Sample records for ascomycete podospora anserina

  1. Heterologous production of cellobiose dehydrogenases from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina and their effect on saccharification of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Turbe-Doan, Annick; Arfi, Yonathan; Record, Eric; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Levasseur, Anthony

    2013-06-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular glycosylated haemoflavoenzymes produced by many different wood-degrading and phytopathogenic fungi. Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase genes are recurrently discovered by genome sequencing projects in various phylogenetically distinct fungi. The genomes from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina were screened for candidate cdh genes, and one and three putative gene models were evidenced, respectively. Two putative cdh genes were selected and successfully expressed for the first time in Aspergillus niger. CDH activity was measured for both constructions (CDHcc and CDHpa), and both recombinant CDHs were purified to homogeneity and subsequently characterised. Kinetic constants were determined for several carbohydrates including ?-1,4-linked di- and oligosaccharides. Optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and 5 for CDHcc and 65-70 °C and 6 for CDHpa. Both CDHs showed a broad range of pH stability between 4 and 8. The effect of both CDHs on saccharification of micronized wheat straw by an industrial Trichoderma reesei secretome was determined. The addition of each CDH systematically decreased the release of total reducing sugars, but to different extents and according to the CDH concentration. Analytical methods were carried out to quantify the release of glucose, xylose and gluconic acid. An increase of glucose and xylose was measured at a low CDHcc concentration. At moderated and high CDHcc and CDHpa concentrations, glucose was severely reduced with a concomitant increase of gluconic acid. In conclusion, these results give new insights into the physical and chemical parameters and diversity of basidiomycetous and ascomycetous CDHs. These findings also demonstrated that CDH drastically influenced the saccharification on a natural substrate, and thus, CDH origin, concentration and potential enzymatic partners should be carefully considered in future artificial secretomes for biofuel applications. PMID:22940800

  2. Modulation of the glyoxalase system in the aging model Podospora anserina: effects on growth and lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Scheckhuber, Christian Q.; Mack, Sandra J.; Strobel, Ingmar; Ricciardi, Filomena; Gispert, Suzana; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2010-01-01

    The eukaryotic glyoxalase system consists of two enzymatic components, glyoxalase I (lactoylglutathione lyase) and glyoxalase II (hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase). These enzymes are dedicated to the removal of toxic ?-oxoaldehydes like methylglyoxal (MG). MG is formed as a by-product of glycolysis and MG toxicity results from its damaging capability leading to modifications of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. An efficient removal of MG appears to be essential to ensure cellular functionality and viability. Here we study the effects of the genetic modulation of genes encoding the components of the glyoxalase system in the filamentous ascomycete and aging model Podospora anserina. Overexpression of PaGlo1 leads to a lifespan reduction on glucose rich medium, probably due to depletion of reduced glutathione. Deletion of PaGlo1 leads to hypersensitivity against MG added to the growth medium. A beneficial effect on lifespan is observed when both PaGlo1 and PaGlo2 are overexpressed and the corresponding strains are grown on media containing increased glucose concentrations. Notably, the double mutant has a ‘healthy’ phenotype without physiological impairments. Moreover, PaGlo1/PaGlo2_OEx strains are not long-lived on media containing standard glucose concentrations suggesting a tight correlation between the efficiency and capacity to remove MG within the cell, the level of available glucose and lifespan. Overall, our results identify the up-regulation of both components of the glyoxalase system as an effective intervention to increase lifespan in P. anserina. PMID:21212464

  3. Natural Variation of Heterokaryon Incompatibility Gene het-c in Podospora anserina Reveals Diversifying Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaans, Eric; Debets, Alfons J.M.; Aanen, Duur K.; van Diepeningen, Anne D.; Saupe, Sven J.; Paoletti, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, allorecognition takes the form of heterokaryon incompatibility, a cell death reaction triggered when genetically distinct hyphae fuse. Heterokaryon incompatibility is controlled by specific loci termed het-loci. In this article, we analyzed the natural variation in one such fungal allorecognition determinant, the het-c heterokaryon incompatibility locus of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina. The het-c locus determines an allogenic incompatibility reaction together with two unlinked loci termed het-d and het-e. Each het-c allele is incompatible with a specific subset of the het-d and het-e alleles. We analyzed variability at the het-c locus in a population of 110 individuals, and in additional isolates from various localities. We identified a total of 11 het-c alleles, which define 7 distinct incompatibility specificity classes in combination with the known het-d and het-e alleles. We found that the het-c allorecognition gene of P. anserina is under diversifying selection. We find a highly unequal allele distribution of het-c in the population, which contrasts with the more balanced distribution of functional groups of het-c based on their allorecognition function. One explanation for the observed het-c diversity in the population is its function in allorecognition. However, alleles that are most efficient in allorecognition are rare. An alternative and not exclusive explanation for the observed diversity is that het-c is involved in pathogen recognition. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a homolog of het-c is a pathogen effector target, supporting this hypothesis. We hypothesize that the het-c diversity in P. anserina results from both its functions in pathogen-defense, and allorecognition. PMID:24448643

  4. Insights into Exo- and Endoglucanase Activities of Family 6 Glycoside Hydrolases from Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Poidevin, Laetitia; Feliu, Julia; Doan, Annick; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Bey, Mathieu; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete Podospora anserina is a coprophilous fungus that grows at late stages on droppings of herbivores. Its genome encodes a large diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Among them, four genes encode glycoside hydrolases from family 6 (GH6), the members of which comprise putative endoglucanases and exoglucanases, some of them exerting important functions for biomass degradation in fungi. Therefore, this family was selected for functional analysis. Three of the enzymes, P. anserina Cel6A (PaCel6A), PaCel6B, and PaCel6C, were functionally expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. All three GH6 enzymes hydrolyzed crystalline and amorphous cellulose but were inactive on hydroxyethyl cellulose, mannan, galactomannan, xyloglucan, arabinoxylan, arabinan, xylan, and pectin. PaCel6A had a catalytic efficiency on cellotetraose comparable to that of Trichoderma reesei Cel6A (TrCel6A), but PaCel6B and PaCel6C were clearly less efficient. PaCel6A was the enzyme with the highest stability at 45°C, while PaCel6C was the least stable enzyme, losing more than 50% of its activity after incubation at temperatures above 30°C for 24 h. In contrast to TrCel6A, all three studied P. anserina GH6 cellulases were stable over a wide range of pHs and conserved high activity at pH values of up to 9. Each enzyme displayed a distinct substrate and product profile, highlighting different modes of action, with PaCel6A being the enzyme most similar to TrCel6A. PaCel6B was the only enzyme with higher specific activity on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) than on Avicel and showed lower processivity than the others. Structural modeling predicts an open catalytic cleft, suggesting that PaCel6B is an endoglucanase. PMID:23645193

  5. Insights into exo- and endoglucanase activities of family 6 glycoside hydrolases from Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Poidevin, Laetitia; Feliu, Julia; Doan, Annick; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Bey, Mathieu; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; Heiss-Blanquet, Senta

    2013-07-01

    The ascomycete Podospora anserina is a coprophilous fungus that grows at late stages on droppings of herbivores. Its genome encodes a large diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Among them, four genes encode glycoside hydrolases from family 6 (GH6), the members of which comprise putative endoglucanases and exoglucanases, some of them exerting important functions for biomass degradation in fungi. Therefore, this family was selected for functional analysis. Three of the enzymes, P. anserina Cel6A (PaCel6A), PaCel6B, and PaCel6C, were functionally expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. All three GH6 enzymes hydrolyzed crystalline and amorphous cellulose but were inactive on hydroxyethyl cellulose, mannan, galactomannan, xyloglucan, arabinoxylan, arabinan, xylan, and pectin. PaCel6A had a catalytic efficiency on cellotetraose comparable to that of Trichoderma reesei Cel6A (TrCel6A), but PaCel6B and PaCel6C were clearly less efficient. PaCel6A was the enzyme with the highest stability at 45°C, while PaCel6C was the least stable enzyme, losing more than 50% of its activity after incubation at temperatures above 30°C for 24 h. In contrast to TrCel6A, all three studied P. anserina GH6 cellulases were stable over a wide range of pHs and conserved high activity at pH values of up to 9. Each enzyme displayed a distinct substrate and product profile, highlighting different modes of action, with PaCel6A being the enzyme most similar to TrCel6A. PaCel6B was the only enzyme with higher specific activity on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) than on Avicel and showed lower processivity than the others. Structural modeling predicts an open catalytic cleft, suggesting that PaCel6B is an endoglucanase. PMID:23645193

  6. Genetic map of mitochondrial DNA in Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Kück, U; Esser, K

    1982-07-01

    In order to develop an eukaryotic vector with the Podospora plasmid, further characterization is required of the mitochondrial DNA into which this plasmid is integrated, a physical map (restriction sites) of the Podospora chondriome (size 95 kb) has been completed. As prerequisite for the establishment of a genetic (functional) map, 70% of the chondriome was cloned in E. coli vectors. Using mitochondrial genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, six structural genes were located on the Podospora chondriome by cross hybridization experiments. There is strong evidence that the plasmid is inserted into the cytochrome b gene. A comparison of the genetic map of the Podospora chondriome with those of Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans exhibits a rather good accordance with respect to the sequence of genes. PMID:24186230

  7. Intramolecular cross-overs generate deleted mitochondrial DNA molecules in Podospora anserina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne Jamet-Vierny; Jocelyne Boulay; Jean-François Briand

    1997-01-01

    The unavoidable senescence process that limits the vegetative growth of Podospora anserina is always associated with an accumulation of various classes of circular, tandemly arranged, defective mitochondrial DNA\\u000a molecules (senDNAs). The monomers of the senDNAs belonging to the so-called ? class share a common core, but differ in both their length and termini. To understand the mechanism leading to their

  8. Cello-Oligosaccharide Oxidation Reveals Differences between Two Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases (Family GH61) from Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Bey, Mathieu; Zhou, Simeng; Poidevin, Laetitia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    The genome of the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina encodes 33 different genes encoding copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) from glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61). In this study, two of these enzymes (P. anserina GH61A [PaGH61A] and PaGH61B), which both harbored a family 1 carbohydrate binding module, were successfully produced in Pichia pastoris. Synergistic cooperation between PaGH61A or PaGH61B with the cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on cellulose resulted in the formation of oxidized and nonoxidized cello-oligosaccharides. A striking difference between PaGH61A and PaGH61B was observed through the identification of the products, among which were doubly and triply oxidized cellodextrins, which were released only by the combination of PaGH61B with CDH. The mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of these oxidized products could be consistent with oxidation at the C-6 position with a geminal diol group. The different properties of PaGH61A and PaGH61B and their effect on the interaction with CDH are discussed in regard to the proposed in vivo function of the CDH/GH61 enzyme system in oxidative cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23124232

  9. Cello-oligosaccharide oxidation reveals differences between two lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (family GH61) from Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Bey, Mathieu; Zhou, Simeng; Poidevin, Laetitia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    The genome of the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina encodes 33 different genes encoding copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) from glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61). In this study, two of these enzymes (P. anserina GH61A [PaGH61A] and PaGH61B), which both harbored a family 1 carbohydrate binding module, were successfully produced in Pichia pastoris. Synergistic cooperation between PaGH61A or PaGH61B with the cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on cellulose resulted in the formation of oxidized and nonoxidized cello-oligosaccharides. A striking difference between PaGH61A and PaGH61B was observed through the identification of the products, among which were doubly and triply oxidized cellodextrins, which were released only by the combination of PaGH61B with CDH. The mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of these oxidized products could be consistent with oxidation at the C-6 position with a geminal diol group. The different properties of PaGH61A and PaGH61B and their effect on the interaction with CDH are discussed in regard to the proposed in vivo function of the CDH/GH61 enzyme system in oxidative cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23124232

  10. Comparative analyses of Podospora anserina secretomes reveal a large array of lignocellulose-active enzymes.

    PubMed

    Poidevin, Laetitia; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Levasseur, Anthony; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Chevret, Didier; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; Heiss-Blanquet, Senta; Record, Eric

    2014-09-01

    The genome of the coprophilous fungus Podospora anserina harbors a large and highly diverse set of putative lignocellulose-acting enzymes. In this study, we investigated the enzymatic diversity of a broad range of P. anserina secretomes induced by various carbon sources (dextrin, glucose, xylose, arabinose, lactose, cellobiose, saccharose, Avicel, Solka-floc, birchwood xylan, wheat straw, maize bran, and sugar beet pulp (SBP)). Compared with the Trichoderma reesei enzymatic cocktail, P. anserina secretomes displayed similar cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase activities and greater arabinofuranosidase, arabinanase, and galactanase activities. The secretomes were further tested for their capacity to supplement a T. reesei cocktail. Four of them improved significantly the saccharification yield of steam-exploded wheat straw up to 48 %. Fine analysis of the P. anserina secretomes produced with Avicel and SBP using proteomics revealed a large array of CAZymes with a high number of GH6 and GH7 cellulases, CE1 esterases, GH43 arabinofuranosidases, and AA1 laccase-like multicopper oxidases. Moreover, a preponderance of AA9 (formerly GH61) was exclusively produced in the SBP condition. This study brings additional insights into the P. anserina enzymatic machinery and will facilitate the selection of promising targets for the development of future biorefineries. PMID:24695830

  11. Bilirubin oxidase-like proteins from Podospora anserina: promising thermostable enzymes for application in transformation of plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ning; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Silar, Philippe; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence

    2015-03-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi is a critical step for production of biofuels, and laccases are common ligninolytic enzymes envisioned for ligninolysis. Bilirubin oxidases (BODs)-like are related to laccases, but their roles during lignocellulose degradation have not yet been fully investigated. The two BODs of the ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina were characterized by targeted gene deletions. Enzymatic assay revealed that the bod1(?) and bod2(?) mutants lost partly a thermostable laccase activity. A triple mutant inactivated for bod1, bod2 and mco, a previously investigated multicopper oxidase gene distantly related to laccases, had no thermostable laccase activity. The pattern of fruiting body production in the bod1(?) bod2(?) double mutant was changed. The bod1(?) and bod2(?) mutants were reduced in their ability to grow on ligneous and cellulosic materials. Furthermore, bod1(?) and bod2(?) mutants were defective towards resistance to phenolic substrates and H2 O2 , which may also impact lignocellulose breakdown. Double and triple mutants were more affected than single mutants, evidencing redundancy of function among BODs and mco. Overall, the data show that bod1, bod2 and mco code for non-canonical thermostable laccases that participate in the degradation of lignocellulose. Thanks to their thermal stability, these enzymes may be more promising candidate for biotechnological application than canonical laccases. PMID:24947769

  12. Biological Roles of the Podospora anserina Mitochondrial Lon Protease and the Importance of Its N-Domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céline Adam; Marguerite Picard; Michelle Déquard-Chablat; Carole H. Sellem; Sylvie Hermann-Le Denmat; Véronique Contamine

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria have their own ATP-dependent proteases that maintain the functional state of the organelle. All multicellular eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi, possess the same set of mitochondrial proteases, unlike in unicellular yeasts, where ClpXP, one of the two matricial proteases, is absent. Despite the presence of ClpXP in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, deletion of the gene encoding the other matricial

  13. Podospora anserina Hemicellulases Potentiate the Trichoderma reesei Secretome for Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Biomass?

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Marie; Haon, Mireille; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2011-01-01

    To improve the enzymatic hydrolysis (saccharification) of lignocellulosic biomass by Trichoderma reesei, a set of genes encoding putative polysaccharide-degrading enzymes were selected from the coprophilic fungus Podospora anserina using comparative genomics. Five hemicellulase-encoding genes were successfully cloned and expressed as secreted functional proteins in the yeast Pichia pastoris. These novel fungal CAZymes belonging to different glycoside hydrolase families (PaMan5A and PaMan26A mannanases, PaXyn11A xylanase, and PaAbf51A and PaAbf62A arabinofuranosidases) were able to break down their predicted cognate substrates. Although PaMan5A and PaMan26A displayed similar specificities toward a range of mannan substrates, they differed in their end products, suggesting differences in substrate binding. The N-terminal CBM35 module of PaMan26A displayed dual binding specificity toward xylan and mannan. PaXyn11A harboring a C-terminal CBM1 module efficiently degraded wheat arabinoxylan, releasing mainly xylobiose as end product. PaAbf51A and PaAbf62A arabinose-debranching enzymes exhibited differences in activity toward arabinose-containing substrates. Further investigation of the contribution made by each P. anserina auxiliary enzyme to the saccharification of wheat straw and spruce demonstrated that the endo-acting hemicellulases (PaXyn11A, PaMan5A, and PaMan26A) individually supplemented the secretome of the industrial T. reesei CL847 strain. The most striking effect was obtained with PaMan5A that improved the release of total sugars by 28% and of glucose by 18%, using spruce as lignocellulosic substrate. PMID:21037302

  14. Identification of a Hypothetical Protein from Podospora anserina as a Nitroalkane Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Tormos, Jose R.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Daubner, S. Colette; Hart, P. John; Fitzpatrick, Paul F. (Texas-HSC); (St. Mary)

    2010-08-23

    The flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) from Fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Structurally, the enzyme is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. To date no enzymes other than that from F. oxysporum have been annotated as NAOs. To identify additional potential NAOs, the available database was searched for enzymes in which the active site residues Asp402, Arg409, and Ser276 were conserved. Of the several fungal enzymes identified in this fashion, PODANSg2158 from Podospora anserina was selected for expression and characterization. The recombinant enzyme is a flavoprotein with activity on nitroalkanes comparable to the F. oxysporum NAO, although the substrate specificity is somewhat different. Asp399, Arg406, and Ser273 in PODANSg2158 correspond to the active site triad in F. oxysporum NAO. The k{sub cat}/K{sub M}-pH profile with nitroethane shows a pK{sub a} of 5.9 that is assigned to Asp399 as the active site base. Mutation of Asp399 to asparagine decreases the k{sub cat}/K{sub M} value for nitroethane over 2 orders of magnitude. The R406K and S373A mutations decrease this kinetic parameter by 64- and 3-fold, respectively. The structure of PODANSg2158 has been determined at a resolution of 2.0 {angstrom}, confirming its identification as an NAO.

  15. Manganese rescues adverse effects on lifespan and development in Podospora anserina challenged by excess hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Carolin; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2015-03-01

    For biological systems, balancing cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is of great importance because ROS are both, essential for cellular signaling and dangerous in causing molecular damage. Cellular ROS abundance is controlled by a delicate network of molecular pathways. Within this network, superoxide dismutases (SODs) are active in disproportion of the superoxide anion leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. The fungal aging model Podospora anserina encodes at least three SODs. One of these is the mitochondrial PaSOD3 isoform containing manganese as a cofactor. Previous work resulted in the selection of strains in which PaSod3 is strongly overexpressed. These strains display impairments in growth and lifespan. A computational model suggests a series of events to occur in Sod3 overexpressing strains leading to adverse effects due to elevated hydrogen peroxide levels. In an attempt to validate this model and to obtain more detailed information about the cellular responses involved in ROS balancing, we further investigated the PaSod3 overexpressing strains. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide levels are indeed strongly increased in the mutant strain. Surprisingly, this phenotype can be rescued by the addition of manganese to the growth medium. Strikingly, while we obtained no evidence for an antioxidant effect of manganese, we found that the metal is required for induction of components of the ROS scavenging network and lowers the hydrogen peroxide level of the mutant. A similar effect of manganese on lifespan reversion was obtained in wild-type strains challenged with exogenous hydrogen peroxide. It appears that manganese is limited under high hydrogen peroxide and suggests that a manganese-dependent activity leads to the induction of ROS scavenging components. PMID:25616172

  16. Sequence analysis of the gene coding for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( gpd ) of Podospora anserina : use of homologous regulatory sequences to improve transformation efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riidiger Ridder; Heinz D. Osiewacz

    1992-01-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) gene of Podospora anserina has been isolated from a genomic library by heterologous hybridization with the corresponding gene of Curvularia lunata. The coding region consists of 1014 nucleotides and is interrupted by a single intron. The amino-acid sequence encoded by the gpd gene shows a high degree of sequence identity with the corresponding gene products of

  17. The proteasome activity reporter GFP-Cl1 is degraded by autophagy in the aging model Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Matthias; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of damaged proteins is an important vital function especially during aging and stress. The ubiquitin proteasome system is one of the major cellular machineries for protein degradation. Health and longevity are associated with high proteasome activity. To demonstrate such a role in aging of Podospora anserina, we first analyzed the transcript and protein abundance of selected proteasome components in wild-type cultures of different age. No significant differences were observed. Next, in order to increase the overall proteasome abundance we generated strains overexpressing the catalytic proteasome subunits PaPRE2 and PaPRE3. Although transcript levels were strongly increased, no substantial effect on the abundance of the corresponding proteins was observed. Finally, the analysis of the P. anserina strains expressing the sequence coding for the CL1 degron fused to the Gfp gene revealed no evidence for degradation of the GFP-CL1 fusion protein by the proteasome. Instead, our results demonstrate the degradation of the CL1-degron sequence via autophagy, indicating that basal autophagy appears to be a very effective protein quality control pathway in P. anserina. PMID:25520781

  18. Identification of the genes encoding the cytosolic translation release factors from Podospora anserina and analysis of their role during the life cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Gagny, B; Silar, P

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to decipher their role in the life history and senescence process of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, we have cloned the su1 and su2 genes, previously identified as implicated in cytosolic translation fidelity. We show that these genes are the equivalents of the SUP35 and SUP45 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which encode the cytosolic translation termination factors eRF3 and eRF1, respectively. Mutations in these genes that suppress nonsense mutations may lead to drastic mycelium morphology changes and sexual impairment but have little effect on life span. Deletion of su1, coding for the P. anserina eRF3, is lethal. Diminution of its expression leads to a nonsense suppressor phenotype whereas its overexpression leads to an antisuppressor phenotype. P. anserina eRF3 presents an N-terminal region structurally related to the yeast eRF3 one. Deletion of the N-terminal region of P. anserina eRF3 does not cause any vegetative alteration; especially life span is not changed. However, it promotes a reproductive impairment. Contrary to what happens in S. cerevisiae, deletion of the N terminus of the protein promotes a nonsense suppressor phenotype. Genetic analysis suggests that this domain of eRF3 acts in P. anserina as a cis-activator of the C-terminal portion and is required for proper reproduction. PMID:9691035

  19. Isolation of telomeric DNA from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina and construction of a self-replicating linear plasmid showing high transformation frequency.

    PubMed Central

    Javerzat, J P; Bhattacherjee, V; Barreau, C

    1993-01-01

    It has been previously shown that linear plasmids bearing Tetrahymena telomeric sequences are able to replicate autonomously in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina (1). However, autonomous replication occurs in only 50-70% of the transformants, suggesting a defect in the recognition of the Tetrahymena telomeric template by the putative P. anserina telomerase so that only a fraction of entering DNA is stabilized into linear extrachromosomal molecules. We have cloned DNA sequences added to the Tetrahymena (T2G4)n ends of the linear plasmid. Nucleotide sequencing showed that these sequences are exclusively composed of T2AG3 repeat units. Hybridization experiments of Bal31 treated DNA showed that T2AG3 repeats are confined within 200 bp in chromosomal P. anserina telomeres. A new plasmid has been constructed so that after linearization, the terminal sequences contain T2AG3 repeats. This linear molecule transforms P. anserina with a high frequency (up to 1.75 x 10(4) transformants/micrograms), autonomous replication occurs in 100% of the transformants and the plasmid copy number is about 2-3 per nucleus. These results underscore the importance of the telomeric repeat nucleotide sequence for efficient recognition as functional telomeric DNA in vivo and provide the first step toward the development of an artificial chromosome cloning system for filamentous fungi. Images PMID:8441663

  20. Genetic and functional investigation of Zn(2)Cys(6) transcription factors RSE2 and RSE3 in Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Bovier, Elodie; Sellem, Carole H; Humbert, Adeline; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2014-01-01

    In Podospora anserina, the two zinc cluster proteins RSE2 and RSE3 are essential for the expression of the gene encoding the alternative oxidase (aox) when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is impaired. In parallel, they activated the expression of gluconeogenic genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pck) and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase (fbp). Orthologues of these transcription factors are present in a wide range of filamentous fungi, and no other role than the regulation of these three genes has been evidenced so far. In order to better understand the function and the organization of RSE2 and RSE3, we conducted a saturated genetic screen based on the constitutive expression of the aox gene. We identified 10 independent mutations in 9 positions in rse2 and 11 mutations in 5 positions in rse3. Deletions were generated at some of these positions and the effects analyzed. This analysis suggests the presence of central regulatory domains and a C-terminal activation domain in both proteins. Microarray analysis revealed 598 genes that were differentially expressed in the strains containing gain- or loss-of-function mutations in rse2 or rse3. It showed that in addition to aox, fbp, and pck, RSE2 and RSE3 regulate the expression of genes encoding the alternative NADH dehydrogenase, a Zn2Cys6 transcription factor, a flavohemoglobin, and various hydrolases. As a complement to expression data, a metabolome profiling approach revealed that both an rse2 gain-of-function mutation and growth on antimycin result in similar metabolic alterations in amino acids, fatty acids, and ?-ketoglutarate pools. PMID:24186951

  1. Genetic and Functional Investigation of Zn2Cys6 Transcription Factors RSE2 and RSE3 in Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Bovier, Elodie; Sellem, Carole H.; Humbert, Adeline

    2014-01-01

    In Podospora anserina, the two zinc cluster proteins RSE2 and RSE3 are essential for the expression of the gene encoding the alternative oxidase (aox) when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is impaired. In parallel, they activated the expression of gluconeogenic genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pck) and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase (fbp). Orthologues of these transcription factors are present in a wide range of filamentous fungi, and no other role than the regulation of these three genes has been evidenced so far. In order to better understand the function and the organization of RSE2 and RSE3, we conducted a saturated genetic screen based on the constitutive expression of the aox gene. We identified 10 independent mutations in 9 positions in rse2 and 11 mutations in 5 positions in rse3. Deletions were generated at some of these positions and the effects analyzed. This analysis suggests the presence of central regulatory domains and a C-terminal activation domain in both proteins. Microarray analysis revealed 598 genes that were differentially expressed in the strains containing gain- or loss-of-function mutations in rse2 or rse3. It showed that in addition to aox, fbp, and pck, RSE2 and RSE3 regulate the expression of genes encoding the alternative NADH dehydrogenase, a Zn2Cys6 transcription factor, a flavohemoglobin, and various hydrolases. As a complement to expression data, a metabolome profiling approach revealed that both an rse2 gain-of-function mutation and growth on antimycin result in similar metabolic alterations in amino acids, fatty acids, and ?-ketoglutarate pools. PMID:24186951

  2. An additional copy of the adenylate cyclase-encoding gene relieves developmental defects produced by a mutation in a vegetative incompatibility-controlling gene in Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Loubradou, G; Bégueret, J; Turcq, B

    1996-04-17

    To identify cellular functions involved in vegetative incompatibility in filamentous fungi, we have initiated the cloning of Podospora anserina (Pa) mod genes. These genes interfere with the lethal reaction triggered by interaction between incompatible het genes. A gene (Pa AC) has been cloned by complementation of developmental defects caused by a mutation in the mod-D gene. This gene encodes a protein of 2145 amino acids (aa)that exhibits strong similarities with many adenylate cyclases (AC). About 65% aa identity has been found between the sequence of the polypeptide encoded by this Pa AC gene and the AC of Neurospora crassa. The organization of peptidic domains in the polypeptide encoded by Pa AC is closely related to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYR1. Restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) and genetic analysis have shown that Pa AC and mod-D are distinct genes. PMID:8621071

  3. Mutations in genes encoding the mitochondrial outer membrane proteins Tom70 and Mdm10 of Podospora anserina modify the spectrum of mitochondrial DNA rearrangements associated with cellular death.

    PubMed

    Jamet-Vierny, C; Contamine, V; Boulay, J; Zickler, D; Picard, M

    1997-11-01

    Tom70 and Mdm10 are mitochondrial outer membrane proteins. Tom70 is implicated in the import of proteins from the cytosol into the mitochondria in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. Mdm10 is involved in the morphology and distribution of mitochondria in S. cerevisiae. Here we report on the characterization of the genes encoding these proteins in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. The two genes were previously genetically identified through a systematic search for nuclear suppressors of a degenerative process displayed by the AS1-4 mutant. The PaTom70 protein shows 80% identity with its N. crassa homolog. The PaMdm10 protein displays 35.9% identity with its S. cerevisiae homolog, and cytological analyses show that the PaMDM10-1 mutant exhibits giant mitochondria, as does the S. cerevisiae mdm10-1 mutant. Mutations in PaTOM70 and PaMDM10 result in the accumulation of specific deleted mitochondrial genomes during the senescence process of the fungus. The phenotypic properties of the single- and double-mutant strains suggest a functional relationship between the Tom70 and Mdm10 proteins. These data emphasize the role of the mitochondrial outer membrane in the stability of the mitochondrial genome in an obligate aerobe, probably through the import process. PMID:9343397

  4. The Crucial Role of the Pls1 Tetraspanin during Ascospore Germination in Podospora anserina Provides an Example of the Convergent Evolution of Morphogenetic Processes in Fungal Plant Pathogens and Saprobes? †

    PubMed Central

    Lambou, Karine; Malagnac, Fabienne; Barbisan, Crystel; Tharreau, Didier; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Pls1 tetraspanins were shown for some pathogenic fungi to be essential for appressorium-mediated penetration into their host plants. We show here that Podospora anserina, a saprobic fungus lacking appressorium, contains PaPls1, a gene orthologous to known PLS1 genes. Inactivation of PaPls1 demonstrates that this gene is specifically required for the germination of ascospores in P. anserina. These ascospores are heavily melanized cells that germinate under inducing conditions through a specific pore. On the contrary, MgPLS1, which fully complements a ?PaPls1 ascospore germination defect, has no role in the germination of Magnaporthe grisea nonmelanized ascospores but is required for the formation of the penetration peg at the pore of its melanized appressorium. P. anserina mutants with mutation of PaNox2, which encodes the NADPH oxidase of the NOX2 family, display the same ascospore-specific germination defect as the ?PaPls1 mutant. Both mutant phenotypes are suppressed by the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis, suggesting that they are involved in the same cellular process required for the germination of P. anserina melanized ascospores. The analysis of the distribution of PLS1 and NOX2 genes in fungal genomes shows that they are either both present or both absent. These results indicate that the germination of P. anserina ascospores and the formation of the M. grisea appressorium penetration peg use the same molecular machinery that includes Pls1 and Nox2. This machinery is specifically required for the emergence of polarized hyphae from reinforced structures such as appressoria and ascospores. Its recurrent recruitment during fungal evolution may account for some of the morphogenetic convergence observed in fungi. PMID:18757568

  5. Overexpression of Pa_1_10620 encoding a mitochondrial Podospora anserina protein with homology to superoxide dismutases and ribosomal proteins leads to lifespan extension.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Carolin; Böhl, Lena; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2015-02-01

    In biological systems, reactive oxygen species (ROS) represent 'double edged swords': as signaling molecules they are essential for proper development, as reactive agents they cause molecular damage and adverse effects like degeneration and aging. A well-coordinated control of ROS is therefore of key importance. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are enzymes active in the detoxification of superoxide. The number of isoforms of these proteins varies among species. Here we report the characterization of the putative protein encoded by Pa_1_10620 that has been previously annotated to code for a mitochondrial ribosomal protein but shares also sequence domains with SODs. We report that the gene is transcribed in P. anserina cultures of all ages and that the encoded protein localizes to mitochondria. In strains overexpressing Pa_1_10620 in a genetic background in which PaSod3, the mitochondrial MnSOD of P. anserina, is deleted, no SOD activity could be identified in isolated mitochondria. However, overexpression of the gene leads to lifespan extension suggesting a pro-survival function of the protein in P. anserina. PMID:25151510

  6. Plasticity of the mitochondrial genome in Podospora. Polymorphism for 15 optional sequences: group-I, group-II introns, intronic ORFs and an intergenic region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Léon Belcour; Michèle Rossignol; France Koll; Carole H. Sellem; Catherine Oldani

    1997-01-01

    The mitochondrial chromosome of 15 Podo-spora anserina and one Podospora comata wild-type strains have been extensively examined for the presence of optional elements and for sequence divergence. Among\\u000a the P. anserina strains, nine optional sequences were found. By comparing P. anserina with the closely related and weakly interfertile P. comata species, six additional optional sequences were detected. These optional elements

  7. A Genome-Wide Longitudinal Transcriptome Analysis of the Aging Model Podospora anserine

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Oliver; Hamann, Andrea; Servos, Jörg; Werner, Alexandra; Koch, Ina; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2013-01-01

    Aging of biological systems is controlled by various processes which have a potential impact on gene expression. Here we report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina. Total RNA of three individuals of defined age were pooled and analyzed by SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression). A bioinformatics analysis identified different molecular pathways to be affected during aging. While the abundance of transcripts linked to ribosomes and to the proteasome quality control system were found to decrease during aging, those associated with autophagy increase, suggesting that autophagy may act as a compensatory quality control pathway. Transcript profiles associated with the energy metabolism including mitochondrial functions were identified to fluctuate during aging. Comparison of wild-type transcripts, which are continuously down-regulated during aging, with those down-regulated in the long-lived, copper-uptake mutant grisea, validated the relevance of age-related changes in cellular copper metabolism. Overall, we (i) present a unique age-related data set of a longitudinal study of the experimental aging model P. anserina which represents a reference resource for future investigations in a variety of organisms, (ii) suggest autophagy to be a key quality control pathway that becomes active once other pathways fail, and (iii) present testable predictions for subsequent experimental investigations. PMID:24376646

  8. Prions in Saccharomyces and Podospora spp.: Protein-Based Inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Taylor, Kimberly L.; Edskes, Herman K.; Maddelein, Marie-Lise; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Roberts, B. Tibor

    1999-01-01

    Genetic evidence showed two non-Mendelian genetic elements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, called [URE3] and [PSI], to be prions of Ure2p and Sup35p, respectively. [URE3] makes cells derepressed for nitrogen catabolism, while [PSI] elevates the efficiency of weak suppressor tRNAs. The same approach led to identification of the non-Mendelian element [Het-s] of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, as a prion of the het-s protein. The prion form of the het-s protein is required for heterokaryon incompatibility, a normal fungal function, suggesting that other normal cellular functions may be controlled by prions. [URE3] and [PSI] involve a self-propagating aggregation of Ure2p and Sup35p, respectively. In vitro, Ure2p and Sup35p form amyloid, a filamentous protein structure, high in ?-sheet with a characteristic green birefringent staining by the dye Congo Red. Amyloid deposits are a cardinal feature of Alzheimer’s disease, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and many other diseases. The prion domain of Ure2p consists of Asn-rich residues 1 to 80, but two nonoverlapping fragments of the molecule can, when overproduced, induce the de nova appearance of [URE3]. The prion domain of Sup35 consists of residues 1 to 114, also rich in Asn and Gln residues. While runs of Asn and Gln are important for [URE3] and [PSI], no such structures are found in PrP or the Het-s protein. Either elevated or depressed levels of the chaperone Hsp104 interfere with propagation of [PSI]. Both [URE3] and [PSI] are cured by growth of cells in millimolar guanidine HCl. [URE3] is also cured by overexpression of fragments of Ure2p or fusion proteins including parts of Ure2p. PMID:10585968

  9. Programmed ascospore death in the homothallic ascomycete Coniochaeta tetraspora.

    PubMed

    Raju, N B; Perkins, D D

    2000-08-01

    Immature asci of Coniochaeta tetraspora originally contain eight uninucleate ascospores. Two ascospore pairs in each ascus survive and mature, and two die and degenerate. Arrangement of the two ascospore types in individual linear asci is what would be expected if death is controlled by a chromosomal gene segregating at the second meiotic division in about 50% of asci. Cultures originating from single homokaryotic ascospores or from single uninucleate conidia are self-fertile, again producing eight-spored asci in which four spores disintegrate, generation after generation. These observations indicate that differentiation of two nuclear types occurs de novo in each sexual generation, that it involves alteration of a specific chromosome locus, and that the change occurs early in the sexual phase. One, and only one, of the two haploid nuclei entering each functional zygote must carry the altered element, which is segregated into two of the four meiotic products and is eliminated when ascospores that contain it disintegrate. Fusion of nuclei cannot be random-a recognition mechanism must exist. More study will be needed to determine whether the change that is responsible for ascospore death is genetic or epigenetic, whether it occurs just before the formation of each ascus or originates only once in the ascogonium prior to proliferation of ascogenous hyphae, and whether it reflects developmentally triggered alteration at a locus other than mating type or the activation of a silent mating-type gene that has pleiotropic effects. Similar considerations apply to species such as Sclerotinia trifoliorum and Chromocrea spinulosa, in which all ascospores survive but half the spores in each ascus are small and self-sterile. Unlike C. tetraspora, another four-spored species, Coniochaetidium savoryi, is pseudohomothallic, with ascus development resembling that of Podospora anserina. PMID:11035943

  10. Evolutionary history of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 20 ascomyceteous yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comp...

  11. PHYLOGENETICS OF SACCHAROMYCETALES, THE ASCOMYCETE YEASTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycete yeasts (Phylum Ascomycota: Subphylum Saccharomycotina: Class Saccharomycetes: Order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals, and their interfaces. A few s...

  12. Species Diversity of Hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Solomon P.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a species diversity study of the hypogeous Ascomycetes of Israel. The hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel include members of the families Pyronemataceae, Pezizaceae, and Tuberaceae, which are represented by seven species: Hydnocystis piligera, Terfezia arenaria, T. claveryi, T. oligosperma, Tirmania africana, Tuber asa, and T. nitidum; only T. asa is new to Israeli mycobiota. Synonymy, locations, collection data, general distribution, distribution in Israel, descriptions, a key to identification, illustrations, and taxonomic remarks are provided. PMID:23956647

  13. A NEW SPECIES OF ASCOMYCETES FROM MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a survey of tropical Ascomycetes from Mexico, an interesting fungus was isolated from sandy beach soil collected from the Gulf of Mexico seacoast. The fungus produces a rudimentary ascoma with oblate, smooth-walled, unornamented, greenish ascospores and lacks a distinctive peridium surroundi...

  14. Introduction The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph

    E-print Network

    Qin, Wensheng

    Introduction The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is one of the most of different carbon sources on cellulase production by Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) strains Mehdi in RUT- C30 with ability to grow on microcrystalline cellulose. Keywords: Trichoderma reesei, cellulase

  15. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and appears to be highly variable with some regulators widely conserved and others showing narrow distribution. Although genome-scale transcription factor surveys have been performed before, no global study into the prevalence of specific regulators across the fungal kingdom has been presented. Results In this study we have analysed the number of members for 37 regulator classes in 77 ascomycete and 31 basidiomycete fungal genomes and revealed significant differences between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. In addition, we determined the presence of 64 regulators characterised in ascomycetes across these 108 genomes. This demonstrated that overall the highest presence of orthologs is in the filamentous ascomycetes. A significant number of regulators lacked orthologs in the ascomycete yeasts and the basidiomycetes. Conversely, of seven basidiomycete regulators included in the study, only one had orthologs in ascomycetes. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant difference in the regulatory repertoire of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, at the level of both regulator class and individual regulator. This suggests that the current regulatory systems of these fungi have been mainly developed after the two phyla diverged. Most regulators detected in both phyla are involved in central functions of fungal physiology and therefore were likely already present in the ancestor of the two phyla. PMID:24650355

  16. Interactive effects of pollination and heavy metals on resource allocation in Potentilla anserina L.

    SciTech Connect

    Saikkonen, K. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology]|[Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Koivunen, S.; Vuorisalo, T. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Mutikainen, P. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology]|[ETH, Zuerich (Switzerland). Experimental Ecology

    1998-07-01

    The authors studied resource allocation between sexual reproduction and clonal propagation in a perennial stoloniferous clonal plant, Potentilla anserina, an obligate outcrosser. They manipulated reproductive effort of Potentilla anserina either by hand-pollinating all flowers or by preventing pollination. To test the effect of resource-limiting conditions on resource allocation and reproductive output, the authors used a control and two levels of heavy metals (copper and nickel) to limit plant growth. The experiment was conducted as a 2 {times} 3 factorial design to reveal possible interactions between reproductive manipulation and resource limitation. Heavy metals decreased the total biomass of the plants and number of flowers and ramets produced. Only 50% of the plants grown with the higher level of heavy metals produced flowers. Pollination treatment interacted significantly with the heavy-metal treatment. In the metal control and lower heavy-metal treatment, there were no significant differences in total vegetative biomass between the two pollination treatments. Costs of reproduction in terms of subsequent flowering in the later season appeared to be clear, because the number of flowers per whole plant was lower if the plants were hand-pollinated and because the proportion of flowering ramets decreased due to hand-pollination. However, flowering may also be partly hormonally controlled. In contrast, hand-pollinated plants exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals tended to have greater biomass of vegetative plant structures and higher number of flowers compared to nonpollinated plants.

  17. Discussion of teleomorphic and anamorphic Ascomycetous yeasts and yeast-like taxa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship of ascomycetous yeasts with other members of the ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) has been controversial for over 100 years. Because yeasts are morphologically simple, it was proposed that they represent primitive forms of ascomycetes (e.g., Guilliermond 1912). Alternatively, the ide...

  18. ASCOMYCETOUS MITOSIS IN BASIDIOMYCETOUS YEASTS: ITS EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In budding cells of ascomycetous yeasts, mitosis occurs in the parent, while in basidiomyceteous yeasts it occurs in the bud. However, in the basidiomycete Agaricostilbum pulcherrimum mitosis occurs in the parent and parent-bud junction. To test whether A. pulcherrimum has a novel mitotic pattern, i...

  19. Taxonomic diversity and interactions of insect-associated ascomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith Blackwell; Kevin Jones

    1997-01-01

    Many ascomycetes are associated with insects to form symbioses. The fungi are necrotrophic and biotrophic parasites, endosymbionts, insect-dispersed forms, and other obligate associates that provide nourishment for insects. Diversity among these fungi can be categorized in several different ways: taxonomic diversity, variety of interaction types occurring within a fungal lineage, and number of fungal species. Previously our inability to produce

  20. NOTES ON ASCOMYCETE SYSTEMATICS NOS 3303-3579

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The series "Notes on ascomycete systematics" has been published in Systema Ascomycetum (Eriksson & Hawksworth 1986-1998) and since 1999 in Myconet in an electronic version on the Internet (http://www.umu.se/myconet/notes.html) and as hard copies once or twice a year in a journal with the same name (...

  1. Catalytic properties and classification of cellobiose dehydrogenases from ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Harreither, Wolfgang; Sygmund, Christoph; Augustin, Manfred; Narciso, Melanie; Rabinovich, Mikhail L; Gorton, Lo; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) genes are frequently discovered in various fungi by genome sequencing projects. The expression of CDH, an extracellular flavocytochrome, is well studied in white rot basidiomycetes and is attributed to extracellular lignocellulose degradation. CDH has also been reported for plant-pathogenic or saprotrophic ascomycetes, but the molecular and catalytic properties of these enzymes are currently less investigated. This study links various ascomycetous cdh genes with the molecular and catalytic characteristics of the mature proteins and suggests a differentiation of ascomycete class II CDHs into two subclasses, namely, class IIA and class IIB, in addition to the recently introduced class III of hypothetical ascomycete CDHs. This new classification is based on sequence and biochemical data obtained from sequenced fungal genomes and a screening of 40 ascomycetes. Thirteen strains showed CDH activity when they were grown on cellulose-based media, and Chaetomium atrobrunneum, Corynascus thermophilus, Dichomera saubinetii, Hypoxylon haematostroma, Neurospora crassa, and Stachybotrys bisbyi were selected for detailed studies. In these strains, one or two cdh-encoding genes were found that stem either from class IIA and contain a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module or from class IIB without such a module. In several strains, both genes were found. Regarding substrate specificity, class IIB CDHs show a less pronounced substrate specificity for cellobiose than class IIA enzymes. A pH-dependent pattern of the intramolecular electron transfer was also observed, and the CDHs were classified into three groups featuring acidic, intermediate, or alkaline pH optima. The pH optimum, however, does not correlate with the CDH subclasses and is most likely a species-dependent adaptation to different habitats. PMID:21216904

  2. Relation between phylogeny and physiology in some ascomycetous yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter J. Middelhoven; Cletus P. Kurtzman

    2003-01-01

    The question of whether yeasts with similar physiological properties are closely related has been examined using recently\\u000a published phylogenetic analyses of 26S domain D1\\/D2 rDNA nucleotide sequences from all currently recognized ascomycetous yeasts.\\u000a When apparently unique metabolic pathways are examined, some relationships between physiology and rDNA phylogeny are evident.\\u000a Most Candida and Pichia species that are able to assimilate methanol

  3. Relative Incidence of Ascomycetous Yeasts in Arctic Coastal Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorena Butinar; Tadeja Strmole; Nina Gunde-Cimerman

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of fungi in polar environments have revealed a prevalence of basidiomycetous yeasts in soil and in subglacial\\u000a environments of polythermal glaciers. Ascomycetous yeasts have rarely been reported from extremely cold natural environments,\\u000a even though they are known contaminants of frozen foods. Using media with low water activity, we have isolated various yeast\\u000a species from the subglacial ice of

  4. Alternaria alternata TCTP, a novel cross-reactive ascomycete allergen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphaela Rid; Kamil Önder; Susan MacDonald; Roland Lang; Thomas Hawranek; Christof Ebner; Wolfgang Hemmer; Klaus Richter; Birgit Simon-Nobbe; Michael Breitenbach

    2009-01-01

    Defining more comprehensively the allergen repertoire of the ascomycete Alternaria alternata is undoubtedly of immense medical significance since this mold represents one of the most important, worldwide occurring fungal species responsible for IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions ranging from rhinitis and ocular symptoms to severe involvement of the lower respiratory tract including asthma with its life-threatening complications. Performing a hybridization screening of

  5. Intronic GIY-YIG endonuclease gene in the mitochondrial genome of Podospora curvicolla: evidence for mobility

    PubMed Central

    Saguez, Cyril; Lecellier, Gaël; Koll, France

    2000-01-01

    Endonuclease genes encoded in invasive introns are themselves supposed to be mobile elements which, during evolution, have colonized pre-existing introns converting them into invasive elements. This hypothesis is supported by numerous data concerning the LAGLI-DADG subclass of intronic endonucleases. Less is known about the GIY-YIG ORFs which constitute another family of endonucleases. In this paper we describe the presence of one optional GIY-YIG ORF in the second intron of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in the fungus Podospora curvicolla. We show that this GIY-YIG ORF is efficiently transferred from an ORF-containing intron to an ORF-less allele. We also show that the products of both the GIY-YIG ORF and the non-canonical LAGLI-DADG-GIY-YIG ORF, which is generated by its integration, have endonuclease activities which recognize and cut the insertion site of the optional sequence. This constitutes the first direct evidence for potential mobility of an intronic GIY-YIG endonuclease. We discuss the role that such a mobile sequence could have played during evolution. PMID:10684923

  6. Causes and Consequences of Variability in Peptide Mating Pheromones of Ascomycete Fungi

    E-print Network

    Causes and Consequences of Variability in Peptide Mating Pheromones of Ascomycete Fungi Simon H and speciation. Ascomycetes produce two classes of mating type­specific peptide pheromones. These are required or the extent of species specificity in pheromone peptides among these fungi. We compared the putative protein

  7. Expression and Function of Sex Pheromones and Receptors in the Homothallic Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In heterothallic ascomycete fungi, idiomorphic alleles at the MAT locus control two sex pheromone/receptor pairs that function in recognition and chemoattraction of strains with opposite mating types. In the ascomycete Gibberella zeae, the MAT locus is rearranged such that both alleles are adjacent...

  8. Relative incidence of ascomycetous yeasts in arctic coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Butinar, Lorena; Strmole, Tadeja; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies of fungi in polar environments have revealed a prevalence of basidiomycetous yeasts in soil and in subglacial environments of polythermal glaciers. Ascomycetous yeasts have rarely been reported from extremely cold natural environments, even though they are known contaminants of frozen foods. Using media with low water activity, we have isolated various yeast species from the subglacial ice of four glaciers from the coastal Arctic environment of Kongsfjorden, Spitzbergen, including Debaryomyces hansenii and Pichia guillermondii, with counts reaching 10(4) CFU L(-1). Together with the basidiomycetes Cryptococcus liquefaciens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, these yeasts represent the stable core of the subglacial yeast communities. Other glacial ascomycetous species isolated included Candida parapsilosis and a putative new species that resembles Candida pseudorugosa. The archiascomycete Protomyces inouyei has seldom been detected anywhere in the world but was here recovered from ice in a glacier cave. The glacier meltwater contained only D. hansenii, whereas the seawater contained D. hansenii, Debaryomyces maramus, Pichia guilliermondii, what appears to represent a novel species resembling Candida galli and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Only P. guilliermondii was isolated from sea ice, while snow/ice in the fjord tidal zone included C. parapsilosis, D. hansenii, P. guilliermondii and Metschnikowia zobellii. All of these isolated strains were characterized as psychrotolerant and xero/halotolerant, with the exception of P. inouyei. PMID:21221569

  9. Relation between phylogeny and physiology in some ascomycetous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Middelhoven, Wouter J; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2003-01-01

    The question of whether yeasts with similar physiological properties are closely related has been examined using recently published phylogenetic analyses of 26S domain D1/D2 rDNA nucleotide sequences from all currently recognized ascomycetous yeasts. When apparently unique metabolic pathways are examined, some relationships between physiology and rDNA phylogeny are evident. Most Candida and Pichia species that are able to assimilate methanol as the sole carbon source are in a clade delimited by C. nanospora and C. boidinii. Exceptions are P. capsulata and P. pastoris which are phylogenetically separated from the other methanol-assimilating yeasts. Yeasts subject to the petite mutation, resulting in respiratory deficiency, belong to three different clades, viz, a Saccharomyces clade delimited by S. cerevisiae and S. rosinii, the Dekkera/Brettanomyces clade, and some Schizosaccharomyces species ('Archiascomycete' clade). However, petite mutants were also found in Zygosaccharomyces fermentati and some other more distantly related species. Yeasts able to assimilate n-hexadecane, uric acid or amines as sole carbon source are broadly distributed over the ascomycetous phylogenetic tree. However, species that assimilate adenine as sole carbon source are closely related. Most of these species also assimilated glycine, uric acid, n-hexadecane, putrescine and branched-chain aliphatic compounds such as isobutanol, leucine and isoleucine. Among the Saccharomycetales, species utilizing all or the great majority of these eight compounds are in the Stephanoascus/Arxula/Blastobotrys clade. Candida blankii, which is distantly related to this clade, proved to be an exception and assimilated six of eight of these compounds. PMID:12755482

  10. Ascomycete fungal communities associated with early decaying leaves of Spartina spp. from central California estuaries.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Justine I; Alber, Merryl; Hollibaugh, James T

    2010-02-01

    Ascomycetous fungi play an important role in the early stages of decomposition of Spartina alterniflora, but their role in the decomposition of other Spartina species has not been investigated. Here we use fingerprint (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and phylogenetic analyses of the 18S to 28S internal transcribed spacer region to compare the composition of the ascomycete fungal communities on early decay blades of Spartina species (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina foliosa, and a hybrid (S. alterniflora x S. foliosa)) collected from three salt marshes in San Francisco Bay and one in Tomales Bay, California, USA. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola was found on all samples collected and was often dominant. Two other ascomycetes, Phaeosphaeria halima and Mycosphaerella sp. strain 2, were also common. These three species are the same ascomycetes previously identified as the dominant fungal decomposers on S. alterniflora on the east coast. Ascomycetes appeared to exhibit varying degrees of host specificity, demonstrated by grouping patterns on phylogenetic trees. Neither the exotic S. alterniflora nor the hybrid supported fungal flora different from that of the native S. foliosa. However, S. densiflora had a significantly different fungal community than the other species, and hosted at least two unique ascomycetes. Significant differences in the fungal decomposer communities were also detected within species (two clones of S. foliosa), but these were minor and may be due to morphological differences among the plants. PMID:19777266

  11. Alternaria alternata TCTP, a novel cross-reactive ascomycete allergen.

    PubMed

    Rid, Raphaela; Onder, Kamil; MacDonald, Susan; Lang, Roland; Hawranek, Thomas; Ebner, Christof; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Simon-Nobbe, Birgit; Breitenbach, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Defining more comprehensively the allergen repertoire of the ascomycete Alternaria alternata is undoubtedly of immense medical significance since this mold represents one of the most important, worldwide occurring fungal species responsible for IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions ranging from rhinitis and ocular symptoms to severe involvement of the lower respiratory tract including asthma with its life-threatening complications. Performing a hybridization screening of an excised A. alternata cDNA library with a radioactively labeled Cladosporium herbarum TCTP probe, we were able to identify, clone and purify the respective A. alternata homologue of TCTP which again represents a multifunctional protein that has been evolutionarily conserved from unicellular eukaryotes like yeasts to humans and appears, summarizing current literature, to be involved in housekeeping processes such as cell growth as well as cell-cycle progression, the protection of cells against various stress conditions including for instance apoptosis, and in higher organisms even in the allergic response. In this context, our present study characterizes recombinant A. alternata TCTP as a novel minor allergen candidate that displays a prevalence of IgE reactivity of approximately 4% and interestingly shares common, cross-reactive IgE epitopes with its C. herbarum and human counterparts as determined via Western blotting and in vitro inhibition approaches. PMID:19683813

  12. Catabolism of benzene compounds by ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts and yeastlike fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter J. Middelhoven; Hesselink van Suchtelenweg

    1993-01-01

    A literature review is given on growth of yeasts on benzene compounds and on the catabolic pathways involved. Additionally, a yeast collection was screened for assimilation of phenol and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid. Fifteen ascomycetous and thirteen basidiomycetous yeast species were selected and were tested for growth on 84 benzene compounds. It appeared that 63 of these compounds supported growth of one

  13. Phylogeny of the ascomycetous yeasts and the renaming of Pichia anomala to Wickerhamomyces anomalus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pichia anomala was reclassified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus following multigene phylogenetic analysis. In this review, the phylogeny of the ascomycetous yeasts is discussed, with emphasis on the genus Pichia. The genus, as defined from phenotype, had nearly 100 assigned species, but the number of ...

