-like synanamorphs, not a Ceratophoma-like anamorph. A second species, Leptosphaeria taiwanensis, is transferred to Saccharicola. It differs in slightly larger, normally 1-septate, hyaline spores with more attenuated ends. The family Massarinaceae is resurrected to accommodate Massarina s. str., Keissleriella, Saccharicola and Helminthosporium. These genera formed a clade with 100% bootstrap support in a parsimony analysis of SSU rDNA sequences from 38 ascomycetes, 30 of them members of Pleosporales (including Melanommatales). PMID:21156631

Eriksson, Ove E; Hawksworth, David L

2003-01-01

345

Asexual Genetic Exchange in the Barley Pathogen Rhynchosporium secalis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The causal agent of barley scald, Rhynchosporium secalis, is a haploid anamorphic ascomycete with no known sexual stage. Nevertheless, a high degree of genetic variation has been observed in fungal populations on commercial barley cultivars and parasexuality has been suggested to contribute to this variation. In order to test whether asexual genetic exchange can occur, isolates of R. secalis were transformed to hygromycin B resistance or phleomycin resistance. Mixtures of transformants were co-inoculated either on agar or in planta and screened for the occurrence of dual-antibiotic-resistant colonies. No dual-antibiotic-resistant colonies resulted from mixing transformants of different fungal isolates. In contrast, with transformants originating from the same fungal isolate, asexual exchange of markers was demonstrated on agar plates and in planta. This is the first definitive evidence of asexual genetic exchange in R. secalis. PMID:18943585

Forgan, Angus H; Knogge, Wolfgang; Anderson, Peter A

2007-05-01

346

Plant biomass degradation by fungi.  

PubMed

Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general. In this review we provide a global view on the development of this research topic in saprobic ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and in plant pathogenic fungi and link this to the other papers of this special issue on plant biomass degradation by fungi. PMID:25192611

Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P

2014-11-01

347

Fungal flora and ochratoxin a production in grapes and musts from france.  

PubMed

Eleven samples of grapes and musts used in red table wines were investigated for the occurrence of potential ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing molds. From these samples, 59 filamentous fungi and 2 yeasts were isolated. Among the 30 genera isolated, Deuteromycetes were the most frequent (70%) followed by Ascomycetes (10%). Six of the eleven grapes samples were contaminated by potentially ochratoxinogenic strains (Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus carbonarius). When cultivated in vitro on solid complex media, the 14 strains of A. carbonarius produced OTA. No other species produced OTA under the same conditions. Among must samples, eight of eleven were found to be contaminated by OTA (concentrations from <10 to 461 ng/L). There is a strong correlation between the presence of ochratoxin-producing strains on grapes and OTA in musts. These findings should be connected with the OTA contamination of human blood in these areas and in France. PMID:11853522

Sage, Lucile; Krivobok, Serge; Delbos, Emilie; Seigle-Murandi, Françoise; Creppy, Edmond E

2002-02-27

348

Soil mycoflora from the Dead Sea Oases of Ein Gedi and Einot Zuqim (Israel).  

PubMed

Samples were taken from the top 10 cm of soils from 24 points in the Ein Gedi area. Among 329 isolates, 142 species were identified: 11 genera of ascomycetes, one genus of coelomycetes, 28 genera of hyphomycetes, 7 genera of zygomycetes and one yeast, in addition to some unidentified basidiomycetes. The hyphomycetes were represented by 17 dematiaceous, 9 mucedinaceous and two tuberculariaceous. Melanconiaceous and stilbellaceous genera were not found. Two new varieties of Microascus recently described were reisolated. No strict thermophiles or halophiles were obtained. There is apparently no very characteristic or specific fungal flora of the Dead Sea Oases although it was different from that found in the desert soil surrounding this area. PMID:9403112

Steiman, R; Guiraud, P; Sage, L; Seigle-Murandi, F

1997-10-01

349

Pichia insulana sp. nov., a novel cactophilic yeast from the Caribbean  

PubMed Central

A novel species of ascomycetous yeast, Pichia insulana sp. nov., is described from necrotic tissue of columnar cacti on Caribbean islands. P. insulana is closely related to and phenotypically very similar to Pichia cactophila and Pichia pseudocactophila. There are few distinctions between these taxa besides spore type, host preference and locality. Sporogenous strains of P. insulana that produce asci with four hat-shaped spores have been found only on Curaçao, whereas there was no evidence of sporogenous P. cactophila from that island. In addition, sequences of the D1/D2 fragment of the large-subunit rDNA from 12 Curaçao strains showed consistent differences from the sequences of the type strains of P. cactophila and P. pseudocactophila. The type strain of P. insulana is TSU00-106.5T (=CBS 11169T =UCD-FST 09-160T). PMID:19661524

Ganter, Philip F.; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Boundy-Mills, Kyria

2010-01-01

350

The benomyl test as a fundamental diagnostic method for medical mycology.  

PubMed Central

The fungicide benomyl has long been known to differentially affect major taxonomic groups of fungi. In the present study 163 species or aggregates of closely similar species of medically important fungi and actinomycetes, as well as species commonly isolated as clinical contaminants, were tested to determine their reactions to three concentrations of benomyl. Fungi of basidiomycetous, endomycetous, and microascaceous affinities were highly resistant, including all common yeasts and Geotrichum, Pseudallescheria, Scedosporium, and Scopulariopsis species. Also resistant were fungi of pleosporalean affinities with poroconidial anamorphs, such as Alternaria, Bipolaris, Curvularia, and Exserohilum species. Most other fungi of ascomycetous affinity were moderately to strongly susceptible. Such fungi included dermatophytes; Coccidioides, Blastomyces, and Histoplasma species; Sporothrix schenckii; medically important aspergilli; and "black yeasts." Benomyl testing aided in the provisional identification of nonsporulating mycelia, including common basidiomycetous isolates obtained as contaminants as well as nonsporulating Aspergillus fumigatus from pulmonary sources. PMID:8458952

Summerbell, R C

1993-01-01

351

Fungicides degradation in an organic biomixture: impact on microbial diversity.  

PubMed

Biological systems are being developed all over EU countries to protect water-bodies from pesticide contamination at farm level. A laboratory experiment was carried out to test the efficiency of a mixture of compost and straw in bio-degrading different mixtures of fungicides usually applied in vineyards. At the same time the effects of fungicide applications on microbial community of biomixture were also evaluated. Results showed that the biomixture had a good capability of degrading pesticides. Indeed, at the end of the experiment (112 days), the concentration of most of the pesticides was close to complete degradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed an evident modification of microbial diversity after the addition of fungicides. However, at the end of degradation process, no significant changes in the composition of microbial community were seen. In this specific substrate used in the biomixture, yeast flora and ascomycete filamentous fungi seemed to be involved in the degradation activity. PMID:21439413

Coppola, Laura; Comitini, Francesca; Casucci, Cristiano; Milanovic, Vesna; Monaci, Elga; Marinozzi, Maria; Taccari, Manuela; Ciani, Maurizio; Vischetti, Costantino

2011-12-15

352

Regulatory Genes Controlling Fatty Acid Catabolism and Peroxisomal Functions in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans†  

PubMed Central

The catabolism of fatty acids is important in the lifestyle of many fungi, including plant and animal pathogens. This has been investigated in Aspergillus nidulans, which can grow on acetate and fatty acids as sources of carbon, resulting in the production of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA). Acetyl-CoA is metabolized via the glyoxalate bypass, located in peroxisomes, enabling gluconeogenesis. Acetate induction of enzymes specific for acetate utilization as well as glyoxalate bypass enzymes is via the Zn2-Cys6 binuclear cluster activator FacB. However, enzymes of the glyoxalate bypass as well as fatty acid beta-oxidation and peroxisomal proteins are also inducible by fatty acids. We have isolated mutants that cannot grow on fatty acids. Two of the corresponding genes, farA and farB, encode two highly conserved families of related Zn2-Cys6 binuclear proteins present in filamentous ascomycetes, including plant pathogens. A single ortholog is found in the yeasts Candida albicans, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Yarrowia lipolytica, but not in the Ashbya, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces lineage. Northern blot analysis has shown that deletion of the farA gene eliminates induction of a number of genes by both short- and long-chain fatty acids, while deletion of the farB gene eliminates short-chain induction. An identical core 6-bp in vitro binding site for each protein has been identified in genes encoding glyoxalate bypass, beta-oxidation, and peroxisomal functions. This sequence is overrepresented in the 5? region of genes predicted to be fatty acid induced in other filamentous ascomycetes, C. albicans, D. hansenii, and Y. lipolytica, but not in the corresponding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:16682457

Hynes, Michael J.; Murray, Sandra L.; Duncan, Anna; Khew, Gillian S.; Davis, Meryl A.

2006-01-01

353

The information highways of a biotechnological workhorse – signal transduction in Hypocrea jecorina  

PubMed Central

Background The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is one of the most prolific producers of biomass-degrading enzymes and frequently termed an industrial workhorse. To compete for nutrients in its habitat despite its shortcoming in certain degradative enzymes, efficient perception and interpretation of environmental signals is indispensable. A better understanding of these signals as well as their transmission machinery can provide sources for improvement of biotechnological processes. Results The genome of H. jecorina was analysed for the presence and composition of common signal transduction pathways including heterotrimeric G-protein cascades, cAMP signaling, mitogen activated protein kinases, two component phosphorelay systems, proteins involved in circadian rhythmicity and light response, calcium signaling and the superfamily of Ras small GTPases. The results of this survey are discussed in the context of current knowledge in order to assess putative functions as well as potential impact of alterations of the respective pathways. Conclusion Important findings include an additional, bacterial type phospholipase C protein and an additional 6-4 photolyase. Moreover the presence of 4 RGS-(Regulator of G-protein Signaling) proteins and 3 GprK-type G-protein coupled receptors comprising an RGS-domain suggest a more complex posttranslational regulation of G-protein signaling than in other ascomycetes. Also the finding, that H. jecorina, unlike yeast possesses class I phosducins which are involved in phototransduction in mammals warrants further investigation. An alteration in the regulation of circadian rhythmicity may be deduced from the extension of both the class I and II of casein kinases, homologues of which are implicated in phosphorylation of FRQ in Neurospora crassa. On the other hand, a shortage in the number of the pathogenicity related PTH11-type G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as a lack of microbial opsins was detected. Considering its efficient enzyme system for breakdown of cellulosic materials, it came as a surprise that H. jecorina does not possess a carbon sensing GPCR. PMID:18803869

Schmoll, Monika

2008-01-01

354

Mating type locus of Chinese black truffles reveals heterothallism and the presence of cryptic species within the T. indicum species complex.  

PubMed

Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T. melanosporum. PMID:24358175

Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

2013-01-01

355

Horizontal gene transfer and functional diversification of plant cell wall degrading polygalacturonases: Key events in the evolution of herbivory in beetles.  

PubMed

Plant cell walls are the largest reservoir of organic carbon on earth. To breach and utilize this carbohydrate-rich protective barrier, microbes secrete plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) targeting pectin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. There is a growing body of evidence that genomes of some herbivorous insects also encode PCWDEs, raising questions about their evolutionary origins and functions. Among herbivorous beetles, pectin-degrading polygalacturonases (PGs) are found in the diverse superfamilies Chrysomeloidea (leaf beetles, long-horn beetles) and Curculionoidea (weevils). Here our aim was to test whether these arose from a common ancestor of beetles or via horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and whether PGs kept their ancestral function in degrading pectin or evolved novel functions. Transcriptome data derived from 10 beetle species were screened for PG-encoding sequences and used for phylogenetic comparisons with their bacterial, fungal and plant counterparts. These analyses revealed a large family of PG-encoding genes of Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea sharing a common ancestor, most similar to PG genes of ascomycete fungi. In addition, 50 PGs from beetle digestive systems were heterologously expressed and functionally characterized, showing a set of lineage-specific consecutively pectin-degrading enzymes, as well as conserved but enzymatically inactive PG proteins. The evidence indicates that a PG gene was horizontally transferred ?200 million years ago from an ascomycete fungus to a common ancestor of Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea. This has been followed by independent duplications in these two lineages, as well as independent replacement in two sublineages of Chrysomeloidea by two other subsequent HGTs. This origin, leading to subsequent functional diversification of the PG gene family within its new hosts, was a key event promoting the evolution of herbivory in these beetles. PMID:24978610

Kirsch, Roy; Gramzow, Lydia; Theißen, Günter; Siegfried, Blair D; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Heckel, David G; Pauchet, Yannick

2014-09-01

356

Growth, compatible solute and salt accumulation of five mycorrhizal fungal species grown over a range of NaCl concentrations.  

PubMed

The oil sand industry in northeastern Alberta produces vast areas of severely disturbed land. The sodicity of these anthropic soils is one of the principal constraints that impede their revegetation. Previous in vitro studies have shown that the ectomycorrhizal fungi Laccaria bicolor (Maire) Orton UAMH 8232 and Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull) Quel. UAMH 5247 have certain salt-resistant traits and thus are candidate species for the inoculation of tree seedlings to be outplanted on salt-affected soil. In this study, the in vitro development of these fungi was compared to that of three mycorrhizal fungi [Suillus tomentosus (Kauff.) Sing., Snell and Dick; Hymenoscyphus sp. and Phialocephala sp.] isolated from a sodic site created by Syncrude Canada Ltd. Their growth, osmotica and Na/Cl contents were assessed over a range (0, 50, 100, 200 mM) of NaCl concentrations. After 21 days, the two ascomycetes (Hymenoscyphus sp. and Phialocephala sp.) were shown to be more resistant to the NaCl treatments than the three basidiomycete species. Of the basidiomycetes, L. bicolor was the most sensitive to NaCl stress, while H. crustuliniforme showed greater water stress resistance, and the S. tomentosus isolate exhibited greater Na and Cl filtering capacities and had a better biomass yield over the NaCl gradient tested. Both ascomycetes used mechanisms other than carbohydrate accumulation to palliate NaCl stress. While the Hymenoscyphus isolate accumulated proline in response to NaCl treatments, the darker Phialocephala isolate may have used compounds such as melanin. The basidiomycete species accumulated mainly mannitol and/or proline in response to increasing concentrations of NaCl. PMID:16261378

Bois, G; Bertrand, A; Piché, Y; Fung, M; Khasa, D P

2006-03-01

357

Mating Type Locus of Chinese Black Truffles Reveals Heterothallism and the Presence of Cryptic Species within the T. indicum Species Complex  

PubMed Central

Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T. melanosporum. PMID:24358175

Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

2013-01-01

358

Analysis of regulation of pentose utilisation in Aspergillus niger reveals evolutionary adaptations in Eurotiales  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli are commonly found in soil and on decaying plant material. D-xylose and L-arabinose are highly abundant components of plant biomass. They are released from polysaccharides by fungi using a set of extracellular enzymes and subsequently converted intracellularly through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP). In this study, the L-arabinose responsive transcriptional activator (AraR) is identified in Aspergillus niger and was shown to control the L-arabinose catabolic pathway as well as expression of genes encoding extracellular L-arabinose releasing enzymes. AraR interacts with the D-xylose-responsive transcriptional activator XlnR in the regulation of the pentose catabolic pathway, but not with respect to release of L-arabinose and D-xylose. AraR was only identified in the Eurotiales, more specifically in the family Trichocomaceae and appears to have originated from a gene duplication event (from XlnR) after this order or family split from the other filamentous ascomycetes. XlnR is present in all filamentous ascomycetes with the exception of members of the Onygenales. Since the Onygenales and Eurotiales are both part of the subclass Eurotiomycetidae, this indicates that strong adaptation of the regulation of pentose utilisation has occurred at this evolutionary node. In Eurotiales a unique two-component regulatory system for pentose release and metabolism has evolved, while the regulatory system was lost in the Onygenales. The observed evolutionary changes (in Eurotiomycetidae) mainly affect the regulatory system as in contrast, homologues for most genes of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway are present in all the filamentous fungi, irrespective of the presence of XlnR and/or AraR. PMID:21892241

Battaglia, E.; Visser, L.; Nijssen, A.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wösten, H.A.B.; de Vries, R.P.

