These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

Background The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. Results We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed sequence tag collection. Similar to higher eukaryotes, the P. anserina transcription/splicing machinery generates numerous non-conventional transcripts. Comparison of the P. anserina genome and orthologous gene set with the one of its close relatives, Neurospora crassa, shows that synteny is poorly conserved, the main result of evolution being gene shuffling in the same chromosome. The P. anserina genome contains fewer repeated sequences and has evolved new genes by duplication since its separation from N. crassa, despite the presence of the repeat induced point mutation mechanism that mutates duplicated sequences. We also provide evidence that frequent gene loss took place in the lineages leading to P. anserina and N. crassa. P. anserina contains a large and highly specialized set of genes involved in utilization of natural carbon sources commonly found in its natural biotope. It includes genes potentially involved in lignin degradation and efficient cellulose breakdown. Conclusion The features of the P. anserina genome indicate a highly dynamic evolution since the divergence of P. anserina and N. crassa, leading to the ability of the former to use specific complex carbon sources that match its needs in its natural biotope. PMID:18460219

Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Segurens, Beatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Veronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Dequard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Veronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne GJ; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad EL; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarre, Berangere; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

2008-01-01

2

Heterologous production of cellobiose dehydrogenases from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina and their effect on saccharification of wheat straw.  

PubMed

Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular glycosylated haemoflavoenzymes produced by many different wood-degrading and phytopathogenic fungi. Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase genes are recurrently discovered by genome sequencing projects in various phylogenetically distinct fungi. The genomes from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina were screened for candidate cdh genes, and one and three putative gene models were evidenced, respectively. Two putative cdh genes were selected and successfully expressed for the first time in Aspergillus niger. CDH activity was measured for both constructions (CDHcc and CDHpa), and both recombinant CDHs were purified to homogeneity and subsequently characterised. Kinetic constants were determined for several carbohydrates including ?-1,4-linked di- and oligosaccharides. Optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and 5 for CDHcc and 65-70 °C and 6 for CDHpa. Both CDHs showed a broad range of pH stability between 4 and 8. The effect of both CDHs on saccharification of micronized wheat straw by an industrial Trichoderma reesei secretome was determined. The addition of each CDH systematically decreased the release of total reducing sugars, but to different extents and according to the CDH concentration. Analytical methods were carried out to quantify the release of glucose, xylose and gluconic acid. An increase of glucose and xylose was measured at a low CDHcc concentration. At moderated and high CDHcc and CDHpa concentrations, glucose was severely reduced with a concomitant increase of gluconic acid. In conclusion, these results give new insights into the physical and chemical parameters and diversity of basidiomycetous and ascomycetous CDHs. These findings also demonstrated that CDH drastically influenced the saccharification on a natural substrate, and thus, CDH origin, concentration and potential enzymatic partners should be carefully considered in future artificial secretomes for biofuel applications. PMID:22940800

Turbe-Doan, Annick; Arfi, Yonathan; Record, Eric; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Levasseur, Anthony

2013-06-01

3

Age-Related Cellular Copper Dynamics in the Fungal Ageing Model Podospora anserina and in Ageing Human Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous investigations an impact of cellular copper homeostasis on ageing of the ascomycete Podospora anserina has been demonstrated. Here we provide new data indicating that mitochondria play a major role in this process. Determination of copper in the cytosolic fraction using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis and eGfp reporter gene studies indicate an age-related increase of cytosolic copper

Christian Q. Scheckhuber; Jürgen Grief; Emmanuelle Boilan; Karin Luce; Florence Debacq-Chainiaux; Claudia Rittmeyer; Ricardo Gredilla; Bernd O. Kolbesen; Olivier Toussaint; Heinz D. Osiewacz; Mikhail V. Blagosklonny

2009-01-01

4

Spore-killing meiotic drive factors in a natural population of the fungus Podospora anserina.  

PubMed Central

In fungi, meiotic drive is observed as spore killing. In the secondarily homothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina it is characterized by the abortion of two of the four spores in the ascus. We have identified seven different types of meiotic drive elements (Spore killers). Among 99 isolates from nature, six of these meiotic drive elements occurred in a local population. Spore killers comprise 23% of the natural population of P. anserina in Wageningen, The Netherlands, sampled from 1991 to 1997. One Spore-killer type was also found in a French strain dating from 1937. All other isolates found so far are sensitive to spore killing. All seven Spore killer types differ in the percentage of asci that show killing and in their mutual interactions. Interactions among Spore killer types showed either mutual resistance or dominant epistasis. Most killer elements could be assigned to linkage group III but are not tightly linked to the centromere. PMID:11014809

van der Gaag, M; Debets, A J; Oosterhof, J; Slakhorst, M; Thijssen, J A; Hoekstra, R F

2000-01-01

5

The Transcriptional Response to Nonself in the Fungus Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

In fungi, heterokaryon incompatibility is a nonself recognition process occurring when filaments of different isolates of the same species fuse. Compatibility is controlled by so-called het loci and fusion of strains of unlike het genotype triggers a complex incompatibility reaction that leads to the death of the fusion cell. Herein, we analyze the transcriptional changes during the incompatibility reaction in Podospora anserina. The incompatibility response was found to be associated with a massive transcriptional reprogramming: 2231 genes were up-regulated by a factor 2 or more during incompatibility. In turn, 2441 genes were down-regulated. HET, NACHT, and HeLo domains previously found to be involved in the control of heterokaryon incompatibility were enriched in the up-regulated gene set. In addition, incompatibility was characterized by an up-regulation of proteolytic and other hydrolytic activities, of secondary metabolism clusters and toxins and effector-like proteins. The up-regulated set was found to be enriched for proteins lacking orthologs in other species and chromosomal distribution of the up-regulated genes was uneven with up-regulated genes residing preferentially in genomic islands and on chromosomes IV and V. There was a significant overlap between regulated genes during incompatibility in P. anserina and Neurospora crassa, indicating similarities in the incompatibility responses in these two species. Globally, this study illustrates that the expression changes occurring during cell fusion incompatibility in P. anserina are in several aspects reminiscent of those described in host-pathogen or symbiotic interactions in other fungal species. PMID:23589521

Bidard, Frederique; Clave, Corinne; Saupe, Sven J.

2013-01-01

6

Insights into Exo- and Endoglucanase Activities of Family 6 Glycoside Hydrolases from Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete Podospora anserina is a coprophilous fungus that grows at late stages on droppings of herbivores. Its genome encodes a large diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Among them, four genes encode glycoside hydrolases from family 6 (GH6), the members of which comprise putative endoglucanases and exoglucanases, some of them exerting important functions for biomass degradation in fungi. Therefore, this family was selected for functional analysis. Three of the enzymes, P. anserina Cel6A (PaCel6A), PaCel6B, and PaCel6C, were functionally expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. All three GH6 enzymes hydrolyzed crystalline and amorphous cellulose but were inactive on hydroxyethyl cellulose, mannan, galactomannan, xyloglucan, arabinoxylan, arabinan, xylan, and pectin. PaCel6A had a catalytic efficiency on cellotetraose comparable to that of Trichoderma reesei Cel6A (TrCel6A), but PaCel6B and PaCel6C were clearly less efficient. PaCel6A was the enzyme with the highest stability at 45°C, while PaCel6C was the least stable enzyme, losing more than 50% of its activity after incubation at temperatures above 30°C for 24 h. In contrast to TrCel6A, all three studied P. anserina GH6 cellulases were stable over a wide range of pHs and conserved high activity at pH values of up to 9. Each enzyme displayed a distinct substrate and product profile, highlighting different modes of action, with PaCel6A being the enzyme most similar to TrCel6A. PaCel6B was the only enzyme with higher specific activity on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) than on Avicel and showed lower processivity than the others. Structural modeling predicts an open catalytic cleft, suggesting that PaCel6B is an endoglucanase. PMID:23645193

Poidevin, Laetitia; Feliu, Julia; Doan, Annick; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Bey, Mathieu; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric

2013-01-01

7

A Network of HMG-box Transcription Factors Regulates Sexual Cycle in the Fungus Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

High-mobility group (HMG) B proteins are eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins characterized by the HMG-box functional motif. These transcription factors play a pivotal role in global genomic functions and in the control of genes involved in specific developmental or metabolic pathways. The filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina contains 12 HMG-box genes. Of these, four have been previously characterized; three are mating-type genes that control fertilization and development of the fruit-body, whereas the last one encodes a factor involved in mitochondrial DNA stability. Systematic deletion analysis of the eight remaining uncharacterized HMG-box genes indicated that none were essential for viability, but that seven were involved in the sexual cycle. Two HMG-box genes display striking features. PaHMG5, an ortholog of SpSte11 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is a pivotal activator of mating-type genes in P. anserina, whereas PaHMG9 is a repressor of several phenomena specific to the stationary phase, most notably hyphal anastomoses. Transcriptional analyses of HMG-box genes in HMG-box deletion strains indicated that PaHMG5 is at the hub of a network of several HMG-box factors that regulate mating-type genes and mating-type target genes. Genetic analyses revealed that this network also controls fertility genes that are not regulated by mating-type transcription factors. This study points to the critical role of HMG-box members in sexual reproduction in fungi, as 11 out of 12 members were involved in the sexual cycle in P. anserina. PaHMG5 and SpSte11 are conserved transcriptional regulators of mating-type genes, although P. anserina and S. pombe diverged 550 million years ago. Two HMG-box genes, SOX9 and its upstream regulator SRY, also play an important role in sex determination in mammals. The P. anserina and S. pombe mating-type genes and their upstream regulatory factor form a module of HMG-box genes analogous to the SRY/SOX9 module, revealing a commonality of sex regulation in animals and fungi. PMID:23935511

Ait Benkhali, Jinane; Coppin, Evelyne; Brun, Sylvain; Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Martin, Tom; Dixelius, Christina; Lazar, Noureddine; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Debuchy, Robert

2013-01-01

8

Age-Related Cellular Copper Dynamics in the Fungal Ageing Model Podospora anserina and in Ageing Human Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

In previous investigations an impact of cellular copper homeostasis on ageing of the ascomycete Podospora anserina has been demonstrated. Here we provide new data indicating that mitochondria play a major role in this process. Determination of copper in the cytosolic fraction using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis and eGfp reporter gene studies indicate an age-related increase of cytosolic copper levels. We show that components of the mitochondrial matrix (i.e. eGFP targeted to mitochondria) become released from the organelle during ageing. Decreasing the accessibility of mitochondrial copper in P. anserina via targeting a copper metallothionein to the mitochondrial matrix was found to result in a switch from a copper-dependent cytochrome-c oxidase to a copper-independent alternative oxidase type of respiration and results in lifespan extension. In addition, we demonstrate that increased copper concentrations in the culture medium lead to the appearance of senescence biomarkers in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). Significantly, expression of copper-regulated genes is induced during in vitro ageing in medium devoid of excess copper suggesting that cytosolic copper levels also increase during senescence of HDFs. These data suggest that the identified molecular pathway of age-dependent copper dynamics may not be restricted to P. anserina but may be conserved from lower eukaryotes to humans. PMID:19305496

Scheckhuber, Christian Q.; Grief, Jurgen; Boilan, Emmanuelle; Luce, Karin; Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Rittmeyer, Claudia; Gredilla, Ricardo; Kolbesen, Bernd O.; Toussaint, Olivier; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

2009-01-01

9

Cello-oligosaccharide oxidation reveals differences between two lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (family GH61) from Podospora anserina.  

PubMed

The genome of the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina encodes 33 different genes encoding copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) from glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61). In this study, two of these enzymes (P. anserina GH61A [PaGH61A] and PaGH61B), which both harbored a family 1 carbohydrate binding module, were successfully produced in Pichia pastoris. Synergistic cooperation between PaGH61A or PaGH61B with the cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on cellulose resulted in the formation of oxidized and nonoxidized cello-oligosaccharides. A striking difference between PaGH61A and PaGH61B was observed through the identification of the products, among which were doubly and triply oxidized cellodextrins, which were released only by the combination of PaGH61B with CDH. The mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of these oxidized products could be consistent with oxidation at the C-6 position with a geminal diol group. The different properties of PaGH61A and PaGH61B and their effect on the interaction with CDH are discussed in regard to the proposed in vivo function of the CDH/GH61 enzyme system in oxidative cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23124232

Bey, Mathieu; Zhou, Simeng; Poidevin, Laetitia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude

2013-01-01

10

Cello-Oligosaccharide Oxidation Reveals Differences between Two Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases (Family GH61) from Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

The genome of the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina encodes 33 different genes encoding copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) from glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61). In this study, two of these enzymes (P. anserina GH61A [PaGH61A] and PaGH61B), which both harbored a family 1 carbohydrate binding module, were successfully produced in Pichia pastoris. Synergistic cooperation between PaGH61A or PaGH61B with the cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on cellulose resulted in the formation of oxidized and nonoxidized cello-oligosaccharides. A striking difference between PaGH61A and PaGH61B was observed through the identification of the products, among which were doubly and triply oxidized cellodextrins, which were released only by the combination of PaGH61B with CDH. The mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of these oxidized products could be consistent with oxidation at the C-6 position with a geminal diol group. The different properties of PaGH61A and PaGH61B and their effect on the interaction with CDH are discussed in regard to the proposed in vivo function of the CDH/GH61 enzyme system in oxidative cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23124232

Bey, Mathieu; Zhou, Simeng; Poidevin, Laetitia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude

2013-01-01

11

Comparative analyses of Podospora anserina secretomes reveal a large array of lignocellulose-active enzymes.  

PubMed

The genome of the coprophilous fungus Podospora anserina harbors a large and highly diverse set of putative lignocellulose-acting enzymes. In this study, we investigated the enzymatic diversity of a broad range of P. anserina secretomes induced by various carbon sources (dextrin, glucose, xylose, arabinose, lactose, cellobiose, saccharose, Avicel, Solka-floc, birchwood xylan, wheat straw, maize bran, and sugar beet pulp (SBP)). Compared with the Trichoderma reesei enzymatic cocktail, P. anserina secretomes displayed similar cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase activities and greater arabinofuranosidase, arabinanase, and galactanase activities. The secretomes were further tested for their capacity to supplement a T. reesei cocktail. Four of them improved significantly the saccharification yield of steam-exploded wheat straw up to 48 %. Fine analysis of the P. anserina secretomes produced with Avicel and SBP using proteomics revealed a large array of CAZymes with a high number of GH6 and GH7 cellulases, CE1 esterases, GH43 arabinofuranosidases, and AA1 laccase-like multicopper oxidases. Moreover, a preponderance of AA9 (formerly GH61) was exclusively produced in the SBP condition. This study brings additional insights into the P. anserina enzymatic machinery and will facilitate the selection of promising targets for the development of future biorefineries. PMID:24695830

Poidevin, Laetitia; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Levasseur, Anthony; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Chevret, Didier; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; Heiss-Blanquet, Senta; Record, Eric

2014-09-01

12

Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Is a Substrate Recognized by Two Metacaspases of Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

The two metacaspases MCA1 and MCA2 of the fungal aging model organism Podospora anserina (PaMCA1 and PaMCA2, respectively) have previously been demonstrated to be involved in the control of programmed cell death (PCD) and life span. In order to identify specific pathways and components which are controlled by the activity of these enzymes, we set out to characterize them further. Heterologous overexpression in Escherichia coli of the two metacaspase genes resulted in the production of proteins which aggregate and form inclusion bodies from which the active protein has been recovered via refolding in appropriate buffers. The renaturated proteins are characterized by an arginine-specific activity and are active in caspase-like self-maturation leading to the generation of characteristic small protein fragments. Both activities are dependent on the presence of calcium. Incubation of the two metacaspases with recombinant poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a known substrate of mammalian caspases, led to the identification of PARP as a substrate of the two P. anserina proteases. Using double mutants in which P. anserina Parp (PaParp) is overexpressed and PaMca1 is either overexpressed or deleted, we provide evidence for in vivo degradation of PaPARP by PaMCA1. These results support the idea that the substrate profiles of caspases and metacaspases are at least partially overlapping. Moreover, they link PCD and DNA maintenance in the complex network of molecular pathways involved in aging and life span control. PMID:23584991

Strobel, Ingmar

2013-01-01

13

Characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 31 ?-glucosidase involved in starch utilization in Podospora anserina.  

PubMed

For Podospora anserina, several studies of cellulolytic enzymes have been established, but characteristics of amylolytic enzymes are not well understood. When P. anserina grew in starch as carbon source, it accumulated glucose, nigerose, and maltose in the culture supernatant. At the same time, the fungus secreted ?-glucosidase (PAG). PAG was purified from the culture supernatant, and was found to convert soluble starch to nigerose and maltose. The recombinant enzyme with C-terminal His-tag (rPAG) was produced with Pichia pastoris. Most rPAG produced under standard conditions lost its affinity for nickel-chelating resin, but the affinity was improved by the use of a buffered medium (pH 8.0) supplemented with casamino acid and a reduction of the cultivation time. rPAG suffered limited proteolysis at the same site as the original PAG. A site-directed mutagenesis study indicated that proteolysis had no effect on enzyme characteristics. A kinetic study indicated that the PAG possessed significant transglycosylation activity. PMID:24096679

Song, Kyung-Mo; Okuyama, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Mori, Haruhide; Kimura, Atsuo

2013-01-01

14

Sexual transmission of the [Het-s] prion leads to meiotic drive in Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

In the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, two phenomena are associated with polymorphism at the het-s locus, vegetative incompatibility and ascospore abortion. Two het-s alleles occur naturally, het-s and het-S. The het-s encoded protein is a prion propagating as a self-perpetuating amyloid aggregate. When prion-infected [Het-s] hyphae fuse with [Het-S] hyphae, the resulting heterokaryotic cells necrotize. [Het-s] and [Het-S] strains are sexually compatible. When, however, a female [Het-s] crosses with [Het-S], a significant percentage of het-S spores abort, in a way similar to spore killing in Neurospora and Podospora. We report here that sexual transmission of the [Het-s] prion after nonisogamous mating in the reproductive cycle of Podospora is responsible for the killing of het-S spores. Progeny of crosses between isogenic strains with distinct wild-type or introduced, ectopic het-s/S alleles were cytologically and genetically analyzed. The effect of het-s/S overexpression, ectopic het-s/S expression, absence of het-s expression, loss of [Het-s] prion infection, and the distribution patterns of HET-s/S-GFP proteins were categorized during meiosis and ascospore formation. This study unveiled a het-S spore-killing system that is governed by dosage of and interaction between the [Het-s] prion and the HET-S protein. Due to this property of the [Het-s] prion, the het-s allele acts as a meiotic drive element favoring maintenance of the prion-forming allele in natural populations. PMID:12719532

Dalstra, Henk J. P.; Swart, Klaas; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Saupe, Sven J.; Hoekstra, Rolf F.

2003-01-01

15

Structural and biochemical analyses of glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 26 ?-(1,4)-mannanases from Podospora anserina reveal differences upon manno-oligosaccharide catalysis.  

PubMed

The microbial deconstruction of the plant cell wall is a key biological process that is of increasing importance with the development of a sustainable biofuel industry. The glycoside hydrolase families GH5 (PaMan5A) and GH26 (PaMan26A) endo-?-1,4-mannanases from the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina contribute to the enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, P. anserina mannanases were further subjected to detailed comparative analysis of their substrate specificities, active site organization, and transglycosylation capacity. Although PaMan5A displays a classical mode of action, PaMan26A revealed an atypical hydrolysis pattern with the release of mannotetraose and mannose from mannopentaose resulting from a predominant binding mode involving the -4 subsite. The crystal structures of PaMan5A and PaMan26A were solved at 1.4 and 2.85 ? resolution, respectively. Analysis of the PaMan26A structure supported strong interaction with substrate at the -4 subsite mediated by two aromatic residues Trp-244 and Trp-245. The PaMan26A structure appended to its family 35 carbohydrate binding module revealed a short and proline-rich rigid linker that anchored together the catalytic and the binding modules. PMID:23558681

Couturier, Marie; Roussel, Alain; Rosengren, Anna; Leone, Philippe; Stålbrand, Henrik; Berrin, Jean-Guy

2013-05-17

16

Identification of a Hypothetical Protein from Podospora anserina as a Nitroalkane Oxidase†  

PubMed Central

The flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) from Fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Structurally, the enzyme is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. To date no enzymes other than that from F. oxysporum have been annotated an NAOs. To identify additional potential NAOs, the available database was searched for enzymes in which the active site residues Asp402, Arg409, and Ser276 were conserved. Of the several fungal enzymes identified in this fashion, PODANSg2158 from Podospora anserina was selected for expression and characterization. The recombinant enzyme is a flavoprotein with activity on nitroalkanes comparable to the F. oxysporum NAO, although the substrate specificity is somewhat different. Asp399, Arg406, and Ser273 in PODANSg2158 correspond to the active site triad in F. oxysporum NAO. The kcat/Km-pH profile with nitroethane shows a pKa of 5.9 that is assigned to Asp399 as the active site base. Mutation of Asp399 to asparagine decreases the kcat/Km value for nitroethane over two orders of magnitude. The R406K and S373A mutations decrease this kinetic parameter by 64 and 3-fold, respectively. The structure of PODANSg2158 has been determined at a resolution of 2.0 Å, confirming its identification as an NAO. PMID:20481475

Tormos, Jose R.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Daubner, S. Colette; Hart, P. John; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

2010-01-01

17

Identification of a Hypothetical Protein from Podospora anserina as a Nitroalkane Oxidase  

SciTech Connect

The flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) from Fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Structurally, the enzyme is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. To date no enzymes other than that from F. oxysporum have been annotated as NAOs. To identify additional potential NAOs, the available database was searched for enzymes in which the active site residues Asp402, Arg409, and Ser276 were conserved. Of the several fungal enzymes identified in this fashion, PODANSg2158 from Podospora anserina was selected for expression and characterization. The recombinant enzyme is a flavoprotein with activity on nitroalkanes comparable to the F. oxysporum NAO, although the substrate specificity is somewhat different. Asp399, Arg406, and Ser273 in PODANSg2158 correspond to the active site triad in F. oxysporum NAO. The k{sub cat}/K{sub M}-pH profile with nitroethane shows a pK{sub a} of 5.9 that is assigned to Asp399 as the active site base. Mutation of Asp399 to asparagine decreases the k{sub cat}/K{sub M} value for nitroethane over 2 orders of magnitude. The R406K and S373A mutations decrease this kinetic parameter by 64- and 3-fold, respectively. The structure of PODANSg2158 has been determined at a resolution of 2.0 {angstrom}, confirming its identification as an NAO.

Tormos, Jose R.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Daubner, S. Colette; Hart, P. John; Fitzpatrick, Paul F. (Texas-HSC); (St. Mary)

2010-08-23

18

Use of a linear plasmid containing telomeres as an efficient vector for direct cloning in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.  

PubMed

In Podospora anserina a linear plasmid with telomeric ends behaves as an artificial acentric minichromosome. Transformation is at least 100 times more efficient than with integrative vectors. Genomic DNA was inserted in this plasmid in vitro and the mixture used to transform a leu1-1 strain. Many fungal clones containing the leu1 gene as a genomic insert in the linear plasmid were identified. The leu1 gene was rescued as a circular plasmid in Escherichia coli demonstrating that a direct cloning procedure can be applied for the fungus P. anserina. The conservation of telomeric sequences among filamentous fungi suggests that a telomere-based linear plasmid could provide a general cloning vector for filamentous fungi. PMID:9806803

Barreau, C; Iskandar, M; Turcq, B; Javerzat, J P

1998-10-01

19

Does autophagy mediate age-dependent effect of dietary restriction responses in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina?  

PubMed

Autophagy is a well-conserved catabolic process, involving the degradation of a cell's own components through the lysosomal/vacuolar machinery. Autophagy is typically induced by nutrient starvation and has a role in nutrient recycling, cellular differentiation, degradation and programmed cell death. Another common response in eukaryotes is the extension of lifespan through dietary restriction (DR). We studied a link between DR and autophagy in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, a multicellular model organism for ageing studies and mitochondrial deterioration. While both carbon and nitrogen restriction extends lifespan in P. anserina, the size of the effect varied with the amount and type of restricted nutrient. Natural genetic variation for the DR response exists. Whereas a switch to carbon restriction up to halfway through the lifetime resulted in extreme lifespan extension for wild-type P. anserina, all autophagy-deficient strains had a shorter time window in which ageing could be delayed by DR. Under nitrogen limitation, only PaAtg1 and PaAtg8 mediate the effect of lifespan extension; the other autophagy-deficient mutants PaPspA and PaUth1 had a similar response as wild-type. Our results thus show that the ageing process impinges on the DR response and that this at least in part involves the genetic regulation of autophagy. PMID:24864315

van Diepeningen, Anne D; Engelmoer, Daniël J P; Sellem, Carole H; Huberts, Daphne H E W; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Zwaan, Bas J; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Debets, Alfons J M

2014-07-01

20

A Non-Mendelian MAPK-Generated Hereditary Unit Controlled by a Second MAPK Pathway in Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

The Podospora anserina PaMpk1 MAP kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway can generate a cytoplasmic and infectious element resembling prions. When present in the cells, this C element causes the crippled growth (CG) cell degeneration. CG results from the inappropriate autocatalytic activation of the PaMpk1 MAPK pathway during growth, whereas this cascade normally signals stationary phase. Little is known about the control of such prion-like hereditary units involved in regulatory inheritance. Here, we show that another MAPK pathway, PaMpk2, is crucial at every stage of the fungus life cycle, in particular those controlled by PaMpk1 during stationary phase, which includes the generation of C. Inactivation of the third P. anserina MAPK pathway, PaMpk3, has no effect on the development of the fungus. Mutants of MAPK, MAPK kinase, and MAPK kinase kinase of the PaMpk2 pathway are unable to present CG. This inability likely relies upon an incorrect activation of PaMpk1, although this MAPK is normally phosphorylated in the mutants. In PaMpk2 null mutants, hyphae are abnormal and PaMpk1 is mislocalized. Correspondingly, stationary phase differentiations controlled by PaMpk1 are defective in the mutants of the PaMpk2 cascade. Constitutive activation of the PaMpk2 pathway mimics in many ways its inactivation, including an effect on PaMpk1 localization. Analysis of double and triple mutants inactivated for two or all three MAPK genes undercover new growth and differentiation phenotypes, suggesting overlapping roles. Our data underscore the complex regulation of a prion-like element in a model organism. PMID:22426880

Lalucque, Herve; Malagnac, Fabienne; Brun, Sylvain; Kicka, Sebastien; Silar, Philippe

2012-01-01

21

Systematic Deletion of Homeobox Genes in Podospora anserina Uncovers Their Roles in Shaping the Fruiting Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher fungi, which comprise ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, play major roles in the biosphere. Their evolutionary success may be due to the extended dikaryotic stage of their life cycle, which is the basis for their scientific name: the Dikarya. Dikaryosis is maintained by similar structures, the clamp in basidiomycetes and the crozier in ascomycetes. Homeodomain transcription factors are required for clamp

Evelyne Coppin; Véronique Berteaux-Lecellier; Frédérique Bidard; Sylvain Brun; Gwenaël Ruprich-Robert; Jinane Aït-Benkhali; Anne Goarin; Audrey Nesseir; Sara Planamente; Robert Debuchy; Philippe Silar

2012-01-01

22

Characterization of a gene from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina encoding an aspartyl protease induced upon carbon starvation.  

PubMed

In an attempt to characterize proteases associated with vegetative incompatibility, a Podospora anserina gene (papA) encoding an aspartyl protease (podosporapepsin) was cloned using a heterologous probe. The deduced papA coding region was 1278 nucleotides long, interrupted by a single 71bp intron. The corresponding amino acid sequence presented a high degree of similarity to other aspartyl proteases. Sequence analysis and proteolytic activity measurement suggested that the podosporapepsin could be intracellular rather than secreted. The papA gene was expressed under carbon starvation, but not under nitrogen starvation conditions. Its disruption led to a slight decrease in the growth rate of the mutant strain when bovine serum albumin was the sole carbon source in the medium. Disruption or overexpression of papA gene had no obvious consequence on vegetative incompatibility. Transcription of papA induced by carbon starvation was strongly reduced in the presence of a suppressor of vegetative incompatibility. This result suggests a relationship between adaptation for starvation and vegetative incompatibility. PMID:9524217

Paoletti, M; Clavé, C; Bégueret, J

1998-03-27

23

Regulation of gene expression during the vegetative incompatibility reaction in Podospora anserina. Characterization of three induced genes.  

PubMed

Vegetative incompatibility in fungi limits the formation of viable heterokaryons. It results from the coexpression of incompatible genes in the heterokaryotic cells and leads to a cell death reaction. In Podospora anserina, a modification of gene expression takes place during this reaction, including a strong decrease of total RNA synthesis and the appearance of a new set of proteins. Using in vitro translation of mRNA and separation of protein products by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have shown that the mRNA content of cells is qualitatively modified during the progress of the incompatibility reaction. Thus, gene expression during vegetative incompatibility is regulated, at least in part, by variation of the mRNA content of specific genes. A subtractive cDNA library enriched in sequences preferentially expressed during incompatibility was constructed. This library was used to identify genomic loci corresponding to genes whose mRNA is induced during incompatibility. Three such genes were characterized and named idi genes for genes induced during incompatibility. Their expression profiles suggest that they may be involved in different steps of the incompatibility reaction. The putative IDI proteins encoded by these genes are small proteins with signal peptides. IDI-2 protein is a cysteine-rich protein. IDI-2 and IDI-3 proteins display some similarity in a tryptophan-rich region. PMID:9755195

Bourges, N; Groppi, A; Barreau, C; Clavé, C; Bégueret, J

1998-10-01

24

Systematic gene deletions evidences that laccases are involved in several stages of wood degradation in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.  

PubMed

Transformation of plant biomass into biofuels may supply environmentally friendly alternative biological sources of energy. Laccases are supposed to be involved in the lysis of lignin, a prerequisite step for efficient breakdown of cellulose into fermentable sugars. The role in development and plant biomass degradation of the nine canonical laccases belonging to three different subfamilies and one related multicopper oxidase of the Ascomycota fungus Podospora anserina was investigated by targeted gene deletion. The 10 genes were inactivated singly, and multiple mutants were constructed by genetic crosses. lac6(?), lac8(?) and mco(?) mutants were significantly reduced in their ability to grow on lignin-containing materials, but also on cellulose and plastic. Furthermore, lac8(?), lac7(?), mco(?) and lac6(?) mutants were defective towards resistance to phenolic substrates and H2 O2 , which may also impact lignocellulose breakdown. Double and multiple mutants were generally more affected than single mutants, evidencing redundancy of function among laccases. Our study provides the first genetic evidences that laccases are major actors of wood utilization in a fungus and that they have multiple roles during this process apart from participation in lignin lysis. PMID:24102726

Xie, Ning; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence; Silar, Philippe; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël

2014-01-01

25

The mod-A suppressor of nonallelic heterokaryon incompatibility in Podospora anserina encodes a proline-rich polypeptide involved in female organ formation.  

PubMed

Vegetative incompatibility in fungi results from the control of heterokaryon formation by the genes present at het loci. Coexpression of antagonistic het genes in the same hyphae leads to a lethal process. In Podospora anserina, self-incompatible strains containing nonallelic incompatible genes in the same nucleus are inviable as the result of a growth arrest and a lytic process. Mutations in suppressor genes (mod genes) can restore the viability. These mod mutations also interfere with developmental processes, which suggests common steps between the incompatibility reaction and cellular differentiation. The mod-A locus, responsible for growth arrest in the self-incompatible strains, is also involved in the control of the development of female organs. The mod-A gene was isolated. An open reading frame 687 amino acids long was identified. The MOD-A-encoded polypeptide is rich in proline residues, which are clustered in a domain containing a motif that displays similarity to SH3-binding motifs, which are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Construction of a strain deleted for mod-A confirmed that the product of this gene involved in differentiation is a key regulator of growth arrest associated with vegetative incompatibility. PMID:9611202

Barreau, C; Iskandar, M; Loubradou, G; Levallois, V; Bégueret, J

1998-06-01

26

Mutational analysis of the [Het-s] prion analog of Podospora anserina. A short N-terminal peptide allows prion propagation.  

PubMed Central

The het-s locus is one of nine known het (heterokaryon incompatibility) loci of the fungus Podospora anserina. This locus exists as two wild-type alleles, het-s and het-S, which encode 289 amino acid proteins differing at 13 amino acid positions. The het-s and het-S alleles are incompatible as their coexpression in the same cytoplasm causes a characteristic cell death reaction. We have proposed that the HET-s protein is a prion analog. Strains of the het-s genotype exist in two phenotypic states, the neutral [Het-s*] and the active [Het-s] phenotype. The [Het-s] phenotype is infectious and is transmitted to [Het-s*] strains through cytoplasmic contact. het-s and het-S were associated in a single haploid nucleus to generate a self-incompatible strain that displays a restricted and abnormal growth. In the present article we report the molecular characterization of a collection of mutants that restore the ability of this self-incompatible strain to grow. We also describe the functional analysis of a series of deletion constructs and site-directed mutants. Together, these analyses define positions critical for reactivity and allele specificity. We show that a 112-amino-acid-long N-terminal peptide of HET-s retains [Het-s] activity. Moreover, expression of a mutant het-s allele truncated at position 26 is sufficient to allow propagation of the [Het-s] prion analog. PMID:10581272

Coustou, V; Deleu, C; Saupe, S J; Begueret, J

1999-01-01

27

Mutational analysis of the [Het-s] prion analog of Podospora anserina. A short N-terminal peptide allows prion propagation.  

PubMed

The het-s locus is one of nine known het (heterokaryon incompatibility) loci of the fungus Podospora anserina. This locus exists as two wild-type alleles, het-s and het-S, which encode 289 amino acid proteins differing at 13 amino acid positions. The het-s and het-S alleles are incompatible as their coexpression in the same cytoplasm causes a characteristic cell death reaction. We have proposed that the HET-s protein is a prion analog. Strains of the het-s genotype exist in two phenotypic states, the neutral [Het-s*] and the active [Het-s] phenotype. The [Het-s] phenotype is infectious and is transmitted to [Het-s*] strains through cytoplasmic contact. het-s and het-S were associated in a single haploid nucleus to generate a self-incompatible strain that displays a restricted and abnormal growth. In the present article we report the molecular characterization of a collection of mutants that restore the ability of this self-incompatible strain to grow. We also describe the functional analysis of a series of deletion constructs and site-directed mutants. Together, these analyses define positions critical for reactivity and allele specificity. We show that a 112-amino-acid-long N-terminal peptide of HET-s retains [Het-s] activity. Moreover, expression of a mutant het-s allele truncated at position 26 is sufficient to allow propagation of the [Het-s] prion analog. PMID:10581272

Coustou, V; Deleu, C; Saupe, S J; Bégueret, J

1999-12-01

28

Mating-Type Genes from the Homothallic Fungus Sordaria Macrospora Are Functionally Expressed in a Heterothallic Ascomycete  

PubMed Central

Homokaryons from the homothallic ascomycte Sordaria macrospora are able to enter the sexual pathway and to form fertile fruiting bodies. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and to elucidate the role of mating-products during fruiting body development, we cloned and sequenced the entire S. macrospora mating-type locus. Comparison of the Sordaria mating-type locus with mating-type idiomorphs from the heterothallic ascomycetes Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina revealed that sequences from both idiomorphs (A/a and mat-/mat+, respectively) are contiguous in S. macrospora. DNA sequencing of the S. macrospora mating-type region allowed the identification of four open reading frames (ORFs), which were termed Smt-a1, SmtA-1, SmtA-2 and SmtA-3. While Smt-a1, SmtA-1, and SmtA-2 show strong sequence similarities with the corresponding N. crassa mating-type ORFs, SmtA-3 has a chimeric character. It comprises sequences that are similar to the A and a mating-type idiomorph from N. crassa. To determine functionality of the S. macrospora mating-type genes, we show that all ORFs are transcriptionally expressed. Furthermore, we transformed the S. macrospora mating-type genes into mat- and mat+ strains of the closely related heterothallic fungus P. anserina. The transformation experiments show that mating-type genes from S. macrospora induce fruiting body formation in P. anserina. PMID:9335594

Poggeler, S.; Risch, S.; Kuck, U.; Osiewacz, H. D.

1997-01-01

29

Pyruvate decarboxylase filaments are associated with the cortical cytoskeleton of asci and spores over the sexual cycle of filamentous ascomycetes.  

PubMed

We show that pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) 8- to 10-nm-diameter filaments, first described in vegetative cells of Neurospora crassa, are ubiquitously present in filamentous fungi. The cellular arrangement of these structures was examined over the entire sexual cycle of the ascomycetes N. crassa, N. tetraesperma, Podospora anserina, and Sordaria macrospora. PDC-filaments were found associated with the cortical microtubule array of asci and ascospores and absent from the vicinity of spindles and spindle pole bodies. Nocodazole-induced depolymerization of the cortical microtubules results in the loss of PDC-filaments. Moreover, a S. macrospora mutant defective in cortical MT distribution shows abnormal PDC organization. Neurospora asci generated on various metabolic conditions, which modify the presence and relative abundance of PDC-filaments in vegetative cells, have identical patterns of subcellular distribution of these structures. A N. crassa mutant (snowflake) that accumulates giant bundles of PDC-filaments during vegetative growth, shows normal distribution of the filaments during ascogenesis. Thus, the regulation conditioning the presence and supramolecular assembly of PDC-filaments in Neurospora differs between vegetative and sexual cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PDC in filamentous fungi may perform two functions, intervening as an enzyme in vegetative metabolism and as a structural protein associated with the cytoskeleton during sexual development. PMID:10072321

Thompson-Coffe, C; Borioli, G; Zickler, D; Rosa, A L

1999-02-01

30

The oldest fossil ascomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascomycetes are the largest group of true fungi, and characteristically produce their sexual spores in a sac-like structure called the ascus. They include medicinal agents (such as ergot), plant pathogens (Dutch elm disease is caused by an ascomycete) and yeasts used in fermentation. We have found the oldest ascomycetous fungi with flask-shaped ascocarps in thin-section preparations of the Lower Devonian

T. N. Taylor; H. Hass; H. Kerp

1999-01-01

31

Podospora anserina mutant defective in protoperithecium formation, ascospore germination, and cell regeneration.  

PubMed Central

A mutant (modx) was selected on the basis of the suppression of self-lysis due to a recessive mutation (modB). modx, a dominant mutation, reduced hyphal branching from nonapical cells, abolished protoperithecium formation, and induced the death of stationary cells only when these were isolated to obtain further development. Mutant ascospores, formed in the fruiting bodies which occasionally occur under specific conditions (32 degrees C on starved medium), showed a delay in the germination process (up to 3 months instead of about 5 h for wild-type ascospores) when submitted to incubation under standard conditions (26 degrees C on germination medium) and failed to germinate at 18 degrees C. Revertants from modx strains, selected on the basis of the suppression of the nonrenewal of growth from stationary cells, were wild type for all the other three defects. Indirect arguments suggested that the modx mutant strain might be defective in the control of a specific class of stable messenger ribonucleic acids which would be essential for the physiology of ascospores and stationary cells. Images PMID:118158

Durrens, P; Laigret, F; Labarere, J; Bernet, J

1979-01-01

32

Rab-GDI Complex Dissociation Factor Expressed through Translational Frameshifting in Filamentous Ascomycetes  

PubMed Central

In the model fungus Podospora anserina, the PaYIP3 gene encoding the orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YIP3 Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expresses two polypeptides, one of which, the long form, is produced through a programmed translation frameshift. Inactivation of PaYIP3 results in slightly delayed growth associated with modification in repartition of fruiting body on the thallus, along with reduced ascospore production on wood. Long and short forms of PaYIP3 are expressed in the mycelium, while only the short form appears expressed in the maturing fruiting body (perithecium). The frameshift has been conserved over the evolution of the Pezizomycotina, lasting for over 400 million years, suggesting that it has an important role in the wild. PMID:24069231

Prigent, Magali; Rousset, Jean-Pierre; Namy, Olivier; Silar, Philippe

2013-01-01

33

Species Diversity of Hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel  

PubMed Central

We conducted a species diversity study of the hypogeous Ascomycetes of Israel. The hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel include members of the families Pyronemataceae, Pezizaceae, and Tuberaceae, which are represented by seven species: Hydnocystis piligera, Terfezia arenaria, T. claveryi, T. oligosperma, Tirmania africana, Tuber asa, and T. nitidum; only T. asa is new to Israeli mycobiota. Synonymy, locations, collection data, general distribution, distribution in Israel, descriptions, a key to identification, illustrations, and taxonomic remarks are provided. PMID:23956647

Wasser, Solomon P.

2010-01-01

34

MOD-D, a Galpha subunit of the fungus Podospora anserina, is involved in both regulation of development and vegetative incompatibility.  

PubMed

Cell death via vegetative incompatibility is widespread in fungi but molecular mechanism and biological function of the process are poorly understood. One way to investigate this phenomenon was to study genes named mod that modified incompatibility reaction. In this study, we cloned the mod-D gene that encodes a Galpha protein. The mod-D mutant strains present developmental defects. Previously, we showed that the mod-E gene encodes an HSP90. The mod-E1 mutation suppresses both vegetative incompatibility and developmental defects due to the mod-D mutation. Moreover, we isolated the PaAC gene, which encodes an adenylate cyclase, as a partial suppressor of the mod-D1 mutation. Our previous results showed that the molecular mechanisms involved in vegetative incompatibility and developmental pathways are connected, suggesting that vegetative incompatibility may result from disorders in some developmental steps. Our new result corroborates the involvement of mod genes in signal transduction pathways. As expected, we showed that an increase in the cAMP level is able to suppress the defects in vegetative growth due to the mod-D1 mutation. However, cAMP increase has no influence on the suppressor effect of the mod-D1 mutation on vegetative incompatibility, suggesting that this suppressor effect is independent of the cAMP pathway. PMID:10353896

Loubradou, G; Bégueret, J; Turcq, B

1999-06-01

35

Introduction The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph  

E-print Network

Introduction The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is one of the most of different carbon sources on cellulase production by Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) strains Mehdi in RUT- C30 with ability to grow on microcrystalline cellulose. Keywords: Trichoderma reesei, cellulase

Qin, Wensheng

36

Ascomycetes on Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper Herpotrichia monospermae, sp. nov, Pleospora chandensis sp. nov, Julella kanargaoensis sp. nov. are described as new species and a new host record for an ascomyceteus fungus on Butea monosperma (LAM) KUNTZE. Further studies revealed the occurrance of the three Ascomycetes on the same host. These are described here as new to science on the basis of host

P. G. Sathe; K. M. Mogarkar

1973-01-01

37

Interactive effects of pollination and heavy metals on resource allocation in Potentilla anserina L.  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied resource allocation between sexual reproduction and clonal propagation in a perennial stoloniferous clonal plant, Potentilla anserina, an obligate outcrosser. They manipulated reproductive effort of Potentilla anserina either by hand-pollinating all flowers or by preventing pollination. To test the effect of resource-limiting conditions on resource allocation and reproductive output, the authors used a control and two levels of heavy metals (copper and nickel) to limit plant growth. The experiment was conducted as a 2 {times} 3 factorial design to reveal possible interactions between reproductive manipulation and resource limitation. Heavy metals decreased the total biomass of the plants and number of flowers and ramets produced. Only 50% of the plants grown with the higher level of heavy metals produced flowers. Pollination treatment interacted significantly with the heavy-metal treatment. In the metal control and lower heavy-metal treatment, there were no significant differences in total vegetative biomass between the two pollination treatments. Costs of reproduction in terms of subsequent flowering in the later season appeared to be clear, because the number of flowers per whole plant was lower if the plants were hand-pollinated and because the proportion of flowering ramets decreased due to hand-pollination. However, flowering may also be partly hormonally controlled. In contrast, hand-pollinated plants exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals tended to have greater biomass of vegetative plant structures and higher number of flowers compared to nonpollinated plants.

Saikkonen, K. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology]|[Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Koivunen, S.; Vuorisalo, T. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Mutikainen, P. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology]|[ETH, Zuerich (Switzerland). Experimental Ecology

1998-07-01

38

Contribution to our knowledge of ascomycetes of India-XI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The paper deals with the description of four new species of Indian Ascomycetes i.e.Botryosphaeria buteae sp. nov. onButea monosperma (Lam)Kuntze,Herpotrichia mulleri sp. nov. onArtemisia nilgiricaPamp,Rhynchosphaeria tamarindi sp. nov. onTamarindus indica L. andStictis marathwadensis sp. nov. onDodonaeae viscosa L.

S. T. Tilak; S. B. Kale

1969-01-01

39

Catalytic Properties and Classification of Cellobiose Dehydrogenases from Ascomycetes? †  

PubMed Central

Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) genes are frequently discovered in various fungi by genome sequencing projects. The expression of CDH, an extracellular flavocytochrome, is well studied in white rot basidiomycetes and is attributed to extracellular lignocellulose degradation. CDH has also been reported for plant-pathogenic or saprotrophic ascomycetes, but the molecular and catalytic properties of these enzymes are currently less investigated. This study links various ascomycetous cdh genes with the molecular and catalytic characteristics of the mature proteins and suggests a differentiation of ascomycete class II CDHs into two subclasses, namely, class IIA and class IIB, in addition to the recently introduced class III of hypothetical ascomycete CDHs. This new classification is based on sequence and biochemical data obtained from sequenced fungal genomes and a screening of 40 ascomycetes. Thirteen strains showed CDH activity when they were grown on cellulose-based media, and Chaetomium atrobrunneum, Corynascus thermophilus, Dichomera saubinetii, Hypoxylon haematostroma, Neurospora crassa, and Stachybotrys bisbyi were selected for detailed studies. In these strains, one or two cdh-encoding genes were found that stem either from class IIA and contain a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module or from class IIB without such a module. In several strains, both genes were found. Regarding substrate specificity, class IIB CDHs show a less pronounced substrate specificity for cellobiose than class IIA enzymes. A pH-dependent pattern of the intramolecular electron transfer was also observed, and the CDHs were classified into three groups featuring acidic, intermediate, or alkaline pH optima. The pH optimum, however, does not correlate with the CDH subclasses and is most likely a species-dependent adaptation to different habitats. PMID:21216904

Harreither, Wolfgang; Sygmund, Christoph; Augustin, Manfred; Narciso, Melanie; Rabinovich, Mikhail L.; Gorton, Lo; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

2011-01-01

40

Characterization of a hydrophobin of the ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus.  

PubMed

The entomopathogenic ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus (alternative name Isaria farinosa) synthesized a hydrophobin, irrespective of being grown in submerged or surface culture. The protein was extracted using trifluoroacetic acid and purified using preparative HPLC and SDS-PAGE. Partial sequences were obtained using ESI-MS/MS. The peptides were used as a start to apply a 'template switching oligo' protocol to elucidate the complete open reading frame of P. farinosus hydrophobin 1 (pfah1). The deduced protein sequence comprised 107 amino acids (10.7 kDa) including a 16 amino acid long hydrophobic signal peptide, showed a calculated pI of 4.56, and was interrupted by one intron. Phylogenetic analyses revealed relationships to hydrophobins of the ascomycetes Magnaporthe grisea and Metarhizium anisopliae. Based on solubility, hydropathy pattern and phylogeny PfaH1 was assigned to the class Ia hydrophobins. PMID:21656798

Lunkenbein, Stefan; Takenberg, Meike; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

2011-08-01

41

Lipids stimulate spore germination in the entomopathogenic ascomycete Ascosphaera aggregata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) is solitary and managed on a large scale for pollination of alfalfa seed crops. The bees nest in holes drilled in wood or\\u000a polystyrene blocks, and their larvae are highly prone to a fungal disease called chalkbrood. The most prevalent form of chalkbrood\\u000a is caused by Ascosphaera aggregata, but this ascomycete is difficult to

R. R. James; J. S. Buckner

2004-01-01

42

Relative Incidence of Ascomycetous Yeasts in Arctic Coastal Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of fungi in polar environments have revealed a prevalence of basidiomycetous yeasts in soil and in subglacial\\u000a environments of polythermal glaciers. Ascomycetous yeasts have rarely been reported from extremely cold natural environments,\\u000a even though they are known contaminants of frozen foods. Using media with low water activity, we have isolated various yeast\\u000a species from the subglacial ice of

Lorena Butinar; Tadeja Strmole; Nina Gunde-Cimerman

2011-01-01

43

MOLECULAR DESCRIPTION OF ASCOMYCETE FUNGAL COMMUNITIES ON SPARTINA SPP. IN THE U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascomycetous fungi play a crucial role in the decomposition of salt marsh vegetation. The first part of this research used molecular methods to examine whether physical associations exist between individual bacterial and common ascomycetous fungal species that co-occur on decaying smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, in a southeastern U.S. salt marsh. We found that bacterial communities were unaffected by the identity

JUSTINE ISABELLE LYONS

44

Relative incidence of ascomycetous yeasts in arctic coastal environments.  