  14. Chemical variation within and between individuals of the lichenized ascomycete Tephromela atra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonja Hesbacher; Lars Fröberg; Anette Baur; Bruno Baur; Peter Proksch

    1996-01-01

    HPLC-analysis was used to determine the concentrations of the lichen compounds alectoronic acid (depsidon), ?-collatolic acid (depsidon) and atranorin (depsid) in the lichenized ascomycete Tephromela atra (syn. Lecanon atra) (Hudson) Hafeliner from limestone walls on the Baltic island of Öland, Sweden. In 24 individuals of T. atra sampled on a stone wall, the pre-reproductive and reproductive tissue did not differ

  15. Soil Ecology of the Entomopathogenic Ascomycetes: A Critical Examination of What We (Think) We Know

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides an in-depth review of what is and is not known about the soil ecology of the entomopathogenic Ascomycetes, particularly the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi in soil is subject to a matrix of interlocking abiotic and bi...

  16. Mate-recognition and species boundaries in the ascomycetes Simon H. Martin & Emma T. Steenkamp &

    E-print Network

    ). This fact complicated taxonomy and species recognition until molecular methods were introduced (TaylorREVIEW Mate-recognition and species boundaries in the ascomycetes Simon H. Martin & Emma T adequately explored in the Ascomycota, the most species-rich fungal phylum. The mechanisms of mate

  17. Expression of the red fluorescent protein DsRed-Express in filamentous ascomycete fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisbeth Mikkelsen; Sabrina Sarrocco; Mette Lübeck; Dan Funck Jensen

    2003-01-01

    The recently reported red fluorescent protein DsRed from the reef coral Discosoma sp. represents a new marker that has been codon-optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. To facilitate expression of DsRed in ascomycete fungi, we used the clone pDsRed-Express (Clontech) for constructing a plasmid vector, pPgpd-DsRed, containing the constitutive Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (gpd) promoter. This vector was used

  18. Perithecial ascomycetes from the 400 million year old Rhynie chert: an example of ancestral polymorphism

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Thomas N.; Hass, H.; Kerp, H.; Krings, Michael; Hanlin, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    269 Mycologia, 97(1), 2005, pp. 269–285. q 2005 by The Mycological Society of America, Lawrence, KS 66044-8897 Perithecial ascomycetes from the 400 million year old Rhynie chert: an example of ancestral polymorphism Editor’s note: Unfortunately... features that have been used to relate modern taxa, but which are not present in the fossil, or are impossible to resolve, in- clude color of the perithecia, presence or absence of amyloid apical ring on the ascus, ascospore color and a variety...

  19. A MADS Box Protein Interacts with a Mating-Type Protein and Is Required for Fruiting Body Development in the Homothallic Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Nolting; Stefanie Poggeler

    2006-01-01

    MADS box transcription factors control diverse developmental processes in plants, metazoans, and fungi. To analyze the involvement of MADS box proteins in fruiting body development of filamentous ascomycetes, we isolated the mcm1 gene from the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, which encodes a putative homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MADS box protein Mcm1p. Deletion of the S. macrospora mcm1 gene resulted

  20. SHARED ITS DNA SUBSTITUTIONS IN ISOLATES OF OPPOSITE MATING TYPE REVEAL A RECOMBIING HISTORY FOR THREE PRESUMED ASEXUAL SPECIES IN THE FILAMENTOUS ASCOMYCETE GENUS ALTERNARIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 15,000 species of ascomycete fungi lack a known sexual state. For fungi with asexual states in the form genera Embellisia, Ulocladium and Alternaria, six species have known sexual states but more than 50 species do not. In sexual filamentous ascomycetes, opposite mating type information at t...

  1. Explosively launched spores of ascomycete fungi have drag-minimizing shapes

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Marcus; Pepper, Rachel E.; Brenner, Michael P.; Pringle, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The forcibly launched spores of ascomycete fungi must eject through several millimeters of nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies to reach dispersive air flows. Because of their microscopic size, spores experience great fluid drag, and although this drag can aid transport by slowing sedimentation out of dispersive air flows, it also causes spores to decelerate rapidly after launch. We hypothesize that spores are shaped to maximize their range in the nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies. To test this hypothesis we numerically calculate optimal spore shapes—shapes of minimum drag for prescribed volumes—and compare these shapes with real spore shapes taken from a phylogeny of >100 species. Our analysis shows that spores are constrained to remain within 1% of the minimum possible drag for their size. From the spore shapes we predict the speed of spore launch, and confirm this prediction through high-speed imaging of ejection in Neurospora tetrasperma. By reconstructing the evolutionary history of spore shapes within a single ascomycete family we measure the relative contributions of drag minimization and other shape determinants to spore shape evolution. Our study uses biomechanical optimization as an organizing principle for explaining shape in a mega-diverse group of species and provides a framework for future measurements of the forces of selection toward physical optima. PMID:19104035

  2. Candida tartarivorans sp. nov., an anamorphic ascomycetous yeast with the capacity to degrade L(+)- and meso-tartaric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fonseca; Fell J. W; C. P. Kurtzman; Isabel Spencer-Martins

    2000-01-01

    An undescribed anamorphic yeast species of ascomycetous affinity, for which the name Candida tartarivorans is proposed, was isolated from dried wine lees in Portugal using a selective medium with L(M)-tartaric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy. The single isolate (IGC 4854T) showed the following characteristics : sympodial holoblastic conidiogenesis, absence of asci with ascospores, a negative colour

  3. LIGNOCELLULOSE-DEGRADING ENZYMES PRODUCED BY THE ASCOMYCETE CONIOCHAETA LIGNIARIA AND RELATED SPECIES: APPLICATION FOR A LIGNOCELLULOSIC SUBSTRATE TREATMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms are of interest for biomass upgrading. In previous work, we isolated the ascomycete Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL 30616 that metabolized phenolics and furans in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. This fungal isolate was investigated in the present work for the ...

  4. Lignocellulose-degrading enzymes produced by the ascomycete Coniochaeta ligniaria and related species: Application for a lignocellulosic substrate treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J. Lopez; Maria del Carmen Vargas-García; Francisca Suárez-Estrella; Nancy N. Nichols; Bruce S. Dien; Joaquin Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms are of interest for biomass upgrading. In a previous work, we isolated the ascomycete Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL 30616 that metabolized phenolics and furans in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. This fungal isolate was investigated in the present work for the ability to produce lignocellulose-degrading enzymes during batch cultivation using different substrates as carbon source. This microorganism produced cellulase, xylanase and

  5. Identification and phylogeny of ascomycetous yeasts from analysis of nuclear large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA partial sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cletus P. Kurtzman; Christie J. Robnett

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 500 species of ascomycetous yeasts, including members of Candida and other anamorphic genera, were analyzed for extent of divergence in the variable D1\\/D2 domain of large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA. Divergence in this domain is generally sufficient to resolve individual species, resulting in the prediction that 55 currently recognized taxa are synonyms of earlier described species. Phylogenetic relationships among

  6. Xylochrysis lucida gen. et sp. nov., a new lignicolous ascomycete (Sordariomycetidae) with holoblastic conidiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Réblová, Martina; St?pánek, Václav; Schumacher, René K

    2014-01-01

    The monotypic genus Xylochrysis is introduced for a lignicolous perithecial ascomycete that possesses golden yellow ascomata with black glabrous necks, a three-layered ascomatal wall, persistent paraphyses, and cylindrical, long-stipitate unitunicate asci with an inamyloid apical annulus, and hyaline, ellipsoidal, unicellular ascospores. In culture it produces hyaline conidiophores with terminally arranged branches bearing metulae, conidiogenous cells and holoblastic conidia. Phylogenetic analysis of two ribosomal (nc18S and nc28S rDNA) and one protein-coding (RPB2) gene position this species within the Sordariomycetidae but without close ordinal or familial affiliation. Morphological and molecular DNA data support the recognition of this new genus and suggest that Xylochrysis is most closely related to the genera Ceratolenta, Cyanoannulus and Woswasia. PMID:24871596

  7. The evolutionary history of Cytochrome P450 genes in four filamentous Ascomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jixin; Carbone, Ignazio; Dean, Ralph A

    2007-01-01

    Background The Cytochrome P450 system is important in fungal evolution for adapting to novel ecological niches. To elucidate the evolutionary process of cytochrome P450 genes in fungi with different life styles, we studied the patterns of gene gains and losses in the genomes of four filamentous Ascomycetes, including two saprotrophs (Aspergillus nidulans (AN) and Neurospora crassa (NC)) and two plant pathogens (Fusarium graminearum (FG) and Magnaporthe grisea (MG)). Results A total of 376 P450 genes were assigned to 168 families according to standard nomenclature. On average, only 1 to 2 genes per family were in each genome. To resolve conflicting results between different clustering analyses and standard family designation, a higher order relationship was formulated. 376 genes were clustered into 115 clans. Subsequently a novel approach based on parsimony was developed to build the evolutionary models. Based on these analyses, a core of 30 distinct clans of P450s was defined. The core clans experienced contraction in all four fungal lineages while new clans expanded in all with exception of NC. MG experienced more genes and clans gains compared to the other fungi. Parsimonious analyses unanimously supported one species topology for the four fungi. Conclusion The four studied fungi exhibit unprecedented diversity in their P450omes in terms of coding sequence, intron-exon structures and genome locations, suggesting a complicated evolutionary history of P450s in filamentous Ascomycetes. Clan classification and a novel strategy were developed to study evolutionary history. Contraction of core clans and expansion of novel clans were identified. The exception was the NC lineage, which exhibited pure P450 gene loss. PMID:17324274

  8. Molecular organization of the mating-type loci in the homothallic Ascomycete Eupenicillium crustaceum.

    PubMed

    Pöggeler, Stefanie; O'Gorman, Céline M; Hoff, Birgit; Kück, Ulrich

    2011-07-01

    Eupenicillium species are the teleomorphic (sexual) forms of anamorphic (asexual) members of the genus Penicillium, which contains many species of industrial importance. Here we describe the first molecular analysis of the mating-type (MAT) locus from a homothallic (self-fertile) Eupenicillium species, E. crustaceum. This ascomycete is a sexual relative of the penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum, which while long considered asexual, was recently shown to possess the required genetic machinery for heterothallic breeding. The E. crustaceum genome contains two MAT loci, MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, in an arrangement characteristic of other known homothallic euascomycetes, such as Neosartorya fischeri. MAT1-1 is flanked by conserved APN2 (DNA lyase) and SLA2 (cytoskeleton assembly control) genes and encodes a homologue of the ?-box domain protein MAT1-1-1. Conversely, MAT1-2 carries a HMG-domain gene MAT1-2-1, and is flanked by a degenerate SLA2 gene and an intact homologue of the P. chrysogenum ORF Pc20g08960. Here we demonstrate the transcriptional expression of both mating-type genes during vegetative development. Furthermore, the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 sequences were used to resolve the phylogenetic relationship of E. crustaceum with other ascomycetes. Phylogenetic trees confirmed a very close relationship between the homothallic E. crustaceum and the supposedly heterothallic P. chrysogenum. This close taxonomic association makes E. crustaceum an ideal candidate for future expression and evolutionary studies of sexual reproduction, with the ultimate aim of inducing sex in P. chrysogenum. PMID:21724167

  9. Phylogenetic Origins of the Asexual Mycorrhizal Symbiont Cenococcum geophilumFr. and Other Mycorrhizal Fungi among the Ascomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine F. LoBuglio; Mary L. Berbee; John W. Taylor

    1996-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship of the asexual mycorrhizal fungusCenococcum geophilumFr. among sexual ascomycetes was examined by phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence data from the nuclear small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA genic region. A specific focus of this study was to test the hypothesis that the genusElaphomycesis the closest sexual relative ofC. geophilum.Thus nucleotide sequence data of fiveC. geophilumisolates, threeElaphomycesspecies, and 44

  10. Small insertions at a shared position in the SSU rDNA of Lecanorales (lichen-forming Ascomycetes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soili Stenroos; Paula T. DePriest

    1998-01-01

    Small insertions are reported from the SSU rDNA of the genera Cladonia, Cladina, Stereocaulon, Pertusaria and Physcia (lichen-forming Lecanorales, Ascomycetes). The insertions range in length from 56 to 81 nucleotides, and occur at a shared\\u000a position, 330 (relative to Escherichia coli), in a semi-conserved region of the SSU rDNA. These small insertions have a simple secondary structure with two stem-loops,

  11. Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Tatiana A; Morgado, Luis N; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra regions have been responding to global warming with visible changes in plant community composition, including expansion of shrubs and declines in lichens and bryophytes. Even though it is well known that the majority of arctic plants are associated with their symbiotic fungi, how fungal community composition will be different with climate warming remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the effects of long-term (18 years) experimental warming on the community composition and taxonomic richness of soil ascomycetes in dry and moist tundra types. Using deep Ion Torrent sequencing, we quantified how OTU assemblage and richness of different orders of Ascomycota changed in response to summer warming. Experimental warming significantly altered ascomycete communities with stronger responses observed in the moist tundra compared with dry tundra. The proportion of several lichenized and moss-associated fungi decreased with warming, while the proportion of several plant and insect pathogens and saprotrophic species was higher in the warming treatment. The observed alterations in both taxonomic and ecological groups of ascomycetes are discussed in relation to previously reported warming-induced shifts in arctic plant communities, including decline in lichens and bryophytes and increase in coverage and biomass of shrubs. PMID:25522194

  12. Mn(II) Oxidation by an Ascomycete Fungus is Linked to Superoxide Production During Asexual Reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hansel, Colleen M.; Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.

    2012-07-16

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-speci?c chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete ?lamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identi?cation of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  13. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Colleen M.; Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems. PMID:22802654

  14. Comparative xylose metabolism among the Ascomycetes C. albicans, S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Harcus, Doreen; Dignard, Daniel; Lépine, Guylaine; Askew, Chris; Raymond, Martine; Whiteway, Malcolm; Wu, Cunle

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycetes Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis metabolize the pentose sugar xylose very differently. S. cerevisiae fails to grow on xylose, while C. albicans can grow, and S. stipitis can both grow and ferment xylose to ethanol. However, all three species contain highly similar genes that encode potential xylose reductases and xylitol dehydrogenases required to convert xylose to xylulose, and xylulose supports the growth of all three fungi. We have created C. albicans strains deleted for the xylose reductase gene GRE3, the xylitol dehydrogenase gene XYL2, as well as the gre3 xyl2 double mutant. As expected, all the mutant strains cannot grow on xylose, while the single gre3 mutant can grow on xylitol. The gre3 and xyl2 mutants are efficiently complemented by the XYL1 and XYL2 from S. stipitis. Intriguingly, the S. cerevisiae GRE3 gene can complement the Cagre3 mutant, while the ScSOR1 gene can complement the Caxyl2 mutant, showing that S. cerevisiae contains the enzymatic capacity for converting xylose to xylulose. In addition, the gre3 xyl2 double mutant of C. albicans is effectively rescued by the xylose isomerase (XI) gene of either Piromyces or Orpinomyces, suggesting that the XI provides an alternative to the missing oxido-reductase functions in the mutant required for the xylose-xylulose conversion. Overall this work suggests that C. albicans strains engineered to lack essential steps for xylose metabolism can provide a platform for the analysis of xylose metabolism enzymes from a variety of species, and confirms that S. cerevisiae has the genetic potential to convert xylose to xylulose, although non-engineered strains cannot proliferate on xylose as the sole carbon source. PMID:24236198

  15. Ascomycete derivative to MS therapeutic: S1P receptor modulator FTY720.

    PubMed

    Hiestand, Peter C; Rausch, Martin; Meier, Daniela Piani; Foster, Carolyn A

    2008-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720) represents the first in a new class of immune-modulators whose target is sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors. It was first identified by researchers at Kyoto University and Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical as a chemical derivative of the ascomycete metabolite ISP-1 (myriocin). Unlike its natural product parent, FTY720 does not interfere with sphingolipid biosynthesis. Instead, its best characterized mechanism of action upon in vivo phosphorylation, leading to the active principle FTY720-P, is the rapid and reversible inhibition of lymphocyte egress from peripheral lymph nodes. As a consequence of S1P1 receptor internalization, tissue-damaging T-cells can not recirculate and infiltrate sites of inflammation such as the central nervous system (CNS). Furthermore, FTY720-P modulation of S1P receptor signaling also enhances endothelial barrier function. Due to its mode of action, FTY720 effectively prevents transplant rejection and is active in various autoimmune disease models. The most striking efficacy is in the multiple sclerosis (MS) model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which has now been confirmed in the clinic. FTY720 demonstrated promising results in Phase II trials and recently entered Phase III in patients with relapsing MS. Emerging evidence suggests that its efficacy in the CNS extends beyond immunomodulation to encompass other aspects of MS pathophysiology, including an influence on the blood-brain-barrier and glial repair mechanisms that could ultimately contribute to restoration of nerve function. FTY720 may represent a potent new therapeutic modality in MS, combined with the benefit of oral administration. PMID:18416311

  16. Candida tartarivorans sp. nov., an anamorphic ascomycetous yeast with the capacity to degrade L(+)- and meso-tartaric acid.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A; Fell, J W; Kurtzman, C P; Spencer-Martins, I

    2000-01-01

    An undescribed anamorphic yeast species of ascomycetous affinity, for which the name Candida tartarivorans is proposed, was isolated from dried wine lees in Portugal using a selective medium with L(+)-tartaric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy. The single isolate (IGC 4854T) showed the following characteristics: sympodial holoblastic conidiogenesis, absence of asci with ascospores, a negative colour reaction with Diazonium Blue B, production of elaborate pseudomycelium and ability to grow with inositol as sole source of carbon. Analysis of the physiological data pointed to a close relationship with other inositol-assimilating taxa, namely the genera Arxula, Stephanoascus, Sympodiomyces, Zygoascus and selected Candida species. Comparative analysis of the D1/D2 variable domain of the 26S rRNA gene of all available sequences for ascomycetous yeasts showed that strain IGC 4854T did not match with any other species in the database. The closest relative was Candida auringiensis Santa Maria, but the two species differed in 24 nucleotide positions. A description of the new species is given. PMID:10826827

  17. Calnexin Induces Expansion of Antigen-Specific CD4(+) T Cells that Confer Immunity to Fungal Ascomycetes via Conserved Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Sullivan, Thomas D; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A; Jenkins, Marc K; Klein, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad-spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4(+) T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae, and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes, including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats, induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4(+) T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogenicity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  18. RAPID IDENTFICATION OF ASCOMYCETOUS YEASTS FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS BY A MOLECULAR-BASED FLOW CYTOMETRY METHOD AND COMPARISION WITH IDENTIFICATIONS FROM PHENOTYPIC ASSAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to compare the identification of ascomycetous yeasts recovered from clinical specimens by using phenotypic assays (PA) and a molecular flow cytometric (FC) method. LSU rRNA D1/D2 gene sequence analysis was also performed and served as the reference for correct strain identif...

  19. Simulated aerial sprays for field cage evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycetes: Hypocreales) against Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field efficacy of the entomopathogenic Ascomycete Beauveria bassiana strain GHA and Metarhizium brunneum strain F52 was evaluated against nymphs of the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex. Fungi were applied with a new apparatus that allows simulated aerial sprays to 0.1m2 areas in the field. The Mormon...

  20. In Vitro Testing of Susceptibilities of Filamentous Ascomycetes to Voriconazole, Itraconazole, and Amphotericin B, with Consideration of Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Michael R.; Pasarell, Lester

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of three hundred eighty-one isolates representing two classes, five orders, nine families, 30 genera, and 51 species of ascomycetous fungi to voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were tested by using a modification of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-A reference method. For those fungi of known phylogenetic relatedness, drug MICs were consistently low for isolates among all clades, except for members of the family Microascaceae. The highest MICs of all drugs tested were consistently for the Microascaceae, supporting the observation of fungal phylogeny and corresponding susceptibility to antifungal drugs. Itraconazole and voriconazole have a broad range of activity against phylogenetically similar agents of hyalohyphomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma. PMID:9666022

  1. Degradation of some phenols and hydroxybenzoates by the imperfect ascomycetous yeasts Candida parapsilosis and Arxula adeninivorans : evidence for an operative gentisate pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter J. Middelhoven; Alex Coenen; Bart Kraakman; Maarten D. Sollewijn Gelpke

    1992-01-01

    The imperfect ascomycetous yeastsCandida parapsilosis andArxula adeninivorans degraded 3-hydroxybenzoic acid via gentisate which was the cleavage substrate. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid was metabolized via protocatechuate. No cleavage enzyme for the latter was detected. In stead of this NADH- and NADPH-dependent monooxygenases were present. In cells grown at the expense of hydroquinone and 4-hydroxygenzoic acid, enzymes of the hydroxyhydroquinone variant of the 3-oxoadipate

  2. Mineralization of 14 C-labelled synthetic lignin and extracellular enzyme activities of the wood-colonizing ascomycetes Xylaria hypoxylon and Xylaria polymorpha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Liers; R. Ullrich; K. T. Steffen; A. Hatakka; M. Hofrichter

    2006-01-01

    Two wood-dwelling ascomycetes, Xylaria hypoxylon and Xylaria polymorpha, were isolated from rotting beech wood. Lignin degradation was studied following the mineralization of a synthetic $${}^{{14}}{\\\\text{C}}_{{\\\\text{ $ \\\\beta $ }}} $$-labelled lignin in solid and liquid media. Approximately 9% of the synthetic lignin was mineralized by X. polymorpha during the growth on beech wood meal, and the major fraction (65.5%) was

  3. Nutritional physiology of a rock-inhabiting, model microcolonial fungus from an ancestral lineage of the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Nai, Corrado; Wong, Helen Y; Pannenbecker, Annette; Broughton, William J; Benoit, Isabelle; de Vries, Ronald P; Gueidan, Cécile; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-07-01

    Rock-inhabiting black fungi [also microcolonial or meristematic fungi (MCF)] are a phylogenetically diverse group of melanised ascomycetes with distinctive morphological features that confer extensive stress tolerance and permit survival in hostile environments. The MCF strain A95 Knufia petricola (syn. Sarcinomyces petricola) belongs to an ancestral lineage of the order Chaetothyriales (class Eurotiomycetes). K. petricola strain A95 is a rock-inhabiting MCF and its growth requirements were studied using the 96-well plate-based Biolog System under ?1070 different conditions (osmotic stress, pH growth optima, growth factor requirements and nutrient catabolism). A95 is an osmotolerant, oligotrophic MCF that grows best around pH 5. Remarkably, A95 shows metabolic activity in the absence of added nitrogen, phosphorus or sulphur. Correlations could be drawn between the known nutrient requirements of A95 and what probably is available in sub-aerial systems (rock and other material surfaces). Detailed knowledge of A95's metabolic requirements allowed formulation of a synthetic medium that supports strong fungal growth. PMID:23587800

  4. Homologous Recombination as the Main Mechanism for DNA Integration and Cause of Rearrangements in the Filamentous Ascomycete Ashbya Gossypii

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, S.; Wendland, J.; Wright, M. C.; Philippsen, P.

    1995-01-01

    A slow and a fast growth phenotype were observed after transformation of the phytopathogenic fungus Ashbya gossypii using a plasmid carrying homologous DNA and as selectable marker the Tn903 aminoglycoside resistance gene expressed from a strong A. gossypii promoter. Transformations with circular plasmids yielded slowly and irregularly growing geneticin-resistant mycelia in which 1% of nuclei contained plasmid sequences. Occasionally, fast growing sectors appeared which were shown to be initiated by homologous integration of the transforming DNA. Transformants obtained with plasmids linearized within the homology region immediately exhibited fast radial growth. In all 28 transformants analyzed plasmid DNA was integrated homologously. Such apparent lack of nonhomologous recombination has so far not been observed in filamentous ascomycetes. In 14 transformants two to four tandemly integrated plasmid copies were found. They underwent several types of genetic changes, mainly in the older mycelium: excision of whole plasmid copies and rearrangements within the integrated DNA (inversions and deletions). These internal rearrangements involved 360-bp inverted repeats, remnants of IS-elements flanking the resistance gene, and 156-bp direct repeats, originating from the strong A. gossypii promoter. Improved vectors lacking sequence repetitions were constructed and used for stable one-step gene replacement in A. gossypii. PMID:7672596

  5. Selection of native isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) for the microbial control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Posadas, Julieta B; Lecuona, Roberto E

    2009-03-01

    Previously undiscovered isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) able to control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae) were obtained for the first time in Argentina. The isolates were selected from three sources: 1) soil samples from the provinces of Corrientes, Formosa, and Chaco, where ticks are endemic; 2) dead female ticks; and 3) the fungal collection from the Entomopathogenic Fungi Laboratory of IMYZA-INTA Castelar. To select the isolates, population parameters were estimated, LC50 values of the most virulent isolates were calculated, and fungi-acaricides compatibility assays carried out. Isolates B. bassiana 259 and 98 were the most virulent and effective to reduce the number of eggs, the percentage of larval hatching, and parameters rm (natural intrinsic growth rate) and lambda (infinite growth rate) of Rh. (Bo.) microplus populations. The values of LC50 were 1 x 10(7) and 1.15 x 10(7), respectively, when applied to Rh. (Bo.) microplus eggs. In addition, they were compatible with acaricides. A novel methodology to evaluate the entomopathogenic activity of fungi on Rh. (Bo.) microplus ticks is introduced. PMID:19351079

  6. High-Coverage ITS Primers for the DNA-Based Identification of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom Fungi is estimated to include 1.5 million or more species, playing key roles as decomposers, mutualists, and parasites in every biome on the earth. To comprehensively understand the diversity and ecology of this huge kingdom, DNA barcoding targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat has been regarded as a prerequisite procedure. By extensively surveying ITS sequences in public databases, we designed new ITS primers with improved coverage across diverse taxonomic groups of fungi compared to existing primers. An in silico analysis based on public sequence databases indicated that the newly designed primers matched 99% of ascomycete and basidiomycete ITS taxa (species, subspecies or varieties), causing little taxonomic bias toward either fungal group. Two of the newly designed primers could inhibit the amplification of plant sequences and would enable the selective investigation of fungal communities in mycorrhizal associations, soil, and other types of environmental samples. Optimal PCR conditions for the primers were explored in an in vitro investigation. The new primers developed in this study will provide a basis for ecological studies on the diversity and community structures of fungi in the era of massive DNA sequencing. PMID:22808280

  7. Primer Sets Developed To Amplify Conserved Genes from Filamentous Ascomycetes Are Useful in Differentiating Fusarium Species Associated with Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, G. C.; Ball, L. A.; Axelrood, P. E.; Glass, N. L.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the usefulness of primer sets designed to amplify introns within conserved genes in filamentous ascomycetes to differentiate 35 isolates representing six different species of Fusarium commonly found in association with conifer seedlings. We analyzed restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in five amplified PCR products from each Fusarium isolate. The primers used in this study were constructed on the basis of sequence information from the H3, H4, and (beta)-tubulin genes in Neurospora crassa. Primers previously developed for the intergenic transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA were also used. The degree of interspecific polymorphism observed in the PCR products from the six Fusarium species allowed differentiation by a limited number of amplifications and restriction endonuclease digestions. The level of intraspecific RFLP variation in the five PCR products was low in both Fusarium proliferatum and F. avenaceum but was high in a population sample of F. oxysporum isolates. Clustering of the 35 isolates by statistical analyses gave similar dendrograms for H3, H4, and (beta)-tubulin RFLP analysis, but a dendrogram produced by intergenic transcribed spacer analysis varied in the placement of some F. oxysporum isolates. PMID:16534991

  8. Investigation of the pH-dependent electron transfer mechanism of ascomycetous class II cellobiose dehydrogenases on electrodes.

    PubMed

    Harreither, Wolfgang; Nicholls, Peter; Sygmund, Christoph; Gorton, Lo; Ludwig, Roland

    2012-04-24

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is capable of direct electron transfer (DET) on various carbon and thiol-modified gold electrodes. As a result, these systems have been utilized as biocatalyst in biosensors and biofuel cell anodes. Class I CDHs, from basidiomycetous fungi, are highly specific to cellulose or lactose, and DET is only observed at pH values below 5.5. To extend the applicability of CDH-based electrodes, the catalytic properties and the behavior on electrode surfaces of ascomycetous class II CDHs from Chaetomium attrobrunneum, Corynascus thermophilus, Dichomera saubinetii, Hypoxylon haematostroma, Neurospora crassa, and Stachybotrys bisbyi were investigated. We found that class II CDHs have diverse properties but generally show a lower substrate specificity than class I CDHs by converting also glucose and maltose. Intramolecular electron transfer (IET) and DET at neutral and alkaline pH were observed and elucidated by steady-state kinetics, pre-steady-state kinetics, and electrochemical measurements. The CDHs ability to interact with the electron acceptor cytochrome c and to communicate with electrode surfaces through DET at various pH conditions was used to classify the investigated enzymes. In combination with stopped-flow measurements, a model for the kinetics of the pH-dependent IET is developed. The efficient glucose turnover at neutral/alkaline pH makes some of these new CDHs potential candidates for glucose biosensors and biofuel cell anodes. PMID:22471986

  9. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Osipov, Evgeny; Polyakov, Konstantin; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir

    2014-11-01

    Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7?Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E0 = 720 and 580?mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme. PMID:25372682

  10. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties

    PubMed Central

    Osipov, Evgeny; Polyakov, Konstantin; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7?Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E 0 = 720 and 580?mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme. PMID:25372682

  11. Contrasting Diversity and Host Association of Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes versus Root-Associated Ascomycetes in a Dipterocarp Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity. PMID:25884708

  12. Species-specific detection of Lobaria pulmonaria (lichenized ascomycete) diaspores in litter samples trapped in snow cover.

    PubMed

    Walser, J C; Zoller, S; Büchler, U; Scheidegger, C

    2001-09-01

    The foliose lichen Lobaria pulmonaria has suffered a substantial decline in central and northern Europe during the twentieth century and is now considered to be critically endangered in many European lowland regions. Based on demographic studies, it has been proposed that under the present environmental conditions and forest management regimes, dispersal of diaspores and subsequent establishment of new thalli are insufficient to maintain the remnant small lowland populations. Chances of long-term survival may therefore be reduced. The data and analytical power of these demographic studies are limited. Since lichen diaspores show very few species-specific morphological characteristics, and are therefore almost indistinguishable, the accurate assessment of diaspore flux would be a fundamental first step in better understanding the life cycle of L. pulmonaria. Here we present a new molecular approach to investigate the dispersal of L. pulmonaria diaspores in its natural environment by specifically identifying small amounts of DNA in snow litter samples at varying distances from known sources. We used a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pair to amplify the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA) and a sensitive automated PCR product detection system using fluorescent labelled primers. We detected considerable amounts of naturally dispersed diaspores, deposited as far as 50 m away from the closest potential source. Diaspores were only found in the direction of the prevailing wind. Diaspore deposition varied from 1.2 diaspores per m(2) per day at 50 m distance from the source to 15 diaspores per m(2) per day at 1 m distance. The method described in this paper opens up perspectives for studies of population dynamics and dispersal ecology mainly in lichenized ascomycetes but also in other organisms with small, wind-dispersed diaspores. PMID:11555256

  13. Degradation of some phenols and hydroxybenzoates by the imperfect ascomycetous yeasts Candida parapsilosis and Arxula adeninivorans: evidence for an operative gentisate pathway.

    PubMed

    Middelhoven, W J; Coenen, A; Kraakman, B; Sollewijn Gelpke, M D

    1992-10-01

    The imperfect ascomycetous yeasts Candida parapsilosis and Arxula adeninivorans degraded 3-hydroxybenzoic acid via gentisate which was the cleavage substrate. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid was metabolized via protocatechuate. No cleavage enzyme for the latter was detected. In stead of this NADH- and NADPH-dependent monooxygenases were present. In cells grown at the expense of hydroquinone and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, enzymes of the hydroxyhydroquinone variant of the 3-oxoadipate pathway were demonstrated, which also took part in the degradation of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid by C. parapsilosis. PMID:1416914

  14. Purifying Selection and Birth-and-Death Evolution in the Class II Hydrophobin Gene Families of the Ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea

    SciTech Connect

    kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.; Gamauf, Christian; Kenerley, Chuck; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-10

    Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi, where their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air and during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or of themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and their solubility characteristics, they are classified in class I and class II hydrophobins, the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Here we have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three fully sequenced genomes (H. jecorina=T. reesei, H. atroviridis=T. atroviride; H. virens=T. virens) and a total of 14.000 ESTs of six others (T. asperellum, H. lixii=T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, which is the highest number found in any other ascomycete so far. They all showed the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these HFBs contained an extended N-terminus rich in either praline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades contain duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (2-4) from each species, and most of them were from Pyrenomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of other pyrenomycetes occured in shared clades. Our study shows that the genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea has a proliferated arsenal of class II hydrophobins which arose by purifying selection and birth-and-death evolution.

  15. A Fox2-Dependent Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation Pathway Coexists Both in Peroxisomes and Mitochondria of the Ascomycete Yeast Candida lusitaniae

    PubMed Central

    Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Salin, Bénédicte; Lucas-Guérin, Marine; Manon, Stephen; Dementhon, Karine; Noël, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    It is generally admitted that the ascomycete yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina possess a single fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway located exclusively in peroxisomes, and that they lost mitochondrial ß-oxidation early during evolution. In this work, we showed that mutants of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida lusitaniae which lack the multifunctional enzyme Fox2p, a key enzyme of the ß-oxidation pathway, were still able to grow on fatty acids as the sole carbon source, suggesting that C. lusitaniae harbored an alternative pathway for fatty acid catabolism. By assaying 14C?-palmitoyl-CoA consumption, we demonstrated that fatty acid catabolism takes place in both peroxisomal and mitochondrial subcellular fractions. We then observed that a fox2? null mutant was unable to catabolize fatty acids in the mitochondrial fraction, thus indicating that the mitochondrial pathway was Fox2p-dependent. This finding was confirmed by the immunodetection of Fox2p in protein extracts obtained from purified peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Finally, immunoelectron microscopy provided evidence that Fox2p was localized in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. This work constitutes the first demonstration of the existence of a Fox2p-dependent mitochondrial ?-oxidation pathway in an ascomycetous yeast, C. lusitaniae. It also points to the existence of an alternative fatty acid catabolism pathway, probably located in peroxisomes, and functioning in a Fox2p-independent manner. PMID:25486052

  16. Characterization of mycobionts of photomorph pairs in the peltigerineae (lichenized ascomycetes) based on internal transcribed spacer sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Goffinet, B; Bayer, R J

    1997-04-01

    The "one fungus-two photomorphs" hypothesis suggests that certain lichenized fungi can establish a symbiotic relationship with either a eukaryotic or a prokaryotic photobiont. Such pairs of photomorphs are well know from cephalodiate Peltigerineae. Using an ascomycete-specific primer we amplified the internal transcribed spacer region of the nrDNA repeat of the mycobiont from total "lichen DNA" extracts of Peltigera malacea, photomorphs of P. aphthosa, P. britannica, and P. leucophlebia, Nephroma expallidum, and photomorphs of N. arcticum. Comparisons of 5.8S sequences suggest that the sequences obtained belong to the mycobiont and thus, that the ascomycete-specific primer is adequate for amplifying fungal DNA from total lichen-DNA extracts. The strict identity of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nrDNA repeat between joined-photomorphs supports the one fungus-two photomorphs hypothesis. Photomorph may thus primarily reflect phenotypic plasticity of photomorphic fungi in response to changing environmental conditions. The cyanomorph recently reported for P. leucophlebia is shown to be based on a misidentified specimen of P. aphthosa. Comparisons of the ITS sequences further supports recognizing P. aphthosa, P. britannica, and P. leucophlebia at the species rather than the infraspecific level. PMID:9228791

  17. Amyloid aggregates of the HET-s prion protein are infectious

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Lise Maddelein; Suzana Dos Reis; Stéphane Duvezin-Caubet; Bénédicte Coulary-Salin; Sven J. Saupe

    2002-01-01

    The [Het-s] infectious element of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is a prion. We have recently reported that recombinant HET-s protein aggregates in vitro into amyloid fibers. In vivo, the protein aggregates specifically in the [Het-s] prion strains. Here, we show that biolistic introduction of aggregated recombinant HET-s protein into fungal cells induces emergence of the [Het-s] prion with a

  18. Origins and Evolution of the HET-s Prion-Forming Protein: Searching for Other Amyloid-Forming Solenoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deena M. A. Gendoo; Paul M. Harrison

    2011-01-01

    The HET-s prion-forming domain from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is gaining considerable interest since it yielded the first well-defined atomic structure of a functional amyloid fibril. This structure has been identified as a left-handed beta solenoid with a triangular hydrophobic core. To delineate the origins of the HET-s prion-forming protein and to discover other amyloid-forming proteins, we searched for

  19. Cotranscriptional expression of mitochondrial genes for subunits of NADH dehydrogenase, nad5, nad4, nad2 , in Marchantia polymorpha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoko Nozato; Kenji Oda; Katsuyuki Yamato; Eiji Ohta; Miho Takemura; Kinya Akashi; Hideya Fukuzawa; Kanji Ohyama

    1993-01-01

    Three genes for the subunits of the NADH dehydrogenase (nad5, nad4, and nad2) are tandemly clustered on the liverwort mitochondrial genome. Their gene products showed high levels of amino acid sequence identity with the corresponding subunits from higher plant mitochondria (82.8–84.4%), and significant levels of identity with those from liverwort chloroplast (32.0–33.5%), Podospora anserina mitochondria (21.4–45.9%), and human mitochondria (18.4–27.9%).

  20. Characterization of Bc-hch, the Botrytis cinerea homolog of the Neurospora crassa het-c vegetative incompatibility locus, and its use as a population marker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Fournier; Caroline Levis; Dominique Fortini; Pierre Leroux; Tatiana Giraud; Yves Brygoo

    2003-01-01

    The Botrytis cinerea homolog (Bc-hch )o f Nc-het-c and Pa-hch (vegetative incompatibility loci of Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina respective- ly) was cloned and sequenced. The gene structure of Bc-hch is very close to those of Nc-het-c and Pa-hch. A PCR-RFLP approach on a 1171 bp fragment was used to screen polymorphism at this locus among 117 nat- ural isolates

  1. First Structural Insights into ?-l-Arabinofuranosidases from the Two GH62 Glycoside Hydrolase Subfamilies*

    PubMed Central

    Siguier, Béatrice; Haon, Mireille; Nahoum, Virginie; Marcellin, Marlène; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Mourey, Lionel; O'Donohue, Michael J.; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Tranier, Samuel; Dumon, Claire

    2014-01-01

    ?-l-Arabinofuranosidases are glycoside hydrolases that specifically hydrolyze non-reducing residues from arabinose-containing polysaccharides. In the case of arabinoxylans, which are the main components of hemicellulose, they are part of microbial xylanolytic systems and are necessary for complete breakdown of arabinoxylans. Glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62) is currently a small family of ?-l-arabinofuranosidases that contains only bacterial and fungal members. Little is known about the GH62 mechanism of action, because only a few members have been biochemically characterized and no three-dimensional structure is available. Here, we present the first crystal structures of two fungal GH62 ?-l-arabinofuranosidases from the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis (UmAbf62A) and ascomycete Podospora anserina (PaAbf62A). Both enzymes are able to efficiently remove the ?-l-arabinosyl substituents from arabinoxylan. The overall three-dimensional structure of UmAbf62A and PaAbf62A reveals a five-bladed ?-propeller fold that confirms their predicted classification into clan GH-F together with GH43 ?-l-arabinofuranosidases. Crystallographic structures of the complexes with arabinose and cellotriose reveal the important role of subsites +1 and +2 for sugar binding. Intriguingly, we observed that PaAbf62A was inhibited by cello-oligosaccharides and displayed binding affinity to cellulose although no activity was observed on a range of cellulosic substrates. Bioinformatic analyses showed that UmAbf62A and PaAbf62A belong to two distinct subfamilies within the GH62 family. The results presented here provide a framework to better investigate the structure-function relationships within the GH62 family. PMID:24394409

  2. Base composition and nucleosome density in exonic and intronic regions in genes of the filamentous ascomycetes Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hiromi; Katayama, Takuya; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kondo, Shinji; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    We sequenced nucleosomal DNA fragments of the filamentous ascomycetes Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae and then mapped those sequences on their genomes. We compared the GC content and nucleosome density in the exonic and intronic regions in the genes of A. nidulans and A. oryzae. Although the GC content and nucleosome density in the exonic regions tended to be higher than those in the intronic regions, the difference in the distribution of the GC content was more notable than that of the nucleosome density. Next, we compared the GC content and nucleosome density in the exonic regions of 9616 orthologous gene pairs. In both Aspergillus species, the GC content did not correlate with the nucleosome density. In addition, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (?=0.51) between the GC content of the exonic regions of the 9616 orthologous gene pairs was higher than that (?=0.31) of the nucleosome densities of A. nidulans and A. oryzae. These results strongly suggest that the GC content in the exons of the orthologous gene pairs has been conserved during evolution but the nucleosome density has varied throughout. PMID:23664982

  3. Crystal structure of the GalNAc/Gal-specific agglutinin from the phytopathogenic ascomycete Sclerotinia sclerotiorum reveals novel adaptation of a ?-trefoil domain

    PubMed Central

    Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Roig-Zamboni, Véronique; Peumans, Willy J.; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J.M.; Bourne, Yves

    2010-01-01

    A lectin from the phytopathogenic ascomycete Sclerotina sclerotiorum that shares only weak sequence similarity with characterized fungal lectins has recently been identified. Sclerotina sclerotiorum agglutinin (SSA) is a homodimeric protein consisting of two identical subunits of ?17 kDa and displays specificity primarily towards Gal/GalNAc. Glycan array screening indicates that SSA readily interacts with Gal/GalNAc-bearing glycan chains. The crystal structures of SSA in the ligand-free form and in complex with the Gal-?1,3-GalNAc (T-antigen) disaccharide have been determined at 1.6 and 1.97 Å resolution, respectively. SSA adopts a ?-trefoil domain as previously identified for other carbohydrate-binding proteins of the ricin B-like lectin superfamily and accommodates terminal non-reducing galactosyl and N-acetylgalactosaminyl glycans. Unlike other structurally related lectins, SSA contains a single carbohydrate-binding site at site ?. SSA reveals a novel dimeric assembly markedly dissimilar to those described earlier for ricin-type lectins. The present structure exemplifies the adaptability of the ?-trefoil domain in the evolution of fungal lectins. PMID:20566411

  4. Transformation in fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Fincham, J R

    1989-01-01

    Transformation with exogenous deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) now appears to be possible with all fungal species, or at least all that can be grown in culture. This field of research is at present dominated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two filamentous members of the class Ascomycetes, Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa, with substantial contributions also from fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and another filamentous member of the class Ascomycetes, Podospora anserina. However, transformation has been demonstrated, and will no doubt be extensively used, in representatives of most of the main fungal classes, including Phycomycetes, Basidiomycetes (the order Agaricales and Ustilago species), and a number of the Fungi Imperfecti. The list includes a number of plant pathogens, and transformation is likely to become important in the analysis of the molecular basis of pathogenicity. Transformation may be maintained either by using an autonomously replicating plasmid as a vehicle for the transforming DNA or through integration of the DNA into the chromosomes. In S. cerevisiae and other yeasts, a variety of autonomously replicating plasmids have been used successfully, some of them designed for use as shuttle vectors for Escherichia coli as well as for yeast transformation. Suitable plasmids are not yet available for use in filamentous fungi, in which stable transformation is dependent on chromosomal integration. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, integration of transforming DNA is virtually always by homology; in filamentous fungi, in contrast, it occurs just as frequently at nonhomologous (ectopic) chromosomal sites. The main importance of transformation in fungi at present is in connection with gene cloning and the analysis of gene function. The most advanced work is being done with S. cerevisiae, in which the virtual restriction of stable DNA integration to homologous chromosome loci enables gene disruption and gene replacement to be carried out with greater precision and efficiency than is possible in other species that show a high proportion of DNA integration events at nonhomologous (ectopic) sites. With a little more trouble, however, the methodology pioneered for S. cerevisiae can be applied to other fungi too. Transformation of fungi with DNA constructs designed for high gene expression and efficient secretion of gene products appears to have great commercial potential. PMID:2651864

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU and SSU rDNA group I introns of lichen photobionts associated with the genera Xanthoria and Xanthomendoza (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes)

    PubMed Central

    Nyati, Shyam; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Werth, Silke; Honegger, Rosmarie

    2013-01-01

    We studied group I introns in sterile cultures of selected groups of lichen photobionts, focusing on Trebouxia species associated with Xanthoria s. lat. (including Xanthomendoza spp.; lichen-forming ascomycetes). Group I introns were found inserted after position 798 (Escherichia coli numbering) in the large subunit (LSU) rRNA in representatives of the green algal genera Trebouxia and Asterochloris. The 798 intron was found in about 25% of Xanthoria photobionts including several reference strains obtained from algal culture collections. An alignment of LSU-encoded rDNA intron sequences revealed high similarity of these sequences allowing their phylogenetic analysis. The 798 group I intron phylogeny was largely congruent with a phylogeny of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Region (ITS), indicating that the insertion of the intron most likely occurred in the common ancestor of the genera Trebouxia and Asterochloris. The intron was vertically inherited in some taxa, but lost in others. The high sequence similarity of this intron to one found in Chlorella angustoellipsoidea suggests that the 798 intron was either present in the common ancestor of Trebouxiophyceae, or that its present distribution results from more recent horizontal transfers, followed by vertical inheritance and loss. Analysis of another group I intron shared by these photobionts at small subunit (SSU) position 1512 supports the hypothesis of repeated lateral transfers of this intron among some taxa, but loss among others. Our data confirm that the history of group I introns is characterized by repeated horizontal transfers, and suggests that some of these introns have ancient origins within Chlorophyta. PMID:24415800

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU and SSU rDNA group I introns of lichen photobionts associated with the genera Xanthoria and Xanthomendoza (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Nyati, Shyam; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Werth, Silke; Honegger, Rosmarie

    2013-12-01

    We studied group I introns in sterile cultures of selected groups of lichen photobionts, focusing on Trebouxia species associated with Xanthoria s. lat. (including Xanthomendoza spp.; lichen-forming ascomycetes). Group I introns were found inserted after position 798 (Escherichia coli numbering) in the large subunit (LSU) rRNA in representatives of the green algal genera Trebouxia and Asterochloris. The 798 intron was found in about 25% of Xanthoria photobionts including several reference strains obtained from algal culture collections. An alignment of LSU-encoded rDNA intron sequences revealed high similarity of these sequences allowing their phylogenetic analysis. The 798 group I intron phylogeny was largely congruent with a phylogeny of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Region (ITS), indicating that the insertion of the intron most likely occurred in the common ancestor of the genera Trebouxia and Asterochloris. The intron was vertically inherited in some taxa, but lost in others. The high sequence similarity of this intron to one found in Chlorella angustoellipsoidea suggests that the 798 intron was either present in the common ancestor of Trebouxiophyceae, or that its present distribution results from more recent horizontal transfers, followed by vertical inheritance and loss. Analysis of another group I intron shared by these photobionts at small subunit (SSU) position 1512 supports the hypothesis of repeated lateral transfers of this intron among some taxa, but loss among others. Our data confirm that the history of group I introns is characterized by repeated horizontal transfers, and suggests that some of these introns have ancient origins within Chlorophyta. PMID:24415800

  7. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in a patient with IgG4-related sclerosing disease caused by a novel ascomycete, Hongkongmyces pedis gen. et sp. nov.: first report of human infection associated with the family Lindgomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Chan, Jasper F W; Trendell-Smith, Nigel J; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Ling, Ian W H; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-01

    No members of the freshwater ascomycetes family Lindgomycetaceae have been associated with human infections. We isolated a mould (HKU35(T)) from the biopsy specimen of a patient with invasive foot infection and underlying immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease. Histology showed florid, suppurative, granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with central microabscess formation surrounded by epithelioid histiocytes, scattered giant cells, and a small number of lymphocytes. A Grocott stain revealed fungal elements in the center of the lesion. On Sabouraud glucose agar, HKU35(T) grew as gray and velvety colonies. Among the members of the family Lindgomycetaceae, HKU35(T) was the only strain that grew at 37°C. Microscopically, only sterile mycelia, but no fruiting bodies, were observed. HKU35(T) was susceptible to itrazonazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, which was in line with the patient's clinical response to itraconazole treatment. Internal transcribed spacer and partial 18S nuclear rDNA (nrDNA), 28S nrDNA, ?-tubulin gene, and EF1? gene sequencing showed that HKU35(T) occupied a unique phylogenetic position, most closely related to but distinct from members of the genera Clohesyomyces and Lindgomyces. We propose a new genus and species, Hongkongmyces pedis gen. et sp. nov., to describe this fungus, which belongs to the family Lindgomycetaceae in the orderPleosporales of class Dothideomycetes. This case also represents the first report of human infection associated with the family Lindgomycetaceae. PMID:25147085

  8. Description of Taphrina antarctica f.a. sp. nov., a new anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species associated with Antarctic endolithic microbial communities and transfer of four Lalaria species in the genus Taphrina.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Turchetti, Benedetta; Yurkov, Andrey; Cecchini, Clarissa; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Buzzini, Pietro; Onofri, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of a large-scale rock sampling in Continental Antarctica, a number of yeasts have been isolated. Two strains that are unable to grow above 20 °C and that have low ITS sequence similarities with available data in the public domain were found. The D1/D2 LSU molecular phylogeny placed them in an isolated position in the genus Taphrina, supporting their affiliation to a not yet described species. Because the new species is able to grow in its anamorphic state only, the species Taphrina antarctica f.a. (forma asexualis) sp. nov. has been proposed to accommodate both strains (type strain DBVPG 5268(T), DSM 27485(T) and CBS 13532(T)). Lalaria and Taphrina species are dimorphic ascomycetes, where the anamorphic yeast represents the saprotrophic state and the teleomorph is the parasitic counterpart on plants. This is the first record for this genus in Antarctica; since plants are absent on the continent, we hypothesize that the fungus may have focused on the saprotrophic part of its life cycle to overcome the absence of its natural host and adapt environmental constrains. Following the new International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code 2011) the reorganization of Taphrina-Lalaria species in the teleomorphic genus Taphrina is proposed. We emend the diagnosis of the genus Taphrina to accommodate asexual saprobic states of these fungi. Taphrina antarctica was registered in MycoBank under MB 808028. PMID:24893860

  9. Notes on African Pannariaceae (lichenized ascomycetes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per M. Jørgensen

    2003-01-01

    Abstract:The African continent is shown to contain only 38 species in the lichen familyPannariaceae , all of which are listed in the conclusion. Four new species are described: Pannaria planiuscula (Republic of South Africa [RSA] and Kenya), Pannaria squamulosa (RSA), Parmeliella dactylifera (RSA), and Parmeliella triptophylloides (Kenya). Four species are recorded as new to the continent: Pannaria centrifuga P.M. Jørg.