2011-01-01

359

New fungal genera, Tectonidula gen. nov. for Calosphaeria-like fungi with holoblastic-denticulate conidiogenesis and Natantiella gen. nov. for three species segregated from Ceratostomella.  

PubMed

Two morphologically similar groups of ascomycetes with globose to subglobose perithecia, elongate necks, unitunicate asci floating freely at maturity, and hyaline ascospores currently placed in Calosphaeria s. lat. and Ceratostomella s. lat., respectively, are studied. The Calosphaeria-like fungi have groups of perithecia growing between cortex and wood, arranged in circular groups with converging necks and piercing the cortex in a common point; the asci with a shallow apical ring and U- to horseshoe-shaped hyaline ascospores are compared with Calosphaeria pulchella, the type species of the genus. Conidiogenesis of the investigated Calosphaeria-like fungi is holoblastic-denticulate; ramichloridium-like and sporothrix-like conidiophores and conidia were formed in vitro. Ascospore and ascus morphology, structure of the ascal apex, ascogenous system, mode of conidiogenesis and the large subunit rRNA sequences of this group differ considerably from C. pulchella and both groups are unrelated. Thus a new genus, Tectonidula, is described with two accepted species, T. hippocrepida and T. fagi; they are separated by ascospore and ascus morphology and holoblastic-denticulate conidiogenesis from the core species of Calosphaeria. The placement of Tectonidula among perithecial ascomycetes is discussed. The relationship of Tectonidula with Barbatosphaeria and two ramichloridium-like hyphomycetous genera Rhodoveronaea and Myrmecridium is investigated. Three species formerly attributed to Ceratostomella are studied. The revision of the herbarium type specimen and fresh material of Ceratostomella ligneola revealed that it is conspecific with Ceratostomella ampullasca and Ceratostomella similis. The LSU phylogeny clearly separated C. ligneola from Ceratostomella s. str. and morphologically similar Lentomitella. On the basis of molecular sequence data and detailed comparison of morphology of asci, ascospores and ascogenous system the genus Natantiella is described for C. ligneola with C. ampullasca and C. similis as its synonyms. Natantiella produced sterile mycelium in vitro. PMID:19539759

Réblová, Martina; Stepánek, Václav

2009-09-01

360

Dynamics of Fungal Communities in Bulk and Maize Rhizosphere Soil in the Tropics  

PubMed Central

The fungal population dynamics in soil and in the rhizospheres of two maize cultivars grown in tropical soils were studied by a cultivation-independent analysis of directly extracted DNA to provide baseline data. Soil and rhizosphere samples were taken from six plots 20, 40, and 90 days after planting in two consecutive years. A 1.65-kb fragment of the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplified from the total community DNA was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and by cloning and sequencing. A rhizosphere effect was observed for fungal populations at all stages of plant development. In addition, pronounced changes in the composition of fungal communities during plant growth development were found by DGGE. Similar types of fingerprints were observed in two consecutive growth periods. No major differences were detected in the fungal patterns of the two cultivars. Direct cloning of 18S rDNA fragments amplified from soil or rhizosphere DNA resulted in 75 clones matching 12 dominant DGGE bands. The clones were characterized by their HinfI restriction patterns, and 39 different clones representing each group of restriction patterns were sequenced. The cloning and sequencing approach provided information on the phylogeny of dominant amplifiable fungal populations and allowed us to determine a number of fungal phylotypes that contribute to each of the dominant DGGE bands. Based on the sequence similarity of the 18S rDNA fragment with existing fungal isolates in the database, it was shown that the rhizospheres of young maize plants seemed to select the Ascomycetes order Pleosporales, while different members of the Ascomycetes and basidiomycetic yeast were detected in the rhizospheres of senescent maize plants. PMID:12839741

Gomes, Newton C. Marcial; Fagbola, Olajire; Costa, Rodrigo; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvea; Buchner, Arno; Mendona-Hagler, Leda; Smalla, Kornelia

2003-01-01

361

The diversity and extracellular enzymatic activities of yeasts isolated from water tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species in Brazil, and the description of Occultifur brasiliensis f.a., sp. nov.  

PubMed

The diversity of yeast species collected from the bromeliad tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species, and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes were studied. Water samples were collected from 30 tanks of bromeliads living in a rupestrian field site located at Serrada Piedade, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, during both the dry and rainy seasons. Thirty-six species were isolated, representing 22 basidiomycetous and 14 ascomycetous species. Occultifur sp., Cryptococcus podzolicus and Cryptococcus sp. 1 were the prevalent basidiomycetous species. The yeast-like fungus from the order Myriangiales, Candida silvae and Aureobasidium pullulans were the most frequent ascomycetous species. The diversity of the yeast communities obtained between seasons was not significantly different, but the yeast composition per bromeliad was different between seasons. These results suggest that there is significant spatial heterogeneity in the composition of populations of the yeast communities within bromeliad tanks, independent of the season. Among the 352 yeast isolates tested, 282 showed at least one enzymatic activity. Protease activity was the most widely expressed extracellular enzymatic activity, followed by xylanase, amylase, pectinase and cellulase activities. These enzymes may increase the carbon and nitrogen availability for the microbial food web in the bromeliad tank of V. minarum. Sequence analyses revealed the existence of 10 new species, indicating that bromeliad tanks are important sources of new yeasts. The novel species Occultifur brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the most frequently isolated yeast associated with V. minarum. The type strain of O. brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y375(T) (= CBS 12687(T)). The Mycobank number is MB 809816. PMID:25515414

Gomes, Fátima C O; Safar, Silvana V B; Marques, Andrea R; Medeiros, Adriana O; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Carvalho, Cláudia; Lachance, Marc-André; Sampaio, José Paulo; Rosa, Carlos A

2015-02-01

362

Phylogenetic Characterization and In Situ Detection of a Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides Phylogroup Bacterium in Tuber borchii Vittad. Ectomycorrhizal Mycelium  

PubMed Central

Mycorrhizal ascomycetous fungi are obligate ectosymbionts that colonize the roots of gymnosperms and angiosperms. In this paper we describe a straightforward approach in which a combination of morphological and molecular methods was used to survey the presence of potentially endo- and epiphytic bacteria associated with the ascomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii Vittad. Universal eubacterial primers specific for the 5? and 3? ends of the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) were used for PCR amplification, direct sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. The 16S rDNA was amplified directly from four pure cultures of T. borchii Vittad. mycelium. A nearly full-length sequence of the gene coding for the prokaryotic small-subunit rRNA was obtained from each T. borchii mycelium studied. The 16S rDNA sequences were almost identical (98 to 99% similarity), and phylogenetic analysis placed them in a single unique rRNA branch belonging to the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) phylogroup which had not been described previously. In situ detection of the CFB bacterium in the hyphal tissue of the fungus T. borchii was carried out by using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for the eubacterial domain and the Cytophaga-Flexibacter phylum, as well as a probe specifically designed for the detection of this mycelium-associated bacterium. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that all three of the probes used bound to the mycelium tissue. This study provides the first direct visual evidence of a not-yet-cultured CFB bacterium associated with a mycorrhizal fungus of the genus Tuber. PMID:11055961

Barbieri, Elena; Potenza, Lucia; Rossi, Ismaela; Sisti, Davide; Giomaro, Giovanna; Rossetti, Simona; Beimfohr, Claudia; Stocchi, Vilberto

2000-01-01

363

Fungi Unearthed: Transcripts Encoding Lignocellulolytic and Chitinolytic Enzymes in Forest Soil  

PubMed Central

Background Fungi are the main organisms responsible for the degradation of biopolymers such as lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and chitin in forest ecosystems. Soil surveys largely target fungal diversity, paying less attention to fungal activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we have focused on the organic horizon of a hardwood forest dominated by sugar maple that spreads widely across Eastern North America. The sampling site included three plots receiving normal atmospheric nitrogen deposition and three that received an extra 3 g nitrogen m?2 y?1 in form of sodium nitrate pellets since 1994, which led to increased accumulation of organic matter in the soil. Our aim was to assess, in samples taken from all six plots, transcript-level expression of fungal genes encoding lignocellulolytic and chitinolytic enzymes. For this we collected RNA from the forest soil, reverse-transcribed it, and amplified cDNAs of interest, using both published primer pairs as well as 23 newly developed ones. We thus detected transcript-level expression of 234 genes putatively encoding 26 different groups of fungal enzymes, notably major ligninolytic and diverse aromatic-oxidizing enzymes, various cellulose- and hemicellulose-degrading glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases, enzymes involved in chitin breakdown, N-acetylglucosamine metabolism, and cell wall degradation. Among the genes identified, 125 are homologous to known ascomycete genes and 105 to basidiomycete genes. Transcripts corresponding to all 26 enzyme groups were detected in both control and nitrogen-supplemented plots. Conclusions/Significance Many of these enzyme groups are known to be important in soil turnover processes, but the contribution of some is probably underestimated. Our data highlight the importance of ascomycetes, as well as basidiomycetes, in important biogeochemical cycles. In the nitrogen-supplemented plots, we have detected no transcript-level gap likely to explain the observed increased carbon storage, which is more likely due to community changes and perhaps transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional down-regulation of relevant genes. PMID:20532045

Kellner, Harald; Vandenbol, Micheline

2010-01-01

364

An Assessment of Fungal Diversity Using Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of rRNA Genes, A Macroarray-based Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental controls over the diversity and community composition of microbial decomposers are poorly understood. In this experiment, we examined the effects of litter quality and competitive exclusion on fungal diversity. Specifically, we expected to see greater fungal diversity in litter containing higher nitrogen concentrations in that this high quality substrate would be able to support fungal groups with a range of nutrient requirements. Additionally, to test the competitive exclusion principle that a limited number of decomposer groups can be supported by a given substrate, we excluded from the litter one phylum of decomposer fungi, the Ascomycota. An increase in diversity within the remaining fungal phyla would indicate a release from competitive exclusion. To test these hypotheses, we performed a decomposition experiment in a boreal forest near Delta Junction, Alaska. Senescent leaves of Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) from two sites that varied in soil fertility were collected in fall 2002. Leaves from the more fertile site had nitrogen concentrations of 2.26%, and those from the less fertile site had nitrogen concentrations of 1.59%. Leaves were placed into 1-mm mesh bags and incubated in a third site from September 2002 to July 2003. The fungicide Benomyl, which eliminates Ascomycetes, was applied to a subset of the bags at the onset of decomposition. Directly following collection, active fungal DNA was isolated using a nucleotide analog probe. Fungal communities were characterized by oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes, a macroarray-based technique. Cluster analyses of fingerprints identified fungal groups representing taxonomic levels ranging from genus to class. The number of fungal groups in each treatment was approximated using the Chao1 estimator. A total of 524 ± 10 fungal groups were estimated to occur across all treatments, with less than 60 of these groups previously identified in Genbank. We found that litter quality did not strongly affect fungal diversity, since the number of fungal groups did not differ significantly between site of litter origin (P = 0.0691). However, the overall fungal diversity in the fungicide treatment was significantly reduced compared to the control (P = 0.0358). This indicates that the remaining fungal groups did not completely radiate to fill all available niches following the elimination of competitors. Thus, we did not find strong evidence for competitive exclusion as an important control over the microbial community composition in this system. An additional analysis of the diversity of non-Ascomycetes across treatments will be conducted to further elucidate any potential role of competitive exclusion.

Hanson, C. A.; Borneman, J.; Lansing, J. L.; Hughes, J. B.; Mack, M. C.; Treseder, K. K.

2004-12-01

365

Novel Root-Fungus Symbiosis in Ericaceae: Sheathed Ericoid Mycorrhiza Formed by a Hitherto Undescribed Basidiomycete with Affinities to Trechisporales  

PubMed Central

Ericaceae (the heath family) are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed ‘sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza’, discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity) to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet remain undetected when subject to amplification by ‘universal’ primers. The lignocellulolytic assay suggests the basidiomycete may confer host adaptations distinct from those provisioned by the so far investigated ascomycetous ErM fungi. PMID:22761814

Vohník, Martin; Sadowsky, Jesse J.; Kohout, Petr; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Nestby, Rolf; Kola?ík, Miroslav

2012-01-01

366

Sunlight-Exposed Biofilm Microbial Communities Are Naturally Resistant to Chernobyl Ionizing-Radiation Levels  

PubMed Central

Background The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general diversity patterns, despite increased mutation levels at the single-OTU level. Therefore, biofilm communities growing in sunlight exposed substrates are capable of coping with increased mutation rates and appear pre-adapted to levels of ionizing radiation in Chernobyl due to their natural adaptation to periodical desiccation and ambient UV radiation. PMID:21765911

Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

2011-01-01

367

Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

2014-01-01

368

Septoria-like pathogens causing leaf and fruit spot of pistachio.  