PubMed

Previous studies of fungi in polar environments have revealed a prevalence of basidiomycetous yeasts in soil and in subglacial environments of polythermal glaciers. Ascomycetous yeasts have rarely been reported from extremely cold natural environments, even though they are known contaminants of frozen foods. Using media with low water activity, we have isolated various yeast species from the subglacial ice of four glaciers from the coastal Arctic environment of Kongsfjorden, Spitzbergen, including Debaryomyces hansenii and Pichia guillermondii, with counts reaching 10(4) CFU L(-1). Together with the basidiomycetes Cryptococcus liquefaciens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, these yeasts represent the stable core of the subglacial yeast communities. Other glacial ascomycetous species isolated included Candida parapsilosis and a putative new species that resembles Candida pseudorugosa. The archiascomycete Protomyces inouyei has seldom been detected anywhere in the world but was here recovered from ice in a glacier cave. The glacier meltwater contained only D. hansenii, whereas the seawater contained D. hansenii, Debaryomyces maramus, Pichia guilliermondii, what appears to represent a novel species resembling Candida galli and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Only P. guilliermondii was isolated from sea ice, while snow/ice in the fjord tidal zone included C. parapsilosis, D. hansenii, P. guilliermondii and Metschnikowia zobellii. All of these isolated strains were characterized as psychrotolerant and xero/halotolerant, with the exception of P. inouyei. PMID:21221569

Butinar, Lorena; Strmole, Tadeja; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

2011-05-01

45

Lignocellulolysis by ascomycetes (fungi) of a saltmarsh grass (smooth cordgrass).  

PubMed

Lignocellulose (LC) makes up greater than 70% of the mature shoots of the prodigiously photosynthetically productive saltmarsh grass Spartina alterniflora. Naturally decaying shoots of this cordgrass were examined by transmission electron microscopy (after high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution) as a means of directly detecting lysis of the LC-rich tissues. Portions of the cordgrass were selected that contained ascomata (sexual reproductive structures) of only one of each of four species of fungi (Kingdom Fungi; Subdivision Ascomycotina): Phaeosphaeria spartinicola and Buergenerula spartinae from leaf blades, Phaeosphaeria spartinae from leaf sheaths, and Passeriniella obiones from naked stems. All four of the ascomycetes were LC-lytic. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola caused both thinning of LC-rich secondary walls of fiber cells from cell lumina outwards (type 2 soft rot, akin to white rot) and digestion extending from hyphae within longitudinal cavities in the secondary walls (type 1 soft rot). The other three species caused either one or the other type of soft rot. Bacterial erosion of cordgrass cells was found only in the samples of naked stems. Ascomycetous decomposers of standing-dead grasses may have potential for biotechnological applications involving alterations of lignocellulose or toxic polyphenolic substances. PMID:8820663

Newell, S Y; Porter, D; Lingle, W L

1996-01-01

46

Eisosome Organization in the Filamentous AscomyceteAspergillus nidulans?†  

PubMed Central

Eisosomes are subcortical organelles implicated in endocytosis and have hitherto been described only in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They comprise two homologue proteins, Pil1 and Lsp1, which colocalize with the transmembrane protein Sur7. These proteins are universally conserved in the ascomycetes. We identify in Aspergillus nidulans (and in all members of the subphylum Pezizomycotina) two homologues of Pil1/Lsp1, PilA and PilB, originating from a duplication independent from that extant in the subphylum Saccharomycotina. In the aspergilli there are several Sur7-like proteins in each species, including one strict Sur7 orthologue (SurG in A. nidulans). In A. nidulans conidiospores, but not in hyphae, the three proteins colocalize at the cell cortex and form tightly packed punctate structures that appear different from the clearly distinct eisosome patches observed in S. cerevisiae. These structures are assembled late during the maturation of conidia. In mycelia, punctate structures are present, but they are composed only of PilA, while PilB is diffused in the cytoplasm and SurG is located in vacuoles and endosomes. Deletion of each of the genes does not lead to any obvious growth phenotype, except for moderate resistance to itraconazole. We could not find any obvious association between mycelial (PilA) eisosome-like structures and endocytosis. PilA and SurG are necessary for conidial eisosome organization in ways that differ from those for their S. cerevisiae homologues. These data illustrate that conservation of eisosomal proteins within the ascomycetes is accompanied by a striking functional divergence. PMID:20693301

Vangelatos, Ioannis; Roumelioti, Katerina; Gournas, Christos; Suarez, Teresa; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Sophianopoulou, Vicky

2010-01-01

47

Ascomycete fungal communities associated with early decaying leaves of Spartina spp. from central California estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascomycetous fungi play an important role in the early stages of decomposition of Spartina alterniflora, but their role in the decomposition of other Spartina species has not been investigated. Here we use fingerprint (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and phylogenetic\\u000a analyses of the 18S to 28S internal transcribed spacer region to compare the composition of the ascomycete fungal communities\\u000a on

Justine I. Lyons; Merryl Alber; James T. Hollibaugh

2010-01-01

48

Ascomycete fungal communities associated with early decaying leaves of Spartina spp. from central California estuaries.  

PubMed

Ascomycetous fungi play an important role in the early stages of decomposition of Spartina alterniflora, but their role in the decomposition of other Spartina species has not been investigated. Here we use fingerprint (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and phylogenetic analyses of the 18S to 28S internal transcribed spacer region to compare the composition of the ascomycete fungal communities on early decay blades of Spartina species (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina foliosa, and a hybrid (S. alterniflora x S. foliosa)) collected from three salt marshes in San Francisco Bay and one in Tomales Bay, California, USA. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola was found on all samples collected and was often dominant. Two other ascomycetes, Phaeosphaeria halima and Mycosphaerella sp. strain 2, were also common. These three species are the same ascomycetes previously identified as the dominant fungal decomposers on S. alterniflora on the east coast. Ascomycetes appeared to exhibit varying degrees of host specificity, demonstrated by grouping patterns on phylogenetic trees. Neither the exotic S. alterniflora nor the hybrid supported fungal flora different from that of the native S. foliosa. However, S. densiflora had a significantly different fungal community than the other species, and hosted at least two unique ascomycetes. Significant differences in the fungal decomposer communities were also detected within species (two clones of S. foliosa), but these were minor and may be due to morphological differences among the plants. PMID:19777266

Lyons, Justine I; Alber, Merryl; Hollibaugh, James T

2010-02-01

49

Lipids stimulate spore germination in the entomopathogenic ascomycete Ascosphaera aggregata.  

PubMed

The alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) is solitary and managed on a large scale for pollination of alfalfa seed crops. The bees nest in holes drilled in wood or polystyrene blocks, and their larvae are highly prone to a fungal disease called chalkbrood. The most prevalent form of chalkbrood is caused by Ascosphaera aggregata, but this ascomycete is difficult to culture. Hyphae will grow on standard fungal media, but spore germination is difficult to achieve and highly variable. We found that germination can be enhanced with oils. Lipids derived from plants and bee larvae increased germination from 50% (without oil) to 75-85% (with oil). Percent germination was significantly greater in the presence of lipids but germination was not significantly different when different oils, including mineral oil, were used. A. aggregata spores oriented along the oil-aqueous interface in the broth in a polar fashion, with swelling and germ tube formation always occurring into the aqueous portion of the broth. The other half of the spore tended to attach to a lipid droplet, where it remained, without swelling, during germ tube formation. The physical attachment of spores to the oil-aqueous interface is what most probably stimulates spore germination, as opposed to some nutritional stimulation. However, further research is needed to determine if and where the spores encounter such an interface when germinating in the host gut, where germination normally occurs. PMID:15645171

James, R R; Buckner, J S

2004-10-01

50

Self/nonself recognition in Tuber melanosporum is not mediated by a heterokaryon incompatibility system.  

PubMed

Vegetative incompatibility is a widespread phenomenon in filamentous ascomycetes, which limits formation of viable heterokaryons. Whether this phenomenon plays a role in maintaining the homokaryotic state of the hyphae during the vegetative growth of Tuber spp. Gene expression, polymorphism analysis as well as targeted in vitro experiments allowed us to test whether a heterokaryon incompatibility (HI) system operates in Tuber melanosporum. HI is controlled by different genetic systems, often involving HET domain genes and their partners whose interaction can trigger a cell death reaction. Putative homologues to HI-related genes previously characterized in Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina were identified in the T. melanosporum genome. However, only two HET domain genes were found. In many other ascomycetes HET domains have been found within different genes including some members of the NWD (NACHT and WD-repeat associated domains) gene family of P. anserina. More than 50 NWD homologues were found in T. melanosporum but none of these contain a HET domain. All these T. melanosporum paralogs showed a conserved gene organization similar to the microexon genes only recently characterized in Schistosoma mansoni. Expression data of the annotated HI-like genes along with low allelic polymorphism suggest that they have cellular functions unrelated to HI. Moreover, morphological analyses did not provide evidence for HI reactions between pairs of genetically different T. melanosporum strains. Thus, the maintenance of the genetic integrity during the vegetative growth of this species likely depends on mechanisms that act before hyphal fusion. PMID:22289772

Iotti, Mirco; Rubini, Andrea; Tisserant, Emilie; Kholer, Annegret; Paolocci, Francesco; Zambonelli, Alessandra

2012-02-01

51

Mate-recognition and species boundaries in the ascomycetes Simon H. Martin & Emma T. Steenkamp &  

E-print Network

). This fact complicated taxonomy and species recognition until molecular methods were introduced (TaylorREVIEW Mate-recognition and species boundaries in the ascomycetes Simon H. Martin & Emma T adequately explored in the Ascomycota, the most species-rich fungal phylum. The mechanisms of mate

52

Chemical variation within and between individuals of the lichenized ascomycete Tephromela atra  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPLC-analysis was used to determine the concentrations of the lichen compounds alectoronic acid (depsidon), ?-collatolic acid (depsidon) and atranorin (depsid) in the lichenized ascomycete Tephromela atra (syn. Lecanon atra) (Hudson) Hafeliner from limestone walls on the Baltic island of Öland, Sweden. In 24 individuals of T. atra sampled on a stone wall, the pre-reproductive and reproductive tissue did not differ

Sonja Hesbacher; Lars Fröberg; Anette Baur; Bruno Baur; Peter Proksch

1996-01-01

53

Catabolism of benzene compounds by ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts and yeastlike fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review is given on growth of yeasts on benzene compounds and on the catabolic pathways involved. Additionally, a yeast collection was screened for assimilation of phenol and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid. Fifteen ascomycetous and thirteen basidiomycetous yeast species were selected and were tested for growth on 84 benzene compounds. It appeared that 63 of these compounds supported growth of one

Wouter J. Middelhoven; Hesselink van Suchtelenweg

1993-01-01

54

Interactions of sterile-cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with asbestos fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming ascomycetes have not yet been used to investigate mycobiont–mineral substrate interactions under controlled conditions. In this study Candelariella vitellina, Xanthoparmelia tinctina and Lecanora rupicola mycobionts were isolated and inoculated with chrysotile fibres in the laboratory, in order to verify whether physical and chemical weathering processes, which were already described in the field, may be reproduced

Sergio Enrico FAVERO-LONGOa; Mariangela Girlanda; Rosmarie Honegger; Bice Fubini; Rosanna Piervittori

2007-01-01

55

Expression of the red fluorescent protein DsRed-Express in filamentous ascomycete fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently reported red fluorescent protein DsRed from the reef coral Discosoma sp. represents a new marker that has been codon-optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. To facilitate expression of DsRed in ascomycete fungi, we used the clone pDsRed-Express (Clontech) for constructing a plasmid vector, pPgpd-DsRed, containing the constitutive Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (gpd) promoter. This vector was used

Lisbeth Mikkelsen; Sabrina Sarrocco; Mette Lübeck; Dan Funck Jensen

2003-01-01

56

Morphological and molecular characteristics of a poorly known marine ascomycete, Manglicola guatemalensis (Jahnulales: Pezizomycotina; Dothideomycetes, Incertae sedis): new lineage of marine ascomycetes.  

PubMed

The poorly known marine ascomycete Manglicola guatemalensis from Trang and Trat provinces, Thailand, were collected in 2005 and 2006 on the brackish water palm Nypa fruticans. This fungus is known only from two previous collections. This paper reports on the morphological characteristics and molecular phylogeny of this unique marine bitunicate ascomycete. Manglicola guatemalensis has large clavate to obtusely fusiform ascomata, wide ostioles, bitunicate asci, cylindrical, thick-walled, unequally one-septate ascospores, constricted at the septum, apical cell larger, chestnut-brown and a smaller light brown basal cell. Ascospores germinate readily, always from the basal cell. Four isolates from different locations were selected for the phylogenetic study. Regions of the rDNA gene, including SSU and LSU, were sequenced and combined. Molecular data places M. guatemalensis in the Jahnulales with high bootstrap support; all strains are monophyletic. In the combined SSU and LSU analyses the Jahnulales comprises four subclades, A, B, C and D. Subclade A comprises Jahnula species and two anamorphic fungi, Brachiosphaera tropicalis and Xylomyces chlamydosporus. In subclade B Manglicola strains form a sister group of the Aliquandostipite species Aliquandostipite crystallinus, A. khaoyaiensis, Jahnula siamensiae and Patescospora separans. Subclade C comprises Jahnula species, Jahnula aquatica, J. granulosa and J. rostrata, while Megalohypha aqua-dulces constitutes subclade D. Therefore Manglicola forms another lineage of marine fungi. PMID:20120232

Suetrong, Satinee; Sakayaroj, Jariya; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Jones, E B Gareth

2010-01-01

57

The Potential for pathogenicity was present in the ancestor of the Ascomycete subphylum Pezizomycotina  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies in Ascomycetes have shown that the function of gene families of which the size is considerably larger in extant pathogens than in non-pathogens could be related to pathogenicity traits. However, by only comparing gene inventories in extant species, no insights can be gained into the evolutionary process that gave rise to these larger family sizes in pathogens. Moreover, most studies which consider gene families in extant species only tend to explain observed differences in gene family sizes by gains rather than by losses, hereby largely underestimating the impact of gene loss during genome evolution. Results In our study we used a selection of recently published genomes of Ascomycetes to analyze how gene family gains, duplications and losses have affected the origin of pathogenic traits. By analyzing the evolutionary history of gene families we found that most gene families with an enlarged size in pathogens were present in an ancestor common to both pathogens and non-pathogens. The majority of these families were selectively maintained in pathogenic lineages, but disappeared in non-pathogens. Non-pathogen-specific losses largely outnumbered pathogen-specific losses. Conclusions We conclude that most of the proteins for pathogenicity were already present in the ancestor of the Ascomycete lineages we used in our study. Species that did not develop pathogenicity seemed to have reduced their genetic complexity compared to their ancestors. We further show that expansion of gained or already existing families in a species-specific way is important to fine-tune the specificities of the pathogenic host-fungus interaction. PMID:20964831

2010-01-01

58

Purification and biochemical characterization of extracellular laccase from the ascomycete Paraconiothyrium variabile  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extracellular laccase-producing ascomycete was isolated from soil and identified as Paraconiothyrium variabile using rDNA sequence analysis. Typical laccase substrates including 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP), and guaiacol were oxidized by the purified enzyme (designated as PvL). The molecular mass of PvL was 84kDa and it showed a pI value of 4.2. The enzyme acted optimally at pH 4.8 and exhibited

Hamid Forootanfar; Mohammad Ali Faramarzi; Ahmad Reza Shahverdi; Mojtaba Tabatabaei Yazdi

2011-01-01

59

Body plan evolution of ascomycetes, as inferred from an RNA polymerase II phylogeny  

PubMed Central

The mode of evolution of the biologically diverse forms of ascomycetes is not well understood, largely because the descent relationships remain unresolved. By using sequences of the nuclear gene RPB2, we have inferred with considerable resolution the phylogenetic relationships between major groups within the phylum Ascomycota. These relationships allow us to deduce a historical pattern of body plan evolution. Within Taphrinomycotina, the most basal group, two simple body plans exist: uncovered asci with unicellular growth, or rudimentary ascoma with hyphal growth. Ancestral ascomycetes were filamentous; hyphal growth was lost independently in the yeast forms of Taphrinomycotina and Saccharomycotina. Pezizomycotina, the sister group to Saccharomycotina, retained mycelial growth while elaborating two basic ontogenetic pathways for ascoma formation and centrum development. The RPB2 phylogeny shows with significant statistical support that taxa in Pezizomycotina with ascohymenial ontogeny (ascoma generally forms after nuclear pairing) are ancestral and paraphyletic, whereas ascolocular fungi with fissitunicate asci are a clade derived from them. Ascolocular lichens are polyphyletic, whereas ascohymenial lichens comprise a monophyletic group that includes the Lecanorales. Our data are not consistent with a derived origin of Eurotiomycetes including Aspergillus and Trichophyton from within a lichen-forming ancestral group. For these reasons, the results of this study are considerably at variance with the conclusion that major fungal lineages are derived from lichensymbiotic ancestors. Interpretation of our results in the context of early work suggests that ascoma ontogeny and centrum characters are not in conflict with the molecular data. PMID:15070748

Liu, Yajuan J.; Hall, Benjamin D.

2004-01-01

60

A heme peroxidase of the ascomyceteous lichen Leptogium saturninum oxidizes high-redox potential substrates.  

PubMed

Lichens belonging to the order Peltigerales display strong activity of multi-copper oxidases (e.g. tyrosinase) as well as heme-containing peroxidases. The lichen peroxidase was purified to homogeneity from the thallus of Leptogium saturninum (LsaPOX) by fast protein liquid chromatography and then partially characterized. The oligomeric protein occurs as both 79 kDa dimeric and 42 kDa monomeric forms, and displayed broad substrate specificity. In addition to an ability to oxidize classic peroxidase substrates (e.g. 2,6-dimethoxyphenol), the enzyme could convert recalcitrant compounds such as synthetic dyes (e.g. Azure B and Reactive Blue 5), 4-nitrophenol and non-phenolic methoxylated aromatics (e.g. veratryl alcohol). Comparing LsaPOX with a basidiomycete dye-decolorizing (DyP)-type peroxidase from Auricularia auricula-judae showed that the lichen enzyme has a high-redox potential, with oxidation capabilities ranging between those of known plant and fungal peroxidases. Internal peptide fragments show homology (up to 60%) with putative proteins from free-living ascomycetes (e.g. Penicillium marneffei and Neosartorya fischeri), but not to sequences of algal or cyanobacterial peptides or to known fungal, bacterial or plant peroxidases. LsaPOX is the first heme peroxidase purified from an ascomyceteous lichen that may help the organism to successfully exploit the extreme micro-environments in which they often grow. PMID:22056522

Liers, Christiane; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin; Minibayeva, Farida V; Beckett, Richard P

2011-12-01

61

Explosively launched spores of ascomycete fungi have drag-minimizing shapes  

PubMed Central

The forcibly launched spores of ascomycete fungi must eject through several millimeters of nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies to reach dispersive air flows. Because of their microscopic size, spores experience great fluid drag, and although this drag can aid transport by slowing sedimentation out of dispersive air flows, it also causes spores to decelerate rapidly after launch. We hypothesize that spores are shaped to maximize their range in the nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies. To test this hypothesis we numerically calculate optimal spore shapes—shapes of minimum drag for prescribed volumes—and compare these shapes with real spore shapes taken from a phylogeny of >100 species. Our analysis shows that spores are constrained to remain within 1% of the minimum possible drag for their size. From the spore shapes we predict the speed of spore launch, and confirm this prediction through high-speed imaging of ejection in Neurospora tetrasperma. By reconstructing the evolutionary history of spore shapes within a single ascomycete family we measure the relative contributions of drag minimization and other shape determinants to spore shape evolution. Our study uses biomechanical optimization as an organizing principle for explaining shape in a mega-diverse group of species and provides a framework for future measurements of the forces of selection toward physical optima. PMID:19104035

Roper, Marcus; Pepper, Rachel E.; Brenner, Michael P.; Pringle, Anne

2008-01-01

62

Conservation and evolution of cis-regulatory systems in ascomycete fungi  

SciTech Connect

Relatively little is known about the mechanisms through which gene expression regulation evolves. To investigate this, we systematically explored the conservation of regulatory networks in fungi by examining the cis-regulatory elements that govern the expression of coregulated genes. We first identified groups of coregulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes enriched for genes with known upstream or downstream cis-regulatory sequences. Reasoning that many of these gene groups are coregulated in related species as well, we performed similar analyses on orthologs of coregulated S. cerevisiae genes in 13 other ascomycete species. We find that many species-specific gene groups are enriched for the same flanking regulatory sequences as those found in the orthologous gene groups from S. cerevisiae, indicating that those regulatory systems have been conserved in multiple ascomycete species. In addition to these clear cases of regulatory conservation, we find examples of cis-element evolution that suggest multiple modes of regulatory diversification, including alterations in transcription factor-binding specificity, incorporation of new gene targets into an existing regulatory system, and cooption of regulatory systems to control a different set of genes. We investigated one example in greater detail by measuring the in vitro activity of the S. cerevisiae transcription factor Rpn4p and its orthologs from Candida albicans and Neurospora crassa. Our results suggest that the DNA binding specificity of these proteins has coevolved with the sequences found upstream of the Rpn4p target genes and suggest that Rpn4p has a different function in N. crassa.

Gasch, Audrey P.; Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Fraser, Hunter B.; Berardini, Mark; Eisen, Michael B.

2004-03-15

63

Conservation and Evolution of Cis-Regulatory Systems in Ascomycete Fungi  

PubMed Central

Relatively little is known about the mechanisms through which gene expression regulation evolves. To investigate this, we systematically explored the conservation of regulatory networks in fungi by examining the cis-regulatory elements that govern the expression of coregulated genes. We first identified groups of coregulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes enriched for genes with known upstream or downstream cis-regulatory sequences. Reasoning that many of these gene groups are coregulated in related species as well, we performed similar analyses on orthologs of coregulated S. cerevisiae genes in 13 other ascomycete species. We find that many species-specific gene groups are enriched for the same flanking regulatory sequences as those found in the orthologous gene groups from S. cerevisiae, indicating that those regulatory systems have been conserved in multiple ascomycete species. In addition to these clear cases of regulatory conservation, we find examples of cis-element evolution that suggest multiple modes of regulatory diversification, including alterations in transcription factor-binding specificity, incorporation of new gene targets into an existing regulatory system, and cooption of regulatory systems to control a different set of genes. We investigated one example in greater detail by measuring the in vitro activity of the S. cerevisiae transcription factor Rpn4p and its orthologs from Candida albicans and Neurospora crassa. Our results suggest that the DNA binding specificity of these proteins has coevolved with the sequences found upstream of the Rpn4p target genes and suggest that Rpn4p has a different function in N. crassa. PMID:15534694

2004-01-01

64

Determination of Free Fatty Acids in Tibet Folk Medicine Potentilla anserina L. Using a New Labeling Reagent by LC with Fluorescence Detection and Identification with Online Atmospheric Chemical Ionization-MS Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive method for the determination of free fatty acids using 1,2-benzo-carbazole-9-ethyl-p-toluenesulfonate (BCETS) as tagging reagent with fluorescence detection has been developed. BCETS could easily and quickly\\u000a label fatty acids in the presence of the K2CO3 catalyst at 80 °C for 30 min in N,N-dimethylformamide solvent. In this study, fatty acids from the extracted Potentilla anserina L. plant sample were sensitively determined.

Lian Xia; Cuihua Song; Zhiwei Sun; Guoliang Li; Yourui Suo; Jinmao You

2010-01-01

65

Freshwater ascomycetes: Alascospora evergladensis, a new genus and species from the Florida Everglades.  

PubMed

Alascospora evergladensis, a freshwater ascomycete collected from submerged dead petioles of Nymphaea odorata during a survey of aquatic fungi along a phosphorus gradient in the Florida Everglades, is described and illustrated as a new genus and species in the Pleosporales (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes). The new fungus is unique among genera in the Pleosporales based on a combination of morphological characters that include light brown, translucent, membranous, ostiolate ascomata with dark, amorphous material irregularly deposited on the peridium, especially around the ostiole; globose, fissitunicate, thick-walled asci; septate pseudoparaphyses; and 1-septate ascospores that are hyaline when young, and surrounded by a hyaline gelatinous sheath that is wing-shaped in outline on each side of the ascospore. The sheath is distinctive in that it first expands in water and is translucent, then condenses and darkens around older ascospores, giving them a dark brown, verruculose appearance. PMID:20120226

Raja, Huzefa A; Violi, Helen A; Shearer, Carol A

2010-01-01

66

PCR primers that allow intergeneric differentiation of ascomycetes and their application to Verticillium spp.  

PubMed

A pair of conserved PCR primers, designated NMS1 and NMS2, that amplify a region in the mitochondrial small rRNA gene region were designed for fungi belonging to the class Ascomycetes. These primers were tested with members of eight fungal genera (Aspergillus, Fusarium, Magnaporthe, Mycospharella, Neurospora, Saccharomyces, Sclerotinia, Verticillium) and 10 Verticillium species (Verticillium albo-atrum, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Verticillium cinnebarium, Verticillium dahliae, Verticillium fungicola, Verticillium lecanii, Verticillium lateritium, Verticillium nigrescens, Verticillium psaliotae, and Verticillium tricorpus). The primers were also tested with 35 isolates of V. dahliae obtained from diverse geographic areas and diverse hosts. The results of a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the region amplified by the primers differentiated the genera examined and the results of a DNA sequence analysis of the amplified region differentiated the Verticillium species. Two Fusarium species were also differentiated by the results of the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. On the basis of the nucleotide sequences of the amplified regions, we obtained a pair of PCR primers that could be used to differentiate V. dahliae from the other fungal isolates tested, including V. albo-atrum, a closely related plant-pathogenic species. The V. dahliae-specific PCR primer may aid in more rapid and specific detection of the pathogen directly in plant and/or soil samples. PCR primers NMS1 and NMS2 may be used as potential mitochondrial markers for studying fungal cytoplasmic inheritance of ascomycetes and for identifying DNA probes that are informative at or below the genus level. PMID:7811072

Li, K N; Rouse, D I; German, T L

1994-12-01

67

PCR primers that allow intergeneric differentiation of ascomycetes and their application to Verticillium spp.  

PubMed Central

A pair of conserved PCR primers, designated NMS1 and NMS2, that amplify a region in the mitochondrial small rRNA gene region were designed for fungi belonging to the class Ascomycetes. These primers were tested with members of eight fungal genera (Aspergillus, Fusarium, Magnaporthe, Mycospharella, Neurospora, Saccharomyces, Sclerotinia, Verticillium) and 10 Verticillium species (Verticillium albo-atrum, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Verticillium cinnebarium, Verticillium dahliae, Verticillium fungicola, Verticillium lecanii, Verticillium lateritium, Verticillium nigrescens, Verticillium psaliotae, and Verticillium tricorpus). The primers were also tested with 35 isolates of V. dahliae obtained from diverse geographic areas and diverse hosts. The results of a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the region amplified by the primers differentiated the genera examined and the results of a DNA sequence analysis of the amplified region differentiated the Verticillium species. Two Fusarium species were also differentiated by the results of the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. On the basis of the nucleotide sequences of the amplified regions, we obtained a pair of PCR primers that could be used to differentiate V. dahliae from the other fungal isolates tested, including V. albo-atrum, a closely related plant-pathogenic species. The V. dahliae-specific PCR primer may aid in more rapid and specific detection of the pathogen directly in plant and/or soil samples. PCR primers NMS1 and NMS2 may be used as potential mitochondrial markers for studying fungal cytoplasmic inheritance of ascomycetes and for identifying DNA probes that are informative at or below the genus level. Images PMID:7811072

Li, K N; Rouse, D I; German, T L

1994-01-01

68

Small insertions at a shared position in the SSU rDNA of Lecanorales (lichen-forming Ascomycetes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small insertions are reported from the SSU rDNA of the genera Cladonia, Cladina, Stereocaulon, Pertusaria and Physcia (lichen-forming Lecanorales, Ascomycetes). The insertions range in length from 56 to 81 nucleotides, and occur at a shared\\u000a position, 330 (relative to Escherichia coli), in a semi-conserved region of the SSU rDNA. These small insertions have a simple secondary structure with two stem-loops,

Soili Stenroos; Paula T. DePriest

1998-01-01

69

Induction of apoptosis against cancer cell lines by four ascomycetes (endophytes) from Malaysian rainforest.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi have been shown to be a promising source of biologically active natural products. In the present study, extracts of four endophytic fungi isolated from plants of the National Park, Pahang were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and the nature of their active compounds determined. Those extracts exhibiting activity with IC(50) values less than 17 ?g/ml against HCT116, MCF-7 and K562 cell lines were shown to induce apoptosis in these cell lines. Molecular analysis, based on sequences of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS4, revealed all four endophytic fungi to be ascomycetes: three sordariomycetes and a dothideomycete. Six known compounds, cytochalasin J, dechlorogriseofulvin, demethylharzianic-acid, griseofulvin, harzianic acid and 2-hexylidene-3-methyl-succinic acid were identified from a rapid dereplication technique for fungal metabolites using an in-house UV library. The results from the present study suggest the potential of endophytic fungi as cytotoxic agents, and there is an indication that the isolates contain bioactive compounds that mainly kill cancer cells by apoptosis. PMID:22397996

Hazalin, Nurul Aqmar Mohamad Nor; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Lim, Siong Meng; Cole, Anthony L J; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul

2012-05-15

70

Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants.  

PubMed

Ant-fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant-fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build galleried structures on their myrmecophytic hosts in order to ambush prey. We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fungal haplotypes of an ascomycete species from the order Chaetothyriales that consistently grows on and has been isolated from the galleries. Both the ants' behaviour and an analysis of the genetic population structure of the ants and the fungus argue for host specificity in this interaction. The ants' behaviour reveals a major investment in manipulating, growing and cleaning the fungus. A molecular analysis of the fungus demonstrates the widespread occurrence of one haplotype and many other haplotypes with a lower occurrence, as well as significant variation in the presence of these fungal haplotypes between areas and ant species. Altogether, these results suggest that such an interaction might represent an as-yet undescribed type of specific association between ants and fungus in which the ants cultivate fungal mycelia to strengthen their hunting galleries. PMID:21084334

Ruiz-González, Mario X; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Gryta, Hervé; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Angélique; Orivel, Jérôme

2011-06-23

71

Interactions of sterile-cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with asbestos fibres.  

PubMed

Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming ascomycetes have not yet been used to investigate mycobiont-mineral substrate interactions under controlled conditions. In this study Candelariella vitellina, Xanthoparmelia tinctina and Lecanora rupicola mycobionts were isolated and inoculated with chrysotile fibres in the laboratory, in order to verify whether physical and chemical weathering processes, which were already described in the field, may be reproduced in vitro. Tight adhesion of hyphae to chrysotile fibres was observed in all species. The adhering hyphae affected the chemical composition of asbestos fibres, with the selective depletion of magnesium being a prominent feature, as is the case in field conditions. Oxalic acid and pulvinic acid, mycobiont-derived metabolites of X. tinctina and C. vitellina, were involved in the weathering action. Time and environmental factors and the absence of biological synergisms strongly limited the chemical weathering in vitro compared with what was observed in the field. Nevertheless, the results show that in vitro incubation of sterile-cultured lichen-forming fungi with minerals is a practicable experimental system to investigate the weathering effects of different mycobionts and fungal compounds under controlled conditions. PMID:17512715

Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Girlanda, Mariangela; Honegger, Rosmarie; Fubini, Bice; Piervittori, Rosanna

2007-04-01

72

Purification and biochemical characterization of extracellular laccase from the ascomycete Paraconiothyrium variabile.  

PubMed

An extracellular laccase-producing ascomycete was isolated from soil and identified as Paraconiothyrium variabile using rDNA sequence analysis. Typical laccase substrates including 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP), and guaiacol were oxidized by the purified enzyme (designated as PvL). The molecular mass of PvL was 84 kDa and it showed a pI value of 4.2. The enzyme acted optimally at pH 4.8 and exhibited an optimum temperature of 50 °C. Using ABTS, PvL represented Km and Vmax of 203 ?M and 40 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. After 24 h incubation at pH 4.8 and 4 °C, 80% of the initial activity of PvL remained. The enzyme was inhibited by Fe2+, Hg2+, and Mn2+, but induced by Cu2+. EDTA (10 mM), 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT) (0.1 mM), and NaN3 (10 mM) were found to completely inhibit PvL. Sixty-eight percent of Malachite green was decolorized by 4 U/mL of PvL after 15 min incubation at 30 °C. PMID:20933400

Forootanfar, Hamid; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Yazdi, Mojtaba Tabatabaei

2011-01-01

73

Bradymyces gen. nov. (Chaetothyriales, Trichomeriaceae), a new ascomycete genus accommodating poorly differentiated melanized fungi.  

PubMed

Three slow growing, melanized and morphologically poorly differentiated fungal strains were isolated from a hyperaemic focus near the enlarged spleen of a farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and from a rock collected at 3,200 m a. s. l. (Alps, Italy). Two phylogenetic analyses of the combined nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA and ITS rDNA and ?-tubulin sequences showed that these isolates belong to the Trichomeriaceae, a family of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales containing black yeasts that cause infections in humans and animals. The strains form a well-supported monophyletic clade. The new genus Bradymyces, with two new species, Bradymyces oncorhynchi and Bradymyces alpinus, is proposed based on phylogenetic, ecophysiological and morphological data. It is characterized by the presence of moniliform hyphae, blastic proliferation, endoconidia, multicellular and muriform bodies, and bodies with dark fragmented incrustations on the surface. Bradymyces most closely resembles members of Knufia. The ex-type isolate of B. oncorhynchi CCF 4369(T) ( = CBS 133066(T) = CCFEE 6134(T)) represents the first case of a Trichomeriaceae member isolated from cold-blooded water vertebrates. B. alpinus [ex-type strain CCFEE 5493(T) ( = CBS 138368(T) = CCF 4803(T))] is represented by two isolates from a single locality in the Alps and in contrast to B. oncorhynchi shows overall slower growth parameters and does not grow at 25 °C. PMID:25164483

Hubka, Vit; Réblová, Martina; Rehulka, Ji?í; Selbmann, Laura; Isola, Daniela; de Hoog, Sybren G; Kola?ík, Miroslav

2014-11-01

74

Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems. PMID:22802654

Hansel, Colleen M.; Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.

2012-01-01

75

Mn(II) Oxidation by an Ascomycete Fungus is Linked to Superoxide Production During Asexual Reproduction  

SciTech Connect

Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-speci?c chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete ?lamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identi?cation of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

Hansel, Colleen M.; Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.

2012-07-16

76

Genes That Bias Mendelian Segregation  

PubMed Central

Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs), complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion. PMID:24830502

Grognet, Pierre; Lalucque, Hervé; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe

2014-01-01

77

Correlation of structural elements and infectivity of the HET-s prion  

E-print Network

Correlation of structural elements and infectivity of the HET-s prion Christiane Ritter1 *, Marie & Roland Riek1 Prions are believed to be infectious, self-propagating polymers of otherwise soluble, host of recombinant prion proteins from yeast3­5 , Podospora anserina6 and mammals7 can induce prion phenotypes

Riek, Roland

78

Simulated aerial sprays for field cage evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycetes: Hypocreales) against Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field efficacy of the entomopathogenic Ascomycetes Beauveria bassiana strain GHA and Metarhizium brunneum strain F52 was evaluated against nymphs of the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex. Fungi were applied with a new apparatus that allows simulated aerial sprays to 0.1m areas in the field. The Mormon crickets were then individually housed in cylindrical, metal hardware cloth cages on treated grass. Both

R. Nelson Foster; Stefan Jaronski; K. Chris Reuter; Lonnie R. Black; Robin Schlothauer; Justin Harper; Larry E. Jech

2011-01-01

79

Total and free ergosterol in mycelia of saltmarsh ascomycetes with access to whole leaves or aqueous extracts of leaves.  

PubMed

Three species of saltmarsh ascomycetes were grown in the presence of all of the constituents of their natural substrate (leaves of cordgrass) or were presented only with aqueous extracts of the leaves. These two growth-condition treatments had no significant effect on total ergosterol content of the fungal mycelia, contrary to an earlier hypothesis that availability of plant lipids would lower fungal ergosterol contents. Mycelial content of free ergosterol was about twice as variable as that for total (free plus esterified) ergosterol. Total ergosterol (data pooled for all species) was strongly correlated to organic mycelial mass (r = 0.43, P < 0.00001, and slope = 4.59 mug of ergosterol mg of organic mass). PMID:16349400

Newell, S Y

1994-09-01

80

Total and Free Ergosterol in Mycelia of Saltmarsh Ascomycetes with Access to Whole Leaves or Aqueous Extracts of Leaves †  

PubMed Central

Three species of saltmarsh ascomycetes were grown in the presence of all of the constituents of their natural substrate (leaves of cordgrass) or were presented only with aqueous extracts of the leaves. These two growth-condition treatments had no significant effect on total ergosterol content of the fungal mycelia, contrary to an earlier hypothesis that availability of plant lipids would lower fungal ergosterol contents. Mycelial content of free ergosterol was about twice as variable as that for total (free plus esterified) ergosterol. Total ergosterol (data pooled for all species) was strongly correlated to organic mycelial mass (r2 = 0.43, P < 0.00001, and slope = 4.59 ?g of ergosterol mg of organic mass-1). PMID:16349400

Newell, Steven Y.

1994-01-01

81

Exploring laccase-like multicopper oxidase genes from the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei: a functional, phylogenetic and evolutionary study  

PubMed Central

Background The diversity and function of ligninolytic genes in soil-inhabiting ascomycetes has not yet been elucidated, despite their possible role in plant litter decay processes. Among ascomycetes, Trichoderma reesei is a model organism of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, used for its unique secretion ability especially for cellulase production. T. reesei has only been reported as a cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic organism although genome annotation revealed 6 laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes. The purpose of this work was i) to validate the function of a candidate LMCO gene from T. reesei, and ii) to reconstruct LMCO phylogeny and perform evolutionary analysis testing for positive selection. Results After homologous overproduction of a candidate LMCO gene, extracellular laccase activity was detected when ABTS or SRG were used as substrates, and the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity followed by biochemical characterization. The recombinant protein, called TrLAC1, has a molecular mass of 104 kDa. Optimal temperature and pH were respectively 40-45°C and 4, by using ABTS as substrate. TrLAC1 showed broad pH stability range of 3 to 7. Temperature stability revealed that TrLAC1 is not a thermostable enzyme, which was also confirmed by unfolding studies monitored by circular dichroism. Evolutionary studies were performed to shed light on the LMCO family, and the phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using maximum-likelihood method. LMCO and classical laccases were clearly divided into two distinct groups. Finally, Darwinian selection was tested, and the results showed that positive selection drove the evolution of sequences leading to well-known laccases involved in ligninolysis. Positively-selected sites were observed that could be used as targets for mutagenesis and functional studies between classical laccases and LMCO from T. reesei. Conclusions Homologous production and evolutionary studies of the first LMCO from the biomass-degrading fungus T. reesei gives new insights into the physicochemical parameters and biodiversity in this family. PMID:20735824

2010-01-01

82

The nucleotide sequences of the 5 S rRNAs of seven molds and a yeast and their use in studying ascomycete phylogeny.  

PubMed Central

The sequences of the 5 S rRNAs isolated from 8 ascomycete species belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Acremonium and Candida are reported. Two of the examined strains each yielded a mixture of 3 slightly different 5 S RNAs, which were individually sequenced after fractionation. A previously published sequence for Aspergillus nidulans 5 S RNA was found to contain errors. Reconstruction of an evolutionary tree based on 5 S RNA sequences showed that the 16 presently examined ascomycetes form three clusters. The same threefold partition can be observed in the secondary structure pattern, each cluster showing a slightly different variant of the general 5-helix model for 5 S rRNA (De Wachter, Chen and Vandenberghe (1982) Biochimie 64, 311-329), and different sets of secondary structure equilibrium forms in helices C and E of the aforementioned model. Images PMID:6429642

Chen, M W; Anne, J; Volckaert, G; Huysmans, E; Vandenberghe, A; De Wachter, R

1984-01-01

83

Functional characterization of sucrose non-fermenting 1 protein kinase complex genes in the Ascomycete Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Sucrose non-fermenting 1 (SNF1) protein kinase complex is a heterotrimer that functions in energy homeostasis in eukaryotes by regulating transcription of glucose-repressible genes. Our previous study revealed that SNF1 of the homothallic ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum plays important roles in vegetative growth, sexual development, and virulence. In this study, we further identified the components of the SNF1 complex in F. graminearum and characterized their functions. We found that the SNF1 complex in F. graminearum consists of one alpha subunit (FgSNF1), one beta subunit (FgGAL83), and one gamma subunit (FgSNF4). Deletion of Fggal83 and Fgsnf4 resulted in alleviated phenotype changes in vegetative growth and sexual development as compared to those of the Fgsnf1 deletion mutant. However, all of the single, double, and triple deletion mutants among Fgsnf1, Fggal83, and Fgsnf4 had similar levels of decreased virulence. In addition, there was no synergistic effect of the mutant (single, double, or triple deletions of SNF1 complex component genes) phenotypes except for sucrose utilization. In this study, we revealed that FgSNF1 is mainly required for SNF1 complex functions, and the other two SNF1 complex components have adjunctive roles with FgSNF1 in sexual development and vegetative growth but have a major role in virulence in F. graminearum. PMID:24057127

Yu, Jungheon; Son, Hokyoung; Park, Ae Ran; Lee, Seung-Ho; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

2014-02-01

84

High-Coverage ITS Primers for the DNA-Based Identification of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes in Environmental Samples  

PubMed Central

The kingdom Fungi is estimated to include 1.5 million or more species, playing key roles as decomposers, mutualists, and parasites in every biome on the earth. To comprehensively understand the diversity and ecology of this huge kingdom, DNA barcoding targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat has been regarded as a prerequisite procedure. By extensively surveying ITS sequences in public databases, we designed new ITS primers with improved coverage across diverse taxonomic groups of fungi compared to existing primers. An in silico analysis based on public sequence databases indicated that the newly designed primers matched 99% of ascomycete and basidiomycete ITS taxa (species, subspecies or varieties), causing little taxonomic bias toward either fungal group. Two of the newly designed primers could inhibit the amplification of plant sequences and would enable the selective investigation of fungal communities in mycorrhizal associations, soil, and other types of environmental samples. Optimal PCR conditions for the primers were explored in an in vitro investigation. The new primers developed in this study will provide a basis for ecological studies on the diversity and community structures of fungi in the era of massive DNA sequencing. PMID:22808280

Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi

2012-01-01

85

Nutritional physiology of a rock-inhabiting, model microcolonial fungus from an ancestral lineage of the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycetes).  

PubMed

Rock-inhabiting black fungi [also microcolonial or meristematic fungi (MCF)] are a phylogenetically diverse group of melanised ascomycetes with distinctive morphological features that confer extensive stress tolerance and permit survival in hostile environments. The MCF strain A95 Knufia petricola (syn. Sarcinomyces petricola) belongs to an ancestral lineage of the order Chaetothyriales (class Eurotiomycetes). K. petricola strain A95 is a rock-inhabiting MCF and its growth requirements were studied using the 96-well plate-based Biolog System under ?1070 different conditions (osmotic stress, pH growth optima, growth factor requirements and nutrient catabolism). A95 is an osmotolerant, oligotrophic MCF that grows best around pH 5. Remarkably, A95 shows metabolic activity in the absence of added nitrogen, phosphorus or sulphur. Correlations could be drawn between the known nutrient requirements of A95 and what probably is available in sub-aerial systems (rock and other material surfaces). Detailed knowledge of A95's metabolic requirements allowed formulation of a synthetic medium that supports strong fungal growth. PMID:23587800

Nai, Corrado; Wong, Helen Y; Pannenbecker, Annette; Broughton, William J; Benoit, Isabelle; de Vries, Ronald P; Gueidan, Cécile; Gorbushina, Anna A

2013-07-01

86

Removal of chlorophenolic derivatives by soil isolated ascomycete of Paraconiothyrium variabile and studying the role of its extracellular laccase.  

PubMed

The ability of Paraconiothyrium variabile, a laccase producing ascomycete recently isolated from soil, was studied to eliminate chlorophenol derivatives in submerged culture medium. Among the tested compounds, ?-chlorophenol (?-CP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were found to have minimum and maximum toxic effects, respectively, on the growth of the microorganism and at the same time high and low bioelimination percentages. The fungal strain was able to remove 86% of ?-CP (with initial concentration of 40 mg l(-1)) and 56% of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP; with same concentration as ?-CP) after 9 days of incubation while no elimination was observed in the presence of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and PCP. Monitoring of laccase production level in the fermentation broth together with pollutant removal confirmed the key role of this copper-containing oxidase in chlorophenol derivatives elimination. The type of laccase inducer (guaiacol) and its final concentration (250 ?M) and also initial pH of the fermentation broth (pH=5.5) in the elimination of ?-CP increased the final removal yield from 86% to 94.3%. PMID:22277342

Forootanfar, Hamid; Movahednia, Mohammad Mehdi; Yaghmaei, Soheila; Tabatabaei-Sameni, Minoosadat; Rastegar, Hossein; Sadighi, Armin; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

2012-03-30

87

Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties.  

PubMed

Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7?Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E0 = 720 and 580?mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme. PMID:25372682

Osipov, Evgeny; Polyakov, Konstantin; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir

2014-11-01

88

Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties  

PubMed Central

Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7?Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E 0 = 720 and 580?mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme. PMID:25372682

Osipov, Evgeny; Polyakov, Konstantin; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir

2014-01-01

89

Purifying Selection and Birth-and-Death Evolution in the Class II Hydrophobin Gene Families of the Ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea  

SciTech Connect

Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi, where their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air and during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or of themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and their solubility characteristics, they are classified in class I and class II hydrophobins, the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Here we have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three fully sequenced genomes (H. jecorina=T. reesei, H. atroviridis=T. atroviride; H. virens=T. virens) and a total of 14.000 ESTs of six others (T. asperellum, H. lixii=T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, which is the highest number found in any other ascomycete so far. They all showed the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these HFBs contained an extended N-terminus rich in either praline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades contain duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (2-4) from each species, and most of them were from Pyrenomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of other pyrenomycetes occured in shared clades. Our study shows that the genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea has a proliferated arsenal of class II hydrophobins which arose by purifying selection and birth-and-death evolution.

kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.; Gamauf, Christian; Kenerley, Chuck; Druzhinina, Irina S.