  10. Coprophilous fungi: antibiotic discovery and functions in an underexplored arena of microbial defensive mutualism.

    PubMed

    Bills, Gerald F; Gloer, James B; An, Zhiqiang

    2013-10-01

    Microbial antibiotics can mediate mutualisms and interorganism communications. Herbivorous animal dung offers opportunities for discovery of new antibiotics from microbial communities that compete for a nutrient-rich, ephemeral resource. Distinct lineages form a specialized community of coprophilous (dung-colonizing) fungi. Bacteria, protists, invertebrates, the mammalian digestive system, and other fungi can pose challenges to their fitness in the dung environment. The well-characterized diversity of dung fungi offers accessible systems for dissecting the function of antibiotics and for exploring fungal genomes for new antibiotics. Their potential for antibiotic discovery is evidenced by a high frequency of antifungal antibiotics and bioactive secondary metabolites from limited prior efforts and from mapping biosynthetic pathways in the genomes of the coprophilous fungi Podospora anserina and Sordaria macrospora. PMID:23978412

  11. Human CLPP reverts the longevity phenotype of a fungal ClpP deletion strain.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian; Weil, Andrea; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial maintenance crucially depends on the quality control of proteins by various chaperones, proteases and repair enzymes. While most of the involved components have been studied in some detail, little is known on the biological role of the CLPXP protease complex located in the mitochondrial matrix. Here we show that deletion of PaClpP, encoding the CLP protease proteolytic subunit CLPP, leads to an unexpected healthy phenotype and increased lifespan of the fungal ageing model organism Podospora anserina. This phenotype can be reverted by expression of human ClpP in the fungal deletion background, demonstrating functional conservation of human and fungal CLPP. Our results show that the biological role of eukaryotic CLP proteases can be studied in an experimentally accessible model organism. PMID:23360988

  12. An Acetyltransferase Conferring Tolerance to Toxic Aromatic Amine Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Marta; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dairou, Julien; Lamouri, Aazdine; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe; Dupret, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic amines (AA) are a major class of environmental pollutants that have been shown to have genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials toward most living organisms. Fungi are able to tolerate a diverse range of chemical compounds including certain AA and have long been used as models to understand general biological processes. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this tolerance may improve our understanding of the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments and pave the way for novel pharmaceutical and/or biotechnological applications. We have identified and characterized two arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes (PaNAT1 and PaNAT2) from the model fungus Podospora anserina that acetylate a wide range of AA. Targeted gene disruption experiments revealed that PaNAT2 was required for the growth and survival of the fungus in the presence of toxic AA. Functional studies using the knock-out strains and chemically acetylated AA indicated that tolerance of P. anserina to toxic AA was due to the N-acetylation of these chemicals by PaNAT2. Moreover, we provide proof-of-concept remediation experiments where P. anserina, through its PaNAT2 enzyme, is able to detoxify the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline in experimentally contaminated soil samples. Overall, our data show that a single xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme can mediate tolerance to a major class of pollutants in a eukaryotic species. These findings expand the understanding of the role of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme and in particular of NATs in the adaptation of organisms to their chemical environment and provide a basis for new systems for the bioremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:19416981

  13. Reclassification of ascomycetous yeasts from gene sequence analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade, identification of yeasts and their classification has been based almost exclusively on gene sequence analysis. Primarily as a result of using diagnostic gene sequences, such as D1/D2 LSU and ITS ribosomal RNAs, the number of known species has doubled. With the faster sequen...

  14. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Abbott, S P; Sigler, L; McAleer, R; McGough, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Mizell, G

    1995-10-01

    Three cases of fatal cerebral mycosis in males with prior histories of intravenous drug use from the United States and Australia are reported. Infection in each case was limited to brain abscess; no other sites of infection were observed. The fungus seen by histopathology and isolated from the brain tissue in each case was identified as Chaetomium strumarium. This is the first report of human infection by this species, and C. strumarium is the second species of Chaetomium known to cause primary brain infection. Chaetomium strumarium is unusual among members of the genus Chaetomium in forming ascocarps covered with pale, thin-walled, flexuous hairs, a feature leading to its original placement in the genus Achaetomium. Presence of pinkish exudate droplets and/or crystals associated with hyphae or ascocarps, sometimes accompanied by a pinkish diffusible pigment; good growth at 42 degrees C; and production of small conidia further distinguish this species. The brain abscess isolates were compared with isolates from prior cases of cerebral infection which had been identified as either Chaetomium atrobrunneum or Chaetomium globosum. With reidentification of one isolate originally identified as C. globosum to C. atrobrunneum, only C. strumarium and C. atrobrunneum have been confirmed to cause infection involving the brain. PMID:8567907

  15. Six new anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts near Candida tanzawaensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cletus P Kurtzman

    2001-01-01

    Six new species of the yeast genus Candida are described from their unique nucleotide sequences in the D1\\/D2 domain of 26S rDNA. Five of these species form a clade with Candida tanzawaensis, and the sixth is basal to this group. The new species and their sources of isolation are the following: Candida ambrosiae (type strain NRRL YB-1316, CBS 8844), from

  16. Six new anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts near Candida tanzawaensis.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, C P

    2001-12-01

    Six new species of the yeast genus Candida are described from their unique nucleotide sequences in the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA. Five of these species form a clade with Candida tanzawaensis, and the sixth is basal to this group. The new species and their sources of isolation are the following: Candida ambrosiae (type strain NRRL YB-1316, CBS 8844), from insect frass, rotted wood and mushroom fruiting bodies; Candida canberraensis (type strain NRRL YB-2417, CBS 8846), from soil; Candida caryicola (type strain NRRL YB-1499, CBS 8847), from a pignut hickory tree; Candida prunicola (type strain NRRL YB-869, CBS 8848), from exuded gum of a black cherry tree; Candida pyralidae (type strain NRRL Y-27085, CBS 5035), from insect frass; Candida xylopsoci (type strain NRRL Y-27066, CBS 6037), from insect frass. PMID:12702342

  17. Reinforced postmating reproductive isolation barriers in Neurospora, an Ascomycete microfungus

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , but natural selection against maladaptive hybridization itself can also drive evolution of reproductive involves a postmating barrier, abortion of fruitbodies. We hypothesize that fruitbody abortion

  18. Pathogenesis of bryophyte hosts by the ascomycete Atradidymella muscivora.

    PubMed

    Davey, Marie L; Tsuneda, Akihiko; Currah, Randolph S

    2009-07-01

    Atradidymella muscivora (Pleosporales) is a bryophyte pathogen that infects the mosses Aulacomnium palustre, Hylocomium splendens, and Polytrichum juniperinum. Light and scanning electron microscopy and extracellular enzyme production were used to characterize the interactions between this fungus and its native hosts and the model host Funaria hygrometrica. Penetration was direct via hyphae or appressoria, and hosts responded by forming layered, darkly pigmented deposits at penetration sites, similar to the papillae formed by vascular plants in response to fungal infection. Infected hosts gradually became chlorotic as hyphae grew intracellularly, presumably killing host cells. Pycnidia of the Phoma anamorph (P. muscivora) and uniloculate pseudothecia were initiated as tightly packed masses of stromatic dematiaceous hyphae within a single host cell. Mature pycnidia and pseudothecia were erumpent. A new microniche among bryophilous fungi is described, whereby A. muscivora supplants the gemmae of Aul. palustre and exploits the normal nutrient-flow of the moss gametophyte. Atradidymella muscivora produced both cellulases and soluble polyphenolic oxidases, allowing it to also function as a saprobe and degrade the cell walls of bryophytes. The saprophytic and pathogenic abilities of A. muscivora suggest it may play a role in nutrient cycling, population dynamics, and small-scale disturbances in boreal ecosystems. PMID:21628276

  19. Cephalodiate Arten der Gattung Lecidea sensu lato ( Ascomycetes lichenisati)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannes Hertel; Gerhard Rambold

    1988-01-01

    (1) The ability to produce cephalodia is usually a genus-specific character in lichens. (2)Lecidea shushaniiThoms., is a member of the genusTephromela, closely related toT. aglaea. It is not clear, whether or not the cephalodia of this taxon are true cephalodia or colonies of epiphytic cyanobacteria and whether or notLecidea shushanii is an independent species. (3)Lecidea dovrensisNyl., is, in contrast to

  20. Programmed Ascospore Death in the Homothallic Ascomycete Coniochaeta tetraspora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Namboori B. Raju; David D. Perkins

    2000-01-01

    Immature asci of Coniochaeta tetraspora originally contain eight uninucleate ascospores. Two ascospore pairs in each ascus survive and mature, and two die and degenerate. Arrangement of the two ascospore types in individual linear asci is what would be expected if death is controlled by a chromosomal gene segregating at the second meiotic division in about 50% of asci. Cultures originating

  1. Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Reade) Honey Kingdom: Fungi; Class: Ascomycetes

    E-print Network

    " is often used to describe blighted shoots. Under humid condi- tions, tan to gray powdery spores (conidia, relative humidity and wind speed. Apothecia can persist for about 3 to 4 weeks under cool conditions -- 50). Disease cycle The fungus overwinters in mummified berries (pseudo- sclerotia) on the ground below

  2. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, S P; Sigler, L; McAleer, R; McGough, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Mizell, G

    1995-01-01

    Three cases of fatal cerebral mycosis in males with prior histories of intravenous drug use from the United States and Australia are reported. Infection in each case was limited to brain abscess; no other sites of infection were observed. The fungus seen by histopathology and isolated from the brain tissue in each case was identified as Chaetomium strumarium. This is the first report of human infection by this species, and C. strumarium is the second species of Chaetomium known to cause primary brain infection. Chaetomium strumarium is unusual among members of the genus Chaetomium in forming ascocarps covered with pale, thin-walled, flexuous hairs, a feature leading to its original placement in the genus Achaetomium. Presence of pinkish exudate droplets and/or crystals associated with hyphae or ascocarps, sometimes accompanied by a pinkish diffusible pigment; good growth at 42 degrees C; and production of small conidia further distinguish this species. The brain abscess isolates were compared with isolates from prior cases of cerebral infection which had been identified as either Chaetomium atrobrunneum or Chaetomium globosum. With reidentification of one isolate originally identified as C. globosum to C. atrobrunneum, only C. strumarium and C. atrobrunneum have been confirmed to cause infection involving the brain. PMID:8567907

  3. Conservation of fungal and animal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complexes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Barry

    2015-03-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Nox) are a group of eukaryotic flavoenzymes that catalyse the reduction of dioxygen to the superoxide anion using electrons provided by NADPH. An integral membrane flavocytochrome b558 heterodimer, composed of the catalytic subunit gp91(phox) and the adaptor protein p22(phox) , is essential for catalytic activity of the mammalian Nox2 complex. Two homologues of the mammalian gp91(phox) , NoxA and NoxB, have been identified in fungi and shown to be crucial for distinct fungal cell differentiation and developmental processes, but to date, no homologue of the p22(phox) adaptor protein has been identified. Isolation of a mutant from Podospora anserina with a phenotype identical to a previously characterised PaNox1 mutant, combined with phylogenetic analysis, identified a fungal homologue of p22(phox) called PaNoxD. The same adaptor protein was shown to be a component of the Botrytis cinerea?NoxA complex as supported by the identical phenotypes of the bcnoxA and bcnoxD mutants and direct physical interaction between BcNoxA and BcNoxD. These results suggest that NoxA/NoxD is the fungal equivalent of the mammalian gp91(phox) /p22(phox) flavocytochrome complex. Tetraspanin (Pls1) mutants of P.?anserina and B.?cinerea have identical phenotypes to noxB mutants, suggesting that Pls1 is the corresponding integral membrane adaptor for assembly of the NoxB complex. PMID:25620385

  4. The NADPH Oxidase Complexes in Botrytis cinerea: Evidence for a Close Association with the ER and the Tetraspanin Pls1

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Ulrike; Heller, Jens; van Kann, Jan A. L.; Tudzynski, Paul

    2013-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (Nox) are major enzymatic systems that generate reactive-oxygen species (ROS) in multicellular eukaryotes. In several fungi they have been shown to be involved in sexual differentiation and pathogenicity. However, in contrast to the well characterized mammalian systems, basic information on the composition, recruitment, and localization of fungal Nox complexes and on the molecular mechanisms of their cellular effects are still lacking. Here we give a detailed analysis of components of the Nox complexes in the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. It had previously been shown that the two catalytic transmembrane subunits BcNoxA and B are important for development of sclerotia and for full virulence, with BcNoxA being involved in spreading of lesions and BcNoxB in penetration; BcNoxR functions as a regulator of both subunits. Here we present evidence (using for the first time a functional GFP fusion able to complement the ?bcnoxA mutant) that BcNoxA localizes mainly to the ER and at the plasma membrane; BcNoxB shows a similar localization pattern, while the regulator BcNoxR is found in vesicles throughout the hyphae and at the hyphal tip. To identify possible interaction partners, which could be involved in the localization or recruitment of the Nox complexes, we functionally characterized the tetraspanin Pls1, a transmembrane protein, which had been suggested to be a NoxB-interacting partner in the saprophyte Podospora anserina. Knock-out experiments and GFP fusions substantiate a link between BcNoxB and BcPls1 because both deletion mutants have overlapping phenotypes (especially a defect in penetration), and the proteins show a similar localization pattern (ER). However, in contrast to the corresponding protein in P. anserina BcPls1 is important for female fertility, but not for ascospore germination. PMID:23418468

  5. Bellojisia, a new sordariaceous genus for Jobellisia rhynchostoma and a description of Jobellisiaceae fam. nov.

    PubMed

    Réblová, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic analyses of partial nucLSU rDNA sequence data of three Jobellisia species indicate that J. rhynchostoma is distinct from the core species of Jobellisia. Jobellisia luteola, the type species of the genus, and J. fraterna reside as a strongly supported monophyletic clade in a basal position in a grouping containing the Diaporthales, the Calosphaeriales and the Togniniaceae, while all phylogenies confirm the placement of J. rhynchostoma within the Sordariales. The new family Jobellisiaceae (incertae sedis) is described for Jobellisia. A new perithecial ascomycete genus, Bellojisia (Lasiosphaeriaceae, Sordariales), is introduced for J. rhynchostoma. The fungus produces nonstromatic, long-necked perithecia with a superficial to semi-immersed pyriform venter and carbonaceous three-layered perithecial wall, 1-septate, hyaline, later brown, reniform to navicular ascospores with a polar germ pore formed in unitunicate asci. The fungus was not observed to produce a conidial anamorph in vitro. Both morphological and molecular data suggest Corylomyces selenosporus of the Sordariales is the closest relative of J. rhynchostoma. The other relatives of Bellojisia (viz. Cercophora, Lasiosphaeria and Podospora) recruit from the Lasiosphaeriaceae (Sordariales). Cercophora and Podospora are shown as polyphyletic within the Sordariales, which is in agreement with previous molecular studies. PMID:19202843

  6. MitoBreak: the mitochondrial DNA breakpoints database

    PubMed Central

    Damas, Joana; Carneiro, João; Amorim, António; Pereira, Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rearrangements are key events in the development of many diseases. Investigations of mtDNA regions affected by rearrangements (i.e. breakpoints) can lead to important discoveries about rearrangement mechanisms and can offer important clues about the causes of mitochondrial diseases. Here, we present the mitochondrial DNA breakpoints database (MitoBreak; http://mitobreak.portugene.com), a free, web-accessible comprehensive list of breakpoints from three classes of somatic mtDNA rearrangements: circular deleted (deletions), circular partially duplicated (duplications) and linear mtDNAs. Currently, MitoBreak contains >1400 mtDNA rearrangements from seven species (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Macaca mulatta, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and Podospora anserina) and their associated phenotypic information collected from nearly 400 publications. The database allows researchers to perform multiple types of data analyses through user-friendly interfaces with full or partial datasets. It also permits the download of curated data and the submission of new mtDNA rearrangements. For each reported case, MitoBreak also documents the precise breakpoint positions, junction sequences, disease or associated symptoms and links to the related publications, providing a useful resource to study the causes and consequences of mtDNA structural alterations. PMID:24170808

  7. Hydration Effects on the HET-s Prion and Amyloid-? Fibrillous Aggregates, Studied with Three-Dimensional Molecular Theory of Solvation

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Takeshi; Blinov, Nikolay; Wishart, David; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2008-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic properties of the experimental fragments of the amyloid fibril made of the HET-s prion proteins (the infectious element of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina) and of amyloid-? proteins (the major component of Alzheimer's disease-associated plaques) by using the three-dimensional molecular theory of solvation. The full quantitative picture of hydration effects, including the hydration thermodynamics and hydration structure around the fragments, is presented. For both the complexes, the hydration entropic effects dominate, which results in the entropic part offsetting the unfavorable energetic part of the free energy change upon the association. This is in accord with the fact that the hydrophobic cooperativity plays an essential role in the formation of amyloid fibrils. By calculating the partial molar volume of the proteins, we found that the volume change upon the association in both the systems is large and positive, with the implication that high pressure causes destabilization of the fibril. This observation is in good agreement with the recent experimental results. We also found that both the HET-s and amyloid-? pentamers have loose intermolecular packing with voids. The three-dimensional molecular theory of solvation predicts that water molecules can be locked in the interior cavities along the fibril axis for both the HET-s and amyloid-? proteins. We provide a detailed molecular picture of the structural water localized in the interior of the fibrils. Our results suggest that the interior hydration plays an important role in the structural stability of fibrils. PMID:18689456

  8. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and Their Tolerance to Aromatic Amines, a Major Class of Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that enables acetyl coenzyme A-dependent detoxification of AA. To assess whether the N-acetylation pathway enables AA tolerance in Trichoderma spp., we cloned and characterized NATs from T. virens and T. reesei. We characterized recombinant enzymes by determining their catalytic efficiencies toward several toxic AA. Through a complementary approach, we also demonstrate that both Trichoderma species efficiently metabolize 3,4-DCA. Finally, we provide evidence that NAT-independent transformation is solely (in T. virens) or mainly (in T. reesei) responsible for the observed removal of 3,4-DCA. We conclude that T. virens and, to a lesser extent, T. reesei likely utilize another, unidentified, metabolic pathway for the detoxification of AA aside from acetylation. This is the first molecular and functional characterization of AA biotransformation in Trichoderma spp. Given the potential of Trichoderma for cleanup of contaminated soils, these results reveal new possibilities in the fungal remediation of AA-contaminated soil. PMID:23728813

  9. Identification of NoxD/Pro41 as the homologue of the p22(phox) NADPH oxidase subunit in fungi.

    PubMed

    Lacaze, Isabelle; Lalucque, Hervé; Siegmund, Ulrike; Silar, Philippe; Brun, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    NADPH oxidases (Nox) are membrane complexes that produce O2 (-) . Researches in mammals, plants and fungi highlight the involvement of Nox-generated ROS in cell proliferation, differentiation and defense. In mammals, the core enzyme gp91(phox) /Nox2 is associated with p22(phox) forming the flavocytochrome b558 ready for activation by a cytosolic complex. Intriguingly, no homologue of the p22(phox) gene has been found in fungal genomes, questioning how the flavoenzyme forms. Using whole genome sequencing combined with phylogenetic analysis and structural studies, we identify the fungal p22(phox) homologue as being mutated in the Podospora anserina mutant IDC(509) . Functional studies show that the fungal p22(phox) , PaNoxD, acts along PaNox1, but not PaNox2, a second fungal gp91(phox) homologue. Finally, cytological analysis of functional tagged versions of PaNox1, PaNoxD and PaNoxR shows clear co-localization of PaNoxD and PaNox1 and unravel a dynamic assembly of the complex in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the vacuolar system. PMID:25424886

  10. Molecular Characterization of a New Alkaline-Tolerant Xylanase from Humicola insolens Y1

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Pengjun; Du, Yanlong; Yang, Hong; Huang, Huoqing; Zhang, Xiu; Wang, Yaru; Yao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    An endo-1,4-?-xylanase-encoding gene, xyn11B, was cloned from the thermophilic fungus Humicola insolens Y1. The gene encodes a multimodular xylanase that consists of a typical hydrophobic signal sequence, a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11, a glycine-rich linker, and a family 1 carbohydrate binding module (CBM1). Deduced Xyn11B shares the highest identity of 74% with a putative xylanase from Podospora anserina S mat+. Recombinant Xyn11B was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Xyn11B had a high specific activity of 382.0?U?mg?1 towards beechwood xylan and showed optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. Distinct from most reported acidic fungal xylanases, Xyn11B was alkaline-tolerant, retaining 30.7% of the maximal activity at pH 9.0. The Km and Vmax values for beechwood xylan were 2.2?mg?mL?1 and 462.8??mol?min?1?mg?1, respectively. The enzyme exhibited a wider substrate specificity and produced a mixture of xylooligosaccharides. All these favorable enzymatic properties make Xyn11B attractive for potential applications in various industries. PMID:25629035

  11. A mitotically inheritable unit containing a MAP kinase module

    PubMed Central

    Kicka, Sébastien; Bonnet, Crystel; Sobering, Andrew K.; Ganesan, Latha P.; Silar, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Prions are novel kinds of hereditary units, relying solely on proteins, that are infectious and inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion. To date, they are either based on autocatalytic modification of a 3D conformation or on autocatalytic cleavage. Here, we provide further evidence that in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, a MAP kinase cascade is probably able to self-activate and generate C, a hereditary unit that bears many similarities to prions and triggers cell degeneration. We show that in addition to the MAPKKK gene, both the MAPKK and MAPK genes are necessary for the propagation of C, and that overexpression of MAPK as that of MAPKKK facilitates the appearance of C. We also show that a correlation exists between the presence of C and localization of the MAPK inside nuclei. These data emphasize the resemblance between prions and a self-positively regulated cascade in terms of their transmission. This thus further expands the concept of protein-base inheritance to regulatory networks that have the ability to self-activate. PMID:16938837

  12. Molecular Characterization of a New Alkaline-Tolerant Xylanase from Humicola insolens Y1.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pengjun; Du, Yanlong; Yang, Hong; Huang, Huoqing; Zhang, Xiu; Wang, Yaru; Yao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    An endo-1,4-?-xylanase-encoding gene, xyn11B, was cloned from the thermophilic fungus Humicola insolens Y1. The gene encodes a multimodular xylanase that consists of a typical hydrophobic signal sequence, a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11, a glycine-rich linker, and a family 1 carbohydrate binding module (CBM1). Deduced Xyn11B shares the highest identity of 74% with a putative xylanase from Podospora anserina S mat+. Recombinant Xyn11B was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Xyn11B had a high specific activity of 382.0?U?mg(-1) towards beechwood xylan and showed optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. Distinct from most reported acidic fungal xylanases, Xyn11B was alkaline-tolerant, retaining 30.7% of the maximal activity at pH 9.0. The K m and V max values for beechwood xylan were 2.2?mg?mL(-1) and 462.8??mol?min(-1)?mg(-1), respectively. The enzyme exhibited a wider substrate specificity and produced a mixture of xylooligosaccharides. All these favorable enzymatic properties make Xyn11B attractive for potential applications in various industries. PMID:25629035

  13. Assessing conserved function of conidiation regulators in two distantly related ascomycetes, Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa

    E-print Network

    Chung, Da Woon

    2012-07-16

    conidia, but not in vegetative hyphae or mature conidia (Aguirre, 1993). AbaA is a characterized ATTS/TEA transcription factor (Andrianopoulos and Timberlake, 1994). A loss of function mutant of abaA (?abacus?) in A. nidulans produces conidiophores... zinc finger and Myb-like transcription factors, respectively. Expression of flbC is detected in all developmental stages, with a higher level in vegetative growth, early conidiation, and late sexual cycle. Over-expression of flbC induces brl...

  14. Wickerhamomyces patagonicus sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species from Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    de García, Virginia; Brizzio, Silvia; Libkind, Diego; Rosa, Carlos A; van Broock, María

    2010-07-01

    Eight strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from tree saps of 'Coihue' (Nothofagus dombeyi, Nothofagaceae) and glacial meltwater (Castaño Overo River) in the Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that this novel yeast species belongs to the Wickerhamomyces genus (Order Saccharomycetales, Family Wickerhamomycetaceae). The closest related species were Candida ponderosae and Wickerhamomyces chambardii. Wickerhamomyces patagonicus sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these novel strains, with the type strain CRUB 1724(T) (=CBS 11398(T) =JCM 16381(T)). PMID:19671716

  15. A new endophytic ascomycete from El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a preliminary survey to report the biodiversity of endophytic fungi associated with leaves of some woody plants from El Eden Ecological Reserve in Mexico, a new fungus was isolated from Callicarpa acuminata leaves. Cultures of this fungus on PDA form a white floccose colony with a reddish-bro...

  16. Dactylospora glaucomarioides (Ascomycetes, Dactylosporaceae): A Lichenicolous Fungus New to South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yogesh; Knudsen, Kerry; Wang, Xin Yu

    2010-01-01

    The lichenicolous fungi flora of South Korea is poorly known. During recent field trips to various parts of South Korea and after an extensive examination of herbarium lichen specimens, we encountered a lichenicolous fungi growing over a thallus of the lichen Ochrolechia yasudae Vain., characterized by small black apothecia with mostly three-septate brown ascospores. It was identified as Dactylospora glaucomarioides. This is the first report of this lichenicolous fungus from South Korea. A taxonomic description and comments are presented. PMID:23956673

  17. Identification and Isolation of Two Ascomycete Fungi from Spores of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Scutellospora castanea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Hijri; Dirk Redecker; J. A. M.-C. Petetot; Kerstin Voigt; Johannes Wostemeyer; Ian R. Sanders

    2002-01-01

    Two filamentous fungi with different phenotypes were isolated from crushed healthy spores or perforated dead spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Scutellospora castanea. Based on comparative se- quence analysis of 5.8S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer fragments, one isolate, obtained from perforated dead spores only, was assigned to the genus Nectria, and the second, obtained from both healthy

  18. The Ascomycete Verticillium longisporum Is a Hybrid and a Plant Pathogen with an Expanded Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Inderbitzin, Patrik; Davis, R. Michael; Bostock, Richard M.; Subbarao, Krishna V.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization plays a central role in plant evolution, but its overall importance in fungi is unknown. New plant pathogens are thought to arise by hybridization between formerly separated fungal species. Evolution of hybrid plant pathogens from non-pathogenic ancestors in the fungal-like protist Phytophthora has been demonstrated, but in fungi, the most important group of plant pathogens, there are few well-characterized examples of hybrids. We focused our attention on the hybrid and plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum, the causal agent of the Verticillium wilt disease in crucifer crops. In order to address questions related to the evolutionary origin of V. longisporum, we used phylogenetic analyses of seven nuclear loci and a dataset of 203 isolates of V. longisporum, V. dahliae and related species. We confirmed that V. longisporum was diploid, and originated three different times, involving four different lineages and three different parental species. All hybrids shared a common parent, species A1, that hybridized respectively with species D1, V. dahliae lineage D2 and V. dahliae lineage D3, to give rise to three different lineages of V. longisporum. Species A1 and species D1 constituted as yet unknown taxa. Verticillium longisporum likely originated recently, as each V. longisporum lineage was genetically homogenous, and comprised species A1 alleles that were identical across lineages. PMID:21455321

  19. Muscodor yucatenensis, a new endophytic ascomycete from Mexican chakah, Bursera simaruba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a study on the fungal endophytic associations with some trees of the dry tropical forest of El Eden Ecological Reserve located in the northeast of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, a new fungal species was isolated as an endophyte of a tree named chakah, chachah or huk´up by indigenous mayas. ...

  20. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde; Lian, Tiantian; Wang, Wenzhao; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Natural carotenoids have attracted great attention for their important beneficial effects on human health and food coloring function. Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus, is a potential source of natural carotenoids. The present study aimed to optimize the process parameters for carotenoid extraction from this mushroom. The effects of different methods of breaking the fungal cell wall and organic solvents were studied by the one-factor-at-a-time method. Subsequently, the process parameters including the duration of the extraction time, the number of extractions, and the solvent to solid ratio were optimized by using the Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions included using an acid-heating method to break the cell wall and later extracting three times, each for a 1 h duration, with a 4:1 mixture of acetone: petroleum ether and a solvent: solid ratio of 24:1. The carotenoid content varied from 2122.50 to 3847.50 µg/g dry weights in different commercially obtained fruit bodies of C. militaris. The results demonstrated that the C. militaris contained more carotenoid content in its fruit bodies than other known mushrooms. Stability monitoring by HPLC demonstrated that the carotenoids could be stored at 4°C for 40 d. It is suggested that the carotenoid content should be considered as the quality standard of commercial products of this valued mushroom. These findings will facilitate the exploration of carotenoids from C. militaris. PMID:24941034

  1. A putative transcription factor MYT1 is required for female fertility in the ascomycete Gibberella zeae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Jungkwan; Min, Kyunghun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2011-01-01

    Gibberella zeae is an important pathogen of major cereal crops. The fungus produces ascospores that forcibly discharge from mature fruiting bodies, which serve as the primary inocula for disease epidemics. In this study, we characterized an insertional mutant Z39P105 with a defect in sexual development and identified a gene encoding a putative transcription factor designated as MYT1. This gene contains a Myb DNA-binding domain and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. The MYT1 protein fused with green fluorescence protein localized in nuclei, which supports its role as a transcriptional regulator. The MYT1 deletion mutant showed similar phenotypes to the wild-type strain in vegetative growth, conidia production and germination, virulence, and mycotoxin production, but had defect in female fertility. A mutant overexpressing MYT1 showed earlier germination, faster mycelia growth, and reduced mycotoxin production compared to the wild-type strain, suggesting that improper MYT1 expression affects the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and secondary metabolite production. This study is the first to characterize a transcription factor containing a Myb DNA-binding domain that is specific to sexual development in G. zeae. PMID:21984921

  2. WetA Is Required for Conidiogenesis and Conidium Maturation in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a prominent fungal pathogen that infects major cereal crops, primarily utilizes asexual spores to spread disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum, we functionally characterized the F. graminearum ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans wetA, which has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation. Deletion of F. graminearum wetA did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the wetA deletion mutants produced longer conidia with fewer septa, and the conidia were sensitive to acute stresses, such as oxidative stress and heat stress. Furthermore, the survival rate of aged conidia from the F. graminearum wetA deletion mutants was reduced. The wetA deletion resulted in vigorous generation of single-celled conidia through autophagy-dependent microcycle conidiation, indicating that WetA functions to maintain conidial dormancy by suppressing microcycle conidiation in F. graminearum. Transcriptome analyses demonstrated that most of the putative conidiation-related genes are expressed constitutively and that only a few genes are specifically involved in F. graminearum conidiogenesis. The conserved and distinct roles identified for WetA in F. graminearum provide new insights into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24186953

  3. A Putative Transcription Factor MYT1 Is Required for Female Fertility in the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yang; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Jungkwan; Min, Kyunghun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2011-01-01

    Gibberella zeae is an important pathogen of major cereal crops. The fungus produces ascospores that forcibly discharge from mature fruiting bodies, which serve as the primary inocula for disease epidemics. In this study, we characterized an insertional mutant Z39P105 with a defect in sexual development and identified a gene encoding a putative transcription factor designated as MYT1. This gene contains a Myb DNA-binding domain and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. The MYT1 protein fused with green fluorescence protein localized in nuclei, which supports its role as a transcriptional regulator. The MYT1 deletion mutant showed similar phenotypes to the wild-type strain in vegetative growth, conidia production and germination, virulence, and mycotoxin production, but had defect in female fertility. A mutant overexpressing MYT1 showed earlier germination, faster mycelia growth, and reduced mycotoxin production compared to the wild-type strain, suggesting that improper MYT1 expression affects the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and secondary metabolite production. This study is the first to characterize a transcription factor containing a Myb DNA-binding domain that is specific to sexual development in G. zeae. PMID:21984921

  4. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the mating-type loci in the asexual ascomycete genus Ulocladium.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yun; Li, Zhuang; Xia, Li-Yun; Wang, Qun; Hu, Xian-Mei; Zhang, Xiu-Guo

    2014-01-01

    The genus Ulocladium is thought to be strictly asexual. Mating-type (MAT) loci regulate sexual reproduction in fungi and their study may help to explain the apparent lack of sexual reproduction in Ulocladium. We sequenced the full length of two MAT genes in 26 Ulocladium species and characterized the entire MAT idiomorphs plus flanking regions of Ulocladium botrytis. The MAT1-1 ORF encodes a protein with an alpha-box motif by the MAT1-1-1 gene and the MAT1-2 ORF encodes a protein with an HMG box motif by the MAT1-2-1 gene. Both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes were detected in a single strain of every species. Moreover, the results of RT-PCR revealed that both MAT genes are expressed in all 26 Ulocladium species. This demonstrates that MAT genes of Ulocladium species might be functional and that they have the potential for sexual reproduction. Phylogenies based on MAT genes were compared with GAPDH and Alt a 1 phylograms in Ulocladium using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analysis. The MAT genealogies and the non-MAT trees displayed different topologies, indicating that MAT genes are unsuitable phylogenetic markers at the species level in Ulocladium. Furthermore, the conflicting topologies between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 phylogeny indicate separate evolutionary events for the two MAT genes. However, the intergeneric phylogeny of four closely allied genera (Ulocladium, Alternaria, Cochliobolus, Stemphylium) based on MAT alignments demonstrated that MAT genes are suitable for phylogenetic analysis among allied genera. PMID:24891417

  5. Sex, size, competition and escape—strategies of reproduction and dispersal in Lasallia pustulata (Umbilicariaceae, Ascomycetes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geir Hestmark

    1992-01-01

    The lichen Lasallia pustulata has a mixed strategy of asexual and sexual reproduction. Close-dispersed, asexual, symbiotic isidia are produced early, when the thalli are small. The asexual propagules are subsequently supplemented by far-dispersed, sexually generated ascospores when the thalli grow larger. This observation is consistent with evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) models of dispersal allocations in heterocarpic plants accordin to which

  6. Two new pathogenic ascomycetes in Guignardia and Rosenscheldiella on New Zealand's pygmy mistletoes (Korthalsella: Viscaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Park, D.; Robertson, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    Two new pathogens, Guignardia korthalsellae and Rosenscheldiella korthalsellae, are described from New Zealand's pygmy mistletoes (Korthalsella, Viscaceae). Both form ascomata on living phylloclades with minimal disruption of the tissue. Fungal hyphae within the phylloclade are primarily intercellular. Guignardia korthalsellae disrupts a limited number of epidermal cells immediately around the erumpent ascoma, while the ascomata of Rosenscheldiella korthalsellae develop externally on small patches of stromatic tissue that form above stomatal cavities. Rosenscheldiella is applied in a purely morphological sense. LSU sequences show that R. korthalsellae as well as another New Zealand species, Rosenscheldiella brachyglottidis, are members of the Mycosphaerellaceae sensu stricto. Genetically, Rosenscheldiella, in the sense we are using it, is polyphyletic; LSU and ITS sequences place the two New Zealand species in different clades within the Mycosphaerellaceae. Rosenscheldiella is retained for these fungi until generic relationships within the family are resolved. Whether or not the type species of Rosenscheldiella, R. styracis, is also a member of the Mycosphaerellaceae is not known, but it has a similar morphology and relationship to its host as the two New Zealand species. PMID:21523197

  7. NEW SPECIES OR INTERESTING RECORDS OF FOLIICOLOUS LICHENS. II. FLAVOBATHELIUM EPIPHYLLUM (LICHENIZED ASCOMYCETES: MELANOMMATALES)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert LÜCKING; André APTROOT; Göran THOR

    1997-01-01

    Flavobathelium epiphyllumgen. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The new taxon is characterized by perithecia and pycnidia embedded in pulverulaceous, uni- to plurilocular pseudostromata, small, transversely septate ascospores, and the presence of bacillar to filiform macroconidia with gelatinous appendages and simple microconidia. Possible relationships are seen with the genusPhyllo-bathelium.Flavobathelium epiphyllumis a common species in Central and South American lowland

  8. Identification and characterization of polymorphic minisatellites in the phytopathogenic ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Maria; Gout, Lilian; Rouxel, Thierry; Blaise, Françoise; Jedryczka, Malgorzata; Fitt, Bruce; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

    2005-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans causes phoma stem canker, the most serious disease of oilseed rape world-wide. Sexual recombination is important in the pathogen life cycle and increases the risk of plant resistance genes being overcome rapidly. Thus, there is a need to develop easy-to-use molecular markers suitable for large-scale population genetic studies. The minisatellite MinLm1, showing six alleles in natural populations, has previously been used as a marker to survey populations. Here, we report the characterization of five new minisatellites (MinLm2-MinLm6), of which four were identified by a systematic search for tandemly repeated polymorphic regions in BAC-end sequencing data from L. maculans. Of 782 BAC-end sequences analysed, 43 possessed putative minisatellite-type repeats and four of these (MinLm3-MinLm6) displayed both consistent PCR amplification and size polymorphism in a collection of L. maculans isolates of diverse origins. Cloning and sequencing of each allele confirmed that polymorphism was due to variation in the repeat number of a core motif ranging from 11 bp (MinLm3) to 51 bp (MinLm4). The number of alleles found for each minisatellite ranged from three (MinLm4) to nine (MinLm2), with eight, five and six for MinLm3, MinLm5 and MinLm6, respectively. MinLm2-MinLm6 are all single locus markers specific to L. maculans and share some common features, such as conservation of core motifs and incomplete direct repeats in the flanking regions. To our knowledge, L. maculans is the first fungal species for which six polymorphic single locus minisatellite markers have been reported. PMID:15614492

  9. AbaA Regulates Conidiogenesis in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Seo, Young-Su; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is a prominent pathogen that infects major cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and maize. Both sexual (ascospores) and asexual (conidia) spores are produced in F. graminearum. Since conidia are responsible for secondary infection in disease development, our objective of the present study was to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum based on the framework previously described in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we firstly identified and functionally characterized the ortholog of AbaA, which is involved in differentiation from vegetative hyphae to conidia and known to be absent in F. graminearum. Deletion of abaA did not affect vegetative growth, sexual development, or virulence, but conidium production was completely abolished and thin hyphae grew from abnormally shaped phialides in abaA deletion mutants. Overexpression of abaA resulted in pleiotropic defects such as impaired sexual and asexual development, retarded conidium germination, and reduced trichothecene production. AbaA localized to the nuclei of phialides and terminal cells of mature conidia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans AbaA and the conserved AbaA-WetA pathway demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for AbaA activity are conserved in F. graminearum as they are in A. nidulans. Results from RNA-sequencing analysis suggest that AbaA plays a pivotal role in conidiation by regulating cell cycle pathways and other conidiation-related genes. Thus, the conserved roles of the AbaA ortholog in both A. nidulans and F. graminearum give new insight into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24039821

  10. Characterisation of the mating-type locus in the genus Xanthoria (lichen-forming ascomycetes, Lecanoromycetes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Scherrer; Undine Zippler; Rosmarie Honegger

    2005-01-01

    Conserved regions of mating-type genes were amplified in four representatives of the genus Xanthoria (X. parietina, X. polycarpa, X. flammea, and X. elegans) using PCR-based methods. The complete MAT locus, containing one ORF (MAT1-2-1) coding for a truncated HMG-box protein, and two partial flanking genes, were cloned by screening a genomic lambda phage library of the homothallic X. parietina. The

  11. Characterisation of the mating-type locus in the genus Xanthoria (lichen-forming ascomycetes, Lecanoromycetes).

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Sandra; Zippler, Undine; Honegger, Rosmarie

    2005-12-01

    Conserved regions of mating-type genes were amplified in four representatives of the genus Xanthoria (X. parietina, X. polycarpa, X. flammea, and X. elegans) using PCR-based methods. The complete MAT locus, containing one ORF (MAT1-2-1) coding for a truncated HMG-box protein, and two partial flanking genes, were cloned by screening a genomic lambda phage library of the homothallic X. parietina. The flanking genes, a homologue of SLA2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a DNA lyase gene, served to amplify the two idiomorphs of the X. polycarpa MAT locus. Each idiomorph contains a single gene: MAT1-2-1 codes for a HMG-box protein, MAT1-1-1 encodes an alpha domain protein. The occurrence of mating-type genes in eight single spore isolates derived from one ascus was studied with a PCR assay. In the homothallic X. parietina a HMG fragment, but no alpha box fragment was found in all isolates, whereas in X. elegans, another homothallic species, all tested isolates contained a fragment of both idiomorphs. Conversely, isolates of the heterothallic X. polycarpa contained either a HMG or an alpha box fragment, but never both. PMID:16266815

  12. Evaluation of automated cell disruptor methods for oomycetous and ascomycetous model organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two automated cell disruptor-based methods for RNA extraction; disruption of thawed cells submerged in TRIzol Reagent (method QP), and direct disruption of frozen cells on dry ice (method CP), were optimized for a model oomycete, Phytophthora capsici, and compared with grinding in a mortar and pestl...

  13. Muscodor yucatanensis, a new endophytic ascomycete from Mexican chakah, Bursera simaruba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a study on the fungal endophytic associations with some trees of the secondary forest of El Eden Ecological Reserve located in the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, a new fungal species was isolated as an endophyte of a tree named chakah, chachah or hukúp (Bursera simaruba) by indigen...

  14. Interactions of plant-beneficial bacteria with the ascomycete Coniochaeta ligniaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Trifonova; J. Postma; Elsas van J. D

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To assess the interactions between Coniochaeta ligniaria F\\/TGF15 obtained from torrefied grass fibers (TGF) and selected bacteria from the same substrate. Methods and Results: Upon coinoculation on potato dextrose agar, Pseudomonas putida 15\\/TGE5, Methylobacterium radiotolerans 56\\/TGF10, Serratia plymutica 23\\/TGE5, Pseudomonas corrugata 31\\/TGE5, Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli 66\\/TGF10, Mycobacterium anthracenicum 70\\/TGF15 and Agromyces aurantiacus 95\\/TGF15 were translocated by C. ligniaria,

  15. Intracellular siderophores are essential for ascomycete sexual development in heterothallic Cochliobolus heterostrophus and homothallic Gibberella zeae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Connections between fungal development and secondary metabolism have been reported previously, but as yet, no comprehensive analysis of a family of secondary metabolites and their possible role in fungal development has been reported. In the present study, mutant strains of the heterothallic ascomyc...

  16. CZECH MYCOL. 59(2): 215226, 2007 The ascomycete Meliniomyces variabilis isolated from

    E-print Network

    Janouskova, Martina

    a sporocarp of Hydnotrya tulasnei (Pezizales) intracellularly colonises roots of ecto- and ericoid mycorrhizal HRSELOVÁ 5 , JANA ALBRECHTOVÁ 1, 2 and MIROSLAV VOSÁTKA 1 1 Department of Mycorrhizal Symbioses, Institute roots of ecto- and ericoid mycorrhizal host plants. ­ Czech Mycol. 59(2): 215­226. Attempts to isolate

  17. Two Ascomycete Classes Based on Fruiting-Body Characters and Ribosomal DNA Sequence'

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    statistical support. Gen- era producing cleistothecia, such as Talaromyces (with a Penicillium asexual state). In the past, the class Plectomycetes included the organisms with Penicillium or Aspergillus asexual states

  18. Contribution of Specific Residues of the ?-Solenoid Fold to HET-s Prion Function, Amyloid Structure and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlin, Thierry; Chi, Celestine N.; Wasmer, Christian; Schütz, Anne; Ceschin, Johanna; Clavé, Corinne; Cescau, Sandra; Meier, Beat; Riek, Roland; Saupe, Sven J.

    2014-01-01

    The [Het-s] prion of the fungus Podospora anserina represents a good model system for studying the structure-function relationship in amyloid proteins because a high resolution solid-state NMR structure of the amyloid prion form of the HET-s prion forming domain (PFD) is available. The HET-s PFD adopts a specific ?-solenoid fold with two rungs of ?-strands delimiting a triangular hydrophobic core. A C-terminal loop folds back onto the rigid core region and forms a more dynamic semi-hydrophobic pocket extending the hydrophobic core. Herein, an alanine scanning mutagenesis of the HET-s PFD was conducted. Different structural elements identified in the prion fold such as the triangular hydrophobic core, the salt bridges, the asparagines ladders and the C-terminal loop were altered and the effect of these mutations on prion function, fibril structure and stability was assayed. Prion activity and structure were found to be very robust; only a few key mutations were able to corrupt structure and function. While some mutations strongly destabilize the fold, many substitutions in fact increase stability of the fold. This increase in structural stability did not influence prion formation propensity in vivo. However, if an Ala replacement did alter the structure of the core or did influence the shape of the denaturation curve, the corresponding variant showed a decreased prion efficacy. It is also the finding that in addition to the structural elements of the rigid core region, the aromatic residues in the C-terminal semi-hydrophobic pocket are critical for prion propagation. Mutations in the latter region either positively or negatively affected prion formation. We thus identify a region that modulates prion formation although it is not part of the rigid cross-? core, an observation that might be relevant to other amyloid models. PMID:24945274

  19. Distribution and evolution of het gene homologs in the basidiomycota.

    PubMed

    Van der Nest, M A; Olson, A; Lind, M; Vélëz, H; Dalman, K; Brandström Durling, M; Karlsson, M; Stenlid, J

    2014-03-01

    In filamentous fungi a system known as somatic incompatibility (SI) governs self/non-self recognition. SI is controlled by a regulatory signaling network involving proteins encoded at the het (heterokaryon incompatible) loci. Despite the wide occurrence of SI, the molecular identity and structure of only a small number of het genes and their products have been characterized in the model fungi Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina. Our aim was to identify and study the distribution and evolution of putative het gene homologs in the Basidiomycota. For this purpose we used the information available for the model fungi to identify homologs of het genes in other fungi, especially the Basidiomycota. Putative het-c, het-c2 and un-24 homologs, as well as sequences containing the NACHT, HET or WD40 domains present in the het-e, het-r, het-6 and het-d genes were identified in certain members of the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The widespread phylogenetic distribution of certain het genes may reflect the fact that the encoded proteins are involved in fundamental cellular processes other than SI. Although homologs of het-S were previously known only from the Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota), we also identified a putative homolog of this gene in Gymnopus luxurians (Basidiomycota, class Agaricomycetes). Furthermore, with the exception of un-24, all of the putative het genes identified occurred mostly in a multi-copy fashion, some with lineage and species-specific expansions. Overall our results indicated that gene duplication followed by gene loss and/or gene family expansion, as well as multiple events of domain fusion and shuffling played an important role in the evolution of het gene homologs of Basidiomycota and other filamentous fungi. PMID:24380733

  20. STITCHER: Dynamic assembly of likely amyloid and prion ?-structures from secondary structure predictions.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Allen W; O'Donnell, Charles W; Menke, Matthew; Cowen, Lenore J; Lindquist, Susan; Berger, Bonnie

    2012-02-01

    The supersecondary structure of amyloids and prions, proteins of intense clinical and biological interest, are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant conformational heterogeneity is known or suspected to exist in many amyloid fibrils. Previous work has demonstrated that probability-based prediction of discrete ?-strand pairs can offer insight into these structures. Here, we devise a system of energetic rules that can be used to dynamically assemble these discrete ?-strand pairs into complete amyloid ?-structures. The STITCHER algorithm progressively 'stitches' strand-pairs into full ?-sheets based on a novel free-energy model, incorporating experimentally observed amino-acid side-chain stacking contributions, entropic estimates, and steric restrictions for amyloidal parallel ?-sheet construction. A dynamic program computes the top 50 structures and returns both the highest scoring structure and a consensus structure taken by polling this list for common discrete elements. Putative structural heterogeneity can be inferred from sequence regions that compose poorly. Predictions show agreement with experimental models of Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide and the Podospora anserina Het-s prion. Predictions of the HET-s homolog HET-S also reflect experimental observations of poor amyloid formation. We put forward predicted structures for the yeast prion Sup35, suggesting N-terminal structural stability enabled by tyrosine ladders, and C-terminal heterogeneity. Predictions for the Rnq1 prion and alpha-synuclein are also given, identifying a similar mix of homogenous and heterogeneous secondary structure elements. STITCHER provides novel insight into the energetic basis of amyloid structure, provides accurate structure predictions, and can help guide future experimental studies. PMID:22095906

  1. Signal Transduction by a Fungal NOD-Like Receptor Based on Propagation of a Prion Amyloid Fold

    PubMed Central

    Daskalov, Asen; Habenstein, Birgit; Martinez, Denis; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Sabaté, Raimon; Loquet, Antoine; Saupe, Sven J.

    2015-01-01

    In the fungus Podospora anserina, the [Het-s] prion induces programmed cell death by activating the HET-S pore-forming protein. The HET-s ?-solenoid prion fold serves as a template for converting the HET-S prion-forming domain into the same fold. This conversion, in turn, activates the HET-S pore-forming domain. The gene immediately adjacent to het-S encodes NWD2, a Nod-like receptor (NLR) with an N-terminal motif similar to the elementary repeat unit of the ?-solenoid fold. NLRs are immune receptors controlling cell death and host defense processes in animals, plants and fungi. We have proposed that, analogously to [Het-s], NWD2 can activate the HET-S pore-forming protein by converting its prion-forming region into the ?-solenoid fold. Here, we analyze the ability of NWD2 to induce formation of the ?-solenoid prion fold. We show that artificial NWD2 variants induce formation of the [Het-s] prion, specifically in presence of their cognate ligands. The N-terminal motif is responsible for this prion induction, and mutations predicted to affect the ?-solenoid fold abolish templating activity. In vitro, the N-terminal motif assembles into infectious prion amyloids that display a structure resembling the ?-solenoid fold. In vivo, the assembled form of the NWD2 N-terminal region activates the HET-S pore-forming protein. This study documenting the role of the ?-solenoid fold in fungal NLR function further highlights the general importance of amyloid and prion-like signaling in immunity-related cell fate pathways. PMID:25671553

  2. Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi (Ascomycetes: Hypocreales) against adult Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) under stable conditions in the Mexican dry tropics.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Velasco, E; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Pescador-Rubio, A; Angel-Sahagún, C A; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Contreras-Lara, D

    2015-04-30

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of five strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma) and three strains of Isaria fumosorosea (Ifr) at a concentration of 1×10(8)colonyformingunits/ml applied by spraying onto bovines with controlled infestation of Haematobia irritans under stable conditions in the Mexican dry tropics. Four experiments were performed, in each of which three treatments (two fungal strains and one control) were evaluated with eight repetitions for each one, by carrying out a single application of the aqueous suspension of each strain. The animals were isolated in individual cages and direct counts of the infestation were carried out for 13 days. It was observed that strains Ma2, Ma6, Ma10, Ma14, and Ma34 caused 94-100% reduction in infestation between days 12 and 13 post-treatment, while strains Ifr19, Ifr11, and Ifr12 reduced infestation from 90% to 98% up to day 13 post-application. There was an effect in the generation of horn flies from the excrement of bovines that were treated with different strains, reducing the reproduction of subsequent generations. It was concluded that the strains of M. anisopliae and I. fumosorosea evaluated in this study can be used as biocontrol agents in infestations of H. irritans in stabled bovines. PMID:25771932

  3. GzSNF1 Is Required for Normal Sexual and Asexual Development in the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Ho Lee; Jungkwan Lee; Seunghoon Lee; Eun-Hee Park; Ki-Woo Kim; Myoung-Dong Kim; Sung-Hwan Yun; Yin-Won Lee

    2009-01-01

    The sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1) protein kinase of yeast plays a central role in the transcription of glucose-repressible genes in response to glucose starvation. In this study, we deleted an ortholog of SNF1 from Gibberella zeae to characterize its functions by using a gene replacement strategy. The mycelial growth of deletion mutants (GzSNF1) was reduced by 21 to 74% on

  4. Molecular Evidence that the Asexual Industrial Fungus Trichoderma reesei is a Clonal Derivative of the Ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kuhls; E. Lieckfeldt; G. J. Samuels; W. Kovacs; W. Meyer; O. Petrini; W. Gams; T. Borner; C. P. Kubicek

    1996-01-01

    The relationship of the important cellulase producing asexual fungus Trichoderma reesei to its putative teleomorphic (sexual) ancestor Hypocrea jecorina and other species of the Trichoderma sect. Longibrachiatum was studied by PCR-fingerprinting and sequence analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA region containing the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene. The differences in the corresponding ITS sequences

  5. FgFlbD regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. The fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. In a model filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. The objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism of action in F. graminearum. We characterized five fluffy gene homologs in F. graminearum and found that FlbD is the only conserved regulator for conidiogenesis in A. nidulans and F. graminearum. Deletion of fgflbD prevented hyphal differentiation and the formation of perithecia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans flbD demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for FlbD functions are conserved in F. graminearum. Moreover, abaA-wetA pathway is positively regulated by FgFlbD during conidiogenesis in F. graminearum. Deleting fgflbD abolished morphological effects of abaA overexpression, which suggests that additional factors for FgFlbD or an AbaA-independent pathway for conidiogenesis are required for F. graminearum conidiation. Importantly, this study led to the construction of a genetic pathway of F. graminearum conidiogenesis and provides new insights into the genetics of conidiogenesis in fungi. PMID:25277408

  6. Genome and physiology of the ascomycete filamentous fungus Xeromyces bisporus, the most xerophilic organism isolated to date.