PubMed

Several species of Septoria are associated with leaf and fruit spot of pistachio (Pistacia vera), though their identity has always been confused, making identification problematic. The present study elucidates the taxonomy of the Septoria spp. associated with pistachio, and distinguishes four species associated with this host genus. Partial nucleotide sequence data for five gene loci, ITS, LSU, EF-1?, RPB2 and Btub were generated for a subset of isolates. Cylindroseptoria pistaciae, which is associated with leaf spots of Pistacia lentiscus in Spain, is characterised by pycnidial conidiomata that give rise to cylindrical, aseptate conidia. Two species of Septoria s. str. are also recognised on pistachio, S. pistaciarum, and S. pistaciae. The latter is part of the S. protearum species complex, and appears to be a wide host range pathogen occurring on hosts in several different plant families. Septoria pistacina, a major pathogen of pistachio in Turkey, is shown to belong to Pseudocercospora, and not Septoria as earlier suspected. Other than for its pycnidial conidiomata, it is a typical species of Pseudocercospora based on its smooth, pigmented conidiogenous cells and septate conidia. This phenomenon has also been observed in Pallidocercospora, and seriously questions the value of conidiomatal structure at generic level, which has traditionally been used to separate hyphomycetous from coelomycetous ascomycetes. Other than DNA barcodes to facilitate the molecular identification of these taxa occurring on pistachio, a key is also provided to distinguish species based on morphology. PMID:24563831

Crous, Pedro W; Quaedvlieg, William; Sarpkaya, Kamil; Can, Canan; Erk?l?ç, Ali

2013-12-01

369

Comparative Genome Analysis of Filamentous Fungi Reveals Gene Family Expansions Associated with Fungal Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Fungi and oomycetes are the causal agents of many of the most serious diseases of plants. Here we report a detailed comparative analysis of the genome sequences of thirty-six species of fungi and oomycetes, including seven plant pathogenic species, that aims to explore the common genetic features associated with plant disease-causing species. The predicted translational products of each genome have been clustered into groups of potential orthologues using Markov Chain Clustering and the data integrated into the e-Fungi object-oriented data warehouse (http://www.e-fungi.org.uk/). Analysis of the species distribution of members of these clusters has identified proteins that are specific to filamentous fungal species and a group of proteins found only in plant pathogens. By comparing the gene inventories of filamentous, ascomycetous phytopathogenic and free-living species of fungi, we have identified a set of gene families that appear to have expanded during the evolution of phytopathogens and may therefore serve important roles in plant disease. We have also characterised the predicted set of secreted proteins encoded by each genome and identified a set of protein families which are significantly over-represented in the secretomes of plant pathogenic fungi, including putative effector proteins that might perturb host cell biology during plant infection. The results demonstrate the potential of comparative genome analysis for exploring the evolution of eukaryotic microbial pathogenesis. PMID:18523684

Soanes, Darren M.; Alam, Intikhab; Cornell, Mike; Wong, Han Min; Hedeler, Cornelia; Paton, Norman W.; Rattray, Magnus; Hubbard, Simon J.; Oliver, Stephen G.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2008-01-01

370

Proteomic analysis reveals metabolic changes during yeast to hypha transition in Yarrowia lipolytica.  

PubMed

Fungal dimorphism is important for survival in different environments and has been related to virulence. The ascomycete Yarrowia lipolytica can grow as yeast, pseudomycelial or mycelial forms. We have used a Y. lipolytica parental strain and a Deltahoy1 mutant, which is unable to form hypha, to set up a model for dimorphism and to characterize in more depth the yeast to hypha transition by proteomic techniques. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based differential expression analysis of Y. lipolytica yeast and hyphal cells was performed, and 45 differentially expressed proteins were detected; nine with decreased expression in hyphal cells were identified. They corresponded to the S. cerevisiae homologues of Imd4p, Pdx3p, Cdc19, Sse1p, Sol3p, Sod2p, Xpt1p, Mdh1p and to the unknown protein YALIOB00924g. Remarkably, most of these proteins are involved in metabolic pathways, with four showing oxidoreductase activity. Furthermore, taking into account that this is the first report of 2-DE analysis of Y. lipolytica protein extracts, 35 more proteins from the 2D map of soluble yeast proteins, which were involved in metabolism, cell rescue, energy and protein synthesis, were identified. PMID:17960580

Morín, Matías; Monteoliva, Lucía; Insenser, María; Gil, Concha; Domínguez, Angel

2007-11-01

371

Nonhost-associated proliferation of intrahyphal hyphae of citrus scab fungus Elsinoe fawcettii: refining the perception of cell-within-a-cell organization.  

PubMed

Ultrastructural aspects of intrahyphal hyphae formation were investigated in Elsinoe fawcettii by transmission electron microscopy. Desiccated and hydrated cultures of E. fawcettii hyphae in liquid and solid media were prepared to determine the effects of water/nutrient availability and media fluidity on the formation of intrahyphal hyphae of the fungus. In all the culture conditions, intrahyphal hyphae were observed in enclosing hyphae. Electron-transparent hyphal cell walls clearly delimited intrahyphal hyphae from the cytoplasm of enclosing hyphae. Intrahyphal hyphae occupied most of the lumen of the enclosing hyphae, and showed intact hyphal cytoplasm with distinct organelles and inclusions. Intrahyphal hyphae were found to grow out of the degenerated hyphae that were almost devoid of cellular contents (simple intrahyphal hyphae). Some intrahyphal hyphae appeared to push aside a septum and passed into the adjacent hyphal cell. Besides a single intrahyphal hypha, instances were noted where enclosing hyphae contained several individual intrahyphal hyphae (multiple intrahyphal hyphae). Other enclosing hyphae contained intrahyphal hyphae, which also had intrahyphal hyphae (compound intrahyphal hyphae). The cell wall of intrahyphal hyphae showed the continuity with the cell wall of the enclosing hyphae. Concentric bodies typical of ascomycetes occurring in dry habitats were not found in all the types of hyphae. These results suggest that intrahyphal hyphae formation of E. fawcettii does not require plant defense responses. The fungus is thought to form intrahyphal hyphae during the saprophytic phase in ex planta ecological niches as well as the parasitic phase in host parts. PMID:17137785

Kim, Ki Woo; Hyun, Jae-Wook

2007-01-01

372

Sex-linked transcriptional divergence in the hermaphrodite fungus Neurospora tetrasperma  

PubMed Central

In the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma, a large (approx. 7 Mbp) region of suppressed recombination surrounds the mating-type (mat) locus. While the remainder of the genome is largely homoallelic, this region of recombinational suppression, extending over 1500 genes, is associated with sequence divergence. Here, we used microarrays to examine how the molecular phenotype of gene expression level is linked to this divergent region, and thus to the mating type. Culturing N. tetrasperma on agar media that induce sexual/female or vegetative/male tissue, we found 196 genes significantly differentially expressed between mat A and mat a mating types. Our data show that the genes exhibiting mat-linked expression are enriched in the region genetically linked to mating type, and sequence and expression divergence are positively correlated. Our results indicate that the phenotype of mat A strains is optimized for traits promoting sexual/female development and the phenotype of mat a strains for vegetative/male development. This discovery of differentially expressed genes associated with mating type provides a link between genotypic and phenotypic divergence in this taxon and illustrates a fungal analogue to sexual dimorphism found among animals and plants. PMID:23782882

Samils, Nicklas; Gioti, Anastasia; Karlsson, Magnus; Sun, Yu; Kasuga, Takao; Bastiaans, Eric; Wang, Zheng; Li, Ning; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Johannesson, Hanna

2013-01-01

373

Development of a rapid multiplex SSR genotyping method to study populations of the fungal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici  

PubMed Central

Background Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus causing leaf blotch of wheat that often decreases yield severely. Populations of the fungus are known to be highly diverse and poorly differentiated from each other. However, a genotyping tool is needed to address further questions in large collections of isolates, regarding regional population structure, adaptation to anthropogenic selective pressures, and dynamics of the recently discovered accessory chromosomes. This procedure is limited by costly and time-consuming simplex PCR genotyping. Recent development of genomic approaches and of larger sets of SSRs enabled the optimization of microsatellite multiplexing. Findings We report here a reliable protocol to amplify 24 SSRs organized in three multiplex panels, and covering all Z. tritici chromosomes. We also propose an automatic allele assignment procedure, which allows scoring alleles in a repeatable manner across studies and laboratories. All together, these tools enabled us to characterize local and worldwide populations and to calculate diversity indexes consistent with results reported in the literature. Conclusion This easy-to-use, accurate, repeatable, economical, and faster technical strategy can provide useful genetic information for evolutionary inferences concerning Z. tritici populations. Moreover, it will facilitate the comparison of studies from different scientific groups. PMID:24943709

2014-01-01

374

Growth and metabolic characterization of Macrorhabdus ornithogaster.  

PubMed

Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (M. ornithogaster) is an anamorphic ascomycetous yeast found only in the stomach of birds. Infection is often benign but has also been associated with disease in some species of birds under some circumstances. In vitro efforts to grow M. ornithogaster have been largely unsuccessful. In this report, multiple liquid and solid media of varying pH, sugar concentration, and fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentrations, incubated at various temperatures in room air or microaerophilic conditions, were examined for their ability to support the growth of M. ornithogaster, obtained from a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Optimum growth conditions were found to be Basal Medium Eagle's, pH 3 to 4, containing 20% FBS, and 5% glucose or sucrose under microaerophilic conditions at 42 degrees C. Using these conditions, M. ornithogaster was repeatedly passaged without loss of viability. Polyclonal isolates of M. ornithogaster consistently assimilated glucose, sucrose, and trehalose. M. ornithogaster did not grow with prolonged exposure to atmospheric oxygen, but growth in microaerophilic conditions was moderately enhanced by preincubation with atmospheric oxygen for 24 hours. An isolate of M. ornithogaster was found to be infective to day-old chickens, reduce their rate of weight gain, and induce a mild to moderate heterophilic inflammation of the isthmus. M. ornithogaster was reisolated from the chicks 7 days after infection, fulfilling Koch's postulates. A 761-bp sequence of 18S rDNA from this isolate was compared to the originally reported M. ornithogaster sequence and was found to be 97% identical. PMID:17459854

Hannafusa, Yasuko; Bradley, Allison; Tomaszewski, Elizabeth E; Libal, Melissa C; Phalen, David N

2007-05-01

375

Characterization of chasmoendolithic community in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.  

PubMed

The Antarctic Dry Valleys are unable to support higher plant and animal life and so microbial communities dominate biotic ecosystem processes. Soil communities are well characterized, but rocky surfaces have also emerged as a significant microbial habitat. Here, we identify extensive colonization of weathered granite on a landscape scale by chasmoendolithic microbial communities. A transect across north-facing and south-facing slopes plus valley floor moraines revealed 30-100 % of available substrate was colonized up to an altitude of 800 m. Communities were assessed at a multidomain level and were clearly distinct from those in surrounding soils and other rock-inhabiting cryptoendolithic and hypolithic communities. All colonized rocks were dominated by the cyanobacterial genus Leptolyngbya (Oscillatoriales), with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea, algae, and fungi also identified. Striking patterns in community distribution were evident with regard to microclimate as determined by aspect. Notably, a shift in cyanobacterial assemblages from Chroococcidiopsis-like phylotypes (Pleurocapsales) on colder-drier slopes, to Synechococcus-like phylotypes (Chroococcales) on warmer-wetter slopes. Greater relative abundance of known desiccation-tolerant bacterial taxa occurred on colder-drier slopes. Archaeal phylotypes indicated halotolerant taxa and also taxa possibly derived from nearby volcanic sources. Among the eukaryotes, the lichen photobiont Trebouxia (Chlorophyta) was ubiquitous, but known lichen-forming fungi were not recovered. Instead, fungal assemblages were dominated by ascomycetous yeasts. We conclude that chasmoendoliths likely constitute a significant geobiological phenomenon at lower elevations in granite-dominated Antarctic Dry Valley systems. PMID:24671755

Yung, Charmaine C M; Chan, Yuki; Lacap, Donnabella C; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; de Los Rios-Murillo, Asuncion; Lee, Charles K; Cary, S Craig; Pointing, Stephen B

2014-08-01

376

Surveys of microfungi in a former industrial area in Duisburg-Nord.  

PubMed

One hundred and forty microfungi (Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes) were collected in the "Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord" located in North Rhine-Westphalia. New hosts for rarely found fungi are recorded for the first time. New for Germany are Massaria inquinans (Tode) De Not. and Nitschkia grevillei (Rhem) Nannf. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Pirottaea nigrostriata Graddon on Artemisia vulgaris L., Ceratopycnis clematidis Höhn. on Clematis vitalba L., Dasyscyphus aff. humuli (W. Phillips) Dennis on Humulus lupulus L. and Leptosphaeria derasa (Berk. & Br.) Auersw. on Senecio inaequidens DC. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Chaetosphaerella phaeostroma (Durieu & Mont.) E. Müller & Booth and Phomopsis platanoides (Cooke) Died. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Microsphaeropsis pseudaspera Sutton, Mycosphaerella osborniae D. Hawksw. & Sivan. and Phomopsis oblita Sacc. on Artemisia vulgaris L., Leptosphaeria acuta (Fr.) P. Karst. and Leptosphaeria doliolum (Pers.) Ces. & De Not. on Bryonia dioica Jacq., Ophiobolus erythrosporus (Riess) G. Winter and Pleospora herbarum (Pers.) Rabenh. ex Ces. & De Not. on Dipsacus sylvestris (Huds), Keissleriella ocellata (Niessl) Bose on Hypericum perforatum L., Dactylaria aff. graminicola on Lolium perenne L., Siroplacodium aff. atrum on Oenothera beinnis L., Diatrypella favacea (Fr.) Sacc. on Prunus spec., Hapalosphaeria deformans (Syd.) Syd. and Microdiscula rubicola (Bres.) Höhn. on Rubus fructicosus agg. L., Cryptodiaporthe salicina (Pers.) Wehm. on Salix alba L. and Pleurophoma pleurospora (Sacc.) Höhn. on Salix caprea L. PMID:12701427

Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Dachowski, M; Kricke, R

2002-01-01

377

Specific and sensitive detection of the conifer pathogen Gremmeniella abietina by nested PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Gremmeniella abietina (Lagerb.) Morelet is an ascomycete fungus that causes stem canker and shoot dieback in many conifer species. The fungus is widespread and causes severe damage to forest plantations in Europe, North America and Asia. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve measures to control the spread of the disease, rapid, specific and sensitive detection methods for G. abietina in conifer hosts are needed. Results We designed two pairs of specific primers for G. abietina based on the 18S rDNA sequence variation pattern. These primers were validated against a wide range of fungi and 14 potential conifer hosts. Based on these specific primers, two nested PCR systems were developed. The first system employed universal fungal primers to enrich the fungal DNA targets in the first round, followed by a second round selective amplification of the pathogen. The other system employed G. abietina-specific primers in both PCR steps. Both approaches can detect the presence of G. abietina in composite samples with high sensitivity, as little as 7.5 fg G. abietina DNA in the host genomic background. Conclusion The methods described here are rapid and can be applied directly to a wide range of conifer species, without the need for fungal isolation and cultivation. Therefore, it represents a promising alternative to disease inspection in forest nurseries, plantations and quarantine control facilities. PMID:16280082

Zeng, Qing-Yin; Hansson, Per; Wang, Xiao-Ru

2005-01-01

378

A reference genetic map of Muscadinia rotundifolia and identification of Ren5, a new major locus for resistance to grapevine powdery mildew.  