2008-01-10

90

A MADS Box Protein Interacts with a Mating-Type Protein and Is Required for Fruiting Body Development in the Homothallic Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora  

PubMed Central

MADS box transcription factors control diverse developmental processes in plants, metazoans, and fungi. To analyze the involvement of MADS box proteins in fruiting body development of filamentous ascomycetes, we isolated the mcm1 gene from the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, which encodes a putative homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MADS box protein Mcm1p. Deletion of the S. macrospora mcm1 gene resulted in reduced biomass, increased hyphal branching, and reduced hyphal compartment length during vegetative growth. Furthermore, the S. macrospora ?mcm1 strain was unable to produce fruiting bodies or ascospores during sexual development. A yeast two-hybrid analysis in conjugation with in vitro analyses demonstrated that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein can interact with the putative transcription factor SMTA-1, encoded by the S. macrospora mating-type locus. These results suggest that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mating-type-specific genes as well as in fruiting body development. PMID:16835449

Nolting, Nicole; Poggeler, Stefanie

2006-01-01

91

Autophagy genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 are required for fruiting-body development, vegetative growth and ascospore germination in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a tightly controlled degradation process involved in various developmental aspects of eukaryotes. However, its involvement in developmental processes of multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the impact of the autophagic proteins SmATG8 and SmATG4 on the sexual and vegetative development of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae complementation assay demonstrated that the S. macrospora Smatg8 and Smatg4 genes can functionally replace the yeast homologs. By generating homokaryotic deletion mutants, we showed that the S. macrospora SmATG8 and SmATG4 orthologs were associated with autophagy-dependent processes. Smatg8 and Smatg4 deletions abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth and ascospore germination, but not hyphal fusion. We demonstrated that SmATG4 was capable of processing the SmATG8 precursor. SmATG8 was localized to autophagosomes, whereas SmATG4 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of S. macrospora. Furthermore, we could show that Smatg8 and Smatg4 are not only required for nonselective macroautophagy, but for selective macropexophagy as well. Taken together, our results suggest that in S. macrospora, autophagy seems to be an essential and constitutively active process to sustain high energy levels for filamentous growth and multicellular development even under nonstarvation conditions. PMID:23064313

Voigt, Oliver; Poggeler, Stefanie

2013-01-01

92

Origins and Evolution of the HET-s Prion-Forming Protein: Searching for Other Amyloid-Forming Solenoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HET-s prion-forming domain from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is gaining considerable interest since it yielded the first well-defined atomic structure of a functional amyloid fibril. This structure has been identified as a left-handed beta solenoid with a triangular hydrophobic core. To delineate the origins of the HET-s prion-forming protein and to discover other amyloid-forming proteins, we searched for

Deena M. A. Gendoo; Paul M. Harrison

2011-01-01

93

Observation of Highly Flexible Residues in Amyloid Fibrils of the HET-s Prion  

E-print Network

of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is a key player in a genetically controlled cell-death phenomenon called In this work, we report the observa- tion of these so-far undetected residues using liquid-state NMR techniques-labeled HET-s(218-289) was prepared as de- scribed elsewhere.8,9 Spectra were recorded on a Bruker AV600

Riek, Roland

94

Development of a genetic transformation system for Histoplasma capsulatum : Complementation of uracil auxotrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a simple and efficient transformation system for the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Mutants of H. capsulatum defective in orotidine-5'-monophosphate pyrophosphorylase were transformed to prototrophy by the cloned URA5 gene of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. Abortive and mitotically stable transformants were obtained. The stable transformants had integrated copies of the plasmid, some in tandem head-to-tail orientation. Free

Patricia L. Worsham; William E. Goldman

1990-01-01

95

NPS6, Encoding a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Involved in Siderophore-Mediated Iron Metabolism, Is a Conserved Virulence Determinant of Plant Pathogenic Ascomycetes[W  

PubMed Central

NPS6, encoding a nonribosomal peptide synthetase, is a virulence determinant in the maize (Zea mays) pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus and is involved in tolerance to H2O2. Deletion of NPS6 orthologs in the rice (Oryza sativa) pathogen, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, and the Arabidopsis thaliana pathogen, Alternaria brassicicola, resulted in reduced virulence and hypersensitivity to H2O2. Introduction of the NPS6 ortholog from the saprobe Neurospora crassa to the ?nps6 strain of C. heterostrophus restored wild-type virulence to maize and tolerance to H2O2, demonstrating functional conservation in filamentous ascomycete phytopathogens and saprobes. Increased sensitivity to iron depletion was identified as a conserved phenotype of ?nps6 strains. Exogenous application of iron enhanced the virulence of ?nps6 strains of C. heterostrophus, C. miyabeanus, F. graminearum, and A. brassicicola to each host. NPS6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of extracellular siderophores by C. heterostrophus, F. graminearum, and A. brassicicola. Application of the extracellular siderophore of A. brassicicola restored wild-type virulence of the ?Abnps6 strain to Arabidopsis. It is proposed that the role of extracellular siderophores in fungal virulence to plants is to supply an essential nutrient, iron, to their producers in planta and not to act as phytotoxins, depriving their hosts of iron. PMID:17056706

Oide, Shinichi; Moeder, Wolfgang; Krasnoff, Stuart; Gibson, Donna; Haas, Hubertus; Yoshioka, Keiko; Turgeon, B. Gillian

2006-01-01

96

The High-Affinity Phosphodiesterase BcPde2 Has Impact on Growth, Differentiation and Virulence of the Phytopathogenic Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea  

PubMed Central

Components of the cAMP signaling pathway, such as the adenylate cyclase Bac and the protein kinase A (PKA) were shown to affect growth, morphogenesis and differentiation as well as virulence of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. While loss of Bac caused drastically reduced intracellular cAMP levels, deletion of the PKA resulted in extremely increased cAMP concentrations. To regulate the intracellular level of the second messenger cAMP, a balance between its biosynthesis through adenylate cyclase activity and its hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is crucial. Here, we report the functional characterization of the two PDEs in the ascomycete B. cinerea, BcPde1 and BcPde2. While deletion of bcpde2 resulted in severely affected vegetative growth, conidiation, germination and virulence, the bcpde1 deletion strain displayed a wild-type-like phenotype. However, the double bcpde1/2 deletion mutant exhibited an even stronger phenotype. Localization studies revealed that BcPde2 accumulates at the plasma membrane, but is also localized in the cytoplasm. BcPde1 was shown to be distributed in the cytoplasm as well, but also accumulates in so far unknown mobile vesicles. Overexpression of bcpde1 in the ?bcpde2 background rescued the deletion phenotype, and in addition an increased transcript level of bcpde1 in the ?bcpde2 strain was observed, indicating redundant functions of both PDEs and an interdependent gene expression. PMID:24265695

Harren, Karin; Brandhoff, Beate; Knodler, Michael; Tudzynski, Bettina

2013-01-01

97

Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in a patient with IgG4-related sclerosing disease caused by a novel ascomycete, Hongkongmyces pedis gen. et sp. nov.: first report of human infection associated with the family Lindgomycetaceae.  

PubMed

No members of the freshwater ascomycetes family Lindgomycetaceae have been associated with human infections. We isolated a mould (HKU35(T)) from the biopsy specimen of a patient with invasive foot infection and underlying immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease. Histology showed florid, suppurative, granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with central microabscess formation surrounded by epithelioid histiocytes, scattered giant cells, and a small number of lymphocytes. A Grocott stain revealed fungal elements in the center of the lesion. On Sabouraud glucose agar, HKU35(T) grew as gray and velvety colonies. Among the members of the family Lindgomycetaceae, HKU35(T) was the only strain that grew at 37°C. Microscopically, only sterile mycelia, but no fruiting bodies, were observed. HKU35(T) was susceptible to itrazonazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, which was in line with the patient's clinical response to itraconazole treatment. Internal transcribed spacer and partial 18S nuclear rDNA (nrDNA), 28S nrDNA, ?-tubulin gene, and EF1? gene sequencing showed that HKU35(T) occupied a unique phylogenetic position, most closely related to but distinct from members of the genera Clohesyomyces and Lindgomyces. We propose a new genus and species, Hongkongmyces pedis gen. et sp. nov., to describe this fungus, which belongs to the family Lindgomycetaceae in the orderPleosporales of class Dothideomycetes. This case also represents the first report of human infection associated with the family Lindgomycetaceae. PMID:25147085

Tsang, Chi-Ching; Chan, Jasper F W; Trendell-Smith, Nigel J; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Ling, Ian W H; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

2014-10-01

98

Description of Taphrina antarctica f.a. sp. nov., a new anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species associated with Antarctic endolithic microbial communities and transfer of four Lalaria species in the genus Taphrina.  

PubMed

In the framework of a large-scale rock sampling in Continental Antarctica, a number of yeasts have been isolated. Two strains that are unable to grow above 20 °C and that have low ITS sequence similarities with available data in the public domain were found. The D1/D2 LSU molecular phylogeny placed them in an isolated position in the genus Taphrina, supporting their affiliation to a not yet described species. Because the new species is able to grow in its anamorphic state only, the species Taphrina antarctica f.a. (forma asexualis) sp. nov. has been proposed to accommodate both strains (type strain DBVPG 5268(T), DSM 27485(T) and CBS 13532(T)). Lalaria and Taphrina species are dimorphic ascomycetes, where the anamorphic yeast represents the saprotrophic state and the teleomorph is the parasitic counterpart on plants. This is the first record for this genus in Antarctica; since plants are absent on the continent, we hypothesize that the fungus may have focused on the saprotrophic part of its life cycle to overcome the absence of its natural host and adapt environmental constrains. Following the new International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code 2011) the reorganization of Taphrina-Lalaria species in the teleomorphic genus Taphrina is proposed. We emend the diagnosis of the genus Taphrina to accommodate asexual saprobic states of these fungi. Taphrina antarctica was registered in MycoBank under MB 808028. PMID:24893860

Selbmann, Laura; Turchetti, Benedetta; Yurkov, Andrey; Cecchini, Clarissa; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Buzzini, Pietro; Onofri, Silvano

2014-07-01

99

Growth and cultural-morphological characteristics of vegetative mycelia of medicinal caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis G.H. Sung et al. (Ascomycetes) isolates from Tibetan plateau (P.R.China).  

PubMed

The morphological and cultural characteristics of vegetative mycelia of 29 Tibetan strains of medicinal caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (= Cordyceps sinensis) were studied. Data on mycelial growth of the above-mentioned fungi strains on different types of nutrients, the macro- and micromorphological description of colonies grown on different agar media, and anamorph stage identification are provided. It was shown that strains of O. sinensis demonstrated moderately slow growth on selected nutrients compared with other ascomycetous fungi. The highest growth rate value from all analyzed strains is O. sinenis N14-2.7 mm/day was completed with a mycelial run on potato-dextrose agar (pH = 6.0) in 15 d. Most of the examined strains preferred Sabouraun?s dextrose agar; some of the strains preferred potato-dextrose agar as the medium for optimal development. The least favorable nutrient for all strains was Czapek solution agar. Analyses of morphological and microstructural peculiarities on different types of nutrients were conducted and detailed descriptions and illustrations were provided. Based on macro- and micromorphological characteristics, the investigated strains were identified as Hirsutella sinensis and Tolypocladium sinensis species, which were identified as the anamorphs of Ophiocordyceps sinensis. PMID:22181845

Barseghyan, Gayane S; Holliday, John C; Price, Thomas C; Madison, Leah M; Wasser, Solomon P

2011-01-01

100

Notes on Erysiphales (Ascomycetes) from Patagonia, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen Erysiphaceous taxa found on 20 host plant species in Patagonia are documented. A new species Oidium maculatae (type host: Viola maculata) is described. Berberis linearifolia, Buddleja globosa, Prosopis alpataco and Viola maculata, are new host plants for Erysiphales. Three new combinations on fungi and host plant species were founded: Erysiphe howeana – Fuchsia magellanica; E. patagoniaca – Nothofagus pumilio

María Havrylenko; Susumu Takamatsu

2005-01-01

101

Correlation of structure and infectivity of the HET-s prion  

PubMed Central

Prions are believed to be infectious self-propagating polymers of otherwise soluble host-encoded proteins1,2. This concept is now strongly supported by the recent findings that amyloid fibrils of recombinant prion proteins from yeast3-5, Podospora anserina6, and mammals7 can induce prion phenotypes in the corresponding hosts. However, the structural basis of prion infectivity remains largely elusive because acquisition of atomic resolution structural properties of amyloid fibrils represents a largely unsolved technical challenge. HET-s, the prion protein of P. anserina, contains a C-terminal prion domain comprising residues 218-289. Amyloid fibrils of HET-s(218-289) are necessary and sufficient for the induction and propagation of prion infectivity6. Here, we have used fluorescence studies, quenched hydrogen exchange NMR and solid state NMR to determine the sequence specific positions of secondary structure elements of amyloid fibrils of HET-s(218-289). This revealed four ?-strands constituted by two pseudo repeat sequences, each forming a ?-strand-turn-?-strand motif. We show that this conformation is the functional and infectious entity of the HET-s prion by using a structure-based mutagenesis approach. These results correlate for the first time distinct structural elements with prion infectivity. PMID:15944710

Ritter, Christiane; Maddelein, Marie-Lise; Siemer, Ansgar B.; Lührs, Thorsten; Ernst, Matthias; Meier, Beat H.; Saupe, Sven; Riek, Roland

2006-01-01

102

An Acetyltransferase Conferring Tolerance to Toxic Aromatic Amine Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Aromatic amines (AA) are a major class of environmental pollutants that have been shown to have genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials toward most living organisms. Fungi are able to tolerate a diverse range of chemical compounds including certain AA and have long been used as models to understand general biological processes. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this tolerance may improve our understanding of the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments and pave the way for novel pharmaceutical and/or biotechnological applications. We have identified and characterized two arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes (PaNAT1 and PaNAT2) from the model fungus Podospora anserina that acetylate a wide range of AA. Targeted gene disruption experiments revealed that PaNAT2 was required for the growth and survival of the fungus in the presence of toxic AA. Functional studies using the knock-out strains and chemically acetylated AA indicated that tolerance of P. anserina to toxic AA was due to the N-acetylation of these chemicals by PaNAT2. Moreover, we provide proof-of-concept remediation experiments where P. anserina, through its PaNAT2 enzyme, is able to detoxify the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline in experimentally contaminated soil samples. Overall, our data show that a single xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme can mediate tolerance to a major class of pollutants in a eukaryotic species. These findings expand the understanding of the role of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme and in particular of NATs in the adaptation of organisms to their chemical environment and provide a basis for new systems for the bioremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:19416981

Martins, Marta; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dairou, Julien; Lamouri, Aazdine; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe; Dupret, Jean-Marie

2009-01-01

103

Cephalodiate Arten der Gattung Lecidea sensu lato ( Ascomycetes lichenisati)  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The ability to produce cephalodia is usually a genus-specific character in lichens. (2)Lecidea shushaniiThoms., is a member of the genusTephromela, closely related toT. aglaea. It is not clear, whether or not the cephalodia of this taxon are true cephalodia or colonies of epiphytic cyanobacteria and whether or notLecidea shushanii is an independent species. (3)Lecidea dovrensisNyl., is, in contrast to

Hannes Hertel; Gerhard Rambold

1988-01-01

104

Sodiomyces alkalinus, a new holomorphic alkaliphilic ascomycete within the Plectosphaerellaceae.  

PubMed

In this study we reassess the taxonomic reference of the previously described holomorphic alkaliphilic fungus Heleococcum alkalinum isolated from soda soils in Russia, Mongolia and Tanzania. We show that it is not an actual member of the genus Heleococcum (order Hypocreales) as stated before and should, therefore, be excluded from it and renamed. Multi-locus gene phylogeny analyses (based on nuclear ITS, 5.8S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 18S rDNA, RPB2 and TEF1-alpha) have displayed this fungus as a new taxon at the genus level within the family Plectosphaerellaceae, Hypocreomycetidae, Ascomycota. The reference species of actual Heleococcum members showed clear divergence from the strongly supported Heleococcum alkalinum position within the Plectosphaerellaceae, sister to the family Glomerellaceae. Eighteen strains isolated from soda lakes around the world show remarkable genetic similarity promoting speculations on their possible evolution in harsh alkaline environments. We established the pH growth optimum of this alkaliphilic fungus at c. pH 10 and tested growth on 30 carbon sources at pH 7 and 10. The new genus and species, Sodiomyces alkalinus gen. nov. comb. nov., is the second holomorphic fungus known within the family, the first one being Plectosphaerella - some members of this genus are known to be alkalitolerant. We propose the Plectosphaerellaceae family to be the source of alkaliphilic filamentous fungi as also the species known as Acremonium alcalophilum belongs to this group. PMID:24761040

Grum-Grzhimaylo, A A; Debets, A J M; van Diepeningen, A D; Georgieva, M L; Bilanenko, E N

2013-12-01

105

Pathogenesis of bryophyte hosts by the ascomycete Atradidymella muscivora.  

PubMed

Atradidymella muscivora (Pleosporales) is a bryophyte pathogen that infects the mosses Aulacomnium palustre, Hylocomium splendens, and Polytrichum juniperinum. Light and scanning electron microscopy and extracellular enzyme production were used to characterize the interactions between this fungus and its native hosts and the model host Funaria hygrometrica. Penetration was direct via hyphae or appressoria, and hosts responded by forming layered, darkly pigmented deposits at penetration sites, similar to the papillae formed by vascular plants in response to fungal infection. Infected hosts gradually became chlorotic as hyphae grew intracellularly, presumably killing host cells. Pycnidia of the Phoma anamorph (P. muscivora) and uniloculate pseudothecia were initiated as tightly packed masses of stromatic dematiaceous hyphae within a single host cell. Mature pycnidia and pseudothecia were erumpent. A new microniche among bryophilous fungi is described, whereby A. muscivora supplants the gemmae of Aul. palustre and exploits the normal nutrient-flow of the moss gametophyte. Atradidymella muscivora produced both cellulases and soluble polyphenolic oxidases, allowing it to also function as a saprobe and degrade the cell walls of bryophytes. The saprophytic and pathogenic abilities of A. muscivora suggest it may play a role in nutrient cycling, population dynamics, and small-scale disturbances in boreal ecosystems. PMID:21628276

Davey, Marie L; Tsuneda, Akihiko; Currah, Randolph S

2009-07-01

106

The NADPH Oxidase Complexes in Botrytis cinerea: Evidence for a Close Association with the ER and the Tetraspanin Pls1  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidases (Nox) are major enzymatic systems that generate reactive-oxygen species (ROS) in multicellular eukaryotes. In several fungi they have been shown to be involved in sexual differentiation and pathogenicity. However, in contrast to the well characterized mammalian systems, basic information on the composition, recruitment, and localization of fungal Nox complexes and on the molecular mechanisms of their cellular effects are still lacking. Here we give a detailed analysis of components of the Nox complexes in the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. It had previously been shown that the two catalytic transmembrane subunits BcNoxA and B are important for development of sclerotia and for full virulence, with BcNoxA being involved in spreading of lesions and BcNoxB in penetration; BcNoxR functions as a regulator of both subunits. Here we present evidence (using for the first time a functional GFP fusion able to complement the ?bcnoxA mutant) that BcNoxA localizes mainly to the ER and at the plasma membrane; BcNoxB shows a similar localization pattern, while the regulator BcNoxR is found in vesicles throughout the hyphae and at the hyphal tip. To identify possible interaction partners, which could be involved in the localization or recruitment of the Nox complexes, we functionally characterized the tetraspanin Pls1, a transmembrane protein, which had been suggested to be a NoxB-interacting partner in the saprophyte Podospora anserina. Knock-out experiments and GFP fusions substantiate a link between BcNoxB and BcPls1 because both deletion mutants have overlapping phenotypes (especially a defect in penetration), and the proteins show a similar localization pattern (ER). However, in contrast to the corresponding protein in P. anserina BcPls1 is important for female fertility, but not for ascospore germination. PMID:23418468

Siegmund, Ulrike; Heller, Jens; van Kann, Jan A. L.; Tudzynski, Paul

2013-01-01

107

Peroxisomes and sexual development in fungi  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are essential for the development of most eukaryotic organisms. In fungi, many developmental processes, such as sexual development, require the activity of peroxisomes. Sexual reproduction in fungi involves the formation of meiotic-derived sexual spores, often takes place inside multicellular fruiting bodies and requires precise coordination between the differentiation of multiple cell types and the progression of karyogamy and meiosis. Different peroxisomal functions contribute to the orchestration of this complex developmental process. Peroxisomes are required to sustain the formation of fruiting bodies and the maturation and germination of sexual spores. They facilitate the mobilization of reserve compounds via fatty acid ?-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, allowing the generation of energy and biosynthetic precursors. Additionally, peroxisomes are implicated in the progression of meiotic development. During meiotic development in Podospora anserina, there is a precise modulation of peroxisome assembly and dynamics. This modulation includes changes in peroxisome size, number and localization, and involves a differential activity of the protein-machinery that drives the import of proteins into peroxisomes. Furthermore, karyogamy, entry into meiosis and sorting of meiotic-derived nuclei into sexual spores all require the activity of peroxisomes. These processes rely on different peroxisomal functions and likely depend on different pathways for peroxisome assembly. Indeed, emerging studies support the existence of distinct import channels for peroxisomal proteins that contribute to different developmental stages. PMID:24046747

Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique

2013-01-01

108

The Pichia pastoris PER6 gene product is a peroxisomal integral membrane protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis and has sequence similarity to the Zellweger syndrome protein PAF-1.  

PubMed Central

We report the cloning of PER6, a gene essential for peroxisome biogenesis in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The PER6 sequence predicts that its product Per6p is a 52-kDa polypeptide with the cysteine-rich C3HC4 motif. Per6p has significant overall sequence similarity with the human peroxisome assembly factor PAF-1, a protein that is defective in certain patients suffering from the peroxisomal disorder Zellweger syndrome, and with car1, a protein required for peroxisome biogenesis and caryogamy in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. In addition, the C3HC4 motif and two of the three membrane-spanning segments predicted for Per6p align with the C3HC4 motifs and the two membrane-spanning segments predicted for PAF-1 and car1. Like PAF-1, Per6p is a peroxisomal integral membrane protein. In methanol- or oleic acid-induced cells of per6 mutants, morphologically recognizable peroxisomes are absent. Instead, peroxisomal remnants are observed. In addition, peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized but located in the cytosol. The similarities between Per6p and PAF-1 in amino acid sequence and biochemical properties, and between mutants defective in their respective genes, suggest that Per6p is the putative yeast homolog of PAF-1. PMID:8628321

Waterham, H R; de Vries, Y; Russel, K A; Xie, W; Veenhuis, M; Cregg, J M

1996-01-01

109

In vivo and in vitro analyses of toxic mutants of HET-s: FTIR antiparallel signature correlates with amyloid toxicity.  

PubMed

The folding and interactions of amyloid proteins are at the heart of the debate as to how these proteins may or may not become toxic to their host. Although little is known about this issue, the structure seems to be clearly involved with effects on molecular events. To understand how an amyloid may be toxic, we previously generated a yeast toxic amyloid (mutant 8) from the nontoxic HET-s((218-289)) prion domain of Podospora anserina. Here, we performed a comprehensive structure-toxicity study by mutating individually each of the 10 mutations found in mutant 8. The study of the library of new mutants generated allowed us to establish a clear link between Fourier transform infrared antiparallel signature and amyloid toxicity. All of the mutants that form parallel ?-sheets are not toxic. Double mutations may be sufficient to shift a parallel structure to antiparallel amyloids, which are toxic to yeast. Our findings also suggest that the toxicity of antiparallel structured mutants may be linked to interaction with membranes. PMID:21782829

Berthelot, Karine; Ta, Ha Phuong; Géan, Julie; Lecomte, Sophie; Cullin, Christophe

2011-09-01

110

Amyloid diseases of yeast: prions are proteins acting as genes.  

PubMed

The unusual genetic properties of the non-chromosomal genetic elements [URE3] and [PSI+] led to them being identified as prions (infectious proteins) of Ure2p and Sup35p respectively. Ure2p and Sup35p, and now several other proteins, can form amyloid, a linear ordered polymer of protein monomers, with a part of each molecule, the prion domain, forming the core of this ?-sheet structure. Amyloid filaments passed to a new cell seed the conversion of the normal form of the protein into the same amyloid form. The cell's phenotype is affected, usually from the deficiency of the normal form of the protein. Solid-state NMR studies indicate that the yeast prion amyloids are in-register parallel ?-sheet structures, in which each residue (e.g. Asn35) forms a row along the filament long axis. The favourable interactions possible for aligned identical hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues are believed to be the mechanism for propagation of amyloid conformation. Thus, just as DNA mediates inheritance by templating its own sequence, these proteins act as genes by templating their conformation. Distinct isolates of a given prion have different biological properties, presumably determined by differences between the amyloid structures. Many lines of evidence indicate that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae prions are pathological disease agents, although the example of the [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina shows that a prion can have beneficial aspects. PMID:25131596

Wickner, Reed B; Edskes, Herman K; Bateman, David A; Kelly, Amy C; Gorkovskiy, Anton; Dayani, Yaron; Zhou, Albert

2014-01-01

111

Isolation and characterization of MAT genes in the symbiotic ascomycete Tuber melanosporum.  

PubMed

• The genome of Tuber melanosporum has recently been sequenced. Here, we used this information to identify genes involved in the reproductive processes of this edible fungus. The sequenced strain (Mel28) possesses only one of the two master genes required for mating, that is, the gene that codes for the high mobility group (HMG) transcription factor (MAT1-2-1), whereas it lacks the gene that codes for the protein containing the ?-box- domain (MAT1-1-1), suggesting that this fungus is heterothallic. • A PCR-based approach was initially employed to screen truffles for the presence of the MAT1-2-1 gene and amplify the conserved regions flanking the mating type (MAT) locus. The MAT1-1-1 gene was finally identified using primers designed from the conserved regions of strains that lack the MAT1-2-1 gene. • Mating type-specific primer pairs were developed to screen asci and gleba from truffles of different origins and to genotype single ascospores within the asci. These analyses provided definitive evidence that T. melanosporum is a heterothallic species with a MAT locus that is organized similarly to those of ancient fungal lineages. • A greater understanding of the reproductive mechanisms that exist in Tuber spp. allows for optimization of truffle plantation management strategies. PMID:20961294

Rubini, Andrea; Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Tisserant, Emilie; Arcioni, Sergio; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

2011-02-01

112

Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).  

PubMed

Natural carotenoids have attracted great attention for their important beneficial effects on human health and food coloring function. Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus, is a potential source of natural carotenoids. The present study aimed to optimize the process parameters for carotenoid extraction from this mushroom. The effects of different methods of breaking the fungal cell wall and organic solvents were studied by the one-factor-at-a-time method. Subsequently, the process parameters including the duration of the extraction time, the number of extractions, and the solvent to solid ratio were optimized by using the Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions included using an acid-heating method to break the cell wall and later extracting three times, each for a 1 h duration, with a 4:1 mixture of acetone: petroleum ether and a solvent: solid ratio of 24:1. The carotenoid content varied from 2122.50 to 3847.50 µg/g dry weights in different commercially obtained fruit bodies of C. militaris. The results demonstrated that the C. militaris contained more carotenoid content in its fruit bodies than other known mushrooms. Stability monitoring by HPLC demonstrated that the carotenoids could be stored at 4°C for 40 d. It is suggested that the carotenoid content should be considered as the quality standard of commercial products of this valued mushroom. These findings will facilitate the exploration of carotenoids from C. militaris. PMID:24941034

Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde; Lian, Tiantian; Wang, Wenzhao; Dong, Cai-Hong

2014-01-01

113

Notes on Lichen Genus Buellia De Not. (lichenized Ascomycetes) from South Korea.  

PubMed

Based on a literature survey and assessment of the important features of lichen genus Buellia (spore shape and size, anatomy of the exciple as well as analysis of the lichen substances), the present paper describes four new records of B. maritima, B. polyspora, B. spuria and B. stellulata from South Korea. Among them, B. maritima and B. polyspora are firstly reported in East Asia including in China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Brief description of all the new records along with earlier described species placed under genus Amandinea and Hafellia are provided with their distribution and chemistry. A key to all the Buellia species reported so far from South Korea is also provided. PMID:23956628

Joshi, Yogesh; Wang, Xin Yu; Lökös, László; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

2010-03-01

114

Notes on Lichen Genus Buellia De Not. (lichenized Ascomycetes) from South Korea  

PubMed Central

Based on a literature survey and assessment of the important features of lichen genus Buellia (spore shape and size, anatomy of the exciple as well as analysis of the lichen substances), the present paper describes four new records of B. maritima, B. polyspora, B. spuria and B. stellulata from South Korea. Among them, B. maritima and B. polyspora are firstly reported in East Asia including in China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Brief description of all the new records along with earlier described species placed under genus Amandinea and Hafellia are provided with their distribution and chemistry. A key to all the Buellia species reported so far from South Korea is also provided. PMID:23956628

Joshi, Yogesh; Wang, Xin Yu; Lokos, Laszlo; Koh, Young Jin

2010-01-01

115

The ascomycete Verticillium longisporum is a hybrid and a plant pathogen with an expanded host range.  

PubMed

Hybridization plays a central role in plant evolution, but its overall importance in fungi is unknown. New plant pathogens are thought to arise by hybridization between formerly separated fungal species. Evolution of hybrid plant pathogens from non-pathogenic ancestors in the fungal-like protist Phytophthora has been demonstrated, but in fungi, the most important group of plant pathogens, there are few well-characterized examples of hybrids. We focused our attention on the hybrid and plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum, the causal agent of the Verticillium wilt disease in crucifer crops. In order to address questions related to the evolutionary origin of V. longisporum, we used phylogenetic analyses of seven nuclear loci and a dataset of 203 isolates of V. longisporum, V. dahliae and related species. We confirmed that V. longisporum was diploid, and originated three different times, involving four different lineages and three different parental species. All hybrids shared a common parent, species A1, that hybridized respectively with species D1, V. dahliae lineage D2 and V. dahliae lineage D3, to give rise to three different lineages of V. longisporum. Species A1 and species D1 constituted as yet unknown taxa. Verticillium longisporum likely originated recently, as each V. longisporum lineage was genetically homogenous, and comprised species A1 alleles that were identical across lineages. PMID:21455321

Inderbitzin, Patrik; Davis, R Michael; Bostock, Richard M; Subbarao, Krishna V

2011-01-01

116

WetA Is Required for Conidiogenesis and Conidium Maturation in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium graminearum, a prominent fungal pathogen that infects major cereal crops, primarily utilizes asexual spores to spread disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum, we functionally characterized the F. graminearum ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans wetA, which has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation. Deletion of F. graminearum wetA did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the wetA deletion mutants produced longer conidia with fewer septa, and the conidia were sensitive to acute stresses, such as oxidative stress and heat stress. Furthermore, the survival rate of aged conidia from the F. graminearum wetA deletion mutants was reduced. The wetA deletion resulted in vigorous generation of single-celled conidia through autophagy-dependent microcycle conidiation, indicating that WetA functions to maintain conidial dormancy by suppressing microcycle conidiation in F. graminearum. Transcriptome analyses demonstrated that most of the putative conidiation-related genes are expressed constitutively and that only a few genes are specifically involved in F. graminearum conidiogenesis. The conserved and distinct roles identified for WetA in F. graminearum provide new insights into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24186953

Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee

2014-01-01

117

Discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the uncharacterized genome of the ascomycete Ophiognomonia  

E-print Network

and Regeneration Center, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 715 W. State Street, West and cost-effective discovery of SNP markers in non-model organisms and should prove especially useful canker, high-throughput marker identification, next generation sequencing, non- model organism, reference

118

Insect peptide metchnikowin confers on barley a selective capacity for resistance to fungal ascomycetes pathogens.  

PubMed

The potential of metchnikowin, a 26-amino acid residue proline-rich antimicrobial peptide synthesized in the fat body of Drosophila melanogaster was explored to engineer disease resistance in barley against devastating fungal plant pathogens. The synthetic peptide caused strong in vitro growth inhibition (IC(50) value approximately 1 muM) of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Transgenic barley expressing the metchnikowin gene in its 52-amino acid pre-pro-peptide form under the control of the inducible mannopine synthase (mas) gene promoter from the T(i) plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens displayed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew as well as Fusarium head blight and root rot. In response to these pathogens, metchnikowin accumulated in plant apoplastic space, specifying that the insect signal peptide is functional in monocotyledons. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed that the peptide is markedly effective against fungal pathogens of the phylum Ascomycota but, clearly, less active against Basidiomycota fungi. Importantly, germination of the mutualistic basidiomycete mycorrhizal fungus Piriformospora indica was affected only at concentrations beyond 50 muM. These results suggest that antifungal peptides from insects are a valuable source for crop plant improvements and their differential activities toward different phyla of fungi denote a capacity for insect peptides to be used as selective measures on specific plant diseases. PMID:19734262

Rahnamaeian, Mohammad; Langen, Gregor; Imani, Jafargholi; Khalifa, Walaa; Altincicek, Boran; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Vilcinskas, Andreas

2009-01-01

119

Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated genetic transformation of the phytopathogenic ascomycete Calonectria morganii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conidia of the phytopathogenic fungus Calonectria morganii were transformed to hygromycin B resistance using the hph gene of Escherichia coli as the selective trait, governed by a heterologous fungal promoter and the Aspergillus nidulans trpC terminator. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation yielded stable hygromycin B-resistant clones (average number 106 per 107 conidia). Putative transformants appeared to be mitotically and meiotically stable. The

Stefan Malonek; Friedhelm Meinhardt

2001-01-01

120

Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated genetic transformation of the white root rot ascomycete Rosellinia necatrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hygromycin B resistance was conferred to the mycelium of the white root rot fungus Rosellinia necatrix by transformation with the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hph) of Escherichia coli under the control of the heterologous fungal Aspergillus nidulans P-gpd (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) promoter and the trpC terminator. In all three transformants, the presence of hph and single-copy integrations of the marker

Tadanori Aimi; Hiroyuki Taguchi; Yoshikazu Tanaka; Yutaka Kitamoto; Tsutomu Morinaga

2005-01-01

121

Two new pathogenic ascomycetes in Guignardia and Rosenscheldiella on New Zealand's pygmy mistletoes (Korthalsella: Viscaceae)  

PubMed Central

Two new pathogens, Guignardia korthalsellae and Rosenscheldiella korthalsellae, are described from New Zealand's pygmy mistletoes (Korthalsella, Viscaceae). Both form ascomata on living phylloclades with minimal disruption of the tissue. Fungal hyphae within the phylloclade are primarily intercellular. Guignardia korthalsellae disrupts a limited number of epidermal cells immediately around the erumpent ascoma, while the ascomata of Rosenscheldiella korthalsellae develop externally on small patches of stromatic tissue that form above stomatal cavities. Rosenscheldiella is applied in a purely morphological sense. LSU sequences show that R. korthalsellae as well as another New Zealand species, Rosenscheldiella brachyglottidis, are members of the Mycosphaerellaceae sensu stricto. Genetically, Rosenscheldiella, in the sense we are using it, is polyphyletic; LSU and ITS sequences place the two New Zealand species in different clades within the Mycosphaerellaceae. Rosenscheldiella is retained for these fungi until generic relationships within the family are resolved. Whether or not the type species of Rosenscheldiella, R. styracis, is also a member of the Mycosphaerellaceae is not known, but it has a similar morphology and relationship to its host as the two New Zealand species. PMID:21523197

Sultan, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Park, D.; Robertson, A.W.

2011-01-01

122

Assessing conserved function of conidiation regulators in two distantly related ascomycetes, Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa  

E-print Network

of the Trichoderma virens ortholog (Trive1|34415) was obtained from the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Trive1/Trive1.home.html). Sequence alignment was performed using the ClustalW program online at EMBL-EBI (http... of the Trichoderma virens ortholog (Trive1|34415) was obtained from the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Trive1/Trive1.home.html). Sequence alignment was performed using the ClustalW program online at EMBL-EBI (http...

Chung, Da Woon

2012-07-16

123

Anamylopsoraceae — a new family of lichenized ascomycetes with stipitate apothecia ( Lecanorales: Agyriineae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomy, chemistry and developmental morphology ofAnamylopsora pulcherrima is investigated. Some characters, including the ascus structure, suggest a close affinity with theAgyriaceae. However, the chemistry and the pycnidial structure differ as well as the ascoma ontogeny.Anamylopsora has a gymnocarpous ascoma development and the ascogonia are produced in stipes.Trapelia coarctata, as a typical member of theAgyriaceae, shows a hemiangiocarpous ascoma ontogeny.

H. Thorsten Lumbsch; Thomas Lunke; G. Benno Feige; Siegfried Huneck

1995-01-01

124

Three types of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from the medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).  

PubMed

Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) is a key enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the synthesis of its C20 precursor. In the present study, three types of ggpps genes were cloned and analyzed from the Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued carotenoid-producing species. The sequences were named as ggpps727, ggpps191, and ggpps595. The open reading frame codes for predicted polypeptides of 464, 550, and 431 aa. Three predicted GGPPSs had a high similarity to that from Beauveria bassiana ARSEF 2860 with identity of 73%, 71%, and 56%, respectively. Homology comparison of the deduced peptide sequences of the various GGPPSs revealed highly conserved domains. Both GGPPS727 and GGPPS191 from C. militaris contained all five domains highly conserved among prenyltransferases as well as two aspartate-rich DDXX(XX)D motifs in domains II and V, which have been proven essential for prenyltransferase activity. By constructing the phylogenetic tree of fungal GGPPSs, it was found that fungi-derived GGPPSs could be divided into three clusters, suggesting there were three types of GGPPSs in fungi. Each type may be responsible for a different metabolism. Three types of GGPPSs from C. militaris belonged to the different clusters separately. Expression analysis of three ggpps genes during the fruit body cultivation of C. militaris by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) suggested the ggpps 191 gene may be involved in the synthesis of carotenoids and ggpps 727 may be responsible for primary metabolism. This is the first report of the GGPPS from C. militaris, a valued edible and medicinal fungus. PMID:24941033

Lian, Tiantian; Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde

2014-01-01

125

The crystal structure of an extracellular catechol oxidase from the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

Catechol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1) catalyse the oxidation of o-diphenols to their corresponding o-quinones. These oxidases contain two copper ions (CuA and CuB) within the so-called coupled type 3 copper site as found in tyrosinases (EC 1.14.18.1) and haemocyanins. The crystal structures of a limited number of bacterial and fungal tyrosinases and plant catechol oxidases have been solved. In this study, we present the first crystal structure of a fungal catechol oxidase from Aspergillus oryzae (AoCO4) at 2.5-Å resolution. AoCO4 belongs to the newly discovered family of short-tyrosinases, which are distinct from other tyrosinases and catechol oxidases because of their lack of the conserved C-terminal domain and differences in the histidine pattern for CuA. The sequence identity of AoCO4 with other structurally known enzymes is low (less than 30 %), and the crystal structure of AoCO4 diverges from that of enzymes belonging to the conventional tyrosinase family in several ways, particularly around the central ?-helical core region. A diatomic oxygen moiety was identified as a bridging molecule between the two copper ions CuA and CuB separated by a distance of 4.2-4.3 Å. The UV/vis absorption spectrum of AoCO4 exhibits a distinct maximum of absorbance at 350 nm, which has been reported to be typical of the oxy form of type 3 copper enzymes. PMID:24043469

Hakulinen, Nina; Gasparetti, Chiara; Kaljunen, Heidi; Kruus, Kristiina; Rouvinen, Juha

2013-12-01

126

The Ascomycete Verticillium longisporum Is a Hybrid and a Plant Pathogen with an Expanded Host Range  

PubMed Central

Hybridization plays a central role in plant evolution, but its overall importance in fungi is unknown. New plant pathogens are thought to arise by hybridization between formerly separated fungal species. Evolution of hybrid plant pathogens from non-pathogenic ancestors in the fungal-like protist Phytophthora has been demonstrated, but in fungi, the most important group of plant pathogens, there are few well-characterized examples of hybrids. We focused our attention on the hybrid and plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum, the causal agent of the Verticillium wilt disease in crucifer crops. In order to address questions related to the evolutionary origin of V. longisporum, we used phylogenetic analyses of seven nuclear loci and a dataset of 203 isolates of V. longisporum, V. dahliae and related species. We confirmed that V. longisporum was diploid, and originated three different times, involving four different lineages and three different parental species. All hybrids shared a common parent, species A1, that hybridized respectively with species D1, V. dahliae lineage D2 and V. dahliae lineage D3, to give rise to three different lineages of V. longisporum. Species A1 and species D1 constituted as yet unknown taxa. Verticillium longisporum likely originated recently, as each V. longisporum lineage was genetically homogenous, and comprised species A1 alleles that were identical across lineages. PMID:21455321

Inderbitzin, Patrik; Davis, R. Michael; Bostock, Richard M.; Subbarao, Krishna V.

2011-01-01

127

Henkel Bot. 359 Spr. 2010 Biology of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes (Bot. 359)  

E-print Network

(Hawkins) Monday & Wednesday pm, 5-7:50 pm, Science B 128 Required Text: Introduction to Fungi, 3rd Edition, J. Webster & R.W.S. Weber Recommended: Mushrooms Demystified by David Arora (field guide) Required histories, systematics, ecology, genetics, and practical applications of two major phyla of fungi

Henkel, Terry

128

CZECH MYCOL. 59(2): 215226, 2007 The ascomycete Meliniomyces variabilis isolated from  

E-print Network

a sporocarp of Hydnotrya tulasnei (Pezizales) intracellularly colonises roots of ecto- and ericoid mycorrhizal HRSELOVÁ 5 , JANA ALBRECHTOVÁ 1, 2 and MIROSLAV VOSÁTKA 1 1 Department of Mycorrhizal Symbioses, Institute roots of ecto- and ericoid mycorrhizal host plants. ­ Czech Mycol. 59(2): 215­226. Attempts to isolate

Janouskova, Martina

129

Effectiveness of modified White's solution at removing ascomycetes associated with the bark beetle Ips pini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Modified White's solution (1 g HgCl2\\/l H2O) is widely used to surface disinfest bark beetles of their phoretic fungi. We investigated the effectiveness of this solution at disinfesting adult Ips pini from its associated ophiostomatoid fungi. A treatment for 1, 4 or 8 min does not completely rid beetles of phoretic fungi, but does substantially reduce the amount of

B. J. Kopper; K. D. Klepzig; K. F. Raffa

2003-01-01

130

Dactylospora glaucomarioides (Ascomycetes, Dactylosporaceae): A Lichenicolous Fungus New to South Korea  

PubMed Central

The lichenicolous fungi flora of South Korea is poorly known. During recent field trips to various parts of South Korea and after an extensive examination of herbarium lichen specimens, we encountered a lichenicolous fungi growing over a thallus of the lichen Ochrolechia yasudae Vain., characterized by small black apothecia with mostly three-septate brown ascospores. It was identified as Dactylospora glaucomarioides. This is the first report of this lichenicolous fungus from South Korea. A taxonomic description and comments are presented. PMID:23956673

Joshi, Yogesh; Knudsen, Kerry; Wang, Xin Yu

2010-01-01

131

The Homologue of het-c of Neurospora crassa Lacks Vegetative Compatibility Function in Fusarium proliferatum†  

PubMed Central

For two fungal strains to be vegetatively compatible and capable of forming a stable vegetative heterokaryon they must carry matching alleles at a series of loci variously termed het or vic genes. Cloned het/vic genes from Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina have no obvious functional similarity and have various cellular functions. Our objective was to identify the homologue of the Neurospora het-c gene in Fusarium proliferatum and to determine if this gene has a vegetative compatibility function in this economically important and widely dispersed fungal pathogen. In F. proliferatum and five other closely related Fusarium species we found a few differences in the DNA sequence, but the changes were silent and did not alter the amino acid sequence of the resulting protein. Deleting the gene altered sexual fertility as the female parent, but it did not alter male fertility or existing vegetative compatibility interactions. Replacement of the allele-specific portion of the coding sequence with the sequence of an alternate allele in N. crassa did not result in a vegetative incompatibility response in transformed strains of F. proliferatum. Thus, the fphch gene in Fusarium appears unlikely to have the vegetative compatibility function associated with its homologue in N. crassa. These results suggest that the vegetative compatibility phenotype may result from convergent evolution. Thus, the genes involved in this process may need to be identified at the species level or at the level of a group of species and could prove to be attractive targets for the development of antifungal agents. PMID:17021201

Kerenyi, Zoltan; Olah, Brigitta; Jeney, Apor; Hornok, Laszlo; Leslie, John F.

2006-01-01

132

Characterization of a Broad-Specificity ?-Glucanase Acting on ?-(1,3)-, ?-(1,4)-, and ?-(1,6)-Glucans That Defines a New Glycoside Hydrolase Family  

PubMed Central

Here we report the cloning of the Pa_3_10940 gene from the coprophilic fungus Podospora anserina, which encodes a C-terminal family 1 carbohydrate binding module (CBM1) linked to a domain of unknown function. The function of the gene was investigated by expression of the full-length protein and a truncated derivative without the CBM1 domain in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Using a library of polysaccharides of different origins, we demonstrated that the full-length enzyme displays activity toward a broad range of ?-glucan polysaccharides, including laminarin, curdlan, pachyman, lichenan, pustulan, and cellulosic derivatives. Analysis of the products released from polysaccharides revealed that this ?-glucanase is an exo-acting enzyme on ?-(1,3)- and ?-(1,6)-linked glucan substrates and an endo-acting enzyme on ?-(1,4)-linked glucan substrates. Hydrolysis of short ?-(1,3), ?-(1,4), and ?-(1,3)/?-(1,4) gluco-oligosaccharides confirmed this striking feature and revealed that the enzyme performs in an exo-type mode on the nonreducing end of gluco-oligosaccharides. Excision of the CBM1 domain resulted in an inactive enzyme on all substrates tested. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an enzyme that displays bifunctional exo-?-(1,3)/(1,6) and endo-?-(1,4) activities toward beta-glucans and therefore cannot readily be assigned to existing Enzyme Commission groups. The amino acid sequence has high sequence identity to hypothetical proteins within the fungal taxa and thus defines a new family of glycoside hydrolases, the GH131 family. PMID:23023747

Lafond, Mickael; Navarro, David; Haon, Mireille; Couturier, Marie

2012-01-01

133

Genomic Clustering and Homology between HET-S and the NWD2 STAND Protein in Various Fungal Genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Prions are infectious proteins propagating as self-perpetuating amyloid polymers. The [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina is involved in a cell death process associated with non-self recognition. The prion forming domain (PFD) of HET-s adopts a ?-solenoid amyloid structure characterized by the two fold repetition of an elementary triangular motif. [Het-s] induces cell death when interacting with HET-S, an allelic variant of HET-s. When templated by [Het-s], HET-S undergoes a trans-conformation, relocates to the cell membrane and induces toxicity. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, comparing HET-s homologs from different species, we devise a consensus for the HET-s elementary triangular motif. We use this motif to screen genomic databases and find a match to the N-terminus of NWD2, a STAND protein, encoded by the gene immediately adjacent to het-S. STAND proteins are signal transducing ATPases which undergo ligand-induced oligomerisation. Homology modelling predicts that the NWD2 N-terminal region adopts a HET-s-like fold. We propose that upon NWD2 oligomerisation, these N-terminal extensions adopt the ?-solenoid fold and template HET-S to adopt the amyloid fold and trigger toxicity. We extend this model to a putative prion, the ? infectious element in Nectria haematococca, because the s locus controlling propagation of ? also encodes a STAND protein and displays analogous features. Comparative genomic analyses indicate evolutionary conservation of these STAND/prion-like gene pairs, identify a number of novel prion candidates and define, in addition to the HET-s PFD motif, two distinct, novel putative PFD-like motifs. Conclusions/Significance We suggest the existence, in the fungal kingdom, of a widespread and evolutionarily conserved mode of signal transduction based on the transmission of an amyloid-fold from a NOD-like STAND receptor protein to an effector protein. PMID:22493719

Daskalov, Asen; Paoletti, Mathieu; Ness, Frederique; Saupe, Sven J.

2012-01-01

134

A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata  

PubMed Central

Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14?500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S+R+), infected asymptomatic plants (S–R+), and healthy plants (S–R–). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S+R+ plants compared with S–R– plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040

Camps, Celine; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Leon, Celine; Gomes, Eric; Coutos-Thevenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

2010-01-01

135

Pichia porticicola sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast related to Pichia acaciae isolated from galleries of ambrosia beetles in Japan.  

PubMed

Eleven strains of yeasts, isolated from galleries of ambrosia beetles in Japan, formerly identified as Pichia acaciae were found to have different sequences in the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene. After detailed taxonomic studies including a DNA-DNA reassociation experiment, 11 strains were found to represent a novel species of the genus Pichia. It is described as Pichia porticicola sp. nov. (type strain NBRC 100302(T) = CBS 11715(T)). The eleven strains were isolated from various samples associated with different kinds of insects and trees which were collected in 11 prefectures, from the north to the south of Japan. This species might be a common species in galleries of ambrosia beetles in Japan. PMID:20953092

Ninomiya, Shinya; Mikata, Kozaburo; Nakagiri, Akira; Nakase, Takashi; Kawasaki, Hiroko

2010-08-01

136

Two novel ascomycetous yeast species, Wickerhamomyces scolytoplatypi sp. nov. and Cyberlindnera xylebori sp. nov., isolated from ambrosia beetle galleries.  