    PubMed

    Leong, Su-Lin L; Lantz, Henrik; Pettersson, Olga V; Frisvad, Jens C; Thrane, Ulf; Heipieper, Hermann J; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Grabherr, Manfred; Pettersson, Mats; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Schnürer, Johan

    2015-02-01

    Xeromyces bisporus can grow on sugary substrates down to 0.61, an extremely low water activity. Its genome size is approximately 22?Mb. Gene clusters encoding for secondary metabolites were conspicuously absent; secondary metabolites were not detected experimentally. Thus, in its 'dry' but nutrient-rich environment, X.?bisporus appears to have relinquished abilities for combative interactions. Elements to sense/signal osmotic stress, e.g. HogA pathway, were present in X.?bisporus. However, transcriptomes at optimal (??0.89) versus low aw (0.68) revealed differential expression of only a few stress-related genes; among these, certain (not all) steps for glycerol synthesis were upregulated. Xeromyces bisporus increased glycerol production during hypo- and hyper-osmotic stress, and much of its wet weight comprised water and rinsable solutes; leaked solutes may form a protective slime. Xeromyces bisporus and other food-borne moulds increased membrane fatty acid saturation as water activity decreased. Such modifications did not appear to be transcriptionally regulated in X.?bisporus; however, genes modulating sterols, phospholipids and the cell wall were differentially expressed. Xeromyces bisporus was previously proposed to be a 'chaophile', preferring solutes that disorder biomolecular structures. Both X.?bisporus and the closely related xerophile, Xerochrysium xerophilum, with low membrane unsaturation indices, could represent a phylogenetic cluster of 'chaophiles'. PMID:25142400

  7. [Insecticidal and immunosuppressive effect of ascomycete Cordyceps militaris on the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The immunosuppressive and insecticidal activity of cultures of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris on the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata has been established for the first time. It was found that the peroral effect of the fungal culture resulted in dose-dependent decrease in survival, delayed in development time and molting, decreases in the total hemocyt counts, increased activity of phenoloxidases in the hemolymph, and reduced activity of the enzyme in the cuticle, as well as increased sensitivity of larvae to the fungus Beauveria bassiana at the level of the synergistic effect. PMID:25731041

  8. Infection of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Hesperomyces virescens (Ascomycetes: Laboulbeniales): role of mating status and aggregation behavior.

    PubMed

    Nalepa, Christine A; Weir, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens was studied on Harmonia axyridis in North Carolina, in the southeastern United States. A primary goal was to investigate transmission of the disease by examining the correlation between the pattern of fungal infection and seasonal change in host behavior. Beetles were collected as they arrived at their winter quarters at two sites; in one site they were also subsampled at mid- and late winter. Insects were sexed and weighed, fungal thalli were counted, and their location on the host body mapped; spermathecae of females were examined for sperm. Infection levels varied between sites, differed significantly between the sexes in one site but not the other, and increased by approximately 40% during winter. The distribution of thalli on the body changed seasonally, in concert with behavioral changes in the host. At fall flight, thalli were found most often on the posterior elytra of mated females, virgin females, and males. This is suggestive that the disease had been spread among both sexes via successful and failed copulation attempts; however, the relatively low incidence of infection on the male venter does not fit the sexual transmission scenario. During winter, thallus location shifts in concert with beetle aggregation behavior, with infections more often located on the head and legs. Fresh weight of beetles decreased by approx. 20% during winter, but was not affected by disease status. Prior to spring flight, uninfected females were preferred as mating partners, but the probable relationship between female age and infection status complicates interpretation of the data. PMID:17188291

  9. Production of the alkaloid swainsonine by a fungal endosymbiont of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales in the host Ipomoea carnea.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some plant species within the Convolvulaceae (morning glory family) from South America, Africa, and Australia cause a neurologic disease in grazing livestock caused by swainsonine. These convolvulaceous species including Ipomoea carnea contain the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine, an inhibitor of ...

  10. Various grain substrates for the production of fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds of the medicinal caterpillar mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Liang, Zeng-Chin; Liang, Chih-Hung; Wu, Chiu-Yeh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, several grains such as brown rice (Br), plumule rice (Pr), wheat (W) and pearl barley (Pb) supplemented with 1% (w/w) peptone (P), yeast extract (Ye), ammonia sulfate (As), and monosodium glutamate (Mg) as a nitrogen source, respectively, were used to produce fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds of two strains of Cordyceps militaris. Among these grain substrates, the substrate most suitable to mycelial growth was Pb+Ye for C. militaris H and L. The mushroom strains colonized this substrate in 12.8 and 12.6 days, respectively. For C. militaris L, the fewest days were required for primordial initiation on Br+Ye and Pr+P substrates. The highest yield and biological efficiency was observed with Pb substrate (25.16 g/bottle and 87.36%) and Br+P substrate (21.84 g/bottle and 75.83%) for C. militaris H and L, respectively. In the fruiting bodies of C. militaris H, the highest cordycepin content was cultivated on W+Mg substrate (25.07 mg/g), the highest mannitol content was cultivated with Pr+Mg (153.21 mg/g) and Pr (151.65 mg/g) substrates, and the highest adenosine content was cultivated with Pr+Ye (0.94 mg/g) and Pb+Ye (0.90 mg/g) substrates. In the fruiting bodies of C. militaris L, the highest cordycepin content was cultivated with W+Mg substrate (22.14 mg/g); the highest mannitol content was cultivated with Pb substrate (189.33 mg/g); and the highest adenosine content was cultivated with Pb+Ye substrate (0.71 mg/g). PMID:25404221

  11. Tholurna dissimilis and generic delimitations in Caliciaceae inferred from nuclear ITS and LSU rDNA phylogenies ( Lecanorales, lichenized ascomycetes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif Tibell

    2003-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Tholurna dissimilis were investigated in relation to a phylogeny of twenty-three species in Caliciaceae and eighteen species from Physciaceae. ITS and LSU regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA were used for the reconstruction of phylogenies by maximum parsimony methods. Calicium adaequatum was shown to be the closest relative of and possibly congeneric with Tholurna. Calicium is

  12. Cell polarity and hyphal morphogenesis are controlled by multiple rho-protein modules in the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed Central

    Wendland, J; Philippsen, P

    2001-01-01

    Polarized cell growth requires a polarized organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho-family have been shown to be involved in the regulation of actin polarization as well as other processes. Hyphal growth in filamentous fungi represents an ideal model to investigate mechanisms involved in generating cell polarity and establishing polarized cell growth. Since a potential role of Rho-proteins has not been studied so far in filamentous fungi we isolated and characterized the Ashbya gossypii homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC42, CDC24, RHO1, and RHO3 genes. The AgCDC42 and AgCDC24 genes can both complement conditional mutations in the S. cerevisiae CDC42 and CDC24 genes and both proteins are required for the establishment of actin polarization in A. gossypii germ cells. Agrho1 mutants show a cell lysis phenotype. Null mutant strains of Agrho3 show periodic swelling of hyphal tips that is overcome by repolarization and polar hyphal growth in a manner resembling the germination pattern of spores. Thus different Rho-protein modules are required for distinct steps during polarized hyphal growth of A. gossypii. PMID:11156982

  13. A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Léon, Céline; Gomès, Eric; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14?500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S+R+), infected asymptomatic plants (S–R+), and healthy plants (S–R–). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S+R+ plants compared with S–R– plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040

  14. Antioxidant and antiradical properties of methanolic extracts from algerian wild edible desert truffles (terfezia and tirmania, ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Gouzi, Hicham; Leboukh, Mourad; Bouchouka, Elmouloud

    2013-01-01

    Wild edible truffles (namely, Terfezia leonis, Tirmania pinoyi, and T. nivea) were commercially obtained from Southern Algeria and methanolic extracts were prepared from these truffles. Their antioxidant and antiradical properties were studied by using five analytical methods: scavenging capacity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS·+), superoxide anion (O2·-) radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and ferricyanide/Prussian blue assay. Chemical constituents contributing to these activities were also investigated. T. leonis had the highest total phenolics, total carotenoids, and anthocyanin contents. At 2.6 mg/mL, scavenging effects on the DPPH· radical were 92.47%, 53.06%, and 41.34% for T. leonis, T. pinoyi, and T. nivea, respectively. T. leonis showed the most potent radical scavenging activities on DPPH·, ABTS·+, and O2·- radicals, with EC50 values of 1.08, 1.35, and 7.27 mg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, T. leonis exhibited the highest reductive capabilities. On the basis of the EC50 values, T. leonis had good antioxidant and antiradical properties. These results showed that methanolic extracts from these three truffles species had effective antioxidant and antiradical properties. Therefore, wild edible desert truffles could serve as an easily accessible item of food rich in natural antioxidants, as a possible food supplement, or even as a pharmaceutical agent. PMID:24266372

  15. Identification of clinically important ascomycetous yeasts based on nucleotide divergence in the 5' end of the large-subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kurtzman, C P; Robnett, C J

    1997-01-01

    Clinically important species of Candida and related organisms were compared for extent of nucleotide divergence in the 5' end of the large-subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene. This rDNA region is sufficiently variable to allow reliable separation of all known clinically significant yeast species. Of the 204 described species examined, 21 appeared to be synonyms of previously described organisms. Phylogenetic relationships among the species are presented. PMID:9114410

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of ascomycete yeasts that form coenzyme Q-9 and the proposal of the new genera Babjeviella, Meyerozyma, Millerozyma, Priceomyces and Scheffersomyces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species assigned to the genera Debaryomyces, Lodderomyces, Spathaspora and Yamadazyma, as well as selected species of Pichia and Candida that also form coenzyme Q-9, were phylogenetically analyzed from the combined sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit and the small subunit rRNA genes....

  17. NPS6, Encoding a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase Involved in Siderophore-Mediated Iron Metabolism, is a Conserved Virulence Determinant of Plant Pathogenic Ascomycetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NPS6, encoding a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, is a virulence determinant in the corn pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus and is also involved in resistance to oxidative stress, generated by hydrogen peroxide. Deletion of NPS6 orthologs in the rice pathogen, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the cereal...

  18. Mitochondrial Carnitine-Dependent Acetyl Coenzyme A Transport Is Required for Normal Sexual and Asexual Development of the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    Fungi have evolved efficient metabolic mechanisms for the exact temporal (developmental stages) and spatial (organelles) production of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). We previously demonstrated mechanistic roles of several acetyl-CoA synthetic enzymes, namely, ATP citrate lyase and acetyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs), in the plant-pathogenic fungus Gibberella zeae. In this study, we characterized two carnitine acetyltransferases (CATs; CAT1 and CAT2) to obtain a better understanding of the metabolic processes occurring in G. zeae. We found that CAT1 functioned as an alternative source of acetyl-CoA required for lipid accumulation in an ACS1 deletion mutant. Moreover, deletion of CAT1 and/or CAT2 resulted in various defects, including changes to vegetative growth, asexual/sexual development, trichothecene production, and virulence. Although CAT1 is associated primarily with peroxisomal CAT function, mislocalization experiments showed that the role of CAT1 in acetyl-CoA transport between the mitochondria and cytosol is important for sexual and asexual development in G. zeae. Taking these data together, we concluded that G. zeae CATs are responsible for facilitating the exchange of acetyl-CoA across intracellular membranes, particularly between the mitochondria and the cytosol, during various developmental stages. PMID:22798392

  19. Purifying selection and birth-and-death evolution in the class II hydrophobin gene families of the ascomycete Trichoderma\\/Hypocrea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian P. kubicek; Scott E. Baker; Christian Gamauf; Charles M. Kenerley; Irina S. Druzhinina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi. Their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air or during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and solubility characteristics, hydrophobins are divided into two

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Ascomycete Phaeoacremonium aleophilum Strain UCR-PA7, a Causal Agent of the Esca Disease Complex in Grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Rolshausen, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine infections by Phaeoacremonium aleophilum in association with other pathogenic fungi cause complex and economically important vascular diseases. Here we present the first draft of the P. aleophilum genome sequence, which comprises 624 scaffolds with a total length of 47.5 Mb (L50, 45; N50, 336 kb) and 8,926 predicted protein-coding genes. PMID:23814032

  1. Exothermic processes in industrial-scale piles of chipped pine-wood are linked to shifts in gamma-, alphaproteobacterial and fungal ascomycete communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Noll; Annette Naumann; Fabio Ferrero; Marcus Malow

    2010-01-01

    Fast growing softwood species such as pine are preferred for biomass-based heat as well as electricity production and stored in large quantities. A newly established outdoor pile of freshly cut pine-wood chips was monitored to analyze exothermic processes. Inside the pile, a mean temperature increase of up to 44°C was measured after six days of piling which was paralleled by

  2. Using Human Sera to Identify a 52-kDa Exoantigen of Penicillium chrysogenum and Implications of Polyphasic Taxonomy of Anamorphic Ascomycetes in the Study of Antigenic Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron M. Wilson; Wen Luo; J. David Miller

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in isolating and identifying antigenic fungal proteins from species that grow on damp building materials.\\u000a The indoor clade of Penicillium chrysogenum, the so-called Fleming clade, is the most common species of Penicillium on moldy building materials. We have identified a 52-kDa marker protein for the indoor clade of P. chrysogenum not present in a taxonomically diverse selection

  3. Cch1 and Mid1 are functionally required for vegetative growth under low-calcium conditions in the phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Harren, Karin; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2013-05-01

    In the filamentous phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea, the Ca(2+)/calcineurin signaling cascade has been shown to play an important role in fungal growth, differentiation, and virulence. This study deals with the functional characterization of two components of this pathway, the putative calcium channel proteins Cch1 and Mid1. The cch1 and mid1 genes were deleted, and single and double knockout mutants were analyzed during different stages of the fungal life cycle. Our data indicate that Cch1 and Mid1 are functionally required for vegetative growth under conditions of low extracellular calcium, since the growth of both deletion mutants is strongly impaired when they are exposed to the Ca(2+)-chelating agents EGTA and 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). The impact of external Ca(2+) was investigated by supplementing with CaCl(2) and the ionophore A23187, both of which resulted in elevated growth for all mutants. However, deletion of either gene had no impact on germination, sporulation, hyphal morphology, or virulence. By use of the aequorin reporter system to measure intracellular calcium levels, no differences between the mutant strains and the wild type were obtained. Localization studies revealed a subcellular distribution of the Mid1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in network-like filaments, probably the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, indicating that Mid1 is not a plasma membrane-located calcium channel in B. cinerea. PMID:23475703

  4. Using human sera to identify a 52-kDa exoantigen of Penicillium chrysogenum and implications of polyphasic taxonomy of anamorphic ascomycetes in the study of antigenic proteins.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Aaron M; Luo, Wen; Miller, J David

    2009-11-01

    We are interested in isolating and identifying antigenic fungal proteins from species that grow on damp building materials. The indoor clade of Penicillium chrysogenum, the so-called Fleming clade, is the most common species of Penicillium on moldy building materials. We have identified a 52-kDa marker protein for the indoor clade of P. chrysogenum not present in a taxonomically diverse selection of fungi. It is found in high concentrations in protein extracted from the fungus grown on paper-faced gypsum wallboard. During this process, we illuminated the variability in response to patient sera and of strains of the fungus collected over a wide geographic area. From a collection of sera from all over the USA, 25 of the 48 patients reacted to the 52-kDa protein from this prescreened collection of sera. Most strain/antibody combinations had proportionate ELISA response associated with the presence of the target. However, approximately 25% of the strain/patient serum combinations included people who responded to many common allergens from the Penicillia. All the P. chrysogenum strains tested produced the target protein. However, there was considerable variability in patient IgG response to 32-, 30-, and 18-kDa antigens and in their production by the various clade 4 strains. The target protein was not found in spores or culture extracts of a wide selection of relevant fungi. It appears that the previous studies have been conducted on strains of the fungus from the three clades not those associated with the built environment. PMID:19590977

  5. Aging as Evolution-Facilitating Program and a Biochemical Approach to Switch It Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    A concept is presented considering aging of living organisms as a final step of their ontogenetic program. It is assumed that such an aging program was invented by biological evolution to facilitate the evolutionary process. Indications are summarized suggesting that controlled production of toxic forms of oxygen (so called reactive oxygen species) by respiring intracellular organelles (mitochondria) is an obligatory component of the aging program. First results of a research project devoted to an attempt to interrupt aging program by antioxidants specifically addressed to mitochondria have been described. Within the framework of the project, antioxidants of a new type (SkQ) were synthesized. SkQs are composed of (i) plastoquinone (an antioxidant moiety), (ii) a penetrating cation, and (iii) a decane or pentane linker. Using planar bilayer phospholipid membranes, we selected SkQ derivatives of the highest penetrability, namely plastoquinonyl decyl triphenylphosphonium (SkQ1), plastoquinonyl decyl rhodamine 19 (SkQR1), and methylplastoquinonyl decyl triphenylphosphonium (SkQ3). Anti- and prooxidant properties of these substances and also of ubiquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium (MitoQ) were tested in isolated mitochondria. Micromolar concentrations of cationic quinones are found to be very strong prooxidants, but in the lower (sub-micromolar) concentrations they display antioxidant activity which decreases in the series SkQ1 = SkQR1 > SkQ3 > MitoQ. Thus, the window between the anti- and prooxidant effects is the smallest for MitoQ and the largest for SkQ1 and SkQR1. SkQ1 is rapidly reduced by complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, i.e. it is a rechargeable antioxidant. Extremely low concentrations of SkQ1 and SkQR1 completely arrest the H2O2-induced apoptosis in human fibroblasts and HeLa cells (for SkQ1, C 1/2 = 8 · 10-9M). Higher concentrations of SkQ1 are required to block necrosis initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In mice, SkQ1 decelerates the development of three types of accelerated aging (progeria) and also of normal aging, and this effect is especially demonstrative at early stages of aging. The same pattern is shown in invertebrates (Drosophila and Daphnia), and fungus (Podospora anserina). In mammals, the effect of SkQs on aging is accompanied by inhibition of development of such age-related diseases as osteoporosis, involution of thymus, cataract, retinopathy, etc. SkQ1 manifests a strong therapeutic action on some already pronounced retinopathies, in particular, congenital retinal dysplasia. With drops containing 250 nM SkQ1, vision is recovered in 66 of 96 animals (dogs, cats and horses) who became blind because of retinopathy. SkQ1-containing drops instilled into eyes prevent the loss of sight in rabbits suffering from experimental uveitis and restore vision to animals that had already become blind due to this pathology. A favorable effect is also achieved in experimental glaucoma in rabbits. Moreover, the pretreatment of rats with 0.2 nM SkQ1 significantly decreases the H2O2-induced arrhythmia of the isolated heart. SkQ1 strongly reduces the damaged area in myocardial infarction or stroke and prevents the death of animals from kidney infarction. In p53-/- mice, SkQ1 decreases the ROS level in the spleen cells and inhibits appearance of lymphomas which are the main cause of death of such animals. As a result, the lifespan increases. SkQs look like promising drugs to treat aging and age-related diseases.

  6. Production of macerating enzymes of mandarin orange peel by fungal cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomichi Nishio; Shiro Nagai

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-nine fungal cultures belonging to the genera of Aspergillus, Podospora, Sordaria, Cbaetomium, Iodophanus, Scleotinia, Coniella, Pellicularia and others, were examined for the production of enzymes which macerate the mandarin orange peel using a wheat bran as substrate. An isolated strain of Aspergillus niger was an excellent producer of macerating enzymes compared to other organisms tested. The peel of the mandarin

  7. Yippie Yi Yo Mycota Ki Yay! A mycologist’s fervently biased account of how the American western frontier was molded by spores and mycelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discussed are white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), cereal rusts (Puccinia spp.), smuts (Tilletia spp.), fungi as agents of recycling in grasslands (e.g., Sporormiella and Podospora spp.), fungal symbionts of bark beetles (e.g., Ophiostoma spp.), impacts of clinical fungi (e.g., Valley Feve...

  8. e-Fungi: a data resource for comparative analysis of fungal genomes

    E-print Network

    Hedeler, Cornelia; Wong, Han Min; Cornell, Michael J; Alam, Intikhab; Soanes, Darren M; Rattray, Magnus; Hubbard, Simon J; Talbot, Nicholas J; Oliver, Stephen G; Paton, Norman W

    2007-11-20

    plant pathogen filamentous Broad Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Ascomycete – Leotiomycetes plant pathogen filamentous Broad Botrytis cinerea Ascomycete – Leotiomycetes plant pathogen filamentous Broad Trichoderma reesei Ascomycete – Sordariomycetes non... Aspergillus nidulans 119 79 15 Stagonospora nodorum 148 83 37 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 92 70 13 Botrytis cinerea 79 53 18 Trichoderma reesei 71 43 10 Gibberella zeae 107 65 14 Chaetomium globosum 89 68 14 Magnaporthe grisea 133 67 30 Neurospora crassa 39 33 2...

  9. CURRICULUM VITAE Name: John Waldo Taylor

    E-print Network

    Development in Chytridium confervae. PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: 2008- Professor Above Scale, Department of Plant Organizing Committee, Int'l Workshop on Ascomycete Systematics, Paris 1993 - Member, American Society

  10. Observations on chytridiaceous parasites of Phanerogams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. K. Sparrow; Joyce E. Griffin

    1964-01-01

    1.A Physoderma on Agropyron repens, common quack grass, infects in the laboratory all other congeneric hosts used.2.Within the Tribe Hordeae, to which Agropyron belongs, representatives of nine genera support growth of some phase of the fungus. The roseaceous host Potentilla anserina is also infected. Other plants associated in the field with infected Agropyron and known to harbor Physoderma are not

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Potentilla species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Micha? Tomczyk; Katarzyna Leszczy?ska; Piotr Jakoniuk

    2008-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of aqueous extracts obtained from aerial parts of Potentilla species: P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis var.‘MissWillmott’, P. recta, P. rupestris and P. thuringiaca were investigated. The extracts showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against H. pylori (MIC=0.1÷0.5 mg\\/ml).

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Potentilla species.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Micha?; Leszczy?ska, Katarzyna; Jakoniuk, Piotr

    2008-12-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of aqueous extracts obtained from aerial parts of Potentilla species: P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis var.'Miss Willmott', P. recta, P. rupestris and P. thuringiaca were investigated. The extracts showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against H. pylori (MIC=0.1/0.5 mg/ml). PMID:18664379

  13. Autofluorescence of grape berries following Botrytis cinerea infection M-C, BLANGER1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Page 1 Autofluorescence of grape berries following Botrytis cinerea infection M-C, BÃ?LANGER1 *, J by Botrytis cinerea (anamorph of an ascomycete fungus) infecting over 200 plant species worldwide and causing Gray mold of grapevines is caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr., the anamorph of an ascomycete fungus

  14. Phylogenetic Characterization and In Situ Detection of a Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides Phylogroup Bacterium in Tuber borchii Vittad. Ectomycorrhizal Mycelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELENA BARBIERI; LUCIA POTENZA; ISMAELA ROSSI; DAVIDE SISTI; GIOVANNA GIOMARO; SIMONA ROSSETTI; CLAUDIA BEIMFOHR; VILBERTO STOCCHI

    2000-01-01

    Mycorrhizal ascomycetous fungi are obligate ectosymbionts that colonize the roots of gymnosperms and angiosperms. In this paper we describe a straightforward approach in which a combination of morphological and molecular methods was used to survey the presence of potentially endo- and epiphytic bacteria associated with the ascomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii Vittad. Universal eubacterial primers specific for the 5* and

  15. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications in Neurospora can disrupt genes and create novel open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parmit K; Iyer, Srividhya V; Sowjanya, T Naga; Raj, B Kranthi; Kasbekar, Durgadas P

    2010-12-01

    In Neurospora crassa, crosses between normal sequence strains and strains bearing some translocations can yield progeny bearing a duplication (Dp) of the translocated chromosome segment. Here, 30 breakpoint junction sequences of 12 Dp-generating translocations were determined. The breakpoints disrupted 13 genes (including predicted genes), and created 10 novel open reading frames. Insertion of sequences from LG III into LG I as translocation T(UK8-18) disrupts the eat-3 gene, which is the ortholog of the Podospora anserine gene ami1. Since ami1-homozygous Podospora crosses were reported to increase the frequency of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), we performed crosses homozygous for a deficiency in eat-3 to test for a corresponding increase in RIP frequency. However, our results suggested that, unlike in Podospora, the eat-3 gene might be essential for ascus development in Neurospora. Duplication-heterozygous crosses are generally barren in Neurospora; however, by using molecular probes developed in this study, we could identify Dp segregants from two different translocation-heterozygous crosses, and using these we found that the barren phenotype of at least some duplication-heterozygous crosses was incompletely penetrant. PMID:21289436

  16. Nomenklatorische Anmerkungen zur Gattung Potentilla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji?í Soják

    1969-01-01

    Für folgende inkorrekte Epitheta schlägt der Autor richtige Namen vor, die in Klammern angeführt sind:Potentilla opizii\\u000a Dom. (=P. lindackeri\\u000a Tausch),P. dealbata\\u000a Bunge (=P. virgata\\u000a Lehm.),P. poterioides\\u000a Franch. (=P. limprichtii\\u000a J. Krause),P. fulgens\\u000a Wall. exHook. (=P. siemersiana\\u000a Lehm.),P. labradorica\\u000a Lehm. (=P. flexuosa\\u000a Raf.),P. ambigua\\u000a Camb. (=P. cuneifolia\\u000a Bertol.),P. anserina ssp.egedii\\u000a (Wormsk.) Hitt. (=P. anserina ssp.groenlandica\\u000a Tratt.),P. raddeana\\u000a (Wolf) Juz. (=P. bertramii

  17. Involvement of birds in the epidemiology of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W

    1986-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was isolated from the liver of a passerine bird, Catharus fuscescens (veery), and from larval Ixodes dammini (tick) feeding on Pheucticus ludovicianus (rose-breasted grosbeak) and Geothlypis trichas (common yellowthroat). In indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests, isolates reacted with polyclonal and monoclonal (H5332) antibodies. Studies on the DNA composition of the veery liver isolate and the strain cultured from an I. dammini larva indicated that both were B. burgdorferi and not Borrelia anserina or Borrelia hermsii. The veery liver isolate infected hamsters and a chick. In contrast, B. anserina infected chicks but not hamsters. B. burgdorferi is unique among Borrelia spp. in being infectious to both mammals and birds. We suggest that the cosmopolitan distribution of B. burgdorferi may be caused by long-distance dispersal of infected birds that serve as hosts for ticks. PMID:3943893

  18. Involvement of birds in the epidemiology of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W

    1986-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was isolated from the liver of a passerine bird, Catharus fuscescens (veery), and from larval Ixodes dammini (tick) feeding on Pheucticus ludovicianus (rose-breasted grosbeak) and Geothlypis trichas (common yellowthroat). In indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests, isolates reacted with polyclonal and monoclonal (H5332) antibodies. Studies on the DNA composition of the veery liver isolate and the strain cultured from an I. dammini larva indicated that both were B. burgdorferi and not Borrelia anserina or Borrelia hermsii. The veery liver isolate infected hamsters and a chick. In contrast, B. anserina infected chicks but not hamsters. B. burgdorferi is unique among Borrelia spp. in being infectious to both mammals and birds. We suggest that the cosmopolitan distribution of B. burgdorferi may be caused by long-distance dispersal of infected birds that serve as hosts for ticks. PMID:3943893

  19. Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from blood of a bird captured in the Saint Croix River Valley.

    PubMed

    McLean, R G; Ubico, S R; Hughes, C A; Engstrom, S M; Johnson, R C

    1993-08-01

    Field investigations were conducted to further evaluate the role of birds in the maintenance and dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi. Blood specimens were taken from 39 passerine birds of 17 species captured during June 1991 at the Saint Croix National Riverway in Wisconsin, and one isolate, WI91-23, was cultured from an adult song sparrow (Melospiza melodia). This isolate was shown to be infectious for Peromyscus leucopus and Mesocricetus auratus (golden hamster). Isolate WI91-23 was confirmed as B. burgdorferi by immunofluorescence assay by using species-specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibodies H3TS and H5332 and anti-OspB antibody H5TS. Isolate WI91-23 was compared with Borrelia anserina Es, Borrelia hermsii MAN-1, and other B. burgdorferi strains (ATCC 53210, CT-1, and Catharus fuscescens [veery] liver 10293). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of in situ-lysed spirochetes revealed that the DNA plasmid profile of WI91-23 was most similar to those of plasmids from B. burgdorferi and most different from those of plasmids from B. anserina and B. hermsii. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the protein profile of WI91-23 was like that of other B. burgdorferi strains studied, with dominant proteins corresponding to OspA and OspB, and that it differed from the protein profiles of B. anserina and B. hermsii. These findings indicate that passerine birds may serve as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi. PMID:8370728

  20. Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from blood of a bird captured in the Saint Croix River Valley.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, R G; Ubico, S R; Hughes, C A; Engstrom, S M; Johnson, R C

    1993-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to further evaluate the role of birds in the maintenance and dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi. Blood specimens were taken from 39 passerine birds of 17 species captured during June 1991 at the Saint Croix National Riverway in Wisconsin, and one isolate, WI91-23, was cultured from an adult song sparrow (Melospiza melodia). This isolate was shown to be infectious for Peromyscus leucopus and Mesocricetus auratus (golden hamster). Isolate WI91-23 was confirmed as B. burgdorferi by immunofluorescence assay by using species-specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibodies H3TS and H5332 and anti-OspB antibody H5TS. Isolate WI91-23 was compared with Borrelia anserina Es, Borrelia hermsii MAN-1, and other B. burgdorferi strains (ATCC 53210, CT-1, and Catharus fuscescens [veery] liver 10293). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of in situ-lysed spirochetes revealed that the DNA plasmid profile of WI91-23 was most similar to those of plasmids from B. burgdorferi and most different from those of plasmids from B. anserina and B. hermsii. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the protein profile of WI91-23 was like that of other B. burgdorferi strains studied, with dominant proteins corresponding to OspA and OspB, and that it differed from the protein profiles of B. anserina and B. hermsii. These findings indicate that passerine birds may serve as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi. Images PMID:8370728

  1. Peritonitis Due to Blastobotrys proliferans in a Patient Undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis?

    PubMed Central

    Quirin, N.; Desnos-Ollivier, M.; Cantin, J. F.; Valery, J. C.; Doussy, Y.; Goursaud, R.; Dromer, F.; Tivollier, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Blastobotrys proliferans is an ascomycetous yeast never previously reported as a human pathogen. Here we report a case of peritonitis due to Blastobotrys proliferans in a 46-year-old man undergoing peritoneal dialysis. PMID:17699647

  2. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Vol. 4(9), pp. 266-268, 14 May, 2012 Available online http:// academicjournals.org/JAERD

    E-print Network

    , Ceratocystiopsis, Grosmannia, Ophiostoma, Leptographium and Pesotum were documented in a survey in Western Bhutan bhutanensis, Ophiostoma sensu lato, blue-stain fungi, fungal associates, insect- fungus symbiosis to the ascomycete genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, Ceratocystiopsis and Ceratocystis and related anamorph genera

  3. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To decipher the cosmopolitan distribution of this fungus, the population genetic structure of 17 geographic samples was investigated from four continental regions (Australia, California, Europ...

  4. Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina from multigene sequence analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most known species of the subphylum Saccharomycotina (budding ascomycetous yeasts) have now been placed in phylogenetically defined clades following multigene sequence analysis. Terminal clades, which are usually well supported from bootstrap analysis, are viewed as phylogenetically circumscribed ge...

  5. Sex, outcrossing and mating types: unsolved questions in fungi and beyond

    E-print Network

    López-Villavicencio, Manuela

    fuse. The long-term persistence of eukaryotes relying exclusively on asexual reproduction is rare Keywords: ascomycete; asexual reproduction; basidiomycete; breeding systems; diploid selfing; gametophytic- nance of asexual vs. sexual reproduction a

  6. Didymella rabiei primary inoculum release from chickpea debris in relation to weather variables in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Didymella rabiei (anamorph: Ascochyta rabiei), the ascomycete fungus that causes Ascochyta blight of chickpea, produces pseudothecia on overwintered chickpea debris. Ascospores released from pseudothecia are thought to constitute an important primary inoculum source for Ascochyta blight epidemics i...

  7. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens - an integrative approach to discovering and delimiting fungal species in the lichen-forming rhizoplaca melanophthalma speciescomplex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing body of evidence indicates that morphology-based species circumspection of lichenized ascomycetes greatly misrepresents the number of existing species. Recently it has been demonstrated that population-level processes operating within diverging populations can facilitate the identification...

  8. Lichen community sampling and transplants at SPRUCE

    E-print Network

    Lichen community sampling and transplants at SPRUCE Program, USDA Forest Service #12;Background · Lichens: symbiosis between ascomycete in depauperate bpreal vegetaNon communiNes #12;Goals for lichens at SPRUCE · Monitor

  9. Original article Does Bacillus larvae produce an antibacterial

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of insects killed by ascomycete Cordyceps militaris are resistant to decay, apparently because of an antibiotic substance pro- duced by the fungus (Cunningham et al, 1951).Similarly, Aspergillus species pro

  10. Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts

    E-print Network

    Regev, Aviv

    The fission yeast clade—comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus—occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative ...

  11. Genetic characterization of grapevine-infecting Botrytis cinerea isolates from Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Muñoz; Sebastián Gómez Talquenca; Enrique Oriolani; Mariana Combina

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundBotrytis cinerea is an ascomycete with a high genetic diversity and complex population structure, as reported from several hosts and sites. However, nothing is known about its genetic diversity in Argentina.

  12. Low levels of nitrogen addition stimulate decomposition by boreal forest fungi Steven D. Allison a,b,*, David S. LeBauer b

    E-print Network

    German, Donovan P.

    of the substrates except spruce needles. However, the Ascomycete (Penicillium) was surprisingly efficient ¼ 0.78 and 0.74, respectively), and Penicillium was particularly effective at producing these enzymes

  13. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Aix galericulata and Tadorna ferruginea: Bearings on Their Phylogenetic Position in the Anseriformes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi; Li, Bo; Zhang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Aix galericulata and Tadorna ferruginea are two Anatidae species representing different taxonomic groups of Anseriformes. We used a PCR-based method to determine the complete mtDNAs of both species, and estimated phylogenetic trees based on the complete mtDNA alignment of these and 14 other Anseriforme species, to clarify Anseriform phylogenetics. Phylogenetic trees were also estimated using a multiple sequence alignment of three mitochondrial genes (Cyt b, ND2, and COI) from 68 typical species in GenBank, to further clarify the phylogenetic relationships of several groups among the Anseriformes. The new mtDNAs are circular molecules, 16,651 bp (Aix galericulata) and 16,639 bp (Tadorna ferruginea) in length, containing the 37 typical genes, with an identical gene order and arrangement as those of other Anseriformes. Comparing the protein-coding genes among the mtDNAs of 16 Anseriforme species, ATG is generally the start codon, TAA is the most frequent stop codon, one of three, TAA, TAG, and T-, commonly observed. All tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures except for tRNASer (AGY) and tRNALeu (CUN), which are missing the "DHU" arm.Phylogenetic relationships demonstrate that Aix galericula and Tadorna ferruginea are in the same group, the Tadorninae lineage, based on our analyses of complete mtDNAs and combined gene data. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the 68 species of Anseriform birds be divided into three families: Anhimidae, Anatidae, and Anseranatidae. The results suggest Anatidae birds be divided into five subfamilies: Anatinae, Tadorninae, Anserinae, Oxyurinae, and Dendrocygninae. Oxyurinae and Dendrocygninae should not belong to Anserinae, but rather represent independent subfamilies. The Anatinae includes species from the tribes Mergini, Somaterini, Anatini, and Aythyini. The Anserinae includes species from the tribes Anserini and Cygnini. PMID:25375111

  14. Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase CYP53 Family in Fungi: Comparative Structural and Evolutionary Analysis and Its Role as a Common Alternative Anti-Fungal Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Jawallapersand, Poojah; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Kova?i?, Lidija; Stojan, Jure; Komel, Radovan; Pakala, Suresh Babu; Kraševec, Nada; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as a drug target against pathogenic microbes has been explored because of their stereo- and regio-specific oxidation activity. We aimed to assess the CYP53 family's role as a common alternative drug target against animal (including human) and plant pathogenic fungi and its role in fungal-mediated wood degradation. Genome-wide analysis of fungal species revealed the presence of CYP53 members in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. Basidiomycetes had a higher number of CYP53 members in their genomes than ascomycetes. Only two CYP53 subfamilies were found in ascomycetes and six subfamilies in basidiomycetes, suggesting that during the divergence of phyla ascomycetes lost CYP53 P450s. According to phylogenetic and gene-structure analysis, enrichment of CYP53 P450s in basidiomycetes occurred due to the extensive duplication of CYP53 P450s in their genomes. Numerous amino acids (103) were found to be conserved in the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s, against only seven in basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s. 3D-modelling and active-site cavity mapping data revealed that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s have a highly conserved protein structure whereby 78% amino acids in the active-site cavity were found to be conserved. Because of this rigid nature of ascomycetes CYP53 P450s' active site cavity, any inhibitor directed against this P450 family can serve as a common anti-fungal drug target, particularly toward pathogenic ascomycetes. The dynamic nature of basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s at a gene and protein level indicates that these P450s are destined to acquire novel functions. Functional analysis of CYP53 P450s strongly supported our hypothesis that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s ability is limited for detoxification of toxic molecules, whereas basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s play an additional role, i.e. involvement in degradation of wood and its derived components. This study is the first report on genome-wide comparative structural (gene and protein structure-level) and evolutionary analysis of a fungal P450 family. PMID:25222113

  15. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP53 family in fungi: comparative structural and evolutionary analysis and its role as a common alternative anti-fungal drug target.

    PubMed

    Jawallapersand, Poojah; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Kova?i?, Lidija; Stojan, Jure; Komel, Radovan; Pakala, Suresh Babu; Kraševec, Nada; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as a drug target against pathogenic microbes has been explored because of their stereo- and regio-specific oxidation activity. We aimed to assess the CYP53 family's role as a common alternative drug target against animal (including human) and plant pathogenic fungi and its role in fungal-mediated wood degradation. Genome-wide analysis of fungal species revealed the presence of CYP53 members in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. Basidiomycetes had a higher number of CYP53 members in their genomes than ascomycetes. Only two CYP53 subfamilies were found in ascomycetes and six subfamilies in basidiomycetes, suggesting that during the divergence of phyla ascomycetes lost CYP53 P450s. According to phylogenetic and gene-structure analysis, enrichment of CYP53 P450s in basidiomycetes occurred due to the extensive duplication of CYP53 P450s in their genomes. Numerous amino acids (103) were found to be conserved in the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s, against only seven in basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s. 3D-modelling and active-site cavity mapping data revealed that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s have a highly conserved protein structure whereby 78% amino acids in the active-site cavity were found to be conserved. Because of this rigid nature of ascomycetes CYP53 P450s' active site cavity, any inhibitor directed against this P450 family can serve as a common anti-fungal drug target, particularly toward pathogenic ascomycetes. The dynamic nature of basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s at a gene and protein level indicates that these P450s are destined to acquire novel functions. Functional analysis of CYP53 P450s strongly supported our hypothesis that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s ability is limited for detoxification of toxic molecules, whereas basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s play an additional role, i.e. involvement in degradation of wood and its derived components. This study is the first report on genome-wide comparative structural (gene and protein structure-level) and evolutionary analysis of a fungal P450 family. PMID:25222113

  16. Transpiration in seven plant species colonizing a fishpond shore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kv?t

    1975-01-01

    In 7 species (Eleocharis palustris\\u000a R. Br.,Juncus bufonius L.,Gypsophila muralis L.,Trifolium repens L.,Agrostis stolonifera L.,Potentilla anserina L. andAchillea millefolium L.) growing in a gradient of habitats from aquatic to terrestrial, on a sandy fishpond shore in Southern Bohemia, Czechoslovakia,\\u000a the daily course of transpiration rate and water content was assessed gravimetrically in their cut-off transpiring parts on\\u000a two typical summer

  17. The Genome and Development-Dependent Transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: A Window into Fungal Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Altegoer, Florian; Freitag, Michael; Gabaldon, Toni; Kempken, Frank; Kumar, Abhishek; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Stajich, Jason E.; Nowrousian, Minou

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ?13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion mutant, showing functional conservation of this developmental regulator. PMID:24068976

  18. Structure and variation of the Anseriformes mitochondrial DNA control region.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zuhao; Ke, Dianhua

    2014-10-20

    Abstract The control region is the major non-coding segment of animal mitochondrial DNA. To infer the structure and variation of Anseriformes mitochondrial DNA control region, the control region sequences of 52 species were analyzed. The length of the control region sequences ranged from 968?bp (Chenonetta jubata) to 1335?bp (Anseranas semipalmata) and can be separated into three domains. There is a deletion of 100-130?bp in Anatinae, compared to other groups of Anserinae. The average genetic distances among the species within the genera varied from 4.14% (Anser) to 10.58% (Cygnus). The average genetic distances showed insignificantly negative correlation with ts/tv. Domain I is the most variable among the three domains among all the genera. Five conserved sequence boxes in the domain II of Anseriformes sequences were identified. The alignment of the Anseriformes five boxes sequences showed considerable sequence variation. CSB-1, -2 and 3 were not found in the Anseriformes. Maximum-likelihood method was used to construct a phylogenetic tree, which grouped all of the genera into four divergent clades. Anseranas?+?Chauna and Dendrocygna were identified as early offshoots of the Anatidae. All the remaining taxa fell into two clades that correspond to the two subfamilies Anserinae and Anatiane. PMID:25329267

  19. Molecular data and ploidal levels indicate several putative allopolyploidization events in the genus Potentilla (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Töpel, Mats; Lundberg, Magnus; Eriksson, Torsten; Eriksen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    Several naturally occurring hybrids in Potentilla (Rosaceae) have been reported, but no molecular evidence has so far been available to test these hypotheses of hybridization. We have compared a nuclear and a chloroplast gene tree to identify topological incongruences that may indicate hybridization events in the genus. Furthermore, the monophyly and phylogenetic position of the proposed segregated genera Argentina, Ivesia and Horkelia have been tested. The systematic signal from the two morphological characters, style- and anther shape, has also been investigated by ancestral state reconstruction, to elucidate how well these characters concur with the results of the molecular phylogenies. Six major clades, Anserina, Alba, Fragarioides, Reptans, ivesioid and Argentea, have been identified within genus Potentilla. Horkelia, Ivesia and Horkeliella (the ivesioid clade), form a monophyletic group nested within Potentilla. Furthermore, the origin of the proposed segregated genus Argentina (the Anserina clade) is uncertain but not in conflict with a new generic status of the group. We also found style morphology to be an informative character that reflects the phylogenetic relationships within Potentilla. Five well-supported incongruences were found between the nuclear and the chloroplast phylogenies, and three of these involved polyploid taxa. However, further investigations, using low copy molecular markers, are required to infer the phylogeny of these species and to test the hypothesis of hybrid origin. PMID:21603100

  20. Molecular data and ploidal levels indicate several putative allopolyploidization events in the genus Potentilla (Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Töpel, Mats; Lundberg, Magnus; Eriksson, Torsten; Eriksen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    Several naturally occurring hybrids in Potentilla (Rosaceae) have been reported, but no molecular evidence has so far been available to test these hypotheses of hybridization. We have compared a nuclear and a chloroplast gene tree to identify topological incongruences that may indicate hybridization events in the genus. Furthermore, the monophyly and phylogenetic position of the proposed segregated genera Argentina, Ivesia and Horkelia have been tested. The systematic signal from the two morphological characters, style- and anther shape, has also been investigated by ancestral state reconstruction, to elucidate how well these characters concur with the results of the molecular phylogenies. Six major clades, Anserina, Alba, Fragarioides, Reptans, ivesioid and Argentea, have been identified within genus Potentilla. Horkelia, Ivesia and Horkeliella (the ivesioid clade), form a monophyletic group nested within Potentilla. Furthermore, the origin of the proposed segregated genus Argentina (the Anserina clade) is uncertain but not in conflict with a new generic status of the group. We also found style morphology to be an informative character that reflects the phylogenetic relationships within Potentilla. Five well-supported incongruences were found between the nuclear and the chloroplast phylogenies, and three of these involved polyploid taxa. However, further investigations, using low copy molecular markers, are required to infer the phylogeny of these species and to test the hypothesis of hybrid origin. PMID:21603100

  1. Release of Dimethylsulfide from Dimethylsulfoniopropionate by Plant-Associated Salt Marsh Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Bacic, M. K.; Newell, S. Y.; Yoch, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    The range of types of microbes with dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) lyase capability (enzymatic release of dimethylsulfide [DMS] from DMSP) has recently been expanded from bacteria and eukaryotic algae to include fungi (a species of the genus Fusarium [M. K. Bacic and D. C. Yoch, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:106–111, 1998]). Fungi (especially ascomycetes) are the predominant decomposers of shoots of smooth cordgrass, the principal grass of Atlantic salt marshes of the United States. Since the high rates of release of DMS from smooth cordgrass marshes have a temporal peak that coincides with peak shoot death, we hypothesized that cordgrass fungi were involved in this DMS release. We tested seven species of the known smooth cordgrass ascomycetes and discovered that six of them exhibited DMSP lyase activity. We also tested two species of ascomycetes from other DMSP-containing plants, and both were DMSP lyase competent. For comparison, we tested 11 species of ascomycetes and mitosporic fungi from halophytes that do not contain DMSP; of these 11, only 3 were positive for DMSP lyase. A third group tested, marine oomycotes (four species of the genera Halophytophthora and Pythium, mostly from mangroves), showed no DMSP lyase activity. Two of the strains of fungi found to be positive for DMSP lyase also exhibited uptake of DMS, an apparently rare combination of capabilities. In conclusion, a strong correlation exists between a fungal decomposer’s ability to catabolize DMSP via the DMSP lyase pathway and the host plant’s production of DMSP as a secondary product. PMID:16349548

  2. Invasive Mycotic Infections Caused by Chaetomium perlucidum, a New Agent of Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Barron; D. A. Sutton; R. Veve; J. Guarro; M. Rinaldi; E. Thompson; P. J. Cagnoni; K. Moultney; N. E. Madinger

    2003-01-01

    We report the first two cases of invasive human mycoses caused by the phaeoid ascomycete, Chaetomium perlucidum, and review the English literature regarding invasive Chaetomium infections. Fatal disseminated disease involving the brain, heart, lungs, and spleen is described in an acute myelogenous leukemia patient. A second patient with a history of asthma and chronic bronchiectasis experiencing right-middle-lobe syndrome grew C.

  3. Comparative genomic analyses of the human fungal pathogens Coccidioides and their relatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Sharpton; Jason E. Stajich; Steven D. Rounsley; Malcolm J. Gardner; Jennifer R. Wortman; Vinita S. Jordar; Rama Maiti; Chinnappa D. Kodira; Daniel E. Neafsey; Qiandong Zeng; Chiung-Yu Hung; Cody McMahan; Anna Muszewska; Marcin Grynberg; M. Alejandra Mandel; Ellen M. Kellner; Bridget M. Barker; John N. Galgiani; Marc J. Orbach; Theo N. Kirkland

    2009-01-01

    While most Ascomycetes tend to associate principally with plants, the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are primary pathogens of immunocompetent mammals, including humans. Infection results from environmental exposure to Coccidiodies, which is believed to grow as a soil saprophyte in arid deserts. To investigate hypotheses about the life history and evolution of Coccidioides, the genomes of several Onygenales,

  4. Phylogeny and redescription of Dolabra nepheliae on rambutan and litchi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) are tropical trees in the Sapindaceae that produce delicious edible fruits and are increasingly cultivated in tropical areas. Recently these trees have been afflicted with a stem canker disease caused by the ascomycete Dolabra nep...

  5. NRPS4 is responsible for the biosynthesis of destruxins in Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 2575

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Destruxins (DTXs) are a family of cyclic depsipeptides that include > 35 members produced by Ascomycetous fungi belonging to several different taxa. These metabolites display a plethora of biological activities including toxicity against insects, depolarization of Ca2+ gradient across the plasma mem...

  6. Molecular Basis for Atovaquone Resistance in Pneumocystis jirovecii Modeled in the Cytochrome bc1Complex of

    E-print Network

    Trumpower, Bernard L.

    Complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae* Received for publication, September 8, 2003, and in revised form-resistant P. jirovecii into the cytochrome b gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and thus obtained cytochrome bc1 to ascomycete fungi and the lack of an in vitro culture system for P. jirovecii suggest that Saccharomyces

  7. A ROLE FOR ASCOSPORES IN WHEAT HEAD BLIGHT EPIDEMICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ascomycete Gibberella zeae (asexual state Fusarium graminearum) causes serious epidemics of wheat head blight worldwide and contaminates grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that are harmful to human and animal health. Anecdotal evidence dating back to the 19th century indicates that G. zeae asc...

  8. Survival, germination, and growth of Epichloe typhina and significance of leaf wounds and insects in infection of orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epichloë typhina, [choke] is an important stroma-producing endophytic ascomycete that is responsible for significant yield loss in orchardgrass seed production fields. Although infections are presumed to occur through leaves and stems, details of the infection process and conditions that favor leaf ...

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of the angiosperm-floricolous insectyeast association: Have yeast and angiosperm lineages co-diversified?

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    : Ascomycetous yeasts Candida Clavispora Diversification Metschnikowia Metschnikowiaceae a b s t r a c species are associated mostly with angiosperms and their insect pollinators over all conti- nents) of nuclear DNA (ACT1, 1st and 2nd codon positions of EF2, Mcm7, and RPB2) sequences. We included 77 species

  10. Investigations into the Introduction of Non-indigenous Marine Organisms

    E-print Network

    shipped from U.S. East Coast to Newport Bay in southern California. These include three common New England periwinkles, the bay mussel Mytilus edulis, isopods, gammarid amphipods, and a marine ascomycete (fungus from interviews of bait dealers in Maine and bait shops and anglers in the Bay Area. The most common

  11. Implications of cellobiohydrolase glycosylation for use in biomass conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Jeoh; William Michener; Michael E Himmel; Stephen R Decker; William S Adney

    2008-01-01

    The cellulase producing ascomycete, Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina), is known to secrete a range of enzymes important for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. It is also widely used for the commercial scale production of industrial enzymes because of its ability to produce high titers of heterologous proteins. During the secretion process, a number of post-translational events can occur, however, that

  12. Zygotorulaspora Kurtzman (2003)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Zygotorulaspora and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The two species in this genus were at different times placed in the genera Torulaspora, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces. Multigene phylogenetic analysis sho...

  13. Debaryomyces Lodder & Kreger-van Rij (1952)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Debaryomyces and is to be published in The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Debaryomyces has nine described species, many of which are worldwide in distribution. Most notable species is D. hansenii, which is found in soil, plant de...

  14. Blastobotrys von Klopotek (1967)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the anamorphic ascomycete genus Blastobotrys and is to be published in The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Blastobotrys, which represents the asexual state of the genus Trichomonascus, has been phylogenetically defined and has 21 assigned species. Blastobot...

  15. This article was published in the above mentioned Springer issue. The material, including all portions thereof, is protected by copyright;

    E-print Network

    5 #12;Ophiostoma tsotsi sp. nov., A Wound-infesting Fungus of Hardwood Trees in Africa Joha W study on the Ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma quercus reported that some isolates from Africa were are described here as a new species, O. tsotsi sp. nov. Keywords Ophiostoma quercus Á Blue-stain fungi Á Pesotum

  16. Volume 94, pp. 159-173 October-December 2005 Discovery and description of a teleomorph for

    E-print Network

    perithecia ofan Ophiostoma sp.Characteristics of this teleomorph were similar to those of Ophiostoma perithecia confirming this identification. The teleomorph of L. koreanum is thus described here as Ophiostoma of the ascomycete genus Ophiostoma Syd. et P. Syd. They include economically important agents of sap-stain as well

  17. Global genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata is a trunk pathogen of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in all major grape-growing regions of the world. Throughout its geographic range, it is considered a generalist pathogen that can complete its life cycle on a broad range of hosts. To decipher the cosmopol...