PubMed

Muscadinia rotundifolia, a species closely related to cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera, is a major source of resistance to grapevine downy and powdery mildew, two major threats to cultivated traditional cultivars of V. vinifera respectively caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola and the ascomycete Erisyphe necator. The aim of the present work was to develop a reference genetic linkage map based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for M. rotundifolia. This map was created using S1 M. rotundifolia cv. Regale progeny, and covers 948 cM on 20 linkage groups, which corresponds to the expected chromosome number for muscadine. The comparison of the genetic maps of V. vinifera and M. rotundifolia revealed a high macrosynteny between the genomes of both species. The S1 progeny was used to assess the general level of resistance of M. rotundifolia to P. viticola and E. necator, by scoring different parameters of pathogen development. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis allowed us to highlight a major QTL on linkage group 14 controlling resistance to powdery mildew, which explained up to 58 % of the total phenotypic variance. This QTL was named 'Resistance to Erysiphe Necator 5' (Ren5). A microscopic evaluation E. necator mycelium development on resistant and susceptible genotypes of the S1 progeny showed that Ren5 exerts its action after the formation of the first appressorium, and acts by delaying, and then stopping, mycelium development. PMID:22865124

Blanc, Sophie; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Dumas, Vincent; Mestre, Pere; Merdinoglu, Didier

2012-12-01

379

Resistance and resilience responses of a range of soil eukaryote and bacterial taxa to fungicide application  

PubMed Central

The application of plant protection products has the potential to significantly affect soil microbial community structure and function. However, the extent to which soil microbial communities from different trophic levels exhibit resistance and resilience to such compounds remains poorly understood. The resistance and resilience responses of a range of microbial communities (bacteria, fungi, archaea, pseudomonads, and nematodes) to different concentrations of the strobilurin fungicide, azoxystrobin were studied. A significant concentration-dependent decrease, and subsequent recovery in soil dehydrogenase activity was recorded, but no significant impact on total microbial biomass was observed. Impacts on specific microbial communities were studied using small subunit (SSU) rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling using soil DNA and RNA. The application of azoxystrobin significantly affected fungal and nematode community structure and diversity but had no impact on other communities. Community impacts were more pronounced in the RNA-derived T-RFLP profiles than in the DNA-derived profiles. qPCR confirmed that azoxystrobin application significantly reduced fungal, but not bacterial, SSU rRNA gene copy number. Azoxystrobin application reduced the prevalence of ascomycete fungi, but increased the relative abundance of zygomycetes. Azoxystrobin amendment also reduced the relative abundance of nematodes in the order Enoplia, but stimulated a large increase in the relative abundance of nematodes from the order Araeolaimida. PMID:25048906

Howell, Christopher C.; Hilton, Sally; Semple, Kirk T.; Bending, Gary D.

2014-01-01

380

Seasonal pattern of lesion development in diseased Fraxinus excelsior infected by Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus.  

PubMed

Ash dieback is a recent widespread disease on ash (Fraxinus sp.) that is causing important economic and ecological losses throughout Europe. The disease is initiated by the ascomycetous fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea). The main aim of this study was to investigate seasonal pattern of lesion development associated with ash dieback. We present data on the spread of 324 natural lesions in ash shoots, branches and stems surveyed over a 32 month period. Most lesions were active and showed the greatest rate of growth during the summer; however, lesions were active throughout the year. Tree mortality was high, with more than a third of the surveyed trees dying during the study. Although many lesions permanently ceased to develop, the rate at which new lesions emerged was greater than the rate at which lesions entered a resting phase. The most common cause for a lesion going into a permanent state of rest was that it had encountered a branch-base. Genotype analysis showed that multiple infections can occur in a single tree given that different genotypes were identified in different lesions as well as in single lesions. A weak positive correlation was noted between tree health and tree size and a weak negative correlation was noted between tree overall health and lesion activity. The lower limit for H. pseudoalbidus growth in culture was between 4.0°C and 0.5°C. PMID:24759550

Bengtsson, Stina Barbro Katrin; Barklund, Pia; von Brömssen, Claudia; Stenlid, Jan

2014-01-01

381

A dehydration-inducible gene in the truffle Tuber borchii identifies a novel group of dehydrins  

PubMed Central

Background The expressed sequence tag M6G10 was originally isolated from a screening for differentially expressed transcripts during the reproductive stage of the white truffle Tuber borchii. mRNA levels for M6G10 increased dramatically during fruiting body maturation compared to the vegetative mycelial stage. Results Bioinformatics tools, phylogenetic analysis and expression studies were used to support the hypothesis that this sequence, named TbDHN1, is the first dehydrin (DHN)-like coding gene isolated in fungi. Homologs of this gene, all defined as "coding for hypothetical proteins" in public databases, were exclusively found in ascomycetous fungi and in plants. Although complete (or almost complete) fungal genomes and EST collections of some Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota are already available, DHN-like proteins appear to be represented only in Ascomycota. A new and previously uncharacterized conserved signature pattern was identified and proposed to Uniprot database as the main distinguishing feature of this new group of DHNs. Expression studies provide experimental evidence of a transcript induction of TbDHN1 during cellular dehydration. Conclusion Expression pattern and sequence similarities to known plant DHNs indicate that TbDHN1 is the first characterized DHN-like protein in fungi. The high similarity of TbDHN1 with homolog coding sequences implies the existence of a novel fungal/plant group of LEA Class II proteins characterized by a previously undescribed signature pattern. PMID:16512918

Abba', Simona; Ghignone, Stefano; Bonfante, Paola

2006-01-01

382

Fungal microbiota in air-conditioning installed in both adult and neonatal intensive treatment units and their impact in two university hospitals of the central western region, Mato Grosso, Brazil.  

PubMed

To evaluate fungal microbiota in air-conditioning units installed in intensive care units in two university hospitals in Cuiaba city, Mato Grosso, central western region of Brazil, 525 solid environmental samples were collected, 285 from Hospital A and 240 from Hospital B. Collections were performed using sterile swabs on air-conditioning unit components: cooling coils, ventilators, and filters. Mycelial fungi identification was achieved by observation of the macroscopic and micromorphological characteristics in different culture mediums (maize meal, oatmeal and potato dextrose agars and malt extract) using the Ridell technique. Eleven genera and 27 distinct species belonging to the hyphomycetes and ascomycetes classes were isolated and identified. The most frequently detected genera in both hospitals were Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp, and Cladosporium spp. Values for colony-forming units per gram were 64 and 75%, well above the limits recommended by Health Ministry resolution 176/00 at the locations selected for analysis in Hospitals A and B, respectively. In conclusion, evaluation of fungal microbiota in the air-conditioning units indirectly determined that the air quality was compromised in both university hospitals analyzed, which constitutes a risk factor for the acquisition of infection in the intensive care units. PMID:21424438

Simões, Sara de Almeida Alves; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Hahn, Rosane Christine

2011-08-01

383

The velvet complex governs mycotoxin production and virulence of Fusarium oxysporum on plant and mammalian hosts.  

PubMed

Fungal pathogens provoke devastating losses in agricultural production, contaminate food with mycotoxins and give rise to life-threatening infections in humans. The soil-borne ascomycete Fusarium oxysporum attacks over 100 different crops and can cause systemic fusariosis in immunocompromised individuals. Here we functionally characterized VeA, VelB, VelC and LaeA, four components of the velvet protein complex which regulates fungal development and secondary metabolism. Deletion of veA, velB and to a minor extent velC caused a derepression of conidiation as well as alterations in the shape and size of microconidia. VeA and LaeA were required for full virulence of F.?oxysporum on tomato plants and on immunodepressed mice. A critical contribution of velvet consists in promoting chromatin accessibility and expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster for beauvericin, a depsipeptide mycotoxin that functions as a virulence determinant. These results reveal a conserved role of the velvet complex during fungal infection on plants and mammals. PMID:23106229

López-Berges, Manuel S; Hera, Concepción; Sulyok, Michael; Schäfer, Katja; Capilla, Javier; Guarro, Josep; Di Pietro, Antonio

2013-01-01

384

Reproductive competence: a recurrent logic module in eukaryotic development  

PubMed Central

Developmental competence is the ability to differentiate in response to an appropriate stimulus, as first elaborated by Waddington in relation to organs and tissues. Competence thresholds operate at all levels of biological systems from the molecular (e.g. the cell cycle) to the ontological (e.g. metamorphosis and reproduction). Reproductive competence, an organismal process, is well studied in mammals (sexual maturity) and plants (vegetative phase change), though far less than later stages of terminal differentiation. The phenomenon has also been documented in multiple species of multicellular fungi, mostly in early, disparate literature, providing a clear example of physiological differentiation in the absence of morphological change. This review brings together data on reproductive competence in Ascomycete fungi, particularly the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, contrasting mechanisms within Unikonts and plants. We posit reproductive competence is an elementary logic module necessary for coordinated development of multicellular organisms or functional units. This includes unitary multicellular life as well as colonial species both unicellular and multicellular (e.g. social insects such as ants). We discuss adaptive hypotheses for developmental and reproductive competence systems and suggest experimental work to address the evolutionary origins, generality and genetic basis of competence in the fungal kingdom. PMID:23864594

Noble, Luke M.; Andrianopoulos, Alex

2013-01-01

385

Characterization and localization of prodiginines from Streptomyces lividans suppressing Verticillium dahliae in the absence or presence of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The ascomycete Verticillium dahliae causes worldwide vascular wilt of many field and horticultural plants. The melanized resting structures of this fungus, so-called microsclerotia, survive for many years in soils and continuously re-infect plants. Due to the absence of known fungicides, Verticillium wilt causes immense crop losses. We discovered that the Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium Streptomyces lividans expresses members of the prodiginine family during co-cultivation with V. dahliae. Using HPLC and LC-MS analysis of cultures containing S. lividans alone or grown together with V. dahliae, we found that undecylprodigiosin [394.4 M+H](+) is highly abundant, and streptorubin B [392.4 M+H](+) is present in smaller amounts. Within co-cultures, the quantity of undecylprodigiosin increased considerably and pigment concentrated at and within fungal hyphae. The addition of purified undecylprodigiosin to growing V. dahliae hyphae strongly reduced microsclerotia formation. Undecylprodigiosin was also produced when S. lividans grew on the roots of developing Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Furthermore, the presence of the undecylprodigiosin producer led to an efficient reduction of V. dahliae hyphae and microsclerotia on plant-roots. Based on these novel findings and previous knowledge, we deduce that the prodiginine investigated leads to multiple cellular effects, which ultimately impair specific pathways for signal transduction and apoptosis of the fungal plant pathogen. PMID:22151498

Meschke, Holger; Walter, Stefan; Schrempf, Hildgund

2012-04-01

386

Sequencing of the Dutch Elm Disease Fungus Genome Using the Roche/454 GS-FLX Titanium System in a Comparison of Multiple Genomics Core Facilities  

PubMed Central

As part of the DNA Sequencing Research Group of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities, we have tested the reproducibility of the Roche/454 GS-FLX Titanium System at five core facilities. Experience with the Roche/454 system ranged from <10 to >340 sequencing runs performed. All participating sites were supplied with an aliquot of a common DNA preparation and were requested to conduct sequencing at a common loading condition. The evaluation of sequencing yield and accuracy metrics was assessed at a single site. The study was conducted using a laboratory strain of the Dutch elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi strain H327, an ascomycete, vegetatively haploid fungus with an estimated genome size of 30–50 Mb. We show that the Titanium System is reproducible, with some variation detected in loading conditions, sequencing yield, and homopolymer length accuracy. We demonstrate that reads shorter than the theoretical minimum length are of lower overall quality and not simply truncated reads. The O. novo-ulmi H327 genome assembly is 31.8 Mb and is comprised of eight chromosome-length linear scaffolds, a circular mitochondrial conti of 66.4 kb, and a putative 4.2-kb linear plasmid. We estimate that the nuclear genome encodes 8613 protein coding genes, and the mitochondrion encodes 15 genes and 26 tRNAs. PMID:23542132

Forgetta, Vincenzo; Leveque, Gary; Dias, Joana; Grove, Deborah; Lyons, Robert; Genik, Suzanne; Wright, Chris; Singh, Sushmita; Peterson, Nichole; Zianni, Michael; Kieleczawa, Jan; Steen, Robert; Perera, Anoja; Bintzler, Doug; Adams, Scottie; Hintz, Will; Jacobi, Volker; Bernier, Louis; Levesque, Roger; Dewar, Ken

2013-01-01

387

In Planta Stage-Specific Fungal Gene Profiling Elucidates the Molecular Strategies of Fusarium graminearum Growing inside Wheat Coleoptiles[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete Fusarium graminearum is a destructive fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum). To better understand how this pathogen proliferates within the host plant, we tracked pathogen growth inside wheat coleoptiles and then examined pathogen gene expression inside wheat coleoptiles at 16, 40, and 64 h after inoculation (HAI) using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis. We identified 344 genes that were preferentially expressed during invasive growth in planta. Gene expression profiles for 134 putative plant cell wall–degrading enzyme genes suggest that there was limited cell wall degradation at 16 HAI and extensive degradation at 64 HAI. Expression profiles for genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS)–related enzymes suggest that F. graminearum primarily scavenges extracellular ROS before a later burst of extracellular ROS is produced by F. graminearum enzymes. Expression patterns of genes involved in primary metabolic pathways suggest that F. graminearum relies on the glyoxylate cycle at an early stage of plant infection. A secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster was specifically induced at 64 HAI and was required for virulence. Our results indicate that F. graminearum initiates infection of coleoptiles using covert penetration strategies and switches to overt cellular destruction of tissues at an advanced stage of infection. PMID:23266949

Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Jia, Lei-Jie; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Gang; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua

2012-01-01

388

Revisiting ectomycorrhizal fungi of the genus Alnus: differential host specificity, diversity and determinants of the fungal community.  