PubMed

Thirteen strains of yeasts were isolated from ambrosia beetle galleries at several sites in Japan. Based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene of the yeasts, 10 strains were shown to represent a novel species of the genus Wickerhamomyces, described as Wickerhamomyces scolytoplatypi sp. nov. (type strain NBRC 11029(T) = CBS 12186(T)), and were closely related to Wickerhamomyces hampshirensis. The three other strains represented a novel species of the genus Cyberlindnera, described as Cyberlindnera xylebori sp. nov. (type strain NBRC 11048(T) = CBS 12187(T)), and were closely related to Cyberlindnera euphorbiiphila. It is suggested that these species are associated with ambrosia beetles and we consider ambrosia beetle galleries as good sources of novel yeasts. PMID:23667144

Ninomiya, Shinya; Mikata, Kozaburo; Kajimura, Hisashi; Kawasaki, Hiroko

2013-07-01

137

Ambrosiozyma kamigamensis sp. nov. and A. neoplatypodis sp. nov., two new ascomycetous yeasts from ambrosia beetle galleries.  

PubMed

Two new yeast species of the genus Ambrosiozyma are described on the basis of comparison of nucleotide sequences of large subunit of ribosomal DNA D1/D2 region. Ambrosiozyma kamigamensis and Ambrosiozyma neoplatypodis differ from Ambrosiozyma ambrosiae by 17 nucleotides (3.0%) and 16 nucleotides (2.8%), respectively, out of 565. The two species differ from each other by 13 nucleotides. Ambrosiozyma kamigamensis was isolated from galleries of the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, in specimens of Quercus laurifolia and Castanopsis cuspidata located in the southern part of Kyoto, Japan. Ambrosiozyma neoplatypodis was isolated from similar material, but only in Q. laurifolia. Ambrosiozyma kamigamensis can be distinguished from the other Ambrosiozyma species by the inability to assimilate erythritol, whereas A. neoplatypodis can be distinguished by the ability to assimilate both L: -arabinose and nitrate. The type strains of A. kamigamensis and A. neoplatypodis are JCM 14990(T) (=CBS 10899(T)) and JCM 14992(T) (=CBS 10900(T)), respectively. This is the first report of new Ambrosiozyma species since the genus was proposed. PMID:18516700

Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Benno, Yoshimi

2008-10-01

138

Molecular Evidence that the Asexual Industrial Fungus Trichoderma reesei is a Clonal Derivative of the Ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of the important cellulase producing asexual fungus Trichoderma reesei to its putative teleomorphic (sexual) ancestor Hypocrea jecorina and other species of the Trichoderma sect. Longibrachiatum was studied by PCR-fingerprinting and sequence analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA region containing the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene. The differences in the corresponding ITS sequences

K. Kuhls; E. Lieckfeldt; G. J. Samuels; W. Kovacs; W. Meyer; O. Petrini; W. Gams; T. Borner; C. P. Kubicek

1996-01-01

139

Biochemical and structural characterisation of the copper containing oxidoreductases catechol oxidase, tyrosinase, and laccase from ascomycete fungi.  

E-print Network

??Catechol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1), tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1), and laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) are copper-containing metalloenzymes. They oxidise substituted phenols and use molecular oxygen as a terminal… (more)

Gasparetti, Chiara

2012-01-01

140

Various Grain Substrates for the Production of Fruiting Bodies and Bioactive Compounds of the Medicinal Caterpillar Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).  

PubMed

In this study, several grains such as brown rice (Br), plumule rice (Pr), wheat (W) and pearl barley (Pb) supplemented with 1% (w/w) peptone (P), yeast extract (Ye), ammonia sulfate (As), and monosodium glutamate (Mg) as a nitrogen source, respectively, were used to produce fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds of two strains of Cordyceps militaris. Among these grain substrates, the substrate most suitable to mycelial growth was Pb+Ye for C. militaris H and L. The mushroom strains colonized this substrate in 12.8 and 12.6 days, respectively. For C. militaris L, the fewest days were required for primordial initiation on Br+Ye and Pr+P substrates. The highest yield and biological efficiency was observed with Pb substrate (25.16 g/bottle and 87.36%) and Br+P substrate (21.84 g/bottle and 75.83%) for C. militaris H and L, respectively. In the fruiting bodies of C. militaris H, the highest cordycepin content was cultivated on W+Mg substrate (25.07 mg/g), the highest mannitol content was cultivated with Pr+Mg (153.21 mg/g) and Pr (151.65 mg/g) substrates, and the highest adenosine content was cultivated with Pr+Ye (0.94 mg/g) and Pb+Ye (0.90 mg/g) substrates. In the fruiting bodies of C. militaris L, the highest cordycepin content was cultivated with W+Mg substrate (22.14 mg/g); the highest mannitol content was cultivated with Pb substrate (189.33 mg/g); and the highest adenosine content was cultivated with Pb+Ye substrate (0.71 mg/g). PMID:25404221

Liang, Zeng-Chin; Liang, Chih-Hung; Wu, Chiu-Yeh

2014-01-01

141

Toxin production in Pyrenophora teres, the ascomycete causing the net-spot blotch disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

Toxin production in a large number of Pyrenophora teres isolates have been investigated. During fungal growth, the pH of the medium decreases from 6.5 to about 3.0. Aspergillomarasmine A is the major toxin excreted into the culture medium. Nonenzymatic acid-catalyzed conversion of aspergillomarasmine A to anhydroaspergillomarasmine A proceeds at low pH and is prevented by repeated titration of the culture medium to pH 6.5. The four possible stereoisomers of N-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)aspartic acid have been chemically synthesized and their absolute configuration determined. From circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy and by measurements of specific optical rotation, the LL-form is identified as the stereoisomer produced by P. teres. Biosynthetic experiments using radioisotopes demonstrate that the LL-isomer of N-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl) aspartic acid is a direct precursor of aspergillomarasmine A. Consequently, L-configuration is assigned to the two corresponding asymmetric carbon atoms of aspergillomarasmine A. This is in contrast to earlier reports which had indicated D configuration. The phytotoxicity of anhydroaspergillomarasmine A is comparable with that of L-aspartic acid, whereas LL-N-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)aspartic acid exerts strong phytotoxicity in the bioassays as shown previously for aspergillomarasmine A. The amount of LL-N-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)aspartic acid which accumulates in the P. teres cultures is low, indicating that aspergillomarasmine A is the toxin which plays the major role in the pathological changes associated with the barley net-spot blotch disease. PMID:2071605

Friis, P; Olsen, C E; Møller, B L

1991-07-15

142

Tholurna dissimilis and generic delimitations in Caliciaceae inferred from nuclear ITS and LSU rDNA phylogenies ( Lecanorales, lichenized ascomycetes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of Tholurna dissimilis were investigated in relation to a phylogeny of twenty-three species in Caliciaceae and eighteen species from Physciaceae. ITS and LSU regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA were used for the reconstruction of phylogenies by maximum parsimony methods. Calicium adaequatum was shown to be the closest relative of and possibly congeneric with Tholurna. Calicium is

Leif Tibell

2003-01-01

143

On the reclassification of species assigned to Candida and other anamorphic ascomycetous yeast genera based on phylogenetic circumscription.  

PubMed

Multigene phylogenies have been instrumental in revising the classification of ascosporic (teleomorph) yeasts in a natural system based on lines of descent. Although many taxonomic changes have already been implemented for teleomorph taxa, this is not yet the case for the large genus Candida and smaller anascosporic (anamorph) genera. In view of the recently introduced requirement that a fungal species or higher taxon be assigned only a single valid name under the new International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), the current species of Candida and other anamorph yeast genera must undergo revision to make genus membership consistent with phylogenetic affinities. A review of existing data and analyses shows that certain Candida species may be assigned to teleomorph genera with high confidence using multigene phylogenies. Candida species that form well-circumscribed phylogenetic clades without any teleomorph member justify the creation of new genera. However, a considerable number of Candida species sit at the end of isolated and often long branches, and hence cannot be assigned to larger species groups. They should be maintained in Candida sensu lato until studied by multigene analyses in datasets with comprehensive taxon sampling. The principle of name stability has to be honoured to the largest extent compatible with a natural classification of Candida species. PMID:24748333

Daniel, Heide-Marie; Lachance, Marc-André; Kurtzman, Cletus P

2014-07-01

144

Cultivation of medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), and production of cordycepin using the spent medium from levan fermentation.  

PubMed

A process of tandem cultivation for the production of green and invaluable bioproducts (levan and Cordycepes militaris) useful for medical applications has been successfully developed. The process involves first cultivating Bacillus subtilis strain natto in sucrose medium to produce levan, followed by the subsequent cultivation of C. militaris in liquid- and solid-state cultures using the spent medium from levan fermentation as substrates. The factors affecting the cell growth and production of metabolites of C. militaris were investigated, and the various metabolites produced in the culture filtrate, mycelia, and fruiting body were analyzed. In addition, cordycepin was prepared from the solid waste medium of C. militaris. This is an excellent example in the development of cost effective biorefineries that maximize useful product formation from the available biomass. The preparation of cordycepin from solid waste medium of C. militaris using a method with high extraction efficiency and minimum solvent usage is also environmentally friendly. PMID:23796221

Wu, Fang-Chen; Chen, Yi-Lin; Chang, Shu-Ming; Shih, Ing-Lung

2013-01-01

145

Ogataea paradorogensis sp. nov., a novel methylotrophic ascomycetous yeast species isolated from galleries of ambrosia beetles in Japan, with a close relation to Pichia dorogensis.  

PubMed

Two yeast strains isolated from galleries of ambrosia beetles in Japan and maintained in NITE Biological Resource Center (NBRC) as Pichia pini were found to represent a hitherto undescribed species. This species shows close relationship to Pichia dorogensis by the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA but is clearly differentiated from it by a DNA-DNA reassociation experiment. It is described as Ogataea paradorogensis sp. nov. The vegetative cells and asci of this species are surrounded with distinct capsules like P. dorogensis. One to four hat-shaped ascospores, which tend to be liberated from the asci at maturation, are formed in the ascus. PMID:19164880

Nakase, Takashi; Ninomiya, Shinya; Imanishi, Yumi; Nakagiri, Akira; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Limtong, Savitree

2008-12-01

146

Molecular, proteomic and morphological characterization of the ascomycete Guignardia bidwellii, agent of grape black rot: a polyphasic approach to fungal identification.  

PubMed

Guignardia bidwellii is the etiological agent of grape black rot, a disease affecting Vitis and other Vitaceae that can cause heavy crop losses in vineyards. Its identification is based mainly on morphological characters and the symptoms on plants but, due to their variability, they may be difficult to interpret to reliably distinguish the pathogen to species. To date, despite the economic importance of G. bidwellii, no molecular investigations have been carried out on Vitis isolates and few sequence data are available for cultures derived from ornamental host plants. We analyzed samples of G. bidwellii collected from grapevine cultivars and ornamental plants of various geographic origins by morphological, molecular and proteomic techniques, including ITS1-ITS2 regions and calmodulin gene sequencing, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This polyphasic approach allowed assessing the phylogenetic relationships among the different isolates and suggested the existence of two distinct species. The advantages of a polyphasic approach for the identification of G. bidwellii are highlighted. PMID:22492405

Wicht, Barbara; Petrini, Orlando; Jermini, Mauro; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, Giovanni Antonio Lodovico

2012-01-01

147

Ascomycete communities in the rhizosphere of field-grown wheat are not affected by introductions of genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A long-term field experiment (1999-2002) was con- ducted to monitor effects on the indigenous micro- flora of Pseudomonas putida WCS358r and two transgenic derivatives constitutively producing phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) or 2,4- diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). The strains were intro- duced as seed coating on wheat into the same field plots each year. Rhizosphere populations of asco- mycetes were analysed using denaturing

Mareike Viebahn; Rogier Doornbos; Karel Wernars; Leendert C. van Loon; Eric Smit; Peter A. H. M. Bakker

2005-01-01

148

The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits ?-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses  

PubMed Central

Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g?1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g?1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg?1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative ?-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., ?-l-rhamnopyranoside and ?-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, Rene; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipila, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin

2012-01-01

149

Isolation and purification of a polysaccharide from the caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) fruit bodies and its immunomodulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages.  

PubMed

A novel polysaccharide (CP2-S) was purified from Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-400 high-resolution chromatography. The polysaccharide had a molecular weight of 5.938 × 10(6) g/mol and was mainly composed of glucose. CP2-S had carbohydrate content estimated to be 100% using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. Immunostimulating experiments in vitro indicated that CP2-S could stimulate nitric oxide production, phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and secretion of interleukin-1? and interleukin-2 of macrophages, suggesting that this water-soluble polysaccharide from the fruit body of C. militaris is a natural immunostimulating polysaccharide with potential for further application. PMID:24941166

Zhu, Lina; Tang, Qingjiu; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Zhong; Gao, Xinhua; Wang, Shiping; Wang, Zhaolong

2014-01-01

150

Mitochondrial Carnitine-Dependent Acetyl Coenzyme A Transport Is Required for Normal Sexual and Asexual Development of the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae  

PubMed Central

Fungi have evolved efficient metabolic mechanisms for the exact temporal (developmental stages) and spatial (organelles) production of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). We previously demonstrated mechanistic roles of several acetyl-CoA synthetic enzymes, namely, ATP citrate lyase and acetyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs), in the plant-pathogenic fungus Gibberella zeae. In this study, we characterized two carnitine acetyltransferases (CATs; CAT1 and CAT2) to obtain a better understanding of the metabolic processes occurring in G. zeae. We found that CAT1 functioned as an alternative source of acetyl-CoA required for lipid accumulation in an ACS1 deletion mutant. Moreover, deletion of CAT1 and/or CAT2 resulted in various defects, including changes to vegetative growth, asexual/sexual development, trichothecene production, and virulence. Although CAT1 is associated primarily with peroxisomal CAT function, mislocalization experiments showed that the role of CAT1 in acetyl-CoA transport between the mitochondria and cytosol is important for sexual and asexual development in G. zeae. Taking these data together, we concluded that G. zeae CATs are responsible for facilitating the exchange of acetyl-CoA across intracellular membranes, particularly between the mitochondria and the cytosol, during various developmental stages. PMID:22798392

Son, Hokyoung; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol

2012-01-01

151

The wood rot ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha produces a novel GH78 glycoside hydrolase that exhibits ?-L-rhamnosidase and feruloyl esterase activities and releases hydroxycinnamic acids from lignocelluloses.  

PubMed

Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g(-1)) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g(-1)). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg(-1)). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative ?-L-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., ?-L-rhamnopyranoside and ?-L-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; Pecyna, Marek J; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipilä, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin; Liers, Christiane

2012-07-01

152

A Comparative Study of the Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanol Extracts from Fruit Bodies and Fermented Mycelia of Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).  

PubMed

Cordyceps militaris is one of the most popular mushrooms and nutraceuticals in Eastern Asia. This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and fungi), whereas that from the fermented mycelia showed selective activity. The antioxidant potential of two extracts is significant in the four tested systems in vitro, including total antioxidant capacity, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. The fruiting bodies had stronger DPPH· radical scavenging activity, whereas the fermented mycelia had stronger total antioxidant capacity, chelating ability, and reducing power, which suggested that they had their own role and worked in different ways. Both extracts present strong activities against tumor cell line A549. The results obtained indicated that extracts from C. militaris might be valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic natural sources and seemed to be applicable in health and medicine as well as in the food industry. PMID:25271983

Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Lian, Tiantian

2014-01-01

153

Aqueous extracts of Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) lower the levels of plasma glucose by activating the cholinergic nerve in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

In our previous research, Cordyceps militaris (CM) had a hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. In this study we wanted to elucidate whether CM also had an effect on diabetic rats. Twelve rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were separated randomly into 2 groups. First, aqueous extracts of CM 10 mg/kg (CM group) or saline (control group) was fed to the rats; then the plasma glucose levels were assayed. Second, the signaling proteins IRS-1 and GLUT-4 collected from the muscle were detected. Finally, another 2 groups of rats were injected with atropine 0.1 mg/kg intraperitoneally just before the CM/saline feeding, and the assays mentioned above were repeated. Blood glucose decreased 7.2% in the CM group but only 1.5% in the control group (P < 0.05). The IRS-1 signal was 2.9-fold higher than actin in the CM group but only 0.8-fold higher in the control group (P < 0.005). In GLUT-4 signal, the difference was 1.7- vs. 0.6-fold, respectively, compared with actin (P < 0.05). However, atropine injection made CM-induced hypoglycemia or elevation of IRS-1 and GLUT-4 not significant. In conclusion, CM had a hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and atropine blocked it. Therefore, the cholinergic activation also was considered to be involved in the hypoglycemic effect of CM in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. PMID:23662615

Cheng, Yu-Wen; Chen, Ying-I; Tzeng, Chung-Yuh; Chang, Chin-Hsien; Lee, Yu-Chen; Chen, Hong-Chen; Tsai, Chin-Chun; Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Chang, Shih-Liang

2013-01-01

154

Cloning of Mating-Type Gene MAT1-1 from the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) Using TAIL-PCR Technology.  

PubMed

Cordyceps militaris and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), 2 well-known traditional Chinese medicines, contain the same bioactive components and share a similar developmental process. In this study, one C. militaris strain preserved in our laboratory was proven to be a MAT1 mating-type strain using a polymerase chain reaction-based mating-type assay. A 5000-bp nucleotide sequence of the mating-type MAT1-1 from C. militaris was amplified by thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction, but genes within the mating-type MAT1-2 remain undetectable. Sequence analysis shows that the mating-type gene MAT1-1 idiomorph contains 2 genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2. The MAT1-1-1 gene consists of 1480-bp nucleotides that encode 456 amino acids and contain the conserved a-box domain interrupted by 2 introns; the MAT1-1-2 gene consists of 1066 nucleotides that encode 377 amino acids interrupted by one intron. The intervening distance between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2 is 778 bp. The C. militaris MAT1-1 idiomorph organization is the same as that of Cordyceps takaomontana. The MAT1-1 mating-type idiomorph of both Cordyceps species lacks the MAT1-1-3 gene, which is typically present in Pyrenomycetes. These studies provide some insights for further study of the morphological development of C. militaris and will eventually benefit the domestication of O. sinensis. PMID:25271980

Cong, Wei-Ran; Gong, Zhen-Hua; Shi, Dan-Dan; Guo, Hui; Zhou, Xuanwei

2014-01-01

155

Novel neogala-series glycosphingolipids with terminal mannose and glucose residues from Hirsutella rhossiliensis, an aureobasidin A-resistant ascomycete fungus.  

PubMed

Hirsutella rhossiliensis, a nematophagous fungus belonging to the Ascomycota, is resistant to aureobasidin A (AbA). In this fungus, the biosynthetic pathway leading to mannosylinositolphosphoceramides, which is inhibited by AbA, was not detected. Instead, this fungus contains neutral complex glycosphingolipids (GSLs) and monoglycosylceramides. Except for monoglycosylceramides, neutral GSLs share a neogala-series core structure, Galbeta1-6Galbeta1-Cer. Among the GSLs of H. rhossiliensis, three novel GSLs with terminal Man and Glc residues on the sugar chain were elucidated. We analyzed GSL structure using compositional sugar, fatty acid, and sphingoid analyses, methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The following structures were determined: Manalpha1-3Galbeta1-6Galbeta1-6Galbeta1-Cer; Glcalpha1-2Galbeta1-6Galbeta1-6Galbeta1-Cer; and Manalpha1-3Galbeta1-6(Glcalpha1-4)Galbeta1-6Galbeta1-Cer. In the ceramides, the fatty acids were predominantly saturated h24:0-acids and the sphingoids were predominately t18:0- or t18:1-sphingoids. In contrast, the ceramides of Glcbeta1-Cer contained d18:2- and d19:2-sphingoids. These findings indicate the presence of a novel biosynthetic pathway of neogala-series GSLs in fungi. PMID:20007186

Tani, Yasushi; Funatsu, Tori; Ashida, Hisashi; Ito, Masahiro; Itonori, Saki; Sugita, Mutsumi; Yamamoto, Kenji

2010-01-01

156

Aging as Evolution-Facilitating Program and a Biochemical Approach to Switch It Off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept is presented considering aging of living organisms as a final step of their ontogenetic program. It is assumed that such an aging program was invented by biological evolution to facilitate the evolutionary process. Indications are summarized suggesting that controlled production of toxic forms of oxygen (so called reactive oxygen species) by respiring intracellular organelles (mitochondria) is an obligatory component of the aging program. First results of a research project devoted to an attempt to interrupt aging program by antioxidants specifically addressed to mitochondria have been described. Within the framework of the project, antioxidants of a new type (SkQ) were synthesized. SkQs are composed of (i) plastoquinone (an antioxidant moiety), (ii) a penetrating cation, and (iii) a decane or pentane linker. Using planar bilayer phospholipid membranes, we selected SkQ derivatives of the highest penetrability, namely plastoquinonyl decyl triphenylphosphonium (SkQ1), plastoquinonyl decyl rhodamine 19 (SkQR1), and methylplastoquinonyl decyl triphenylphosphonium (SkQ3). Anti- and prooxidant properties of these substances and also of ubiquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium (MitoQ) were tested in isolated mitochondria. Micromolar concentrations of cationic quinones are found to be very strong prooxidants, but in the lower (sub-micromolar) concentrations they display antioxidant activity which decreases in the series SkQ1 = SkQR1 > SkQ3 > MitoQ. Thus, the window between the anti- and prooxidant effects is the smallest for MitoQ and the largest for SkQ1 and SkQR1. SkQ1 is rapidly reduced by complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, i.e. it is a rechargeable antioxidant. Extremely low concentrations of SkQ1 and SkQR1 completely arrest the H2O2-induced apoptosis in human fibroblasts and HeLa cells (for SkQ1, C 1/2 = 8 · 10-9M). Higher concentrations of SkQ1 are required to block necrosis initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In mice, SkQ1 decelerates the development of three types of accelerated aging (progeria) and also of normal aging, and this effect is especially demonstrative at early stages of aging. The same pattern is shown in invertebrates (Drosophila and Daphnia), and fungus (Podospora anserina). In mammals, the effect of SkQs on aging is accompanied by inhibition of development of such age-related diseases as osteoporosis, involution of thymus, cataract, retinopathy, etc. SkQ1 manifests a strong therapeutic action on some already pronounced retinopathies, in particular, congenital retinal dysplasia. With drops containing 250 nM SkQ1, vision is recovered in 66 of 96 animals (dogs, cats and horses) who became blind because of retinopathy. SkQ1-containing drops instilled into eyes prevent the loss of sight in rabbits suffering from experimental uveitis and restore vision to animals that had already become blind due to this pathology. A favorable effect is also achieved in experimental glaucoma in rabbits. Moreover, the pretreatment of rats with 0.2 nM SkQ1 significantly decreases the H2O2-induced arrhythmia of the isolated heart. SkQ1 strongly reduces the damaged area in myocardial infarction or stroke and prevents the death of animals from kidney infarction. In p53-/- mice, SkQ1 decreases the ROS level in the spleen cells and inhibits appearance of lymphomas which are the main cause of death of such animals. As a result, the lifespan increases. SkQs look like promising drugs to treat aging and age-related diseases.

Skulachev, Vladimir P.

157

An attempt to prevent senescence: a mitochondrial approach.  

PubMed

Antioxidants specifically addressed to mitochondria have been studied to determine if they can decelerate senescence of organisms. For this purpose, a project has been established with participation of several research groups from Russia and some other countries. This paper summarizes the first results of the project. A new type of compounds (SkQs) comprising plastoquinone (an antioxidant moiety), a penetrating cation, and a decane or pentane linker has been synthesized. Using planar bilayer phospholipid membrane (BLM), we selected SkQ derivatives with the highest permeability, namely plastoquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium (SkQ1), plastoquinonyl-decyl-rhodamine 19 (SkQR1), and methylplastoquinonyldecyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ3). Anti- and prooxidant properties of these substances and also of ubiquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium (MitoQ) were tested in aqueous solution, detergent micelles, liposomes, BLM, isolated mitochondria, and cell cultures. In mitochondria, micromolar cationic quinone derivatives were found to be prooxidants, but at lower (sub-micromolar) concentrations they displayed antioxidant activity that decreases in the series SkQ1=SkQR1>SkQ3>MitoQ. SkQ1 was reduced by mitochondrial respiratory chain, i.e. it is a rechargeable antioxidant. Nanomolar SkQ1 specifically prevented oxidation of mitochondrial cardiolipin. In cell cultures, SkQR1, a fluorescent SkQ derivative, stained only one type of organelles, namely mitochondria. Extremely low concentrations of SkQ1 or SkQR1 arrested H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in human fibroblasts and HeLa cells. Higher concentrations of SkQ are required to block necrosis initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the fungus Podospora anserina, the crustacean Ceriodaphnia affinis, Drosophila, and mice, SkQ1 prolonged lifespan, being especially effective at early and middle stages of aging. In mammals, the effect of SkQs on aging was accompanied by inhibition of development of such age-related diseases and traits as cataract, retinopathy, glaucoma, balding, canities, osteoporosis, involution of the thymus, hypothermia, torpor, peroxidation of lipids and proteins, etc. SkQ1 manifested a strong therapeutic action on some already pronounced retinopathies, in particular, congenital retinal dysplasia. With drops containing 250 nM SkQ1, vision was restored to 67 of 89 animals (dogs, cats, and horses) that became blind because of a retinopathy. Instillation of SkQ1-containing drops prevented the loss of sight in rabbits with experimental uveitis and restored vision to animals that had already become blind. A favorable effect of the same drops was also achieved in experimental glaucoma in rabbits. Moreover, the SkQ1 pretreatment of rats significantly decreased the H(2)O(2) or ischemia-induced arrhythmia of the isolated heart. SkQs strongly reduced the damaged area in myocardial infarction or stroke and prevented the death of animals from kidney ischemia. In p53(-/-) mice, 5 nmol/kgxday SkQ1 decreased the ROS level in the spleen and inhibited appearance of lymphomas to the same degree as million-fold higher concentration of conventional antioxidant NAC. Thus, SkQs look promising as potential tools for treatment of senescence and age-related diseases. PMID:19159610

Skulachev, Vladimir P; Anisimov, Vladimir N; Antonenko, Yuri N; Bakeeva, Lora E; Chernyak, Boris V; Erichev, Valery P; Filenko, Oleg F; Kalinina, Natalya I; Kapelko, Valery I; Kolosova, Natalya G; Kopnin, Boris P; Korshunova, Galina A; Lichinitser, Mikhail R; Obukhova, Lidia A; Pasyukova, Elena G; Pisarenko, Oleg I; Roginsky, Vitaly A; Ruuge, Enno K; Senin, Ivan I; Severina, Inna I; Skulachev, Maxim V; Spivak, Irina M; Tashlitsky, Vadim N; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A; Vyssokikh, Mikhail Yu; Yaguzhinsky, Lev S; Zorov, Dmitry B

2009-05-01

158

N O  

E-print Network

Biochemical and structural characterisation of the copper containing oxidoreductases catechol oxidase, tyrosinase, and laccase from ascomycete fungi Chiara GasparettiVTT SCIENCE 16 Biochemical and structural characterisation of the copper containing oxidoreductases catechol oxidase, tyrosinase, and laccase from ascomycete fungi

Chiara Gasparetti

159

Fungal relationships and structural identity of their ectomycorrhizae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aproximately 5,000–6,000 fungal species form ectomyorrhizae (ECM), the symbiotic organs with roots of predominantly trees. The contributing fungi are not evenly distributed over the system of fungi. Within Basidiomycota exclusively Hymenomycetes and within Ascomycota exclusively Ascomycetes contribute to the symbiosis. Hymenomycetes play a big part, Ascomycetes a minor role; Zygomycetes only form exceptionally ECM. Responsible for ascomycetous ECM are mostly

Reinhard Agerer

2006-01-01

160

Optimization of solid state culture conditions for the production of adenosine, cordycepin, and D-mannitol in fruiting bodies of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris (L.:Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes).  

PubMed

In general, Cordyceps sinensis is much more popular than C. militaris, though both species contain quite similar bioactive ingredients and exhibit medicinal activities. Many bioactive ingredients have been isolated from C. militaris, such as adenosine, cordycepin, D-mannitol, and exopolysaccharides. C. militaris is claimed to have extensive pharmacological properties, such as: anti-inflammatory; anti-fatigue; anti-bacterial; anti-diabetic; improve lung, liver, and kidney functions; to be beneficial for treating cancer as well as male and female sexual dysfunctions. C. militaris is fast gaining momentum for its so-called health benefits, and it is often used as a substitute for C. sinensis. In view of the growing popularity of C. militaris, nowadays C. militaris cultivation for stroma is also done. There is a great diversity of compounds from different strains of Cordyceps and different artificially cultivated products. This study is to determine the optimum culture parameters integrated with substrate of choice to bring the indoor-cultivated C. militaris to a higher and more consistent level of quality. To achieve the above objective, the resultant products after growth were analyzed for adenosine, cordycepin, and D-mannitol using the high-performance liquid chromatography method. The optimum culture condition to produce a high level of adenosine is by using millet as solid substrate. It must be cultivated in the dark for the first 7 days and harvested on day 40. The optimum culture condition to produce a high level of cordycepin is by using soybean as solid substrate. It must be cultivated in the dark for the first 14 days and harvested on day 50. While a high level of D-mannitol is achieved with millet as the solid substrate. It must be kept in the dark for the first 7 days and harvested on day 50. The adenosine level decreased and cordycepin increased from day 40 of culture to day 50 generally. PMID:22506578

Lim, LekTeng; Lee, ChiaYen; Chang, EngThuan

2012-01-01

161

Heterogeneous electron transfer studies with ligninolytic redox enzymes and living bacteria. Applications in biosensors and biofuel cells.  

E-print Network

??The catalytic properties and the inter-domain electron transfer of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from the ascomycete fungus Myriococcum thermophilum adsorbed on graphite and thiol (SAM) modified… (more)

Coman, Vasile

2009-01-01

162

Antimicrobial activity of Potentilla species.  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antifungal activities of aqueous extracts obtained from aerial parts of Potentilla species: P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis var.'Miss Willmott', P. recta, P. rupestris and P. thuringiaca were investigated. The extracts showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against H. pylori (MIC=0.1/0.5 mg/ml). PMID:18664379

Tomczyk, Micha?; Leszczy?ska, Katarzyna; Jakoniuk, Piotr

2008-12-01

163

Antimicrobial activity of Potentilla species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial and antifungal activities of aqueous extracts obtained from aerial parts of Potentilla species: P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis var.‘MissWillmott’, P. recta, P. rupestris and P. thuringiaca were investigated. The extracts showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against H. pylori (MIC=0.1÷0.5 mg\\/ml).

Micha? Tomczyk; Katarzyna Leszczy?ska; Piotr Jakoniuk

2008-01-01

164

Biodiversity of freshwater fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 600 species of freshwater fungi with more known from temperate, as compared to tropical regions. These includeca 340 ascomycetes, 300 deuteromycetes, and a number of lower fungi which are not discussed here.Aniptodera, Annulatascus, Massarina, Ophioceras andPseudohalonectria are common freshwater ascomycetes, which appear to be well adapted for this lifestyle either in their ascospore types or their

T K Goh; K D Hyde

1996-01-01

165

Evolutionary Origins of the Eukaryotic Shikimate Pathway: Gene Fusions, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and Endosymbiotic Replacements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently the shikimate pathway is reported as a metabolic feature of prokaryotes, ascomycete fungi, apicomplexans, and plants. The plant shikimate pathway enzymes have similarities to prokaryote homologues and are largely active in chloroplasts, suggesting ancestry from the plastid progenitor genome. Toxoplasma gondii, which also possesses an alga-derived plastid organelle, encodes a shikimate pathway with similarities to ascomycete genes, including a

Thomas A. Richards; Joel B. Dacks; Samantha A. Campbell; Jeffrey L. Blanchard; Peter G. Foster; Rima McLeod; Craig W. Roberts

2006-01-01

166

Nomenklatorische Anmerkungen zur Gattung Potentilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

Für folgende inkorrekte Epitheta schlägt der Autor richtige Namen vor, die in Klammern angeführt sind:Potentilla opizii\\u000a Dom. (=P. lindackeri\\u000a Tausch),P. dealbata\\u000a Bunge (=P. virgata\\u000a Lehm.),P. poterioides\\u000a Franch. (=P. limprichtii\\u000a J. Krause),P. fulgens\\u000a Wall. exHook. (=P. siemersiana\\u000a Lehm.),P. labradorica\\u000a Lehm. (=P. flexuosa\\u000a Raf.),P. ambigua\\u000a Camb. (=P. cuneifolia\\u000a Bertol.),P. anserina ssp.egedii\\u000a (Wormsk.) Hitt. (=P. anserina ssp.groenlandica\\u000a Tratt.),P. raddeana\\u000a (Wolf) Juz. (=P. bertramii

Ji?í Soják

1969-01-01

167

Involvement of birds in the epidemiology of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi.  

PubMed Central

Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was isolated from the liver of a passerine bird, Catharus fuscescens (veery), and from larval Ixodes dammini (tick) feeding on Pheucticus ludovicianus (rose-breasted grosbeak) and Geothlypis trichas (common yellowthroat). In indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests, isolates reacted with polyclonal and monoclonal (H5332) antibodies. Studies on the DNA composition of the veery liver isolate and the strain cultured from an I. dammini larva indicated that both were B. burgdorferi and not Borrelia anserina or Borrelia hermsii. The veery liver isolate infected hamsters and a chick. In contrast, B. anserina infected chicks but not hamsters. B. burgdorferi is unique among Borrelia spp. in being infectious to both mammals and birds. We suggest that the cosmopolitan distribution of B. burgdorferi may be caused by long-distance dispersal of infected birds that serve as hosts for ticks. PMID:3943893

Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W

1986-01-01

168

Involvement of birds in the epidemiology of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi.  

PubMed

Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was isolated from the liver of a passerine bird, Catharus fuscescens (veery), and from larval Ixodes dammini (tick) feeding on Pheucticus ludovicianus (rose-breasted grosbeak) and Geothlypis trichas (common yellowthroat). In indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests, isolates reacted with polyclonal and monoclonal (H5332) antibodies. Studies on the DNA composition of the veery liver isolate and the strain cultured from an I. dammini larva indicated that both were B. burgdorferi and not Borrelia anserina or Borrelia hermsii. The veery liver isolate infected hamsters and a chick. In contrast, B. anserina infected chicks but not hamsters. B. burgdorferi is unique among Borrelia spp. in being infectious to both mammals and birds. We suggest that the cosmopolitan distribution of B. burgdorferi may be caused by long-distance dispersal of infected birds that serve as hosts for ticks. PMID:3943893

Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W

1986-02-01

169

Different growth response of five co-existing stoloniferous plant species to inoculation with native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five species of stoloniferous plants originating from the same field site (Galeobdolon montanum, Glechoma hederacea, Potentilla anserina, Ranunculus repens and Trifolium repens) were studied with respect to their interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. More specifically, the question was\\u000a addressed whether mycorrhizal growth response of host plant species could be related to their vegetative mobility. The roots\\u000a of all the

Radka Sudová

2009-01-01

170

Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from blood of a bird captured in the Saint Croix River Valley.  

PubMed Central

Field investigations were conducted to further evaluate the role of birds in the maintenance and dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi. Blood specimens were taken from 39 passerine birds of 17 species captured during June 1991 at the Saint Croix National Riverway in Wisconsin, and one isolate, WI91-23, was cultured from an adult song sparrow (Melospiza melodia). This isolate was shown to be infectious for Peromyscus leucopus and Mesocricetus auratus (golden hamster). Isolate WI91-23 was confirmed as B. burgdorferi by immunofluorescence assay by using species-specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibodies H3TS and H5332 and anti-OspB antibody H5TS. Isolate WI91-23 was compared with Borrelia anserina Es, Borrelia hermsii MAN-1, and other B. burgdorferi strains (ATCC 53210, CT-1, and Catharus fuscescens [veery] liver 10293). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of in situ-lysed spirochetes revealed that the DNA plasmid profile of WI91-23 was most similar to those of plasmids from B. burgdorferi and most different from those of plasmids from B. anserina and B. hermsii. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the protein profile of WI91-23 was like that of other B. burgdorferi strains studied, with dominant proteins corresponding to OspA and OspB, and that it differed from the protein profiles of B. anserina and B. hermsii. These findings indicate that passerine birds may serve as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi. Images PMID:8370728

McLean, R G; Ubico, S R; Hughes, C A; Engstrom, S M; Johnson, R C

1993-01-01

171

Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from blood of a bird captured in the Saint Croix River Valley.  

PubMed

Field investigations were conducted to further evaluate the role of birds in the maintenance and dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi. Blood specimens were taken from 39 passerine birds of 17 species captured during June 1991 at the Saint Croix National Riverway in Wisconsin, and one isolate, WI91-23, was cultured from an adult song sparrow (Melospiza melodia). This isolate was shown to be infectious for Peromyscus leucopus and Mesocricetus auratus (golden hamster). Isolate WI91-23 was confirmed as B. burgdorferi by immunofluorescence assay by using species-specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibodies H3TS and H5332 and anti-OspB antibody H5TS. Isolate WI91-23 was compared with Borrelia anserina Es, Borrelia hermsii MAN-1, and other B. burgdorferi strains (ATCC 53210, CT-1, and Catharus fuscescens [veery] liver 10293). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of in situ-lysed spirochetes revealed that the DNA plasmid profile of WI91-23 was most similar to those of plasmids from B. burgdorferi and most different from those of plasmids from B. anserina and B. hermsii. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the protein profile of WI91-23 was like that of other B. burgdorferi strains studied, with dominant proteins corresponding to OspA and OspB, and that it differed from the protein profiles of B. anserina and B. hermsii. These findings indicate that passerine birds may serve as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi. PMID:8370728

McLean, R G; Ubico, S R; Hughes, C A; Engstrom, S M; Johnson, R C

1993-08-01

172

Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts  

E-print Network

The fission yeast clade—comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus—occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative ...

Regev, Aviv

173

Outcrossing and Recombination in the Lichenized Fungus Letharia  

E-print Network

tail proba- bility test; phylogenetic species; sexual reproduction. The effectiveness of sexual abundant clonal reproductive structures (soredia) and only rarely produces ascomata. To determine whether Academic Press Index Descriptors: ascomycete; clonal reproduction; congruence of gene genealogies

California at Berkeley, University of

174

Fungal Biomass in Saltmarsh Grass Blades at Two Contaminated Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Ascomycetous fungi are the principal drivers of the decomposition of shoots of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). Shoots of smooth cordgrass move into the saltmarsh food web via the decomposition system. Therefore, influences on saltmarsh\\u000a ascomycetes by pollutants of saltmarshes could have far-reaching impacts. Earlier examination of impacts of severe contamination\\u000a of a Georgia saltmarsh by mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls

S. Y. Newell; V. D. Wall; K. A. Maruya

2000-01-01

175

Sexual productivity and spring intramarsh distribution of a key salt-marsh microbial secondary producer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phaeosphaeria spartinicola is known to be an important fungal (ascomycetous) secondary producer in the smooth-cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) decomposition system of western Atlantic salt marshes, yet its degree of predominance among the ascomycete assemblages of\\u000a salt marshes and the concentration of its sexual reproductive structures (ascomata) have been largely unknown. During May–June,\\u000a we measured by direct microscopy the percent occupancy of

Steven Y. Newell; Jennifer Wasowski

1995-01-01

176

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase CYP53 Family in Fungi: Comparative Structural and Evolutionary Analysis and Its Role as a Common Alternative Anti-Fungal Drug Target.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as a drug target against pathogenic microbes has been explored because of their stereo- and regio-specific oxidation activity. We aimed to assess the CYP53 family's role as a common alternative drug target against animal (including human) and plant pathogenic fungi and its role in fungal-mediated wood degradation. Genome-wide analysis of fungal species revealed the presence of CYP53 members in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. Basidiomycetes had a higher number of CYP53 members in their genomes than ascomycetes. Only two CYP53 subfamilies were found in ascomycetes and six subfamilies in basidiomycetes, suggesting that during the divergence of phyla ascomycetes lost CYP53 P450s. According to phylogenetic and gene-structure analysis, enrichment of CYP53 P450s in basidiomycetes occurred due to the extensive duplication of CYP53 P450s in their genomes. Numerous amino acids (103) were found to be conserved in the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s, against only seven in basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s. 3D-modelling and active-site cavity mapping data revealed that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s have a highly conserved protein structure whereby 78% amino acids in the active-site cavity were found to be conserved. Because of this rigid nature of ascomycetes CYP53 P450s' active site cavity, any inhibitor directed against this P450 family can serve as a common anti-fungal drug target, particularly toward pathogenic ascomycetes. The dynamic nature of basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s at a gene and protein level indicates that these P450s are destined to acquire novel functions. Functional analysis of CYP53 P450s strongly supported our hypothesis that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s ability is limited for detoxification of toxic molecules, whereas basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s play an additional role, i.e. involvement in degradation of wood and its derived components. This study is the first report on genome-wide comparative structural (gene and protein structure-level) and evolutionary analysis of a fungal P450 family. PMID:25222113

Jawallapersand, Poojah; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Kova?i?, Lidija; Stojan, Jure; Komel, Radovan; Pakala, Suresh Babu; Kraševec, Nada; Syed, Khajamohiddin

2014-01-01

177

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase CYP53 Family in Fungi: Comparative Structural and Evolutionary Analysis and Its Role as a Common Alternative Anti-Fungal Drug Target  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as a drug target against pathogenic microbes has been explored because of their stereo- and regio-specific oxidation activity. We aimed to assess the CYP53 family's role as a common alternative drug target against animal (including human) and plant pathogenic fungi and its role in fungal-mediated wood degradation. Genome-wide analysis of fungal species revealed the presence of CYP53 members in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. Basidiomycetes had a higher number of CYP53 members in their genomes than ascomycetes. Only two CYP53 subfamilies were found in ascomycetes and six subfamilies in basidiomycetes, suggesting that during the divergence of phyla ascomycetes lost CYP53 P450s. According to phylogenetic and gene-structure analysis, enrichment of CYP53 P450s in basidiomycetes occurred due to the extensive duplication of CYP53 P450s in their genomes. Numerous amino acids (103) were found to be conserved in the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s, against only seven in basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s. 3D-modelling and active-site cavity mapping data revealed that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s have a highly conserved protein structure whereby 78% amino acids in the active-site cavity were found to be conserved. Because of this rigid nature of ascomycetes CYP53 P450s' active site cavity, any inhibitor directed against this P450 family can serve as a common anti-fungal drug target, particularly toward pathogenic ascomycetes. The dynamic nature of basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s at a gene and protein level indicates that these P450s are destined to acquire novel functions. Functional analysis of CYP53 P450s strongly supported our hypothesis that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s ability is limited for detoxification of toxic molecules, whereas basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s play an additional role, i.e. involvement in degradation of wood and its derived components. This study is the first report on genome-wide comparative structural (gene and protein structure-level) and evolutionary analysis of a fungal P450 family. PMID:25222113

Jawallapersand, Poojah; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Kova?i?, Lidija; Stojan, Jure; Komel, Radovan; Pakala, Suresh Babu; Kraševec, Nada; Syed, Khajamohiddin

2014-01-01

178

Fungal biomass in saltmarsh grass blades at two contaminated sites.  

PubMed

Ascomycetous fungi are the principal drivers of the decomposition of shoots of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). Shoots of smooth cordgrass move into the saltmarsh food web via the decomposition system. Therefore, influences on saltmarsh ascomycetes by pollutants of saltmarshes could have far-reaching impacts. Earlier examination of impacts of severe contamination of a Georgia saltmarsh by mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) revealed little or no influence of the toxicants on living standing crops or sexual productivities of cordgrass ascomycetes. Extension of the examination of saltmarsh-ascomycete response to sites containing other toxic pollutants (the chlorinated organocyclic insecticide toxaphene; chromium, copper, and lead; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) has shown that none of the additional toxicants engendered saltmarsh-fungal responses in the form of reduced living standing crops or sexual productivities. Thus the ascomycetes of the cordgrass-decay system appear to be as resistant to anthropogenic-pollutant poisoning as smooth cordgrass itself. Unless the fungal and plant resistance mechanisms involve degradation of the toxicants, this may imply that saltmarshes are especially dangerous as receiving sites for toxic waste because they may have the potential to readily move toxicants into the food web. PMID:10667923

Newell, S Y; Wall, V D; Maruya, K A

2000-04-01

179

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Aix galericulata and Tadorna ferruginea: Bearings on Their Phylogenetic Position in the Anseriformes  

PubMed Central

Aix galericulata and Tadorna ferruginea are two Anatidae species representing different taxonomic groups of Anseriformes. We used a PCR-based method to determine the complete mtDNAs of both species, and estimated phylogenetic trees based on the complete mtDNA alignment of these and 14 other Anseriforme species, to clarify Anseriform phylogenetics. Phylogenetic trees were also estimated using a multiple sequence alignment of three mitochondrial genes (Cyt b, ND2, and COI) from 68 typical species in GenBank, to further clarify the phylogenetic relationships of several groups among the Anseriformes. The new mtDNAs are circular molecules, 16,651 bp (Aix galericulata) and 16,639 bp (Tadorna ferruginea) in length, containing the 37 typical genes, with an identical gene order and arrangement as those of other Anseriformes. Comparing the protein-coding genes among the mtDNAs of 16 Anseriforme species, ATG is generally the start codon, TAA is the most frequent stop codon, one of three, TAA, TAG, and T-, commonly observed. All tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures except for tRNASer (AGY) and tRNALeu (CUN), which are missing the "DHU" arm.Phylogenetic relationships demonstrate that Aix galericula and Tadorna ferruginea are in the same group, the Tadorninae lineage, based on our analyses of complete mtDNAs and combined gene data. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the 68 species of Anseriform birds be divided into three families: Anhimidae, Anatidae, and Anseranatidae. The results suggest Anatidae birds be divided into five subfamilies: Anatinae, Tadorninae, Anserinae, Oxyurinae, and Dendrocygninae. Oxyurinae and Dendrocygninae should not belong to Anserinae, but rather represent independent subfamilies. The Anatinae includes species from the tribes Mergini, Somaterini, Anatini, and Aythyini. The Anserinae includes species from the tribes Anserini and Cygnini. PMID:25375111

Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi; Li, Bo; Zhang, Lili

2014-01-01

180

A molecular phylogeny of anseriformes based on mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

To study the phylogenetic relationships among Anseriformes, sequences for the complete mitochondrial control region (CR) were determined from 45 waterfowl representing 24 genera, i.e., half of the existing genera. To confirm the results based on CR analysis we also analyzed representative species based on two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2). These data allowed us to construct a robust phylogeny of the Anseriformes and to compare it with existing phylogenies based on morphological or molecular data. Chauna and Dendrocygna were identified as early offshoots of the Anseriformes. All the remaining taxa fell into two clades that correspond to the two subfamilies Anatinae and Anserinae. Within Anserinae Branta and Anser cluster together, whereas Coscoroba, Cygnus, and Cereopsis form a relatively weak clade with Cygnus diverging first. Five clades are clearly recognizable among Anatinae: (i) the Anatini with Anas and Lophonetta; (ii) the Aythyini with Aythya and Netta; (iii) the Cairinini with Cairina and Aix; (iv) the Mergini with Mergus, Bucephala, Melanitta, Callonetta, Somateria, and Clangula, and (v) the Tadornini with Tadorna, Chloephaga, and Alopochen. The Tadornini diverged early on from the Anatinae; then the Mergini and a large group that comprises the Anatini, Aythyini, Cairinini, and two isolated genera, Chenonetta and Marmaronetta, diverged. The phylogeny obtained with the control region appears more robust than the one obtained with mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2 and cytb. This suggests that the CR is a powerful tool for bird phylogeny, not only at a small scale (i.e., relationships between species) but also at the family level. Whereas morphological analysis effectively resolved the split between Anatinae and Anserinae and the existence of some of the clades, the precise composition of the clades are different when morphological and molecular data are compared. PMID:12099792

Donne-Goussé, Carole; Laudet, Vincent; Hänni, Catherine

2002-06-01

181

Transpiration in seven plant species colonizing a fishpond shore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 7 species (Eleocharis palustris\\u000a R. Br.,Juncus bufonius L.,Gypsophila muralis L.,Trifolium repens L.,Agrostis stolonifera L.,Potentilla anserina L. andAchillea millefolium L.) growing in a gradient of habitats from aquatic to terrestrial, on a sandy fishpond shore in Southern Bohemia, Czechoslovakia,\\u000a the daily course of transpiration rate and water content was assessed gravimetrically in their cut-off transpiring parts on\\u000a two typical summer

J. Kv?t

1975-01-01

182

The genome and development-dependent transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: a window into fungal evolution.  