  18. Ascosporas de Monosporascus cannonballus en Suelo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Sales Junior; Roberto Beltrán; Sami J. Michereff; Josep Armengol; José García-Jiménez; Érika Valente de Medeiros

    Analysis of different types of sugar in the extraction method of ascospores of Monosporascus cannonballus in soil The objective of this work was to test different kinds of sugar for the extraction of ascospores of M. cannonballus. The ascospores of this ascomycete involved in melon (Cucumis melo) collapse can be recovered from soil by a physical method using a gradient

  19. RFLP Markers Show Genetic Recombination in Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) and Transposable Elements Reveal Two Sympatric Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Giraud; Dominique Fortini; Caroline Levis; Pierre Leroux; Yves Brygoo

    Molecular markers revealed that Botryotinia jiickeliana (the teleomorph of Botrytis cinerea), a haploid, filamentous, heterothallic ascomycete, contained a large amount of intrapopulation genetic variation. The markers were used to determine the mode of reproduction and the population structure of this fungus. We did not detect any differentiation between isolates from different organs, collection dates, varieties of grape, or locations in

  20. Variations in ploidy among isolates of Botrytis cinerea : implications for genetic and molecular analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Büttner; Frank Koch; Kerstin Voigt; Thomas Quidde; Siegfried Risch; Rolf Blaich; Bettina Briickner; Paul Tudzynski

    1994-01-01

    Field isolates and laboratory strains of Botrytis cinerea, an ascomycetous fungus causing considerable economic losses, e.g., as “grey mould” of vine, were compared for differences in ploidy level by determining their DNA content per nucleus. Strain SAS56, an ascospore line used routinely for genetic analyses, is probably polyploid, since treatment with benomyl causes a significant reduction in DNA content per

  1. Schwanniomyces Klocker emend. M. Suzuki & Kurtzman (2010)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Schwanniomyces and is to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edn. The genus Schwanniomyces has seven assigned species, many worldwide in distribution. Schwanniomyces is one of the few yeast genera with species that seem to live in th...

  2. Biological and Chemical Complexity of Fusarium proliferatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium proliferatum (teleomorph Gibberella intermedia) is a genetically diverse biological and phylogenetic species with a worldwide distribution and an unusually broad host range. F. proliferatum is a frequent component of the Fusarium ear rot complexes of maize and ...

  3. Protomyces Unger (1833)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycetous fungal genus Protomyces and is to be published in "The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." Species of the genus Protomyces are plant pathogens that attack asters, wild celery, coriander and certain other plants. Symptoms include disruption of stems, lea...

  4. Recognition of Yeast Species from Gene Sequence Comparisons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review discusses recognition of yeast species from gene sequence comparisons, which have been responsible for doubling the number of known yeasts over the past decade. The resolution provided by various single gene sequences is examined for both ascomycetous and basidiomycetous species, and th...

  5. Intracellular accommodation of microbes by plants: a common developmental program for symbiosis and disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Parniske

    2000-01-01

    Plant cells engage in mutualistic and parasitic endosymbioses with a wide variety of microoganisms, ranging from Gram-negative (Rhizobium, Nostoc) and Gram-positive bacteria (Frankia), to oomycetes (Phytophthora), Chytridiomycetes, Zygomycetes (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) and true fungi (Erysiphe, ascomycete; Puccinia, basidiomycete). Endosymbiosis is characterised by the 'symbiosome', a compartment within host cells in which the symbiotic microorganism is either partially or completely enclosed

  6. Basis for inhibition of Pyrenophora teres by Laetisaria arvalis, a scanning and transmission electron microscopic study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The broadly occurring foliar disease of barley, net blotch is caused by Pyrenophora teres, an ascomycete and could result in significant yield loss under heavy disease pressure. The basidiomycete, Laetisaria arvalis has been reported to have biological control activity over some plant pathogens. In ...

  7. Lodderomyces van der Walt (1971)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Lodderomyces and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The genus Lodderomyces has one species, L. elongisporus. The species has been isolated as a spoilage agent of fruit juices and concentrates, from soil and from hum...

  8. Saccharomycopsis Schionning (1903)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Saccharomycopsis and is to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Saccharomycopsis has 11 assigned species, many worldwide in distribution. Certain species, such as S. fibuligera, are commonly found in fermented, cere...

  9. The Botrytis cinerea aspartic proteinase family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arjen ten Have; José J. Espino; Ester Dekkers; Steven C. Van Sluyter; Nélida Brito; John Kay; Celedonio González; Jan A. L. van Kan

    2010-01-01

    The ascomycete plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea secretes aspartic proteinase (AP) activity. Functional analysis was carried out on five aspartic proteinase genes (Bcap1-5) reported previously. Single and double mutants lacking these five genes showed neither a reduced secreted proteolytic activity, nor a reduction in virulence and they showed no alteration in sensitivity to antifungal proteins purified from grape juice. Scrutiny of

  10. Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) from multigene phylogenetic analysis of type species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phylogenetic relatedness among ascomycetous yeast genera (subphylum Saccharomycotina, phylum Ascomycota) has been uncertain. In the present study, type species of 70 currently recognized genera are compared from divergence in the nearly entire nuclear gene sequences for large subunit rRNA, small sub...

  11. Genetic Diversity of Polyketide Synthase/Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes in Isolates of the Barley Net Blotch Fungus Pyrenophora teres f. teres

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are multifunctional enzymes responsible for biosynthesis of diverse small molecules (e.g., mycotoxins and phytotoxins) in filamentous ascomycetes. Both PKS and NRPS genes are present in fungal genomes as large gene families but...

  12. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 33723379 Saprotrophic fungi transform organic phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Janouskova, Martina

    Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 3372­3379 Saprotrophic fungi transform organic phosphorus litter needles inoculated with individual saprotrophic fungal strains and their mixtures. Fungal strains on the C:N ratio was negligible. We suppose that tested strains of saprotrophic ascomycetes did

  13. Production of extracellular enzymes and degradation of biopolymers by saprotrophic microfungi from the upper layers of forest soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petr Baldrian; Jana Vo?íšková; Petra Dobiášová; V?ra Merhautová; Ludmila Lisá; Vendula Valášková

    2011-01-01

    Production of extracellular enzymes participating in the degradation of biopolymers was studied in 29 strains of nonbasidiomycetous\\u000a microfungi isolated from Quercus petraea forest soil based on the frequency of occurrence. Most of the isolates were ascomycetes and belonged to the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Geomyces, Hypocrea, Myrothecium, Ochrocladosporium, and Penicillium (18 isolates), and two isolates were zygomycetes. Only six isolates

  14. Ascosphaera subglobosa, a new species from North America associated with the solitary bee Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascosphaera is a widespread ascomycetous genus of mostly obligate associates of bees. These fungi have diversified to exploit seemingly every possible substrate available in their bee-associated habitat, occurring as pathogens of the bees, or as saprotrophs on honey, cocoons, nesting materials, poll...

  15. Naumovozyma Kurtzman (2008)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycetous yeast genus Naumovozyma, which was recognized from multigene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence analysis. The genus has two describes species, which were formerly classified in the genus Saccharomyces. The species reproduce by multilateral budding but do not...

  16. Wickerhamia Soneda (1960)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Wickerhamia and is to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Wickerhamia is known from one species, W. fluorescens. Based on multigene phylogenetic analysis, Wickerhamia appears most closely related to the genera Lodd...

  17. Wickerhamomyces Kurtzman, Robnett & Basehoar-Powers (2008)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Wickerhamomyces and is to be published in "The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." The genus Wickerhamomyces is newly described and was derived from the genus Pichia following a multigene phylogenetic analysis. At present, there are 17 species...

  18. Random T-DNA mutagenesis identifies a Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase gene as a virulence factor of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ascomycetous fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a devastating pathogen capable of infecting more than 400 plant species including many economically important crops. In order to gain a better mechanistic understanding of its non-specific host-pathogen interactions, random mutagenesis through Agro...

  19. Structural analysis of the inhibition of Pyrenophora teres by Laetisaria arvalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The basidiomycete fungus, Laetisaria arvalis has been reported to have biological control activity over some plant pathogens [1]. This soil-inhabiting Basidiomycete strain was isolated in a Nebraska sugar beet field [3] . Net blotch, a foliar disease of barley, is caused by the ascomycete fungus Py...

  20. A Review of the Phylogeny and Biology of the Diaporthales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete order Diaporthales is reviewed based on recent phylogenetic data that outline the families and integrate related asexual fungi. The order is now considered to consist of nine families one of which is newly recognized as the Schizoparmeaceae fam. nov. and two families are recircumscri...

  1. Induction of defense genes and secondary metabolites in saskatoons ( Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) in response to Entomosporium mespili using jasmonic acid and Canada milkvetch extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika A. Wolski; Maria A. Henriquez; Lorne R. Adam; Mohamed Badawi; Adriana B. Andreu; Abdelbasset El Hadrami; Fouad Daayf

    2010-01-01

    Entomosporium leaf and berry spot represent the most important disease of saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.). This disease, caused by the ascomycete Entomosporium mespili (D.C.) Sacc., is difficult to control via conventional methods and no known saskatoon cultivar carries resistance to this pathogen. The aim of the present study was to enhance existing and induced defense responses of saskatoons using two

  2. Lachancea Kurtzman (2003)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Lachancea and is to be published in "The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." The genus Lachancea was recently described following a multigene phylogenetic study and includes species previously assigned to the genera Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces...

  3. A Morphological and Molecular Perspective of Trichoderma viride: Is It One or Two Species?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELKE LIECKFELDT; GARY J. SAMUELS; HELGARD I. NIRENBERG; ORLANDO PETRINI; Systematic Botany

    1999-01-01

    Trichoderma (Ascomycetes, Hypocreales) strains that have warted conidia are traditionally identified as T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma. However, two morphologically distinct types of conidial warts (I and II) have been found. Because each type corresponds to a unique mitochondrial DNA pattern, it has been questioned whether T. viride comprises more than one species. Combined molecular data (sequences of

  4. Isocitrate Lyase Is Essential for Pathogenicity of the Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans to Canola (Brassica napus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Idnurm; Barbara J. Howlett

    2002-01-01

    Received 17 June 2002\\/Accepted 29 July 2002 A pathogenicity gene has been identified in Leptosphaeria maculans, the ascomycetous fungus that causes blackleg disease of canola (Brassica napus). This gene encodes isocitrate lyase, a component of the glyoxylate cycle, and is essential for the successful colonization of B. napus. It was identified by a reverse genetics approach whereby a plasmid conferring

  5. Occultocarpon, a new monotypic genus of Gnomoniaceae on Alnus nepalensis from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new monotypic genus Occultocarpon and its species, O. ailaoshanense, was discovered on the bark of branches of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae) in Yunnan, China. A phylogeny based on three genes (LSU, rpb2, tef1-a) reveals that O. ailaoshanense belongs to the Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales, Ascomycetes) ...

  6. Mla- and Rom1-mediated control of microRNA398 and chloroplast copper/zinc superoxide dismutase regulates cell death in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley Mla (Mildew resistance locus a) confers allele-specific interactions with natural variants of the ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causal agent of powdery mildew disease. Significant reprogramming of host gene expression occurs upon infection by this obligate biotrop...

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a ToxA-like gene from the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ToxA, the first discovered fungal proteinaceous host-selective toxin, was originally identified from the tan spot fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr). Homologues of the PtrToxA gene have not been identified from any other ascomycetes except the leaf/glume blotch fungus Stagonospora nodorum, w...

  8. Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

  9. www.newphytologist.com New Phytologist (2002) 154: 114 Gargas A, DePriest PT, Grube M, Tehler A. 1995. Multiple origins

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    2002-01-01

    , Hesbacher S, Proksch P. 1997. Do secondary substances in the thallus of a lichen promote CO2 diffusion between Tricholoma terreum and its compatible host tree is missing in an incompatible association. Journal-forming ascomycete Xanthoria parietina. New Phytologist 154: 175­184. Trembley ML, Ringli C, Honegger R. 2002

  10. INTRODUCTION Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in most forest soils, usually obtained in the form of nitrate.

    E-print Network

    Hibbett, David S.

    of nitrate. Acquisition of nitrate is mediated by NRT2, a high affinity transporter of nitrate in prokaryotes with established phylogenies and may provide improved resolution at higher taxonomic levels. Studies in the ascomycete Aspergillus revealed two nrt2 copies with different affinities for binding nitrate, although until

  11. Effect of ergot alkaloids from fungal endophyte-infected grasses on fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Clay; Gregory P. Cheplick

    1989-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi in the tribe Balansiae (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycetes), which infect grasses, may provide plant defense against herbivores. This study examined the effects of six ergot alkaloids on survivorship, feeding, and growth of larvae of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a generalist herbivore of grasses. Corn leaf disks were soaked in solutions of individual ergot

  12. Nakazawaea Y. Yamada, Maeda & Mikata (1994)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Nakazawaea and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study,” 5th edition. The genus Nakazawaea was derived from the genus Pichia and its validity was established from a multigene phylogenetic analysis. The genus contains a single species, ...

  13. Lipomyces Lodder & Kreger-van Rij (1952)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Lipomyces and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The genus Lipomyces has 16 known species, most of which are isolated exclusively from soil. Cultures of Lipomyces are generally slimy because of the copious production...

  14. Ogataea Y. Yamada, K. Maeda & Mikata (1994)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Ogataea and is to be published in TheYeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Ogataea includes 31 species, many described in the last few years as a result of the availability of species-specific gene sequence databases. All but one of the ...

  15. Wickerhamiella van der Walt (1973)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycetous yeast genus Wickerhamiella, which has five described species and has been defined from multigene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence analysis. The species reproduce by multilateral budding but do not form hyphae or pseudohyphae. Asci typically form a single a...

  16. Meyerozyma Kurtzman & M. Suzuki (2010)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Meyerozyma and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study,” 5th edition. The genus Meyerozyma is newly described and was derived from the genus Pichia following a multigene phylogenetic analysis. At present, there are two species assigned...

  17. Sex-linked phenotypic divergence in the hermaphrodite fungus Neurospora tetrasperma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we present a study of the molecular phenotype linked to a large region of suppressed recombination (extending over ~ 7 Mbp and >1,500 genes) surrounding the mating-type (mat) locus of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma. While the remainder of the genome is largely homoallelic, th...

  18. Characterization and complementation of an apparent FUM gene cluster deletion in Fusarium verticillioides.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides is a worldwide pathogen of maize and produces the fumonisin mycotoxins. Contamination of maize kernels with fumonisin B1 (FB1) is of significant concern because of its causal role in equine leukoencephalomalacia, porcine pulmonary edema, liver and...

  19. GIANT STEPS FORWARD IN THE HYPOCREALES: WHAT IS THE VISION?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hypocreales includes ascomycetes that generally have light- to bright-colored perithecial ascomata with unitunicate asci and their related mitotic fungi. They are of considerable economic and ecological importance with species that are virulent plant pathogens, effective biological control str...

  20. The WW Domain Protein PRO40 Is Required for Fungal Fertility and Associates with Woronin Bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ines Engh; Christian Wurtz; Konstanze Witzel-Schlomp; Hai Yu Zhang; Birgit Hoff; Minou Nowrousian; Hanspeter Rottensteiner; Ulrich Kuck

    2007-01-01

    Fruiting body formation in ascomycetes is a highly complex process that is under polygenic control and is a fundamental part of the fungal sexual life cycle. However, the molecular determinants regulating this cellular process are largely unknown. Here we show that the sterile pro40 mutant is defective in a 120-kDa WW domain protein that plays a pivotal role in fruiting

  1. Multiple layers of temporal and spatial control regulate accumulation of the fruiting body-speciWc protein APP in Sordaria macrospora and Neurospora crassa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minou Nowrousian; Markus Piotrowski; Ulrich Kück

    2006-01-01

    During fungal fruiting body development, specialized cell types diVerentiate from vegetative mycelium. We have isolated a protein from the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora that is not present during vegetative growth but accumulates in perithecia. The protein was sequenced by mass spectrometry and the corresponding gene was termed app (abundant perithecial protein). app transcript occurs only after the onset of sexual development;

  2. Global analyses of Ceratocystis cacaofunesta mitochondria: from genome to proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is the causal agent of wilt disease in cacao, which results in significant economic losses in the affected producing areas. Despite the economic importance of the Ceratocystis complex of species, no genomic data are available for any of its ...

  3. Taiwanascus samuelsii sp. nov., an addition to Niessliaceae from the Western Ghats, Kerala, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Taiwanascus, T. samuelsii, was collected from southern parts of Western Ghats on dead branches of Anacardium occidentale and is described. The new cleistothecial ascomycete is different from the type and only species in Taiwanascus, T. tetrasporus, in cleistothecial size, setae, and...

  4. KAROTYPE ANALYSIS OF PYRENOPHORA TERES F. TERERS USING TELOMERE ANALYSIS PULSED FIELDGEL ELECTROPHORESIS AND THE GERM TUBE BURST METHOD.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrenophora teres f. teres is an ascomycetous fungus that causes net blotch on barley, a serious foliar disease throughout the world. In order to obtain an accurate karyotype of this fungus, a combination of different methods, including pulse field gel electrophoreses, telomere probe hybridization, ...

  5. The synaptonemal complex and the spindle plaque during meiosis in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Zickler; Lauritz W. Olson

    1975-01-01

    Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae proceeds principally in the same manner as in other Ascomycetes. Leptotene is characterized by unpaired lateral components and pachytene by the presence of extensive synaptonemal complexes. The synaptonemal complex has the same dimensions and is similar in structure to those described for other organisms. Chromosome counts can now be made by reconstructing the synaptonemal complexes. Diplotene

  6. Identification of differentially expressed cDNA clones in Tilia platyphyllos-Tuber borchii ectomycorrhizae using a differential screening approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Polidori; D. Agostini; S. Zeppa; L. Potenza; F. Palma; D. Sisti; V. Stocchi

    2002-01-01

    No information is presently available on the molecular mechanisms that control the morphogenesis of the truffle, an ectomycorrhizal ascomycetous fungus of great economic interest not only for forestry and agronomy but also for the organoleptic properties of its hypogeous fruitbodies. A Tilia platyphyllos-Tuber borchii model system was used in order to identify genes induced or up-regulated during symbiosis, since their

  7. Soil mycoflora of Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Gochenaur

    1970-01-01

    A qualitative survey of the yeasts and filamentous fungi in 29 Peruvian soils was undertaken. Using the dilution plate method, 4884 isolates were obtained. Four per cent were sterile and 7 % were unidentified. The remaining isolates belonged to 53 genera, 159 species, and 4 varieties of which 14 were phycomycetes, 22 were ascomycetes, and 128 were deuteromycetes.Absidia repens, Helicodendron

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Coniochaetales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dania García; Alberto M. Stchigel; José Cano; Misericordia Calduch; David L. Hawksworth; Josep Guarro

    2006-01-01

    Although the taxonomy of ascomycetes has changed dramatically, generic delimitation within the recently proposed order Coniochaetales has not been resolved. In order to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of genera in the Coniochaetaceae, we performed a molecular study based on the analyses of the sequences of the partial SSU and of the variable domains of the LSU rDNA genes. The phylogenetic

  9. Marine fungi deteriorating chitin of hydrozoa and keratin-like annelid tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kohlmeyer

    1972-01-01

    Higher marine fungi were found for the first time as degraders of chitinous exoskeletons of hydrozoa and of keratinous (?) tubes of annelids. Collections were made in several locations of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Fruiting bodies and hyphae of the ascomycete Abyssomyces hydrozoicusKohlm. occurred on hydrozoa at a depth of 631 to 641 m near the South Orkney Islands.

  10. Multiple Origins of Lichen Symbioses in Fungi Suggested by SSU rDNA Phylogeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Gargas; Paula T. Depriest; Martin Grube; Anders Tehler

    1995-01-01

    Phylogenetic hypotheses provide a context for examining the evolution of heterotrophic lifestyles. The lichen lifestyle, which is the symbiotic association of fungi with algae, is found in various representatives of Dicaryomycotina, both Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. A highly resolved parsimony analysis of small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences suggests at least five independent origins of the lichen habit in disparate

  11. MVE1 Encoding the velvet gene product homolog in Mycosphaerella graminicola is associated with aerial mycelium formation, melanin biosynthesis, hyphal swelling, and light signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola is an important pathogen of wheat that causes the disease septoria tritici blotch. Despite the serious impact of M. graminicola on wheat production worldwide, knowledge about its molecular biology is limited. The velvet gene, veA, is one of the key re...

  12. Cryptic speciation and recombination in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID M. GEISER; J OHN I. PITT; JOHN W. TAYLOR

    1998-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus, like approximately one- third of ascomycete fungi, is thought to be cosmopolitan and clonal because it has uniform asexual morphology. A. flavus produces af latoxin on nuts, grains, and cotton, and assump- tions about its life history are being used to develop strategies for its biological control. We tested the assumptions of clonality and conspecificity in a sample

  13. Development of the synaptonemal complex and the “recombination nodules” during meiotic prophase in the seven bivalents of the fungus Sordaria macrospora Auersw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Zickler

    1977-01-01

    Complete reconstruction of seven leptotene, six zygotene, three pachytene and three diplotene nuclei has permitted to follow the pairing process in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The seven bivalents in Sordaria can be identified by their length. The lateral components of the synaptonemal complexes (SC) are formed just after karyogamy but are discontinuous at early leptotene. Their ends are evenly distributed

  14. CONIDIAL GERMINATION IN THE FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycetous fungus Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen causing Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand early developmental stages of this organism, we followed the germination of macroconidia microscopically to understand the timing of key events. These e...

  15. Concordance of Gene Genealogies Reveals Reproductive Isolation in the Pathogenic Fungus Coccidioides immitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassiliki Koufopanou; Austin Burt; John W. Taylor

    1997-01-01

    Simple cladogenetic theory suggests that gene genealogies can be used to detect mixis in a population and delineate reproductively isolated groups within sexual taxa. We have taken this approach in a study of Coccidioides immitis, an ascomycete fungus responsible for a recent epidemic of coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in California. To test whether this fungus represents a single sexual species throughout

  16. Physiology and genetics of the dimorphic fungus Yarrowia lipolytica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerold Barth; Claude Gaillardin

    1997-01-01

    The ascomycetous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (formerly Candida, Endomycopsis, or Saccharomyces lipolytica) is one of the more intensively studied `non-conventional' yeast species. This yeast is quite different from the well-studied yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe with respect to its phylogenetic evolution, physiology, genetics, and molecular biology. However, Y. lipolytica is not only of interest for fundamental research, but also for

  17. Yarrowia van der Walt & von Arx (1980)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Yarrowia and is to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus has just one described species, Y. lipolytica, and is commonly known by its asexual name Candida lipolytica. The species is widely distributed in name and...

  18. Evolution of the Fungal Self-Fertile Reproductive Life Style from Self-Sterile Ancestors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Hwan Yun; Mary L. Berbee; O. C. Yoder; B. Gillian Turgeon

    1999-01-01

    In most fungal ascomycetes, mating is controlled by a single locus (MAT). Fungi requiring a partner to mate are heterothallic (self-sterile); those not requiring a partner are homothallic (self-fertile). Structural analyses of MAT sequences from homothallic and heterothallic Cochliobolus species support the hypothesis that heterothallism is ancestral. Homothallic species carry both MAT genes in a single nucleus, usually closely linked

  19. Evolution of the fungal self-fertile reproductive life style from self-sterile ancestors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUNG-HWAN YUN; MARY L. BERBEE; O. C. Y ODER; B. GILLIAN TURGEON

    1999-01-01

    In most fungal ascomycetes, mating is con- trolled by a single locus (MAT). Fungi requiring a partner to mate are heterothallic (self-sterile); those not requiring a partner are homothallic (self-fertile). Structural analyses of MATsequences from homothallic and heterothallic Cochliobo- lus species support the hypothesis that heterothallism is ancestral. Homothallic species carry both MAT genes in a single nucleus, usually closely

  20. Specific and sensitive detection of the conifer pathogen Gremmeniella abietina by nested PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Yin Zeng; Per Hansson; Xiao-Ru Wang

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gremmeniella abietina (Lagerb.) Morelet is an ascomycete fungus that causes stem canker and shoot dieback in many conifer species. The fungus is widespread and causes severe damage to forest plantations in Europe, North America and Asia. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve measures to control the spread of the disease, rapid, specific and sensitive detection methods for G. abietina

  1. A year-round study on functional relationships of airborne fungi with meteorological factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    De-Wei Li; Bryce Kendrick

    1995-01-01

    Air sampling was conducted in Waterloo, Canada throughout 1992. Functional relationships between aeromycota and meteorological factors were analysed. The meteorological factors were, in descending order of importance: mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean wind speed, relative humidity (RH), rain, maximum wind speed and snow. The most important airborne fungal propagules in descending order were: total fungal spores, unidentified Ascomycetes,Cladosporium,

  2. CONSERVED REQUIREMENT FOR A PLANT HOST CELL PROTEIN IN POWDERY MILDEW PATHOGENESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the fungal phylum Ascomycota, the ability to cause disease in plants and animals was gained and lost repeatedly during phylogenesis. In monocotyledonous barley, loss-of-function mlo alleles result in effective immunity against the Ascomycete, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, the causal agent of t...

  3. Risk Analysis of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for Biological Control of Cirsium arvense in Pasture: Sclerotium Survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Bourdôt; D. J. Saville; G. A. Hurrell; I. C. Harvey; M. D. De Jong

    2000-01-01

    The plurivorous ascomycete, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , is being evaluated as a mycoherbicide for the biocontrol of Cirsium arvense in pastures. Increased inoculum levels potentially add to the risk of disease in susceptible crops sown at or near the biocontrol site. This paper summarises: (1) two series of experiments that quantify the survival of soilborne sclerotia in sheep-grazed pastures in the

  4. Three new anascosporic genera of the Saccharomycotina: Danielozyma gen. nov., Deakozyma gen. nov. and Middelhovenomyces gen. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new non-ascosporic, ascomycetous yeast genera are proposed based on their isolation from currently described species and genera. Phylogenetic placement of the genera was determined from analysis of nuclear gene sequences for D1/D2 large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, translation elongation...

  5. The transcription factor FgStuAp influences spore development, pathogenicity, and secondary metabolism in Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the APSES family of fungal proteins regulate morphogenesis and virulence in ascomycetes. We deleted the FgStuA gene in Fusarium graminearum and demonstrate its involvement in several different processes. FgStuA is closely related to FoStuA in F. oxysporum and StuA in Aspergillus. Unlike F...

  6. A spatial model for predicting effects of climate change on Swiss needle cast disease severity in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swiss needle cast disease of Douglas-fir is caused by the ascomycete fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Symptoms of the disease are foliage chlorosis and premature needle abscission due to occlusion of stomata by the ascocarps of the pathogen, resulting in impaired needle gas exchange. Severe defol...

  7. Whole-genome analysis of two-component signal transduction genes in fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Catlett, Natalie L; Yoder, Olen C; Turgeon, B Gillian

    2003-12-01

    Two-component phosphorelay systems are minimally comprised of a histidine kinase (HK) component, which autophosphorylates in response to an environmental stimulus, and a response regulator (RR) component, which transmits the signal, resulting in an output such as activation of transcription, or of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. The genomes of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Candida albicans encode one, three, and three HKs, respectively. In contrast, the genome sequences of the filamentous ascomycetes Neurospora crassa, Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Bipolaris maydis), Gibberella moniliformis (Fusarium verticillioides), and Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) encode an extensive family of two-component signaling proteins. The putative HKs fall into 11 classes. Most of these classes are represented in each filamentous ascomycete species examined. A few of these classes are significantly more prevalent in the fungal pathogens than in the saprobe N. crassa, suggesting that these groups contain paralogs required for virulence. Despite the larger numbers of HKs in filamentous ascomycetes than in yeasts, all of the ascomycetes contain virtually the same downstream histidine phosphotransfer proteins and RR proteins, suggesting extensive cross talk or redundancy among HKs. PMID:14665450

  8. Investigations into the taxonomy of the mushroom pathogen Verticillium fungicola and its relatives based on sequence analysis of nitrate reductase and ITS regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Amey; A. Athey-Pollard; P. R. Mills; G. D. Foster; A. Bailey

    2007-01-01

    The full sequence of the nitrate reductase gene was obtained from a type isolate of Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and used for phylogenetic analysis against other ascomycete fungi. Sequencing obtained 2749 bp of coding region, 668 bp of\\u000a 5? flanking sequence and 731 bp of 3? flanking sequence. In silico analysis indicated that the coding region contains a single intron

  9. Determination oftheExecution Points ofMutations inthe Nuclear Replication CycleofAspergillus nidulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. ORR; R. F. ROSENBERGER

    was addedtotrapnuclei inmitosis, andthese were detected bystaining withaceto-orcein. Theassumptions and controls required torelate theexperimentally determined fractions tothepoints wherea mutation blocks thenuclear cycle are discussed. Ninegenetically distinct mutants were tested. Twoofthese were blocked early inthecycle, twoin themiddle, andfive close to,orduring, mitosis. Ina previous publication (9), we havede- scribed mutants ofthefilamentous ascomycete, Aspergillus nidulans, whichwereblocked in steps required forthereplication ofthenucleus. Tousethese mutants

  10. DISEASE CONTROL VIA UNDERSTANDING MOLECULAR DETERMINANTS OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gibberella zeae (anamorph Fusarium graminearum), a self fertile (homothallic) ascomycete, causes wheat head blight and corn ear rot, destructive diseases that impose a serious economic toll on North American farmers. Damage includes both yield loss due to kernel rot and reduced quality resulting fr...

  11. Immune Response of Mormon Crickets that Survived Infection by Beauveria Bassiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic Ascomycete fungus that serves as a biological control agent of Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex Haldeman) and other grasshopper pests. To measure the dose dependent response of Mormon crickets to fungal attack, we applied B. bassiana strain GHA topically to...

  12. FVABC1, A FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES GENE ENCODING AN ABC TRANSPORTER, MAY BE REQUIRED FOR TOLERANCE OF PHYTOANTICIPINS PRODUCED BY CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytopathogenic ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides is commonly found in corn (Zea mays) and is associated with the production of mycotoxins called fumonisins. The plant produces the phytoanticipins 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA) and 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA), yet F. verticillioides can metab...

  13. DYING-ARM DISEASE IN GRAPEVINES: DIAGNOSIS OF EUTYPA INFECTION BY METABOLITE ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dying arm disease in grapevines, produced by infection with the ascomycete Eutypa lata, is responsible for major production losses in vineyards. Dieback of the shoots and cordon is believed to be due to acetylenic phenol metabolites produced by the fungus. In order to identify specific metabolites...

  14. Understanding the coevolution of rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta and Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence gene AVR-Pita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae remains to be one of the most serious threats for food security globally. Using resistance (R) genes in integrated cultural practices has been the most powerful practice for rice crop protection. Genetic analysis s...

  15. Application of a new approach for characterization and denomination of races of cucurbit powdery mildews – a case study on the Czech pathogen population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golovinomyces cichoracearum (Gc) and Podosphaera xanthii (Px) (Ascomycetes, Erysiphaceae) are the most important fungal species causing cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM), a serious disease of field and greenhouse cucurbits. Both species are highly variable, as indicated by the existence of large number ...

  16. Kazachstania Zubkova (1971)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Kazachstania and is to be published in "The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." The genus Kazachstania is newly described and was constructed from certain species previously assigned to the genera Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces and Arxozyma follo...

  17. Yamadazyma Billon-Grand (1989)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Yamadazyma and is to be published in "The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." The genus Yamadazyma was derived from the genus Pichia following a multigene phylogenetic analysis. At present, there are 6 known species assigned to the genus. Sev...

  18. Trigonopsis Schachner emend. Kurtzman & Robnett (2007)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter describes the asexual ascomycete yeast genus Trigonopsis and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The genus Trigonopsis has four known species and T. variabilis is famous for producing triangular cells, whereas the other described species do not. Multigen...

  19. Hyphopichia von Arx & van der Walt (1976)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Hyphopichia and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The genus Hyphopichia was derived from the genus Pichia and accepted as valid following a multigene phylogenetic analysis. At present, there are two species assigne...

  20. Cephaloascus Hanawa (1920)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Cephaloascus and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The genus Cephaloascus has two species. One, C. albidus, has been isolated from spoiled cranberry pumace, and the second, C. fragrans, is predominantly isolated fr...

  1. Analyses of expressed sequence tags from the maize foliar pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis identify novel genes expressed during vegetative, infectious, and reproductive growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burton H Bluhm; Braham Dhillon; Erika A Lindquist; Gert HJ Kema; Stephen B Goodwin; Larry D Dunkle

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ascomycete fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis is an aggressive foliar pathogen of maize that causes substantial losses annually throughout the Western Hemisphere. Despite its impact on maize production, little is known about the regulation of pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis at the molecular level. The objectives of this study were to generate a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from C.

  2. Screening of ecologically diverse fungi for their potential to pretreat lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Harms, H; Schlosser, D

    2014-04-01

    A widespread and hitherto by far underexploited potential among ecologically diverse fungi to pretreat wheat straw and digestate from maize silage in the future perspective of using such lignocellulosic feedstock for fermentative bioenergy production was inferred from a screening of nine freshwater ascomycetes, 76 isolates from constructed wetlands, nine peatland isolates and ten basidiomycetes. Wheat straw pretreatment was most efficient with three ascomycetes belonging to the genera Acephala (peatland isolate) and Stachybotrys (constructed wetland isolates) and two white-rot fungi (Hypholoma fasciculare and Stropharia rugosoannulata) as it increased the amounts of water-extractable total sugars by more than 50 % and sometimes up to 150 % above the untreated control. The ascomycetes delignified wheat straw at rates (lignin losses between about 31 and 40 % of the initial content) coming close to those observed with white-rot fungi (about 40 to 57 % lignin removal). Overall, fungal delignification was indicated as a major process facilitating the digestibility of wheat straw. Digestate was generally more resistant to fungal decomposition than wheat straw. Nevertheless, certain ascomycetes delignified this substrate to extents sometimes even exceeding delignification by basidiomycetes. Total sugar amounts of about 20 to 60 % above the control value were obtained with the most efficient fungi (one ascomycete of the genus Phoma, the unspecific wood-rot basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita and one unidentified constructed wetland isolate). This was accompanied by lignin losses of about 47 to 56 % of the initial content. Overall, digestate delignification was implied to be less decisive for high yields of fermentable sugars than wheat straw delignification. PMID:24504460

  3. Evidence of a competitive hierarchy among coprophilous fungal populations.

    PubMed

    Wicklow, D T; Hirschfield, B J

    1979-07-01

    Evidence is presented that interference competition may be important in later states of fungal colonization of cattle feces from a semiarid grassland in Colorado. Cultural antagonism was examined among fungal isolates representing early sporulating colonists (Ascobolus furfuraceus and Saccobolus truncatus), later sporulating colonists (Iodophanus carneus, Coniochaeta discospora, Hypocopra merdaria, and Poronia punctata), and one early successional species that is able to persist (sporulate) through later stages (Podospora decipiens). Poronia punctata, a comparatively slower-growing and later-appearing colonist (18- to 54-month-old fecal pats), is uniformly antagonistic to all of seven earlier-appearing and co-occurring fungal species. Antibiosis is believed to account for the observed antagonism. The authors suggest that the evolutionary product of interference competition among coprophilous fungal populations may be a pattern of competitive hierarchy in which certain slower-growing, later-successional species can limit the reproductive potential of other fungal colonists on fecal substrates. PMID:476559

  4. Borrelia in Ethiopian ticks.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Sally; Abdissa, Alemseged; Adamu, Haileeysus; Tolosa, Tadele; Gashaw, Abebaw

    2012-02-01

    Two regions (Jimma and Dire Dawa) in Ethiopia were investigated for the presence of soft ticks. Although no Ornithodoros spp. ticks were collected during this survey, published records of their existence in Ethiopia were found. An overwhelming infestation of Argas persicus was revealed in a village located adjacent to Dire Dawa. These ticks primarily were feeding on poultry, but were also biting humans. Furthermore, hard ticks were collected from livestock and companion animals in these regions. Collected ticks were assessed for Borrelia by real-time PCR followed by conventional PCR and sequencing to identify species present. A. persicus ticks were found to carry B. anserina in 3 of 40 (7.5%) A. persicus tick pools, whilst hard tick pools yielded 2 of 16 (12.5%) positive for B. theileri. Collectively, these borrelial species and their tick vectors are likely to have an important economic impact of particular relevance to subsistence farmers in Ethiopia. PMID:22309854

  5. [Yeast biodiversity in hydromorphic soils with reference to grass-Sphagnum swamp in Western Siberia and the hammocky tundra region( Barrow, Alaska)].

    PubMed

    Poliakova, A V; Chernov, I Iu; Panikov, N S

    2001-01-01

    The microbiological analysis of 78 samples taken from a boreal bog in Western Siberia and from a tundra wetland soil in Alaska showed the presence of 23 yeast species belonging to the genera Bullera, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Mrakia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, Sporobolomyces, Torulaspora, and Trichosporon. Peat samples from the boreal bog were dominated by eurytopic anamorphic basidiomycetous species, such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Sporobolomyces roseus, and by the ascomycetous yeasts Candida spp. and Debaryomyces hansenii. These samples also contained two rare ascomycetous species (Candida paludigena and Schizoblastosporion starkeyi-henricii), which so far have been found only in taiga wetland soils. The wetland Alaskan soil was dominated by one yeast species (Cryptococcus gilvescens), which is a typical inhabitant of tundra soils. Therefore, geographic factors may serve for a more reliable prediction of yeast diversity in soils than the physicochemical or ecotopic parameters of these soils. PMID:11763794

  6. Genomic perspectives on the evolution of fungal entomopathogenicity in Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guohua; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Zhang, Siwei; Xie, Xue-Qin; Shang, Yanfang; St. Leger, Raymond J.; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Wang, Chengshu; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Beauveria bassiana is a pathogen of hundreds of insect species and is commercially produced as an environmentally friendly mycoinsecticide. We sequenced the genome of B. bassiana and a phylogenomic analysis confirmed that ascomycete entomopathogenicity is polyphyletic, but also revealed convergent evolution to insect pathogenicity. We also found many species-specific virulence genes and gene family expansions and contractions that correlate with host ranges and pathogenic strategies. These include B. bassiana having many more bacterial-like toxins (suggesting an unsuspected potential for oral toxicity) and effector-type proteins. The genome also revealed that B. bassiana resembles the closely related Cordyceps militaris in being heterothallic, although its sexual stage is rarely observed. A high throughput RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis revealed that B. bassiana could sense and adapt to different environmental niches by activating well-defined gene sets. The information from this study will facilitate further development of B. bassiana as a cost-effective mycoinsecticide. PMID:22761991

  7. Dolabra nepheliae on rambutan and lychee represents a novel lineage of phytopathogenic Eurotiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Amy Y; Schoch, Conrad L; Farr, David F; Nishijima, Kate; Keith, Lisa; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and lychee (Litchi chinensis) are tropical trees in the Sapindaceae that produce delicious edible fruits and are increasingly cultivated in tropical regions. These trees are afflicted with a stem canker disease associated with the ascomycete Dolabra nepheliae. Previously known from Asia and Australia, this fungus was recently reported from Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The sexual and asexual states of Dolabra nepheliae are redescribed and illustrated. In addition, the ITS and large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA plus fragments from the genes RPB2, TEF1, and the mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit were sequenced for three isolates of D. nepheliae and compared with other sequences of ascomycetes. It was determined that D. nepheliae represents a new lineage within the Eurotiomycetes allied with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the causal agent of Petri grapevine decline. PMID:20802819

  8. A year-round study on functional relationships of airborne fungi with meteorological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Wei; Kendrick, Bryce

    1995-06-01

    Air sampling was conducted in Waterloo, Canada throughout 1992. Functional relationships between aeromycota and meteorological factors were analysed. The meteorological factors were, in descending order of importance: mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean wind speed, relative humidity (RH), rain, maximum wind speed and snow. The most important airborne fungal propagules in descending order were: total fungal spores, unidentified Ascomycetes, Cladosporium, Coprinus, unidentified Basidiomycetes, Alternaria and unidentified fungi. Most airborne fungal taxa had highly significant relationship with temperature, but Aspergillus/Penicillium, hyphal fragments and Epicoccum did not. Epicoccum and hyphal fragments were positively associated with wind speed. In comparison with other airborne fungal taxa, Leptosphaeria and unidentified Ascomycetes were more closely correlated with rain and RH during the growing season.

  9. The most recent results on orchid mycorrhizal fungi in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Illyés, Z; Ouanphanivanh, Noémi; Rudnóy, Sz; Orczán, A K; Bratek, Z

    2010-01-01

    Symbionts and endophytes of Hungarian orchids were studied at diverse habitats. Mycobionts of roots and in situ germinated protocorms of 15 orchid species were identified by molecular methods. Four fungal groups could be distinguished from orchids living at diversely wet treeless habitats: Ceratobasidiaceae, Epulorhiza 1, Epulorhiza 2 and Sebacinaceae. While the groups Ceratobasidiaceae and Sebacinaceae were detected only at habitats with medium water supply, members of clade Epulorhiza occurred at all of the treeless study sites. These observations suggest that fungi belonging to the genus Epulorhiza are more tolerant of water-stress than the other investigated genera. An ascomycetous fungus from the family Pezizaceae could be identified from the roots of Orchis coriophora. Further Ascomycetes were identified at forest habitats. Tuber maculatum was detected from the roots of Epipactis helleborine and Cephalanthera damasonium, and Tuber excavatum from Epipactis microphylla. PMID:21565766

  10. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tonouchi, Akio

    2009-01-01

    A novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled those of some strains of the genus Thermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes. PMID:20148171

  11. Dolabra nepheliae on rambutan and lychee represents a novel lineage of phytopathogenic Eurotiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, Conrad L.; Farr, David F.; Nishijima, Kate; Keith, Lisa; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and lychee (Litchi chinensis) are tropical trees in the Sapindaceae that produce delicious edible fruits and are increasingly cultivated in tropical regions. These trees are afflicted with a stem canker disease associated with the ascomycete Dolabra nepheliae. Previously known from Asia and Australia, this fungus was recently reported from Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The sexual and asexual states of Dolabra nepheliae are redescribed and illustrated. In addition, the ITS and large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA plus fragments from the genes RPB2, TEF1, and the mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit were sequenced for three isolates of D. nepheliae and compared with other sequences of ascomycetes. It was determined that D. nepheliae represents a new lineage within the Eurotiomycetes allied with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the causal agent of Petri grapevine decline. PMID:20802819

  12. On the road to understanding truffles in the underground.

    PubMed

    Kües, Ursula; Martin, Francis

    2011-06-01

    The genome of the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete Tubermelanosporum has recently been published and this has given researchers unique opportunities to learn more about the biology of this precious edible fungus. The epigeous ascomycete lives in Mediterranean countries in symbiotic interaction with roots of broad-leaf trees such as oaks and hazel. A most important new finding was the single mating type locus in the genome that occurs with two alleles in natural populations. The life cycle is now confirmed to be heterothallic and the species is outcrossing. Unlike sexual development in the soil, mycorrhization of the roots by homokaryotic haploid mycelia is mating-type-independent. Gene regulation during mycorrhization and fruiting and environmental influences on it is now genome-wide addressed. Genome profiling for functions in specific metabolic pathways is undertaken. Insights in most enthralling features of tubers such as on odor formation are thus gained. PMID:21354318

  13. Temperature-dependent dimorphism of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans Ls3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Wartmann; Annette Kriager; Klaus Adler; Bui Minh Duc; Irene Kunze; Gotthard Kunze

    1995-01-01

    Arxula adeninivorans Ls3 is described as an ascomycetous, arthroconidial, anamorphic, xerotolerant yeast, which was selected from wood hydrolysates in Siberia. By using minimal salt medium or yeast-extract-peptone-medium with glucose or maltose as carbon source it was shown that this yeast is able to grow at up to 48° C. Increasing temperatures induce changes in morphology from the yeast phase to

  14. Genome organization of mitochondrial DNA from the non-saccharomycete yeast Arxula adeninivorans LS3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uta Pich; Gotthard Kunze

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA of the asexual ascomycetous yeast Arxula adeninivorans LS3 was isolated and characterized. The mtDNA has a GC content of 30.3 mol%. It is circular and its size, as estimated by restriction analysis performed with nine endonucleases, was 35.5 kbp. Using mt gene-probes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae six structural genes (cob, cox1, cox2, oli1, oli2, and 21S rRNA) were

  15. Halotolerance of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans LS3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Xian Yang; Thomas Wartmann; Regina Stoltenburg; Gotthard Kunze

    2000-01-01

    The non-pathogenic, dimorphic, ascomycetous yeast Arxula adeninivorans LS3 is halotolerant. It can grow in a minimal medium containing up to 20% NaCl. The growth parameters are only weakly influenced by 10% NaCl. However, NaCl in a concentration higher than 10% causes a decrease in the specific growth rate, a longer adaptation phase and a lower cell count in the stationary

  16. Arxula adeninivorans (Blastobotrys adeninivorans) — A Dimorphic Yeast of Great Biotechnological Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Kristina Florschütz; Martina Körner; Gerd Gellissen; Gotthard Kunze

    2009-01-01

    The dimorphic ascomycetous yeast Arxula adeninivorans exhibits some unusual properties. Being a thermo- and halotolerant species it is able to assimilate and ferment many compounds\\u000a as sole carbon and\\/or nitrogen source. It utilises n-alkanes and is capable of degrading starch. Due to these unusual biochemical\\u000a properties A. adeninivorans can be exploited as a gene donor for the production of enzymes

  17. Genetic transformation and biotechnological application of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Wartmann; G. Kunze

    2000-01-01

    The relatively unknown, non-pathogenic, dimorphic, haploid, ascomycetous yeast Arxula adeninivorans exhibits some unusual properties which are of biotechnological interest. The yeast is able to assimilate and ferment many\\u000a compounds as sole source of carbon and\\/or nitrogen, it utilises n-alkanes and degrades starch efficiently. A. adeninivorans features such as thermo- and haloresistance as well as the yeast's uncommon growth and secretion

  18. Mycorrhizal and Endophytic Fungi of Epacrids (Ericaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. G. Cairney

    Although research to date has been confined to a small number of epacrid taxa from a limited range of habitats, it appears\\u000a that most endophytes that have been isolated fromepacrid hair roots are probably ericoidmycorrhizal fungi. An array of mainly\\u000a Helotiales ascomycetes forms putative ericoid mycorrhizal associations with epacrids, but root systems of individual plants\\u000a in the field are dominated

  19. The cost of mutualism in a fly-fungus interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Bultman; Allison M. Welch; Rebecca A. Boning; Todd I. Bowdish

    2000-01-01

    Botanophila flies act as ”pollinating” parasites of the ascomycetous fungus, Epichlo elymi. Flies transfer fungal spermatia (gametes) among fungi as they visit their hosts for oviposition. Fly larvae consume the\\u000a products of cross-fertilization (ascospores). We tested whether the cost to the fungus of engaging in the obligate mutualism\\u000a rises as fly visitation increases and whether mechanisms operate to prevent excessive

  20. A disseminated infection with the antifungal-multiresistant teleomorphic fungus Neocosmospora vasinfecta in a patient with acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Frédéric; D’Almeida, Mahussi; Albert, Olivier; Fitton-Ouhabi, Valérie; Noël, Thierry; Accoceberry, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We report on a fatal invasive infection due to the ascomycetous fungus Neocosmospora vasinfecta, in a 20-year-old European patient suffering from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The infection could not be controlled by a bitherapy combining liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole. This is the second case of disseminated infection reported with this unusual fungus, which develops under its teleomorphic state, is fully resistant to all systemic antifungals, and which is known to live in tropical countries. PMID:24432214

  1. Evolutionary Relationships among Putative RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases Encoded by a Mitochondrial Virus-like RNA in the Dutch Elm Disease Fungus, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi,by Other Viruses and Virus-like RNAs and by the ArabidopsisMitochondrial Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiguo Hong; Thomas E. Cole; Clive M. Brasier; Kenneth W. Buck

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence (2617 nucleotides) of virus-like double-stranded (ds) RNA 3a in a diseased isolate, Log1\\/3-8d2(Ld), of the ascomycete fungusOphiostoma novo-ulmihas been determined. One strand of the dsRNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) with the potential to encode a protein of 718 amino acids, and the complementary strand contains two smaller ORFs with the potential to encode proteins of

  2. Predicting effects of climate change on Swiss needle cast disease severity in Pacific Northwest forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey K. Stone; Leonard B. Coop; Daniel K. Manter

    2008-01-01

    Swiss needle cast of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is caused by the ascomycete Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Symptoms are foliage chlorosis and premature needle abscission due to occlusion of stomata by the ascocarps of the pathogen, resulting in impaired needle gas exchange. Growth losses of 20%-50% due to Swiss needle cast have been reported for approximately 150 000 ha of Douglas-fir plantations in

  3. 8 Fruiting Body Evolution in the Ascomycota: a Molecular Perspective Integrating Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imke Schmitt

    \\u000a Fruiting body traits are among the most widely used characters in fungal classification. Due to the paucity and homoplasy\\u000a of ascomatal features, however, ascomycete classification has been notoriously instable over the past 100 years. With the\\u000a growing pool of molecular data and advancing bioinformatics tools we now begin to unravel some of the higher-level relationships\\u000a in the Ascomycota and the evolution

  4. Slippery Scar: A New Mushroom Disease in Auricularia polytricha

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jie

    2012-01-01

    A new disease, the slippery scar, was investigated in cultivated bags of Auricularia polytricha. This fungus was isolated from the infected mycelia of cultivated bags. Based on morphological observation, rDNA-internal transcribed spacer and 18S sequence analysis, this pathogen was identified as the Ascomycete Scytalidium lignicola. According to Koch's Postulation, the pathogenicity of S. lignicola to the mycelia of A. polytricha was confirmed. The parasitism of this fungus on mushroom mycelia in China has not been reported before. PMID:22870056

  5. Dolabra nepheliae on rambutan and lychee represents a novel lineage of phytopathogenic Eurotiomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Y. RossmanConrad; Conrad L. Schoch; David F. Farr; Kate Nishijima; Lisa Keith; Ricardo Goenaga

    2010-01-01

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and lychee (Litchi chinensis) are tropical trees in the Sapindaceae that produce delicious edible fruits and are increasingly cultivated in tropical regions.\\u000a These trees are afflicted with a stem canker disease associated with the ascomycete Dolabra nepheliae. Previously known from Asia and Australia, this fungus was recently reported from Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The sexual and\\u000a asexual

  6. Molecular characterization of pezizalean ectomycorrhizas associated with pinyon pine during drought

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Galena J. Gordon; Catherine A. Gehring

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies using molecular analysis of ectomycorrhizas have revealed that ascomycete fungi, especially members of the\\u000a order Pezizales, can be important members of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal communities. However, little is known about the ecology\\u000a and taxonomy of many of these fungi. We used data collected during a wet and a dry period to test the hypothesis that pezizalean\\u000a EM fungi

  7. Genetic requirements for initiating asexual development in Aspergillus nidulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny Wieser; Bee Na Lee; John W. Fondon; Thomas H. Adams

    1994-01-01

    Conidiation in the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans requires activation of brlA, a well-characterized transcriptional regulator of genes that are induced specifically during asexual development. We have isolated and characterized developmental mutations in six loci, designated fluG, flbA, flbB, flbC, flbD, and flbE, that result in defective development and reduced brlA expression. These mutants grow indeterminately to produce masses of aerial

  8. Purification and characterization of a N -acetylglucosaminidase produced by Talaromyces emersonii during growth on algal fucoidan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine O’Connell; Patrick Murray; Charles Piggott; Franck Hennequart; Maria Tuohy

    2008-01-01

    A ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase produced by a novel fungal source, the moderately thermophilic aerobic ascomycete Talaromyces emersonii, was purified to apparent homogeneity. Submerged fermentation of T. emersonii, in liquid medium containing algal fucoidan as the main carbon source, yielded significant amounts of extracellular N-acetylglucosaminidase activity. The N-acetylglucosaminidase present in the culture-supernatant was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and preparative\\u000a electrophoresis. The enzyme

  9. Purification and characterization of a N -acetylglucosaminidase produced by Talaromyces emersonii during growth on algal fucoidan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine O’Connell; Patrick Murray; Charles Piggott; Franck Hennequart; Maria Tuohy

    A ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase produced by a novel fungal source, the moderately thermophilic aerobic ascomycete Talaromyces emersonii, was purified to apparent homogeneity. Submerged fermentation of T. emersonii, in liquid medium containing algal fucoidan as the main carbon source, yielded significant amounts of extracellular N-acetylglucosaminidase activity. The N-acetylglucosaminidase present in the culture-supernatant was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and preparative\\u000a electrophoresis. The enzyme

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizas and dark septate endophytes in bromeliads from South American arid environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Lugo; M. G. Molina; E. M. Crespo

    2009-01-01

    Most plant roots are associated with glomalean fungi forming arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) and a wide range are also colonized\\u000a by ascomycetous dark septate endophytes (DSE). Bromeliaceae species can be epiphytic, rupicolous or terrestrial but their\\u000a mycorrhizal status is poorly studied. We examined the AM and DSE status of 5 epiphytic and 4 terrestrial Bromeliaceae from\\u000a an arid area of Central

  11. Differential cytoplasm-plasma membrane-cell wall adhesion patterns and their relationships to hyphal tip growth and organelle motility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine L. Bachewich; I. Brent Heath

    1997-01-01

    Summary Plasmolysis of hyphae of the oomycetesSaprolegnia ferax andAchlya ambisexualis and the ascomyceteNeurospora crassa produced abundant cytoplasmic strands between the retracted cytoplasm and punctate adhesions of the plasma membrane to the cell wall. These strands formed throughout the length of mature hyphae and are the first demonstration of Hechtian strands in hyphae. In contrast to similar strands in various plant

  12. A splice variant of the Neurospora crassa hex-1 transcript, which encodes the major protein of the Woronin body, is modulated by extracellular phosphate and pH changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliana Leal; Fábio M. Squina; Janaína S. Freitas; Emiliana M. Silva; Carlos J. Ono; Nilce M. Martinez-Rossi; Antonio Rossi

    2009-01-01

    The Woronin body, a septal pore-associated organelle specific to filamentous ascomycetes, is crucial for preventing cytoplasmic bleeding after hyphal injury. In this study, we show that T1hex-1 transcript and a variant splicing T2hex-1 transcript are up-regulated at alkaline pH. We also show that both hex-1 transcripts are overexpressed in the pregc, nuc-1RIP, and pacCko mutant strains of Neurospora crassa grown

  13. Diversity of fungi in hair roots of Ericaceae varies along a vegetation gradient.

    PubMed

    Bougoure, Damian S; Parkin, Pamela I; Cairney, John W G; Alexander, Ian J; Anderson, Ian C

    2007-11-01

    Ericaceous dwarf shrubs including Calluna vulgaris and Vaccinium spp. occur both in open heathland communities and in forest ecosystems as understory vegetation. Ericaceous shrubs were once thought to form ericoid mycorrhizal associations with a relatively narrow range of ascomycetous fungi closely related to, and including, Rhizoscyphus ericae. However, perceptions have recently changed since the realization that a broader range of ascomycete fungi, and in some cases basidiomycete fungi, can also form associations with the roots of ericaceous plants. We used a combination of molecular approaches, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing, to investigate the diversity of fungi associated with C. vulgaris roots collected across a heathland/native Scots pine forest vegetation gradient. We also determined differences in fungal community composition between roots of co-occurring C. vulgaris and Vaccinium myrtillus in the forest understory. Collectively, the data show that a large diversity of potentially ericoid mycorrhizal fungal taxa associate with roots of C. vulgaris and V. myrtillus, and that ascomycetes were about 2.5 times more frequent than basidiomycetes. The assemblages of fungi associated with C. vulgaris and V. myrtillus were different. In addition, the community of fungi associated with C. vulgaris hair roots was different for samples collected from the forest, open heathland and a transition zone between the two. This separation was partly, but not entirely, due to the occurrence of typical ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes associated with the hair roots of C. vulgaris in the forest understory. These data demonstrate that forest understory ericaceous shrubs associate with a diverse range of ascomycete and basidiomycete taxa, including typical ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes. PMID:17908212

  14. Detection of hyphal fusion in filamentous fungi using differently fluorescence-labeled histones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Rech; Ines Engh; Ulrich Kück

    2007-01-01

    Cell fusion occurs regularly during the vegetative and sexual phases of the life cycle in filamentous fungi. Here, we present\\u000a a simple and efficient method that can detect even rare hyphal fusion events. Using the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora as an experimental system, we developed a histone-assisted merged fluorescence (HAMF) assay for the investigation of hyphal\\u000a fusion between vegetative mycelia.