PubMed

Actinorhizal plants, including those of the genus Alnus (alders; Betulaceae), and their nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts rely on mycorrhizal fungi for phosphorus and other mineral nutrients. To date, alders are known to associate with only 20-30 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi which are highly host-specific. This study aimed to determine the species richness and the relative importance of host species, soil and site variables on the community composition of Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungi on root tips. Using rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) sequence analysis, 40 species of putatively ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from seven sites dominated by Alnus incana or Alnus glutinosa. Alnicola spp. and Tomentella aff. sublilacina were most prevalent in all sites. Species of the /pseudotomentella, /inocybe, /peziza michelii-peziza succosa, /genea-humaria, /pachyphloeus-amylascus, /helvella-tuber and /tarzetta-geopyxis lineages were recorded as natural symbionts of alders for the first time. All basidiomycetes were specific to Alnus, whereas four out of seven Pezizales spp. (ascomycetes) were nonspecific. The complex of soil variables and geographical (site) effect drives the community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi in alder forests. Alder-associated fungi have independently evolved and subsequently radiated in several ectomycorrhizal lineages, indicating frequent and persistent host shifts after the divergence of Alnus and Betula. PMID:19320837

Tedersoo, Leho; Suvi, Triin; Jairus, Teele; Ostonen, Ivika; Põlme, Sergei

2009-01-01

389

A key enzyme for flavin synthesis is required for nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production in disease resistance.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in plant immunity. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the production of these radicals are not fully understood. Hypersensitive response (HR) cell death requires the simultaneous and balanced production of NO and ROS. In this study we indentified NbRibAencoding a bifunctional enzyme, guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase II/3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase, which participates in the biosynthesis of flavin, by screening genes related to mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated cell death, using virus-induced gene silencing. Levels of endogenous riboflavin and its derivatives, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which are important prosthetic groups for several enzymes participating in redox reactions, decreased in NbRibA-silenced Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing NbRibA compromised not only HR cell death, but also the NO and ROS production induced by INF1 elicitin and a constitutively active form of NbMEK2 (NbMEK2DD), and also induced high susceptibility to oomycete Phytophthora infestans and ascomycete Colletotrichum orbiculare. Compromised radical production and HR cell death induced by INF1 in NbRibA-silenced leaves were rescued by adding riboflavin, FMN or FAD. These results indicate that flavin biosynthesis participates in regulating NO and ROS production, and HR cell death. PMID:20230506

Asai, Shuta; Mase, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

2010-06-01

390

Protein Expression Profiling of Coccidioides posadasii by Two-Dimensional Differential In-Gel Electrophoresis and Evaluation of a Newly Recognized Peroxisomal Matrix Protein as a Recombinant Vaccine Candidate  

PubMed Central

Coccidioides posadasii and Coccidioides immitis are dimorphic, soil-dwelling pathogenic ascomycetes endemic to the southwestern United States. Infection can result from inhalation of a very few arthroconidia, but following natural infection, long-lived immunity is the norm. Previous work in the field has shown that spherule-derived vaccines afford more protection than those from mycelia. We have used two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to directly assess both absolute abundance and differential expression of proteins in the spherule and the mycelial phases of C. posadasii with the intent to identify potential vaccine candidates. Peptides derived from 40 protein spots were analyzed and a probable identity was assigned to each. One spherule-abundant protein, identified as Pmp1, showed homology to allergens from Aspergillus fumigatus and other fungi, all of which exhibit similarity to yeast thiol peroxidases. Recombinant Pmp1 was reactive with serum from individuals with both acute and protracted disease, and evoked protection in two murine models of infection with C. posadasii. These results demonstrate the utility of proteomic analysis as a point of discovery for protective antigens for possible inclusion in a vaccine candidate to prevent coccidioidomycosis. PMID:16495561

Orsborn, Kris I.; Shubitz, Lisa F.; Peng, Tao; Kellner, Ellen M.; Orbach, Marc J.; Haynes, Paul A.; Galgiani, John N.

2006-01-01

391

Effect of different carbon sources on cellulase production by Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) strains  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina, an industrial (hemi)cellulase producer, can efficiently degrade plant polysaccharides. At present, the biology underlying cellulase hyperproduction of T. reesei, and the conditions for the enzyme induction, are not completely understood. In the current study, three different strains of T. reesei, including QM6a (wild-type), and mutants QM9414 and RUT-C30, were grown on 7 soluble and 7 insoluble carbon sources, with the later group including 4 pure polysaccharides and 3 lignocelluloses. Time course experiments showed that maximum cellulase activity of QM6a and QM9414 strains, for the majority of tested carbon sources, occurred at 120 hrs, while RUT-C30 had the greatest cellulase activity around 72 hrs. Maximum cellulase production was observed to be 0.035, 0.42 and 0.33 µmol glucose equivalents using microcrystalline celluloses for QM6a, QM9414, and RUTC-30, respectively. Increased cellulase production was positively correlated in QM9414 and negatively correlated in RUT-C30 with ability to grow on microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:22003440

Dashtban, Mehdi; Buchkowski, Robert; Qin, Wensheng

2011-01-01

392

A versatile toolkit for high throughput functional genomics with Trichoderma reesei  

PubMed Central

Background The ascomycete fungus, Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina), represents a biotechnological workhorse and is currently one of the most proficient cellulase producers. While strain improvement was traditionally accomplished by random mutagenesis, a detailed understanding of cellulase regulation can only be gained using recombinant technologies. Results Aiming at high efficiency and high throughput methods, we present here a construction kit for gene knock out in T. reesei. We provide a primer database for gene deletion using the pyr4, amdS and hph selection markers. For high throughput generation of gene knock outs, we constructed vectors using yeast mediated recombination and then transformed a T. reesei strain deficient in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) by spore electroporation. This NHEJ-defect was subsequently removed by crossing of mutants with a sexually competent strain derived from the parental strain, QM9414. Conclusions Using this strategy and the materials provided, high throughput gene deletion in T. reesei becomes feasible. Moreover, with the application of sexual development, the NHEJ-defect can be removed efficiently and without the need for additional selection markers. The same advantages apply for the construction of multiple mutants by crossing of strains with different gene deletions, which is now possible with considerably less hands-on time and minimal screening effort compared to a transformation approach. Consequently this toolkit can considerably boost research towards efficient exploitation of the resources of T. reesei for cellulase expression and hence second generation biofuel production. PMID:22212435

2012-01-01

393

Genome sequence of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued traditional chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Species in the ascomycete fungal genus Cordyceps have been proposed to be the teleomorphs of Metarhizium species. The latter have been widely used as insect biocontrol agents. Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional Chinese medicines, but the genes responsible for biosynthesis of bioactive components, insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined. Results Here, we report the genome sequence of the type species Cordyceps militaris. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps/Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens independently of each other, and that their similar large secretomes and gene family expansions are due to convergent evolution. However, relative to other fungi, including Metarhizium spp., many protein families are reduced in C. militaris, which suggests a more restricted ecology. Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human mycotoxins. We establish that C. militaris is sexually heterothallic but, very unusually, fruiting can occur without an opposite mating-type partner. Transcriptional profiling indicates that fruiting involves induction of the Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors and MAPK pathway; unlike other fungi, however, the PKA pathway is not activated. Conclusions The data offer a better understanding of Cordyceps biology and will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:22112802

2011-01-01

394

Metal content profiles in mushrooms collected in primary forests of Latin America.  

PubMed

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety concerns suggested estimation of the content of 14 metals-some of them highly toxic, such as cadmium, mercury, and lead-in 26 mushrooms species (Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes). The fungi-members of different genera-were collected during two periods, 1967-1969 and 1978-1981, in primary forests of Latin America (mainly French Guyana and a few samples from Colombia and Costa Rica), these areas are non- or slightly inhabited, therefore, industrial pollution has to be considered as totally nonexistent. Heavy metals, selectively concentrated in specific living organisms, should be regarded as toxin-like substances, taking into account the bioaccumulation sites (mushrooms) and the noxious activity toward various organs of mammals (i.e., central nervous system, kidneys, liver, etc.). The levels and distribution of the metals in the samples are given and compared. Most surprisingly, contents are not especially contrasted with those found in mushrooms collected in European urban areas, such as the Paris region; cadmium, lead, and mercury levels are of the same order of magnitude. PMID:10047592

Michelot, D; Poirier, F; Melendez-Howell, L M

1999-04-01

395

Fusion of two divergent fungal individuals led to the recent emergence of a unique widespread pathogen species  

PubMed Central

In a genome alignment of five individuals of the ascomycete fungus Zymoseptoria pseudotritici, a close relative of the wheat pathogen Z. tritici (synonym Mycosphaerella graminicola), we observed peculiar diversity patterns. Long regions up to 100 kb without variation alternate with similarly long regions of high variability. The variable segments in the genome alignment are organized into two main haplotype groups that have diverged ?3% from each other. The genome patterns in Z. pseudotritici are consistent with a hybrid speciation event resulting from a cross between two divergent haploid individuals. The resulting hybrids formed the new species without backcrossing to the parents. We observe no variation in 54% of the genome in the five individuals and estimate a complete loss of variation for at least 30% of the genome in the entire species. A strong population bottleneck following the hybridization event caused this loss of variation. Variable segments in the Z. pseudotritici genome exhibit the two haplotypes contributed by the parental individuals. From our previously estimated recombination map of Z. tritici and the size distribution of variable chromosome blocks untouched by recombination we estimate that the hybridization occurred ?380 sexual generations ago. We show that the amount of lost variation is explained by genetic drift during the bottleneck and by natural selection, as evidenced by the correlation of presence/absence of variation with gene density and recombination rate. The successful spread of this unique reproductively isolated pathogen highlights the strong potential of hybridization in the emergence of pathogen species with sexual reproduction. PMID:22711811

Stukenbrock, Eva Holtgrewe; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge; Hansen, Troels Toftebjerg; Dutheil, Julien Yann; Schierup, Mikkel Heide

2012-01-01

396

The Sch9 Kinase Regulates Conidium Size, Stress Responses, and Pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum is an important disease of wheat and barley worldwide. In a previous study on functional characterization of the F. graminearum kinome, one protein kinase gene important for virulence is orthologous to SCH9 that is functionally related to the cAMP-PKA and TOR pathways in the budding yeast. In this study, we further characterized the functions of FgSCH9 in F. graminearum and its ortholog in Magnaporthe oryzae. The ?Fgsch9 mutant was slightly reduced in growth rate but significantly reduced in conidiation, DON production, and virulence on wheat heads and corn silks. It had increased tolerance to elevated temperatures but became hypersensitive to oxidative, hyperosmotic, cell wall, and membrane stresses. The ?Fgsch9 deletion also had conidium morphology defects and produced smaller conidia. These results suggest that FgSCH9 is important for stress responses, DON production, conidiogenesis, and pathogenesis in F. graminearum. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the ?Mosch9 mutant also was defective in conidiogenesis and pathogenesis. Interestingly, it also produced smaller conidia and appressoria. Taken together, our data indicate that the SCH9 kinase gene may have a conserved role in regulating conidium size and plant infection in phytopathogenic ascomycetes. PMID:25144230

Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Jin-Rong

2014-01-01

397

The ecological implications of a Yakutian mammoth's last meal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part of a large male woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) was preserved in permafrost in northern Yakutia. It was radiocarbon dated to ca. 18,500 14C yr BP (ca. 22,500 cal yr BP). Dung from the lower intestine was subjected to a multiproxy array of microscopic, chemical, and molecular techniques to reconstruct the diet, the season of death, and the paleoenvironment. Pollen and plant macro-remains showed that grasses and sedges were the main food, with considerable amounts of dwarf willow twigs and a variety of herbs and mosses. Analyses of 110-bp fragments of the plastid rbcL gene amplified from DNA and of organic compounds supplemented the microscopic identifications. Fruit-bodies of dung-inhabiting Ascomycete fungi which develop after at least one week of exposure to air were found inside the intestine. Therefore the mammoth had eaten dung. It was probably mammoth dung as no bile acids were detected among the fecal biomarkers analysed. The plant assemblage and the presence of the first spring vessels of terminal tree-rings of dwarf willows indicated that the animal died in early spring. The mammoth lived in extensive cold treeless grassland vegetation interspersed with wetter, more productive meadows. The study demonstrated the paleoecological potential of several biochemical analytical techniques.

van Geel, Bas; Aptroot, André; Baittinger, Claudia; Birks, Hilary H.; Bull, Ian D.; Cross, Hugh B.; Evershed, Richard P.; Gravendeel, Barbara; Kompanje, Erwin J. O.; Kuperus, Peter; Mol, Dick; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Pals, Jan Peter; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; van Reenen, Guido; van Tienderen, Peter H.

2008-05-01

398

Diversity of the cassiicolin gene in Corynespora cassiicola and relation with the pathogenicity in Hevea brasiliensis.  

PubMed

Corynespora cassiicola is an important plant pathogenic Ascomycete causing the damaging Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). A small secreted glycoprotein named cassiicolin was previously described as an important effector of C. cassiicola. In this study, the diversity of the cassiicolin-encoding gene was analysed in C. cassiicola isolates sampled from various hosts and geographical origins. A cassiicolin gene was detected in 47 % of the isolates, encoding up to six distinct protein isoforms. In three isolates, two gene variants encoding cassiicolin isoforms Cas2 and Cas6 were found in the same isolate. A phylogenetic tree based on four combined loci and elucidating the diversity of the whole collection was strongly structured by the toxin class, as defined by the cassiicolin isoform. The isolates carrying the Cas1 gene (toxin class Cas1), all grouped in the same highly supported clade, were found the most aggressive on two rubber tree cultivars. Some isolates in which no Cas gene was detected could nevertheless generate moderate symptoms, suggesting the existence of other yet uncharacterized effectors. This study provides a useful base for future studies of C. cassiicola population biology and epidemiological surveys in various host plants. PMID:24433675

Déon, Marine; Fumanal, Boris; Gimenez, Stéphanie; Bieysse, Daniel; Oliveira, Ricardo R; Shuib, Siti Shuhada; Breton, Frédéric; Elumalai, Sunderasan; Vida, João B; Seguin, Marc; Leroy, Thierry; Roeckel-Drevet, Patricia; Pujade-Renaud, Valérie

2014-01-01

399

Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. Results The laccase-like multicopper oxidases McoA, McoB and McoG from the commonly used cell factory Aspergillus niger were homologously expressed, purified and analyzed for their biocatalytic potential. All three recombinant enzymes were monomers with apparent molecular masses ranging from 80 to 110 kDa. McoA and McoG resulted to be blue, whereas McoB was yellow. The newly obtained oxidases displayed strongly different activities towards aromatic compounds and synthetic dyes. McoB exhibited high catalytic efficiency with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPPDA) and 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline) sulfonic acid (ABTS), and appeared to be a promising biocatalyst. Besides oxidizing a variety of phenolic compounds, McoB catalyzed successfully the decolorization and detoxification of the widely used textile dye malachite green. Conclusions The A. niger McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different catalytic properties. Yellow McoB showed broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of several phenolic compounds commonly present in different industrial effluents. It also harbored high decolorization and detoxification activity with the synthetic dye malachite green, showing to have an interesting potential as a new industrial biocatalyst. PMID:23270588

2012-01-01

400

Sexual Recombination in Gibberella zeae.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT We developed a method for inducing sexual outcrosses in the homothallic Ascomycete fungus Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum). Strains were marked with different nitrate nonutilizing (nit) mutations, and vegetative compatibility groups served as additional markers in some crosses. Strains with complementary nit mutations were cocultured on carrot agar plates. Ascospores from individual perithecia were plated on a minimal medium (MM) containing nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Crosses between different nit mutants segregated in expected ratios (3:1 nit(-):nit(+)) from heterozygous perithecia. Analysis of vegetative compatibility groups of progeny of two crosses indicated two and three vegetative incompatibility (vic) genes segregating, respectively. For rapid testing of sexual recombination between nit mutants, perithecia were inverted over MM to deposit actively discharged ascospores. Development of proto-trophic wild-type colonies was taken as evidence of sexual recombination. Strains of G. zeae group 2 from Japan, Nepal, and South Africa, and from Indiana, Kansas, and Ohio in the United States were sexually interfertile. Four group 1 strains were not interfertile among themselves or with seven group 2 strains. Attempts to cross G. zeae with representatives of F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. crookwellense, F. oxysporum, and three mating populations of G. fujikuroi were not successful. PMID:18944794

Bowden, R L; Leslie, J F

1999-02-01

401

Identification of Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Motifs in Truffles: a First Step toward Their DNA Bar Coding? †  

PubMed Central

This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (?50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

2007-01-01

402

A novel sterol from Chinese truffles Tuber indicum.  