PubMed

Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ~13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion mutant, showing functional conservation of this developmental regulator. PMID:24068976

Traeger, Stefanie; Altegoer, Florian; Freitag, Michael; Gabaldon, Toni; Kempken, Frank; Kumar, Abhishek; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Stajich, Jason E; Nowrousian, Minou

2013-01-01

183

Molecular data and ploidal levels indicate several putative allopolyploidization events in the genus Potentilla (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Several naturally occurring hybrids in Potentilla (Rosaceae) have been reported, but no molecular evidence has so far been available to test these hypotheses of hybridization. We have compared a nuclear and a chloroplast gene tree to identify topological incongruences that may indicate hybridization events in the genus. Furthermore, the monophyly and phylogenetic position of the proposed segregated genera Argentina, Ivesia and Horkelia have been tested. The systematic signal from the two morphological characters, style- and anther shape, has also been investigated by ancestral state reconstruction, to elucidate how well these characters concur with the results of the molecular phylogenies. Six major clades, Anserina, Alba, Fragarioides, Reptans, ivesioid and Argentea, have been identified within genus Potentilla. Horkelia, Ivesia and Horkeliella (the ivesioid clade), form a monophyletic group nested within Potentilla. Furthermore, the origin of the proposed segregated genus Argentina (the Anserina clade) is uncertain but not in conflict with a new generic status of the group. We also found style morphology to be an informative character that reflects the phylogenetic relationships within Potentilla. Five well-supported incongruences were found between the nuclear and the chloroplast phylogenies, and three of these involved polyploid taxa. However, further investigations, using low copy molecular markers, are required to infer the phylogeny of these species and to test the hypothesis of hybrid origin. PMID:21603100

Töpel, Mats; Lundberg, Magnus; Eriksson, Torsten; Eriksen, Bente

2011-01-01

184

Molecular data and ploidal levels indicate several putative allopolyploidization events in the genus Potentilla (Rosaceae).  

PubMed

Several naturally occurring hybrids in Potentilla (Rosaceae) have been reported, but no molecular evidence has so far been available to test these hypotheses of hybridization. We have compared a nuclear and a chloroplast gene tree to identify topological incongruences that may indicate hybridization events in the genus. Furthermore, the monophyly and phylogenetic position of the proposed segregated genera Argentina, Ivesia and Horkelia have been tested. The systematic signal from the two morphological characters, style- and anther shape, has also been investigated by ancestral state reconstruction, to elucidate how well these characters concur with the results of the molecular phylogenies. Six major clades, Anserina, Alba, Fragarioides, Reptans, ivesioid and Argentea, have been identified within genus Potentilla. Horkelia, Ivesia and Horkeliella (the ivesioid clade), form a monophyletic group nested within Potentilla. Furthermore, the origin of the proposed segregated genus Argentina (the Anserina clade) is uncertain but not in conflict with a new generic status of the group. We also found style morphology to be an informative character that reflects the phylogenetic relationships within Potentilla. Five well-supported incongruences were found between the nuclear and the chloroplast phylogenies, and three of these involved polyploid taxa. However, further investigations, using low copy molecular markers, are required to infer the phylogeny of these species and to test the hypothesis of hybrid origin. PMID:21603100

Töpel, Mats; Lundberg, Magnus; Eriksson, Torsten; Eriksen, Bente

2011-01-01

185

Highly efficient generation of signal transduction knockout mutants using a fungal strain deficient in the mammalian ku70 ortholog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted gene replacement via homologous recombination is a routinely used approach to elucidate the function of unknown genes. Integration of exogenous DNA in the genomic DNA requires the action of double-strand repair mechanisms. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora is a model system for studying fruiting body development in fungi. In contrast to the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but similar to

Stefanie Pöggeler; Ulrich Kück

2006-01-01

186

The Involvement of Photoregulated DNA Methylation into a Choice between Sexual and Asexual Developmental Pathways in Neurospora crassa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the alternative choice by a fungal organism between the sexual and asexual developmental pathways remains unclear despite intense study of gene expression in ontogeny. A possibility to control the life cycle of Neurospora crassa by varying the cultivation condition makes this ascomycete fungus a convenient model for experimental analysis of ontogenetic processes. The development of mycelial cells

M. S. Kritsky; S. Yu. Filippovich; T. P. Afanasieva; G. P. Bachurina; V. E. A. Russo

2001-01-01

187

Effect of ergot alkaloids from fungal endophyte-infected grasses on fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ergot alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi in the tribe Balansiae (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycetes), which infect grasses, may provide plant defense against herbivores. This study examined the effects of six ergot alkaloids on survivorship, feeding, and growth of larvae of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a generalist herbivore of grasses. Corn leaf disks were soaked in solutions of individual ergot

Keith Clay; Gregory P. Cheplick

1989-01-01

188

THE EVOLUTION OF AGRICULTURE IN BEETLES (CURCULIONIDAE: SCOLYTINAE AND PLATYPODINAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beetles in the weevil subfamilies Scolytinae and Platypodinae are unusual in that they burrow as adults inside trees for feeding and oviposition. Some of these beetles are known as ambrosia beetles for their obligate mutualisms with asexual fungi—known as ambrosia fungi—that are derived from plant pathogens in the ascomycete group known as the ophiostomatoid fungi. Other beetles in these subfamilies

Brian D. Farrell; Andrea S. Sequeira; Brian C. O'Meara; Benjamin B. Normark; Jeffrey H. Chung; Bjarte H. Jordal

2001-01-01

189

Concordance of Gene Genealogies Reveals Reproductive Isolation in the Pathogenic Fungus Coccidioides immitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple cladogenetic theory suggests that gene genealogies can be used to detect mixis in a population and delineate reproductively isolated groups within sexual taxa. We have taken this approach in a study of Coccidioides immitis, an ascomycete fungus responsible for a recent epidemic of coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in California. To test whether this fungus represents a single sexual species throughout

Vassiliki Koufopanou; Austin Burt; John W. Taylor

1997-01-01

190

Improving secondary pick up of insect fungal pathogen conidia by manipulating host behaviour  

E-print Network

increased mortality among peach potato aphids. Myzus persicae Sulzer, that were exposed for 24 h to discs insects to disease. Key words: Aphids, Myzus persicae, Verticillium lecanii, secondary pick up the interaction between the Ascomycete Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Viegas and the peach potato aphid Myzus

Couzin, Iain D.

191

Morphology of Piedra hortal.  

PubMed

Piedra hortai, an ascomycete causing black piedra, was studied with light and electron microscopy. The nodule on the hair contains septate hyphae, asci and free ascospores, all of which were smaller than those previously reported. A mode of spread of infection is suggested. PMID:1162537

Chong, K C; Adam, B A; Soo-Hoo, T S

1975-07-01

192

PCR-Based Identification of MAT1 and MAT2 in the Gibberella fujikuroi Species Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

All sexually fertile strains in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex are heterothallic, with individual mating types conferred by the broadly conserved ascomycete idiomorphs MAT-1 and MAT-2. We sequenced both alleles from all eight mating populations, developed a multiplex PCR technique to distinguish these idiomorphs, and tested it with representative strains from all eight biological species and 22 additional species or

EMMA T. STEENKAMP; BRENDA D. WINGFIELD; TERESA A. COUTINHO; KURT A. ZELLER; MICHAEL J. WINGFIELD; WALTER F. O. MARASAS; JOHN F. LESLIE

2000-01-01

193

Ascosporas de Monosporascus cannonballus en Suelo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of different types of sugar in the extraction method of ascospores of Monosporascus cannonballus in soil The objective of this work was to test different kinds of sugar for the extraction of ascospores of M. cannonballus. The ascospores of this ascomycete involved in melon (Cucumis melo) collapse can be recovered from soil by a physical method using a gradient

Rui Sales Junior; Roberto Beltrán; Sami J. Michereff; Josep Armengol; José García-Jiménez; Érika Valente de Medeiros

194

Comparative genomic analyses of the human fungal pathogens Coccidioides and their relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most Ascomycetes tend to associate principally with plants, the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are primary pathogens of immunocompetent mammals, including humans. Infection results from environmental exposure to Coccidiodies, which is believed to grow as a soil saprophyte in arid deserts. To investigate hypotheses about the life history and evolution of Coccidioides, the genomes of several Onygenales,

Thomas J. Sharpton; Jason E. Stajich; Steven D. Rounsley; Malcolm J. Gardner; Jennifer R. Wortman; Vinita S. Jordar; Rama Maiti; Chinnappa D. Kodira; Daniel E. Neafsey; Qiandong Zeng; Chiung-Yu Hung; Cody McMahan; Anna Muszewska; Marcin Grynberg; M. Alejandra Mandel; Ellen M. Kellner; Bridget M. Barker; John N. Galgiani; Marc J. Orbach; Theo N. Kirkland

2009-01-01

195

Molecular Ecology Resources (2008) 8, 590592 doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.02005.x 2007 The Authors  

E-print Network

. K. gauchensis is a haploid ascomycete. The genus name refers to the asexual reproductive structures designed from cloned fragments. Fourteen of the primer pairs provided single amplicons and 10 of these were (pycnidia) found in nature. As is the case in K. zuluensis, sexual reproductive structures have never been

196

Production of Wood Decay Enzymes, Loss of Mass, and Lignin Solubilization in Wood by Diverse Tropical Freshwater Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro production of cellulase and xylanase was common among diverse freshwater ascomycetes and their hyphomycetous anamorphs. Production of enzymes involved in lignin degradation was rare. Most isolates were capable of causing mass loss in angiosperm wood, although values were low, at ~10% during a 24-week period. A few isolates caused higher mass loss of up to 26.5%, and five

V. V. C. Bucher; S. B. Pointing; K. D. Hyde; C. A. Reddy

2004-01-01

197

Role of fungi in freshwater ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 600 species of freshwater fungi with a greater number known from temperate, as compared to tropical, regions. Three main groups can be considered which include Ingoldian fungi, aquatic ascomycetes and non-Ingoldian hyphomycetes, chytrids and, oomycetes. The fungi occurring in lentic habitats mostly differ from those occurring in lotic habitats. Although there is no comprehensive work dealing

Michelle K. M. Wong; Teik-Khiang Goh; I. John Hodgkiss; Kevin D. Hyde; V. Mala Ranghoo; Clement K. M. Tsui; Wai-Hong Ho; Wilson S. W. Wong; Tsz-Kit Yuen

1998-01-01

198

Identification of potentially safe promising fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide natural food colorants using chemotaxonomic rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Colorants derived from natural sources look set to overtake synthetic colorants in market value as manufacturers continue to meet the rising demand for clean label ingredients – particularly in food applications. Many ascomycetous fungi naturally synthesize and secrete pigments and thus provide readily available additional and\\/or alternative sources of natural colorants that are independent of agro-climatic conditions. With an

Sameer AS Mapari; Anne S Meyer; Ulf Thrane; Jens C Frisvad

2009-01-01

199

Experiments on Sex in Rust Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE phenomenon of heterothallism (the separation of sex in different individuals) is known to occur in the Phycomycetes (Mucor), in the Ascomycetes (Ascobolus, Penicillium), in a large number of Hymeno-mycetes (mushrooms and toadstools), and in the Smut fungi. Therefore the question arises: Does heterothallism occur in tho Rust fungi? An attempt to solve this problem, which is of considerable theoretical

J. H. Craigie

1927-01-01

200

Fungi on Musa acuminata in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of an investigation into the fungi associated with dead tissue of Musa acuminata at two sites in Hong Kong are reported. Forty-six fungi were identified, comprising 14 ascomycetes and 32 mitosporic taxa (27 hyphomycetes and 5 coelomycetes). The frequency of occurrence of these fungi at the two sites was also investigated. The most common species was Memnoniella subsimplex which

W. Photitat; S. Lumyongt; P. Lumyong; W. H. Ho; E. H. C. McKenzie; K. D. Hyde

201

Biodiversity and distribution of fungi associated with decomposing Nypa fruticans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi associated with the decomposition of Nypa fruticans in Malaysia are under investigation. Forty-one fungi have been identified including 35 ascomycetes, four mitosporic fungi and two basidiomycetes. The distribution of intertidal fungi on palm structures including leaves, leaf veins, rachides, petiole bases, and inflorescences, and fungi on terrestrial parts have also been examined. No fungi were found on the leaf

Kevin D. Hyde; Siti A. Alias

2000-01-01

202

Soil mycoflora of Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative survey of the yeasts and filamentous fungi in 29 Peruvian soils was undertaken. Using the dilution plate method, 4884 isolates were obtained. Four per cent were sterile and 7 % were unidentified. The remaining isolates belonged to 53 genera, 159 species, and 4 varieties of which 14 were phycomycetes, 22 were ascomycetes, and 128 were deuteromycetes.Absidia repens, Helicodendron

S. E. Gochenaur

1970-01-01

203

Self-cloning in filamentous fungi: application to the construction of endothiapepsin overproducers in Cryphonectria parasitica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filamentous ascomycete fungus Cryphonectria parasitica naturally secretes endothiapepsin, an aspartic proteinase. It is cultured on a commercial scale as a source of the milk-clotting enzyme for cheese making. Our objective was to increase enzyme production of an industrial C. parasitica strain by a new technique of self-cloning; it consisted in the screening for transformants producing higher levels of endothiapepsin

Patrick Jara; Pascal Delmas; Vohangy Razanamparany; Luellen Olsen; Patrice Dupin; Alain Bayol; Joël Bégueret; Gérard Loison

1995-01-01

204

Induction of defense genes and secondary metabolites in saskatoons ( Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) in response to Entomosporium mespili using jasmonic acid and Canada milkvetch extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entomosporium leaf and berry spot represent the most important disease of saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.). This disease, caused by the ascomycete Entomosporium mespili (D.C.) Sacc., is difficult to control via conventional methods and no known saskatoon cultivar carries resistance to this pathogen. The aim of the present study was to enhance existing and induced defense responses of saskatoons using two

Erika A. Wolski; Maria A. Henriquez; Lorne R. Adam; Mohamed Badawi; Adriana B. Andreu; Abdelbasset El Hadrami; Fouad Daayf

2010-01-01

205

Intracellular accommodation of microbes by plants: a common developmental program for symbiosis and disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cells engage in mutualistic and parasitic endosymbioses with a wide variety of microoganisms, ranging from Gram-negative (Rhizobium, Nostoc) and Gram-positive bacteria (Frankia), to oomycetes (Phytophthora), Chytridiomycetes, Zygomycetes (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) and true fungi (Erysiphe, ascomycete; Puccinia, basidiomycete). Endosymbiosis is characterised by the 'symbiosome', a compartment within host cells in which the symbiotic microorganism is either partially or completely enclosed

Martin Parniske

2000-01-01

206

Risk Analysis of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for Biological Control of Cirsium arvense in Pasture: Sclerotium Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plurivorous ascomycete, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , is being evaluated as a mycoherbicide for the biocontrol of Cirsium arvense in pastures. Increased inoculum levels potentially add to the risk of disease in susceptible crops sown at or near the biocontrol site. This paper summarises: (1) two series of experiments that quantify the survival of soilborne sclerotia in sheep-grazed pastures in the

G. W. Bourdôt; D. J. Saville; G. A. Hurrell; I. C. Harvey; M. D. De Jong

2000-01-01

207

Studies on the solubilization of German coal by fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The capability of seven basidiomycetes (Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. eryngii, Stropharia sp.), one ascomycete (Chaetomium globosum) and five hyphomycetes and moulds (Humicola grisea, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, Paecilomyces varioti, Papulaspora immersa) to solubilize medium and high volatile bituminous coals (types A and B) as well as four types of lignite B from

J. Reiss

1992-01-01

208

Assessment of wood degradation by Pycnoporus sanguineus when co-cultured with selected fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the natural yeast populations on fruiting bodies of Pycnoporus sanguineus were characterized using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The majority of the yeasts on these structures belonged to the ascomycetous species, Pichia guilliermondii while the rest were representatives of the basidiomycetous species Rhodotorula glutinis. The impact of these yeasts, as well as the pioneer fungus Aspergillus

Andrea van Heerden; Niel J. le Roux; Jan Swart; Sugnet Gardner-Lubbe; Alfred Botha

2008-01-01

209

Biological Activity of Volatile Fungal Metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A RECENT survey has measured the effects of volatile metabolites from sixty-two fungal cultures on chosen characters of growth and reproduction of five assay species, namely: Rhizopus sexualis (Smith) Callen, Chaetomium globosum Kunze ex Fr., Stereum hirsutum (Willd.) Fr., Aspergillus niger van Tiegh., and Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. The sixty-two species tested consisted of thirteen Phycomycetes, thirteen Ascomycetes, six

Christine M. Dick; S. A. Hutchinson

1966-01-01

210

Rate of iodine volatilization and accumulation by filamentous fungi through laboratory cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five strains of basidiomycetes (Lentinula edodes, Coprinus phlyctidosporus, Hebeloma vinosophyllum, Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus), one strain of ascomycete (Hormoconis resinae) and six strains of imperfect fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roquefortii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae) were cultured in a liquid medium containing a radioactive iodine tracer (125I), and were tested for their abilities to volatilize

Tadaaki Ban-nai; Yasuyuki Muramatsu; Seigo Amachi

2006-01-01

211

Fungal endophytes of grasses and their effects on an insect herbivore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of endophytic fungi (Tribe Balansiae, Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycetes) of grasses on an insect herbivore were studied by feeding paired groups of larvae of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) leaves from either infected or uninfected individuals. Perennial ryegrass infected by “the Lolium endophyte”, tall fescue infected by Epichloe typhina, dallisgrass infected by Myriogenospora atramentosa, Texas wintergrass infected by

Keith Clay; Tad N. Hardy; Abner M. Hammond

1985-01-01

212

INTRODUCTION Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in most forest soils, usually obtained in the form of nitrate.  

E-print Network

of nitrate. Acquisition of nitrate is mediated by NRT2, a high affinity transporter of nitrate in prokaryotes in the ascomycete Aspergillus revealed two nrt2 copies with different affinities for binding nitrate, although until this point there has been no indication of functional divergence in other fungi. Fine regulation of nitrate

Hibbett, David S.

213

Microcyclospora and Microcyclosporella: novel genera accommodating epiphytic fungi causing sooty blotch on apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have found a wide range of ascomycetes to be associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) blemishes on the surfaces of pomaceous fruits, specifically apples. Based on collections of such fungi from apple orchards in Germany and Slovenia we introduce two novel genera according to analyses of morphological characters and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences (large subunit and internal

J. Frank; P. W. Crous; J. Z. Groenewald; B. Oertel; K. D. Hyde; P. Phengsintham; H.-J. Schroers

2010-01-01

214

Release of dimethylsulfide from dimethylsulfoniopropionate by plant-associated salt marsh fungi.  

PubMed

The range of types of microbes with dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) lyase capability (enzymatic release of dimethylsulfide [DMS] from DMSP) has recently been expanded from bacteria and eukaryotic algae to include fungi (a species of the genus Fusarium [M. K. Bacic and D. C. Yoch, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:106-111, 1998]). Fungi (especially ascomycetes) are the predominant decomposers of shoots of smooth cordgrass, the principal grass of Atlantic salt marshes of the United States. Since the high rates of release of DMS from smooth cordgrass marshes have a temporal peak that coincides with peak shoot death, we hypothesized that cordgrass fungi were involved in this DMS release. We tested seven species of the known smooth cordgrass ascomycetes and discovered that six of them exhibited DMSP lyase activity. We also tested two species of ascomycetes from other DMSP-containing plants, and both were DMSP lyase competent. For comparison, we tested 11 species of ascomycetes and mitosporic fungi from halophytes that do not contain DMSP; of these 11, only 3 were positive for DMSP lyase. A third group tested, marine oomycotes (four species of the genera Halophytophthora and Pythium, mostly from mangroves), showed no DMSP lyase activity. Two of the strains of fungi found to be positive for DMSP lyase also exhibited uptake of DMS, an apparently rare combination of capabilities. In conclusion, a strong correlation exists between a fungal decomposer's ability to catabolize DMSP via the DMSP lyase pathway and the host plant's production of DMSP as a secondary product. PMID:16349548

Bacic, M K; Newell, S Y; Yoch, D C

1998-04-01

215

Multiyear patterns of fungal biomass dynamics and productivity within naturally decaying smooth cordgrass shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascomycetous fungi are predominant secondary microbial producers of the smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterni- flora ) shoot decay system. A 3-yr examination of concentrations of living fungal mass (as ergosterol content) in naturally decaying cordgrass, and of instantaneous rates of cordgrass-fungal production (as rates of incorporation of radiolabeled acetate into ergosterol at a standard temperature of 20 8C), was conducted in

Steven Y. Newell

2001-01-01

216

Release of Dimethylsulfide from Dimethylsulfoniopropionate by Plant-Associated Salt Marsh Fungi  

PubMed Central

The range of types of microbes with dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) lyase capability (enzymatic release of dimethylsulfide [DMS] from DMSP) has recently been expanded from bacteria and eukaryotic algae to include fungi (a species of the genus Fusarium [M. K. Bacic and D. C. Yoch, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:106–111, 1998]). Fungi (especially ascomycetes) are the predominant decomposers of shoots of smooth cordgrass, the principal grass of Atlantic salt marshes of the United States. Since the high rates of release of DMS from smooth cordgrass marshes have a temporal peak that coincides with peak shoot death, we hypothesized that cordgrass fungi were involved in this DMS release. We tested seven species of the known smooth cordgrass ascomycetes and discovered that six of them exhibited DMSP lyase activity. We also tested two species of ascomycetes from other DMSP-containing plants, and both were DMSP lyase competent. For comparison, we tested 11 species of ascomycetes and mitosporic fungi from halophytes that do not contain DMSP; of these 11, only 3 were positive for DMSP lyase. A third group tested, marine oomycotes (four species of the genera Halophytophthora and Pythium, mostly from mangroves), showed no DMSP lyase activity. Two of the strains of fungi found to be positive for DMSP lyase also exhibited uptake of DMS, an apparently rare combination of capabilities. In conclusion, a strong correlation exists between a fungal decomposer’s ability to catabolize DMSP via the DMSP lyase pathway and the host plant’s production of DMSP as a secondary product. PMID:16349548

Bacic, M. K.; Newell, S. Y.; Yoch, D. C.

1998-01-01

217

Detection and Identification of Decay Fungi in Spruce Wood by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Amplified Genes Encoding rRNA†  

PubMed Central

We have developed a DNA-based assay to reliably detect brown rot and white rot fungi in wood at different stages of decay. DNA, isolated by a series of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and organic extractions, was amplified by the PCR using published universal primers and basidiomycete-specific primers derived from ribosomal DNA sequences. We surveyed 14 species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes (brown-rot and white-rot fungi), as well as 25 species of wood-inhabiting ascomycetes (pathogens, endophytes, and saprophytes). DNA was isolated from pure cultures of these fungi and also from spruce wood blocks colonized by individual isolates of wood decay basidiomycetes or wood-inhabiting ascomycetes. The primer pair ITS1-F (specific for higher fungi) and ITS4 (universal primer) amplified the internal transcribed spacer region from both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes from both pure culture and wood, as expected. The primer pair ITS1-F (specific for higher fungi) and ITS4-B (specific for basidiomycetes) was shown to reliably detect the presence of wood decay basidiomycetes in both pure culture and wood; ascomycetes were not detected by this primer pair. We detected the presence of decay fungi in wood by PCR before measurable weight loss had occurred to the wood. Basidiomycetes were identified to the species level by restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the internal transcribed spacer region. PMID:11055916

Jasalavich, Claudia A.; Ostrofsky, Andrea; Jellison, Jody

2000-01-01

218

A Morphological and Molecular Perspective of Trichoderma viride: Is It One or Two Species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma (Ascomycetes, Hypocreales) strains that have warted conidia are traditionally identified as T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma. However, two morphologically distinct types of conidial warts (I and II) have been found. Because each type corresponds to a unique mitochondrial DNA pattern, it has been questioned whether T. viride comprises more than one species. Combined molecular data (sequences of

ELKE LIECKFELDT; GARY J. SAMUELS; HELGARD I. NIRENBERG; ORLANDO PETRINI; Systematic Botany

1999-01-01

219

Evolution of alternative transcriptional circuits with identical logic  

E-print Network

species of the ascomycete lineage. Mating type in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. cerevisiae and C. albicans, the molecular details differ in a remarkable way16 . In S. cerevisiae, the asgs. albicans, however, the asgs are off bydefault, and are activated in a-cells by an HMG-domain protein (a2

Li, Hao

220

Bioactive Chemical Constituents of a Sterile Endophytic Fungus from Meliotus dentatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and biological investigations of the endophytic fungus of an unidentified Ascomycete, isolated from Meliotus dentatus led to the isolation of six known polyketide metabolites ( 1-6) and two steroids (7 and 8). Compounds 1-3, and 5 were tested for antibacterial, antialgal and antifungal activities. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 showed good activity against the alga Chlorella fusca, while compounds

Hidayat Hussain; Karsten Krohn; Siegfried Draeger; Kathrin Meier; Barbara Schulz

221

A Multiplex PCR Test for Determination of Mating Type Applied to the Plant Pathogens Tapesia  

E-print Network

Europe, North America, and New Zealand. Isolates of both mating types were found on all continents of mating-type genes and progress has been made in cloning these genes from certain ascomycete species. 173 #12;genes have been cloned from the hemiascomycete, pyreno- mycete, loculoascomycete

Murray, Timothy D.

222

Diversification of NRT2 and the Origin of Its Fungal Homolog Jason C. Slot,* Kelly N. Hallstrom,* Patrick B. Matheny,* and David S. Hibbett*  

E-print Network

plants, monocots, and eudicots, as well as fungi, ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and agaric mushrooms the origin and diversification of the high-affinity nitrate transporter NRT2 in fungi and other eukaryotes (stramenopiles), and 87 bacterial sequences. To assess evolution of NRT2 within fungi and other eukaryotes, we

Hibbett, David S.

223

Phylogenetic diversity of lichen-associated homobasidiomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of lichenicolous fungi are relatively host-specific, nonvirulent ascomycetes and heterobasidiomycetes. A few known lichenicolous homobasidiomycetes (mushroom-forming fungi) generally exhibit broad host ecologies and in some cases, high virulence. Many produce conspicuous sclerotia or bulbils, thought to be adaptive in dispersal and survival. To more clearly understand the evolution of these atypical behaviors in lichenicolous basidiomycetes, we isolated

James D. Lawrey; Manfred Binder; Paul Diederich; M. Carmen Molina; Masoumeh Sikaroodi; Damien Ertz

2007-01-01

224

Bioactive biomolecules of mushrooms: Food function and medicinal effect of mushroom fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the several thousand species of mushrooms (Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes) on earth, 1500 species are found in Japan. Many of these species are valuable as gene pool sources which can be utilized by biotechnology to develop new foods and new medicines. Many edible mushrooms are now being studied for their nutritional and flavor properties. To utilize the full potential

Takashi Mizuno

1995-01-01

225

FUNGAL MOVEMENT: THE MICROSCOPIC CIRCUS Nicholas P. Money  

E-print Network

that discharges the spores of mushroom-forming fungi and their relatives. Impressive cases of natural engineering groups of mushroom-forming fungi and ascomycetes. This morphological information has been used, in a few may seem absurd. After all, fungi are not renowned for their athleticism. A peregrine falcon can dive

Gilbert, Robert P.

226

Diversification of NRT2 and the Origin of Its Fungal Homolog Jason C. Slot,* Kelly Hallstrom,* Patrick B. Matheny,* and David S. Hibbett*  

E-print Network

plants, monocots, and eudicots, as well as fungi, ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and agaric mushrooms the origin and diversification of the high-affinity nitrate transporter NRT2 in fungi and other eu- karyotes (stramenopiles), and 87 bacterial sequences. To assess evolution of NRT2 within fungi and other eukaryotes, we

Matheny, P. Brandon

227

Small genetic differences between ericoid mycorrhizal fungi affect nitrogen uptake by Vaccinium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to differ in their pattern of nitrogen (N) use in pure culture. Here, we investigate whether this functional variation is maintained in symbiosis using three ascomycetes from a clade not previously shown to include ericoid mycorrhizal taxa.  Vaccinium macrocarpon and Vaccinium vitis-idaea were inoculated with three fungal strains known to form

Gwen-Aëlle Grelet; Andrew A. Meharg; Elizabeth I. Duff; Ian C. Anderson; Ian J. Alexander

2009-01-01

228

The natural history of the WRKYGCM1 zinc fingers and the relationship between transcription factors  

E-print Network

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health transcription regulatory hubs in recent course of ascomycete yeast evolution. In plants, we show, fungi, slime moulds and plants, 55they are entirely absent or exceedingly rare in other eukary- otic

Babu, M. Madan

229

Screening of ecologically diverse fungi for their potential to pretreat lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock.  

PubMed

A widespread and hitherto by far underexploited potential among ecologically diverse fungi to pretreat wheat straw and digestate from maize silage in the future perspective of using such lignocellulosic feedstock for fermentative bioenergy production was inferred from a screening of nine freshwater ascomycetes, 76 isolates from constructed wetlands, nine peatland isolates and ten basidiomycetes. Wheat straw pretreatment was most efficient with three ascomycetes belonging to the genera Acephala (peatland isolate) and Stachybotrys (constructed wetland isolates) and two white-rot fungi (Hypholoma fasciculare and Stropharia rugosoannulata) as it increased the amounts of water-extractable total sugars by more than 50 % and sometimes up to 150 % above the untreated control. The ascomycetes delignified wheat straw at rates (lignin losses between about 31 and 40 % of the initial content) coming close to those observed with white-rot fungi (about 40 to 57 % lignin removal). Overall, fungal delignification was indicated as a major process facilitating the digestibility of wheat straw. Digestate was generally more resistant to fungal decomposition than wheat straw. Nevertheless, certain ascomycetes delignified this substrate to extents sometimes even exceeding delignification by basidiomycetes. Total sugar amounts of about 20 to 60 % above the control value were obtained with the most efficient fungi (one ascomycete of the genus Phoma, the unspecific wood-rot basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita and one unidentified constructed wetland isolate). This was accompanied by lignin losses of about 47 to 56 % of the initial content. Overall, digestate delignification was implied to be less decisive for high yields of fermentable sugars than wheat straw delignification. PMID:24504460

Singh, S; Harms, H; Schlosser, D

2014-04-01

230

Production of extracellular ribonuclease by yeasts and yeastlike fungi, and its repression by orthophosphate in species of Cryptococcus and Tremella.  

PubMed Central

A strain of Cryptococcus laurentii and a haploid isolate of Tremella foliacea were shown to produce orthophosphate-repressible ribonuclease in liquid culture. Addition of as little as 1 mM K2HPO4, pH 7.0, completely repressed enzyme production by both fungi. The orthophosphate-repressible enzyme was not produced by other species of the two genera tested. These results, together with other findings, suggest a close phylogenetic relationship between Cryptococcus laurentii and Tremella foliacea. The ability of other yeasts and yeastlike fungi to hydrolyze ribonucleic acid in a solid test medium was assessed. Based on the limited number of organisms available for study, extracellular ribonuclease activity was found in species having close affinity to the Basidiomycetes and in yeasts classified in the ascomycetous genera, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, and Kluyveromyces. Other ascomycetous yeasts did not exhibit extracellular ribonuclease. PMID:1254561

Burt, W R; Cazin, J

1976-01-01

231

The most recent results on orchid mycorrhizal fungi in Hungary.  

PubMed

Symbionts and endophytes of Hungarian orchids were studied at diverse habitats. Mycobionts of roots and in situ germinated protocorms of 15 orchid species were identified by molecular methods. Four fungal groups could be distinguished from orchids living at diversely wet treeless habitats: Ceratobasidiaceae, Epulorhiza 1, Epulorhiza 2 and Sebacinaceae. While the groups Ceratobasidiaceae and Sebacinaceae were detected only at habitats with medium water supply, members of clade Epulorhiza occurred at all of the treeless study sites. These observations suggest that fungi belonging to the genus Epulorhiza are more tolerant of water-stress than the other investigated genera. An ascomycetous fungus from the family Pezizaceae could be identified from the roots of Orchis coriophora. Further Ascomycetes were identified at forest habitats. Tuber maculatum was detected from the roots of Epipactis helleborine and Cephalanthera damasonium, and Tuber excavatum from Epipactis microphylla. PMID:21565766

Illyés, Z; Ouanphanivanh, Noémi; Rudnóy, Sz; Orczán, A K; Bratek, Z

2010-01-01

232

Relationship between MIC and Minimum Sterol 14?-Demethylation-Inhibitory Concentration as a Factor in Evaluating Activities of Azoles against Various Fungal Species  

PubMed Central

The minimum growth-inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of azole antifungals were compared to their minimum sterol 14?-demethylation-inhibitory concentrations (MDICs) for clinical fungal isolates. The ascomycetous Candida yeasts tested were clearly divided into two groups: group I, consisting of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. lusitaniae, had MICs that were much higher than the MDICs, whereas group II, comprising C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. krusei, had MICs that were approximately equal to the MDICs. In the ascomycetous fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Sporothrix schenckii, the MICs were indistinguishable from the MDICs. In the basidiomycetous fungi Cryptococcus (Filobasidiella) neoformans, C. curvatus, and Trichosporon asahii, the MICs and the MDICs were practically identical. These results support the notion that there are two distinct classes of fungi differing in their degree of tolerance to sterol 14?-demethylation deficiency. These findings have significant implications for both fungal physiology and antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:16272484

Shimokawa, Osamu; Niimi, Masakazu; Kikuchi, Ken; Saito, Mitsumasa; Kajiwara, Hideko; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

2005-01-01

233

The influence of clear-cutting on ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity in a lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ) stand, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and Gallatin National Forest, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of clear-cutting on the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungus community in a Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. forest near Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A., were assessed using molecular techniques. Samples were taken by soil core in both undisturbed and clear-cut sites by randomized block design. Species overlap was compared between clear-cut and undisturbed sites and ascomycete-basidiomycete ratio was determined, using PCR-RFLP

Kristin B. Byrd; V. Thomas Parker; Detlev R. Vogler; Ken W. Cullings

2000-01-01

234

Development of a Fusarium graminearum Affymetrix GeneChip for profiling fungal gene expression in vitro and in planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi have become available, providing the opportunity for large-scale functional analysis including genome-wide expression analysis. We report the design and validation of the first Affymetrix GeneChip microarray based on the entire genome of a filamentous fungus, the ascomycetous plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum. To maximize the likelihood of representing all putative genes (?14,000) on

Ulrich Güldener; Kye-Yong Seong; Jayanand Boddu; Seungho Cho; Frances Trail; Jin-Rong Xu; Gerhard Adam; Hans-Werner Mewes; Gary J. Muehlbauer; H. Corby Kistler

2006-01-01

235

Molecular characterization of pezizalean ectomycorrhizas associated with pinyon pine during drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies using molecular analysis of ectomycorrhizas have revealed that ascomycete fungi, especially members of the\\u000a order Pezizales, can be important members of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal communities. However, little is known about the ecology\\u000a and taxonomy of many of these fungi. We used data collected during a wet and a dry period to test the hypothesis that pezizalean\\u000a EM fungi

Galena J. Gordon; Catherine A. Gehring

2011-01-01

236

Wood-inhabiting filamentous fungi in 12 high-altitude streams of the Western Ghats by damp incubation and bubble chamber incubation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity and distribution of fungi on naturally submerged wood from 12 high-altitude streams of the Western Ghats in\\u000a India were studied by damp chamber incubation and bubble chamber incubation. The damp chamber incubation of wood samples yielded\\u000a 29 fungal taxa (17 anamorphs, 11 ascomycetes, 1 basidiomycete). Acrogenospora sphaerocephala, Canalisporium sp., Dictyosporium heptasporum, Leptosphaeria ginimia, L. typharum, Massarina australiensis, Sporoschisma

Kandikere R. SridharKishore; Kishore S. Karamchand; Kevin D. Hyde

2010-01-01

237

Cerebral Aspergillosis Caused by Neosartorya hiratsukae, Brazil  

PubMed Central

We report the first case of infection by Neosartorya hiratsukae, an ascomycete in which the conidial state resembles Aspergillus fumigatus. The fungus caused a brain infection in a Brazilian woman, who died despite itraconazole treatment. Diagnosis was established by direct microscopic examination, computed tomographic scan, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and repeated cultures from the lesions. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of the isolate is provided. PMID:12194781

Kallas, Esper G.; Godoy, Patricio; Karenina, Anna; Gene, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

2002-01-01

238

Characterization of a gene in the car cluster of Fusarium fujikuroi that codes for a protein of the carotenoid oxygenase family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi produces carotenoids by means of the enzymes encoded by three car genes. The enzymes encoded by carRA and carB are responsible of the synthesis of ?-carotene and torulene, respectively, while the product encoded by carT cleaves torulene to produce the acidic xanthophyll neurosporaxanthin. carRA and carB are found in a cluster with a third gene, carO,

S. Thewes; A. Prado-Cabrero; M. M. Prado; B. Tudzynski; J. Avalos

2005-01-01

239

Linocarpon angustatum sp. nov., and Neolinocarpon nypicola sp. nov. from petioles of Nypa fruticans , and a list of fungi from aerial parts of this host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new ascomycetes,Linocarpon angustatum sp. nov. andNeolinocarpon nypicola sp. nov., are described from petioles ofNypa fruticans in Malaysia.Linocarpon angustatum differs from species in the genus in having needle-shaped ascospores.Neolinocarpon nypicola differs from species in the genus in having filiform ascospores which gradually taper towards the ends, and ascomata developing\\u000a within well developed stromata. These new species are compared with existing

Kevin D. Hyde; Siti A. Alias

1999-01-01

240

Phylogenetically Diverse Cultivable Fungal Community and Polyketide Synthase (PKS), Non-ribosomal Peptide Synthase (NRPS) Genes Associated with the South China Sea Sponges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with sponge-associated bacteria, the phylogenetic diversity of fungi in sponge and the association of sponge fungi\\u000a remain largely unknown. Meanwhile, no detection of polyketide synthase (PKS) or non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) genes\\u000a in sponge-associated fungi has been attempted. In this study, diverse and novel cultivable fungi including 10 genera (Aspergillus, Ascomycete, Fusarium, Isaria, Penicillium, Plectosphaerella, Pseudonectria, Simplicillium, Trichoderma, and

Kang Zhou; Xia Zhang; Fengli Zhang; Zhiyong Li

241

Genome Sequence of the Food Spoilage Yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii CLIB 213T  

PubMed Central

The ascomycetous yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii is one of the most problematic spoilage yeasts in food and beverage industries, due to its exceptional resistance to various stresses. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these stress resistance phenotypes might help develop strategies to improve food quality. Thus, we determined and annotated the genome sequence of the strain Z. bailii CLIB 213T (= CBS 680). PMID:23969048

Bigey, Frederic; Devillers, Hugo; Neuveglise, Cecile; Dequin, Sylvie

2013-01-01

242

Genetic Conversion of a Fungal Plant Pathogen to a Nonpathogenic, Endophytic Mutualist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filamentous fungal ascomycete Colletotrichum magna causes anthracnose in cucurbit plants. Isolation of a nonpathogenic mutant of this species (path-1) resulted in maintained wild-type levels of in vitro sporulation, spore adhesion, appressorial formation, and infection. Path-1 grew throughout host tissues as an endophyte and retained the wild-type host range, which indicates that the genetics involved in pathogenicity and host specificity

Stanley Freeman; Rusty J. Rodriguez

1993-01-01

243

Alternative splicing and genetic diversity of the white collar-1 ( wc-1 ) gene in cereal Phaeosphaeria pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white collar-1 (wc-1) gene encodes an important light-responsive protein (wc-1) that maintains circadian clocks and controls numerous light-dependent\\u000a reactions including sporulation in ascomycete fungi. The structure and expression of the wc-1 gene in wheat-biotype Phaeosphaeria nodorum (PN-w) was studied. It was shown that the full-size (3,353 bp in length) wc-1 gene in PN-w contained 4 introns in which introns 1

Ericka Yen-Hsin Chiu; Ying-Hong Lin; Wei Wu; Qijian Song; Pi-Fang Linda Chang; Ling-Yan Gao; Chun-Chi Chou; Peter P. Ueng

2010-01-01

244

Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising\\u000a 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency\\u000a of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum,

Hong-kai Wang; Kevin D. Hyde; Kasem Soytong; Fu-cheng Lin

2008-01-01

245

Effect of pH on the stability of Pleurotus eryngii versatile peroxidase during heterologous production in Emericella nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the new versatile peroxidase from the ligninolytic basidiomycete Pleurotus eryngii has been expressed in the ascomycete Emericella nidulans. In recombinant E. nidulans cultures, the pH reached values as high as 8.3, correlating with a sharp decrease in peroxidase activity. Peroxidase was rapidly inactivated at alkaline pH, but was comparatively stable at acidic pH. The peroxidase inactivation

T. A. Lú-Chau; F. J. Ruiz-Dueñas; S. Camarero; G. Feijoo; M. J. Martínez; J. M. Lema; A. T. Martínez

2004-01-01

246

FUNGI ASSOCIATED TO DECOMPOSITION OF Castanopsis accuminatissima LEAF LITTER ????? ?????????1 ?????? ?????????????1 ???? ??????????? 1 ??? ???????? ?????????????2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated richness and diversity of filamentous fungi associated with the decomposition of Castanopsis accuminatissima leaf litter. Fifty-five taxa were identified through examining 1472 isolates. These comprised 3 (5.45%) taxa of Zygomycetes, 7 (12.73%) taxa of Ascomycetes, 30 (54.55%) taxa of Deuteromycetes, and 15 (27.27%) taxa of unidentified sterile mycelium. Each decaying stage of leaf litter had a different

Witoon Puranong; Pornpan Lerstaveesin; La-aw Ampornpan; Prasert Srikitikulchai

247

Primary structure of the trpC gene from Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the structure and complete nucleotide sequence of the trifunctional trpC gene from the Ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Results from RNA gel blot analyses showed that this gene encodes two size classes of polyribosomal, poly (A)+RNAs with approximate lengths of 2,400 and 2,600 nucleotides. S1 nuclease protection studies demonstrated that the distribution into the two size classes is

Edward J. Mullaney; John E. Hamer; Kellee A. Roberti; M. Melanie Yelton; William E. Timberlake

1985-01-01

248

Infection and colonization of strawberry by Gnomonia fragariae strain expressing green fluorescent protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gnomonia fragariae is a poorly studied ascomycete, which was recently demonstrated to be a cause of severe root rot and petiole blight of strawberry.\\u000a The pathogen was genetically transformed with the GFP as a vital marker and hygromycin resistance gene. Several stable transformants\\u000a were obtained, which did not differ in their phenotype from the wild type isolate. Using one of

Inga Moro?ko-Bi?evska; Jamshid Fatehi

2011-01-01

249

Genetic transformation and biotechnological application of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relatively unknown, non-pathogenic, dimorphic, haploid, ascomycetous yeast Arxula adeninivorans exhibits some unusual properties which are of biotechnological interest. The yeast is able to assimilate and ferment many\\u000a compounds as sole source of carbon and\\/or nitrogen, it utilises n-alkanes and degrades starch efficiently. A. adeninivorans features such as thermo- and haloresistance as well as the yeast's uncommon growth and secretion

T. Wartmann; G. Kunze

2000-01-01

250

[Two cases of fungal infection of nails with participation of Cryptendoxyla hypophloia].  

PubMed

Reported are two cases of suspected onychomycosis with participation of Cryptendoxyla hypophloia. The species C. hypophloia have not been isolated from human and animal clinical material yet. It is a rarely reported cleistothecial ascomycete that has been found to be naturally present on cellulose-rich materials. Its strains tested in a laboratory demonstrated very good susceptibility to terbinafine. The identification of isolates was verified based on rDNA sequencing and by comparison with C. hypophloia ex-type strain. PMID:24960261

Lysková, P; Hubka, V; Navrátilová, P; Kola?ík, M; Sko?epová, M

2014-03-01

251

Diversity of facultatively anaerobic microscopic mycelial fungi in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers of microscopic fungi isolated from soil samples after anaerobic incubation varied from tens to several hundreds\\u000a of CFU per one gram of soil; a total of 30 species was found. This group is composed primarily of mitotic fungi of the ascomycete\\u000a affinity belonging to the orders Hypocreales (Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp., Clonostachys grammicospora, C. rosea, Acremonium

A. V. Kurakov; R. B. Lavrent’ev; T. Yu. Nechitailo; P. N. Golyshin; D. G. Zvyagintsev

2008-01-01

252

Slippery Scar: A New Mushroom Disease in Auricularia polytricha  

PubMed Central

A new disease, the slippery scar, was investigated in cultivated bags of Auricularia polytricha. This fungus was isolated from the infected mycelia of cultivated bags. Based on morphological observation, rDNA-internal transcribed spacer and 18S sequence analysis, this pathogen was identified as the Ascomycete Scytalidium lignicola. According to Koch's Postulation, the pathogenicity of S. lignicola to the mycelia of A. polytricha was confirmed. The parasitism of this fungus on mushroom mycelia in China has not been reported before. PMID:22870056

Sun, Jie

2012-01-01

253

Misting and nitrogen fertilization of shoots of a saltmarsh grass: effects upon fungal decay of leaf blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a 12-week field manipulation experiment in which we raised the nitrogen availability (ammonium sulfate fertilization to roots) and\\/or water potential (freshwater misting) of decaying leaf blades of a saltmarsh grass (smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora) in triplicate 11-m2 plots, and compared the manipulated plots to unmanipulated, control plots. The ascomycetous fungi that dominate cordgrass leaf decomposition processes under natural

Steven Y. Newell; Thomas L. Arsuffi; Laura A. Palm

1996-01-01

254

A REASSESSMENT OF THE FAMILY ALECTORIACEAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The phylogenetic relationship between the Alectoriaceae and theParmeliaceae (lichenized ascomycetes) were studied using sequences of the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA). The Alectoriaceae was represented by specimens of Alectoria ochroleuca and A. sarmentosa, and theParmeliaceae by Bryoria capillaris, Cetraria islandica, Cornicularia normoerica, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia saxatilis, Platismatia glauca, Pleurosticta acetabulum, Usnea florida, Vulpicida

Jan-Eric Mattsson; Mats Wedin

1999-01-01

255

Fusarium graminearum Gene Deletion Mutants Map1 and tri5 Reveal Similarities and Differences in the Pathogenicity Requirements to Cause Disease on Arabidopsis and Wheat Floral Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ascomycete pathogen Fusarium graminearum can infect all cereal species and lower grain yield, quality and safety. The fungus can also cause disease on Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the disease-causing ability of two F. graminearum mutants was analysed to further explore the parallels between the wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Arabidopsis floral pathosystems. Wild-type F graminearum (strain PH-1) and two

Alayne Cuzick; Martin Urban; Kim Hammond-Kosack

2008-01-01

256

Capnodiaceae  

PubMed Central

In this paper we revisit the Capnodiaceae with notes on selected genera. Type specimens of the ascomycetous genera Aithaloderma, Anopeltis, Callebaea, Capnodaria, Echinothecium, Phragmocapnias and Scorias were re–examined, described and illustrated. Leptoxyphium is anamorphic Capnodiaceae and Polychaeton is a legitimate and earlier name for Capnodium, but in order to maintain nomenclatural stability we propose that the teleomorphic name should be conisdered for the approved lists of names currently in preparation for fungi. Notes are provided on the ascomycetous genus Scoriadopsis. However, we were unable to locate the type of this genus during the time frame of this study. The ascomycetous genera Aithaloderma, Ceramoclasteropsis, Hyaloscolecostroma and Trichomerium are excluded from Capnodiaceae on the basis of having ascostromata and trans-septate hyaline ascospores and should be accommodated in Chaetothyriaceae. Callebaea is excluded as the ascomata are thyriothecia and the genus is placed in Micropeltidaceae. Echinothecium is excluded as synonym of Sphaerellothecium and is transferred to Mycosphaerellaceae. The type specimen of Capnophaeum is lost and this should be considered as a doubtful genus. The coelomycetous Microxiphium is polyphyletic, while the status of Fumiglobus, Polychaetella and Tripospermum is unclear. Fourteen new collections of sooty moulds made in Thailand were isolated and sequenced. The nuclear large and small rDNA was partially sequenced and compared in a phylogeny used to build a more complete understanding of the relationships of genera in Capnodiaceae. Four new species are described and illustrated, while Phragmocapnias and Scorias are epitypified with fresh collections. PMID:22737101

Chomnunti, Putarak; Schoch, Conrad L.; Aguirre-Hudson, Begona; Ko-Ko, Thida W.; Hongsanan, Sinang; Jones, E.B. Gareth; Kodsueb, Rampai; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Bahkali, Ali H.; Hyde, Kevin D

2012-01-01

257

Estimating the Phanerozoic history of the Ascomycota lineages: Combining fossil and molecular data.  