  15. An elicitor-induced cDNA from aerial yam (Dioscorea bulbifera L.) encodes a pathogenesis-related type 4 protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rompf; G. Kahl

    1999-01-01

    We established Dioscorea bulbifera (aerial yam) cell suspension cultures to study the expression of defense-related genes upon elicitation with the yam pathogenic\\u000a ascomycete Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The induction of phenylalanine-ammonia lyase (PAL) mRNA, coding for a key enzyme involved in phytoalexin biosynthesis, was\\u000a observed upon elicitation. Using RT-PCR, we isolated an elicited cDNA clone with an open reading frame of 453

  16. Fossil fungi from America Pennsylvanian coal balls

    E-print Network

    Baxter, R. W.

    1975-05-29

    to the Ascomycetes, 3) septate hyphae and reproductive parts comparable to the Basidiomycetes, 4) fungal sclerotia, 5) mycorrhizal fungi associated with Amyelon and other roots and rhizomes, and 6) fragments of a possible saprophytic "fleshy" fungus. In the following...- rounding plant debris, 3) overall degradation and decay of most cordaitean roots containing the hyphae, 4) presence of both nonseptate and sep- tate hyphae in the roots, although in a mycor- rhizal relationship one would expect just one species of fungus...

  17. A third generation glucose biosensor based on cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus and single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Federico; Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Harreither, Wolfgang; Nöll, Gilbert; Ludwig, Roland; Gorton, Lo

    2011-05-21

    A third generation glucose biosensor working under physiological conditions with a linear range of 0.1-30 mM, a detection limit of 0.05 mM, and a sensitivity of 222 nA µM(-1) cm(-2) has been developed by co-adsorption of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from the ascomycete Corynascus thermophilus (CtCDH) and oxidatively shortened single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). PMID:20672160

  18. Bioabatement to Remove Inhibitors from Biomass-Derived Sugar Hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy N. Nichols; Bruce S. Dien; Gema M. Guisado; Maria J. López

    Bioabatement is a potential method to remove inhibitory compounds from lignocellulose hydrolysates that could be incorporated\\u000a into a scheme for fermentation of ethanol from cellulose. Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616, an Ascomycete that metabolizes furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, is a unique strain that may be useful for\\u000a detoxifying biomass sugars. NRRL30616 and 23 related fungal strains were screened for the ability to metabolize

  19. A contribution to the taxonomy of the genus Coniocessia (Xylariales)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bita Asgari; Rasoul Zare

    2011-01-01

    The ascomycete genus Coniocessia has recently been established to accommodate the only and type species, C. nodulisporioides, with nodulisporium-like anamorph, formerly classified in Coniochaeta. Four new Coniocessia species are described here, three of which were isolated from cereal seeds and straw in Iran and one from goat dung collected\\u000a in Spain, using morphological and molecular data (sequences of the ITS

  20. Transformation and electrophoretic karyotyping of Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy N. Nichols; Matthew P. Szynkarek; Christopher D. Skory; Steven W. Gorsich; Maria J. López; Gema M. Guisado; Wade A. Nichols

    2011-01-01

    Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616 is an ascomycete that grows with yeast-like appearance in liquid culture. The strain has potential utility for\\u000a conversion of fibrous biomass to fuels or chemicals. Furans and other inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass are\\u000a metabolized by NRRL30616, facilitating subsequent microbial fermentation of biomass sugars. This study undertook initial characterization\\u000a of the genetic system of C.\\u000a ligniaria NRRL30616.

  1. Bioabatement to remove inhibitors from biomass-derived sugar hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy N. Nichols; Bruce S. Dien; Gema M. Guisado; Maria J. López

    2005-01-01

    Bioabatement is a potential method to remove inhibitory compounds from lignocellulose hydrolysates that could be incorporated\\u000a into a scheme for fermentation of ethanol from cellulose. Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616, an Ascomycete that metabolizes furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, is a unique strain that may be useful for\\u000a detoxifying biomass sugars. NRRL30616 and 23 related fungal strains were screened for the ability to metabolize

  2. Identification of elements in the PDA1 promoter of Nectria haematococca necessary for a high level of transcription in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yijun Ruan; David C. Straney

    1996-01-01

    Expression of thePDA1 gene in the ascomyceteNectria haematococca MPVI (anamorph:Fusarium solani) is induced by exposure of mycelium to pisatin, an isoflavonoid phytoalexin produced by its host plant, garden pea. ThePDA1 gene encodes a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase which detoxifies pisatin. Regulatory elements controlling transcription from thePDA1 promoter were identified using a homologousNectria in vitro transcription system through analysis of 5? deletions,

  3. Estimating the dispersal capacity of the rare lichen Cliostomum corrugatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Håkan Lättman; Louise Lindblom; Jan-Eric Mattsson; Per Milberg; Morten Skage; Stefan Ekman

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the dispersal rate in an organism assumed to be confined to tree stands with unbroken continuity. We used the lichen-forming ascomycete Cliostomum corrugatum, which is largely confined to old oak stands. Five populations, with pairwise distances ranging from 6.5 to 83km, were sampled in Östergötland, south-eastern Sweden. DNA sequence data from an

  4. A REASSESSMENT OF THE FAMILY ALECTORIACEAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan-Eric Mattsson; Mats Wedin

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: The phylogenetic relationship between the Alectoriaceae and theParmeliaceae (lichenized ascomycetes) were studied using sequences of the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA). The Alectoriaceae was represented by specimens of Alectoria ochroleuca and A. sarmentosa, and theParmeliaceae by Bryoria capillaris, Cetraria islandica, Cornicularia normoerica, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia saxatilis, Platismatia glauca, Pleurosticta acetabulum, Usnea florida, Vulpicida

  5. Global diversity and distribution of macrofungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Mueller; John P. Schmit; Patrick R. Leacock; Bart Buyck; Joaquín Cifuentes; Dennis E. Desjardin; Roy E. Halling; Kurt Hjortstam; Teresa Iturriaga; Karl-Henrik Larsson; D. Jean Lodge; Tom W. May; David Minter; Mario Rajchenberg; Scott A. Redhead; Leif Ryvarden; James M. Trappe; Roy Watling; Qiuxin Wu

    2007-01-01

    Data on macrofungal diversity and distribution patterns were compiled for major geographical regions of the world. Macrofungi\\u000a are defined here to include ascomycetes and basidiomycetes with large, easily observed spore-bearing structures that form\\u000a above or below ground. Each coauthor either provided data on a particular taxonomic group of macrofungi or information on\\u000a the macrofungi of a specific geographic area. We

  6. The Sfp-Type 4?-Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt1 of Fusarium fujikuroi Controls Development, Secondary Metabolism and Pathogenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp Wiemann; Sabine Albermann; Eva-Maria Niehaus; Lena Studt; Katharina W. von Bargen; Nelson L. Brock; Hans-Ulrich Humpf; Jeroen S. Dickschat; Bettina Tudzynski

    2012-01-01

    The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi is a notorious rice pathogen causing super-elongation of plants due to the production of terpene-derived gibberellic acids (GAs) that function as natural plant hormones. Additionally, F. fujikuroi is able to produce a variety of polyketide- and non-ribosomal peptide-derived metabolites such as bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins as well as metabolites from yet unidentified biosynthetic pathways, e.g.

  7. Functional and Structural Comparison of Pyrrolnitrin and Iprodione-Induced Modifications in the Class III Histidine-Kinase Bos1 of Botrytis cinerea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Fillinger; Sakhr Ajouz; Philippe C. Nicot; Pierre Leroux; Marc Bardin

    2012-01-01

    Dicarboximides and phenylpyrroles are commonly used fungicides against plant pathogenic ascomycetes. Although their effect on fungal osmosensing systems has been shown in many studies, their modes-of-action still remain unclear. Laboratory- or field-mutants of fungi resistant to either or both fungicide categories generally harbour point mutations in the sensor histidine kinase of the osmotic signal transduction cascade.In the present study we

  8. Main airborne Ascomycota spores: characterization by culture, spore morphology, ribosomal DNA sequences and enzymatic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Oliveira; M. Isabel Amorim; Elsa Ferreira; Luís Delgado; Ilda Abreu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the main allergy-related Ascomycetes fungal spores present in the atmosphere of Porto,\\u000a using different and complementary techniques. The atmospheric sampling, performed in the atmosphere of Porto (Portugal) from\\u000a August 2006 to July 2008, indicated Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria as the main fungal spore taxa. Alternaria and Cladosporium peaks were registered during

  9. Molecular phylogeny of four selected species of the strictly anamorphic genus Thysanophora using nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susumu Iwamoto; Seiji Tokumasu; Yoshihisa Suyama; Makoto Kakishima

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the phylogenetic position of the strictly anamorphic genus Thysanophora among the class Ascomycetes sensu Kirk et al. and to examine the phylogenetic relationships among T. penicillioides and other Thysanophora species, 18S and 28S rDNA (D1 and D2 regions) sequences of 22 strains of four known and two unidentified Thysanophora species were determined and phylogenetically analyzed. The 18S rDNA

  10. Secondary Metabolites of Basidiomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Schüffler; Timm Anke

    \\u000a Basidiomycetes, a major class of higher fungi adapted to many different climates, habitats, and substrates have developed\\u000a a rich and very diverse secondary metabolism. Its products differ in biogenetic origin and structure remarkably from the metabolites\\u000a of ascomycetes or other prolific producers of secondary metabolites like actinomycetes or myxobacteria. There are, however,\\u000a some similarities to the products of plants, especially

  11. Comparison of transcription of multiple genes during mycelia transition to yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis reveals insights to fungal differentiation and pathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliana Alves Parente; Clayton Luiz Borges; Alexandre Melo Bailão; Maria Sueli S. Felipe; Maristela Pereira; Célia Maria de Almeida Soares

    2008-01-01

    The ascomycete Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a human pathogen with a broad distribution in Latin America. The infection process of P. brasiliensis is initiated by aerially dispersed mycelia propagules, which differentiate into the yeast parasitic phase in human lungs.\\u000a Therefore, the transition to yeast is an initial and fundamental step in the infective process. In order to identify and characterize\\u000a genes

  12. Isolation and immunological characterization of a novel Cladosporium herbarum allergen structurally homologous to the ?\\/? hydrolase fold superfamily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphaela Rid; Kamil Önder; Thomas Hawranek; Martin Laimer; Johann W. Bauer; Claudia Holler; Birgit Simon-Nobbe; Michael Breitenbach

    2010-01-01

    Because the ascomycete Cladosporium herbarum embodies one of the most important, world-wide occurring fungal species responsible for eliciting typical IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions ranging from rhinitis and ocular symptoms to severe involvement of the lower respiratory tract, a more comprehensive definition of its detailed allergen repertoire is unquestionably of critical medical as well as therapeutic significance. By screening a C. herbarum

  13. Sassafrins A–D, new antimicrobial azaphilones from the fungus Creosphaeria sassafras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dang Ngoc Quang; Toshihiro Hashimoto; Jacques Fournier; Marc Stadler; Niko Radulovi?; Yoshinori Asakawa

    2005-01-01

    Four new azaphilones named sassafrins A–D (1–4) were isolated from the methanol extract of the stromata of the fungus Creosphaeria sassafras (Xylariaceae, Ascomycetes). Their structures were elucidated by 2D NMR, HR-MS, IR, UV and CD spectroscopy. Sassafrin D (4) possesses a novel skeleton and its biosynthetic pathway is also discussed. In addition, all compounds showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Their apparently

  14. Medicinal mushrooms: Towards a new horizon

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshpurkar, A.; Rai, G.; Jain, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    The arising awareness about functional food has created a boom in this new millennium. Mushrooms are widely consumed by the people due to their nutritive and medicinal properties. Belonging to taxonomic category of basidiomycetes or ascomycetes, these mushrooms possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. They are also one of the richest source of anticancer and immunomodulating agents. Thus these novel myochemicals from these mushrooms are the wave of future. PMID:22228952

  15. Identification of the CRE1 Cellulolytic Regulon in Neurospora crassa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianping Sun; N. Louise Glass; Robert Alan Arkowitz

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundIn filamentous ascomycete fungi, the utilization of alternate carbon sources is influenced by the zinc finger transcription factor CreA\\/CRE-1, which encodes a carbon catabolite repressor protein homologous to Mig1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In Neurospora crassa, deletion of cre-1 results in increased secretion of amylase and ?-galactosidase.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere we show that a strain carrying a deletion of cre-1 has increased cellulolytic

  16. A comprehensive phylogeny of Neurospora reveals a link between reproductive mode and molecular evolution in fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristiina Nygren; Rebecka Strandberg; Andreas Wallberg; Benoit Nabholz; Tim Gustafsson; Dania García; José Cano; Josep Guarro; Hanna Johannesson

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous ascomycete genus Neurospora encompasses taxa with a wide range of reproductive modes. Sexual reproduction in this genus can be divided into three major modes; heterothallism (self-incompatibility), homothallism (self-compatibility) and pseudohomothallism (partial self-compatibility). In addition to the sexual pathway, most of the heterothallic taxa propagate with morphologically distinct, vegetative dissemination propagules (macroconidia), while this feature is undetected in the

  17. Two pentatricopeptide repeat domain proteins are required for the synthesis of respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Solotoff, V; Moseler, R; Schulte, U

    2015-02-01

    In this study pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in filamentous ascomycetes are identified and functionally characterized. PPR proteins, which have in common a degenerated 35 amino acid motif often arranged in multiple tandems, are known to be implicated in various steps of RNA metabolism in mitochondria and chloroplasts. In filamentous ascomycetes we identified a common set of nine PPR proteins. For seven of these proteins, which were not yet characterized, knockout mutants of Neurospora crassa were analyzed. The knockout of three genes appeared to be lethal while four mutants showed different degrees of alterations in respiratory chain complexes. Two mutants are specifically affected in the assembly of a functional complex I while the other enzymes of the respiratory chain are present. Both mutants demonstrate the presence of a peripheral arm and the absence of a detectable membrane arm. Analysis of the mitochondrial RNA revealed distinct alterations of the transcript patterns for certain complex I subunits. Synthesis and/or stability of the transcript for ND2-ND3 is grossly impaired in one mutant while in the other mutant splicing of the transcript for ND1-ND4 is hampered. Our analysis provides the basis for a comprehensive characterization of PPR proteins in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:25108509

  18. Cellobiose dehydrogenase of Chaetomium sp. INBI 2-26(-): structural basis of enhanced activity toward glucose at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Vasilchenko, Liliya G; Karapetyan, Karen N; Yershevich, Olga P; Ludwig, Roland; Zamocky, Marcel; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rabinovich, Mikhail L

    2011-05-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular fungal flavocytochrome specifically oxidizing cellooligosaccharides and lactose to corresponding (-lactones by a variety of electron acceptors. In contrast to basidiomycetous CDHs, CDHs of ascomycetes also display certain activity toward glucose. The objective of this study was to establish the structural reasons of such an activity of CDH from mesophilic ascomycete Chaetomium sp. INBI 2-26 (ChCDH). The complete amino acid sequence of ChCDH displayed high levels of similarity with the amino acid sequences of CDHs from the thermophilic fungi Thielavia heterotallica and Myriococcum thermophilum. Peptide mass fingerprinting of purified ChCDH provided evidence for the oxidation of methionine residues in the FAD-domain. Comparative homology modeling of the structure of the ChCDH FAD-domain in complex with the transition state analog based on the structure of the same complex of basidiomycetous CDH (1NAA) as template indicated possible structural reasons for the enhanced activity of ascomycetous CDHs toward glucose at neutral pH, which is a prerequisite for application of CDH in a variety of biocompatible biosensors and biofuel cells. PMID:21381206

  19. Aqueous Extracts of Selected Potentilla Species Modulate Biological Activity of Human Normal Colon Cells.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Locatelli, Marcello; Pleszczy?ska, Ma?gorzata; Tomczyk, Micha?

    2014-12-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional and in folk medicine for many years. This study analyzed the biological activity of aqueous extracts from aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (Rosaceae): P. argentea, P. anserina, P. grandiflora and P. erecta as well as one species of closely related to the genus Potentilla, Drymocallis rupestris (syn. P. rupestris). The activities were tested using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on normal human colon epithelium (CCD 841 CoTr) and colon myofibroblast (CCD-18Co) cells. Moreover, cell morphology and cytoskeletal actin F-filaments organization and IL-6 and IL-10 levels by ELISA were analyzed after 24 h of incubation. Extracts were tested at dose levels between 25 and 250 ?g/mL. For ELISA, 15??g/mL and 30 ?g/mL were chosen. When mitochondrial succinyl dehydrogenase activity was tested (MTT assay) only extract obtained from P. erecta at lower concentrations (up to 125 ?g/mL) suppressed metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells mitochondrial enzyme activity increased after incubation with all extracts. In Neutral Red (NR) method cellular membrane disturbance of both cell cultures was found after D. rupestris and P. grandiflora addition. Moreover, strong influence on epithelial cells was also found for P. anserina. All extracts showed similar, concentration-dependent free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect. Potentilla extracts, especially at lower concentration, decreased IL-6 production in myofibroblasts but the level of the cytokine was found to be stable in epithelial cells. IL-10 analysis revealed that P. argentea, D. rupestris, P. erecta extracts decrease cytokine level in myofibroblasts, while only when higher concentration were applied, decreased cytokine level produced by epithelial cells was found. F-actin filaments staining revealed that Potentilla extracts significantly influence on cellular cytoskeleton organization. Potentilla extracts influence on cells of human colon wall lining modulating the main features of them (viability, cytokine production). Moreover as a free radical reducing agents may be potentially useful in the prophylaxis or healing of colon disorders. PMID:25483225

  20. Mycological evidence of coprophagy from the feces of an Alaskan Late Glacial mammoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geel, Bas; Guthrie, R. Dale; Altmann, Jens G.; Broekens, Peter; Bull, Ian D.; Gill, Fiona L.; Jansen, Boris; Nieman, Aline M.; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    Dung from a mammoth was preserved under frozen conditions in Alaska. The mammoth lived during the early part of the Late Glacial interstadial (ca 12,300 BP). Microfossils, macroremains and ancient DNA from the dung were studied and the chemical composition was determined to reconstruct both the paleoenvironment and paleobiology of this mammoth. Pollen spectra are dominated by Poaceae, Artemisia and other light-demanding taxa, indicating an open, treeless landscape ('mammoth steppe'). Fruits and seeds support this conclusion. The dung consists mainly of cyperaceous stems and leaves, with a minor component of vegetative remains of Poaceae. Analyses of fragments of the plastid rbcL gene and trnL intron and nrITS1 region, amplified from DNA extracted from the dung, supplemented the microscopic identifications. Many fruit bodies with ascospores of the coprophilous fungus Podospora conica were found inside the dung ball, indicating that the mammoth had eaten dung. The absence of bile acids points to mammoth dung. This is the second time that evidence for coprophagy of mammoths has been derived from the presence of fruit bodies of coprophilous fungi in frozen dung. Coprophagy might well have been a common habit of mammoths. Therefore, we strongly recommend that particular attention should be given to fungal remains in future fossil dung studies.

  1. Soil-inhabiting fungal community composition as qualitative indicator of C metabolism processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manici, L.; Ciavatta, C.; Caputo, F.

    2009-04-01

    Although fungi represent the greater part of soil microbial biomass, they play an important role in macro-aggregate formation and their carbon (C) assimilation efficiency is markedly higher than that of bacteria (Bailey et al., 2002), they have not yet been widely used as soil biological indicators. The reason is mainly due to the difficulties in application of molecular analysis tools due to limited availability of reference sequence of fungal strains in DNA database and to the low concentration of fungal DNA in soil and in isolating, enumerating and identifying groups of fungi differing for their functioning in soil and for biological characteristics. The presence of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes as the two main groups of soil-inhabiting fungi were investigated in four different cropping systems. The soil DNA of soil samples coming from twenty sites (five sites for each system), collected in two cropping systems in northern (soil organic matter - SOM content varying from 0.8 to 1.4 %) and two in southern Italy (SOM from 1.4 to 2.3%), was amplified using Ascomycete-specific primer ITS1F - ITS4A (Larena et al., 1999) and Basidiomycete-specific primer ITS1F -ITS4B (Gardes and Bruns, 1993). On the basis of soil DNA amplified with specific primers, Ascomycetes were much more represented than Basidiomycetes in the cultivated top soil. Basidiomycetes are usually reported to account for more than half of the fungal biomass in undisturbed soils. However the low ratio of Basidiomycete DNA to soil fungal DNA observed in this study could be a feature of soil fungal communities in arable soil affected by desertification problems as those of some Italian cropping systems mainly in Mediterranean area. This phenomenon could be due to soil tillage, which is well known to deeply reduce fungal biomass and to continuous incorporation into the soil of herbaceous crop residues. In fact, Ascomycetes decompose holocellulose in preference to lignin (Oslko & Takeda, 2002) and their growth may depend on readily available energy sources, such as soluble carbohydrates (Hudson, 1968). The high ratio of Ascomycetes in the top layer where crop residues of the recurrent had represented the main substrate for saprophytic fungi could explain these results. On the contrary, Basidiomycetes are the most important synthesizing biomass organisms in forest soils as well as the most effective organisms in lignin decomposition with an important role in humic substances processes (Hurst et al., 1963; Cook and Rayner, 1986). Preliminary results of this study suggest that the composition of soil-inhabiting fungal communities, which are the organisms most involved in C metabolism processes, could represents an useful indicator in programs aimed to increase the quality of organic matter in arable soils. Bailey V., Smith L., Bolton Jr K. 2002. Fungal-to-bacteria ratio investigated for enhanced C sequestration. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34, 997-1007. Cook R., Rayner A.D.M. 1984. Ecology of Saprotrophic Fungi. Longman, London, New York, 415 pp. Gardes M., Bruns T.D. 1993. ITS primers with enhanced specificity for Basidiomycetes: application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molec. Ecol. 2, 113-118. Hudson H.J. 1968. The ecology of fungi on plant remains above the soil. New Phytol. 67, 837-874. Hurst H.M., A. Burges, P. Latter. 1963. Some aspects of the biochemistry of humic acid decomposition by fungi. Phytochem. 1, 227-231. Larena I., Salazar O., González V, Julián M.C., Rubio V. 1999. Design of a primer for ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer with enhanced specificity for Ascomycetes. J. Biotech. 75, 187-194. Osolko T., Fukasawa Y., Takeda H. 2003. Roles of diverse fungi in Larch neerle-litter decomposition. Mycologia 95, 820-826.

  2. Genomic Mechanisms Accounting for the Adaptation to Parasitism in Nematode-Trapping Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Meerupati, Tejashwari; Andersson, Karl-Magnus; Friman, Eva; Kumar, Dharmendra; Tunlid, Anders; Ahrén, Dag

    2013-01-01

    Orbiliomycetes is one of the earliest diverging branches of the filamentous ascomycetes. The class contains nematode-trapping fungi that form unique infection structures, called traps, to capture and kill free-living nematodes. The traps have evolved differently along several lineages and include adhesive traps (knobs, nets or branches) and constricting rings. We show, by genome sequencing of the knob-forming species Monacrosporium haptotylum and comparison with the net-forming species Arthrobotrys oligospora, that two genomic mechanisms are likely to have been important for the adaptation to parasitism in these fungi. Firstly, the expansion of protein domain families and the large number of species-specific genes indicated that gene duplication followed by functional diversification had a major role in the evolution of the nematode-trapping fungi. Gene expression indicated that many of these genes are important for pathogenicity. Secondly, gene expression of orthologs between the two fungi during infection indicated that differential regulation was an important mechanism for the evolution of parasitism in nematode-trapping fungi. Many of the highly expressed and highly upregulated M. haptotylum transcripts during the early stages of nematode infection were species-specific and encoded small secreted proteins (SSPs) that were affected by repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). An active RIP mechanism was revealed by lack of repeats, dinucleotide bias in repeats and genes, low proportion of recent gene duplicates, and reduction of recent gene family expansions. The high expression and rapid divergence of SSPs indicate a striking similarity in the infection mechanisms of nematode-trapping fungi and plant and insect pathogens from the crown groups of the filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina). The patterns of gene family expansions in the nematode-trapping fungi were more similar to plant pathogens than to insect and animal pathogens. The observation of RIP activity in the Orbiliomycetes suggested that this mechanism was present early in the evolution of the filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:24244185

  3. Yeast diversity associated with invasive Dendroctonus valens killing Pinus tabuliformis in China using culturing and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qiao-Zhe; Lu, Min; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Bark beetle-associated yeasts are much less studied than filamentous fungi, yet they are also considered to play important roles in beetle nutrition, detoxification, and chemical communication. The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, an invasive bark beetle introduced from North America, became one of the most destructive pests in China, having killed more than 10 million Pinus tabuliformis as well as other pine species. No investigation of yeasts associated with this bark beetle in its invaded ranges has been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of yeast communities in different microhabitats and during different developmental stages of Den. valens in China using culturing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches and to compare the yeast flora between China and the USA. The yeast identity was confirmed by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of LSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In total, 21 species (13 ascomycetes and eight basidiomycetes) were detected by culturing method, and 12 species (11 ascomycetes and one basidiomycetes) were detected by molecular methods from China. The most frequent five species in China were Candida piceae (Ogataea clade), Cyberlindnera americana, Candida oregonensis (Metschnikowia clade), Candida nitratophila (Ogataea clade) and an undescribed Saccharomycopsis sp., detected by both methods. Seven species were exclusively detected by DGGE. Ca. oregonensis (Metschnikowia clade) was the most frequently detected species by DGGE method. Eight species (all were ascomycetes) from the USA were isolated; seven of those were also found in China. We found significant differences in yeast total abundance as well as community composition between different developmental stages and significant differences between the surface and the gut. The frass yeast community was more similar to that of Den. valens surface or larvae than to the community of the gut or adults. Possible functions of the yeast associates are discussed. PMID:24691849

  4. Simulated Atmospheric N Deposition Alters Fungal Community Composition and Suppresses Ligninolytic Gene Expression in a Northern Hardwood Forest

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ivan P.; Zak, Donald R.; Kellner, Harald; Eisenlord, Sarah D.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition may result in greater terrestrial carbon (C) storage. In a northern hardwood ecosystem, exposure to over a decade of simulated N deposition increased C storage in soil by slowing litter decay rates, rather than increasing detrital inputs. To understand the mechanisms underlying this response, we focused on the saprotrophic fungal community residing in the forest floor and employed molecular genetic approaches to determine if the slower decomposition rates resulted from down-regulation of the transcription of key lignocellulolytic genes, by a change in fungal community composition, or by a combination of the two mechanisms. Our results indicate that across four Acer-dominated forest stands spanning a 500-km transect, community-scale expression of the cellulolytic gene cbhI under elevated N deposition did not differ significantly from that under ambient levels of N deposition. In contrast, expression of the ligninolytic gene lcc was significantly down-regulated by a factor of 2–4 fold relative to its expression under ambient N deposition. Fungal community composition was examined at the most southerly of the four sites, in which consistently lower levels of cbhI and lcc gene expression were observed over a two-year period. We recovered 19 basidiomycete and 28 ascomycete rDNA 28S operational taxonomic units; Athelia, Sistotrema, Ceratobasidium and Ceratosebacina taxa dominated the basidiomycete assemblage, and Leotiomycetes dominated the ascomycetes. Simulated N deposition increased the proportion of basidiomycete sequences recovered from forest floor, whereas the proportion of ascomycetes in the community was significantly lower under elevated N deposition. Our results suggest that chronic atmospheric N deposition may lower decomposition rates through a combination of reduced expression of ligninolytic genes such as lcc, and compositional changes in the fungal community. PMID:21701691

  5. Simulated atmospheric N deposition alters fungal community composition and suppresses ligninolytic gene expression in a northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ivan P; Zak, Donald R; Kellner, Harald; Eisenlord, Sarah D; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2011-01-01

    High levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition may result in greater terrestrial carbon (C) storage. In a northern hardwood ecosystem, exposure to over a decade of simulated N deposition increased C storage in soil by slowing litter decay rates, rather than increasing detrital inputs. To understand the mechanisms underlying this response, we focused on the saprotrophic fungal community residing in the forest floor and employed molecular genetic approaches to determine if the slower decomposition rates resulted from down-regulation of the transcription of key lignocellulolytic genes, by a change in fungal community composition, or by a combination of the two mechanisms. Our results indicate that across four Acer-dominated forest stands spanning a 500-km transect, community-scale expression of the cellulolytic gene cbhI under elevated N deposition did not differ significantly from that under ambient levels of N deposition. In contrast, expression of the ligninolytic gene lcc was significantly down-regulated by a factor of 2-4 fold relative to its expression under ambient N deposition. Fungal community composition was examined at the most southerly of the four sites, in which consistently lower levels of cbhI and lcc gene expression were observed over a two-year period. We recovered 19 basidiomycete and 28 ascomycete rDNA 28S operational taxonomic units; Athelia, Sistotrema, Ceratobasidium and Ceratosebacina taxa dominated the basidiomycete assemblage, and Leotiomycetes dominated the ascomycetes. Simulated N deposition increased the proportion of basidiomycete sequences recovered from forest floor, whereas the proportion of ascomycetes in the community was significantly lower under elevated N deposition. Our results suggest that chronic atmospheric N deposition may lower decomposition rates through a combination of reduced expression of ligninolytic genes such as lcc, and compositional changes in the fungal community. PMID:21701691

  6. Module evolution and substrate specificity of fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases involved in siderophore biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Most filamentous ascomycete fungi produce high affinity iron chelators called siderophores, biosynthesized nonribosomally by multimodular adenylating enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). While genes encoding the majority of NRPSs are intermittently distributed across the fungal kingdom, those encoding ferrichrome synthetase NRPSs, responsible for biosynthesis of ferrichrome siderophores, are conserved, which offers an opportunity to trace their evolution and the genesis of their multimodular domain architecture. Furthermore, since the chemistry of many ferrichromes is known, the biochemical and structural 'rules' guiding NRPS substrate choice can be addressed using protein structural modeling and evolutionary approaches. Results A search of forty-nine complete fungal genome sequences revealed that, with the exception of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, none of the yeast, chytrid, or zygomycete genomes contained a candidate ferrichrome synthetase. In contrast, all filamentous ascomycetes queried contained at least one, while presence and numbers in basidiomycetes varied. Genes encoding ferrichrome synthetases were monophyletic when analyzed with other NRPSs. Phylogenetic analyses provided support for an ancestral duplication event resulting in two main lineages. They also supported the proposed hypothesis that ferrichrome synthetases derive from an ancestral hexamodular gene, likely created by tandem duplication of complete NRPS modules. Recurrent losses of individual domains or complete modules from this ancestral gene best explain the diversity of extant domain architectures observed. Key residues and regions in the adenylation domain pocket involved in substrate choice and for binding the amino and carboxy termini of the substrate were identified. Conclusion Iron-chelating ferrichrome synthetases appear restricted to fission yeast, filamentous ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes and fall into two main lineages. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that loss of domains or modules led to evolution of iterative biosynthetic mechanisms that allow flexibility in biosynthesis of the ferrichrome product. The 10 amino acid NRPS code, proposed earlier, failed when we tried to infer substrate preference. Instead, our analyses point to several regions of the binding pocket important in substrate choice and suggest that two positions of the code are involved in substrate anchoring, not substrate choice. PMID:19055762

  7. Genome organization of mitochondrial DNA from the non-saccharomycete yeast Arxula adeninivorans LS3.

    PubMed

    Pich, U; Kunze, G

    1992-12-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA of the asexual ascomycetous yeast Arxula adeninivorans LS3 was isolated and characterized. The mtDNA has a GC content of 30.3 mol%. It is circular and its size, as estimated by restriction analysis performed with nine endonucleases, was 35.5 kbp. Using mt gene-probes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae six structural genes (cob, cox1, cox2, oli1, oli2, and 21S rRNA) were located on the mitochondrial genome of A. adeninivorans. The comparison between the mt genomes of A. adeninivorans and other yeasts showed differences in genome organization. PMID:1473183

  8. Invasive mycotic infections caused by Chaetomium perlucidum, a new agent of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis.

    PubMed

    Barron, M A; Sutton, D A; Veve, R; Guarro, J; Rinaldi, M; Thompson, E; Cagnoni, P J; Moultney, K; Madinger, N E

    2003-11-01

    We report the first two cases of invasive human mycoses caused by the phaeoid ascomycete, Chaetomium perlucidum, and review the English literature regarding invasive Chaetomium infections. Fatal disseminated disease involving the brain, heart, lungs, and spleen is described in an acute myelogenous leukemia patient. A second patient with a history of asthma and chronic bronchiectasis experiencing right-middle-lobe syndrome grew C. perlucidum from lung tissue. This study adds C. perlucidum to the list of other known neurotropic Chaetomium species, C. atrobrunneum and C. strumarium, and also documents this organism's ability to disseminate beyond the central nervous system. PMID:14605190

  9. Arxula adeninivorans (Blastobotrys adeninivorans) — A Dimorphic Yeast of Great Biotechnological Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böer, Erik; Steinborn, Gerhard; Florschütz, Kristina; Körner, Martina; Gellissen, Gerd; Kunze, Gotthard

    The dimorphic ascomycetous yeast Arxula adeninivorans exhibits some unusual properties. Being a thermo- and halotolerant species it is able to assimilate and ferment many compounds as sole carbon and/or nitrogen source. It utilises n-alkanes and is capable of degrading starch. Due to these unusual biochemical properties A. adeninivorans can be exploited as a gene donor for the production of enzymes with attractive biotechnological characteristics. Examples of A. adeninivorans-derived genes that are overexpressed include the ALIP1 gene encoding a secretory lipase, the AINV encoding invertase, the AXDH encoding xylitol dehydrogenase and the APHY encoding a secretory phosphatase with phytase activity.

  10. Purification and biochemical characterization of a laccase from the aquatic fungus Myrioconium sp. UHH 1-13-18-4 and molecular analysis of the laccase-encoding gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Martin; M. Pecyna; H. Kellner; N. Jehmlich; C. Junghanns; D. Benndorf; M. von Bergen; D. Schlosser

    2007-01-01

    Myrioconium sp. strain UHH 1-13-18-4 is an ascomycete anamorph isolated from the river Saale, Central Germany. An extracellular, monomeric,\\u000a and glycosylated laccase with a molecular mass of 72.7 kDa as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization-time\\u000a of flight-mass spectrometry and an isoelectric point below 2.8 was purified from CuSO4 and vanillic acid amended liquid fungal cultures grown in malt extract medium. The

  11. Parallels in Amphibian and Bat Declines from Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Eskew, Evan A.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species—the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats—are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host–pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases. PMID:23622255

  12. Degradation of three phenylurea herbicides (chlortoluron, isoproturon and diuron) by micromycetes isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Khadrani, A; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Vroumsia, T

    1999-06-01

    As part of a study conducted on the fate of xenobiotics in the environment, a selection of 100 strains of micromycetes (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Yeasts) have been cultivated in liquid synthetic medium with 3 phenylurea herbicides: chlortoluron and isoproturon (100mg L-1) and diuron (20mg L-1). While 17 strains depleted isoproturon over 50% only 4 depleted diuron and 2 chlortoluron at the same level. The best results were obtained with Bjerkandera adusta and Oxysporus sp which were the most efficient towards the 3 substrates. After 2 weeks Bjerkandera adusta depleted chlortoluron 98%, diuron 92% and isoproturon 88%. PMID:10230047

  13. Extracellular phenoloxidase activity of micromycetes from various taxonomic groups.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, P; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Benoit-Guyod, J L

    1992-10-01

    The ability of Micromycetes strains to produce extracellular phenoloxidases was examined on solid malt agar medium using ten different reagents. We established a POx index summarizing the global activity given by the ten reagents used. The results indicated a wide variability depending on the taxonomic groups, the genera and the species. Some groups were relatively homogeneous, either no and low producers of phenoloxidases (Yeasts, Zygomycetes, genera Aspergillus and Penicillium) or medium and high producers of phenoloxidases (Basidiomycetes, Coelomycetes, Tuberculariales and Dematiaceae), while other groups were very heterogeneous (Ascomycetes, Mucedinaceae). The POx index was significantly higher for strains recently isolated than for strains kept in the fungi collection for a long time. PMID:1435351

  14. Bioabatement to remove inhibitors from biomass-derived sugar hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Nancy N; Dien, Bruce S; Guisado, Gema M; López, Maria J

    2005-01-01

    Bioabatement is a potential method to remove inhibitory compounds from lignocellulose hydrolysates that could be incorporated into a scheme for fermentation of ethanol from cellulose. Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616, an Ascomycete that metabolizes furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, is a unique strain that may be useful for detoxifying biomass sugars. NRRL30616 and 23 related fungal strains were screened for the ability to metabolize furans and grow in dilute-acid hydrolysate of corn stover. NRRL30616 was the best strain for removal of inhibitors from hydrolysate, and abatement of hydrolysate by inoculation with the strain allowed subsequent yeast fermentation of cellulose to ethanol. PMID:15917615

  15. ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis. PMID:23616783

  16. Parallels in amphibian and bat declines from pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Eskew, Evan A; Todd, Brian D

    2013-03-01

    Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species-the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats-are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host-pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases. PMID:23622255

  17. Disseminated fungal infection in a renal transplant recipient involving Macrophomina phaseolina and Scytalidium dimidiatum: case report and review of taxonomic changes among medically important members of the Botryosphaeriaceae.

    PubMed

    Tan, Darrell H S; Sigler, Lynne; Gibas, Connie F C; Fong, Ignatius W

    2008-05-01

    We report the first case of human infection with the fungal plant pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina in a Sri Lankan-born Canadian man following a renal transplant in India. The patient subsequently succumbed to invasive infection with Scytalidium dimidiatum. Molecular sequence analysis confirmed the identification of both fungi and revealed that they are related species within the ascomycete family Botryosphaeriaceae. We review the rationale for the recent reclassification of S. dimidiatum as Neoscytalidium dimidiatum and of Nattrassia mangiferae (formerly considered a synanamorph of S. dimidiatum) as Neofusicoccum mangiferae. This and other recent cases illustrate the potential for plant pathogenic fungi to cause invasive human diseases which are refractory to antifungal therapy. PMID:18404556

  18. Communities of Endophytic Sebacinales Associated with Roots of Herbaceous Plants in Agricultural and Grassland Ecosystems Are Dominated by Serendipita herbamans sp. nov

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Kai; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are known to be commonly associated with herbaceous plants, however, there are few studies focusing on their occurrence and distribution in plant roots from ecosystems with different land uses. To explore the phylogenetic diversity and community structure of Sebacinales endophytes from agricultural and grassland habitats under different land uses, we analysed the roots of herbaceous plants using strain isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and co-cultivation experiments. A new sebacinoid strain named Serendipita herbamans belonging to Sebacinales group B was isolated from the roots of Bistorta vivipara, which is characterized by colourless monilioid cells (chlamydospores) that become yellow with age. This species was very common and widely distributed in association with a broad spectrum of herbaceous plant families in diverse habitats, independent of land use type. Ultrastructurally, the presence of S. herbamans was detected in the cortical cells of Plantago media, Potentilla anserina and Triticum aestivum. In addition, 13 few frequent molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) or species were found across agricultural and grassland habitats, which did not exhibit a distinctive phylogenetic structure. Laboratory-based assays indicate that S. herbamans has the ability to colonize fine roots and stimulate plant growth. Although endophytic Sebacinales are widely distributed across agricultural and grassland habitats, TEM and nested PCR analyses reinforce the observation that these microorganisms are present in low quantity in plant roots, with no evidence of host specificity. PMID:24743185

  19. The complete mitochondrial genomes of the whistling duck (Dendrocygna javanica) and black swan (Cygnus atratus): dating evolutionary divergence in Galloanserae.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Miao, Yongwang; Liang, Wei; Ye, Haiyan; Liu, Hailin; Liu, Bin

    2010-07-01

    Galloanserae is an ancient and diverse avian group, for which comprehensive molecular evidence relevant to phylogenetic analysis in the context of molecular chronology is lacking. In this study, we present two additional mitochondrial genome sequences of Galloanserae (the whistling duck, Dendrocygna javanica, and the black swan, Cygnus atratus) to broaden the scope of molecular phylogenetic reconstruction. The lengths of the whistling duck's and black swan's mitochondrial genomes are 16,753 and 16,748 bases, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Dendrocygna is more likely to be in a basal position of the branch consisting of Anatinae and Anserinae, an affiliation that does not conform to its traditional classification. Bayesian approaches were employed to provide a rough timescale for Galloanserae evolution. In general, a narrow range of 95% confidence intervals gave younger estimates than those based on limited genes and estimated that at least two lineages originated before the Coniacian epoch around 90 MYA, well before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. In addition, these results, which were compatible with estimates from fossil evidence, also imply that the origin of numerous genera in Anseriformes took place in the late Oligocene to early Miocene. Taken together, the results presented here provide a working framework for future research on Galloanserae evolution, and they underline the utility of whole mitochondrial genome sequences for the resolution of deep divergence. PMID:19823953

  20. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  1. The diversity of yeasts associated with grapes and musts of the Strekov winegrowing region, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Nemcová, Kornélia; Breierová, Emília; Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana

    2015-03-01

    Many different yeast species have been isolated from grapes and musts worldwide. The diversity and frequency of yeasts depend on a number of factors such as the grape variety, the physical damage of the grapes, the weather conditions and the chemical composition of must. A total of 366 isolates were associated with the three grape cultivars: Blue Frankish, Green Veltliner and Sauvignon blanc over four consecutive years. Yeast cultures were isolated from the grapes and from the fermenting musts after the first and seventh days. The ascomycetous yeasts of the genera Aureobasidium, Candida, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Saccharomycopsis together with basidiomycetous yeasts of the genera Cryptococcus, Dioszegia, Filobasidium, Rhodotorula and Sporidiobolus were associated with the three grape varieties. Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii and Sporidiobolus pararoseus were found on the berries in significant amounts. P. kluyveri and P. kudriavzevii were more associated with the damaged grapes, whereas Sp. pararoseus with intact ones. H. uvarum and M. pulcherrima were present on both types of grapes almost equally. The yeast composition and quantitative representation of yeast species varied over the grape varieties and the years examined. Although the basidiomycetous species formed a significant proportion of the yeast population in some individual grape variety/year combinations, the ascomycetous species were dominant. PMID:25253264

  2. A new fungal genus, Teracosphaeria, with a phialophora-like anamorph (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Réblová, Martina; Seifert, Keith A

    2007-03-01

    The new genus and species Teracosphaeria petroica is described for a perithecial ascomycete and its anamorph occurring on decayed wood collected in New Zealand. The fungus produces immersed, non-stromatic ceratosphaeria-like perithecia in nature, with hyaline, septate ascospores produced in unitunicate, non-amyloid asci. The anamorph produced in vitro is phialophora-like with lightly pigmented phialides terminating in flaring, deep collarettes that are often noticeably brown with conspicuous periclinal thickening. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU rDNA sequence data indicates that this fungus is distinct from morphologically similar fungi classified in the Chaetosphaeriales, the Trichosphaeriales or the Magnaporthaceae. It forms a monophyletic group with recently described, chaetosphaeria-like ascomycetes, such as the pyrenomycete genus Mirannulata, and shows affinity with the anamorphic species Dictyochaeta cylindrospora. The usefulness of describing anamorph genera for morphologically reduced anamorphs, when anamorph characteristics are actually part of the holomorph diagnosis, is discussed. An apparently contradictory example of the so-called Cordana and Pseudobotrytis anamorphs of Porosphaerella spp. is also discussed. PMID:17363235

  3. Suppression subtractive hybridization and comparative expression analysis to identify developmentally regulated genes in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Gesing, Stefan; Schindler, Daniel; Nowrousian, Minou

    2013-09-01

    Ascomycetes differentiate four major morphological types of fruiting bodies (apothecia, perithecia, pseudothecia and cleistothecia) that are derived from an ancestral fruiting body. Thus, fruiting body differentiation is most likely controlled by a set of common core genes. One way to identify such genes is to search for genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), we selected differentially expressed transcripts in Pyronema confluens (Pezizales) by comparing two cDNA libraries specific for sexual and for vegetative development, respectively. The expression patterns of selected genes from both libraries were verified by quantitative real time PCR. Expression of several corresponding homologous genes was found to be conserved in two members of the Sordariales (Sordaria macrospora and Neurospora crassa), a derived group of ascomycetes that is only distantly related to the Pezizales. Knockout studies with N. crassa orthologues of differentially regulated genes revealed a functional role during fruiting body development for the gene NCU05079, encoding a putative MFS peptide transporter. These data indicate conserved gene expression patterns and a functional role of the corresponding genes during fruiting body development; such genes are candidates of choice for further functional analysis. PMID:22961396

  4. Community composition of root-associated fungi in a Quercus-dominated temperate forest: “codominance” of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Toju, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Gilbert, Gregory S; Kadowaki, Kohmei

    2013-01-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, plant roots are colonized by various clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Focused on the root systems of an oak-dominated temperate forest in Japan, we used 454 pyrosequencing to explore how phylogenetically diverse fungi constitute an ecological community of multiple ecotypes. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi were found from 159 terminal-root samples from 12 plant species occurring in the forest. Due to the dominance of an oak species (Quercus serrata), diverse ectomycorrhizal clades such as Russula, Lactarius, Cortinarius, Tomentella, Amanita, Boletus, and Cenococcum were observed. Unexpectedly, the root-associated fungal community was dominated by root-endophytic ascomycetes in Helotiales, Chaetothyriales, and Rhytismatales. Overall, 55.3% of root samples were colonized by both the commonly observed ascomycetes and ectomycorrhizal fungi; 75.0% of the root samples of the dominant Q. serrata were so cocolonized. Overall, this study revealed that root-associated fungal communities of oak-dominated temperate forests were dominated not only by ectomycorrhizal fungi but also by diverse root endophytes and that potential ecological interactions between the two ecotypes may be important to understand the complex assembly processes of belowground fungal communities. PMID:23762515

  5. Implications of Cellobiohydrolase Glycosylation for use in Biomass Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Jeoh, T.; Michener W.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.; Adney, W. S.

    2008-01-01

    The cellulase producing ascomycete, Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina), is known to secrete a range of enzymes important for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. It is also widely used for the commercial scale production of industrial enzymes because of its ability to produce high titers of heterologous proteins. During the secretion process, a number of post-translational events can occur, however, that impact protein function and stability. Another ascomycete, Aspergillus niger var. awamori, is also known to produce large quantities of heterologous proteins for industry. In this study, T. reesei Cel7A, a cellobiohydrolase, was expressed in A. niger var. awamori and subjected to detailed biophysical characterization. The purified recombinant enzyme contains six times the amount of N-linked glycan than the enzyme purified from a commercial T. reesei enzyme preparation. The activities of the two enzyme forms were compared using bacterial (microcrystalline) and phosphoric acid swollen (amorphous) cellulose as substrates. This comparison suggested that the increased level of N-glycosylation of the recombinant Cel7A (rCel7A) resulted in reduced activity and increased non-productive binding on cellulose. When treated with the N-glycosidase PNGaseF, the molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme approached that of the commercial enzyme and the activity on cellulose was improved.