PubMed

From the fruiting bodies of Ascomycetes Tuber indicum, a new steroidal glucoside with polyhydroxy ergosterol nucleus, tuberoside (2), has been isolated along with additional four known ergosterol derivatives, (22E, 24R)-ergosta-7, 22-dien-3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-triol (1), 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-(22E, 24R)-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (3), (22E, 24R)-ergosta-5, 22-dien-3beta-ol (4), and (22E, 24R)-ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one (5). The structure of new compound was established as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(22E, 24R)-ergosta-7, 22-dien-5alpha, 6beta-diol (2) on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic means ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, MS, and IR). This is the first example of isolation of a polyhydroxylated ergosterol glucoside from higher fungi in nature. PMID:11522340

Jinming, G; Lin, H; Jikai, L

2001-10-01

403

Identification of internal transcribed spacer sequence motifs in truffles: a first step toward their DNA bar coding.  

PubMed

This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (< or = 50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

2007-08-01

404

Molecular characterization of pezizalean ectomycorrhizas associated with pinyon pine during drought.  

PubMed

Recent studies using molecular analysis of ectomycorrhizas have revealed that ascomycete fungi, especially members of the order Pezizales, can be important members of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal communities. However, little is known about the ecology and taxonomy of many of these fungi. We used data collected during a wet and a dry period to test the hypothesis that pezizalean EM fungi associated with pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) responded positively to drought stress. We also assessed the phylogenetic relationships among six, unknown pezizalean EM fungi, common to our study sites, using rDNA sequences from the internal transcribed spacer and large subunit (LSU) regions of the ribosomal DNA. Sequences of these fungi were then compared to sequences from known taxa to allow finer-scale identification. Three major findings emerged. First, at two sites, pezizalean EM were 44-95% more abundant during a dry year than a wetter year, supporting the hypothesis that pezizalean EM fungi respond positively to dry conditions. Second, four of the six unknown pezizalean EM fungi associated with P. edulis separated from one another consistently regardless of site or year of collection, suggesting that they represented distinct taxa. Third, comparison with LSU sequences of known members of the Pezizales indicated that these four taxa grouped within the genus Geopora of the family Pyronemataceae. Our results provide further evidence of the importance of pezizalean fungi in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis and demonstrate high local abundance of members of the genus Geopora in drought-stressed pinyon-juniper woodlands. PMID:21191620

Gordon, Galena J; Gehring, Catherine A

2011-07-01

405

Coral-associated marine fungi form novel lineages and heterogeneous assemblages  

PubMed Central

Coral stress tolerance is intricately tied to the animal's association with microbial symbionts. The most well-known of these symbioses is that between corals and their dinoflagellate photobionts (Symbiodinium spp.), whose genotype indirectly affects whether a coral can survive cyclical and anthropogenic warming events. Fungi comprise a lesser-known coral symbiotic community whose taxonomy, stability and function is largely un-examined. To assess how fungal communities inside a coral host correlate with water temperature and the genotype of co-occurring Symbiodinium, we sampled Acropora hyacinthus coral colonies from adjacent natural pools with different water temperatures and Symbiodinium identities. Phylogenetic analysis of coral-associated fungal ribosomal DNA amplicons showed a high diversity of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes, including several clades separated from known fungal taxa by long and well-supported branches. Community similarity did not correlate with any measured variables, and total fungal community composition was highly variable among A. hyacinthus coral colonies. Colonies in the warmer pool contained more phylogenetically diverse fungal communities than the colder pool and contained statistically significant ‘indicator' species. Four taxa were present in all coral colonies sampled, and may represent obligate associates. Messenger RNA sequenced from a subset of these same colonies contained an abundance of transcripts involved in metabolism of complex biological molecules. Coincidence between the taxonomic diversity found in the DNA and RNA analysis indicates a metabolically active and diverse resident marine fungal community. PMID:22189500

Amend, Anthony S; Barshis, Daniel J; Oliver, Thomas A

2012-01-01

406

Novel insights into the emergence of pathogens: the case of chestnut blight.  

PubMed

Exotic, invasive pathogens have emerged repeatedly and continue to emerge to threaten the world's forests. Ecosystem structure and function can be permanently changed when keystone tree species such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) are eliminated from a whole range by disease. The fungal ascomycete pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica is responsible for causing chestnut blight. Once the pathogen was introduced into the Eastern US, where chestnuts were predominant, chestnuts were all but eliminated. This pathogen is currently causing extensive damage in Europe. A study in this issue of Molecular Ecology sheds new light on the pattern and process of emergence of this devastating plant pathogen (Dutech et al. 2012). The authors used microsatellite markers to investigate the evolutionary history of C. parasitica populations introduced into North America and Europe. To infer sources of migrants and the migration events, the authors included putative source populations endemic to China and Japan, inferred potentially unsampled populations and conducted a multivariate population genetic and complex ABC analysis. Cryphonectria parasitica emerges as an example of an introduced pathogen with limited genotypic diversity and some admixture in the invaded ranges, yet repeated invasions into different areas of Europe and the United States. This work sheds new light on the emergence of C. parasitica providing compelling evidence that this pathogen emerged by repeated migration and occasional admixture. PMID:22835047

Grünwald, Niklaus J

2012-08-01

407

Transcriptome analysis of enriched Golovinomyces orontii haustoria by deep 454 pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Powdery mildews are phytopathogenic ascomycetes that have an obligate biotrophic lifestyle and establish intimate relationships with their plant hosts. A crucial aspect of this plant-fungus interaction is the formation of specialized fungal infection structures termed haustoria. Although located within the cell boundaries of plant epidermal cells, haustoria remain separated from the plant cytoplasm by a host plasma membrane derivative, the extrahaustorial membrane. Haustoria are thought to represent pivotal sites of nutrient uptake and effector protein delivery. We enriched haustorial complexes from Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces orontii and performed in-depth transcriptome analysis by 454-based pyrosequencing of haustorial cDNAs. We assembled 7077 expressed sequence tag (EST) contigs with greater than 5-fold average coverage and analyzed these with regard to the respective predicted protein functions. We found that transcripts coding for gene products with roles in protein turnover, detoxification of reactive oxygen species and fungal pathogenesis are abundant in the haustorial EST contigs, while surprisingly transcripts encoding presumptive nutrient transporters were not highly represented in the haustorial cDNA library. A substantial proportion (?38%) of transcripts coding for predicted secreted proteins comprises effector candidates. Our data provide valuable insights into the transcriptome of the key infection structure of a model obligate biotrophic phytopathogen. PMID:22521876

Weßling, Ralf; Schmidt, Sarah M; Micali, Cristina O; Knaust, Florian; Reinhardt, Richard; Neumann, Ulla; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Panstruga, Ralph

2012-06-01

408

Leaf-associated fungal diversity in acidified streams: insights from combining traditional and molecular approaches.  

PubMed

We combined microscopic and molecular methods to investigate fungal assemblages on alder leaf litter exposed in the benthic and hyporheic zones of five streams across a gradient of increasing acidification for 4 weeks. The results showed that acidification and elevated Al concentrations strongly depressed sporulating aquatic hyphomycetes diversity in both zones of streams, while fungal diversity assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) appeared unaffected. Clone library analyses revealed that fungal communities on leaves were dominated by members of Ascomycetes and to a lesser extent by Basidiomycetes and Chytridiomycetes. An important contribution of terrestrial fungi was observed in both zones of the most acidified stream and in the hyporheic zone of the reference circumneutral stream. The highest leaf breakdown rate was observed in the circumneutral stream and occurred in the presence of both the highest diversity of sporulating aquatic hyphomycetes and the highest contribution to clone libraries of sequences affiliated with aquatic hyphomycetes. Both methods underline the major role played by aquatic hyphomycetes in leaf decomposition process. Our findings also bring out new highlights on the identity of leaf-associated fungal communities and their responses to anthropogenic alteration of running water ecosystems. PMID:24034166

Clivot, Hugues; Cornut, Julien; Chauvet, Eric; Elger, Arnaud; Poupin, Pascal; Guérold, François; Pagnout, Christophe

2014-07-01

409

Application of response surface methodology for rapid chrysene biodegradation by newly isolated marine-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D.  

PubMed

For the first time, Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D, a marine-derived ascomycete fungus isolated from historically contaminated crude oil polluted shoreline of Alang-Sosiya ship-breaking yard, at Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat has been reported showing the rapid and enhanced biodegradation of chrysene, a four ringed high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Mineral Salt Broth (MSB) components such as ammonium tartrate and glucose along with chrysene, pH and trace metal solution have been successfully optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD). A validated, two-step optimization protocol has yielded a substantial 93.10% chrysene degradation on the 4(th) day, against unoptimized 56.37% degradation on the 14(th) day. The results depict 1.65 fold increase in chrysene degradation and 1.40 fold increase in biomass with a considerable decrement in time. Based on the successful laboratory experiments, C. lunatus strain CHR4D can thus be predicted as a potential candidate for mycoremediation of HMW PAHs impacted environments. PMID:25359268

Bhatt, Jwalant K; Ghevariya, Chirag M; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

2014-11-01

410

Effects of the mushroom-volatile 1-octen-3-ol on dry bubble disease.  

PubMed

Dry bubble disease caused by Lecanicillium fungicola is a persistent problem in the cultivation of the white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). Because control is hampered by chemicals becoming less effective, new ways to control dry bubble disease are urgently required. 1-Octen-3-ol is a volatile that is produced by A. bisporus and many other fungi. In A. bisporus, it has been implicated in self-inhibition of fruiting body formation while it was shown to inhibit spore germination in ascomycetes. Here, we show that 1-octen-3-ol inhibits germination of L. fungicola and that enhanced levels of 1-octen-3-ol can effectively control the malady. In addition, application of 1-octen-3-ol stimulates growth of bacterial populations in the casing and of Pseudomonas spp. specifically. Pseudomonas spp. and other bacteria have been demonstrated to play part in both the onset of mushroom formation in A. bisporus, as well as the inhibition of L. fungicola spore germination. A potential role of 1-octen-3-ol in the ecology of L. fungicola is discussed. PMID:23467828

Berendsen, Roeland L; Kalkhove, Stefanie I C; Lugones, Luis G; Baars, Johan J P; Wösten, Han A B; Bakker, Peter A H M

2013-06-01

411

Short-Term Temporal Variability in Airborne Bacterial and Fungal Populations?  

PubMed Central

Airborne microorganisms have been studied for centuries, but the majority of this research has relied on cultivation-dependent surveys that may not capture all of the microbial diversity in the atmosphere. As a result, our understanding of airborne microbial ecology is limited despite the relevance of airborne microbes to human health, various ecosystem functions, and environmental quality. Cultivation-independent surveys of small-subunit rRNA genes were conducted in order to identify the types of airborne bacteria and fungi found at a single site (Boulder, CO) and the temporal variability in the microbial assemblages over an 8-day period. We found that the air samples were dominated by ascomycete fungi of the Hypocreales order and a diverse array of bacteria, including members of the proteobacterial and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides groups that are commonly found in comparable culture-independent surveys of airborne bacteria. Bacterium/fungus ratios varied by 2 orders of magnitude over the sampling period, and we observed large shifts in the phylogenetic diversity of bacteria present in the air samples collected on different dates, shifts that were not likely to be related to local meteorological conditions. We observed more phylogenetic similarity between bacteria collected from geographically distant sites than between bacteria collected from the same site on different days. These results suggest that outdoor air may harbor similar types of bacteria regardless of location and that the short-term temporal variability in airborne bacterial assemblages can be very large. PMID:17981945

Fierer, Noah; Liu, Zongzhi; Rodríguez-Hernández, Mari; Knight, Rob; Henn, Matthew; Hernandez, Mark T.

2008-01-01

412

An Isoprenylation and Palmitoylation Motif Promotes Intraluminal Vesicle Delivery of Proteins in Cells from Distant Species  

PubMed Central

The C-terminal ends of small GTPases contain hypervariable sequences which may be posttranslationally modified by defined lipid moieties. The diverse structural motifs generated direct proteins towards specific cellular membranes or organelles. However, knowledge on the factors that determine these selective associations is limited. Here we show, using advanced microscopy, that the isoprenylation and palmitoylation motif of human RhoB (–CINCCKVL) targets chimeric proteins to intraluminal vesicles of endolysosomes in human cells, displaying preferential co-localization with components of the late endocytic pathway. Moreover, this distribution is conserved in distant species, including cells from amphibians, insects and fungi. Blocking lipidic modifications results in accumulation of CINCCKVL chimeras in the cytosol, from where they can reach endolysosomes upon release of this block. Remarkably, CINCCKVL constructs are sorted to intraluminal vesicles in a cholesterol-dependent process. In the lower species, neither the C-terminal sequence of RhoB, nor the endosomal distribution of its homologs are conserved; in spite of this, CINCCKVL constructs also reach endolysosomes in Xenopus laevis and insect cells. Strikingly, this behavior is prominent in the filamentous ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans, in which GFP-CINCCKVL is sorted into endosomes and vacuoles in a lipidation-dependent manner and allows monitoring endosomal movement in live fungi. In summary, the isoprenylated and palmitoylated CINCCKVL sequence constitutes a specific structure which delineates an endolysosomal sorting strategy operative in phylogenetically diverse organisms. PMID:25207810

Oeste, Clara L.; Pinar, Mario; Schink, Kay O.; Martínez-Turrión, Javier; Stenmark, Harald; Peñalva, Miguel A.; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

2014-01-01

413

Microbial Communities in Pre-Columbian Coprolites  

PubMed Central

The study of coprolites from earlier cultures represents a great opportunity to study an “unaltered” composition of the intestinal microbiota. To test this, pre-Columbian coprolites from two cultures, the Huecoid and Saladoid, were evaluated for the presence of DNA, proteins and lipids by cytochemical staining, human and/or dog-specific Bacteroides spp. by PCR, as well as bacteria, fungi and archaea using Terminal Restriction Fragment analyses. DNA, proteins and lipids, and human-specific Bacteroides DNA were detected in all coprolites. Multidimensional scaling analyses resulted in spatial arrangements of microbial profiles by culture, further supported by cluster analysis and ANOSIM. Differences between the microbial communities were positively correlated with culture, and SIMPER analysis indicated 68.8% dissimilarity between the Huecoid and Saladoid. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and methanogens were found in all coprolite samples. Propionebacteria, Shewanella and lactic acid bacteria dominated in the Huecoid samples, while Acidobacteria, and peptococci were dominant in Saladoid samples. Yeasts, including Candida albicans and Crypotococcus spp. were found in all samples. Basidiomycetes were the most notable fungi in Huecoid samples while Ascomycetes predominated in Saladoid samples, suggesting differences in dietary habits. Our study provides an approach for the study of the microbial communities of coprolite samples from various cultures. PMID:23755194

Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Narganes-Storde, Yvonne M.; Chanlatte, Luis; Crespo-Torres, Edwin; Toranzos, Gary A.; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Hamrick, Alice; Cano, Raul J.