PubMed

The phylum Ascomycota is by far the largest group in the fungal kingdom. Ecologically important mutualistic associations such as mycorrhizae and lichens have evolved in this group, which are regarded as key innovations that supported the evolution of land plants. Only a few attempts have been made to date the origin of Ascomycota lineages by using molecular clock methods, which is primarily due to the lack of satisfactory fossil calibration data. For this reason we have evaluated all of the oldest available ascomycete fossils from amber (Albian to Miocene) and chert (Devonian and Maastrichtian). The fossils represent five major ascomycete classes (Coniocybomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Laboulbeniomycetes, and Lecanoromycetes). We have assembled a multi-gene data set (18SrDNA, 28SrDNA, RPB1 and RPB2) from a total of 145 taxa representing most groups of the Ascomycota and utilized fossil calibration points solely from within the ascomycetes to estimate divergence times of Ascomycota lineages with a Bayesian approach. Our results suggest an initial diversification of the Pezizomycotina in the Ordovician, followed by repeated splits of lineages throughout the Phanerozoic, and indicate that this continuous diversification was unaffected by mass extinctions. We suggest that the ecological diversity within each lineage ensured that at least some taxa of each group were able to survive global crises and rapidly recovered. PMID:24792086

Beimforde, Christina; Feldberg, Kathrin; Nylinder, Stephan; Rikkinen, Jouko; Tuovila, Hanna; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Gube, Matthias; Jackson, Daniel J; Reitner, Joachim; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Schmidt, Alexander R

2014-09-01

258

Mycological evidence of coprophagy from the feces of an Alaskan Late Glacial mammoth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dung from a mammoth was preserved under frozen conditions in Alaska. The mammoth lived during the early part of the Late Glacial interstadial (ca 12,300 BP). Microfossils, macroremains and ancient DNA from the dung were studied and the chemical composition was determined to reconstruct both the paleoenvironment and paleobiology of this mammoth. Pollen spectra are dominated by Poaceae, Artemisia and other light-demanding taxa, indicating an open, treeless landscape ('mammoth steppe'). Fruits and seeds support this conclusion. The dung consists mainly of cyperaceous stems and leaves, with a minor component of vegetative remains of Poaceae. Analyses of fragments of the plastid rbcL gene and trnL intron and nrITS1 region, amplified from DNA extracted from the dung, supplemented the microscopic identifications. Many fruit bodies with ascospores of the coprophilous fungus Podospora conica were found inside the dung ball, indicating that the mammoth had eaten dung. The absence of bile acids points to mammoth dung. This is the second time that evidence for coprophagy of mammoths has been derived from the presence of fruit bodies of coprophilous fungi in frozen dung. Coprophagy might well have been a common habit of mammoths. Therefore, we strongly recommend that particular attention should be given to fungal remains in future fossil dung studies.

van Geel, Bas; Guthrie, R. Dale; Altmann, Jens G.; Broekens, Peter; Bull, Ian D.; Gill, Fiona L.; Jansen, Boris; Nieman, Aline M.; Gravendeel, Barbara

2011-08-01

259

[Cloning and characterization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from Chaetomium globosum].  

PubMed

The amino acid sequence of Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene from Neurospora crassa (XP-327967) and Colletotrichum lindemuthianu (P35143) were subjected to local tBlastn searching against the ESTs local datebase of Chaetomium globosum. The full length cDNA sequence of 1240bp encoding GAPDH gene with an open reading frame of 1014bp and encoding 337 amino acids was obtained. The protein molecular weight was 36.1kD. The DNA sequence of GAPDH gene was obtained through PCR amplification with specific primers of cDNA 5' and 3' untranslated region. The analysis of DNA sequence indicated that GAPDH gene have 3 exons and 2 introns. The BlastP analysis revealed that amino acids sequence of GAPDH gene from C. globosum shared 95% high similarity with Podospora anserin and 87% low similarty with Aspergillus oryzae. A transgenic yeast harboring C. globosum GAPDH was generated under the control of a constitutively expressed GAL promoter. The results from biofunctional analyses of GAPDH yeast transformants showed that GAPDH yeast transformants had significantly higher resistance to Na2 CO3 and heat stresses. The cDNA, DNA and deduced amino acid sequence of GAPDH gene were accepted by GenBank (accession numbers: AY522719, AY593253, AAS01412). PMID:16496697

Liu, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Qian

2005-12-01

260

Soil-inhabiting fungal community composition as qualitative indicator of C metabolism processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although fungi represent the greater part of soil microbial biomass, they play an important role in macro-aggregate formation and their carbon (C) assimilation efficiency is markedly higher than that of bacteria (Bailey et al., 2002), they have not yet been widely used as soil biological indicators. The reason is mainly due to the difficulties in application of molecular analysis tools due to limited availability of reference sequence of fungal strains in DNA database and to the low concentration of fungal DNA in soil and in isolating, enumerating and identifying groups of fungi differing for their functioning in soil and for biological characteristics. The presence of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes as the two main groups of soil-inhabiting fungi were investigated in four different cropping systems. The soil DNA of soil samples coming from twenty sites (five sites for each system), collected in two cropping systems in northern (soil organic matter - SOM content varying from 0.8 to 1.4 %) and two in southern Italy (SOM from 1.4 to 2.3%), was amplified using Ascomycete-specific primer ITS1F - ITS4A (Larena et al., 1999) and Basidiomycete-specific primer ITS1F -ITS4B (Gardes and Bruns, 1993). On the basis of soil DNA amplified with specific primers, Ascomycetes were much more represented than Basidiomycetes in the cultivated top soil. Basidiomycetes are usually reported to account for more than half of the fungal biomass in undisturbed soils. However the low ratio of Basidiomycete DNA to soil fungal DNA observed in this study could be a feature of soil fungal communities in arable soil affected by desertification problems as those of some Italian cropping systems mainly in Mediterranean area. This phenomenon could be due to soil tillage, which is well known to deeply reduce fungal biomass and to continuous incorporation into the soil of herbaceous crop residues. In fact, Ascomycetes decompose holocellulose in preference to lignin (Oslko & Takeda, 2002) and their growth may depend on readily available energy sources, such as soluble carbohydrates (Hudson, 1968). The high ratio of Ascomycetes in the top layer where crop residues of the recurrent had represented the main substrate for saprophytic fungi could explain these results. On the contrary, Basidiomycetes are the most important synthesizing biomass organisms in forest soils as well as the most effective organisms in lignin decomposition with an important role in humic substances processes (Hurst et al., 1963; Cook and Rayner, 1986). Preliminary results of this study suggest that the composition of soil-inhabiting fungal communities, which are the organisms most involved in C metabolism processes, could represents an useful indicator in programs aimed to increase the quality of organic matter in arable soils. Bailey V., Smith L., Bolton Jr K. 2002. Fungal-to-bacteria ratio investigated for enhanced C sequestration. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34, 997-1007. Cook R., Rayner A.D.M. 1984. Ecology of Saprotrophic Fungi. Longman, London, New York, 415 pp. Gardes M., Bruns T.D. 1993. ITS primers with enhanced specificity for Basidiomycetes: application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molec. Ecol. 2, 113-118. Hudson H.J. 1968. The ecology of fungi on plant remains above the soil. New Phytol. 67, 837-874. Hurst H.M., A. Burges, P. Latter. 1963. Some aspects of the biochemistry of humic acid decomposition by fungi. Phytochem. 1, 227-231. Larena I., Salazar O., González V, Julián M.C., Rubio V. 1999. Design of a primer for ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer with enhanced specificity for Ascomycetes. J. Biotech. 75, 187-194. Osolko T., Fukasawa Y., Takeda H. 2003. Roles of diverse fungi in Larch neerle-litter decomposition. Mycologia 95, 820-826.

Manici, L.; Ciavatta, C.; Caputo, F.

2009-04-01

261

Genomic Mechanisms Accounting for the Adaptation to Parasitism in Nematode-Trapping Fungi  

PubMed Central

Orbiliomycetes is one of the earliest diverging branches of the filamentous ascomycetes. The class contains nematode-trapping fungi that form unique infection structures, called traps, to capture and kill free-living nematodes. The traps have evolved differently along several lineages and include adhesive traps (knobs, nets or branches) and constricting rings. We show, by genome sequencing of the knob-forming species Monacrosporium haptotylum and comparison with the net-forming species Arthrobotrys oligospora, that two genomic mechanisms are likely to have been important for the adaptation to parasitism in these fungi. Firstly, the expansion of protein domain families and the large number of species-specific genes indicated that gene duplication followed by functional diversification had a major role in the evolution of the nematode-trapping fungi. Gene expression indicated that many of these genes are important for pathogenicity. Secondly, gene expression of orthologs between the two fungi during infection indicated that differential regulation was an important mechanism for the evolution of parasitism in nematode-trapping fungi. Many of the highly expressed and highly upregulated M. haptotylum transcripts during the early stages of nematode infection were species-specific and encoded small secreted proteins (SSPs) that were affected by repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). An active RIP mechanism was revealed by lack of repeats, dinucleotide bias in repeats and genes, low proportion of recent gene duplicates, and reduction of recent gene family expansions. The high expression and rapid divergence of SSPs indicate a striking similarity in the infection mechanisms of nematode-trapping fungi and plant and insect pathogens from the crown groups of the filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina). The patterns of gene family expansions in the nematode-trapping fungi were more similar to plant pathogens than to insect and animal pathogens. The observation of RIP activity in the Orbiliomycetes suggested that this mechanism was present early in the evolution of the filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:24244185

Meerupati, Tejashwari; Andersson, Karl-Magnus; Friman, Eva; Kumar, Dharmendra; Tunlid, Anders; Ahren, Dag

2013-01-01

262

Four marine-derived fungi for bioremediation of raw textile mill effluents.  

PubMed

Textile dye effluents pose environmental hazards because of color and toxicity. Bioremediation of these has been widely attempted. However, their widely differing characteristics and high salt contents have required application of different microorganisms and high dilutions. We report here decolorization and detoxification of two raw textile effluents, with extreme variations in their pH and dye composition, used at 20-90% concentrations by each of the four marine-derived fungi. Textile effluent A (TEA) contained an azo dye and had a pH of 8.9 and textile effluent B (TEB) with a pH of 2.5 contained a mixture of eight reactive dyes. The fungi isolated from mangroves and identified by 18S and ITS sequencing corresponded to two ascomycetes and two basidiomycetes. Each of these fungi decolorized TEA by 30-60% and TEB by 33-80% used at 20-90% concentrations and salinity of 15 ppt within 6 days. This was accompanied by two to threefold reduction in toxicity as measured by LC(50) values against Artemia larvae and 70-80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand and total phenolics. Mass spectrometric scan of effluents after fungal treatment revealed degradation of most of the components. The ascomycetes appeared to remove color primarily by adsorption, whereas laccase played a major role in decolorization by basidiomycetes. A process consisting of a combination of sorption by fungal biomass of an ascomycete and biodegradation by laccase from a basidiomycete was used in two separate steps or simultaneously for bioremediation of these two effluents. PMID:19763847

Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Verma, Pankaj; Shouche, Yogesh S; Naik, Chandrakant Govind

2010-04-01

263

Phylogenetic relationships among species of Williopsis and Saturnospora gen. nov. as determined from partial rRNA sequences.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships among those yeast species that form saturn-shaped ascospores and which are assigned to the genera Williopsis and Pichia were estimated from their extent of nucleotide sequence divergence in three regions of ribosomal RNA. The Pichia species (P. dispora, P. saitoi, P. zaruensis and P. sp. nov.) are a closely clustered group only distantly related to Williopsis, and it is proposed that they be reassigned to Saturnospora gen. nov. The extent of divergence among Williopsis species (W. californica, W. mucosa, W. pratensis, W. saturnus and W. sp. nov.) is greater than that previously observed within other ascomycetous yeast genera. PMID:1796804

Liu, Z W; Kurtzman, C P

1991-07-01

264

?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis. PMID:23616783

Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latge, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

265

Pre- and postinvasion defenses both contribute to nonhost resistance in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Nonhost resistance describes the immunity of an entire plant species against nonadapted pathogen species. We report that Arabidopsis PEN2 restricts pathogen entry of two ascomycete powdery mildew fungi that in nature colonize grass and pea species. The PEN2 glycosyl hydrolase localizes to peroxisomes and acts as a component of an inducible preinvasion resistance mechanism. Postinvasion fungal growth is blocked by a separate resistance layer requiring the EDS1-PAD4-SAG101 signaling complex, which is known to function in basal and resistance (R) gene-triggered immunity. Concurrent impairment of pre- and postinvasion resistance renders Arabidopsis a host for both nonadapted fungi. PMID:16293760

Lipka, Volker; Dittgen, Jan; Bednarek, Pawel; Bhat, Riyaz; Wiermer, Marcel; Stein, Monica; Landtag, Jörn; Brandt, Wolfgang; Rosahl, Sabine; Scheel, Dierk; Llorente, Francisco; Molina, Antonio; Parker, Jane; Somerville, Shauna; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

2005-11-18

266

Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.  

PubMed

Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

2008-10-01

267

Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand* §  

PubMed Central

Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

2008-01-01

268

Candida coquimbonensis sp. nov., a link between Australian and Nearctic/Neotropical Phaffomyces.  

PubMed

A novel species of ascomycetous yeast, Candida coquimbonensis sp. nov., from the necrotic tissue of cacti in Chile and Australia is described. C. coquimbonensis sp. nov. is closely related and phenotypically similar to Phaffomyces opuntiae. There is no overlap in the geographical distribution between C. coquimbonensis and any species in the Phaffomyces clade. However, this is the first member of the clade to be collected in both native (Chile) and non-native (Australia) cactus habitats. The type strain of C. coquimbonensis sp. nov. is TSU 00-206.4B(T) (?= CBS 12348(T) = USCFST 12-103(T)). PMID:22729024

Cardinali, Gianluigi; Antonielli, Livio; Corte, Laura; Roscini, Luca; Ganter, Philip F

2012-12-01

269

Variation in total polyphenolics contents of aerial parts of Potentilla species and their anticariogenic activity.  

PubMed

The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca) were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 +/- 2.0 mg/g dw), proanthocyanidins (4.6 +/- 0.2 mg/g dw) and phenolic acids (16.4 +/- 0.8 mg/g dw), as well as flavonoids (7.0 +/- 1.1 mg/g dw), calculated as quercetin. Furthermore, we investigated the in vitro inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from these species against cariogenic Streptococcus spp. strains. It was found that the tested samples moderately inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, all the preparations exhibited inhibitory effects on water-insoluble alpha-(1-->3)-, alpha-(1-->6)-linked glucan (mutan) and artificial dental plaque formation. The extract from P. fruticosa showed the highest anti-biofilm activities, with minimum mutan and biofilm inhibition concentrations of 6.25-25 and 50-100 microg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that the studied Potentilla species could be a potential plant material for extracting biologically active compounds, and could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new anticariogenic agent in a wide range of oral care products. PMID:20657382

Tomczyk, Micha?; Pleszczy?ska, Ma?gorzata; Wiater, Adrian

2010-07-01

270

Comparison of in vitro culture and polymerase chain reaction for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in tissue from experimentally infected animals.  

PubMed Central

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for identification of Borrelia burgdorferi in biological specimens. The diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of in vitro culture. A primer set specifying a 791-bp DNA fragment of the B. burgdorferi B31 flagellin gene was used. Amplified DNA sequences were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, and the identity of amplified DNA was confirmed by restriction enzyme cleavage and Southern blot hybridization with a 32P-labeled probe. By using purified B. burgdorferi DNA, the detection limit of the assay was approximately 0.002 pg of DNA, corresponding to one copy of the B. burgdorferi genome. By using in vitro-cultivated B. burgdorferi without prior DNA purification as the template DNA, 2 to 20 organisms could be detected. A 791-bp DNA fragment was amplified from all of 18 different B. burgdorferi strains tested, as well as from Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia anserina but not from Treponema pallidum. The efficacy of the PCR assay was evaluated on spleen, renal, and urinary bladder tissue specimens from eight experimentally infected gerbils. Specimens from the same organs were cultured in BSK medium in parallel. Of 24 organs, 21 (88%) were PCR positive and 17 (71%) were culture positive. All culture-positive specimens were also PCR positive. Compared with B. burgdorferi cultivation, PCR had at least a comparable diagnostic sensitivity, it was less laborious, and results were available within 1 to 2 days. Images PMID:1890174

Lebech, A M; Hindersson, P; Vuust, J; Hansen, K

1991-01-01

271

Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

1998-01-01

272

New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.  

PubMed

During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha. PMID:15756826

Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

2004-01-01

273

The tempo and modes of evolution of reproductive isolation in fungi  

PubMed Central

Reproductive isolation is an essential ingredient of speciation, and much has been learned in recent years about the evolution of reproductive isolation and the genetics of reproductive barriers in animals and plants. Fungi have been neglected on these aspects, despite being tractable model eukaryotes. Here, we used a model fitting approach to look at the importance of different barriers to gene flow to explain the decrease of reproductive compatibility with genetic distance in fungi. We found support for the occurrence of reinforcement in the presyngamy compatibility among basidiomycetes. In contrast, no evidence for reinforcement was detected in ascomycetes, concurring with the idea that host/habitat adaptation in this group can pleiotropically cause reproductive isolation. We found no evidence of a snowballing accumulation of postsyngamic reproductive incompatibilities in either ascomycetes or the complex of anther smut fungi. Together with previous studies, our results suggest that ecologically based barriers to gene flow and karyotypic differences may have an important role in hybrid inviability and sterility in fungi. Interestingly, hybrid sterility appeared to evolve faster than hybrid inviability in fungi. PMID:22669076

Giraud, T; Gourbiere, S

2012-01-01

274

Genome-wide inventory of metal homeostasis-related gene products including a functional phytochelatin synthase in the hypogeous mycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi are thought to enhance mineral nutrition of their host plants and to confer increased tolerance toward toxic metals. However, a global view of metal homeostasis-related genes and pathways in these organisms is still lacking. Building upon the genome sequence of Tuber melanosporum and on transcriptome analyses, we set out to systematically identify metal homeostasis-related genes in this plant-symbiotic ascomycete. Candidate gene products (101) were subdivided into three major functional classes: (i) metal transport (58); (ii) oxidative stress defence (32); (iii) metal detoxification (11). The latter class includes a small-size metallothionein (TmelMT) that was functionally validated in yeast, and phytochelatin synthase (TmelPCS), the first enzyme of this kind to be described in filamentous ascomycetes. Recombinant TmelPCS was shown to support GSH-dependent, metal-activated phytochelatin synthesis in vitro and to afford increased Cd/Cu tolerance to metal hypersensitive yeast strains. Metal transporters, especially those related to Cu and Zn trafficking, displayed the highest expression levels in mycorrhizae, suggesting extensive translocation of both metals to root cells as well as to fungal metalloenzymes (e.g., laccase) that are strongly upregulated in symbiotic hyphae. PMID:21094264

Bolchi, Angelo; Ruotolo, Roberta; Marchini, Gessica; Vurro, Emanuela; di Toppi, Luigi Sanità; Kohler, Annegret; Tisserant, Emilie; Martin, Francis; Ottonello, Simone

2011-06-01

275

The conserved global regulator VeA is necessary for symptom production and mycotoxin synthesis in maize seedlings by Fusarium verticillioides  

PubMed Central

The veA or velvet gene is necessary for biosynthesis of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species. In addition, veA has also been demonstrated to be necessary for normal seed colonization in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The present study shows that veA homologues are broadly distributed in fungi, particularly in Ascomycetes. The Fusarium verticillioides veA orthologue, FvVE1, is also required for the synthesis of several secondary metabolites, including fumonisin and fusarins. This study also shows that maize plants grown from seeds inoculated with FvVE1 deletion mutants did not show disease symptoms, while plants grown from seeds inoculated with the F. verticillioides wildtype and complementation strains clearly showed disease symptoms under the same experimental conditions. In this latter case, the presence of lesions coincided with accumulation of fumonisins in the plant tissues, and only these plant tissues had elevated levels of sphingoid bases and their 1-phosphate derivatives, indicating inhibition of ceramide synthase and disruption of sphingolipid metabolism. The results strongly suggest that FvVE1 is necessary for pathogenicity by F. verticillioides against maize seedlings. The conservation of veA homologues among ascomycetes suggests that veA could play a pivotal role in regulating secondary metabolism and associated pathogenicity in other fungi. PMID:22247572

Myung, K.; Zitomer, N. C.; Duvall, M.; Glenn, A. E.; Riley, R. T.; Calvo, A. M.

2011-01-01

276

Current state and perspectives of truffle genetics and sustainable biotechnology.  

PubMed

Mycorrhizal fungi belonging to the genus Tuber produce, after the establishment of a productive interaction with a plant host, hypogeous fruitbodies of great economic value known as ''truffles''. This review summarizes the state of art on life cycle, genetic, and biotechnological investigations of Tuber spp. The ascocarp formation in truffles is a consequence of the activation of the sexual phase of the biological cycle. The formation of a dikaryotic secondary mycelium and the karyogamy in the ascal cell (followed by meiosis with ascospores formation) have been hypothesized by several authors but some doubts yet arise from the Tuber cycle by considering that a series of abnormalities have been pointed out in respect to other Ascomycetes. It is unclear if binucleated hyphal cells are derived from the fusion of mononucleated cells belonging to mycelia from different mating types or from one only. According to the karyotypes of Tuber melanosporum, Tuber magnatum, and Tuber borchii, the numbers of hyphal chromosomes suggest a chromosome number of eight (2n); these values are in the range of those of several Ascomycetes and observed for Tuber aestivum (2n=10). The importance and growth in interest during the last years in the fungi protoplasts isolation and transformation techniques can be related to current developments in Tuber genetics and biotechnology. T. borchii could be transformed through liposome-mediated delivery of genetic material as mycelial protoplasts isolation and fusion with liposomes has already been established. On the other hand, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been successfully established for T. borchii. PMID:16802150

Poma, Anna; Limongi, Tania; Pacioni, Giovanni

2006-09-01

277

Research Article Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil  

E-print Network

novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled thoseofsomestrainsofthegenusThermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes. Copyright © 2009 Akio Tonouchi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 1.

Akio Tonouchi

278

Mycorrhizal interactions of orchids colonizing Estonian mine tailings hills.  

PubMed

Northeastern Estonia is home to extensive oil shale mines. Associated with these are desolate and environmentally damaging hills of ash and semicoke tailings. Interestingly, some of the first plants to colonize these hills are rare orchids. Here, we assess the identities of the mycorrhizal fungi associated with these orchids, in particular Epipactis atrorubens, Orchis militaris, and Dactylorhiza baltica, and compare them with mycorrhizal fungi from orchids from pristine habitat. Epipactis atrorubens associated with the widest breadth of fungi, including unnamed members of the basidiomycete family Tulasnellaceae and the potentially ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes Trichophaea woolhopeia and Geopora cooperi. Orchis militaris also associated with unnamed members of the Tulasnellaceae. Dactylorhiza baltica associated with Ceratobasidium albasitensis. In Epipactis and Orchis, the same fungi associated with plants in the pristine habitat as with those on ash hills. The tulasnelloid and ceratobasidioid fungi mycorrhizal with these orchids appear closely related to common orchid mycorrhizal fungi, while one of the ascomycetes mycorrhizal with E. atrorubens is closely related to a mycorrhizal fungus with E. microphylla. Our results suggest that these orchids and their fungi are not limited to pristine habitats and that environmentally polluted sites may present novel habitats that may be exploited for endangered plant conservation. PMID:21632341

Shefferson, Richard P; Kull, Tiiu; Tali, Kadri

2008-02-01

279

Implications of Cellobiohydrolase Glycosylation for use in Biomass Conversion  

SciTech Connect

The cellulase producing ascomycete, Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina), is known to secrete a range of enzymes important for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. It is also widely used for the commercial scale production of industrial enzymes because of its ability to produce high titers of heterologous proteins. During the secretion process, a number of post-translational events can occur, however, that impact protein function and stability. Another ascomycete, Aspergillus niger var. awamori, is also known to produce large quantities of heterologous proteins for industry. In this study, T. reesei Cel7A, a cellobiohydrolase, was expressed in A. niger var. awamori and subjected to detailed biophysical characterization. The purified recombinant enzyme contains six times the amount of N-linked glycan than the enzyme purified from a commercial T. reesei enzyme preparation. The activities of the two enzyme forms were compared using bacterial (microcrystalline) and phosphoric acid swollen (amorphous) cellulose as substrates. This comparison suggested that the increased level of N-glycosylation of the recombinant Cel7A (rCel7A) resulted in reduced activity and increased non-productive binding on cellulose. When treated with the N-glycosidase PNGaseF, the molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme approached that of the commercial enzyme and the activity on cellulose was improved.

Jeoh, T.; Michener W.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.; Adney, W. S.

2008-01-01

280

Distribution and evolution of glycoside hydrolase family 45 cellulases in nematodes and fungi  

PubMed Central

Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been suggested as the mechanism by which various plant parasitic nematode species have obtained genes important in parasitism. In particular, cellulase genes have been acquired by plant parasitic nematodes that allow them to digest plant cell walls. Unlike the typical glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 cellulase genes which are found in several nematode species from the order Tylenchida, members of the GH45 cellulase have only been identified in a cluster including the families Parasitaphelenchidae (with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and Aphelenchoididae, and their origins remain unknown. Results In order to investigate the distribution and evolution of GH45 cellulase genes in nematodes and fungi we performed a wide ranging screen for novel putative GH45 sequences. This revealed that the sequences are widespread mainly in Ascomycetous fungi and have so far been found in a single major nematode lineage. Close relationships between the sequences from nematodes and fungi were found through our phylogenetic analyses. An intron position is shared by sequences from Bursaphelenchus nematodes and several Ascomycetous fungal species. Conclusions The close phylogenetic relationships and conserved gene structure between the sequences from nematodes and fungi strongly supports the hypothesis that nematode GH45 cellulase genes were acquired via HGT from fungi. The rapid duplication and turnover of these genes within Bursaphelenchus genomes demonstrate that useful sequences acquired via HGT can become established in the genomes of recipient organisms and may open novel niches for these organisms to exploit. PMID:24690293

2014-01-01

281

Mating type locus-specific polymerase chain reaction markers for differentiation of Pyrenophora teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata, the causal agents of barley net blotch.  

PubMed

Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at the mating type (MAT) loci of Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt), which causes net form (NF) net blotch, and P. teres f. maculata (Ptm), which causes spot form (SF) net blotch of barley. MAT-specific SNP primers were developed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the two forms were differentiated by distinct PCR products: PttMAT1-1 (1,143 bp) and PttMAT1-2 (1,421 bp) for NF MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates; PtmMAT1-1 (194 bp) and PtmMAT1-2 (939 bp) for SF MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates, respectively. Specificity was validated using 37 NF and 17 SF isolates collected from different geographic regions. Both MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 SNP primers retained respective specificity when used in duplex PCR. No cross-reactions were observed with DNA from P. graminea, P. tritici-repentis, or other ascomycetes, or barley. Single or mixed infections of the two different forms were also differentiated. This study provides the first evidence that the limited SNPs at the MAT locus are sufficient for distinguishing closely related heterothallic ascomycetes at subspecies levels, thus allowing pathogenicity and mating type characteristics of the fungus to be determined simultaneously. Methods presented will facilitate pathogen detection, disease management, and epidemiological studies. PMID:20731534

Lu, Shunwen; Platz, Gregory J; Edwards, Michael C; Friesen, Timothy L

2010-12-01

282

Community composition of root-associated fungi in a Quercus-dominated temperate forest: "codominance" of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi  

PubMed Central

In terrestrial ecosystems, plant roots are colonized by various clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Focused on the root systems of an oak-dominated temperate forest in Japan, we used 454 pyrosequencing to explore how phylogenetically diverse fungi constitute an ecological community of multiple ecotypes. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi were found from 159 terminal-root samples from 12 plant species occurring in the forest. Due to the dominance of an oak species (Quercus serrata), diverse ectomycorrhizal clades such as Russula, Lactarius, Cortinarius, Tomentella, Amanita, Boletus, and Cenococcum were observed. Unexpectedly, the root-associated fungal community was dominated by root-endophytic ascomycetes in Helotiales, Chaetothyriales, and Rhytismatales. Overall, 55.3% of root samples were colonized by both the commonly observed ascomycetes and ectomycorrhizal fungi; 75.0% of the root samples of the dominant Q. serrata were so cocolonized. Overall, this study revealed that root-associated fungal communities of oak-dominated temperate forests were dominated not only by ectomycorrhizal fungi but also by diverse root endophytes and that potential ecological interactions between the two ecotypes may be important to understand the complex assembly processes of belowground fungal communities. PMID:23762515

Toju, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Gilbert, Gregory S; Kadowaki, Kohmei

2013-01-01

283

Nucleotide Composition of Nucleic Acids of Fungi I. Ribonucleic Acids  

PubMed Central

Storck, Roger (The University of Texas, Austin). Nucleotide composition of nucleic acids from fungi. I. Ribonucleic acids. J. Bacteriol. 90:1260–1264. 1965.—The nucleotide composition of the ribonucleic acids (RNA) present in extracts of 26 species of fungi was determined. The results were analyzed, together with those in the literature. It was found that the content in moles per cent of guanine plus cytosine (GC content) varied from 44.1 to 60.5 in a distribution composed of 8 species of zygomycetes, 10 of ascomycetes, 11 of deuteromycetes, and 8 of basidiomycetes. The GC-content range and average were, respectively, 44.1 to 49.3 and 46.4 for the zygomycetes, 47.4 to 54.4 and 50.2 for the ascomycetes, 48.2 to 54.5 and 51.6 for the deuteromycetes, and 50.4 to 60.5 and 52.4 for the basidiomycetes. The GC content averaged 45.6 and ranged from 44.1 to 46.3 for four Mucor species. In addition, GC contents significantly lower than 50 were also encountered in some species of Hemiascomycetidae, suggesting that AT type RNA is not uncommon in fungi. It was proposed that the base composition of fungal RNA might have a taxonomic and phylogenetic significance. PMID:5848326

Storck, Roger

1965-01-01

284

Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Communities on Decaying Salt Marsh Grass†  

PubMed Central

Both bacteria and fungi play critical roles in decomposition processes in many natural environments, yet only rarely have they been studied as an integrated microbial community. Here we describe the bacterial and fungal assemblages associated with two decomposition stages of Spartina alterniflora detritus in a productive southeastern U.S. salt marsh. 16S rRNA genes and 18S-to-28S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were used to target the bacterial and ascomycete fungal communities, respectively, based on DNA sequence analysis of isolates and environmental clones and by using community fingerprinting based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Seven major bacterial taxa (six affiliated with the ?-Proteobacteria and one with the Cytophagales) and four major fungal taxa were identified over five sample dates spanning 13 months. Fungal terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) were informative at the species level; however, bacterial T-RFs frequently comprised a number of related genera. Amplicon abundances indicated that the salt marsh saprophyte communities have little-to-moderate variability spatially or with decomposition stage, but considerable variability temporally. However, the temporal variability could not be readily explained by either successional shifts or simple relationships with environmental factors. Significant correlations in abundance (both positive and negative) were found among dominant fungal and bacterial taxa that possibly indicate ecological interactions between decomposer organisms. Most associations involved one of four microbial taxa: two groups of bacteria affiliated with the ?-Proteobacteria and two ascomycete fungi (Phaeosphaeria spartinicola and environmental isolate “4clt”). PMID:14602628

Buchan, Alison; Newell, Steven Y.; Butler, Melissa; Biers, Erin J.; Hollibaugh , James T.; Moran, Mary Ann

2003-01-01

285

Molecular cloning and characterization of the glucoamylase gene of Aspergillus awamori.  

PubMed Central

The filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus awamori secretes large amounts of glucoamylase upon growth in medium containing starch, glucose, or a variety of hexose sugars and sugar polymers. We examined the mechanism of this carbon source-dependent regulation of glucoamylase accumulation and found a several hundredfold increase in glucoamylase mRNA in cells grown on an inducing substrate, starch, relative to cells grown on a noninducing substrate, xylose. We postulate that induction of glucoamylase synthesis is regulated transcriptionally. Comparing total mRNA from cells grown on starch and xylose, we were able to identify an inducible 2.3-kilobase mRNA-encoding glucoamylase. The glucoamylase mRNA was purified and used to identify a molecularly cloned 3.4-kilobase EcoRI fragment containing the A. awamori glucoamylase gene. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the 3.4-kilobase EcoRI fragment with that of the glucoamylase I mRNA (as determined from molecularly cloned cDNA) revealed the existence of four intervening sequences within the glucoamylase gene. The 5' end of the glucoamylase mRNA was mapped to several locations within a region -52 to -73 nucleotides from the translational start. Sequence and structural features of the glucoamylase gene of the filamentous ascomycete A. awamori were examined and compared with those reported in genes of other eucaryotes. Images PMID:6440004

Nunberg, J H; Meade, J H; Cole, G; Lawyer, F C; McCabe, P; Schweickart, V; Tal, R; Wittman, V P; Flatgaard, J E; Innis, M A

1984-01-01

286

Molecular evolution and functional divergence of tubulin superfamily in the fungal tree of life.  

PubMed

Microtubules are essential for various cellular activities and ?-tubulins are the target of benzimidazole fungicides. However, the evolution and molecular mechanisms driving functional diversification in fungal tubulins are not clear. In this study, we systematically identified tubulin genes from 59 representative fungi across the fungal kingdom. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ?-/?-tubulin genes underwent multiple independent duplications and losses in different fungal lineages and formed distinct paralogous/orthologous clades. The last common ancestor of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes likely possessed two paralogs of ?-tubulin (?1/?2) and ?-tubulin (?1/?2) genes but ?2-tubulin genes were lost in basidiomycetes and ?2-tubulin genes were lost in most ascomycetes. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicated that ?1, ?2, and ?2-tubulins have been under strong divergent selection and adaptive positive selection. Many positively selected sites are at or adjacent to important functional sites and likely contribute to functional diversification. We further experimentally confirmed functional divergence of two ?-tubulins in Fusarium and identified type II variations in FgTub2 responsible for function shifts. In this study, we also identified ?-/?-/?-tubulins in Chytridiomycetes. Overall, our results illustrated that different evolutionary mechanisms drive functional diversification of ?-/?-tubulin genes in different fungal lineages, and residues under positive selection could provide targets for further experimental study. PMID:25339375

Zhao, Zhongtao; Liu, Huiquan; Luo, Yongping; Zhou, Shanyue; An, Lin; Wang, Chenfang; Jin, Qiaojun; Zhou, Mingguo; Xu, Jin-Rong

2014-01-01

287

Comparative genomic analyses of the human fungal pathogens Coccidioides and their relatives  

PubMed Central

While most Ascomycetes tend to associate principally with plants, the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are primary pathogens of immunocompetent mammals, including humans. Infection results from environmental exposure to Coccidiodies, which is believed to grow as a soil saprophyte in arid deserts. To investigate hypotheses about the life history and evolution of Coccidioides, the genomes of several Onygenales, including C. immitis and C. posadasii; a close, nonpathogenic relative, Uncinocarpus reesii; and a more diverged pathogenic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum, were sequenced and compared with those of 13 more distantly related Ascomycetes. This analysis identified increases and decreases in gene family size associated with a host/substrate shift from plants to animals in the Onygenales. In addition, comparison among Onygenales genomes revealed evolutionary changes in Coccidioides that may underlie its infectious phenotype, the identification of which may facilitate improved treatment and prevention of coccidioidomycosis. Overall, the results suggest that Coccidioides species are not soil saprophytes, but that they have evolved to remain associated with their dead animal hosts in soil, and that Coccidioides metabolism genes, membrane-related proteins, and putatively antigenic compounds have evolved in response to interaction with an animal host. PMID:19717792

Sharpton, Thomas J.; Stajich, Jason E.; Rounsley, Steven D.; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Jordar, Vinita S.; Maiti, Rama; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Zeng, Qiandong; Hung, Chiung-Yu; McMahan, Cody; Muszewska, Anna; Grynberg, Marcin; Mandel, M. Alejandra; Kellner, Ellen M.; Barker, Bridget M.; Galgiani, John N.; Orbach, Marc J.; Kirkland, Theo N.; Cole, Garry T.; Henn, Matthew R.; Birren, Bruce W.; Taylor, John W.

2009-01-01

288

Cryptons: a group of tyrosine-recombinase-encoding DNA transposons from pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

A new group of transposable elements, which the authors have named cryptons, was detected in several pathogenic fungi, including the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, and the ascomycetes Coccidioides posadasii and Histoplasma capsulatum. These elements are unlike any previously described transposons. An archetypal member of the group, crypton Cn1, is 4 kb in length and is present at a low but variable copy number in a variety of C. neoformans strains. It displays interstrain variations in its insertion sites, suggesting recent mobility. The internal region contains a long gene, interrupted by several introns. The product of this gene contains a putative tyrosine recombinase near its middle, and a region similar in sequence to the DNA-binding domains of several fungal transcription factors near its C-terminus. The element contains no long repeat sequences, but is bordered by short direct repeats which may have been produced by its insertion into the host genome by recombination. Many of the structural features of crypton Cn1 are conserved in the other known cryptons, suggesting that these elements represent the functional forms. The presence of cryptons in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes suggests that this is an ancient group of elements (>400 million years old). Sequence comparisons suggest that cryptons may be related to the DIRS1 and Ngaro1 groups of tyrosine-recombinase-encoding retrotransposons. PMID:14600222

Goodwin, Timothy J D; Butler, Margaret I; Poulter, Russell T M

2003-11-01

289

Two distinct 18S rRNA secondary structures in Dipodascus (Hemiascomycetes).  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from ascomycetous yeast-like fungi in the genera Dipodascus, Galactomyces and Geotrichum were determined and the tested strains were separated into two groups by sequence length. In group 1, the length and secondary structure of 18S rRNA corresponded to those of typical eukaryotes. In group 2, the 18S rRNA gene sequences were about 150 nt shorter than those of most other eukaryotes and the predicted secondary structure lacked helices 10 and E21-5. Many substitutions and some deletions in group 2 18S rRNA gene were not only found in variable regions, but also in regions that are highly conserved among ascomycetes. Despite the considerable differences in 18S rRNA gene sequence and secondary structure between group 2 and other fungi, including group 1, phylogenetic analysis revealed that groups 1 and 2 are closely related. These findings suggest that a number of deletions occurred in the 18S rRNA of the common ancestor of group 2 strains. PMID:10832631

Ueda-Nishimura, K; Mikata, K

2000-05-01

290

Identification of the CRE-1 Cellulolytic Regulon in Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Background In filamentous ascomycete fungi, the utilization of alternate carbon sources is influenced by the zinc finger transcription factor CreA/CRE-1, which encodes a carbon catabolite repressor protein homologous to Mig1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In Neurospora crassa, deletion of cre-1 results in increased secretion of amylase and ?-galactosidase. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that a strain carrying a deletion of cre-1 has increased cellulolytic activity and increased expression of cellulolytic genes during growth on crystalline cellulose (Avicel). Constitutive expression of cre-1 complements the phenotype of a N. crassa ?cre-1 strain grown on Avicel, and also results in stronger repression of cellulolytic protein secretion and enzyme activity. We determined the CRE-1 regulon by investigating the secretome and transcriptome of a ?cre-1 strain as compared to wild type when grown on Avicel versus minimal medium. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR of putative target genes showed that CRE-1 binds to only some adjacent 5?-SYGGRG-3? motifs, consistent with previous findings in other fungi, and suggests that unidentified additional regulatory factors affect CRE-1 binding to promoter regions. Characterization of 30 mutants containing deletions in genes whose expression level increased in a ?cre-1 strain under cellulolytic conditions identified novel genes that affect cellulase activity and protein secretion. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide comprehensive information on the CRE-1 regulon in N. crassa and contribute to deciphering the global role of carbon catabolite repression in filamentous ascomycete fungi during plant cell wall deconstruction. PMID:21980519

Sun, Jianping; Glass, N. Louise

2011-01-01

291

Functional Analysis of the Degradation of Cellulosic Substrates by a Chaetomium globosum Endophytic Isolate  

PubMed Central

Most photosynthetically fixed carbon is contained in cell wall polymers present in plant biomasses, the largest organic carbon source in the biosphere. The degradation of these polymers for biotechnological purposes requires the combined action of several enzymes. To identify new activities, we examined which enzymes are activated by an endophytic strain of Chaetomium globosum to degrade cellulose-containing substrates. After biochemical analyses of the secretome of the fungus grown on cellulose or woody substrates, we took advantage of the available genomic data to identify potentially involved genes. After in silico identification of putative genes encoding either proteins able to bind to cellulose or glycohydrolases (GHs) of family 7, we investigated their transcript levels by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Our data suggest that eight genes compose the core of the cellulose-degrading system of C. globosum. Notably, the related enzymes belong structurally to the well-described GH families 5, 6, 7, 16, and 45, which are known to be the core of the cellulose degradation systems of several ascomycetes. The high expression levels of cellobiose dehydrogenase and two GH 61 enzymes suggest the involvement of this oxidoreductive synergic system in C. globosum. Transcript analysis along with relevant coding sequence (CDS) isolation and expression of recombinant proteins proved to be a key strategy for the determination of the features of two endoglucanases used by C. globosum for the first attack of crystalline cellulose. Finally, the possible involvement of transcriptional regulators described for other ascomycetes is discussed. PMID:22389369

Longoni, Paolo; Rodolfi, Marinella; Pantaleoni, Laura; Doria, Enrico; Concia, Lorenzo; Cella, Rino

2012-01-01

292

Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of 1698 Yeast Reference Strains Revealing Potential Emerging Human Pathogens  

PubMed Central

New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites) were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes). Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001). Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically “resistant” to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens. PMID:22396754

Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Robert, Vincent; Raoux-Barbot, Dorothee; Groenewald, Marizeth; Dromer, Francoise

2012-01-01

293

Purification and characterization of mycoferritin from Aspergillus parasiticus (255).  

PubMed

As intracellular iron storage molecules, only hydroxymate type siderophores have been reported in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. This is the first report documenting the presence of mycoferritin in ascomycetes. The fungus, Aspergillus parasiticus (255), is capable of producing mycoferritin only upon induction with iron in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium. The same has been purified from Aspergillus sps by application of conventional biochemical techniques. The molecular mass, yield, iron and carbohydrate contents of the HPLC purified protein were 460kDa, 0.012mg/g of wet mycelia, 1.6% and 6.0%, respectively. The iron content was much lower than Mortierella alpina mycoferritin (17%). Native PAGE revealed the presence of trimeric and monomeric forms of ferritin. Subunit analysis by SDS-PAGE showed a single protein subunit of approximately 20kDa suggesting structural simplicity of the apoferritin shell. Variation in amino acid composition was noted upon comparison with ferritins of other species. Interestingly, no phenylalanine could be detected in the mycoferritin of Aspergillus sps. The acidic amino acid content was 1.5-1.6 fold higher than mammalian and fish ferritins. The spectral characteristics (UV/VIS and fluorescence) of mycoferritin were akin to equine spleen ferritin. However, circular dichroic spectra revealed a lower degree of helicity. PMID:15837384

Shashidhar, J; Sashidhar, R B; Deshpande, Vijay

2005-04-15

294

Heterobasidiomycetes form symbiotic associations with hepatics: Jungermanniales have sebacinoid mycobionts while Aneura pinguis (Metzgeriales) is associated with a Tulasnella species.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate substrate dependence of the symbiotic fungal associations in leafy liverworts (Jungermanniopsida), 28 species out of 12 families were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and molecular methods. Samples were obtained from the diverse substrates: from naked soil, from the forest floor on needle litter, from between peat moss, from rotten bark of standing trees, and from stumps and rotten wood. Associations with ascomycetes were found in most of the specimens independent from the substrate. Seven species sampled from soil were found to contain basidiomycete hyphae. Ultrastructure consistently showed dolipores with imperforate parenthesomes. Molecular phylogenetic studies revealed that three specimens belonging to the Jungermanniales were associated with members of Sebacinaceae, while Aneura pinguis (Metzgeriales) was associated with a Tulasnella species. These taxa are so far the only basidiomycetes known to be symbiotically associated with leafy liverworts. The probability that the associations with Sebacinaceae are evolutionary old, but the Tulasnella associations more derived is discussed. The sebacinoid mycobionts form a similar interaction type with the jungermannialian leafy liverworts as do the associated ascomycetes. The term 'jungermannioid mycorrhiza' is proposed for this distinctive symbiotic interaction type. PMID:14531618

Kottke, Ingrid; Beiter, Alexander; Weiss, Michael; Haug, Ingeborg; Oberwinkler, Franz; Nebel, Martin

2003-08-01

295

Do Clonal Plants Show Greater Division of Labour Morphologically and Physiologically at Higher Patch Contrasts?  

PubMed Central

Background When growing in reciprocal patches in terms of availability of different resources, connected ramets of clonal plants will specialize to acquire and exchange locally abundant resources more efficiently. This has been termed division of labour. We asked whether division of labour can occur physiologically as well as morphologically and will increase with patch contrasts. Methodology/Principal Findings We subjected connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina to Control, Low, Medium and High patch contrast by manipulating light and nutrient levels for ramets in each pair. Little net benefit of inter-ramet connection in terms of biomass was detected. Shoot-root ratio did not differ significantly between paired ramets regardless of connection under Control, Low and Medium. Under High, however, disconnected shaded ramets with ample nutrients showed significantly larger shoot-root ratios (2.8?6.5 fold) than fully-lit but nutrient-deficient ramets, and than their counterparts under any other treatment; conversely, fully-lit but nutrient-deficient ramets, when connected to shaded ramets with ample nutrients, had significantly larger shoot-root ratios (2.0?4.9 fold) than the latter and than their counterparts under any other treatment. Only under High patch contrast, fully-lit ramets, if connected to shaded ones, had 8.9% higher chlorophyll content than the latter, and 22.4% higher chlorophyll content than their isolated counterparts; the similar pattern held for photosynthetic capacity under all heterogeneous treatments. Conclusions/Significance Division of labour in clonal plants can be realized by ramet specialization in morphology and in physiology. However, modest ramet specialization especially in morphology among patch contrasts may suggest that division of labour will occur when the connected ramets grow in reciprocal patches between which the contrast exceeds a threshold. Probably, this threshold patch contrast is the outcome of the clone-wide cost-benefit tradeoff and is significant for risk-avoidance, especially in the disturbance-prone environments. PMID:21980447

Wang, Zhengwen; Li, Yuanheng; During, Heinjo J.; Li, Linghao

2011-01-01

296

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) and Implications for Anseriformes Taxonomy  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in living organisms, and has been used as a powerful molecular marker in a variety of evolutionary studies. In this study, we determined the complete mtDNA of Bean goose (Anser fabalis), which is 16,688 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. The arrangement is similar to that of typical Anseriform species. All protein-coding genes, except for Cyt b, ND5, COI, and COII, start with an ATG codon. The ATG start codon is also generally observed in the 12 other Anseriform species, including 2 Anser species, with sequenced mitochondrial genomes. TAA is the most frequent stop codon, one of three–TAA, TAG, and T- –commonly observed in Anseriformes. All tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures except for tRNASer(AGY) and tRNALeu(CUN), which are missing the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The control region of Bean goose mtDNA, with some conserved sequence boxes, such as F, E, D, and C, identified in its central domain. Phylogenetic analysis of complete mtDNA data for 13 Anseriform species supports the classification of them into four major branches: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. Phylogenetic analyses were also conducted on 36 Anseriform birds using combined Cyt b, ND2, and COI sequences. The results clearly support the genus Somateria as an independent lineage classified in its own tribe, the Somaterini. Recovered topologies from both complete mtDNA and combined DNA sequences strongly indicate that Dendrocygninae is an independent subfamily within the family Anatidae and Anseranatidae represents an independent family. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that combining ND2, Cyt b, and COI sequence data is a workable solution at present for resolving phylogenetic relationships among Anseriform species in the absence of sufficient complete mtDNA data. PMID:23717412

Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi; Zhang, Lili; Luo, Zijun; Xu, Wenbin

2013-01-01

297

Nematocera (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae and Culicidae) and control methods.  