  6. A class III histidine kinase acts as a novel virulence factor in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Viaud, Muriel; Fillinger, Sabine; Liu, Weiwei; Polepalli, Jai Santosh; Le Pêcheur, Pascal; Kunduru, Aditya Reddy; Leroux, Pierre; Legendre, Laurent

    2006-09-01

    Filamentous ascomycetes contain large numbers of histidine kinases (HK) that belong to eleven classes. Members of class III from different species were previously shown to be involved in osmoregulation and resistance to dicarboximide and phenylpyrrole fungicides. We have inactivated the gene encoding the single group III HK, BOS1, in the economically important plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. BOS1 inactivation had pleiotropic effects on the fungus. Besides the expected osmosensitivity and resistance to fungicides, null mutants presented additional characteristics indicating that BOS1 is necessary for normal macroconidiation and full virulence. On standard culture media, null mutants very rarely formed conidiophores and those few conidiophores failed to produce conidia. This defect could be partially restored with 1 M sorbitol, suggesting that another BOS1-independent signal cascade may be involved in macroconidiation. The mutants were not found to be hypersensitive to various oxidative stresses but were more resistant to menadione. Finally, pathogenicity tests showed that bos1-null mutants were significantly reduced in the ability to infect host plants. Appressorium morphogenesis was not altered; however, in planta growth was severely reduced. To our knowledge, this is the first class III HK characterized as a pathogenicity factor in a plant-pathogenic ascomycete. PMID:16941908

  7. Implications of cellobiohydrolase glycosylation for use in biomass conversion.

    PubMed

    Jeoh, Tina; Michener, William; Himmel, Michael E; Decker, Stephen R; Adney, William S

    2008-01-01

    The cellulase producing ascomycete, Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina), is known to secrete a range of enzymes important for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. It is also widely used for the commercial scale production of industrial enzymes because of its ability to produce high titers of heterologous proteins. During the secretion process, a number of post-translational events can occur, however, that impact protein function and stability. Another ascomycete, Aspergillus niger var. awamori, is also known to produce large quantities of heterologous proteins for industry. In this study, T. reesei Cel7A, a cellobiohydrolase, was expressed in A. niger var. awamori and subjected to detailed biophysical characterization. The purified recombinant enzyme contains six times the amount of N-linked glycan than the enzyme purified from a commercial T. reesei enzyme preparation. The activities of the two enzyme forms were compared using bacterial (microcrystalline) and phosphoric acid swollen (amorphous) cellulose as substrates. This comparison suggested that the increased level of N-glycosylation of the recombinant Cel7A (rCel7A) resulted in reduced activity and increased non-productive binding on cellulose. When treated with the N-glycosidase PNGaseF, the molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme approached that of the commercial enzyme and the activity on cellulose was improved. PMID:18471276

  8. Distribution and evolution of glycoside hydrolase family 45 cellulases in nematodes and fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been suggested as the mechanism by which various plant parasitic nematode species have obtained genes important in parasitism. In particular, cellulase genes have been acquired by plant parasitic nematodes that allow them to digest plant cell walls. Unlike the typical glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 cellulase genes which are found in several nematode species from the order Tylenchida, members of the GH45 cellulase have only been identified in a cluster including the families Parasitaphelenchidae (with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and Aphelenchoididae, and their origins remain unknown. Results In order to investigate the distribution and evolution of GH45 cellulase genes in nematodes and fungi we performed a wide ranging screen for novel putative GH45 sequences. This revealed that the sequences are widespread mainly in Ascomycetous fungi and have so far been found in a single major nematode lineage. Close relationships between the sequences from nematodes and fungi were found through our phylogenetic analyses. An intron position is shared by sequences from Bursaphelenchus nematodes and several Ascomycetous fungal species. Conclusions The close phylogenetic relationships and conserved gene structure between the sequences from nematodes and fungi strongly supports the hypothesis that nematode GH45 cellulase genes were acquired via HGT from fungi. The rapid duplication and turnover of these genes within Bursaphelenchus genomes demonstrate that useful sequences acquired via HGT can become established in the genomes of recipient organisms and may open novel niches for these organisms to exploit. PMID:24690293

  9. Starmerella syriaca f.a., sp. nov., an osmotolerant yeast species isolated from flowers in Syria.

    PubMed

    Sipiczki, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Four strains of a novel asexual ascomycetous yeast species were isolated from Malva sp. flowers in Syria. Sequencing of the regions spanning the small subunit, 5.8S, and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit ribosomal RNA genes showed that the isolates were conspecific. Comparative analysis of these sequences and the corresponding sequences of the type strains of ascomycetous yeasts revealed that the novel species is phylogenetically related to members of the Starmerella clade. Its closest relative is Candida vaccinii. For the new species the name Starmerella syriaca is proposed. Its strains are osmotolerant and produce pseudohypha-like structures capable of penetrating agar media. The type strain is 2-1362(T) (=CBS 13909(T) = NCAIM Y.02138(T) = CCY 090-003-001(T)). The GenBank accession numbers for its nucleotide sequences are: JX515986 (D1/D2 LSU), JX515987 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and JX515988 (SSU). Mycobank: MB 810090. PMID:25583140

  10. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy) annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs). A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars), chitin, chitosan, ?-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. PMID:21241472

  11. High-throughput screening for cellobiose dehydrogenases by Prussian Blue in situ formation.

    PubMed

    Vasilchenko, Liliya G; Ludwig, Roland; Yershevich, Olga P; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rabinovich, Mikhail L

    2012-07-01

    Extracellular fungal flavocytochrome cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a promising enzyme for both bioelectronics and lignocellulose bioconversion. A selective high-throughput screening assay for CDH in the presence of various fungal oxidoreductases was developed. It is based on Prussian Blue (PB) in situ formation in the presence of cellobiose (<0.25 mM), ferric acetate, and ferricyanide. CDH induces PB formation via both reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide reacting with an excess of Fe³? (pathway 1) and reduction of ferric ions to Fe²? reacting with the excess of ferricyanide (pathway 2). Basidiomycetous and ascomycetous CDH formed PB optimally at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. In contrast to the holoenzyme CDH, its FAD-containing dehydrogenase domain lacking the cytochrome domain formed PB only via pathway 1 and was less active than the parent enzyme. The assay can be applied on active growing cultures on agar plates or on fungal culture supernatants in 96-well plates under aerobic conditions. Neither other carbohydrate oxidoreductases (pyranose dehydrogenase, FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase, glucose oxidase) nor laccase interfered with CDH activity in this assay. Applicability of the developed assay for the selection of new ascomycetous CDH producers as well as possibility of the controlled synthesis of new PB nanocomposites by CDH are discussed. PMID:22294389

  12. Functional analysis of the degradation of cellulosic substrates by a Chaetomium globosum endophytic isolate.

    PubMed

    Longoni, Paolo; Rodolfi, Marinella; Pantaleoni, Laura; Doria, Enrico; Concia, Lorenzo; Picco, Anna Maria; Cella, Rino

    2012-05-01

    Most photosynthetically fixed carbon is contained in cell wall polymers present in plant biomasses, the largest organic carbon source in the biosphere. The degradation of these polymers for biotechnological purposes requires the combined action of several enzymes. To identify new activities, we examined which enzymes are activated by an endophytic strain of Chaetomium globosum to degrade cellulose-containing substrates. After biochemical analyses of the secretome of the fungus grown on cellulose or woody substrates, we took advantage of the available genomic data to identify potentially involved genes. After in silico identification of putative genes encoding either proteins able to bind to cellulose or glycohydrolases (GHs) of family 7, we investigated their transcript levels by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Our data suggest that eight genes compose the core of the cellulose-degrading system of C. globosum. Notably, the related enzymes belong structurally to the well-described GH families 5, 6, 7, 16, and 45, which are known to be the core of the cellulose degradation systems of several ascomycetes. The high expression levels of cellobiose dehydrogenase and two GH 61 enzymes suggest the involvement of this oxidoreductive synergic system in C. globosum. Transcript analysis along with relevant coding sequence (CDS) isolation and expression of recombinant proteins proved to be a key strategy for the determination of the features of two endoglucanases used by C. globosum for the first attack of crystalline cellulose. Finally, the possible involvement of transcriptional regulators described for other ascomycetes is discussed. PMID:22389369

  13. Mycorrhizal interactions of orchids colonizing Estonian mine tailings hills.

    PubMed

    Shefferson, Richard P; Kull, Tiiu; Tali, Kadri

    2008-02-01

    Northeastern Estonia is home to extensive oil shale mines. Associated with these are desolate and environmentally damaging hills of ash and semicoke tailings. Interestingly, some of the first plants to colonize these hills are rare orchids. Here, we assess the identities of the mycorrhizal fungi associated with these orchids, in particular Epipactis atrorubens, Orchis militaris, and Dactylorhiza baltica, and compare them with mycorrhizal fungi from orchids from pristine habitat. Epipactis atrorubens associated with the widest breadth of fungi, including unnamed members of the basidiomycete family Tulasnellaceae and the potentially ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes Trichophaea woolhopeia and Geopora cooperi. Orchis militaris also associated with unnamed members of the Tulasnellaceae. Dactylorhiza baltica associated with Ceratobasidium albasitensis. In Epipactis and Orchis, the same fungi associated with plants in the pristine habitat as with those on ash hills. The tulasnelloid and ceratobasidioid fungi mycorrhizal with these orchids appear closely related to common orchid mycorrhizal fungi, while one of the ascomycetes mycorrhizal with E. atrorubens is closely related to a mycorrhizal fungus with E. microphylla. Our results suggest that these orchids and their fungi are not limited to pristine habitats and that environmentally polluted sites may present novel habitats that may be exploited for endangered plant conservation. PMID:21632341

  14. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha. PMID:15756826

  15. Addressing Inter-Gene Heterogeneity in Maximum Likelihood Phylogenomic Analysis: Yeasts Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jaqueline; Goldman, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenomic approaches to the resolution of inter-species relationships have become well established in recent years. Often these involve concatenation of many orthologous genes found in the respective genomes followed by analysis using standard phylogenetic models. Genome-scale data promise increased resolution by minimising sampling error, yet are associated with well-known but often inappropriately addressed caveats arising through data heterogeneity and model violation. These can lead to the reconstruction of highly-supported but incorrect topologies. With the aim of obtaining a species tree for 18 species within the ascomycetous yeasts, we have investigated the use of appropriate evolutionary models to address inter-gene heterogeneities and the scalability and validity of supermatrix analysis as the phylogenetic problem becomes more difficult and the number of genes analysed approaches truly phylogenomic dimensions. We have extended a widely-known early phylogenomic study of yeasts by adding additional species to increase diversity and augmenting the number of genes under analysis. We have investigated sophisticated maximum likelihood analyses, considering not only a concatenated version of the data but also partitioned models where each gene constitutes a partition and parameters are free to vary between the different partitions (thereby accounting for variation in the evolutionary processes at different loci). We find considerable increases in likelihood using these complex models, arguing for the need for appropriate models when analyzing phylogenomic data. Using these methods, we were able to reconstruct a well-supported tree for 18 ascomycetous yeasts spanning about 250 million years of evolution. PMID:21850235

  16. Two Origins for the Gene Encoding ?-Isopropylmalate Synthase in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica M.; Idnurm, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Background The biosynthesis of leucine is a biochemical pathway common to prokaryotes, plants and fungi, but absent from humans and animals. The pathway is a proposed target for antimicrobial therapy. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we identified the leuA gene encoding ?-isopropylmalate synthase in the zygomycete fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus using a genetic mapping approach with crosses between wild type and leucine auxotrophic strains. To confirm the function of the gene, Phycomyces leuA was used to complement the auxotrophic phenotype exhibited by mutation of the leu3+ gene of the ascomycete fungus Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the leuA gene in Phycomyces, other zygomycetes, and the chytrids is more closely related to homologs in plants and photosynthetic bacteria than ascomycetes or basidiomycetes, and suggests that the Dikarya have acquired the gene more recently. Conclusions/Significance The identification of leuA in Phycomyces adds to the growing body of evidence that some primary metabolic pathways or parts of them have arisen multiple times during the evolution of fungi, probably through horizontal gene transfer events. PMID:20657649

  17. The so Locus Is Required for Vegetative Cell Fusion and Postfertilization Events in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Fleißner, André; Sarkar, Sovan; Jacobson, David J.; Roca, M. Gabriela; Read, Nick D.; Glass, N. Louise

    2005-01-01

    The process of cell fusion is a basic developmental feature found in most eukaryotic organisms. In filamentous fungi, cell fusion events play an important role during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction. We employ the model organism Neurospora crassa to dissect the mechanisms of cell fusion and cell-cell communication involved in fusion processes. In this study, we characterized a mutant with a mutation in the gene so, which exhibits defects in cell fusion. The so mutant has a pleiotropic phenotype, including shortened aerial hyphae, an altered conidiation pattern, and female sterility. Using light microscopy and heterokaryon tests, the so mutant was shown to possess defects in germling and hyphal fusion. Although so produces conidial anastomosis tubes, so germlings did not home toward wild-type germlings nor were wild-type germlings attracted to so germlings. We employed a trichogyne attraction and fusion assay to determine whether the female sterility of the so mutant is caused by impaired communication or fusion failure between mating partners. so showed no defects in attraction or fusion between mating partners, indicating that so is specific for vegetative hyphal fusion and/or associated communication events. The so gene encodes a protein of unknown function, but which contains a WW domain; WW domains are predicted to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Database searches showed that so was conserved in the genomes of filamentous ascomycete fungi but was absent in ascomycete yeast and basidiomycete species. PMID:15879526

  18. Role of camalexin, indole glucosinolates, and side chain modification of glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates in defense of Arabidopsis against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Stotz, Henrik U; Sawada, Yuji; Shimada, Yukihisa; Hirai, Masami Y; Sasaki, Eriko; Krischke, Markus; Brown, Paul D; Saito, Kazuki; Kamiya, Yuji

    2011-07-01

    Plant secondary metabolites are known to facilitate interactions with a variety of beneficial and detrimental organisms, yet the contribution of specific metabolites to interactions with fungal pathogens is poorly understood. Here we show that, with respect to aliphatic glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates, toxicity against the pathogenic ascomycete Sclerotinia sclerotiorum depends on side chain structure. Genes associated with the formation of the secondary metabolites camalexin and glucosinolate were induced in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves challenged with the necrotrophic pathogen S. sclerotiorum. Unlike S. sclerotiorum, the closely related ascomycete Botrytis cinerea was not identified to induce genes associated with aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis in pathogen-challenged leaves. Mutant plant lines deficient in camalexin, indole, or aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis were hypersusceptible to S. sclerotiorum, among them the myb28 mutant, which has a regulatory defect resulting in decreased production of long-chained aliphatic glucosinolates. The antimicrobial activity of aliphatic glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates was dependent on side chain elongation and modification, with 8-methylsulfinyloctyl isothiocyanate being most toxic to S. sclerotiorum. This information is important for microbial associations with cruciferous host plants and for metabolic engineering of pathogen defenses in cruciferous plants that produce short-chained aliphatic glucosinolates. PMID:21418358

  19. Isolation and immunological characterization of a novel Cladosporium herbarum allergen structurally homologous to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold superfamily.

    PubMed

    Rid, Raphaela; Onder, Kamil; Hawranek, Thomas; Laimer, Martin; Bauer, Johann W; Holler, Claudia; Simon-Nobbe, Birgit; Breitenbach, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Because the ascomycete Cladosporium herbarum embodies one of the most important, world-wide occurring fungal species responsible for eliciting typical IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions ranging from rhinitis and ocular symptoms to severe involvement of the lower respiratory tract, a more comprehensive definition of its detailed allergen repertoire is unquestionably of critical medical as well as therapeutic significance. By screening a C. herbarum cDNA library with IgE antibodies pooled from 3 mold-reactive sera, we were able to identify, clone and affinity-purify a novel allergen candidate (29.9 kDa) exhibiting considerable (three-dimensional) homology to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold superfamily. The latter covers a collection of hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin as well as catalytic activity (operating in countless biological contexts) that in general exhibit only little sequence similarity yet show a remarkable conservation of structural topology. Our present study (i) characterizes recombinant non-fusion C. herbarum hydrolase as a natively folded, minor mold allergen that displays a prevalence of IgE reactivity of approximately 17% in our in vitro immunoblot experiments, (ii) proposes the existence of several putative (speculatively cross-reactive) ascomycete orthologues as determined via genome-wide in silico predictions, and (iii) finally implies that C. herbarum hydrolase could be included in forthcoming minimal testing sets when fungal allergy is suspected. PMID:20022636

  20. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Walker, John F; Miller, Orson K; Horton, Jonathan L

    2005-03-01

    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The seedlings captured a high diversity of mycorrhizal ITS-types and late-stage fungi were well represented. Total richness was 75 types, with 42 types having a frequency of only one. The first and second order jackknife estimates were 116 and 143 types, respectively. Among Basidiomycetes, tomentelloid/thelephoroid, russuloid, and cortinarioid groups were the richest. The ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum was ubiquitously present. Dominant fungi included a putative Tuber sp. (Ascomycetes), and Basidiomycetes including a putative Craterellus sp., and Laccaria cf. laccata. Diversity was lower at a drier high elevation oak forest site compared to a low elevation mesic cove--hardwood forest site. Fungal specificity for red oak vs. white oak seedlings was unresolved. The high degree of rarity in this system imposes limitations on the power of community analyses at finer scales. The high mycobiont diversity highlights the potential for seedlings to acquire carbon from mycelial networks and confirms the utility of using outplanted seedlings to estimate ectomycorrhizal diversity. PMID:15723674

  1. Phenotype of a mechanosensitive channel mutant, mid-1, in a filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Lew, Roger R; Abbas, Zohaib; Anderca, Marinela I; Free, Stephen J

    2008-04-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MID1 (mating-induced death) gene encodes a stretch-activated channel which is required for successful mating; the mutant phenotype is rescued by elevated extracellular calcium. Homologs of the MID1 gene are found in fungi that are morphologically complex compared to yeast, both Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. We explored the phenotype of a mid-1 knockout mutant in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa. The mutant exhibits lower growth vigor than the wild type (which is not rescued by replete calcium) and mates successfully. Thus, the role of the MID-1 protein differs from that of the homologous gene product in yeast. Hyphal cytology, growth on diverse carbon sources, turgor regulation, and circadian rhythms of the mid-1 mutant are all similar to those of the wild type. However, basal turgor is lower than wild type, as is the activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (measured by cyanide [CN(-)]-induced depolarization of the energy-dependent component of the membrane potential). In addition, the mutant is unable to grow at low extracellular Ca(2+) levels or when cytoplasmic Ca(2+) is elevated with the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. We conclude that the MID-1 protein plays a role in regulation of ion transport via Ca(2+) homeostasis and signaling. In the absence of normal ion transport activity, the mutant exhibits poorer growth. PMID:18296620

  2. The so locus is required for vegetative cell fusion and postfertilization events in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Fleissner, André; Sarkar, Sovan; Jacobson, David J; Roca, M Gabriela; Read, Nick D; Glass, N Louise

    2005-05-01

    The process of cell fusion is a basic developmental feature found in most eukaryotic organisms. In filamentous fungi, cell fusion events play an important role during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction. We employ the model organism Neurospora crassa to dissect the mechanisms of cell fusion and cell-cell communication involved in fusion processes. In this study, we characterized a mutant with a mutation in the gene so, which exhibits defects in cell fusion. The so mutant has a pleiotropic phenotype, including shortened aerial hyphae, an altered conidiation pattern, and female sterility. Using light microscopy and heterokaryon tests, the so mutant was shown to possess defects in germling and hyphal fusion. Although so produces conidial anastomosis tubes, so germlings did not home toward wild-type germlings nor were wild-type germlings attracted to so germlings. We employed a trichogyne attraction and fusion assay to determine whether the female sterility of the so mutant is caused by impaired communication or fusion failure between mating partners. so showed no defects in attraction or fusion between mating partners, indicating that so is specific for vegetative hyphal fusion and/or associated communication events. The so gene encodes a protein of unknown function, but which contains a WW domain; WW domains are predicted to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Database searches showed that so was conserved in the genomes of filamentous ascomycete fungi but was absent in ascomycete yeast and basidiomycete species. PMID:15879526

  3. The Ustilago maydis Nit2 Homolog Regulates Nitrogen Utilization and Is Required for Efficient Induction of Filamentous Growth

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Robin J.; Zeh, Christine; Saur, Alexandra; Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) is a regulatory strategy found in microorganisms that restricts the utilization of complex and unfavored nitrogen sources in the presence of favored nitrogen sources. In fungi, this concept has been best studied in yeasts and filamentous ascomycetes, where the GATA transcription factors Gln3p and Gat1p (in yeasts) and Nit2/AreA (in ascomycetes) constitute the main positive regulators of NCR. The reason why functional Nit2 homologs of some phytopathogenic fungi are required for full virulence in their hosts has remained elusive. We have identified the Nit2 homolog in the basidiomycetous phytopathogen Ustilago maydis and show that it is a major, but not the exclusive, positive regulator of nitrogen utilization. By transcriptome analysis of sporidia grown on artificial media devoid of favored nitrogen sources, we show that only a subset of nitrogen-responsive genes are regulated by Nit2, including the Gal4-like transcription factor Ton1 (a target of Nit2). Ustilagic acid biosynthesis is not under the control of Nit2, while nitrogen starvation-induced filamentous growth is largely dependent on functional Nit2. nit2 deletion mutants show the delayed initiation of filamentous growth on maize leaves and exhibit strongly compromised virulence, demonstrating that Nit2 is required to efficiently initiate the pathogenicity program of U. maydis. PMID:22247264

  4. Do Clonal Plants Show Greater Division of Labour Morphologically and Physiologically at Higher Patch Contrasts?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengwen; Li, Yuanheng; During, Heinjo J.; Li, Linghao

    2011-01-01

    Background When growing in reciprocal patches in terms of availability of different resources, connected ramets of clonal plants will specialize to acquire and exchange locally abundant resources more efficiently. This has been termed division of labour. We asked whether division of labour can occur physiologically as well as morphologically and will increase with patch contrasts. Methodology/Principal Findings We subjected connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina to Control, Low, Medium and High patch contrast by manipulating light and nutrient levels for ramets in each pair. Little net benefit of inter-ramet connection in terms of biomass was detected. Shoot-root ratio did not differ significantly between paired ramets regardless of connection under Control, Low and Medium. Under High, however, disconnected shaded ramets with ample nutrients showed significantly larger shoot-root ratios (2.8?6.5 fold) than fully-lit but nutrient-deficient ramets, and than their counterparts under any other treatment; conversely, fully-lit but nutrient-deficient ramets, when connected to shaded ramets with ample nutrients, had significantly larger shoot-root ratios (2.0?4.9 fold) than the latter and than their counterparts under any other treatment. Only under High patch contrast, fully-lit ramets, if connected to shaded ones, had 8.9% higher chlorophyll content than the latter, and 22.4% higher chlorophyll content than their isolated counterparts; the similar pattern held for photosynthetic capacity under all heterogeneous treatments. Conclusions/Significance Division of labour in clonal plants can be realized by ramet specialization in morphology and in physiology. However, modest ramet specialization especially in morphology among patch contrasts may suggest that division of labour will occur when the connected ramets grow in reciprocal patches between which the contrast exceeds a threshold. Probably, this threshold patch contrast is the outcome of the clone-wide cost-benefit tradeoff and is significant for risk-avoidance, especially in the disturbance-prone environments. PMID:21980447

  5. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) and Implications for Anseriformes Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi; Zhang, Lili; Luo, Zijun; Xu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in living organisms, and has been used as a powerful molecular marker in a variety of evolutionary studies. In this study, we determined the complete mtDNA of Bean goose (Anser fabalis), which is 16,688 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. The arrangement is similar to that of typical Anseriform species. All protein-coding genes, except for Cyt b, ND5, COI, and COII, start with an ATG codon. The ATG start codon is also generally observed in the 12 other Anseriform species, including 2 Anser species, with sequenced mitochondrial genomes. TAA is the most frequent stop codon, one of three–TAA, TAG, and T- –commonly observed in Anseriformes. All tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures except for tRNASer(AGY) and tRNALeu(CUN), which are missing the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The control region of Bean goose mtDNA, with some conserved sequence boxes, such as F, E, D, and C, identified in its central domain. Phylogenetic analysis of complete mtDNA data for 13 Anseriform species supports the classification of them into four major branches: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. Phylogenetic analyses were also conducted on 36 Anseriform birds using combined Cyt b, ND2, and COI sequences. The results clearly support the genus Somateria as an independent lineage classified in its own tribe, the Somaterini. Recovered topologies from both complete mtDNA and combined DNA sequences strongly indicate that Dendrocygninae is an independent subfamily within the family Anatidae and Anseranatidae represents an independent family. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that combining ND2, Cyt b, and COI sequence data is a workable solution at present for resolving phylogenetic relationships among Anseriform species in the absence of sufficient complete mtDNA data. PMID:23717412

  6. How Past and Present Influence the Foraging of Clonal Plants?

    PubMed Central

    Louâpre, Philipe; Bittebière, Anne-Kristel; Clément, Bernard; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Mony, Cendrine

    2012-01-01

    Clonal plants spreading horizontally and forming a network structure of ramets exhibit complex growth patterns to maximize resource uptake from the environment. They respond to spatial heterogeneity by changing their internode length or branching frequency. Ramets definitively root in the soil but stay interconnected for a varying period of time thus allowing an exchange of spatial and temporal information. We quantified the foraging response of clonal plants depending on the local soil quality sampled by the rooting ramet (i.e. the present information) and the resource variability sampled by the older ramets (i.e. the past information). We demonstrated that two related species, Potentilla reptans and P. anserina, responded similarly to the local quality of their environment by decreasing their internode length in response to nutrient-rich soil. Only P. reptans responded to resource variability by decreasing its internode length. In both species, the experience acquired by older ramets influenced the plastic response of new rooted ramets: the internode length between ramets depended not only on the soil quality locally sampled but also on the soil quality previously sampled by older ramets. We quantified the effect of the information perceived at different time and space on the foraging behavior of clonal plants by showing a non-linear response of the ramet rooting in the soil of a given quality. These data suggest that the decision to grow a stolon or to root a ramet at a given distance from the older ramet results from the integration of the past and present information about the richness and the variability of the environment. PMID:22675539

  7. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeasts species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J. Bruce; Gillies, Laura A.; Almada, Luis A.G.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

  8. Comparative Genomics of Taphrina Fungi Causing Varying Degrees of Tumorous Deformity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Isheng J.; Tanaka, Eiji; Masuya, Hayato; Tanaka, Ryusei; Hirooka, Yuuri; Endoh, Rikiya; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2014-01-01

    Taphrina fungi are biotrophic plant pathogens that cause plant deformity diseases. We sequenced the genomes of four Taphrina species—Taphrina wiesneri, T. deformans, T. flavorubra, and T. populina—which parasitize Prunus, Cerasus, and Populus hosts with varying severity of disease symptoms. High levels of gene synteny within Taphrina species were observed, and our comparative analysis further revealed that these fungi may utilize multiple strategies in coping with the host environment that are also found in some specialized dimorphic species. These include species-specific aneuploidy and clusters of highly diverged secreted proteins located at subtelomeres. We also identified species differences in plant hormone biosynthesis pathways, which may contribute to varying degree of disease symptoms. The genomes provide a rich resource for investigation into Taphrina biology and evolutionary studies across the basal ascomycetes clade. PMID:24682155

  9. Comparative genomics of Taphrina fungi causing varying degrees of tumorous deformity in plants.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Isheng J; Tanaka, Eiji; Masuya, Hayato; Tanaka, Ryusei; Hirooka, Yuuri; Endoh, Rikiya; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2014-04-01

    Taphrina fungi are biotrophic plant pathogens that cause plant deformity diseases. We sequenced the genomes of four Taphrina species-Taphrina wiesneri, T. deformans, T. flavorubra, and T. populina-which parasitize Prunus, Cerasus, and Populus hosts with varying severity of disease symptoms. High levels of gene synteny within Taphrina species were observed, and our comparative analysis further revealed that these fungi may utilize multiple strategies in coping with the host environment that are also found in some specialized dimorphic species. These include species-specific aneuploidy and clusters of highly diverged secreted proteins located at subtelomeres. We also identified species differences in plant hormone biosynthesis pathways, which may contribute to varying degree of disease symptoms. The genomes provide a rich resource for investigation into Taphrina biology and evolutionary studies across the basal ascomycetes clade. PMID:24682155

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Soil Fungi from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    EVANS, Sarah; HANSEN, Ryan W.; SCHNEEGURT, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma is an inland terrestrial hypersaline environment where saturated brines leave evaporite crusts of NaCl. The current report examines the fungal community, complementing earlier reports on the bacterial and archaeal communities. Twenty-five fungal isolates from GSP soils were obtained on medium containing 10% NaCl and characterized. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all of the isolates fall within the Ascomycetes, with a predominance of Trichocomaceae, represented by Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium species. Representatives of Anthrinium, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Fusarium, and Ulocladium also were isolated. Overall the isolates were widely halotolerant, with best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism. The fungal genera observed were all cosmopolitan, without strong specialization. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that hypersaline environments do not have a characteristic community, in contrast to what was observed at the GSP for bacteria and archaea. PMID:25249710

  11. The P450 Monooxygenase BcABA1 Is Essential for Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Siewers, Verena; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Tudzynski, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea is known to produce abscisic acid (ABA), which is thought to be involved in host-pathogen interaction. Biochemical analyses had previously shown that, in contrast to higher plants, the fungal ABA biosynthesis probably does not proceed via carotenoids but involves direct cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate and subsequent oxidation steps. We present here evidence that this “direct” pathway is indeed the only one used by an ABA-overproducing strain of B. cinerea. Targeted inactivation of the gene bccpr1 encoding a cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase reduced the ABA production significantly, proving the involvement of P450 monooxygenases in the pathway. Expression analysis of 28 different putative P450 monooxygenase genes revealed two that were induced under ABA biosynthesis conditions. Targeted inactivation showed that one of these, bcaba1, is essential for ABA biosynthesis: ?Bcaba1 mutants contained no residual ABA. Thus, bcaba1 represents the first identified fungal ABA biosynthetic gene. PMID:15240257

  12. Fatal Chaetomium cerebritis in a bone marrow transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C; Mileusnic, D; Carey, R B; Kampert, M; Anderson, D

    1999-07-01

    The number of opportunistic infections in the central nervous system (CNS) has been steadily increasing because of a rising number of immunocompromised patients. A rare form of CNS infection can be caused by Chaetomium species, one of the largest genera of saprophytic ascomycetes. The CNS lesions in the present case were caused by Chaetomium atrobrunneum. The main characteristic of almost all Chaetomium species is presence of hairs or setae covering the ascomata. Microbiological studies are the only definitive way to correctly identify this fungal organism. The rapid evolvement of the cerebral infection suggests that the brain tissue provides a favorable environment for growth and proliferation of these fungi. This is the second documented case of a fatal brain abscess caused by Chaetomium atrobrunneum, and the first case report in a bone marrow transplant patient. PMID:10414510

  13. Ancient fungi in Antarctic permafrost environments.

    PubMed

    Kochkina, Galina; Ivanushkina, Natalya; Ozerskaya, Svetlana; Chigineva, Nadezhda; Vasilenko, Oleg; Firsov, Sergey; Spirina, Elena; Gilichinsky, David

    2012-11-01

    Filamentous fungi in 36 samples of Antarctic permafrost sediments were studied. The samples collected during the Russian Antarctic expedition of 2007-2009 within the framework of the Antarctic Permafrost Age Project (ANTPAGE) were recovered from different depths in ice-free oases located along the perimeter of the continent. Fungal diversity was determined by conventional microbiological techniques combined with a culture-independent method based on the analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences in total DNA of the samples. The study revealed a rather low fungal population density in permafrost, although the diversity found was appreciable, representing more than 26 genera. Comparison of the data obtained by different techniques showed that the culture-independent method enabled the detection of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi not found by culturing. The molecular method failed to detect members of the genera Penicillium and Cladosporium that possess small-sized spores known to have a high resistance to environmental changes. PMID:22757669

  14. Fungal genomes mining to discover novel sterol esterases and lipases as catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sterol esterases and lipases are enzymes able to efficiently catalyze synthesis and hydrolysis reactions of both sterol esters and triglycerides and due to their versatility could be widely used in different industrial applications. Lipases with this ability have been reported in the yeast Candida rugosa that secretes several extracellular enzymes with a high level of sequence identity, although different substrate specificity. This versatility has also been found in the sterol esterases from the ascomycetes Ophiostoma piceae and Melanocarpus albomyces. Results In this work we present an in silico search of new sterol esterase and lipase sequences from the genomes of environmental fungi. The strategy followed included identification and search of conserved domains from these versatile enzymes, phylogenetic studies, sequence analysis and 3D modeling of the selected candidates. Conclusions Six potential putative enzymes were selected and their kinetic properties and substrate selectivity are discussed on the basis of their similarity with previously characterized sterol esterases/lipases with known structures. PMID:24138290

  15. Potential of Ophiostoma piceae sterol esterase for biotechnologically relevant hydrolysis reactions.

    PubMed

    Barba Cedillo, Víctor; Prieto, Alicia; Martínez, María Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete Ophiostoma piceae produces a sterol esterase (OPE) with high affinity toward p-nitrophenol, glycerol, and sterol esters. Recently, this enzyme has been heterologously expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under the AOX1 methanol-inducible promoter (PAOX1) using sorbitol as co-susbtrate, and the hydrolytic activity of the recombinant protein (OPE*) turned out to be improved from a kinetic point of view. In this study, we analyze the effects of sorbitol during the expression of OPE*, at first added as an additional carbon source, and methanol as inducer. The O. piceae enzyme was successfully used for PVAc hydrolysis, suggesting its potential applicability in recycled paper production to decrease stickies problems. PMID:23138020

  16. Transformation of Botrytis cinerea by direct hyphal blasting or by wound-mediated transformation of sclerotia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Botrytis cinerea is a haploid necrotrophic ascomycete which is responsible for 'grey mold' disease in more than 200 plant species. Broad molecular research has been conducted on this pathogen in recent years, resulting in the sequencing of two strains, which has generated a wealth of information toward developing additional tools for molecular transcriptome, proteome and secretome investigations. Nonetheless, transformation protocols have remained a significant bottleneck for this pathogen, hindering functional analysis research in many labs. Results In this study, we tested three different transformation methods for B. cinerea: electroporation, air-pressure-mediated and sclerotium-mediated transformation. We demonstrate successful transformation with three different DNA constructs using both air-pressure- and sclerotium-mediated transformation. Conclusions These transformation methods, which are fast, simple and reproducible, can expedite functional gene analysis of B. cinerea. PMID:22188865

  17. Natural and semisynthetic azaphilones as a new scaffold for Hsp90 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Musso, Loana; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Merlini, Lucio; Bava, Adriana; Nasini, Gianluca; Penco, Sergio; Giannini, Giuseppe; Giommarelli, Chiara; De Cesare, Andrea; Zuco, Valentina; Vesci, Loredana; Pisano, Claudio; Castorina, Massimo; Milazzo, Ferdinando; Cervoni, Maria Luisa; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Zunino, Franco

    2010-08-15

    A series of mold metabolites of Ascomycetes, structurally belonging to the class of azaphilones, were found to inhibit the heat shock protein Hsp90. In particular, bulgarialactone B was tested for its binding to Hsp90 using surface plasmon resonance and limited proteolysis assays and for its effects on Hsp90 client proteins expression in a series of human tumor cell lines. This compound showed high affinity for Hsp90, interacting with the 90-280 region of the N-terminal domain and down-regulated the Hsp90 client proteins Raf-1, survivin, Cdk4, Akt, and EGFR. Bulgarialactone B and other natural azaphilones showed antiproliferative activity in a panel of human tumor cell lines; their conversion into semisynthetic derivatives by reaction with primary amines increased the antiproliferative activity. Preliminary results indicated in vivo activity of bulgarialactone B against an ascitic ovarian carcinoma xenograft, thus supporting the therapeutic potential of this novel series of Hsp90 inhibitors. PMID:20655237

  18. Bioactive fungal polysaccharides as potential functional ingredients in food and nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Giavasis, Ioannis

    2014-04-01

    Fungal bioactive polysaccharides deriving mainly from the Basidiomycetes family (and some from the Ascomycetes) and medicinal mushrooms have been well known and widely used in far Asia as part of traditional diet and medicine, and in the last decades have been the core of intense research for the understanding and the utilization of their medicinal properties in naturally produced pharmaceuticals. In fact, some of these biopolymers (mainly ?-glucans or heteropolysaccharides) have already made their way to the market as antitumor, immunostimulating or prophylactic drugs. The fact that many of these biopolymers are produced by edible mushrooms makes them also very good candidates for the formulation of novel functional foods and nutraceuticals without any serious safety concerns, in order to make use of their immunomodulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and health-promoting properties. This article summarizes the most important properties and applications of bioactive fungal polysaccharides and discusses the latest developments on the utilization of these biopolymers in human nutrition. PMID:24518400

  19. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans Using Radicicol.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunhee; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-12-01

    The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans causes ginseng root rot disease and produces various secondary metabolites such as brefeldin A and radicicol. The slow growth of this fungus compared with other plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi in soil disturbs isolation of this fungus from soil and infected ginseng. In this study, we developed a selective medium for C. destructans using radicicol produced by this fungus. Supplementing 50 mg/L of radicicol to medium inhibited the mycelia growth of other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria panax, but did not affect the growth of C. destructans. In addition, conidia germination of other fungal species except for C. destructans was inhibited in submerged culture supplemented with radicicol. This medium provides a very efficient tool for isolating C. destructans and also can be used as an enrichment medium for this fungus. PMID:25506308

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Mapping of loci from Solanum lycopersicoides conferring resistance or susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in tomato

    E-print Network

    Joel Davis; Daozhan Yu; Wendy Evans; Tufan Gokirmak; Roger T. Chetelat; Henrik U. Stotz; J. Davis; W. Evans; D. Yu; T. Gokirmak; R. T. Chetelat; H. U. Stotz

    © The Author(s) 2009. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, syn. Lycopersicon esculentum) is susceptible to the necrotrophic ascomycete and causal agent of gray mold, Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to this fungal pathogen is elevated in wild relatives of tomato, including Solanum lycopersicoides. An introgression line population (IL) containing chromosomal segments of S. lycopersicoides within the background of tomato cv. VF36 was used to screen the genome for foliar resistance and susceptibility to B. cinerea. Based on this screen, putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identi-Wed, Wve for resistance and two for susceptibility. Four resistance QTL decreased infection frequency while the Wfth reduced lesion diameter. One susceptibility QTL increased infection frequency whereas the other increased lesion diameter. Overlapping chromosomal segments provided strong evidence for partial resistance on chromosomes 1 Communicated by I. Paran.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Soil Fungi from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sarah; Hansen, Ryan W; Schneegurt, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    The Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma is an inland terrestrial hypersaline environment where saturated brines leave evaporite crusts of NaCl. The current report examines the fungal community, complementing earlier reports on the bacterial and archaeal communities. Twenty-five fungal isolates from GSP soils were obtained on medium containing 10% NaCl and characterized. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all of the isolates fall within the Ascomycetes, with a predominance of Trichocomaceae, represented by Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium species. Representatives of Anthrinium, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Fusarium, and Ulocladium also were isolated. Overall the isolates were widely halotolerant, with best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism. The fungal genera observed were all cosmopolitan, without strong specialization. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that hypersaline environments do not have a characteristic community, in contrast to what was observed at the GSP for bacteria and archaea. PMID:25249710

  2. Genomic analysis of two-component signal transduction proteins in basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Lavín, José L; Ramírez, Lucía; Ussery, David W; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Oguiza, José A

    2010-01-01

    Two-component system (TCS) proteins are components of complex signal transduction pathways in fungi, and play essential roles in the regulation of several cellular functions and responses. Species of basidiomycetes have a marked variation in their specific physiological traits, morphological complexity and lifestyles. In this study, we have used the available complete genomes of basidiomycetes to carry out a thorough identification and an extensive comparative analysis of the TCS proteins in this fungal phylum. In comparison with ascomycetes, basidiomycetes exhibit an intermediate number of TCS proteins. Several TCS proteins are highly conserved among all the basidiomycetes, and other TCS proteins appear to be specific to particular species of basidiomycetes. Moreover, some species appear to have developed a unique histidine kinase group with unusual domain architecture, the Dual-histidine kinases. The presence of differential sets of TCS proteins between basidiomycete species might reflect their adaptation to diverse environmental niches. PMID:20110730

  3. Fungicide Effects on Fungal Community Composition in the Wheat Phyllosphere

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied. PMID:25369054

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of truffles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dezhang; Liu, Gang; Song, Dingshan; Liu, Jian-hong; Zhou, Yilan; Ou, Jiaming; Sun, Shizhong

    2006-01-01

    Truffles are rare wild growing edible mushrooms belonging to Ascomycetes. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to obtain vibrational spectra of truffles. The results show that the mushrooms exhibit characteristic spectra. The two strongest absorption bands appear at about 1077cm -1 and 1040 cm -1, which were described as C-O stretching in carbohydrate. The vibrational spectra indicate that the main compositions of the truffles are polysaccharide and protein. According to the characteristics bands and absorption ratios of spectra, different species of truffles can be discriminated. It is also found the great changes between moldy and healthy truffles, which the major differences are observed in the bands of protein. In addition, FTIR spectral differences are observed between the same species of truffles from different producing areas. It is showed that the FTIR spectroscopic method is valuable tool for rapid and nondestructive analysis of truffles prior to any extraction method used.

  5. Barbatosphaeria gen. et comb. nov., a new genus for Calosphaeria barbirostris.

    PubMed

    Rélová, Martina

    2007-01-01

    The new genus Barbatosphaeria is described for a perithecial ascomycete known as Calosphaeria barbirostris occurring on decayed wood of deciduous trees under the periderm. The fungus produces nonstromatic perithecia with hyaline, 1-septate ascospores formed in unitunicate, nonamyloid asci. Anamorphs produced in vitro belong to Sporothrix and Ramichloridium with holoblastic-denticulate conidiogenesis; conidiophores of the two types were formed in succession during the development of the colony. Phylogenetic analyses of nuLSU rDNA sequences indicate that this fungus is distinct from morphologically similar Lentomitella, tentatively placed in the Trichosphaeriales. It groups with freshwater Aquaticola and Cataractispora and terrestrial Cryptadelphia in maximum parsimony analysis; the same grouping but without Cryptadelphia was inferred from Bayesian analysis. Cultivation, morphology and phylogenetic studies of the nuLSU rDNA support the erection of a new genus for C. barbirostris. PMID:18268906

  6. Ergothioneine biosynthetic methyltransferase EgtD reveals the structural basis of aromatic amino acid betaine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Vit, Allegra; Misson, Laëtitia; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Seebeck, Florian P

    2015-01-01

    Ergothioneine is an N-?-trimethyl-2-thiohistidine derivative that occurs in human, plant, fungal, and bacterial cells. Biosynthesis of this redox-active betaine starts with trimethylation of the ?-amino group of histidine. The three consecutive methyl transfers are catalyzed by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase EgtD. Three crystal structures of this enzyme in the absence and in the presence of N-?-dimethylhistidine and S-adenosylhomocysteine implicate a preorganized array of hydrophilic interactions as the determinants for substrate specificity and apparent processivity. We identified two active site mutations that change the substrate specificity of EgtD 10(7)-fold and transform the histidine-methyltransferase into a proficient tryptophan-methyltransferase. Finally, a genomic search for EgtD homologues in fungal genomes revealed tyrosine and tryptophan trimethylation activity as a frequent trait in ascomycetous and basidomycetous fungi. PMID:25404173

  7. Secondary metabolites from higher fungi in China and their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, J K

    2007-10-01

    As a part of our search for naturally occurring bioactive metabolites from higher fungi, we investigated the chemical constituents of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes fungi (Albatrellus confluens, Albatrellus dispansus, Boletus edulis, Boletopsis grisea, Bondarzewia berkeleyi, Cortinarius tenuipes, Cortinarius vibratilis, Daldinia concentrica, Engleromyces goetzii, Hydnum repandum, Hebeloma versipelle, Hygrophorus eburnesus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius hatsudake, Lactarius hirtipes, Lactarius mitissimus, Lactarius rufus, Paxillus panuoides, Pulveroboletus ravenelii, Russula cyanoxantha, Russula foetens, Russula lepida, Russula nigricans, Sarcodon laevigatum, Sarcodon scabrosus, Shiraia bambusicola, Thelephora aurantiotincta, Thelephora ganbajun, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Tylopilus virens, Tuber indicum, Xylaria euglossa, etc.), and isolated a number of novel terpenoids, phenolics, and nitrogen-containing compounds. The isolation, structural elucidation, and biologically activity of the new compounds are discussed. PMID:22504394

  8. Phialosimplex, a new anamorphic genus associated with infections in dogs and having phylogenetic affinity to the Trichocomaceae.

    PubMed

    Sigler, Lynne; Sutton, Deanna A; Gibas, Connie Fe C; Summerbell, Richard C; Noel, Rhonda K; Iwen, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Anamorphic members of the ascomycete family Trichocomaceae including Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Geosmithia and Sagenomella have been reported from infections in canines. Six clinical isolates (five associated with infections in canines and one from a human source) demonstrated simple phialides producing conidia in long chains and were investigated for their potential relationship to Sagenomella chlamydospora, a known agent of canine disseminated mycosis. Phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and small subunit (SSU) region sequences revealed that all of the canine-associated isolates were distinct from Sagenomella species. The new anamorphic genus and species Phialosimplex caninus is described to accommodate the clinical isolates. Sagenomella chlamydospora and Sagenomella sclerotialis are transferred to the new genus as Phialosimplex chlamydosporus comb. nov. and Phialosimplex sclerotialis comb. nov. PMID:20141373

  9. Control and possible applications of a novel carrot-spoilage basidiomycete, Fibulorhizoctonia psychrophila

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Elvira S.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Stalpers, Joost A.

    2008-01-01

    A novel cold-tolerant fungus, Fibulorhizoctonia psychrophila, was isolated from a refrigerated carrot storage facility and identified as an anamorph of Athelia, often classified in Rhizoctonia s.l. Growth of this fungus was observed between 0 and 20°C with an optimum at 9–12°C, while incubation of mycelium grown at 15–32°C resulted in absence of growth even after the fungus was transferred back to 15°C. Growth was inhibited in the presence of the antifungals sorbic acid or natamycin, in particular when the fungus was incubated at 18°C. F. psychrophila produces polysaccharide degrading enzymes that, when compared to enzymes from the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus niger, retain a larger proportion of their activity at lower temperatures. This indicates that F. psychrophila could be used as a source for novel industrial enzymes that are active at 4–15°C. PMID:18183497

  10. Control and possible applications of a novel carrot-spoilage basidiomycete, Fibulorhizoctonia psychrophila.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Ronald P; de Lange, Elvira S; Wösten, Han A B; Stalpers, Joost A

    2008-05-01

    A novel cold-tolerant fungus, Fibulorhizoctonia psychrophila, was isolated from a refrigerated carrot storage facility and identified as an anamorph of Athelia, often classified in Rhizoctonia s.l. Growth of this fungus was observed between 0 and 20 degrees C with an optimum at 9-12 degrees C, while incubation of mycelium grown at 15-32 degrees C resulted in absence of growth even after the fungus was transferred back to 15 degrees C. Growth was inhibited in the presence of the antifungals sorbic acid or natamycin, in particular when the fungus was incubated at 18 degrees C. F. psychrophila produces polysaccharide degrading enzymes that, when compared to enzymes from the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus niger, retain a larger proportion of their activity at lower temperatures. This indicates that F. psychrophila could be used as a source for novel industrial enzymes that are active at 4-15 degrees C. PMID:18183497

  11. Screening for fungi intensively mineralizing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Scheibner, K; Hofrichter, M; Herre, A; Michels, J; Fritsche, W

    1997-04-01

    Within a screening program, 91 fungal strains belonging to 32 genera of different ecological and taxonomic groups (wood- and litter-decaying basidiomycetes, saprophytic micromycetes) were tested for their ability to metabolize and mineralize 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). All these strains metabolized TNT rapidly by forming monoaminodinitrotoluenes (AmDNT). Micromycetes produced higher amounts of AmDNT than did wood- and litter-decaying basidiomycetes. A significant mineralization of [14C]TNT was only observed for certain wood- and litter-decaying basidiomycetes. The most active strains, Clitocybula dusenii TMb12 and Stropharia rugosa-annulata DSM11372 mineralized 42% and 36% respectively of the initial added [14C]TNT (100 microM corresponding to 4.75 microCi/l) to 14CO2 within 64 days. Micromycetes (deuteromycetes, ascomycetes, zygomycetes) proved to be unable to mineralize [14C]TNT significantly. PMID:9163958

  12. How nutritional status signalling coordinates metabolism and lignocellulolytic enzyme secretion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Neil Andrew; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2014-11-01

    The utilisation of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an abundant, renewable feedstock for green chemistries and biofuel production is inhibited by its recalcitrant nature. In the environment, lignocellulolytic fungi are naturally capable of breaking down plant biomass into utilisable saccharides. Nonetheless, within the industrial context, inefficiencies in the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes impede the implementation of green technologies. One of the primary causes of such inefficiencies is the tight transcriptional control of lignocellulolytic enzymes via carbon catabolite repression. Fungi coordinate metabolism, protein biosynthesis and secretion with cellular energetic status through the detection of intra- and extra-cellular nutritional signals. An enhanced understanding of the signals and signalling pathways involved in regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of lignocellulolytic enzymes is therefore of great biotechnological interest. This comparative review describes how nutrient sensing pathways regulate carbon catabolite repression, metabolism and the utilisation of alternative carbon sources in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ascomycete fungi. PMID:25011009

  13. Plant biomass degradation by fungi.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general. In this review we provide a global view on the development of this research topic in saprobic ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and in plant pathogenic fungi and link this to the other papers of this special issue on plant biomass degradation by fungi. PMID:25192611

  14. Evidence for 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin in three halophilic black yeasts grown under saline and non-saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Kogej, Tina; Wheeler, Michael H; Lanisnik Rizner, Tea; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2004-03-19

    The ascomycetous black yeasts Hortaea werneckii, Phaeotheca triangularis, and Trimmatostroma salinum are halophilic fungi that inhabit hypersaline water of solar salterns. They are characterized by slow, meristematic growth and very thick, darkly pigmented cell walls. The dark pigment, generally thought to be melanin, is consistently present in their cell walls when they grow under saline and non-saline conditions. We used the inhibitor tricyclazole to test the fungi in this study for the presence of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin biosynthesis, since fungal melanins reportedly are derived either from DHN, tyrosine via 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, gamma-glutaminyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzene, or catechol. Tricyclazole-treated cultures of the fungi were reddish-brown in color and contained typical intermediates of the DHN-melanin pathway, as demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography. This investigation showed that the three fungi synthesized DHN-melanin under saline and non-saline growth conditions. PMID:15033240

  15. Fusarium graminearum and Its Interactions with Cereal Heads: Studies in the Proteomics Era

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fen; Jacobsen, Susanne; Jørgensen, Hans J. L.; Collinge, David B.; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph stage: Gibberella zeae) is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley. This disease leads to significant losses of crop yield, and especially quality through the contamination by diverse fungal mycotoxins, which constitute a significant threat to the health of humans and animals. In recent years, high-throughput proteomics, aiming at identifying a broad spectrum of proteins with a potential role in the pathogenicity and host resistance, has become a very useful tool in plant-fungus interaction research. In this review, we describe the progress in proteomics applications toward a better understanding of F. graminearum pathogenesis, virulence, and host defense mechanisms. The contribution of proteomics to the development of crop protection strategies against this pathogen is also discussed briefly. PMID:23450732

  16. Integration of the first and second generation bioethanol processes and the importance of by-products.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Patrik R; Erlandsson, Per; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has obstacles in the investment costs and uncertainties in the process. One solution is to integrate it with the running dry mills of ethanol from grains. However, the economy of these mills, which dominate the world market, are dependent on their by-products DDGS (Distiller's Dried Grains and Solubles), sold as animal feed. The quality of DDGS therefore must not be negatively influenced by the integration. This puts restraints on the choice of pretreatment of lignocelluloses and utilizing the pentose sugars by food-grade microorganisms. The proposed solution is to use food related filamentous Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes fungi, and to produce fungal biomass as a high-grade animal feed from the residues after the distillation (stillage). This also has the potential to improve the first generation process by increasing the amount of the thin stillage directly sent back into the process, and by decreasing the evaporator based problems. PMID:24582951

  17. Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Rhind, Nicholas; Chen, Zehua; Yassour, Moran; Thompson, Dawn A; Haas, Brian J; Habib, Naomi; Wapinski, Ilan; Roy, Sushmita; Lin, Michael F.; Heiman, David I; Young, Sarah K; Furuya, Kanji; Guo, Yabin; Pidoux, Alison; Chen, Huei Mei; Robbertse, Barbara; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Aoki, Keita; Bayne, Elizabeth H.; Berlin, Aaron M; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Dobbs, Edward; Dukaj, Livio; Fan, Lin; FitzGerald, Michael G; French, Courtney; Gujja, Sharvari; Hansen, Klavs; Keifenheim, Dan; Levin, Joshua Z.; Mosher, Rebecca A.; Müller, Carolin A.; Pfiffner, Jenna; Priest, Margaret; Russ, Carsten; Smialowska, Agata; Swoboda, Peter; Sykes, Sean M; Vaughn, Matthew; Vengrova, Sonya; Yoder, Ryan; Zeng, Qiandong; Allshire, Robin; Baulcombe, David; Birren, Bruce W.; Brown, William; Ekwall, Karl; Kellis, Manolis; Leatherwood, Janet; Levin, Henry; Margalit, Hanah; Martienssen, Rob; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Friedman, Nir; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Baumann, Peter; Niki, Hironori; Regev, Aviv; Nusbaum, Chad

    2011-01-01

    The fission yeast clade, comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus and S. japonicus, occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative annotation of these genomes identified a near extinction of transposons and the associated innovation of transposon-free centromeres. Expression analysis established that meiotic genes are subject to antisense transcription during vegetative growth, suggesting a mechanism for their tight regulation. In addition, trans-acting regulators control new genes within the context of expanded functional modules for meiosis and stress response. Differences in gene content and regulation also explain why, unlike the Saccharomycotina, fission yeasts cannot use ethanol as a primary carbon source. These analyses elucidate the genome structure and gene regulation of fission yeast and provide tools for investigation across the Schizosaccharomyces clade. PMID:21511999

  18. ATP leakage from yeast cells treated by extracellular glycolipids of Pseudozyma fusiformata.

    PubMed

    Kulakovskaya, Tatiana V; Kulakovskaya, Ekaterina V; Golubev, Wladyslav I

    2003-06-01

    The ustilaginaceous yeast Pseudozyma fusiformata secreted glycolipids which were lethal to many yeasts and fungi more active at pH of about 4.0, and in the temperature range of 20-30 degrees C. Purified glycolipids enhanced non-specific permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane in sensitive cells, which resulted in ATP leakage and susceptibility of the cells to staining with bromocresol purple. Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lost the ability to acidify the medium. Basidiomycetous yeasts were more sensitive to the glycolipids than ascomycetous ones. The minimal effective glycolipid concentration was 0.13 and 0.26 mg ml(-1) for Cryptococcus terreus and Filobasidiella neoformans, while for Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae it was 1.0 and 1.6 mg ml(-1). PMID:12748051

  19. A small insertion in the SSU rDNA of the lichen fungus Arthonia lapidicola is a degenerate group-I intron.

    PubMed

    Grube, M; Gargas, A; DePriest, P T

    1996-05-01

    Insertions of less than 100 nt occurring in highly conserved regions of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) may represent degenerate forms of the group-I introns observed at the same positions in other organisms. A 63-nt insertion at SSU rDNA position 1512 (relative to the Escherichia coli SSU rDNA) of the lichen-forming fungus Arthonia lapidicola can be folded into a secondary structure with two stem loops and a pairing of the insertion and flanking sequences. The two stem loops may correspond to the P1 and P2, and the insertion-flanking pairing to the P10, of a group-I intron. Considering these small insertions as degenerate introns provides important clues to the evolution and catalytic function of group-I introns. Keywords Ribosomal DNA middle dot Small subunit middle dot 18s middle dot Degenerate introns middle dot Ascomycetes PMID:8662198

  20. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans Using Radicicol

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yunhee; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-01-01

    The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans causes ginseng root rot disease and produces various secondary metabolites such as brefeldin A and radicicol. The slow growth of this fungus compared with other plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi in soil disturbs isolation of this fungus from soil and infected ginseng. In this study, we developed a selective medium for C. destructans using radicicol produced by this fungus. Supplementing 50 mg/L of radicicol to medium inhibited the mycelia growth of other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria panax, but did not affect the growth of C. destructans. In addition, conidia germination of other fungal species except for C. destructans was inhibited in submerged culture supplemented with radicicol. This medium provides a very efficient tool for isolating C. destructans and also can be used as an enrichment medium for this fungus. PMID:25506308

  1. Coniosetin, a novel tetramic acid antibiotic from Coniochaeta ellipsoidea DSM 13856.

    PubMed

    Segeth, Marian Paul; Bonnefoy, Alain; Brönstrup, Mark; Knauf, Martin; Schummer, Dietmar; Toti, Luigi; Vértesy, László; Wetzel-Raynal, Marie-Cécile; Wink, Joachim; Seibert, Gerhard

    2003-02-01

    The coprophilic ascomycete Coniochaeta ellipsoidea DSM 13856 forms the new antibiotic coniosetin (1) in surface cultures grown on a medium containing malt extract and oatmeal. The structure of the compound C25H35NO4, MW 413, was determined by 2D-NMR and mass spectrometric studies. Coniosetin belongs to the class of tetramic acids; it consists of a substituted aliphatic bicyclic ring system linked to a tetramic acid subunit through a carbonyl center. The absolute configuration was determined by measuring its circular dichroism spectrum and comparing the data with those of equisetin. Coniosetin has a pronounced antibacterial and antifungal action, inhibiting even multi drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 0.3 microg/ml, though it is inactive against Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:12715870

  2. Transformation and electrophoretic karyotyping of Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Nancy N; Szynkarek, Matthew P; Skory, Christopher D; Gorsich, Steven W; López, Maria J; Guisado, Gema M; Nichols, Wade A

    2011-06-01

    Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616 is an ascomycete that grows with yeast-like appearance in liquid culture. The strain has potential utility for conversion of fibrous biomass to fuels or chemicals. Furans and other inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass are metabolized by NRRL30616, facilitating subsequent microbial fermentation of biomass sugars. This study undertook initial characterization of the genetic system of C. ligniaria NRRL30616. Transformation using hygromycin as a dominant selectable marker was achieved using protoplasts generated by incubating cells in 1% (v/v) ?-mercaptoethanol, followed by cell wall-digesting enzymes. Thirteen chromosomes with an estimated total size of 30.1 Mb were detected in C. ligniaria. The GC content of chromosomal DNA and of coding regions from cDNA sequences were 49.2 and 51.9%, respectively. This study is the first report of genome size, electrophoretic karyotype, and transformation system for a member of the Coniochaetales. PMID:21222124

  3. Fungus-specific microsatellite primers of lichens: application for the assessment of genetic variation on different spatial scales in Lobaria pulmonaria.