2013-01-01

414

Trichoderma atroviride Transcriptional Regulator Xyr1 Supports the Induction of Systemic Resistance in Plants  

PubMed Central

As a result of a transcriptome-wide analysis of the ascomycete Trichoderma atroviride, mycoparasitism-related genes were identified; of these, 13 genes were further investigated for differential expression. In silico analysis of the upstream regulatory regions of these genes pointed to xylanase regulator 1 (Xyr1) as a putatively involved regulatory protein. Transcript analysis of the xyr1 gene of T. atroviride in confrontation with other fungi allowed us to determine that xyr1 levels increased during mycoparasitism. To gain knowledge about the precise role of Xyr1 in the mycoparasitic process, the corresponding gene was deleted from the T. atroviride genome. This resulted in strong reductions in the transcript levels of axe1 and swo1, which encode accessory cell wall-degrading enzymes considered relevant for mycoparasitism. We also analyzed the role of Xyr1 in the Trichoderma-Arabidopsis interaction, finding that the plant response elicited by T. atroviride is delayed if Xyr1 is missing in the fungus. PMID:24951787

Reithner, Barbara; Mach-Aigner, Astrid R.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

2014-01-01

415

Sequencing and annotation of the Ophiostoma ulmi genome  

PubMed Central

Background The ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma ulmi was responsible for the initial pandemic of the massively destructive Dutch elm disease in Europe and North America in early 1910. Dutch elm disease has ravaged the elm tree population globally and is a major threat to the remaining elm population. O. ulmi is also associated with valuable biomaterials applications. It was recently discovered that proteins from O. ulmi can be used for efficient transformation of amylose in the production of bioplastics. Results We have sequenced the 31.5 Mb genome of O.ulmi using Illumina next generation sequencing. Applying both de novo and comparative genome annotation methods, we predict a total of 8639 gene models. The quality of the predicted genes was validated using a variety of data sources consisting of EST data, mRNA-seq data and orthologs from related fungal species. Sequence-based computational methods were used to identify candidate virulence-related genes. Metabolic pathways were reconstructed and highlight specific enzymes that may play a role in virulence. Conclusions This genome sequence will be a useful resource for further research aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity by O. ulmi. It will also facilitate the identification of enzymes necessary for industrial biotransformation applications. PMID:23496816

2013-01-01

416

Polycistronic expression of a ?-carotene biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae coupled to ?-ionone production.  

PubMed

The flavour and fragrance compound ?-ionone, which naturally occurs in raspberry and many other fruits and flowers, is currently produced by synthetic chemistry. This study describes a synthetic biology approach for ?-ionone production from glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is partially based on polycistronic expression. Experiments with model proteins showed that the T2A sequence of the Thosea asigna virus mediated efficient production of individual proteins from a single transcript in S. cerevisiae. Subsequently, three ?-carotene biosynthesis genes from the carotenoid-producing ascomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (crtI, crtE and crtYB) were expressed in S. cerevisiae from a single polycistronic construct. In this construct, the individual crt proteins were separated by T2A sequences. Production of the individual proteins from the polycistronic construct was confirmed by Western blot analysis and by measuring the production of ?-carotene. To enable ?-ionone production, a carotenoid-cleavage dioxygenase from raspberry (RiCCD1) was co-expressed in the ?-carotene producing strain. In glucose-grown cultures with a second phase of dodecane, ?-ionone and geranylacetone accumulated in the organic phase. Thus, by introducing a polycistronic construct encoding a fungal carotenoid pathway and an expression cassette encoding a plant dioxygenase, a novel microbial production system has been established for a fruit flavour compound. PMID:24486029

Beekwilder, Jules; van Rossum, Harmen M; Koopman, Frank; Sonntag, Frank; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Hall, Robert D; Bosch, Dirk; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc

2014-12-20

417

Exploring micromycetes biodiversity for screening benzo[a]pyrene degrading potential.  

PubMed

Twenty-five strains of filamentous fungi, encompassing 14 different species and belonging mainly to Ascomycetes, were tested for their ability to degrade benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in mineral liquid medium. The most performing isolates for BaP degradation (200 mg l(-1)) in mineral medium were Cladosporium sphaerospermum with 29 % BaP degradation, i.e., 82.8 ?g BaP degraded per day (day(-1)), Paecilomyces lilacinus with 20.5 % BaP degradation, i.e., 58.5 ?g BaP day(-1), and Verticillium insectorum with 22.3 % BaP degradation, i.e., 64.3 ?g BaP day(-1), after only 7 days of incubation. Four variables, e.g., biomass growth on hexadecane and glucose, BaP solubilization, activities of extracellular- and mycelium-associated peroxidase, and polyethylene glycol degradation, were also studied as selective criteria presumed to be involved in BaP degradation. Among these variables, the tests based on polyethylene glycol degradation and on fungal growth on hexadecane and glucose seemed to be the both pertinent criteria for setting apart isolates competent in BaP degradation, suggesting the occurrence of different mechanisms presumed to be involved in pollutant degradation among the studied micromycetes. PMID:23093417

Rafin, Catherine; de Foucault, Bruno; Veignie, Etienne

2013-05-01

418

Molecular systematics of the marine Dothideomycetes  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analyses of four nuclear genes, namely the large and small subunits of the nuclear ribosomal RNA, transcription elongation factor 1-alpha and the second largest RNA polymerase II subunit, established that the ecological group of marine bitunicate ascomycetes has representatives in the orders Capnodiales, Hysteriales, Jahnulales, Mytilinidiales, Patellariales and Pleosporales. Most of the fungi sequenced were intertidal mangrove taxa and belong to members of 12 families in the Pleosporales: Aigialaceae, Didymellaceae, Leptosphaeriaceae, Lenthitheciaceae, Lophiostomataceae, Massarinaceae, Montagnulaceae, Morosphaeriaceae, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleosporaceae, Testudinaceae and Trematosphaeriaceae. Two new families are described: Aigialaceae and Morosphaeriaceae, and three new genera proposed: Halomassarina, Morosphaeria and Rimora. Few marine species are reported from the Dothideomycetidae (e.g. Mycosphaerellaceae, Capnodiales), a group poorly studied at the molecular level. New marine lineages include the Testudinaceae and Manglicola guatemalensis in the Jahnulales. Significantly, most marine Dothideomycetes are intertidal tropical species with only a few from temperate regions on salt marsh plants (Spartina species and Juncus roemerianus), and rarely totally submerged (e.g. Halotthia posidoniae and Pontoporeia biturbinata on the seagrasses Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosum). Specific attention is given to the adaptation of the Dothideomycetes to the marine milieu, new lineages of marine fungi and their host specificity. PMID:20169029

Suetrong, S.; Schoch, C.L.; Spatafora, J.W.; Kohlmeyer, J.; Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, B.; Sakayaroj, J.; Phongpaichit, S.; Tanaka, K.; Hirayama, K.; Jones, E.B.G.

2009-01-01

419

Phylogeny of rock-inhabiting fungi related to Dothideomycetes  

PubMed Central

The class Dothideomycetes (along with Eurotiomycetes) includes numerous rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF), a group of ascomycetes that tolerates surprisingly well harsh conditions prevailing on rock surfaces. Despite their convergent morphology and physiology, RIF are phylogenetically highly diverse in Dothideomycetes. However, the positions of main groups of RIF in this class remain unclear due to the lack of a strong phylogenetic framework. Moreover, connections between rock-dwelling habit and other lifestyles found in Dothideomycetes such as plant pathogens, saprobes and lichen-forming fungi are still unexplored. Based on multigene phylogenetic analyses, we report that RIF belong to Capnodiales (particularly to the family Teratosphaeriaceae s.l.), Dothideales, Pleosporales, and Myriangiales, as well as some uncharacterised groups with affinities to Dothideomycetes. Moreover, one lineage consisting exclusively of RIF proved to be closely related to Arthoniomycetes, the sister class of Dothideomycetes. The broad phylogenetic amplitude of RIF in Dothideomycetes suggests that total species richness in this class remains underestimated. Composition of some RIF-rich lineages suggests that rock surfaces are reservoirs for plant-associated fungi or saprobes, although other data also agree with rocks as a primary substrate for ancient fungal lineages. According to the current sampling, long distance dispersal seems to be common for RIF. Dothideomycetes lineages comprising lichens also include RIF, suggesting a possible link between rock-dwelling habit and lichenisation. PMID:20169026

Ruibal, C.; Gueidan, C.; Selbmann, L.; Gorbushina, A.A.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Muggia, L.; Grube, M.; Isola, D.; Schoch, C.L.; Staley, J.T.; Lutzoni, F.; de Hoog, G.S.

2009-01-01

420

Aspergillus niger genome-wide analysis reveals a large number of novel alpha-glucan acting enzymes with unexpected expression profiles  

PubMed Central

The filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus niger is well known for its ability to produce a large variety of enzymes for the degradation of plant polysaccharide material. A major carbon and energy source for this soil fungus is starch, which can be degraded by the concerted action of ?-amylase, glucoamylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes, members of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 13, 15 and 31, respectively. In this study we have combined analysis of the genome sequence of A. niger CBS 513.88 with microarray experiments to identify novel enzymes from these families and to predict their physiological functions. We have identified 17 previously unknown family GH13, 15 and 31 enzymes in the A. niger genome, all of which have orthologues in other aspergilli. Only two of the newly identified enzymes, a putative ?-glucosidase (AgdB) and an ?-amylase (AmyC), were predicted to play a role in starch degradation. The expression of the majority of the genes identified was not induced by maltose as carbon source, and not dependent on the presence of AmyR, the transcriptional regulator for starch degrading enzymes. The possible physiological functions of the other predicted family GH13, GH15 and GH31 enzymes, including intracellular enzymes and cell wall associated proteins, in alternative ?-glucan modifying processes are discussed. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00438-008-0332-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18320228

Yuan, Xiao-Lian; van der Kaaij, Rachel M.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; Punt, Peter J.; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

2008-01-01

421

Co-option of a default secretory pathway for plant immune responses.  

PubMed

Cell-autonomous immunity is widespread in plant-fungus interactions and terminates fungal pathogenesis either at the cell surface or after pathogen entry. Although post-invasive resistance responses typically coincide with a self-contained cell death of plant cells undergoing attack by parasites, these cells survive pre-invasive defence. Mutational analysis in Arabidopsis identified PEN1 syntaxin as one component of two pre-invasive resistance pathways against ascomycete powdery mildew fungi. Here we show that plasma-membrane-resident PEN1 promiscuously forms SDS-resistant soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes together with the SNAP33 adaptor and a subset of vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). PEN1-dependent disease resistance acts in vivo mainly through two functionally redundant VAMP72 subfamily members, VAMP721 and VAMP722. Unexpectedly, the same two VAMP proteins also operate redundantly in a default secretory pathway, suggesting dual functions in separate biological processes owing to evolutionary co-option of the default pathway for plant immunity. The disease resistance function of the secretory PEN1-SNAP33-VAMP721/722 complex and the pathogen-induced subcellular dynamics of its components are mechanistically reminiscent of immunological synapse formation in vertebrates, enabling execution of immune responses through focal secretion. PMID:18273019

Kwon, Chian; Neu, Christina; Pajonk, Simone; Yun, Hye Sup; Lipka, Ulrike; Humphry, Matt; Bau, Stefan; Straus, Marco; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Rampelt, Heike; El Kasmi, Farid; Jürgens, Gerd; Parker, Jane; Panstruga, Ralph; Lipka, Volker; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

2008-02-14

422

Recombinant Expression of a Novel Fungal Immunomodulatory Protein with Human Tumor Cell Antiproliferative Activity from Nectria haematococca  

PubMed Central

To our best knowledge, all of the fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) have been successfully extracted and identified in Basidomycetes, with only the exception of FIP from ascomycete Nectria haematococca (FIP-nha) discovered through homology alignment most recently. In this work, a gene encoding FIP-nha was synthesized and recombinantly expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. SDS-PAGE and MALDI-MS analyses of recombinant FIP-nha (rFIP-nha) indicated that the gene was successfully expressed. The yield of the bioactive FIP-nha protein was 42.7 mg/L. In vitro assays of biological activity indicated that the rFIP-nha caused hemagglutination of human and rabbit red blood cells, significantly stimulated mouse spleen lymphocyte proliferation, and enhanced expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) released from mouse splenocytes, revealing a strong antitumor effect against HL60, HepG2 and MGC823. Through this work, we constructed a rapid and efficient method of FIP production, and suggested that FIP-nha is a valuable candidate for use in future medical care and pharmaceutical products. PMID:25272229

Li, Shuying; Nie, Ying; Ding, Yang; Shi, Lijun; Tang, Xuanming

2014-01-01

423

Nuclear dynamics in a fungal chimera.  