PubMed

The biology, veterinary importance and control of certain Nematocera are described and discussed. Culicoides spp. (family Ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and Akabane. Some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by Culicoides. These insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Haemoproteus nettionis, and the parasitic nematodes Onchocerca gutturosa, O. gibsoni and O. cervicalis. They also cause recurrent summer hypersensitivity in horses, ponies, donkeys, cattle and sheep. Farm animals can die as a result of mass attack by Simulium spp., which are also vectors of Leucocytozoon simondi, L. smithi and the filariae O. gutturosa, O. linealis and O. ochengi. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) have been isolated from simuliids, and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain has been replicated in Simulium vittatum. Simuliids are well known as vectors of O. volvulus, the cause of human onchocercosis (river blindness). The family Psychodidae includes the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia (subfamily Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania spp. in humans, dogs and other mammals. Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain has been regularly isolated from phlebotomine sandflies. Mass attack by mosquitoes can also prove fatal to farm animals. Mosquitoes are vectors of the viruses of Akabane, BEF, RVF, Japanese encephalitis, VEE, western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and west Nile meningoencephalitis, secondary vectors of AHS and suspected vectors of Israel turkey meningoencephalitis. The viruses of hog cholera, fowl pox and reticuloendotheliosis, the rickettsiae Eperythrozoon ovis and E. suis, and the bacterium Borrelia anserina are mechanically transmitted by mosquitoes. These insects also induce allergic dermatitis in horses. They transmit several filarial worms of both animals and humans, and are of great medical importance as vectors of major human diseases, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and many more diseases caused by arboviruses. PMID:7711309

Braverman, Y

1994-12-01

298

How Past and Present Influence the Foraging of Clonal Plants?  

PubMed Central

Clonal plants spreading horizontally and forming a network structure of ramets exhibit complex growth patterns to maximize resource uptake from the environment. They respond to spatial heterogeneity by changing their internode length or branching frequency. Ramets definitively root in the soil but stay interconnected for a varying period of time thus allowing an exchange of spatial and temporal information. We quantified the foraging response of clonal plants depending on the local soil quality sampled by the rooting ramet (i.e. the present information) and the resource variability sampled by the older ramets (i.e. the past information). We demonstrated that two related species, Potentilla reptans and P. anserina, responded similarly to the local quality of their environment by decreasing their internode length in response to nutrient-rich soil. Only P. reptans responded to resource variability by decreasing its internode length. In both species, the experience acquired by older ramets influenced the plastic response of new rooted ramets: the internode length between ramets depended not only on the soil quality locally sampled but also on the soil quality previously sampled by older ramets. We quantified the effect of the information perceived at different time and space on the foraging behavior of clonal plants by showing a non-linear response of the ramet rooting in the soil of a given quality. These data suggest that the decision to grow a stolon or to root a ramet at a given distance from the older ramet results from the integration of the past and present information about the richness and the variability of the environment. PMID:22675539

Louapre, Philipe; Bittebiere, Anne-Kristel; Clement, Bernard; Pierre, Jean-Sebastien; Mony, Cendrine

2012-01-01

299

Assembly of melleolide antibiotics involves a polyketide synthase with cross-coupling activity.  

PubMed

Little is known about polyketide biosynthesis in mushrooms (basidiomycota). In this study, we investigated the iterative type I polyketide synthase (PKS) ArmB of the tree pathogen Armillaria mellea, a producer of cytotoxic melleolides (i.e., polyketides esterified with various sesquiterpene alcohols). Heterologously produced ArmB showed orsellinic acid (OA) synthase activity in vitro. Further, we demonstrate cross-coupling activity of ArmB, which forms OA esters with various alcohols. Using a tricyclic Armillaria sesquiterpene alcohol, we reconstituted the biosynthesis of melledonol. Intermolecular transesterification reactions may represent a general mechanism of fungal PKSs to create structural diversity of small molecules. Phylogenetic network construction of thioesterase domains of both basidiomycetes and ascomycetes suggests that the fungal nonreducing PKS family has likely evolved from an ancient OA synthase and has gained versatility by adopting Claisen-like cyclase or transferase activity. PMID:23993460

Lackner, Gerald; Bohnert, Markus; Wick, Jonas; Hoffmeister, Dirk

2013-09-19

300

Bioactive fungal polysaccharides as potential functional ingredients in food and nutraceuticals.  

PubMed

Fungal bioactive polysaccharides deriving mainly from the Basidiomycetes family (and some from the Ascomycetes) and medicinal mushrooms have been well known and widely used in far Asia as part of traditional diet and medicine, and in the last decades have been the core of intense research for the understanding and the utilization of their medicinal properties in naturally produced pharmaceuticals. In fact, some of these biopolymers (mainly ?-glucans or heteropolysaccharides) have already made their way to the market as antitumor, immunostimulating or prophylactic drugs. The fact that many of these biopolymers are produced by edible mushrooms makes them also very good candidates for the formulation of novel functional foods and nutraceuticals without any serious safety concerns, in order to make use of their immunomodulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and health-promoting properties. This article summarizes the most important properties and applications of bioactive fungal polysaccharides and discusses the latest developments on the utilization of these biopolymers in human nutrition. PMID:24518400

Giavasis, Ioannis

2014-04-01

301

Comparative genomics of Taphrina fungi causing varying degrees of tumorous deformity in plants.  

PubMed

Taphrina fungi are biotrophic plant pathogens that cause plant deformity diseases. We sequenced the genomes of four Taphrina species-Taphrina wiesneri, T. deformans, T. flavorubra, and T. populina-which parasitize Prunus, Cerasus, and Populus hosts with varying severity of disease symptoms. High levels of gene synteny within Taphrina species were observed, and our comparative analysis further revealed that these fungi may utilize multiple strategies in coping with the host environment that are also found in some specialized dimorphic species. These include species-specific aneuploidy and clusters of highly diverged secreted proteins located at subtelomeres. We also identified species differences in plant hormone biosynthesis pathways, which may contribute to varying degree of disease symptoms. The genomes provide a rich resource for investigation into Taphrina biology and evolutionary studies across the basal ascomycetes clade. PMID:24682155

Tsai, Isheng J; Tanaka, Eiji; Masuya, Hayato; Tanaka, Ryusei; Hirooka, Yuuri; Endoh, Rikiya; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

2014-04-01

302

Comparative Genomics of Taphrina Fungi Causing Varying Degrees of Tumorous Deformity in Plants  

PubMed Central

Taphrina fungi are biotrophic plant pathogens that cause plant deformity diseases. We sequenced the genomes of four Taphrina species—Taphrina wiesneri, T. deformans, T. flavorubra, and T. populina—which parasitize Prunus, Cerasus, and Populus hosts with varying severity of disease symptoms. High levels of gene synteny within Taphrina species were observed, and our comparative analysis further revealed that these fungi may utilize multiple strategies in coping with the host environment that are also found in some specialized dimorphic species. These include species-specific aneuploidy and clusters of highly diverged secreted proteins located at subtelomeres. We also identified species differences in plant hormone biosynthesis pathways, which may contribute to varying degree of disease symptoms. The genomes provide a rich resource for investigation into Taphrina biology and evolutionary studies across the basal ascomycetes clade. PMID:24682155

Tsai, Isheng J.; Tanaka, Eiji; Masuya, Hayato; Tanaka, Ryusei; Hirooka, Yuuri; Endoh, Rikiya; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

2014-01-01

303

Potential of Ophiostoma piceae sterol esterase for biotechnologically relevant hydrolysis reactions  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete Ophiostoma piceae produces a sterol esterase (OPE) with high affinity toward p-nitrophenol, glycerol, and sterol esters. Recently, this enzyme has been heterologously expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under the AOX1 methanol-inducible promoter (PAOX1) using sorbitol as co-susbtrate, and the hydrolytic activity of the recombinant protein (OPE*) turned out to be improved from a kinetic point of view. In this study, we analyze the effects of sorbitol during the expression of OPE*, at first added as an additional carbon source, and methanol as inducer. The O. piceae enzyme was successfully used for PVAc hydrolysis, suggesting its potential applicability in recycled paper production to decrease stickies problems. PMID:23138020

Barba Cedillo, Victor; Prieto, Alicia; Martinez, Maria Jesus

2013-01-01

304

Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent for Fusarium head blight in cereals and produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. Isolation of the fungal strains from air or cereals can be hampered by various other airborne fungal pathogens and saprophytic fungi. In this study, we developed a selective medium specific to F. graminearum using toxoflavin produced by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. F. graminearum was resistant to toxoflavin, while other fungi were sensitive to this toxin. Supplementing toxoflavin into medium enhanced the isolation of F. graminearum from rice grains by suppressing the growth of saprophytic fungal species. In addition, a medium with or without toxoflavin exposed to wheat fields for 1 h had 84% or 25%, respectively, of colonies identified as F. graminearum. This selection medium provides an efficient tool for isolating F. graminearum, and can be adopted by research groups working on genetics and disease forecasting. PMID:25288974

Jung, Boknam; Lee, Sehee; Ha, Jiran; Park, Jong-Chul; Han, Sung-Sook; Hwang, Ingyu; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

2013-01-01

305

Recent advances in genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development, energy metabolism and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae).  

PubMed

The ascomycete fungus, Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae), is the most common causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease for cereal crops worldwide. F. graminearum produces ascospores (sexual spores) and conidia (asexual spores), which can serve as disease inocula of FHB. Meanwhile, Fusarium-infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as trichothecenes (TRIs), fumonisins, and zearalenones, among which TRIs are related to the pathogenicity of F. graminearum, and these toxins are hazardous to humans and livestock. In recent years, with the complete genome sequencing of F. graminearum, an increasing number of functional genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites, hyphal differentiation, sexual and asexual reproduction, virulence and pathogenicity have been identified from F. graminearum. In this review, the secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development and pathogenicity related genes in F. graminearum were thoroughly summarized, and the genes associated with secondary metabolites, sexual reproduction, energy metabolism, and pathogenicity were highlighted. PMID:24389085

Geng, Zongyi; Zhu, Wei; Su, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

2014-01-01

306

Rapid Genetic Mapping in Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Forward genetic analysis is the most broadly applicable approach to discern gene functions. However, for some organisms like the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa, genetic mapping frequently represents a limiting step in forward genetic approaches. We describe an efficient method for genetic mapping in N. crassa that makes use of a modified bulked segregant analysis and PCR-based molecular markers. This method enables mapping with progeny from a single cross, and requires only 90 PCR amplifications. Genetic distances between syntenic markers have been determined to ensure complete coverage of the genome and to allow interpolation of linkage data. As a result, most mutations should be mapped in less than one month to within 1–5 map units, a level of resolution sufficient to initiate map-based cloning efforts. This system also will facilitate analyses of recombination at a genome-wide level, and is applicable to other perfect fungi when suitable markers are available. PMID:17056287

Jin, Yuan; Allan, Sabrina; Baber, Lauren; Bhattarai, Eric K.; Lamb, Teresa M.; Versaw, Wayne K.

2007-01-01

307

New findings in insect fungiculture  

PubMed Central

The interaction between Allomerus plant-ants and an ascomycete fungus growing on and strengthening their galleries is not opportunistic. We previously demonstrated that this association is highly specific as only one fungal species represented by a few haplotypes was found associated with the ants. We also discovered that the ants' behavior revealed a major investment in manipulating and enhancing the growth of their associated fungus. We have growing evidence that this specificity is consistent with selection by the ants. Here, we discuss this selection within the framework of insect agriculture, as we believe these ants fulfill all of the prerequisites to be considered as farmers. Allomerus ants promote their symbiont's growth, protect it from potential pathogens and select specific cultivars. Taken together, we think that the interaction between Allomerus ants and their cultivar might represent the first case of insect fungiculture used as a means of obtaining building material. PMID:22446539

Lauth, Jeremie; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Mario X.

2011-01-01

308

Endophytic fungi diversity of aquatic/riparian plants and their antifungal activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Two hundred and fourteen endophytic fungi were isolated from 500 segments of aquatic/riparian plants Ottelia acuminata, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Equisetum arvense, Cardamine multijuga, and Impatiens chinensis. They were identified to 31 taxa in which Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Geotrichum were the dominant genera. Among all isolates, 169 (79%) were anamorphic fungi, 1 (0.5%) was an teleomorphic ascomycete and 44 (21%) were sterile mycelia. There were significant differences in the colonization frequency of endophytes between the five plant species (X~2=51.128, P<0.001, Chi-square test). The riparian plants harboured more endophytes than the submerged plants. The antifungal activity of these isolates against Fusarium solani and Phytophthora nicotianae in vitro were tested and 28 (13.1%) isolates showed antifungal activities with more than 30% growth inhibition rate against the two pathogens. PMID:20221722

Li, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Chun-An; Liu, Chen-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Fei

2010-02-01

309

Fungal genomes mining to discover novel sterol esterases and lipases as catalysts  

PubMed Central

Background Sterol esterases and lipases are enzymes able to efficiently catalyze synthesis and hydrolysis reactions of both sterol esters and triglycerides and due to their versatility could be widely used in different industrial applications. Lipases with this ability have been reported in the yeast Candida rugosa that secretes several extracellular enzymes with a high level of sequence identity, although different substrate specificity. This versatility has also been found in the sterol esterases from the ascomycetes Ophiostoma piceae and Melanocarpus albomyces. Results In this work we present an in silico search of new sterol esterase and lipase sequences from the genomes of environmental fungi. The strategy followed included identification and search of conserved domains from these versatile enzymes, phylogenetic studies, sequence analysis and 3D modeling of the selected candidates. Conclusions Six potential putative enzymes were selected and their kinetic properties and substrate selectivity are discussed on the basis of their similarity with previously characterized sterol esterases/lipases with known structures. PMID:24138290

2013-01-01

310

[Characteristic of the yeast isolated from patients with leukaemia].  

PubMed

It has been shown that biotopes of upper respiratory system and intestine were contaminated with yeast in 44.6% of patients with leukaemia (of 112 examined ones). Their quantity exceeds the boundary value for practically healthy people and is > or = 10(2) KOE/ml in the nasal activity and fauces and < or = 10(4) KOE/g in the intestine. It was established that in patients with leucemia the mycotic complications are mainly caused by anamorphous yeast of ascomycetic affinity. Candida albicans, as well as C. glabrata, C. rugosa and Candida sp. play the leading role. The Candida genus species are mainly sensitive to amphotericine B, clotrisamol and nistatin. PMID:19044007

Fedorovskaia, E A; Rybal'skaia, A P; Skachkova, N K; Mel'nik, E A; Nemirovskaia, L N; Nagornaia, S S; Babich, T V; Polishchuk, L V

2008-01-01

311

Entomopathogenic fungi in cornfields and their potential to manage larval western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic ascomycete fungi are ubiquitous in soil and on phylloplanes, and are important natural enemies of many soil-borne arthropods including larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which is a major pest of corn. We measured the prevalence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato in ten cornfields in Iowa, USA by baiting with larval insects. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae s.l. were present in 60% ± 6.3% and 55% ± 6.4% of soil samples, respectively. Subsequent laboratory bioassays found that some M. anisopliae s.l. strains collected from cornfields killed a greater proportion of D.v. virgifera larvae than a standard commercial strain. PMID:24120889

Rudeen, Melissa L; Jaronski, Stefan T; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Gassmann, Aaron J

2013-11-01

312

Molecular identification of yeasts from soils of the alluvial forest national park along the river Danube downstream of Vienna, Austria ("Nationalpark Donauauen").  

PubMed

We analysed the diversity of yeasts from different soils in a river-floodplain landscape at the river Danube downstream of Vienna, Austria ("Nationalpark Donauauen"). 136 strains were isolated, identification of species was done with molecular methods. Partial sequencing of the 26S rRNA gene resulted in 36 different sequences, they could be assigned to 16 genera, apart from two sequence types (from three isolates), which were not clearly assigned to any genus. 18 species were identified and confirmed by means of PCR fingerprinting. The most frequently isolated genus was Cryptococcus (61 isolates and 12 sequence types). Basidiomycetes dominated with about 60% above the members of the Ascomycetes. About half the yeasts was isolated from the litter, the quantity decreased with soil depth. PMID:15462526

Wuczkowski, Michael; Prillinger, Hansjörg

2004-01-01

313

Two glucuronoyl esterases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces glucuronoyl esterase, a recently discovered carbohydrate esterase, during growth on sugar beet pulp. Two putative genes encoding this enzyme, ge1 and ge2, were isolated and cloned. Heterologous expression in Aspergillus vadensis, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and Schizophyllum commune resulted in extracellular glucuronoyl esterase activity, demonstrating that these genes encode this enzymatic function. The amino acid sequence of GE1 was used to identify homologous genes in the genomes of twenty-four fungi. Approximately half of the genomes, both from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, contained putative orthologues, but their presence could not be assigned to any of fungal class or subclass. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of identified and putative glucuronoyl esterases to other types of carbohydrate esterases (CE) confirmed that they form a separate family of CEs. These enzymes are interesting candidates for biotechnological applications such as the separation of lignin and hemicellulose. PMID:18854978

Duranová, Miroslava; Spániková, Silvia; Wösten, Han A B; Biely, Peter; de Vries, Ronald P

2009-02-01

314

Paleomycology of the Princeton Chert II. Dark-septate fungi in the aquatic angiosperm Eorhiza arnoldii indicate a diverse assemblage of root-colonizing fungi during the Eocene.  

PubMed

Tissues of the extinct aquatic or emergent angiosperm, Eorhiza arnoldii incertae sedis, were extensively colonized by microfungi, and in this study we report the presence of several types of sterile mycelia. In addition to inter- and intracellular proliferation of regular septate hyphae, the tissues contain monilioid hyphae with intercalary branching. These filamentous mycelia are spatially associated with two distinct morphotypes of intracellular microsclerotia. These quiescent structures are morphologically similar to loose and cerebriform microsclerotia found within the living tissues of some plants, which have been attributed to an informal assemblage of dematiaceous ascomycetes, the dark-septate endophytes. While there are significant challenges to interpreting the ecology of fossilized fungi, these specimens provide evidence for asymptomatic endophytic colonization of the rooting structures of a 48.7 million year old aquatic angiosperm. PMID:23709575

Klymiuk, Ashley A; Taylor, Thomas N; Taylor, Edith L; Krings, Michael

2013-01-01

315

Molecular phylogeny of Boliniales (Sordariomycetes) with an assessment of the systematics of Apiorhynchostoma, Endoxyla and Pseudovalsaria.  

PubMed

The systematics of the ascomycete genera Apiorhynchostoma, Endoxyla and Pseudovalsaria are reevaluated based on the comparison of cultural characteristics, teleomorph morphology and DNA sequence data. Analyses of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA operon and the large subunit (LSU) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA gene resolve Boliniales as a robustly supported lineage comprising Apiorhynchostoma, Camarops, Camaropella, Cornipulvina, Endoxyla and Pseudovalsaria. Within Boliniales, species of Endoxyla form a strongly supported lineage. Apiorhynchostoma curreyi and Pseudovalsaria ferruginea group with Cornipulvina ellipsoides. Species of Camarops are paraphyletic and comprise two clades, one of which includes Camaropella. Boliniaceae is emended, Endoxyla mallochii is described as new and Apiorhynchostoma trabicola is considered a synonym of Apiorhynchostoma altipetum. We also propose the combinations Endoxyla occulta, Endoxylina luteobasis and Jobellisia peckii. Keys to genera included in the Boliniaceae and to species of Apiocamarops, Apiorhynchostoma and Endoxyla are provided. PMID:23396154

Untereiner, Wendy A; Bogale, Mesfin; Carter, Adrian; Bud Platt, H W; Hanson, Sven-Åke; Læssøe, Thomas; Stepánek, Václav; Réblová, Martina

2013-01-01

316

Fungal endophyte assemblages from ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal trees.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi represent an interesting group of microorganisms associated with the healthy tissues of terrestrial plants. They represent a large reservoir of genetic diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the inner bark segments of ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal tree species, namely Terminalia arjuna, Crataeva magna, Azadirachta indica, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia chebula, and Butea monosperma (11 individual trees), growing in different regions of southern India. Forty-eight fungal species were recovered from 2200 bark segments. Mitosporic fungi represented a major group (61%), with ascomycetes (21%) and sterile mycelia (18%) the next major groups. Species of Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Myrothecium, Trichoderma, Verticillium, and Chaetomium were frequently isolated. Exclusive fungal taxa were recovered from five of the six plant species considered for the study of endophytic fungi. Rarefaction indices for species richness indicated the highest expected number of species for bark segments were isolated from T. arjuna and A. indica (20 species each) and from C. magna (18 species). PMID:16699567

Tejesvi, Mysore V; Mahesh, Basavanna; Nalini, Monnanda S; Prakash, Harishchandra S; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Subbiah, Ven; Shetty, Hunthrike S

2006-05-01

317

Total synthesis of (+)-chloriolide.  

PubMed

(+)-Chloriolide, a metabolite of the ascomycete Chloridium virescens var. chlamydosporum, was synthesized in 16 linear steps from cellulose as a source of a levoglucosenone that contributed the (Z)-alkene and the R stereocenter. The attachment of a spacer derived from l-lactate gave an ?-hydroxyacetal which was added to the phosphorus ylide Ph3PCCO. The resulting ester ylide was treated with hydrochloric acid to liberate the hemiacetal shown. Addition of sodium hydroxide regenerated the corresponding ylide, which underwent a spontaneous intramolecular Wittig olefination to afford (+)-chloriolide in 65% yield without the necessity of high-dilution conditions. This is the third synthesis of (+)-chloriolide and the first one ever of a macrolide by a ring-closing Wittig olefination of a stabilized phosphorus ylide bearing an ?-hemiacetal. Our synthetic sample exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against cancer cells but no antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24708255

Ostermeier, Michael; Schobert, Rainer

2014-05-01

318

Potential of Ophiostoma piceae sterol esterase for biotechnologically relevant hydrolysis reactions.  

PubMed

The ascomycete Ophiostoma piceae produces a sterol esterase (OPE) with high affinity toward p-nitrophenol, glycerol, and sterol esters. Recently, this enzyme has been heterologously expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under the AOX1 methanol-inducible promoter (PAOX1) using sorbitol as co-susbtrate, and the hydrolytic activity of the recombinant protein (OPE*) turned out to be improved from a kinetic point of view. In this study, we analyze the effects of sorbitol during the expression of OPE*, at first added as an additional carbon source, and methanol as inducer. The O. piceae enzyme was successfully used for PVAc hydrolysis, suggesting its potential applicability in recycled paper production to decrease stickies problems. PMID:23138020

Barba Cedillo, Víctor; Prieto, Alicia; Martínez, María Jesús

2013-01-01

319

Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae.  

PubMed

The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent for Fusarium head blight in cereals and produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. Isolation of the fungal strains from air or cereals can be hampered by various other airborne fungal pathogens and saprophytic fungi. In this study, we developed a selective medium specific to F. graminearum using toxoflavin produced by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. F. graminearum was resistant to toxoflavin, while other fungi were sensitive to this toxin. Supplementing toxoflavin into medium enhanced the isolation of F. graminearum from rice grains by suppressing the growth of saprophytic fungal species. In addition, a medium with or without toxoflavin exposed to wheat fields for 1 h had 84% or 25%, respectively, of colonies identified as F. graminearum. This selection medium provides an efficient tool for isolating F. graminearum, and can be adopted by research groups working on genetics and disease forecasting. PMID:25288974

Jung, Boknam; Lee, Sehee; Ha, Jiran; Park, Jong-Chul; Han, Sung-Sook; Hwang, Ingyu; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

2013-12-01

320

Fungicide Effects on Fungal Community Composition in the Wheat Phyllosphere  

PubMed Central

The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied. PMID:25369054

Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

2014-01-01

321

Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeasts species  

PubMed Central

Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J. Bruce; Gillies, Laura A.; Almada, Luis A.G.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

2013-01-01

322

Unisexual Reproduction Enhances Fungal Competitiveness by Promoting Habitat Exploration via Hyphal Growth and Sporulation  

PubMed Central

Unisexual reproduction is a novel homothallic sexual cycle recently discovered in both ascomycetous and basidiomycetous pathogenic fungi. It is a form of selfing that induces the yeast-to-hyphal dimorphic transition in isolates of the ? mating type of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Unisexual reproduction may benefit the pathogen by facilitating sexual reproduction in the absence of the opposite a mating type and by generating infectious propagules called basidiospores. Here, we report an independent potential selective advantage of unisexual reproduction beyond genetic exchange and recombination. We competed a wild-type strain capable of undergoing unisexual reproduction with mutants defective in this developmental pathway and found that unisexual reproduction provides a considerable dispersal advantage through hyphal growth and sporulation. Our results show that unisexual reproduction may serve to facilitate access to both nutrients and potential mating partners and may provide a means to maintain the capacity for dimorphic transitions in the environment. PMID:23794511

Phadke, Sujal S.; Feretzaki, Marianna

2013-01-01

323

The yeast community of sap fluxes of Costa Rican Maclura (Chlorophora) tinctoria and description of two new yeast species, Candida galis and Candida ortonii.  

PubMed

We report on the yeast community associated with sap fluxes of Maclura tinctoria, family Moraceae, in the dry forest of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Eleven samples yielded seven hitherto undescribed ascomycetous yeasts in the genera Candida and Myxozyma. We describe the two most abundant as new species. Candida galis utilizes very few carbon compounds limited to some alcohols and acids. Analysis of rDNA sequences suggests that it occupies a basal position with respect to the Pichia anomala clade, with no obvious sister species. Candida ortonii is also restricted in nutritional breadth, and growth is generally very slow. It is a sister species to Candida nemodendra. The type cultures are: C. galis, strain UWO(PS)00-159.2=CBS 8842; and C. ortonii, strain UWO(PS)00-159.3=CBS 8843. PMID:12702353

Lachance, M A; Klemens, J A; Bowles, J M; Janzen, D H

2001-07-01

324

A small insertion in the SSU rDNA of the lichen fungus Arthonia lapidicola is a degenerate group-I intron.  

PubMed

Insertions of less than 100 nt occurring in highly conserved regions of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) may represent degenerate forms of the group-I introns observed at the same positions in other organisms. A 63-nt insertion at SSU rDNA position 1512 (relative to the Escherichia coli SSU rDNA) of the lichen-forming fungus Arthonia lapidicola can be folded into a secondary structure with two stem loops and a pairing of the insertion and flanking sequences. The two stem loops may correspond to the P1 and P2, and the insertion-flanking pairing to the P10, of a group-I intron. Considering these small insertions as degenerate introns provides important clues to the evolution and catalytic function of group-I introns. Keywords Ribosomal DNA middle dot Small subunit middle dot 18s middle dot Degenerate introns middle dot Ascomycetes PMID:8662198

Grube, M; Gargas, A; DePriest, P T

1996-05-01

325

Arrangement of genes TRP1 and TRP3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

PubMed

The tryptophan biosynthetic genes TRP1 and TRP3 and partly also TRP2 and TRP4 have been compared by the technique of Southern hybridization and enzyme measurements in twelve wild isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from natural sources of different continents, in the commonly used laboratory strain S. cerevisiae X2180-1A and in a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain. We could classify these strains into four groups, which did not correlate with their geographical distribution. In no case are the TRP3 and TRP1 genes fused as has been found in other ascomycetes. Two strains were found which, in contrast to strain X2180-1A, show derepression of gene TRP1. Two examples are discussed to demonstrate the usefulness of Southern hybridizations for the identification of closely related strains. PMID:2998296

Braus, G; Furter, R; Prantl, F; Niederberger, P; Hütter, R

1985-09-01

326

Marine Fungi: Their Ecology and Molecular Diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungi appear to be rare in marine environments. There are relatively few marine isolates in culture, and fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences are rarely recovered in marine clone library experiments (i.e., culture-independent sequence surveys of eukaryotic microbial diversity from environmental DNA samples). To explore the diversity of marine fungi, we took a broad selection of SSU rDNA data sets and calculated a summary phylogeny. Bringing these data together identified a diverse collection of marine fungi, including sequences branching close to chytrids (flagellated fungi), filamentous hypha-forming fungi, and multicellular fungi. However, the majority of the sequences branched with ascomycete and basidiomycete yeasts. We discuss evidence for 36 novel marine lineages, the majority and most divergent of which branch with the chytrids. We then investigate what these data mean for the evolutionary history of the Fungi and specifically marine-terrestrial transitions. Finally, we discuss the roles of fungi in marine ecosystems.

Richards, Thomas A.; Jones, Meredith D. M.; Leonard, Guy; Bass, David

2012-01-01

327

[Diversity of facultatively anaerobic microscopic mycelial fungi in soils].  

PubMed

The numbers of microscopic fungi isolated from soil samples after anaerobic incubation varied from tens to several hundreds of CFU per one gram of soil; a total of 30 species was found. This group is composed primarily of mitotic fungi of the ascomycete affinity belonging to the orders Hypocreales (Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp., Clonostachys grammicospora, C. rosea. Acremonium sp., Gliocladium penicilloides, Trichoderma aureoviride, T. harzianum, T. polysporum, T. viride. T. koningii, Lecanicillum lecanii, and Tolypocladium inflatum) and Eurotiales (Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, and Paecilomyces lilacimus), as well as to the phylum Zygomycota, to the order Mucorales (Actinomucor elegans, Absidia glauca, Mucor circinelloides, M. hiemalis, M. racemosus, Mucor sp., Rhizopus oryzae, Zygorrhynchus moelleri, Z. heterogamus, and Umbelopsis isabellina) and the order Mortierellales (Mortierella sp.). As much as 10-30% of the total amount of fungal mycelium remains viable for a long time (one month) under anaerobic conditions. PMID:18365728

Kurakov, A V; Lavrent'ev, R B; Nechita?lo, T Iu; Golyshin, P N; Zviagintsev, D G

2008-01-01

328

Benzoquinones and Terphenyl Compounds as Phosphodiesterase-4B Inhibitors from a Fungus of the Order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445)#  

PubMed Central

Three bioactive compounds were isolated from an organic extract of an ascomycete fungus of the order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445) using bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Of these, two were benzoquinones [betulinan A (1) and betulinan C (3)] and the third was a terphenyl compound BTH-II0204-207:A (2). The structures were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques; the structure of the new compound (3) was confirmed via single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds (1–3) were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a human cancer cell panel, for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and for phosphodiesterase (PDE4B2) inhibitory activities. The putative binding mode of 1–3 with PDE4B2 was examined using a validated docking protocol, and the binding and enzyme inhibitory activities correlated. PMID:23301853

El-Elimat, Tamam; Figueroa, Mario; Raja, Huzefa A.; Graf, Tyler N.; Adcock, Audrey F.; Kroll, David J.; Day, Cynthia S.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

2013-01-01

329

Pichia insulana sp. nov., a novel cactophilic yeast from the Caribbean  

PubMed Central

A novel species of ascomycetous yeast, Pichia insulana sp. nov., is described from necrotic tissue of columnar cacti on Caribbean islands. P. insulana is closely related to and phenotypically very similar to Pichia cactophila and Pichia pseudocactophila. There are few distinctions between these taxa besides spore type, host preference and locality. Sporogenous strains of P. insulana that produce asci with four hat-shaped spores have been found only on Curaçao, whereas there was no evidence of sporogenous P. cactophila from that island. In addition, sequences of the D1/D2 fragment of the large-subunit rDNA from 12 Curaçao strains showed consistent differences from the sequences of the type strains of P. cactophila and P. pseudocactophila. The type strain of P. insulana is TSU00-106.5T (=CBS 11169T =UCD-FST 09-160T). PMID:19661524

Ganter, Philip F.; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Boundy-Mills, Kyria

2010-01-01

330

Regulation of HMG-CoA reductase in mammals and yeast  

PubMed Central

HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), a highly conserved, membrane-bound enzyme, catalyzes a rate-limiting step in sterol and isoprenoid biosynthesis and is the primary target of hypocholesterolemic drug therapy. HMGR activity is tightly regulated to ensure maintenance of lipid homeostasis, disruption of which is a major cause of human morbidity and mortality. HMGR regulation takes place at the levels of transcription, translation, post-translational modification and degradation. In this review, we discuss regulation of mammalian, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe HMGR and highlight recent advances in the field. We find that the general features of HMGR regulation, including a requirement for the HMGR-binding protein Insig, are remarkably conserved between mammals and ascomycetous fungi, including S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. However the specific details by which this regulation occurs differ in surprising ways, revealing the broad evolutionary themes underlying both HMGR regulation and Insig function. PMID:21801748

Burg, John S.; Espenshade, Peter J.

2011-01-01

331

Genetic Structure and Aggressiveness of Erysiphe necator Populations during Grapevine Powdery Mildew Epidemics ?  

PubMed Central

Isolates of the causal ascomycete of grapevine powdery mildew, Erysiphe necator, correspond to two genetically differentiated groups (A and B) that coexist on the same host. This coexistence was analyzed by investigating temporal changes in the genetic and phenotypic structures of E. necator populations during three epidemics. Group A was present only at the start of the growing season, whereas group B was present throughout all three epidemics. Group A was less aggressive in terms of germination and infection efficiency but was more aggressive than group B in terms of the latency period, lesion diameter, and spore production. Our results are consistent with a temporal differentiation of niches, preventing recombination, and suggest an association between the disease level and the frequencies of genetic groups. PMID:18723657

Montarry, Josselin; Cartolaro, Philippe; Delmotte, Francois; Jolivet, Jerome; Willocquet, Laetitia

2008-01-01

332

What is Scirrhia?  

PubMed

The ascomycetous genus Scirrhia is presently treated as a member of Dothideomycetidae, though uncertainty remains as to which family it belongs in Capnodiales, Ascomycota. Recent collections on stems of a fern, Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) in Brazil, led to the discovery of a new species of Scirrhia, described here as S.brasiliensis. Based on DNA sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (LSU), Scirrhia is revealed to represent a member of Dothideomycetes, Capnodiales, Mycosphaerellaceae. Scirrhia is the first confirmed genus in Mycosphaerellaceae to have well developed pseudoparaphyses and a prominent hypostroma in which ascomata are arranged in parallel rows. Given the extremely slow growth rate and difficulty in obtaining cultures of S. brasiliensis on various growth media, it appears that Scirrhia represents a genus of potentially obligate plant pathogens within Mycosphaerellaceae. PMID:22679597

Crous, Pedro W; Minnis, Andrew M; Pereira, Olinto L; Alfenas, Acelino C; Alfenas, Rafael F; Rossman, Amy Y; Groenewald, Johannes Z

2011-12-01

333

Variation of Soil Mycoflora in Decomposition of Rice Stubble from Rice-wheat Cropping System.  

PubMed

The colonization pattern and extent of decay produced in paddy stubble by soil inhabiting mycoflora were done by using nylon net bag technique. Among the three methods used for isolation of fungi, dilution plate technique recorded the highest number of fungi followed by damp chamber and direct observation method. Nutrient availability and climatic conditions (temperature, humidity and rainfall) influenced the occurrence and colonization pattern of fungi. Maximum fungal population was recorded in October (48.99 × 10(4)/g dry litter) and minimum in May (11.41 × 10(4)/g dry litter). Distribution of Deuteromycetous fungi was more in comparison to Zygomycetes, oomycetes and ascomycetes. In the early stage of decomposition Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus nigricans, Chaetomium globosum and Gliocladium species were found primarly whereas at later stages of decomposition preponderance of Aspergillus candidus, Torula graminis, Cladosporiun cladosporioides and Aspergillus luchuensis was recorded. PMID:24015096

Vibha; Sinha, Asha

2007-12-01

334

The genome of Nectria haematococca: contribution of supernumerary chromosomes to gene expansion  

SciTech Connect

The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani), is a member of a group of .50 species known as the"Fusarium solani species complex". Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on .100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this complex, N. haematococca mating population VI (MPVI). Several genes controlling the ability of individual isolates of this species to colonize specific habitats are located on supernumerary chromosomes. Optical mapping revealed that the sequenced isolate has 17 chromosomes ranging from 530 kb to 6.52 Mb and that the physical size of the genome, 54.43 Mb, and the number of predicted genes, 15,707, are among the largest reported for ascomycetes. Two classes of genes have contributed to gene expansion: specific genes that are not found in other fungi including its closest sequenced relative, Fusarium graminearum; and genes that commonly occur as single copies in other fungi but are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca MPVI. Some of these additional genes appear to have resulted from gene duplication events, while others may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. The supernumerary nature of three chromosomes, 14, 15, and 17, was confirmed by their absence in pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments of some isolates and by demonstrating that these isolates lacked chromosome-specific sequences found on the ends of these chromosomes. These supernumerary chromosomes contain more repeat sequences, are enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content in comparison to the other chromosomes. Although the origin(s) of the extra genes and the supernumerary chromosomes is not known, the gene expansion and its large genome size are consistent with this species' diverse range of habitats. Furthermore, the presence of unique genes on supernumerary chromosomes might account for individual isolates having different environmental niches.

Coleman, J.J.; Rounsley, S.D.; Rodriguez-Carres, M.; Kuo, A.; Wasmann, C.c.; Grimwood, J.; Schmutz, J.; Taga, M.; White, G.J.; Zhuo, S.; Schwartz, D.C.; Freitag, M.; Ma, L.-J.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Henrissat, B.; Cutinho, P.M.; Nelson, D.R.; Straney, D.; Napoli, C.A.; Baker, B.M.; Gribskov, M.; Rep, M.; Kroken, S.; Molnar, I.; Rensing, C.; Kennell, J.C.; Zamora, J.; Farman, M.L.; Selker, E.U.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H.; Pangilinan, J.; Lindquist, E.; Lamers, C.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Geiser, D.M.; Covert, S.F.; Temporini, S.; VanEtten, H.D.

2009-04-20

335

Mating type locus of Chinese black truffles reveals heterothallism and the presence of cryptic species within the T. indicum species complex.  

PubMed

Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T. melanosporum. PMID:24358175

Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

2013-01-01

336

ITS as an environmental DNA barcode for fungi: an in silico approach reveals potential PCR biases  

PubMed Central

Background During the last 15 years the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear DNA has been used as a target for analyzing fungal diversity in environmental samples, and has recently been selected as the standard marker for fungal DNA barcoding. In this study we explored the potential amplification biases that various commonly utilized ITS primers might introduce during amplification of different parts of the ITS region in samples containing mixed templates ('environmental barcoding'). We performed in silico PCR analyses with commonly used primer combinations using various ITS datasets obtained from public databases as templates. Results Some of the ITS primers, such as ITS1-F, were hampered with a high proportion of mismatches relative to the target sequences, and most of them appeared to introduce taxonomic biases during PCR. Some primers, e.g. ITS1-F, ITS1 and ITS5, were biased towards amplification of basidiomycetes, whereas others, e.g. ITS2, ITS3 and ITS4, were biased towards ascomycetes. The assumed basidiomycete-specific primer ITS4-B only amplified a minor proportion of basidiomycete ITS sequences, even under relaxed PCR conditions. Due to systematic length differences in the ITS2 region as well as the entire ITS, we found that ascomycetes will more easily amplify than basidiomycetes using these regions as targets. This bias can be avoided by using primers amplifying ITS1 only, but this would imply preferential amplification of 'non-dikarya' fungi. Conclusions We conclude that ITS primers have to be selected carefully, especially when used for high-throughput sequencing of environmental samples. We suggest that different primer combinations or different parts of the ITS region should be analyzed in parallel, or that alternative ITS primers should be searched for. PMID:20618939

2010-01-01

337

Transcriptome analysis of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis: implications for host pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background We present a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the fungus Ascosphaera apis, an economically important pathogen of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) that causes chalkbrood disease. Our goals were to further annotate the A. apis reference genome and to identify genes that are candidates for being differentially expressed during host infection versus axenic culture. Results We compared A. apis transcriptome sequence from mycelia grown on liquid or solid media with that dissected from host-infected tissue. 454 pyrosequencing provided 252?Mb of filtered sequence reads from both culture types that were assembled into 10,087 contigs. Transcript contigs, protein sequences from multiple fungal species, and ab initio gene predictions were included as evidence sources in the Maker gene prediction pipeline, resulting in 6,992 consensus gene models. A phylogeny based on 12 of these protein-coding loci further supported the taxonomic placement of Ascosphaera as sister to the core Onygenales. Several common protein domains were less abundant in A. apis compared with related ascomycete genomes, particularly cytochrome p450 and protein kinase domains. A novel gene family was identified that has expanded in some ascomycete lineages, but not others. We manually annotated genes with homologs in other fungal genomes that have known relevance to fungal virulence and life history. Functional categories of interest included genes involved in mating-type specification, intracellular signal transduction, and stress response. Computational and manual annotations have been made publicly available on the Bee Pests and Pathogens website. Conclusions This comprehensive transcriptome analysis substantially enhances our understanding of the A. apis genome and its expression during infection of honey bee larvae. It also provides resources for future molecular studies of chalkbrood disease and ultimately improved disease management. PMID:22747707

2012-01-01

338

Leaf and Root-Associated Fungal Assemblages Do Not Follow Similar Elevational Diversity Patterns  

PubMed Central

The diversity of fungi along environmental gradients has been little explored in contrast to plants and animals. Consequently, environmental factors influencing the composition of fungal assemblages are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the diversity and composition of leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages vary with elevation and to investigate potential explanatory variables. High-throughput sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 region was used to explore fungal assemblages along three elevation gradients, located in French mountainous regions. Beech forest was selected as a study system to minimise the host effect. The variation in species richness and specific composition was investigated for ascomycetes and basidiomycetes assemblages with a particular focus on root-associated ectomycorrhizal fungi. The richness of fungal communities associated with leaves or roots did not significantly relate to any of the tested environmental drivers, i.e. elevation, mean temperature, precipitation or edaphic variables such as soil pH or the ratio carbon?nitrogen. Nevertheless, the ascomycete species richness peaked at mid-temperature, illustrating a mid-domain effect model. We found that leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages did not follow similar patterns of composition with elevation. While the composition of the leaf-associated fungal assemblage correlated primarily with the mean annual temperature, the composition of root-associated fungal assemblage was explained equally by soil pH and by temperature. The ectomycorrhizal composition was also related to these variables. Our results therefore suggest that above and below-ground fungal assemblages are not controlled by the same main environmental variables. This may be due to the larger amplitude of climatic variables in the tree foliage compared to the soil environment. PMID:24971637

Coince, Aurore; Cordier, Tristan; Lengelle, Juliette; Defossez, Emmanuel; Vacher, Corinne; Robin, Cecile

2014-01-01

339

Mating Type Locus of Chinese Black Truffles Reveals Heterothallism and the Presence of Cryptic Species within the T. indicum Species Complex  

PubMed Central

Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T. melanosporum. PMID:24358175

Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

2013-01-01

340

Dynamics of Fungal Communities in Bulk and Maize Rhizosphere Soil in the Tropics  

PubMed Central

The fungal population dynamics in soil and in the rhizospheres of two maize cultivars grown in tropical soils were studied by a cultivation-independent analysis of directly extracted DNA to provide baseline data. Soil and rhizosphere samples were taken from six plots 20, 40, and 90 days after planting in two consecutive years. A 1.65-kb fragment of the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplified from the total community DNA was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and by cloning and sequencing. A rhizosphere effect was observed for fungal populations at all stages of plant development. In addition, pronounced changes in the composition of fungal communities during plant growth development were found by DGGE. Similar types of fingerprints were observed in two consecutive growth periods. No major differences were detected in the fungal patterns of the two cultivars. Direct cloning of 18S rDNA fragments amplified from soil or rhizosphere DNA resulted in 75 clones matching 12 dominant DGGE bands. The clones were characterized by their HinfI restriction patterns, and 39 different clones representing each group of restriction patterns were sequenced. The cloning and sequencing approach provided information on the phylogeny of dominant amplifiable fungal populations and allowed us to determine a number of fungal phylotypes that contribute to each of the dominant DGGE bands. Based on the sequence similarity of the 18S rDNA fragment with existing fungal isolates in the database, it was shown that the rhizospheres of young maize plants seemed to select the Ascomycetes order Pleosporales, while different members of the Ascomycetes and basidiomycetic yeast were detected in the rhizospheres of senescent maize plants. PMID:12839741

Gomes, Newton C. Marcial; Fagbola, Olajire; Costa, Rodrigo; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvea; Buchner, Arno; Mendona-Hagler, Leda; Smalla, Kornelia

2003-01-01

341

The Genome of Nectria haematococca: Contribution of Supernumerary Chromosomes to Gene Expansion  

PubMed Central

The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani), is a member of a group of >50 species known as the “Fusarium solani species complex”. Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on >100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this complex, N. haematococca mating population VI (MPVI). Several genes controlling the ability of individual isolates of this species to colonize specific habitats are located on supernumerary chromosomes. Optical mapping revealed that the sequenced isolate has 17 chromosomes ranging from 530 kb to 6.52 Mb and that the physical size of the genome, 54.43 Mb, and the number of predicted genes, 15,707, are among the largest reported for ascomycetes. Two classes of genes have contributed to gene expansion: specific genes that are not found in other fungi including its closest sequenced relative, Fusarium graminearum; and genes that commonly occur as single copies in other fungi but are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca MPVI. Some of these additional genes appear to have resulted from gene duplication events, while others may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. The supernumerary nature of three chromosomes, 14, 15, and 17, was confirmed by their absence in pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments of some isolates and by demonstrating that these isolates lacked chromosome-specific sequences found on the ends of these chromosomes. These supernumerary chromosomes contain more repeat sequences, are enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content in comparison to the other chromosomes. Although the origin(s) of the extra genes and the supernumerary chromosomes is not known, the gene expansion and its large genome size are consistent with this species' diverse range of habitats. Furthermore, the presence of unique genes on supernumerary chromosomes might account for individual isolates having different environmental niches. PMID:19714214

Kuo, Alan; Wasmann, Catherine C.; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Taga, Masatoki; White, Gerard J.; Zhou, Shiguo; Schwartz, David C.; Freitag, Michael; Ma, Li-jun; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Nelson, David R.; Straney, Dave; Napoli, Carolyn A.; Barker, Bridget M.; Gribskov, Michael; Rep, Martijn; Kroken, Scott; Molnar, Istvan; Rensing, Christopher; Kennell, John C.; Zamora, Jorge; Farman, Mark L.; Selker, Eric U.; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Lindquist, Erika; Lamers, Casey; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Geiser, David M.; Covert, Sarah F.; Temporini, Esteban; VanEtten, Hans D.

2009-01-01

342

A phylogenetic study on galactose-containing Candida species based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C. chiropterorum, were included in Cluster III. PMID:12501365

Suzuki, Motofumi; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sugita, Takashi; Nakase, Takashi

1999-10-01

343

Analysis of regulation of pentose utilisation in Aspergillus niger reveals evolutionary adaptations in Eurotiales  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli are commonly found in soil and on decaying plant material. D-xylose and L-arabinose are highly abundant components of plant biomass. They are released from polysaccharides by fungi using a set of extracellular enzymes and subsequently converted intracellularly through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP). In this study, the L-arabinose responsive transcriptional activator (AraR) is identified in Aspergillus niger and was shown to control the L-arabinose catabolic pathway as well as expression of genes encoding extracellular L-arabinose releasing enzymes. AraR interacts with the D-xylose-responsive transcriptional activator XlnR in the regulation of the pentose catabolic pathway, but not with respect to release of L-arabinose and D-xylose. AraR was only identified in the Eurotiales, more specifically in the family Trichocomaceae and appears to have originated from a gene duplication event (from XlnR) after this order or family split from the other filamentous ascomycetes. XlnR is present in all filamentous ascomycetes with the exception of members of the Onygenales. Since the Onygenales and Eurotiales are both part of the subclass Eurotiomycetidae, this indicates that strong adaptation of the regulation of pentose utilisation has occurred at this evolutionary node. In Eurotiales a unique two-component regulatory system for pentose release and metabolism has evolved, while the regulatory system was lost in the Onygenales. The observed evolutionary changes (in Eurotiomycetidae) mainly affect the regulatory system as in contrast, homologues for most genes of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway are present in all the filamentous fungi, irrespective of the presence of XlnR and/or AraR. PMID:21892241

Battaglia, E.; Visser, L.; Nijssen, A.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wosten, H.A.B.; de Vries, R.P.