    PubMed

    Walser, Jean-Claude; Sperisen, Christoph; Soliva, Marco; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2003-10-01

    We isolated 12 microsatellite loci for the epiphytic lichen-forming ascomycete Lobaria pulmonaria and studied their patterns of variation within and among populations from Canada and Switzerland. Even though several microsatellites exhibited high levels of variability at different spatial scales, we did not find any evidence for intrathalline variation. Most of the genetic variation was attributed to differences among individuals within populations. High genetic variation was also detected among L. pulmonaria samples taken from individual trees, suggesting that either multiple colonization events had occurred or that local recombination is frequent. The geographically structured distribution of alleles from several microsatellites indicated that L. pulmonaria from Canada and Switzerland represent two distinct evolutionary lineages. The potential to identify multiple alleles, and their transferability to closely related species, make microsatellites an ideal tool to study dispersal, population differentiation, and microevolution in lichens. PMID:12948515

  4. Chlorination of lignin by ubiquitous fungi has a likely role in global organochlorine production

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Bermúdez, Patricia; Hirth, Kolby C.; Srebotnik, Ewald; Hammel, Kenneth E.

    2007-01-01

    Soils and decayed plant litter contain significant quantities of chlorinated aromatic polymers that have a natural but largely unknown origin. We used cupric oxide ligninolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to show that Curvularia inaequalis, a widely distributed litter ascomycete, chlorinated the aromatic rings of lignin in wood that it was degrading. In aspen wood decayed for 24 weeks, two chlorolignin fragments, 5-chlorovanillin and 2-chlorosyringaldehyde, were each found at ?10 ?g/g of wood (dry weight). These levels resemble those of similar structures generally found in unpolluted environmental samples. Fractionation of the extractable proteins followed by tandem mass spectrometric analysis showed that the colonized wood contained a previously described C. inaequalis chloroperoxidase that very likely catalyzed lignin chlorination. Chlorolignin produced by this route and humus derived from it are probably significant components of the global chlorine cycle because chloroperoxidase-producing fungi are ubiquitous in decaying lignocellulose and lignin is the earth's most abundant aromatic substance. PMID:17360449

  5. Entomopathogenic fungi in cornfields and their potential to manage larval western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    PubMed

    Rudeen, Melissa L; Jaronski, Stefan T; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-11-01

    Entomopathogenic ascomycete fungi are ubiquitous in soil and on phylloplanes, and are important natural enemies of many soil-borne arthropods including larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which is a major pest of corn. We measured the prevalence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato in ten cornfields in Iowa, USA by baiting with larval insects. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae s.l. were present in 60% ± 6.3% and 55% ± 6.4% of soil samples, respectively. Subsequent laboratory bioassays found that some M. anisopliae s.l. strains collected from cornfields killed a greater proportion of D.v. virgifera larvae than a standard commercial strain. PMID:24120889

  6. Trichosporon Species Isolated from Guano Samples Obtained from Bat-Inhabited Caves in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, Takashi; Kikuchi, Ken; Makimura, Koichi; Urata, Kensaku; Someya, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Niimi, Masakazu; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2005-01-01

    Yeasts from caves have rarely been examined. We examined yeasts collected from bat guano samples from 20 bat-inhabited limestone and volcanic caves located in 11 prefectures in Japan. Of ?700 yeast-like colonies, nine Trichosporon species were recovered from 15 caves. Two of these were known species, and the remaining seven are potentially novel species, based on molecular phylogenetic analyses. In addition to Trichosporon species, identifiable strains of eight ascomycetous yeasts and one basidiomycetous yeast were recovered at frequencies of 5 to 35%. Our findings suggest that Trichosporon spp. are the major yeast species in bat guano in Japan and that bat guano is a potentially rich source of previously undescribed yeast species. PMID:16269819

  7. Pichia insulana sp. nov., a novel cactophilic yeast from the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Ganter, Philip F.; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Boundy-Mills, Kyria

    2010-01-01

    A novel species of ascomycetous yeast, Pichia insulana sp. nov., is described from necrotic tissue of columnar cacti on Caribbean islands. P. insulana is closely related to and phenotypically very similar to Pichia cactophila and Pichia pseudocactophila. There are few distinctions between these taxa besides spore type, host preference and locality. Sporogenous strains of P. insulana that produce asci with four hat-shaped spores have been found only on Curaçao, whereas there was no evidence of sporogenous P. cactophila from that island. In addition, sequences of the D1/D2 fragment of the large-subunit rDNA from 12 Curaçao strains showed consistent differences from the sequences of the type strains of P. cactophila and P. pseudocactophila. The type strain of P. insulana is TSU00-106.5T (=CBS 11169T =UCD-FST 09-160T). PMID:19661524

  8. Endophytic fungi diversity of aquatic/riparian plants and their antifungal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Chun-An; Liu, Chen-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Fei

    2010-02-01

    Two hundred and fourteen endophytic fungi were isolated from 500 segments of aquatic/riparian plants Ottelia acuminata, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Equisetum arvense, Cardamine multijuga, and Impatiens chinensis. They were identified to 31 taxa in which Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Geotrichum were the dominant genera. Among all isolates, 169 (79%) were anamorphic fungi, 1 (0.5%) was an teleomorphic ascomycete and 44 (21%) were sterile mycelia. There were significant differences in the colonization frequency of endophytes between the five plant species (X~2=51.128, P<0.001, Chi-square test). The riparian plants harboured more endophytes than the submerged plants. The antifungal activity of these isolates against Fusarium solani and Phytophthora nicotianae in vitro were tested and 28 (13.1%) isolates showed antifungal activities with more than 30% growth inhibition rate against the two pathogens. PMID:20221722

  9. Aspergillus Niger Genomics: Past, Present and into the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.

  10. The promoter of the glucoamylase-encoding gene of Aspergillus niger functions in Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Smith, T L; Gaskell, J; Berka, R M; Yang, M; Henner, D J; Cullen, D

    1990-04-16

    Promoter sequences from the Aspergillus niger glucoamylase-encoding gene (glaA) were linked to the bacterial hygromycin (Hy) phosphotransferase-encoding gene (hph) and this chimeric marker was used to select Hy-resistant (HyR) Ustilago maydis transformants. This is an example of an Ascomycete promoter functioning in a Basidiomycete. HyR transformants varied with respect to copy number of integrated vector, mitotic stability, and tolerance to Hy. Only 216 bp of glaA promoter sequence is required for expression in U. maydis but this promoter is not induced by starch as it is in Aspergillus spp. The transcriptional start points are the same in U. maydis and A. niger. PMID:2112106

  11. The importance of molecular analyses for understanding the genetic diversity of Histoplasma capsulatum: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vite-Garín, Tania; Estrada-Bárcenas, Daniel Alfonso; Cifuentes, Joaquín; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the classification of the human pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum) (ascomycete) are sustained by the results of several genetic analyses that support the high diversity of this dimorphic fungus. The present mini-review highlights the great genetic plasticity of H. capsulatum. Important records with different molecular tools, mainly single- or multi-locus sequence analyses developed with this fungus, are discussed. Recent phylogenetic data with a multi-locus sequence analysis using 5 polymorphic loci support a new clade and/or phylogenetic species of H. capsulatum for the Americas, which was associated with fungal isolates obtained from the migratory bat Tadarida brasiliensis. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). PMID:24252830

  12. Membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants reveal diverse yeast and protist communities of potential significance in biofouling.

    PubMed

    Liébana, Raquel; Arregui, Lucía; Belda, Ignacio; Gamella, Luis; Santos, Antonio; Marquina, Domingo; Serrano, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The yeast community was studied in a municipal full-scale membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant (MBR-WWTP). The unexpectedly high diversity of yeasts indicated that the activated sludge formed a suitable environment for them to proliferate, with cellular concentrations of 2.2 ± 0.8?×?10(3) CFU ml(-1). Sixteen species of seven genera were present in the biological reactor, with Ascomycetes being the most prevalent group (93%). Most isolates were able to grow in a synthetic wastewater medium, adhere to polyethylene surfaces, and develop biofilms of variable complexity. The relationship between yeast populations and the protists in the MBR-WWTP was also studied, revealing that some protist species preyed on and ingested yeasts. These results suggest that yeast populations may play a role in the food web of a WWTP and, to some extent, contribute to membrane biofouling in MBR systems. PMID:25588128

  13. The benomyl test as a fundamental diagnostic method for medical mycology.

    PubMed Central

    Summerbell, R C

    1993-01-01

    The fungicide benomyl has long been known to differentially affect major taxonomic groups of fungi. In the present study 163 species or aggregates of closely similar species of medically important fungi and actinomycetes, as well as species commonly isolated as clinical contaminants, were tested to determine their reactions to three concentrations of benomyl. Fungi of basidiomycetous, endomycetous, and microascaceous affinities were highly resistant, including all common yeasts and Geotrichum, Pseudallescheria, Scedosporium, and Scopulariopsis species. Also resistant were fungi of pleosporalean affinities with poroconidial anamorphs, such as Alternaria, Bipolaris, Curvularia, and Exserohilum species. Most other fungi of ascomycetous affinity were moderately to strongly susceptible. Such fungi included dermatophytes; Coccidioides, Blastomyces, and Histoplasma species; Sporothrix schenckii; medically important aspergilli; and "black yeasts." Benomyl testing aided in the provisional identification of nonsporulating mycelia, including common basidiomycetous isolates obtained as contaminants as well as nonsporulating Aspergillus fumigatus from pulmonary sources. PMID:8458952

  14. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Boknam; Lee, Sehee; Ha, Jiran; Park, Jong-Chul; Han, Sung-Sook; Hwang, Ingyu; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent for Fusarium head blight in cereals and produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. Isolation of the fungal strains from air or cereals can be hampered by various other airborne fungal pathogens and saprophytic fungi. In this study, we developed a selective medium specific to F. graminearum using toxoflavin produced by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. F. graminearum was resistant to toxoflavin, while other fungi were sensitive to this toxin. Supplementing toxoflavin into medium enhanced the isolation of F. graminearum from rice grains by suppressing the growth of saprophytic fungal species. In addition, a medium with or without toxoflavin exposed to wheat fields for 1 h had 84% or 25%, respectively, of colonies identified as F. graminearum. This selection medium provides an efficient tool for isolating F. graminearum, and can be adopted by research groups working on genetics and disease forecasting. PMID:25288974

  15. Sphaerodes mycoparasitica sp. nov., a new biotrophic mycoparasite on Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum and F. oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Vladimir; Goh, Yit Kheng

    2009-10-01

    A new species, Sphaerodes mycoparasitica (Ascomycetes, Melanosporales), was isolated from isolates of Fusarium avenaceum and Fusarium graminearum originating from wheat fields in Saskatchewan, and from Fusarium oxysporum originating from asparagus fields in Quebec, Canada. The species is characterized by a unique combination of ascospore size, shape (fusiform and triangular) and wall ornamentation (reticulate and smooth). Also, conidia are produced from simple phialides on the surface of ascoma peridial wall, on ascoma surrounding hyphae, and on irregularly branched conidiophores arising from hyphae. The closest relation of S. mycoparasitica is Sphaerodes quadrangularis, which has no detected anamorphic stage. The description of S. mycoparasitica, its phylogenetic position-based on DNA sequences of large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU)-as well as a key for all known Sphaerodes species are provided. PMID:19857813

  16. Mycosphaerella is polyphyletic

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella, one of the largest genera of ascomycetes, encompasses several thousand species and has anamorphs residing in more than 30 form genera. Although previous phylogenetic studies based on the ITS rDNA locus supported the monophyly of the genus, DNA sequence data derived from the LSU gene distinguish several clades and families in what has hitherto been considered to represent the Mycosphaerellaceae. Several important leaf spotting and extremotolerant species need to be disposed to the genus Teratosphaeria, for which a new family, the Teratosphaeriaceae, is introduced. Other distinct clades represent the Schizothyriaceae, Davidiellaceae, Capnodiaceae, and the Mycosphaerellaceae. Within the two major clades, namely Teratosphaeriaceae and Mycosphaerellaceae, most anamorph genera are polyphyletic, and new anamorph concepts need to be derived to cope with dual nomenclature within the Mycosphaerella complex. PMID:18490994

  17. Benzoquinones and Terphenyl Compounds as Phosphodiesterase-4B Inhibitors from a Fungus of the Order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445)#

    PubMed Central

    El-Elimat, Tamam; Figueroa, Mario; Raja, Huzefa A.; Graf, Tyler N.; Adcock, Audrey F.; Kroll, David J.; Day, Cynthia S.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2013-01-01

    Three bioactive compounds were isolated from an organic extract of an ascomycete fungus of the order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445) using bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Of these, two were benzoquinones [betulinan A (1) and betulinan C (3)] and the third was a terphenyl compound BTH-II0204-207:A (2). The structures were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques; the structure of the new compound (3) was confirmed via single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds (1–3) were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a human cancer cell panel, for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and for phosphodiesterase (PDE4B2) inhibitory activities. The putative binding mode of 1–3 with PDE4B2 was examined using a validated docking protocol, and the binding and enzyme inhibitory activities correlated. PMID:23301853

  18. Mate and fuse: how yeast cells do it

    PubMed Central

    Merlini, Laura; Dudin, Omaya; Martin, Sophie G.

    2013-01-01

    Many cells are able to orient themselves in a non-uniform environment by responding to localized cues. This leads to a polarized cellular response, where the cell can either grow or move towards the cue source. Fungal haploid cells secrete pheromones to signal mating, and respond by growing a mating projection towards a potential mate. Upon contact of the two partner cells, these fuse to form a diploid zygote. In this review, we present our current knowledge on the processes of mating signalling, pheromone-dependent polarized growth and cell fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, two highly divergent ascomycete yeast models. While the global architecture of the mating response is very similar between these two species, they differ significantly both in their mating physiologies and in the molecular connections between pheromone perception and downstream responses. The use of both yeast models helps enlighten both conserved solutions and species-specific adaptations to a general biological problem. PMID:23466674

  19. The diversity and extracellular enzymatic activities of yeasts isolated from water tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species in Brazil, and the description of Occultifur brasiliensis f.a., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fátima C O; Safar, Silvana V B; Marques, Andrea R; Medeiros, Adriana O; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Carvalho, Cláudia; Lachance, Marc-André; Sampaio, José Paulo; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of yeast species collected from the bromeliad tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species, and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes were studied. Water samples were collected from 30 tanks of bromeliads living in a rupestrian field site located at Serrada Piedade, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, during both the dry and rainy seasons. Thirty-six species were isolated, representing 22 basidiomycetous and 14 ascomycetous species. Occultifur sp., Cryptococcus podzolicus and Cryptococcus sp. 1 were the prevalent basidiomycetous species. The yeast-like fungus from the order Myriangiales, Candida silvae and Aureobasidium pullulans were the most frequent ascomycetous species. The diversity of the yeast communities obtained between seasons was not significantly different, but the yeast composition per bromeliad was different between seasons. These results suggest that there is significant spatial heterogeneity in the composition of populations of the yeast communities within bromeliad tanks, independent of the season. Among the 352 yeast isolates tested, 282 showed at least one enzymatic activity. Protease activity was the most widely expressed extracellular enzymatic activity, followed by xylanase, amylase, pectinase and cellulase activities. These enzymes may increase the carbon and nitrogen availability for the microbial food web in the bromeliad tank of V. minarum. Sequence analyses revealed the existence of 10 new species, indicating that bromeliad tanks are important sources of new yeasts. The novel species Occultifur brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the most frequently isolated yeast associated with V. minarum. The type strain of O. brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y375(T) (= CBS 12687(T)). The Mycobank number is MB 809816. PMID:25515414

  20. A phylogenetic study on galactose-containing Candida species based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sugita, Takashi; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C. chiropterorum, were included in Cluster III. PMID:12501365

  1. Finding exonic islands in a sea of non-coding sequence: splicing related constraints on protein composition and evolution are common in intron-rich genomes

    PubMed Central

    Warnecke, Tobias; Parmley, Joanna L; Hurst, Laurence D

    2008-01-01

    Background In mammals, splice-regulatory domains impose marked trends on the relative abundance of certain amino acids near exon-intron boundaries. Is this a mammalian particularity or symptomatic of exonic splicing regulation across taxa? Are such trends more common in species that a priori have a harder time identifying exon ends, that is, those with pre-mRNA rich in intronic sequence? We address these questions surveying exon composition in a sample of phylogenetically diverse genomes. Results Biased amino acid usage near exon-intron boundaries is common throughout the metazoa but not restricted to the metazoa. There is extensive cross-species concordance as to which amino acids are affected, and reduced/elevated abundances are well predicted by knowledge of splice enhancers. Species expected to rely on exon definition for splicing, that is, those with a higher ratio of intronic to coding sequence, more introns per gene and longer introns, exhibit more amino acid skews. Notably, this includes the intron-rich basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, which, unlike intron-poor ascomycetes (Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae), exhibits compositional biases reminiscent of the metazoa. Strikingly, 5 prime ends of nematode exons deviate radically from normality: amino acids strongly preferred near boundaries are strongly avoided in other species, and vice versa. This we suggest is a measure to avoid attracting trans-splicing machinery. Conclusion Constraints on amino acid composition near exon-intron boundaries are phylogenetically widespread and characteristic of species where exon localization should be problematic. That compositional biases accord with sequence preferences of splice-regulatory proteins and are absent in ascomycetes is consistent with selection on exonic splicing regulation. PMID:18257921

  2. Fungi Unearthed: Transcripts Encoding Lignocellulolytic and Chitinolytic Enzymes in Forest Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Harald; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2010-01-01

    Background Fungi are the main organisms responsible for the degradation of biopolymers such as lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and chitin in forest ecosystems. Soil surveys largely target fungal diversity, paying less attention to fungal activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we have focused on the organic horizon of a hardwood forest dominated by sugar maple that spreads widely across Eastern North America. The sampling site included three plots receiving normal atmospheric nitrogen deposition and three that received an extra 3 g nitrogen m?2 y?1 in form of sodium nitrate pellets since 1994, which led to increased accumulation of organic matter in the soil. Our aim was to assess, in samples taken from all six plots, transcript-level expression of fungal genes encoding lignocellulolytic and chitinolytic enzymes. For this we collected RNA from the forest soil, reverse-transcribed it, and amplified cDNAs of interest, using both published primer pairs as well as 23 newly developed ones. We thus detected transcript-level expression of 234 genes putatively encoding 26 different groups of fungal enzymes, notably major ligninolytic and diverse aromatic-oxidizing enzymes, various cellulose- and hemicellulose-degrading glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases, enzymes involved in chitin breakdown, N-acetylglucosamine metabolism, and cell wall degradation. Among the genes identified, 125 are homologous to known ascomycete genes and 105 to basidiomycete genes. Transcripts corresponding to all 26 enzyme groups were detected in both control and nitrogen-supplemented plots. Conclusions/Significance Many of these enzyme groups are known to be important in soil turnover processes, but the contribution of some is probably underestimated. Our data highlight the importance of ascomycetes, as well as basidiomycetes, in important biogeochemical cycles. In the nitrogen-supplemented plots, we have detected no transcript-level gap likely to explain the observed increased carbon storage, which is more likely due to community changes and perhaps transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional down-regulation of relevant genes. PMID:20532045

  3. Identification of transcripts up-regulated in asexual and sexual fruiting bodies of the Dutch elm disease pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Volker; Dufour, Josée; Bouvet, Guillaume F; Aoun, Mirella; Bernier, Louis

    2010-08-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries were prepared from asexual synnemata (S-lib) and sexual perithecia (P-lib) fruiting bodies of the Dutch elm disease pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi subsp. novo-ulmi isolate H327 (mating-type MAT1-1) consisting of 630 and 401 cDNA clones, respectively. Both libraries were differentially screened in duplicate with forward and reverse subtracted probes. Up-regulated S-lib transcripts included those with homologies to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and aquaporin. Up-regulated P-lib transcripts included those with homologies to aspartyl proteinase, DNA lyase 2, and part of a mating-type (MAT) protein containing a DNA-binding domain of the high-mobility group (HMG) type. Phylogenetic analyses of HMG domains present within the putative O. novo-ulmi MAT protein and within MAT1-1-3 and MAT1-2-1 proteins of other ascomycete fungi identified the O. novo-ulmi protein as a homologue of the MAT1-1-3 protein, which represents part of the so far uncharacterized O. novo-ulmi MAT1-1 idiomorph. Reverse transcription - quantitative real-time PCR indicated up-regulation of the MAT1-1-3 homologue in O. novo-ulmi perithecia and synnemata. The present work identifies, for the first time, proteins involved in the formation of asexual and sexual fruiting bodies in O. novo-ulmi and should be of interest to researchers concerned with reproduction, mating type, and sexuality of filamentous ascomycete fungi. PMID:20725133

  4. Mating Type Locus of Chinese Black Truffles Reveals Heterothallism and the Presence of Cryptic Species within the T. indicum Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T. melanosporum. PMID:24358175

  5. Leaf and Root-Associated Fungal Assemblages Do Not Follow Similar Elevational Diversity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Coince, Aurore; Cordier, Tristan; Lengellé, Juliette; Defossez, Emmanuel; Vacher, Corinne; Robin, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of fungi along environmental gradients has been little explored in contrast to plants and animals. Consequently, environmental factors influencing the composition of fungal assemblages are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the diversity and composition of leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages vary with elevation and to investigate potential explanatory variables. High-throughput sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 region was used to explore fungal assemblages along three elevation gradients, located in French mountainous regions. Beech forest was selected as a study system to minimise the host effect. The variation in species richness and specific composition was investigated for ascomycetes and basidiomycetes assemblages with a particular focus on root-associated ectomycorrhizal fungi. The richness of fungal communities associated with leaves or roots did not significantly relate to any of the tested environmental drivers, i.e. elevation, mean temperature, precipitation or edaphic variables such as soil pH or the ratio carbon?nitrogen. Nevertheless, the ascomycete species richness peaked at mid-temperature, illustrating a mid-domain effect model. We found that leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages did not follow similar patterns of composition with elevation. While the composition of the leaf-associated fungal assemblage correlated primarily with the mean annual temperature, the composition of root-associated fungal assemblage was explained equally by soil pH and by temperature. The ectomycorrhizal composition was also related to these variables. Our results therefore suggest that above and below-ground fungal assemblages are not controlled by the same main environmental variables. This may be due to the larger amplitude of climatic variables in the tree foliage compared to the soil environment. PMID:24971637

  6. New fungal genera, Tectonidula gen. nov. for Calosphaeria-like fungi with holoblastic-denticulate conidiogenesis and Natantiella gen. nov. for three species segregated from Ceratostomella.

    PubMed

    Réblová, Martina; Stepánek, Václav

    2009-09-01

    Two morphologically similar groups of ascomycetes with globose to subglobose perithecia, elongate necks, unitunicate asci floating freely at maturity, and hyaline ascospores currently placed in Calosphaeria s. lat. and Ceratostomella s. lat., respectively, are studied. The Calosphaeria-like fungi have groups of perithecia growing between cortex and wood, arranged in circular groups with converging necks and piercing the cortex in a common point; the asci with a shallow apical ring and U- to horseshoe-shaped hyaline ascospores are compared with Calosphaeria pulchella, the type species of the genus. Conidiogenesis of the investigated Calosphaeria-like fungi is holoblastic-denticulate; ramichloridium-like and sporothrix-like conidiophores and conidia were formed in vitro. Ascospore and ascus morphology, structure of the ascal apex, ascogenous system, mode of conidiogenesis and the large subunit rRNA sequences of this group differ considerably from C. pulchella and both groups are unrelated. Thus a new genus, Tectonidula, is described with two accepted species, T. hippocrepida and T. fagi; they are separated by ascospore and ascus morphology and holoblastic-denticulate conidiogenesis from the core species of Calosphaeria. The placement of Tectonidula among perithecial ascomycetes is discussed. The relationship of Tectonidula with Barbatosphaeria and two ramichloridium-like hyphomycetous genera Rhodoveronaea and Myrmecridium is investigated. Three species formerly attributed to Ceratostomella are studied. The revision of the herbarium type specimen and fresh material of Ceratostomella ligneola revealed that it is conspecific with Ceratostomella ampullasca and Ceratostomella similis. The LSU phylogeny clearly separated C. ligneola from Ceratostomella s. str. and morphologically similar Lentomitella. On the basis of molecular sequence data and detailed comparison of morphology of asci, ascospores and ascogenous system the genus Natantiella is described for C. ligneola with C. ampullasca and C. similis as its synonyms. Natantiella produced sterile mycelium in vitro. PMID:19539759

  7. The information highways of a biotechnological workhorse – signal transduction in Hypocrea jecorina

    PubMed Central

    Schmoll, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Background The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is one of the most prolific producers of biomass-degrading enzymes and frequently termed an industrial workhorse. To compete for nutrients in its habitat despite its shortcoming in certain degradative enzymes, efficient perception and interpretation of environmental signals is indispensable. A better understanding of these signals as well as their transmission machinery can provide sources for improvement of biotechnological processes. Results The genome of H. jecorina was analysed for the presence and composition of common signal transduction pathways including heterotrimeric G-protein cascades, cAMP signaling, mitogen activated protein kinases, two component phosphorelay systems, proteins involved in circadian rhythmicity and light response, calcium signaling and the superfamily of Ras small GTPases. The results of this survey are discussed in the context of current knowledge in order to assess putative functions as well as potential impact of alterations of the respective pathways. Conclusion Important findings include an additional, bacterial type phospholipase C protein and an additional 6-4 photolyase. Moreover the presence of 4 RGS-(Regulator of G-protein Signaling) proteins and 3 GprK-type G-protein coupled receptors comprising an RGS-domain suggest a more complex posttranslational regulation of G-protein signaling than in other ascomycetes. Also the finding, that H. jecorina, unlike yeast possesses class I phosducins which are involved in phototransduction in mammals warrants further investigation. An alteration in the regulation of circadian rhythmicity may be deduced from the extension of both the class I and II of casein kinases, homologues of which are implicated in phosphorylation of FRQ in Neurospora crassa. On the other hand, a shortage in the number of the pathogenicity related PTH11-type G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as a lack of microbial opsins was detected. Considering its efficient enzyme system for breakdown of cellulosic materials, it came as a surprise that H. jecorina does not possess a carbon sensing GPCR. PMID:18803869

  8. A rock-inhabiting ancestor for mutualistic and pathogen-rich fungal lineages

    PubMed Central

    Gueidan, C.; Villaseñor, C. R.; de Hoog, G. S.; Gorbushina, A. A.; Untereiner, W. A.; Lutzoni, F.

    2008-01-01

    Rock surfaces are unique terrestrial habitats in which rapid changes in the intensity of radiation, temperature, water supply and nutrient availability challenge the survival of microbes. A specialised, but diverse group of free-living, melanised fungi are amongst the persistent settlers of bare rocks. Multigene phylogenetic analyses were used to study relationships of ascomycetes from a variety of substrates, with a dataset including a broad sampling of rock dwellers from different geographical locations. Rock-inhabiting fungi appear particularly diverse in the early diverging lineages of the orders Chaetothyriales and Verrucariales. Although these orders share a most recent common ancestor, their lifestyles are strikingly different. Verrucariales are mostly lichen-forming fungi, while Chaetothyriales, by contrast, are best known as opportunistic pathogens of vertebrates (e.g. Cladophialophora bantiana and Exophiala dermatitidis, both agents of fatal brain infections) and saprophytes. The rock-dwelling habit is shown here to be key to the evolution of these two ecologically disparate orders. The most recent common ancestor of Verrucariales and Chaetothyriales is reconstructed as a non-lichenised rock-inhabitant. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest Verrucariales as one of the independent ascomycetes group where lichenisation has evolved on a hostile rock surface that might have favored this shift to a symbiotic lifestyle. Rock-inhabiting fungi are also ancestral to opportunistic pathogens, as they are found in the early diverging lineages of Chaetothyriales. In Chaetothyriales and Verrucariales, specific morphological and physiological traits (here referred to as extremotolerance) evolved in response to stresses in extreme conditions prevailing on rock surfaces. These factors facilitated colonisation of various substrates including the brains of vertebrates by opportunistic fungal pathogens, as well as helped establishment of a stable lichen symbiosis. PMID:19287533

  9. Horizontal gene transfer and functional diversification of plant cell wall degrading polygalacturonases: Key events in the evolution of herbivory in beetles.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Roy; Gramzow, Lydia; Theißen, Günter; Siegfried, Blair D; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Heckel, David G; Pauchet, Yannick

    2014-09-01

    Plant cell walls are the largest reservoir of organic carbon on earth. To breach and utilize this carbohydrate-rich protective barrier, microbes secrete plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) targeting pectin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. There is a growing body of evidence that genomes of some herbivorous insects also encode PCWDEs, raising questions about their evolutionary origins and functions. Among herbivorous beetles, pectin-degrading polygalacturonases (PGs) are found in the diverse superfamilies Chrysomeloidea (leaf beetles, long-horn beetles) and Curculionoidea (weevils). Here our aim was to test whether these arose from a common ancestor of beetles or via horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and whether PGs kept their ancestral function in degrading pectin or evolved novel functions. Transcriptome data derived from 10 beetle species were screened for PG-encoding sequences and used for phylogenetic comparisons with their bacterial, fungal and plant counterparts. These analyses revealed a large family of PG-encoding genes of Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea sharing a common ancestor, most similar to PG genes of ascomycete fungi. In addition, 50 PGs from beetle digestive systems were heterologously expressed and functionally characterized, showing a set of lineage-specific consecutively pectin-degrading enzymes, as well as conserved but enzymatically inactive PG proteins. The evidence indicates that a PG gene was horizontally transferred ?200 million years ago from an ascomycete fungus to a common ancestor of Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea. This has been followed by independent duplications in these two lineages, as well as independent replacement in two sublineages of Chrysomeloidea by two other subsequent HGTs. This origin, leading to subsequent functional diversification of the PG gene family within its new hosts, was a key event promoting the evolution of herbivory in these beetles. PMID:24978610

  10. The Cryptococcus neoformans Alkaline Response Pathway: Identification of a Novel Rim Pathway Activator

    PubMed Central

    Ost, Kyla S.; O’Meara, Teresa R.; Huda, Naureen; Esher, Shannon K.; Alspaugh, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Rim101/PacC transcription factor acts in a fungal-specific signaling pathway responsible for sensing extracellular pH signals. First characterized in ascomycete fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rim/Pal pathway maintains conserved features among very distantly related fungi, where it coordinates cellular adaptation to alkaline pH signals and micronutrient deprivation. However, it also directs species-specific functions in fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans, where it controls surface capsule expression. Moreover, disruption of the Rim pathway central transcription factor, Rim101, results in a strain that causes a hyper-inflammatory response in animal infection models. Using targeted gene deletions, we demonstrate that several genes encoding components of the classical Rim/Pal pathway are present in the C. neoformans genome. Many of these genes are in fact required for Rim101 activation, including members of the ESCRT complex (Vps23 and Snf7), ESCRT-interacting proteins (Rim20 and Rim23), and the predicted Rim13 protease. We demonstrate that in neutral/alkaline pH, Rim23 is recruited to punctate regions on the plasma membrane. This change in Rim23 localization requires upstream ESCRT complex components but does not require other Rim101 proteolysis components, such as Rim20 or Rim13. Using a forward genetics screen, we identified the RRA1 gene encoding a novel membrane protein that is also required for Rim101 protein activation and, like the ESCRT complex, is functionally upstream of Rim23-membrane localization. Homologs of RRA1 are present in other Cryptococcus species as well as other basidiomycetes, but closely related genes are not present in ascomycetes. These findings suggest that major branches of the fungal Kingdom developed different mechanisms to sense and respond to very elemental extracellular signals such as changing pH levels. PMID:25859664

  11. The Genome of Nectria haematococca: Contribution of Supernumerary Chromosomes to Gene Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Alan; Wasmann, Catherine C.; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Taga, Masatoki; White, Gerard J.; Zhou, Shiguo; Schwartz, David C.; Freitag, Michael; Ma, Li-jun; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Nelson, David R.; Straney, Dave; Napoli, Carolyn A.; Barker, Bridget M.; Gribskov, Michael; Rep, Martijn; Kroken, Scott; Molnár, István; Rensing, Christopher; Kennell, John C.; Zamora, Jorge; Farman, Mark L.; Selker, Eric U.; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Lindquist, Erika; Lamers, Casey; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Geiser, David M.; Covert, Sarah F.; Temporini, Esteban; VanEtten, Hans D.

    2009-01-01

    The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani), is a member of a group of >50 species known as the “Fusarium solani species complex”. Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on >100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this complex, N. haematococca mating population VI (MPVI). Several genes controlling the ability of individual isolates of this species to colonize specific habitats are located on supernumerary chromosomes. Optical mapping revealed that the sequenced isolate has 17 chromosomes ranging from 530 kb to 6.52 Mb and that the physical size of the genome, 54.43 Mb, and the number of predicted genes, 15,707, are among the largest reported for ascomycetes. Two classes of genes have contributed to gene expansion: specific genes that are not found in other fungi including its closest sequenced relative, Fusarium graminearum; and genes that commonly occur as single copies in other fungi but are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca MPVI. Some of these additional genes appear to have resulted from gene duplication events, while others may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. The supernumerary nature of three chromosomes, 14, 15, and 17, was confirmed by their absence in pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments of some isolates and by demonstrating that these isolates lacked chromosome-specific sequences found on the ends of these chromosomes. These supernumerary chromosomes contain more repeat sequences, are enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content in comparison to the other chromosomes. Although the origin(s) of the extra genes and the supernumerary chromosomes is not known, the gene expansion and its large genome size are consistent with this species' diverse range of habitats. Furthermore, the presence of unique genes on supernumerary chromosomes might account for individual isolates having different environmental niches. PMID:19714214

  12. The genome of Nectria haematococca: contribution of supernumerary chromosomes to gene expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.J.; Rounsley, S.D.; Rodriguez-Carres, M.; Kuo, A.; Wasmann, C.c.; Grimwood, J.; Schmutz, J.; Taga, M.; White, G.J.; Zhuo, S.; Schwartz, D.C.; Freitag, M.; Ma, L.-J.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Henrissat, B.; Cutinho, P.M.; Nelson, D.R.; Straney, D.; Napoli, C.A.; Baker, B.M.; Gribskov, M.; Rep, M.; Kroken, S.; Molnar, I.; Rensing, C.; Kennell, J.C.; Zamora, J.; Farman, M.L.; Selker, E.U.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H.; Pangilinan, J.; Lindquist, E.; Lamers, C.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Geiser, D.M.; Covert, S.F.; Temporini, S.; VanEtten, H.D.

    2009-04-20

    The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani), is a member of a group of .50 species known as the"Fusarium solani species complex". Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on .100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this complex, N. haematococca mating population VI (MPVI). Several genes controlling the ability of individual isolates of this species to colonize specific habitats are located on supernumerary chromosomes. Optical mapping revealed that the sequenced isolate has 17 chromosomes ranging from 530 kb to 6.52 Mb and that the physical size of the genome, 54.43 Mb, and the number of predicted genes, 15,707, are among the largest reported for ascomycetes. Two classes of genes have contributed to gene expansion: specific genes that are not found in other fungi including its closest sequenced relative, Fusarium graminearum; and genes that commonly occur as single copies in other fungi but are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca MPVI. Some of these additional genes appear to have resulted from gene duplication events, while others may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. The supernumerary nature of three chromosomes, 14, 15, and 17, was confirmed by their absence in pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments of some isolates and by demonstrating that these isolates lacked chromosome-specific sequences found on the ends of these chromosomes. These supernumerary chromosomes contain more repeat sequences, are enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content in comparison to the other chromosomes. Although the origin(s) of the extra genes and the supernumerary chromosomes is not known, the gene expansion and its large genome size are consistent with this species' diverse range of habitats. Furthermore, the presence of unique genes on supernumerary chromosomes might account for individual isolates having different environmental niches.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes.

    PubMed

    Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Weisburg, W G; Tordoff, L A; Fraser, G J; Hespell, R B; Stanton, T B; Zablen, L; Mandelco, L; Woese, C R

    1991-10-01

    The 16S rRNA sequences were determined for species of Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, Leptonema, and Serpula, using a modified Sanger method of direct RNA sequencing. Analysis of aligned 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. The first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. The first treponeme subgroup consisted of Treponema pallidum, Treponema phagedenis, Treponema denticola, a thermophilic spirochete strain, and two species of Spirochaeta, Spirochaeta zuelzerae and Spirochaeta stenostrepta, with an average interspecies similarity of 89.9%. The second treponeme subgroup contained Treponema bryantii, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema saccharophilum, Treponema succinifaciens, and rumen strain CA, with an average interspecies similarity of 86.2%. The average interspecies similarity between the two treponeme subgroups was 84.2%. The division of the treponemes into two subgroups was verified by single-base signature analysis. The second spirochete group contained Spirochaeta aurantia, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirochaeta litoralis, and Spirochaeta isovalerica, with an average similarity of 87.4%. The Spirochaeta group was related to the treponeme group, with an average similarity of 81.9%. The third spirochete group contained borrelias, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia anserina, Borrelia hermsii, and a rabbit tick strain. The borrelias formed a tight phylogenetic cluster, with average similarity of 97%. THe borrelia group shared a common branch with the Spirochaeta group and was closer to this group than to the treponemes. A single spirochete strain isolated fromt the shew constituted the fourth group. The fifth group was composed of strains of Serpula (Treponema) hyodysenteriae and Serpula (Treponema) innocens. The two species of this group were closely related, with a similarity of greater than 99%. Leptonema illini, Leptospira biflexa, and Leptospira interrogans formed the sixth and most deeply branching group. The average similarity within this group was 83.2%. This study represents the first demonstration that pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species are phylogenetically related. The division of the spirochetes into six major phylogenetic clusters was defined also by sequence signature elements. These signature analyses supported the conclusion that the spirochetes represent a monophylectic bacterial phylum. PMID:1917844

  14. [On the problem og higher fungi origin: Florideae hypothesis].

    PubMed

    Zmitrovich, I V

    2001-01-01

    The history and current state of the hypothesis of the origin of higher fungi (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes) and red algae from the common ancestor (Florideae) were analysed. Initially the hypothesis was based on similarity of their vegetative and generative structures (Sachs, 1874; Dodge, 1914; Chadefaund, 1953, 1972, etc.), but later it was confirmed by ultrastructural data (Demoulin, 1974; Kohlmeyer, 1975). It appears to be very useful for the study of the development of terrestrial flora (Church, 1921; Kohlemeyer, Kohlmeyer, 1979; Atsatt, 1988) and regularities in morphological evolution of higher fungi (Corner, 1964, 1970; Chadefaud, 1960, 1982, 1984). Description of the order Spathulosporales (Kohlmeyer, 1973), combining the characters of Ascomycetes and parasitic Florideae, was one of the most important fact leading to the wide recognition of the hypothesis in 1970-80s (Cavalier-Smith, 1978; Taylor, 1978; Dodge, 1980; Hawksworth, 1982; Goff, 1983; Coff, Coleman, 1985). Today, however, Florideae hypothesis is not confirmed by molecular data and replaced by alternative hypothesis of Eumycota origin. Summarizing data on molecular systematic of fungi, one could affirm with confidence: 1). Chitincontaining fungi are closer to multicellular animals and green plants than to Rhodophyta; 2). Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta are monophyletic group; 3). There is no single-valued molecular data on taxonomic distance between higher fungi, Chytridiomycetes; Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Metazoa. Thus, the current data could not testify against Florideae hypothesis. It is possible to adjust them with the idea of B.M. Kozo-Polyansky (1927) about existence of "Chloroflorodeae" group that is original for terrestrial flora; the hypothesis about closeness of Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta, as well as Chlorophyta and Eumycota, does not contradict molecular data (Stiller, Hall, 1997). The author believes that we need molecular study of the whole "stem" of chlorobionta, especially groups that are close to its basis. It will will help to understand the relationships between Rhodophyta, giant conglomeration of "green algae", chitin-containing fungi, Prasinophyceae and different groups of zoomastigot with maximal resolution--the level of orders or groups of orders. Only such investigation could provide the material for molecular support of phylogenetic constructions. Up to moment Florideae hypothesis is able to exist together with the other ideas. PMID:11569142

  15. Novel Root-Fungus Symbiosis in Ericaceae: Sheathed Ericoid Mycorrhiza Formed by a Hitherto Undescribed Basidiomycete with Affinities to Trechisporales

    PubMed Central

    Vohník, Martin; Sadowsky, Jesse J.; Kohout, Petr; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Nestby, Rolf; Kola?ík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ericaceae (the heath family) are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed ‘sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza’, discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity) to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet remain undetected when subject to amplification by ‘universal’ primers. The lignocellulolytic assay suggests the basidiomycete may confer host adaptations distinct from those provisioned by the so far investigated ascomycetous ErM fungi. PMID:22761814

  16. Novel root-fungus symbiosis in Ericaceae: sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza formed by a hitherto undescribed basidiomycete with affinities to Trechisporales.

    PubMed

    Vohník, Martin; Sadowsky, Jesse J; Kohout, Petr; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Nestby, Rolf; Kola?ík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ericaceae (the heath family) are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed 'sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza', discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity) to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet remain undetected when subject to amplification by 'universal' primers. The lignocellulolytic assay suggests the basidiomycete may confer host adaptations distinct from those provisioned by the so far investigated ascomycetous ErM fungi. PMID:22761814

  17. Sunlight-Exposed Biofilm Microbial Communities Are Naturally Resistant to Chernobyl Ionizing-Radiation Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general diversity patterns, despite increased mutation levels at the single-OTU level. Therefore, biofilm communities growing in sunlight exposed substrates are capable of coping with increased mutation rates and appear pre-adapted to levels of ionizing radiation in Chernobyl due to their natural adaptation to periodical desiccation and ambient UV radiation. PMID:21765911

  18. When CO2 kills: effects of magmatic CO2 flux on belowground biota at Mammoth Mountain, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, J.; Waldrop, M. P.; Mangan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The biomass, composition, and activity of the soil microbial community is tightly linked to the composition of the aboveground plant community. Microorganisms in aerobic surface soils, both free-living and plant-associated are largely structured by the availability of growth limiting carbon (C) substrates derived from plant inputs. When C availability declines following a catastrophic event such as the death of large swaths of trees, the number and composition of microorganisms in soil would be expected to decline and/or shift to unique microorganisms that have better survival strategies under starvation conditions. High concentrations of volcanic cold CO2 emanating from Mammoth Mountain near Horseshoe Lake on the southwestern edge of Long Valley Caldera, CA has resulted in a large kill zone of tree species, and associated soil microbial species. In July 2010, we assessed belowground microbial community structure in response to disturbance of the plant community along a gradient of soil CO2 concentrations grading from <0.6% (ambient forest) to >80% (no plant life). We employed a microbial community fingerprinting technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) to determine changes in overall community composition for three broad functional groups: fungi, bacteria, and archaea. To evaluate changes in ectomycorrhizal fungal associates along the CO2 gradient, we harvested root tips from lodgepole pine seedlings collected in unaffected forest as well as at the leading edge of colonization into the kill zone. We also measured soil C fractions (dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C, and non-extractable C) at 10 and 30 cm depth, as well as NH4+. Not surprisingly, our results indicate a precipitous decline in soil C, and microbial C with increasing soil CO2; phospholipid fatty acid analysis in conjunction with community fingerprinting indicate both a loss of fungal diversity as well as a dramatic decrease in biomass as one proceeds further into the kill zone. This observation was concomitant with a relative increase in bacterial and archaeal contributions to microbial community structure. Root tip analyses among lodgepole seedlings recolonizing the kill zone area demonstrated a significant reduction in the overall diversity of fungal symbionts, as well as a distinct shift in fungal assemblages. In particular, within elevated CO2 areas, we observed a high infection level for the ascomycetous fungi, Wilcoxina spp., which appear particularly well-adapted for colonization in disturbed environments. It remains unclear whether dominance by ascomycetes among seedlings in elevated CO2 areas represents a coordinated shift orchestrated by the plant in response to physiological stress, or whether these fungi are simply more opportunistic than their basdiomycetous counterparts. Our results demonstrate the impact of large-scale disturbances on plant-microbial interactions and belowground processes in previously forested ecosystems.

  19. Surface ?-1,3-Glucan Facilitates Fungal Stealth Infection by Interfering with Innate Immunity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Kouzai, Yusuke; Minami, Eiichi; Yano, Shigekazu; Koga, Hironori; Meshi, Tetsuo; Nishimura, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Plants evoke innate immunity against microbial challenges upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as fungal cell wall chitin. Nevertheless, pathogens may circumvent the host PAMP-triggered immunity. We previously reported that the ascomycete Magnaporthe oryzae, a famine-causing rice pathogen, masks cell wall surfaces with ?-1,3-glucan during invasion. Here, we show that the surface ?-1,3-glucan is indispensable for the successful infection of the fungus by interfering with the plant's defense mechanisms. The ?-1,3-glucan synthase gene MgAGS1 was not essential for infectious structure development but was required for infection in M. oryzae. Lack or degradation of surface ?-1,3-glucan increased fungal susceptibility towards chitinase, suggesting the protective role of ?-1,3-glucan against plants' antifungal enzymes during infection. Furthermore, rice plants secreting bacterial ?-1,3-glucanase (AGL-rice) showed strong resistance not only to M. oryzae but also to the phylogenetically distant ascomycete Cochlioborus miyabeanus and the polyphagous basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani; the histocytochemical analysis of the latter two revealed that ?-1,3-glucan also concealed cell wall chitin in an infection-specific manner. Treatment with ?-1,3-glucanase in vitro caused fragmentation of infectious hyphae in R. solani but not in M. oryzae or C. miyabeanus, indicating that ?-1,3-glucan is also involved in maintaining infectious structures in some fungi. Importantly, rapid defense responses were evoked (a few hours after inoculation) in the AGL-rice inoculated with M. oryzae, C. miyabeanus and R. solani as well as in non-transgenic rice inoculated with the ags1 mutant. Taken together, our results suggest that ?-1,3-glucan protected the fungal cell wall from degradative enzymes secreted by plants even from the pre-penetration stage and interfered with the release of PAMPs to delay innate immune defense responses. Because ?-1,3-glucan is nondegradable in plants, it is reasonable that many fungal plant pathogens utilize ?-1,3-glucan in the innate immune evasion mechanism and some in maintaining the structures. PMID:22927818

  20. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    PubMed

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Burkholderia spp., Serratia spp., Staphylococcus spp., among others, have been isolated from grapes but do not have the ability to grow in wines. Saprophytic moulds, like Botrytis cinerea, causing grey rot, or Aspergillus spp., possibly producing ochratoxin, are only active in the vineyard, although their metabolites may affect wine quality during grape processing. The impact of damaged grapes in yeast ecology has been underestimated mostly because of inaccurate grape sampling. Injured berries hidden in apparently sound bunches explain the recovery of a higher number of species when whole bunches are picked. Grape health status is the main factor affecting the microbial ecology of grapes, increasing both microbial numbers and species diversity. Therefore, the influence of abiotic (e.g. climate, rain, hail), biotic (e.g. insects, birds, phytopathogenic and saprophytic moulds) and viticultural (e.g. fungicides) factors is dependent on their primary damaging effect. PMID:22189021