PubMed

A fungal colony is a syncytium composed of a branched and interconnected network of cells. Chimerism endows colonies with increased virulence and ability to exploit nutritionally complex substrates. Moreover, chimera formation may be a driver for diversification at the species level by allowing lateral gene transfer between strains that are too distantly related to hybridize sexually. However, the processes by which genomic diversity develops and is maintained within a single colony are little understood. In particular, both theory and experiments show that genetically diverse colonies may be unstable and spontaneously segregate into genetically homogenous sectors. By directly measuring patterns of nuclear movement in the model ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, we show that genetic diversity is maintained by complex mixing flows of nuclei at all length scales within the hyphal network. Mathematical modeling and experiments in a morphological mutant reveal some of the exquisite hydraulic engineering necessary to create the mixing flows. In addition to illuminating multinucleate and multigenomic lifestyles, the adaptation of a hyphal network for mixing nuclear material provides a previously unexamined organizing principle for understanding morphological diversity in the more-than-a-million species of filamentous fungi. PMID:23861490

Roper, Marcus; Simonin, Anna; Hickey, Patrick C; Leeder, Abby; Glass, N Louise

2013-08-01

424

Comparative Analyses of Exoproteinases Produced by Three Phytopathogenic Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Proteinases secreted by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium culmorum belonging to different families of fungi have been studied to determine if the exoenzyme secretion depends on the environmental conditions and the phylogenetic position of the pathogen. The substrate specificity of the extracellular proteinases of F. culmorum, R. solani, and P. infestans and their sensitivity to the action of synthetic and protein inhibitors suggest that they contain trypsin-like and subtilisin-like enzymes regardless of culture medium composition. The relation of trypsin-like and subtilisin-like enzymes is dependent on the culture medium composition, especially on the form of nitrogen nutrition, particularly in the case of the exoenzymes secreted by R. solani. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the exoproteinase set of ascomycetes and oomycetes has more similarities than basidiomycetes although they are more distant relatives. Our data suggests that the multiple proteinases secreted by pathogenic fungi could play different roles in pathogenesis, increasing the adaptability and host range, or could have different functions in survival in various ecological habitats outside the host. PMID:22567343

Valueva, Tatiana A.; Kudryavtseva, Natalia N.; Sof'in, Alexis V.; Revina, Tatiana A.; Gvozdeva, Ekaterina L.; Ievleva, Elena V.

2011-01-01

425

Ericoid mycorrhizal root fungi and their multicopper oxidases from a temperate forest shrub  

PubMed Central

Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ERM) may specialize in capturing nutrients from their host's litter as a strategy for regulating nutrient cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. In spite of their potential significance, we know little about the structure of ERM fungal communities and the genetic basis of their saprotrophic traits (e.g., genes encoding extracellular enzymes). Rhododendron maximum is a model ERM understory shrub that influences the nutrient cycles of montane hardwood forests in the southern Appalachians (North Carolina, USA). We sampled ERM roots of R. maximum from organic and mineral soil horizons and identified root fungi by amplifying and sequencing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) collected from cultures and clones. We observed 71 fungal taxa on ERM roots, including known symbionts Rhizoscyphus ericae and Oidiodendron maius, putative symbionts from the Helotiales, Chaetothyriales, and Sebacinales, ectomycorrhizal symbionts, and saprotrophs. Supporting the idea that ERM fungi are adept saprotrophs, richness of root-fungi was greater in organic than in mineral soil horizons. To study the genetic diversity of oxidative enzymes that contribute to decomposition, we amplified and sequenced a portion of genes encoding multicopper oxidases (MCOs) from ERM ascomycetes. Most fungi possessed multiple copies of MCO sequences with strong similarities to known ferroxidases and laccases. Our findings indicate that R. maximum associates with a taxonomically and ecologically diverse fungal community. The study of MCO gene diversity and expression may be useful for understanding how ERM root fungi regulate the cycling of nutrients between the host plant and the soil environment. PMID:22408727

Wurzburger, Nina; Higgins, Brian P; Hendrick, Ronald L

2012-01-01

426

Marine fungal diversity: a comparison of natural and created salt marshes of the north-central Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

Marine fungal communities of created salt marshes of differing ages were compared with those of two reference natural salt marshes. Marine fungi occurring on the lower 30 cm of salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus were inventoried with morphological and molecular methods (ITS T-RFLP analysis) to determine fungal species richness, relative frequency of occurrence and ascomata density. The resulting profiles revealed similar fungal communities in natural salt marshes and created salt marshes 3 y old and older with a 1.5 y old created marsh showing less fungal colonization. A 26 y old created salt marsh consistently exhibited the highest fungal species richness. Ascomata density of the dominant fungal species on each host was significantly higher in natural marshes than in created marshes at all three sampling dates. This study indicates marine fungal saprotroph communities are present in these manmade coastal salt marshes as early as 1 y after marsh creation. The lower regions of both plant hosts were dominated by a small number of marine ascomycete species consistent with those species previously reported from salt marshes of the East Coast of USA. PMID:20524584

Walker, Allison K; Campbell, Jinx

2010-01-01

427

Is Roesleria subterranea a primary pathogen or a minor parasite of grapevines? Risk assessment and a diagnostic decision scheme  

PubMed Central

In the past the root rot pathogen Roesleria subterranea (Ascomycota) was generally considered as a minor parasite, a view with which we were often confronted during field work in German wine-growing regions where this ascomycete recently caused serious problems in established vineyards and at replant sites. To irrevocably demonstrate that R. subterranea is not a minor, but a primary pathogen of grapevines (and fruit trees) a pest risk analysis was carried out according to the guidelines defined by EPPO standard series PM 5, which defines the information needed, and contains standardised, detailed key questions and a decision support scheme for risk analysis. Following the provided decision scheme, it becomes apparent that R. subterranea must be considered as a serious, primary pathogen for grapevines and fruit trees that can cause massive economic losses. Based on the literature, the pathogen seems to be ubiquitous in wine growing regions in cool climates of the northern hemisphere. It is likely that because of its growth below ground, the small fruiting bodies, and ambiguous symptoms above ground, R. subterranea has been overlooked in the past and therefore, has not been considered as primary pathogen for grapevine. Available published information together with experience from field trials was implemented into a diagnostic decision scheme which will, together with the comprehensive literature provided, be the basis (a) to implement quick and efficient diagnosis of this pathogen in the field and (b) to conduct risk analysis and management in areas where R. subterranea has not established yet. PMID:22318129

2011-01-01

428

A Nudix Hydrolase Protein, Ysa1, Regulates Oxidative Stress Response and Antifungal Drug Susceptibility in Cryptococcus neoformans  

PubMed Central

A nucleoside diphosphate-linked moiety X (Nudix) hydrolase-like gene, YSA1, has been identified as one of the gromwell plant extract-responsive genes in Cryptococcus neoformans. Ysa1 is known to control intracellular concentrations of ADP-ribose or O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, and has diverse biological functions, including the response to oxidative stress in the ascomycete yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we characterized the role of YSA1 in the stress response and adaptation of the basidiomycete yeast, C. neoformans. We constructed three independent deletion mutants for YSA1, and analyzed their mutant phenotypes. We found that ysa1 mutants did not show increased sensitivity to reactive oxygen species-producing oxidative damage agents, such as hydrogen peroxide and menadione, but exhibited increased sensitivity to diamide, which is a thiol-specific oxidant. Ysa1 was dispensable for the response to most environmental stresses, such as genotoxic, osmotic, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In conclusion, modulation of YSA1 may regulate the cellular response and adaptation of C. neoformans to certain oxidative stresses and contribute to the evolution of antifungal drug resistance. PMID:24808735

Lee, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyojeong; Lee, Dohyun

2014-01-01

429

Expanding genomics of mycorrhizal symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant nutrition, soil health, and carbon cycling. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphotypes [e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] in multiple fungal clades (e.g., phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The accessibility and cultivability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first three mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing two morphotypes and three phyla. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other two fungi, symbiosis can involve similar solutions as symbiosis-induced SSPs and loss of PCWDEs. The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism. PMID:25408690

Kuo, Alan; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

2014-01-01

430

Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR  

SciTech Connect

Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1996-10-01

431

Patterns of major metabolites biosynthesis by different mushroom fungi grown on glucose-based submerged cultures.  

PubMed

The biosynthetic potential of four basidiomycetes (Agrocybe aegerita, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma applanatum and Pleurotus pulmonarius) and one ascomycete (Morchella esculenta) was examined in regard to biomass, intracellular (endopolysaccharides and lipids) and extracellular (exopolysaccharides) compounds' production in liquid media with glucose as substrate, in static and agitated cultures. Exopolysaccharides' production presented significant negative correlation with biomass, endopolysaccharides and lipids, while biomass was positively related to the production of endopolysaccharides and lipids. Maximum values of biomass, endo- and exo-polysaccharides obtained were quite impressive: P. pulmonarius produced 22.5 g/L of biomass, A. aegerita 60.4 % (w/w) of endopolysaccharides and F. velutipes 1.2 g/L of exopolysaccharides. Polysaccharides and lipids synthesized at the early growth stages were subjected to degradation as the fermentation proceeded. Mycelial lipids of all strains were highly unsaturated, dominated by linoleic acid, whereas glucose was the main building block of endopolysaccharides. The ability of the examined mushroom fungi to synthesize in high quantities biomass and polysaccharides, products with biotechnological and medicinal interest, renders these fungi as potential candidates in sugar-based bio-refineries. PMID:24366161

Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

2014-07-01

432

Life in Darwin's dust: intercontinental transport and survival of microbes in the nineteenth century.  

PubMed

Charles Darwin, like others before him, collected aeolian dust over the Atlantic Ocean and sent it to Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg in Berlin. Ehrenberg's collection is now housed in the Museum of Natural History and contains specimens that were gathered at the onset of the Industrial Revolution. Geochemical analyses of this resource indicated that dust collected over the Atlantic in 1838 originated from the Western Sahara, while molecular-microbiological methods demonstrated the presence of many viable microbes. Older samples sent to Ehrenberg from Barbados almost two centuries ago also contained numbers of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Many diverse ascomycetes, and eubacteria were found. Scanning electron microscopy and cultivation suggested that Bacillus megaterium, a common soil bacterium, was attached to historic sand grains, and it was inoculated onto dry sand along with a non-spore-forming control, the Gram-negative soil bacterium Rhizobium sp. NGR234. On sand B. megaterium quickly developed spores, which survived for extended periods and even though the numbers of NGR234 steadily declined, they were still considerable after months of incubation. Thus, microbes that adhere to Saharan dust can live for centuries and easily survive transport across the Atlantic. PMID:17956563

Gorbushina, Anna A; Kort, Renate; Schulte, Anette; Lazarus, David; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Broughton, William J; Favet, Jocelyne

2007-12-01

433

Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea  

PubMed Central

Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects. PMID:25606002

Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi

2014-01-01

434

Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea.  

PubMed

Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects. PMID:25606002

Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi; Lee, Jungkwan

2014-12-01

435

Effect of physical and chemical properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch, decanter cake and sago pith residue on cellulases production by Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2.  

PubMed

The effect of cultivation condition of two locally isolated ascomycetes strains namely Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 were compared in submerged and solid state fermentation. Physical evaluation on water absorption index, solubility index and chemical properties of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content as well as the cellulose structure on crystallinity and amorphous region of treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) (resulted in partial removal of lignin), sago pith residues (SPR) and oil palm decanter cake towards cellulases production were determined. Submerged fermentation shows significant cellulases production for both strains in all types of substrates. Crystallinity of cellulose and its chemical composition mainly holocellulose components was found to significantly affect the total cellulase synthesis in submerged fermentation as the higher crystallinity index, and holocellulose composition will increase cellulase production. Treated OPEFB apparently induced the total cellulases from T. asperellum UPM1 and A. fumigatus UPM2 with 0.66 U/mg FPase, 53.79 U/mg CMCase, 0.92 U/mg ?-glucosidase and 0.67 U/mg FPase, 47.56 U/mg and 0.14 U/mg ?-glucosidase, respectively. Physical properties of water absorption and solubility for OPEFB and SPR also had shown significant correlation on the cellulases production. PMID:24085387

Zanirun, Zuraidah; Bahrin, Ezyana Kamal; Lai-Yee, Phang; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd-Aziz, Suraini

2014-01-01

436

Verticillium systematics and evolution: how confusion impedes Verticillium wilt management and how to resolve it.  

PubMed

Verticillium wilts are important vascular wilt diseases that affect many crops and ornamentals in different regions of the world. Verticillium wilts are caused by members of the ascomycete genus Verticillium, a small group of 10 species that are related to the agents of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species. Verticillium has a long and complicated taxonomic history with controversies about species boundaries and long overlooked cryptic species, which confused and limited our knowledge of the biology of individual species. We first review the taxonomic history of Verticillium, provide an update and explanation of the current system of classification and compile host range and geographic distribution data for individual species from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) GenBank records. Using Verticillium as an example, we show that species names are a poor vehicle for archiving and retrieving information, and that species identifications should always be backed up by DNA sequence data and DNA extracts that are made publicly available. If such a system were made a prerequisite for publication, all species identifications could be evaluated retroactively, and our knowledge of the biology of individual species would be immune from taxonomic changes, controversy and misidentification. Adoption of this system would improve quarantine practices and the management of diseases caused by various plant pathogens. PMID:24548214

Inderbitzin, Patrik; Subbarao, Krishna V

2014-06-01

437

Carbon sequestration is related to mycorrhizal fungal community shifts during long-term succession in boreal forests.  

PubMed

Boreal forest soils store a major proportion of the global terrestrial carbon (C) and below-ground inputs contribute as much as above-ground plant litter to the total C stored in the soil. A better understanding of the dynamics and drivers of root-associated fungal communities is essential to predict long-term soil C storage and climate feedbacks in northern ecosystems. We used 454-pyrosequencing to identify fungal communities across fine-scaled soil profiles in a 5000 yr fire-driven boreal forest chronosequence, with the aim of pinpointing shifts in fungal community composition that may underlie variation in below-ground C sequestration. In early successional-stage forests, higher abundance of cord-forming ectomycorrhizal fungi (such as Cortinarius and Suillus species) was linked to rapid turnover of mycelial biomass and necromass, efficient nitrogen (N) mobilization and low C sequestration. In late successional-stage forests, cord formers declined, while ericoid mycorrhizal ascomycetes continued to dominate, potentially facilitating long-term humus build-up through production of melanized hyphae that resist decomposition. Our results suggest that cord-forming ectomycorrhizal fungi and ericoid mycorrhizal fungi play opposing roles in below-ground C storage. We postulate that, by affecting turnover and decomposition of fungal tissues, mycorrhizal fungal identity and growth form are critical determinants of C and N sequestration in boreal forests. PMID:25494880

Clemmensen, Karina E; Finlay, Roger D; Dahlberg, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Wardle, David A; Lindahl, Björn D

2015-03-01

438

Host associations between fungal root endophytes and boreal trees.  

PubMed

Fungal root endophytes colonize root tissue concomitantly with mycorrhizal fungi, but their identities and host preferences are largely unknown. We cultured fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized Cenococcum geophilum ectomycorrhizae of Betula papyrifera, Abies balsamea, and Picea glauca from two boreal sites in eastern Canada. Isolates were initially grouped on the basis of cultural morphology and then identified by internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequencing or by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data revealed 31 distinct phylotypes among the isolates, comprising mainly members of the ascomycete families Helotiaceae, Dermateaceae, Myxotrichaceae, and Hyaloscyphaceae, although other fungi were also isolated. Multivariate analyses indicate a clear separation among the endophyte communities colonizing each host tree species. Some phylotypes were evenly distributed across the r