2011-01-01

344

Ancestral gene fusion in cellobiose dehydrogenases reflects a specific evolution of GMC oxidoreductases in fungi.  

PubMed

Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular hemoflavoenzymes that are thought to be involved in the degradation of two of the most abundant biopolymers in the biosphere, cellulose and lignin. To date, these enzymes, consisting of a cytochrome domain and a flavin domain, have been detected and sequenced exclusively in the kingdom of fungi. Independent phylogenetic analyses of two distinct domains of CDH genes reveal that they evolved in parallel as fused genes. Whereas the cytochrome domains are unique sequence motifs, the flavin domains clearly belong to the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase family--an evolution line of widespread flavoproteins extending from the Archae to higher eukaryotes. The most probable unrooted phylogenetic tree obtained from our analysis of 52 selected GMC members reveals five principal evolutionary branches: cellobiose dehydrogenase, cholesterol oxidase (COX), hydroxynitrile lyase, alcohol oxidase (AOX)/glucose oxidase (GOX)/choline dehydrogenase, and a branch of dehydrogenases with various specificities containing also an Archaeon open reading frame (ORF). Cellobiose dehydrogenases cluster with cholesterol oxidases and the clade of various specificities, whereas hydroxynitrile lyases are closely related to glucose oxidases, alcohol oxidases, and choline dehydrogenases. The results indicate that the evolutionary line from a primordial GMC flavoprotein to extant cellobiose dehydrogenases was augmented after an early acquisition of the cytochrome domain to form two distinct branches for basidiomycetes and ascomycetes. One ascomycetous evolutionary line of CDHs has acquired a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of type 1, the sequence of which is similar to that of corresponding domains in several glycosidases. This is the first attempt towards a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cellobiose dehydrogenases. PMID:15302401

Zámocký, Marcel; Hallberg, Martin; Ludwig, Roland; Divne, Christina; Haltrich, Dietmar

2004-08-18

345

Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes.  

PubMed Central

The 16S rRNA sequences were determined for species of Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, Leptonema, and Serpula, using a modified Sanger method of direct RNA sequencing. Analysis of aligned 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. The first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. The first treponeme subgroup consisted of Treponema pallidum, Treponema phagedenis, Treponema denticola, a thermophilic spirochete strain, and two species of Spirochaeta, Spirochaeta zuelzerae and Spirochaeta stenostrepta, with an average interspecies similarity of 89.9%. The second treponeme subgroup contained Treponema bryantii, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema saccharophilum, Treponema succinifaciens, and rumen strain CA, with an average interspecies similarity of 86.2%. The average interspecies similarity between the two treponeme subgroups was 84.2%. The division of the treponemes into two subgroups was verified by single-base signature analysis. The second spirochete group contained Spirochaeta aurantia, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirochaeta litoralis, and Spirochaeta isovalerica, with an average similarity of 87.4%. The Spirochaeta group was related to the treponeme group, with an average similarity of 81.9%. The third spirochete group contained borrelias, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia anserina, Borrelia hermsii, and a rabbit tick strain. The borrelias formed a tight phylogenetic cluster, with average similarity of 97%. THe borrelia group shared a common branch with the Spirochaeta group and was closer to this group than to the treponemes. A single spirochete strain isolated fromt the shew constituted the fourth group. The fifth group was composed of strains of Serpula (Treponema) hyodysenteriae and Serpula (Treponema) innocens. The two species of this group were closely related, with a similarity of greater than 99%. Leptonema illini, Leptospira biflexa, and Leptospira interrogans formed the sixth and most deeply branching group. The average similarity within this group was 83.2%. This study represents the first demonstration that pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species are phylogenetically related. The division of the spirochetes into six major phylogenetic clusters was defined also by sequence signature elements. These signature analyses supported the conclusion that the spirochetes represent a monophylectic bacterial phylum. PMID:1917844

Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Weisburg, W G; Tordoff, L A; Fraser, G J; Hespell, R B; Stanton, T B; Zablen, L; Mandelco, L; Woese, C R

1991-01-01

346

Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes.  

PubMed

The 16S rRNA sequences were determined for species of Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, Leptonema, and Serpula, using a modified Sanger method of direct RNA sequencing. Analysis of aligned 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. The first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. The first treponeme subgroup consisted of Treponema pallidum, Treponema phagedenis, Treponema denticola, a thermophilic spirochete strain, and two species of Spirochaeta, Spirochaeta zuelzerae and Spirochaeta stenostrepta, with an average interspecies similarity of 89.9%. The second treponeme subgroup contained Treponema bryantii, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema saccharophilum, Treponema succinifaciens, and rumen strain CA, with an average interspecies similarity of 86.2%. The average interspecies similarity between the two treponeme subgroups was 84.2%. The division of the treponemes into two subgroups was verified by single-base signature analysis. The second spirochete group contained Spirochaeta aurantia, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirochaeta litoralis, and Spirochaeta isovalerica, with an average similarity of 87.4%. The Spirochaeta group was related to the treponeme group, with an average similarity of 81.9%. The third spirochete group contained borrelias, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia anserina, Borrelia hermsii, and a rabbit tick strain. The borrelias formed a tight phylogenetic cluster, with average similarity of 97%. THe borrelia group shared a common branch with the Spirochaeta group and was closer to this group than to the treponemes. A single spirochete strain isolated fromt the shew constituted the fourth group. The fifth group was composed of strains of Serpula (Treponema) hyodysenteriae and Serpula (Treponema) innocens. The two species of this group were closely related, with a similarity of greater than 99%. Leptonema illini, Leptospira biflexa, and Leptospira interrogans formed the sixth and most deeply branching group. The average similarity within this group was 83.2%. This study represents the first demonstration that pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species are phylogenetically related. The division of the spirochetes into six major phylogenetic clusters was defined also by sequence signature elements. These signature analyses supported the conclusion that the spirochetes represent a monophylectic bacterial phylum. PMID:1917844

Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Weisburg, W G; Tordoff, L A; Fraser, G J; Hespell, R B; Stanton, T B; Zablen, L; Mandelco, L; Woese, C R

1991-10-01

347

Multiple, non-allelic, intein-coding sequences in eukaryotic RNA polymerase genes  

PubMed Central

Background Inteins are self-splicing protein elements. They are translated as inserts within host proteins that excise themselves and ligate the flanking portions of the host protein (exteins) with a peptide bond. They are encoded as in-frame insertions within the genes for the host proteins. Inteins are found in all three domains of life and in viruses, but have a very sporadic distribution. Only a small number of intein coding sequences have been identified in eukaryotic nuclear genes, and all of these are from ascomycete or basidiomycete fungi. Results We identified seven intein coding sequences within nuclear genes coding for the second largest subunits of RNA polymerase. These sequences were found in diverse eukaryotes: one is in the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase I (RPA2) from the ascomycete fungus Phaeosphaeria nodorum, one is in the RNA polymerase III (RPC2) of the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum and four intein coding sequences are in RNA polymerase II genes (RPB2), one each from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the zygomycete fungus Spiromyces aspiralis and the chytrid fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Coelomomyces stegomyiae. The remaining intein coding sequence is in a viral relic embedded within the genome of the oomycete Phytophthora ramorum. The Chlamydomonas and Dictyostelium inteins are the first nuclear-encoded inteins found outside of the fungi. These new inteins represent a unique dataset: they are found in homologous proteins that form a paralogous group. Although these paralogues diverged early in eukaryotic evolution, their sequences can be aligned over most of their length. The inteins are inserted at multiple distinct sites, each of which corresponds to a highly conserved region of RNA polymerase. This dataset supports earlier work suggesting that inteins preferentially occur in highly conserved regions of their host proteins. Conclusion The identification of these new inteins increases the known host range of intein sequences in eukaryotes, and provides fresh insights into their origins and evolution. We conclude that inteins are ancient eukaryote elements once found widely among microbial eukaryotes. They persist as rarities in the genomes of a sporadic array of microorganisms, occupying highly conserved sites in diverse proteins. PMID:17069655

Goodwin, Timothy JD; Butler, Margaret I; Poulter, Russell TM

2006-01-01

348

When CO2 kills: effects of magmatic CO2 flux on belowground biota at Mammoth Mountain, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomass, composition, and activity of the soil microbial community is tightly linked to the composition of the aboveground plant community. Microorganisms in aerobic surface soils, both free-living and plant-associated are largely structured by the availability of growth limiting carbon (C) substrates derived from plant inputs. When C availability declines following a catastrophic event such as the death of large swaths of trees, the number and composition of microorganisms in soil would be expected to decline and/or shift to unique microorganisms that have better survival strategies under starvation conditions. High concentrations of volcanic cold CO2 emanating from Mammoth Mountain near Horseshoe Lake on the southwestern edge of Long Valley Caldera, CA has resulted in a large kill zone of tree species, and associated soil microbial species. In July 2010, we assessed belowground microbial community structure in response to disturbance of the plant community along a gradient of soil CO2 concentrations grading from <0.6% (ambient forest) to >80% (no plant life). We employed a microbial community fingerprinting technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) to determine changes in overall community composition for three broad functional groups: fungi, bacteria, and archaea. To evaluate changes in ectomycorrhizal fungal associates along the CO2 gradient, we harvested root tips from lodgepole pine seedlings collected in unaffected forest as well as at the leading edge of colonization into the kill zone. We also measured soil C fractions (dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C, and non-extractable C) at 10 and 30 cm depth, as well as NH4+. Not surprisingly, our results indicate a precipitous decline in soil C, and microbial C with increasing soil CO2; phospholipid fatty acid analysis in conjunction with community fingerprinting indicate both a loss of fungal diversity as well as a dramatic decrease in biomass as one proceeds further into the kill zone. This observation was concomitant with a relative increase in bacterial and archaeal contributions to microbial community structure. Root tip analyses among lodgepole seedlings recolonizing the kill zone area demonstrated a significant reduction in the overall diversity of fungal symbionts, as well as a distinct shift in fungal assemblages. In particular, within elevated CO2 areas, we observed a high infection level for the ascomycetous fungi, Wilcoxina spp., which appear particularly well-adapted for colonization in disturbed environments. It remains unclear whether dominance by ascomycetes among seedlings in elevated CO2 areas represents a coordinated shift orchestrated by the plant in response to physiological stress, or whether these fungi are simply more opportunistic than their basdiomycetous counterparts. Our results demonstrate the impact of large-scale disturbances on plant-microbial interactions and belowground processes in previously forested ecosystems.

McFarland, J.; Waldrop, M. P.; Mangan, M.

2011-12-01

349

Comparative genome analysis across a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms: Specialization and diversification in the Fungi  

PubMed Central

The recent proliferation of genome sequencing in diverse fungal species has provided the first opportunity for comparative genome analysis across a eukaryotic kingdom. Here, we report a comparative study of 34 complete fungal genome sequences, representing a broad diversity of Ascomycete, Basidiomycete, and Zygomycete species. We have clustered all predicted protein-encoding gene sequences from these species to provide a means of investigating gene innovations, gene family expansions, protein family diversification, and the conservation of essential gene functions—empirically determined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae—among the fungi. The results are presented with reference to a phylogeny of the 34 fungal species, based on 29 universally conserved protein-encoding gene sequences. We contrast this phylogeny with one based on gene presence and absence and show that, while the two phylogenies are largely in agreement, there are differences in the positioning of some species. We have investigated levels of gene duplication and demonstrate that this varies greatly between fungal species, although there are instances of coduplication in distantly related fungi. We have also investigated the extent of orthology for protein families and demonstrate unexpectedly high levels of diversity among genes involved in lipid metabolism. These analyses have been collated in the e-Fungi data warehouse, providing an online resource for comparative genomic analysis of the fungi. PMID:17984228

Cornell, Michael J.; Alam, Intikhab; Soanes, Darren M.; Wong, Han Min; Hedeler, Cornelia; Paton, Norman W.; Rattray, Magnus; Hubbard, Simon J.; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Oliver, Stephen G.

2007-01-01

350

Clinical Significance of Filamentous Basidiomycetes Illustrated by Isolates of the Novel Opportunist Ceriporia lacerata from the Human Respiratory Tract  

PubMed Central

The filamentous basidiomycete Ceriporia lacerata, an agent of white rot on wood, has never been reported in human disease and its clinical significance is not yet known. We describe 4 patients with respiratory diseases where C. lacerata was implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from saprobic colonization to fungal pneumonia. The isolates did not show the morphological characteristics that facilitate recognition of filamentous basidiomycetes, such as the presence of clamp connections, spicules along hyphae, or fruiting bodies. The identity of the mold was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 4 (ITS-1 and ITS-4) and D1/D2 regions of the rRNA gene. All of the isolates exhibited the lowest MICs of posaconazole and isavuconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.125 ?g/ml), followed by itraconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.5 ?g/ml), voriconazole (MIC range, 0.125 to 0.5 ?g/ml), and amphotericin B (MIC range, 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml). The infections reported here occurred in patients with preexisting lung damage induced by tuberculosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic, sometimes fatal infections by the ascomycete Aspergillus fumigatus and the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are well established in the presence of an anatomical pulmonary defect or in the background of immunodeficiency. It is postulated that C. lacerata, a novel opportunist basidiomycete, may be involved in similar pathological processes. PMID:23241374

Agarwal, Kshitij; Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Roy, P.; Gaur, S. N.; de Hoog, G. S.; Meis, Jacques F.

2013-01-01

351

The 'Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde fungus': noble rot versus gray mold symptoms of Botrytis cinerea on grapes  

PubMed Central

Many cryptic species have recently been discovered in fungi, especially in fungal plant pathogens. Cryptic fungal species co-occurring in sympatry may occupy slightly different ecological niches, for example infecting the same crop plant but specialized on different organs or having different phenologies. Identifying cryptic species in fungal pathogens of crops and determining their ecological specialization are therefore crucial for disease management. Here, we addressed this question in the ascomycete Botrytis cinerea, the agent of gray mold on a wide range of plants. On grape, B. cinerea causes severe damage but is also responsible for noble rot used for processing sweet wines. We used microsatellite genotyping and clustering methods to elucidate whether isolates sampled on gray mold versus noble rot symptoms in three French regions belong to genetically differentiated populations. The inferred population structure matched geography rather than the type of symptom. Noble rot symptoms therefore do not seem to be caused by a specific B. cinerea population but instead seem to depend essentially on microclimatic conditions, which has applied consequences for the production of sweet wines. PMID:24062804

Fournier, Elisabeth; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

2013-01-01

352

Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

2014-01-01

353

Functional analysis of the carS gene of Fusarium fujikuroi.  

PubMed

The ascomycete fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is a model system in the investigation of the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites, such as gibberellins, bikaverin, and carotenoids. Carotenoid-overproducing mutants, generically called carS, are easily obtained in this fungus by standard mutagenesis procedures. Here we report the functional characterization of gene carS, responsible for this mutant phenotype. The identity of the gene was demonstrated through the finding of mutations in six independent carS mutants and by the complementation of one of them. The F. fujikuroi carS gene was able to restore the control of carotenogenesis in a similar deregulated mutant of Fusarium oxysporum, but only partially at the transcription level, indicating an unexpected complexity in the regulation of the pathway. Due to the pleiotropic characteristics of this mutation, which also modifies the production of other secondary metabolites, we did a screening for carS-regulated genes by subtracted cDNA hybridization. The results show that the carS mutation affects the regulation of numerous genes in addition to those of carotenogenesis. The expression of the identified genes was usually enhanced by light, a regulatory effect also exhibited by the carS gene. However, in most cases, their mRNA levels in carS mutants were similar to those of the wild type, suggesting a regulation that affects mRNA availability rather than mRNA synthesis. PMID:23543145

Rodríguez-Ortiz, Roberto; Limón, M Carmen; Avalos, Javier

2013-04-01

354

Postfire succession of saproxylic arthropods, with emphasis on coleoptera, in the north boreal forest of Quebec.  

PubMed

Saproxylic succession in fire-killed black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] coarse woody debris (CWD) in northern Quebec is estimated in this study using a 29-yr postfire chronosequence. Sampling was performed using both trunk-window traps and rearing from snag and log sections. A total of 37,312 arthropods (>220 taxa) were collected from both sampling methods. Two distinct colonization waves were identified. The onset of initial colonization occurs the year of the fire, whereas the second colonization phase begins only once debris falls to the ground. The initial colonization step is influenced by fire-associated species including subcortical predators, xylophages, and ascomycetes feeders. Abundance of most early colonizer species decline with time since fire with the disappearance of subcortical habitat. No noticeable species turnover occurred in snags thereafter. Lack of succession in snags is related to very low decomposition rates for postfire CWD because this substrate is unsuitable for species associated with highly decayed wood. Snag falling triggers fungal growth and concomitant saproxylic succession toward micro- and saprophagous species and increases accessibility for soil-dwelling organisms. Because the position of woody debris greatly influences overall physical properties of dead wood, the fall of burned CWD plays a major role in saproxylic community shift after fire. PMID:17349126

Boulanger, Yan; Sirois, Luc

2007-02-01

355

Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. Results Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocladium virens, teleomorph Hypocrea virens), and a comparison with Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina). These three Trichoderma species display a remarkable conservation of gene order (78 to 96%), and a lack of active mobile elements probably due to repeat-induced point mutation. Several gene families are expanded in the two mycoparasitic species relative to T. reesei or other ascomycetes, and are overrepresented in non-syntenic genome regions. A phylogenetic analysis shows that T. reesei and T. virens are derived relative to T. atroviride. The mycoparasitism-specific genes thus arose in a common Trichoderma ancestor but were subsequently lost in T. reesei. Conclusions The data offer a better understanding of mycoparasitism, and thus enforce the development of improved biocontrol strains for efficient and environmentally friendly protection of plants. PMID:21501500

2011-01-01

356

Viruses of the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix.  

PubMed

Rosellinia necatrix is a filamentous ascomycete that is pathogenic to a wide range of perennial plants worldwide. An extensive search for double-stranded RNA of a large collection of field isolates led to the detection of a variety of viruses. Since the first identification of a reovirus in this fungus in 2002, several novel viruses have been molecularly characterized that include members of at least five virus families. While some cause phenotypic alterations, many others show latent infections. Viruses attenuating the virulence of a host fungus to its plant hosts attract much attention as agents for virocontrol (biological control using viruses) of the fungus, one of which is currently being tested in experimental fields. Like the Cryphonectria parasitica/viruses, the R. necatrix/viruses have emerged as an amenable system for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. Several techniques have recently been developed that enhance the investigation of virus etiology, replication, and symptom induction in this mycovirus/fungal host system. PMID:23498907

Kondo, Hideki; Kanematsu, Satoko; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

2013-01-01

357

Growth and production of laccases by the ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Botryosphaeria rhodina , cultured on basal medium containing the herbicide, Scepter (imazaquin).  

PubMed

The herbicide, Scepter, whose active principle is imazaquin, is commonly used in soybean farming to combat wide-leaf weeds. The basidiomycete, Pleurotus ostreatus , and the ascomycete, Botryosphaeria rhodina , were evaluated for their growth and laccase production when cultured on basal media containing Scepter. Both fungi could grow on the herbicide when cultivated in solid and submerged liquid culture in the presence of Scepter at concentrations of 0-6% (v/v) for P. ostreatus , and up to 0-50% (v/v) for B. rhodina , and in each case produced laccases when assayed against ABTS [2,2(1)-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. P . ostreatus could tolerate up to 6% of Scepter before it became toxic to the fungus, while in the case of B. rhodina , 50% (v/v) Scepter was the highest amount that supported grow, and laccase activity was detectable up to 25% (v/v). An inverse relationship existed between the level of Scepter in the culture medium that supported fungal growth and laccase production. Analysis of the results showed that the fungi studied presented different behaviour towards Scepter in the culture environment. PMID:16304708

Rezende, Maria I; Barbosa, Aneli M; Vasconcelos, Ana-Flora D; Haddad, Renata; Dekker, Robert F H

2005-01-01

358

Tuber melanosporum: mating type distribution in a natural plantation and dynamics of strains of different mating types on the roots of nursery-inoculated host plants.  

PubMed

• In light of the recent finding that Tuber melanosporum, the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete that produces the most highly prized black truffles, is a heterothallic species, we monitored the spatial distribution of strains with opposite mating types (MAT) in a natural truffle ground and followed strain dynamics in artificially inoculated host plants grown under controlled conditions. • In a natural truffle ground, ectomycorrhizas (ECMs), soil samples and fruit bodies were sampled and genotyped to determine mating types. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also used to fingerprint ECMs and fruit bodies. The ECMs from nursery-inoculated host plants were analysed for mating type at 6 months and 19 months post-inoculation. • In open-field conditions, all ECMs from the same sampling site showed an identical mating type and an identical haploid genotype, based on SSR analysis. Interestingly, the gleba of fruit bodies always demonstrated the same genotype as the surrounding ECMs. Although root tips from nursery-grown plants initially developed ECMs of both mating types, a dominance of ECMs of the same MAT were found after several months. • The present study deepens our understanding of the vegetative and sexual propagation modes of T. melanosporum. These results are highly relevant for truffle cultivation. PMID:20964691

Rubini, Andrea; Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Arcioni, Sergio; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

2011-02-01

359

Tyrosinase expression during black truffle development: from free living mycelium to ripe fruit body.  

PubMed

The present work studies the expression of tyrosinase (monophenol:diphenol oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) during the development of the black truffle Tuber melanosporum Vittad., an ectomycorrhizal fungus of great biological and economic interest. As widely reported in the literature, melanins and the enzymes that synthesize them, are of paramount importance in fungal development and sexual differentiation. Tyrosinase and laccase are the enzymes that produce melanins from monophenols and diphenols. We have detected tyrosinase expression from the stage of free living mycelium, through the mychorrizal stage and the six fruit body developmental stages by measuring the levels of tyrosinase mRNA by quantitative PCR (q-PCR), spectrophotometry, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electrophoresis. Tyrosinase is always expressed, from the free living mycelium to the ripe fruit body developmental stages, when it is very low. The switching off of the tyrosinase gene during T. melanosporum development when the fruit body is ripe and no more cell walls are to be built is discussed in relation of thioflavour production. Specific primers, prepared from the cloned T. melanosporum tyrosinase cDNA were used for the q-PCR and the deduced aminoacid sequences of the CuA and CuB binding sites were compared to those of various ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. PMID:21945278

Zarivi, Osvaldo; Bonfigli, Antonella; Colafarina, Sabrina; Aimola, Pierpaolo; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; Pacioni, Giovanni; Miranda, Michele

2011-12-01

360

Genome-wide search and functional identification of transcription factors in the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum.  

PubMed

• Developmental transitions associated with the life cycle of plant-symbiotic fungi, such as the ascomycete Tuber melanosporum, are likely to require an extensive reprogramming of gene expression brought about by transcription factors (TFs). To date, little is known about the transcriptome alterations that accompany developmental shifts associated with symbiosis or fruiting body formation. • Taking advantage of the black truffle genome sequence, we used a bioinformatic approach, coupled with functional analysis in yeast and transcriptome profiling, to identify and catalogue T. melanosporum TFs, the so-called 'regulome'. • The T. melanosporum regulome contains 102 homologs of previously characterized TFs, 57 homologs of hypothetical TFs, and 42 putative TFs apparently unique to Tuber. The yeast screen allowed the functional discovery of four TFs and the validation of about one-fifth of the in silico predicted TFs. Truffle proteins apparently unrelated to transcription were also identified as potential transcriptional regulators, together with a number of plant TFs. • Twenty-nine TFs, some of which associated with particular developmental stages, were found to be up-regulated in ECMs or fruiting bodies. About one-quarter of these up-regulated TFs are expressed at surprisingly high levels, thus pointing to a striking functional specialization of the different stages of the Tuber life cycle. PMID:21058951

Montanini, Barbara; Levati, Elisabetta; Bolchi, Angelo; Kohler, Annegret; Morin, Emmanuelle; Tisserant, Emilie; Martin, Francis; Ottonello, Simone

2011-02-01

361

Tuber melanosporum outcrosses: analysis of the genetic diversity within and among its natural populations under this new scenario.  

PubMed

Tuber melanosporum is an ectomycorrhizal ascomycete producing edible ascocarps. The prevalent view is that this species strictly selfs, since genetic analyses have never detected heterozygotic profiles in its putatively diploid/dikaryotic gleba. The selfing model has also forged the experimental approaches to assess the population genetic variability. Here, the hypothesis that T. melanosporum outcrosses was tested. To this end, SSR (simple sequence repeats) and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) markers were employed to fingerprint asci and the surrounding gleba within single ascocarps. The distribution of genetic variability was also investigated at different geographical levels using single (SSR and ITS) and multilocus (AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers. It is shown that T. melanosporum outcrosses since asci display additional alleles besides those present in the surrounding, uniparental, gleba. Furthermore, SSR and AFLP data reveal a high rate of intrapopulation diversity within samples from the same ground and root apparatus and the highest rate of genetic variability within the southernmost populations of the distributional range. These data call for a profound re-examination of T. melanosporum mating system, life cycle and strategies for managing man-made plantations. They also strongly support the idea that the last glaciation restricted the species distribution to the Italian and Spanish peninsulas. PMID:18643942

Riccioni, Claudia; Belfiori, Beatrice; Rubini, Andrea; Passeri, Valentina; Arcioni, Sergio; Paolocci, Francesco

2008-01-01

362

Genomic profiling of carbohydrate metabolism in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum.  

PubMed

• Primary carbohydrate metabolism plays a special role related to carbon/nitrogen exchange, as well as metabolic support of fruiting body development, in ectomycorrhizal macrofungi. In this study, we used information retrieved from the recently sequenced Tuber melanosporum genome, together with transcriptome analysis data and targeted validation experiments, to construct the first genome-wide catalogue of the proteins supporting carbohydrate metabolism in a plant-symbiotic ascomycete. • More than 100 genes coding for enzymes of the glycolysis, pentose phosphate, tricarboxylic acid, glyoxylate and methylcitrate pathways, glycogen, trehalose and mannitol metabolism and cell wall precursor were annotated. Transcriptional regulation of these pathways in different stages of the T. melanosporum lifecycle was investigated using whole-genome oligoarray expression data together with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected genes. • The most significant results were the identification of methylcitrate cycle genes and of an acid invertase, the first enzyme of this kind to be described in a plant-symbiotic filamentous fungus. • A subset of transcripts coding for trehalose, glyoxylate and methylcitrate enzymes was up-regulated in fruiting bodies, whereas genes involved in mannitol and glycogen metabolism were preferentially expressed in mycelia and ectomycorrhizas, respectively. These data indicate a high degree of lifecycle stage specialization for particular branches of carbohydrate metabolism in T. melanosporum. PMID:21039570

Ceccaroli, P; Buffalini, M; Saltarelli, R; Barbieri, E; Polidori, E; Ottonello, S; Kohler, A; Tisserant, E; Martin, F; Stocchi, V

2011-02-01

363

Identification of internal transcribed spacer sequence motifs in truffles: a first step toward their DNA bar coding.  

PubMed

This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (< or = 50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

2007-08-01

364

The Sch9 Kinase Regulates Conidium Size, Stress Responses, and Pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum is an important disease of wheat and barley worldwide. In a previous study on functional characterization of the F. graminearum kinome, one protein kinase gene important for virulence is orthologous to SCH9 that is functionally related to the cAMP-PKA and TOR pathways in the budding yeast. In this study, we further characterized the functions of FgSCH9 in F. graminearum and its ortholog in Magnaporthe oryzae. The ?Fgsch9 mutant was slightly reduced in growth rate but significantly reduced in conidiation, DON production, and virulence on wheat heads and corn silks. It had increased tolerance to elevated temperatures but became hypersensitive to oxidative, hyperosmotic, cell wall, and membrane stresses. The ?Fgsch9 deletion also had conidium morphology defects and produced smaller conidia. These results suggest that FgSCH9 is important for stress responses, DON production, conidiogenesis, and pathogenesis in F. graminearum. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the ?Mosch9 mutant also was defective in conidiogenesis and pathogenesis. Interestingly, it also produced smaller conidia and appressoria. Taken together, our data indicate that the SCH9 kinase gene may have a conserved role in regulating conidium size and plant infection in phytopathogenic ascomycetes. PMID:25144230

Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Jin-Rong

2014-01-01

365

Isolation, structure elucidation and antibacterial activity of a new tetramic acid, ascosetin.  

PubMed

The ever-increasing bacterial resistance to clinical antibiotics is making many drugs ineffective and creating significant treatment gaps. This can be only circumvented by the discovery of antibiotics with new mechanisms of action. We report here the identification of a new tetramic acid, ascosetin, from an Ascomycete using the Staphylococcus aureus fitness test screening method. The structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR and HRMS. Relative stereochemistry was determined by ROESY and absolute configuration was deduced by comparative CD spectroscopy. Ascosetin inhibited bacterial growth with 2-16 ?g ml(-1) MIC values against Gram-positive strains including methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It also inhibited the growth of Haemophilus influenzae with a MIC value of 8 ?g ml(-1). It inhibited DNA, RNA, protein and lipid synthesis with similar IC50 values, suggesting a lack of specificity; however, it produced neither bacterial membrane nor red blood cell lysis. It showed selectivity for bacterial growth inhibition compared with fungal but not mammalian cells. The isolation, structure and biological activity of ascosetin have been detailed here. PMID:24690911

Ondeyka, John G; Smith, Scott K; Zink, Deborah L; Vicente, Francisca; Basilio, Angela; Bills, Gerald F; Polishook, Jon D; Garlisi, Charles; Mcguinness, Debra; Smith, Elizabeth; Qiu, Hongchen; Gill, Charles J; Donald, Robert G K; Phillips, John W; Goetz, Michael A; Singh, Sheo B

2014-07-01

366

Massively parallel 454 sequencing indicates hyperdiverse fungal communities in temperate Quercus macrocarpa phyllosphere.  

PubMed

* This study targeted the fungal communities in the phyllosphere of Quercus macrocarpa and compared the fungal species richness, diversity and community composition among trees located within and outside a small urban center using recently developed 454 sequencing and DNA tagging. * The results indicate that the fungal phyllosphere communities are extremely diverse and strongly dominated by ascomycetes, with Microsphaeropsis [two Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs); 23.6%], Alternaria (six OTUs; 16.1%), Epicoccum (one OTU; 6.0%) and Erysiphe (two OTUs; 5.9%) as the most abundant genera. * Although the sequencing effort averaged 1000 reads per tree and detected nearly 700 distinct molecular OTUs at 95% internal transcribed spacer 1 similarity, the richness of the hyperdiverse phyllosphere communities could not be reliably estimated as nearly one-half of the molecular OTUs were singletons. * The fungal communities within and outside the urban center differed in richness and diversity, which were lower within the urban development. The two land-use types contained communities that were distinct and more than 10% of the molecular OTUs differed in their frequency. PMID:19674337

Jumpponen, A; Jones, K L

2009-10-01

367

Molecular phylogenies reveal host-specific divergence of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sensu lato following its host ants.  

PubMed

Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes) is an entomopathogenic fungus specific to formicine ants (Formicinae, Hymenoptera). Previous works have shown that the carpenter ant Camponotus leonardi acts as the principal host with occasional infections of ants from the genus Polyrhachis (sister genus of Camponotus). Observations were made on the permanent plots of Mo Singto, Khao Yai National Park of Thailand according to which O. unilateralis was found to occur predominantly on three host species: C. leonardi, C. saundersi and P. furcata. Molecular phylogenies of the elongation factor 1-? and ?-Tubulin genes indicate a separation of O. unilateralis samples into three clades, reflecting specificity to each of the three different ant species. Samples collected from P. furcata and from C. leonardi were found to form sister groups with samples from C. saundersi forming an outgroup to the latter. Additional samples collected from unidentified ant species of Camponotus and Polyrhachis were positioned as outgroups to those samples on identified species. These results demonstrate that O. unilateralis is clearly not a single phylogenetic species and comprises at least three species that are specific to different host ant species. These cryptic species may arise through recent events of speciation driven by their specificity to host ant species. PMID:22494010

Kobmoo, N; Mongkolsamrit, S; Tasanathai, K; Thanakitpipattana, D; Luangsa-Ard, J J

2012-06-01

368

Phylogeny of rock-inhabiting fungi related to Dothideomycetes  

PubMed Central

The class Dothideomycetes (along with Eurotiomycetes) includes numerous rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF), a group of ascomycetes that tolerates surprisingly well harsh conditions prevailing on rock surfaces. Despite their convergent morphology and physiology, RIF are phylogenetically highly diverse in Dothideomycetes. However, the positions of main groups of RIF in this class remain unclear due to the lack of a strong phylogenetic framework. Moreover, connections between rock-dwelling habit and other lifestyles found in Dothideomycetes such as plant pathogens, saprobes and lichen-forming fungi are still unexplored. Based on multigene phylogenetic analyses, we report that RIF belong to Capnodiales (particularly to the family Teratosphaeriaceae s.l.), Dothideales, Pleosporales, and Myriangiales, as well as some uncharacterised groups with affinities to Dothideomycetes. Moreover, one lineage consisting exclusively of RIF proved to be closely related to Arthoniomycetes, the sister class of Dothideomycetes. The broad phylogenetic amplitude of RIF in Dothideomycetes suggests that total species richness in this class remains underestimated. Composition of some RIF-rich lineages suggests that rock surfaces are reservoirs for plant-associated fungi or saprobes, although other data also agree with rocks as a primary substrate for ancient fungal lineages. According to the current sampling, long distance dispersal seems to be common for RIF. Dothideomycetes lineages comprising lichens also include RIF, suggesting a possible link between rock-dwelling habit and lichenisation. PMID:20169026

Ruibal, C.; Gueidan, C.; Selbmann, L.; Gorbushina, A.A.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Muggia, L.; Grube, M.; Isola, D.; Schoch, C.L.; Staley, J.T.; Lutzoni, F.; de Hoog, G.S.

2009-01-01

369

Verticillium systematics and evolution: how confusion impedes Verticillium wilt management and how to resolve it.  

PubMed

Verticillium wilts are important vascular wilt diseases that affect many crops and ornamentals in different regions of the world. Verticillium wilts are caused by members of the ascomycete genus Verticillium, a small group of 10 species that are related to the agents of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species. Verticillium has a long and complicated taxonomic history with controversies about species boundaries and long overlooked cryptic species, which confused and limited our knowledge of the biology of individual species. We first review the taxonomic history of Verticillium, provide an update and explanation of the current system of classification and compile host range and geographic distribution data for individual species from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) GenBank records. Using Verticillium as an example, we show that species names are a poor vehicle for archiving and retrieving information, and that species identifications should always be backed up by DNA sequence data and DNA extracts that are made publicly available. If such a system were made a prerequisite for publication, all species identifications could be evaluated retroactively, and our knowledge of the biology of individual species would be immune from taxonomic changes, controversy and misidentification. Adoption of this system would improve quarantine practices and the management of diseases caused by various plant pathogens. PMID:24548214

Inderbitzin, Patrik; Subbarao, Krishna V

2014-06-01

370

[Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].  

PubMed

A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei. PMID:25345060

2014-07-01

371

Ecology of Subglacial Lake Vostok (Antarctica), Based on Metagenomic/Metatranscriptomic Analyses of Accretion Ice  

PubMed Central

Lake Vostok is the largest of the nearly 400 subglacial Antarctic lakes and has been continuously buried by glacial ice for 15 million years. Extreme cold, heat (from possible hydrothermal activity), pressure (from the overriding glacier) and dissolved oxygen (delivered by melting meteoric ice), in addition to limited nutrients and complete darkness, combine to produce one of the most extreme environments on Earth. Metagenomic/metatranscriptomic analyses of ice that accreted over a shallow embayment and over the southern main lake basin indicate the presence of thousands of species of organisms (94% Bacteria, 6% Eukarya, and two Archaea). The predominant bacterial sequences were closest to those from species of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the predominant eukaryotic sequences were most similar to those from species of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous Fungi. Based on the sequence data, the lake appears to contain a mixture of autotrophs and heterotrophs capable of performing nitrogen fixation, nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation and nutrient recycling. Sequences closest to those of psychrophiles and thermophiles indicate a cold lake with possible hydrothermal activity. Sequences most similar to those from marine and aquatic species suggest the presence of marine and freshwater regions. PMID:24832801

Rogers, Scott O.; Shtarkman, Yury M.; Kocer, Zeynep A.; Edgar, Robyn; Veerapaneni, Ram; D'Elia, Tom

2013-01-01

372

Origin and evolution of carnivorism in the Ascomycota (fungi)  

PubMed Central

Carnivorism is one of the basic life strategies of fungi. Carnivorous fungi possess the ability to trap and digest their preys by sophisticated trapping devices. However, the origin and development of fungal carnivorism remains a gap in evolution biology. In this study, five protein-encoding genes were used to construct the phylogeny of the carnivorous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota; these fungi prey on nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures such as constricting rings and adhesive traps. Our analysis revealed a definitive pattern of evolutionary development for these trapping structures. Molecular clock calibration based on two fossil records revealed that fungal carnivorism diverged from saprophytism about 419 Mya, which was after the origin of nematodes about 550–600 Mya. Active carnivorism (fungi with constricting rings) and passive carnivorism (fungi with adhesive traps) diverged from each other around 246 Mya, shortly after the occurrence of the Permian–Triassic extinction event about 251.4 Mya. The major adhesive traps evolved around 198–208 Mya, which was within the time frame of the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event about 201.4 Mya. However, no major carnivorous ascomycetes divergence was correlated to the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, which occurred more recently (about 65.5 Mya). Therefore, a causal relationship between mass extinction events and fungal carnivorism evolution is not validated in this study. More evidence including additional fossil records is needed to establish if fungal carnivorism evolution was a response to mass extinction events. PMID:22715289

Yang, Ence; Xu, Lingling; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiang, Meichun; Wang, Chengshu; An, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xingzhong

2012-01-01

373

Effect of ergot alkaloids from fungal endophyte-infected grasses on fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).  

PubMed

Ergot alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi in the tribe Balansiae (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycetes), which infect grasses, may provide plant defense against herbivores. This study examined the effects of six ergot alkaloids on survivorship, feeding, and growth of larvae of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a generalist herbivore of grasses. Corn leaf disks were soaked in solutions of individual ergot alkaloids at different concentrations and presented to neonate larvae. At the highest concentrations (77-100 mg/liter) of ergonovine, ergotamine, ergocryptine, agroclavine, and elymoclavine, larval weights and/or leaf area consumed after eight days were reduced relative to controls. Lysergol had no effect on larval weights and leaf consumption at any concentration. Although active concentrations were higher than those reported from two host grasses, in vivo levels of ergot alkaloids have not been quantified for most endophyte-infected grasses. The detrimental effects on fall armyworm observed in this study suggest that ergot alkaloids could be responsible, at least in part, for the greater insect resistance of endophyte-infected grasses. PMID:24271434

Clay, K; Cheplick, G P

1989-01-01

374

Seasonal Pattern of Lesion Development in Diseased Fraxinus excelsior Infected by Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus  

PubMed Central

Ash dieback is a recent widespread disease on ash (Fraxinus sp.) that is causing important economic and ecological losses throughout Europe. The disease is initiated by the ascomycetous fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea). The main aim of this study was to investigate seasonal pattern of lesion development associated with ash dieback. We present data on the spread of 324 natural lesions in ash shoots, branches and stems surveyed over a 32 month period. Most lesions were active and showed the greatest rate of growth during the summer; however, lesions were active throughout the year. Tree mortality was high, with more than a third of the surveyed trees dying during the study. Although many lesions permanently ceased to develop, the rate at which new lesions emerged was greater than the rate at which lesions entered a resting phase. The most common cause for a lesion going into a permanent state of rest was that it had encountered a branch-base. Genotype analysis showed that multiple infections can occur in a single tree given that different genotypes were identified in different lesions as well as in single lesions. A weak positive correlation was noted between tree health and tree size and a weak negative correlation was noted between tree overall health and lesion activity. The lower limit for H. pseudoalbidus growth in culture was between 4.0°C and 0.5°C. PMID:24759550

Bengtsson, Stina Barbro Katrin; Barklund, Pia; von Bromssen, Claudia; Stenlid, Jan

2014-01-01

375

Mating Type Sequences in Asexually Reproducing Fusarium Species  

PubMed Central

To assess the potential for mating in several Fusarium species with no known sexual stage, we developed degenerate and semidegenerate oligonucleotide primers to identify conserved mating type (MAT) sequences in these fungi. The putative ? and high-mobility-group (HMG) box sequences from Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum were compared to similar sequences that were described previously for other members of the genus. The DNA sequences of the regions flanking the amplified MAT regions were obtained by inverse PCR. These data were used to develop diagnostic primers suitable for the clear amplification of conserved mating type sequences from any member of the genus Fusarium. By using these diagnostic primers, we identified mating types of 122 strains belonging to 22 species of Fusarium. The ? box and the HMG box from the mating type genes are transcribed in F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum. The novelty of the PCR-based mating type identification system that we developed is that this method can be used on a wide range of Fusarium species, which have proven or expected teleomorphs in different ascomycetous genera, including Calonectria, Gibberella, and Nectria. PMID:15294768

Kerenyi, Zoltan; Moretti, Antonio; Waalwijk, Cees; Olah, Brigitta; Hornok, Laszlo

2004-01-01

376

Constitutive expression of Botrytis aclada laccase in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

The heterologous expression of laccases is important for their large-scale production and genetic engineering--a prerequisite for industrial application. Pichia pastoris is the preferred expression host for fungal laccases. The recently cloned laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada (BaLac) has been efficiently expressed in P. pastoris under the control of the inducible alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter. In this study, we compare these results to the constitutive expression in the same organism using the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. The results show that the amounts of BaLac produced with the GAP system (517 mgL(-1)) and the AOX1 system (495 mgL(-1)) are comparable. The constitutive expression is, however, faster, and the specific activity of BaLac in the culture supernatant is higher (41.3 Umg(-1) GAP, 14.2 Umg(-1) AOX1). In microtiter plates, the constitutive expression provides a clear advantage due to easy manipulation (simple medium, no methanol feeding) and fast enzyme production (high-throughput screening assays can already be performed after 48 h). PMID:22705842

Kittl, Roman; Gonaus, Christoph; Pillei, Christian; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

2012-01-01

377

Genome sequence of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued traditional chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Species in the ascomycete fungal genus Cordyceps have been proposed to be the teleomorphs of Metarhizium species. The latter have been widely used as insect biocontrol agents. Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional Chinese medicines, but the genes responsible for biosynthesis of bioactive components, insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined. Results Here, we report the genome sequence of the type species Cordyceps militaris. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps/Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens independently of each other, and that their similar large secretomes and gene family expansions are due to convergent evolution. However, relative to other fungi, including Metarhizium spp., many protein families are reduced in C. militaris, which suggests a more restricted ecology. Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human mycotoxins. We establish that C. militaris is sexually heterothallic but, very unusually, fruiting can occur without an opposite mating-type partner. Transcriptional profiling indicates that fruiting involves induction of the Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors and MAPK pathway; unlike other fungi, however, the PKA pathway is not activated. Conclusions The data offer a better understanding of Cordyceps biology and will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:22112802

2011-01-01

378

Sea foam as a source of fungal inoculum for the isolation of biologically active natural products  

PubMed Central

Due to a rate increase in the resistance of microbial pathogens to currently used antibiotics, there is a need in society for the discovery of novel antimicrobials. Historically, fungi are a proven source for antimicrobial compounds. The main goals of this study were to investigate the fungal diversity associated with sea foam collected around the coast of Prince Edward Island and the utility of this resource for the production of antimicrobial natural products. Obtained isolates were identified using ITS and nLSU rDNA sequences, fermented on four media, extracted and fractions enriched in secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity. The majority of the isolates obtained were ascomycetes, consisting of four recognized marine taxa along with other ubiquitous genera and many ‘unknown’ isolates that could not be identified to the species level using rDNA gene sequences. Secondary metabolite isolation efforts lead to the purification of the metabolites epolones A and B, pycnidione and coniothyrione from a strain of Neosetophoma samarorum; brefeldin A, leptosin J and the metabolite TMC-264 from an unknown fungus (probably representative of an Edenia sp.); and 1-hydroxy-6-methyl-8-hydroxymethylxanthone, chrysophanol and chrysophanol bianthrone from a Phaeospheria spartinae isolate. The biological activity of each of these metabolites was assessed against a panel of microbial pathogens as well as several cell lines. PMID:25379337

Overy, David P.; Berrue, Fabrice; Correa, Hebelin; Hanif, Novriyandi; Hay, Kathryn; Lanteigne, Martin; Mquilian, Kathrine; Duffy, Stephanie; Boland, Patricia; Jagannathan, Ramesh; Carr, Gavin S.; Vansteeland, Marieke; Kerr, Russell G.

2014-01-01

379

Recruitment and interaction dynamics of plant penetration resistance components in a plasma membrane microdomain.  

PubMed

Many fungal pathogens must enter plant cells for successful colonization. Barley mildew resistance locus o (Mlo) is required for host cell invasion upon attack by the ascomycete powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, and encodes the founder of a family of heptahelical integral membrane proteins unique to plants. Recessively inherited loss-of-function mutant alleles (mlo) result in effective penetration resistance to all isolates of the biotrophic parasite. We used noninvasive fluorescence-based imaging to show that fluorescently tagged MLO protein becomes redistributed in the plasma membrane (PM) and accumulates beneath fungal appressoria coincident with the initiation of pathogen entry into host cells. Polarized MLO accumulation occurs once upon attack and appears to be independent of actin cytoskeleton function. Likewise, barley ROR2 syntaxin, a genetically defined component of penetration resistance to B. graminis f.sp. hordei, and a subset of predicted PM-resident proteins become redistributed to fungal entry sites. We previously identified calmodulin, a cytoplasmic calcium sensor, as an interactor and positive regulator of MLO activity and demonstrate here by FRET microscopy an increase in MLO/calmodulin FRET around penetration sites coincident with successful host cell entry. Our data provide evidence for the formation of a pathogen-triggered PM microdomain that is reminiscent of membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) induced upon attempted entry of pathogenic bacteria in animal cells. PMID:15703292

Bhat, Riyaz A; Miklis, Marco; Schmelzer, Elmon; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Panstruga, Ralph

2005-02-22

380

Fusion of two divergent fungal individuals led to the recent emergence of a unique widespread pathogen species  

PubMed Central

In a genome alignment of five individuals of the ascomycete fungus Zymoseptoria pseudotritici, a close relative of the wheat pathogen Z. tritici (synonym Mycosphaerella graminicola), we observed peculiar diversity patterns. Long regions up to 100 kb without variation alternate with similarly long regions of high variability. The variable segments in the genome alignment are organized into two main haplotype groups that have diverged ?3% from each other. The genome patterns in Z. pseudotritici are consistent with a hybrid speciation event resulting from a cross between two divergent haploid individuals. The resulting hybrids formed the new species without backcrossing to the parents. We observe no variation in 54% of the genome in the five individuals and estimate a complete loss of variation for at least 30% of the genome in the entire species. A strong population bottleneck following the hybridization event caused this loss of variation. Variable segments in the Z. pseudotritici genome exhibit the two haplotypes contributed by the parental individuals. From our previously estimated recombination map of Z. tritici and the size distribution of variable chromosome blocks untouched by recombination we estimate that the hybridization occurred ?380 sexual generations ago. We show that the amount of lost variation is explained by genetic drift during the bottleneck and by natural selection, as evidenced by the correlation of presence/absence of variation with gene density and recombination rate. The successful spread of this unique reproductively isolated pathogen highlights the strong potential of hybridization in the emergence of pathogen species with sexual reproduction. PMID:22711811

Stukenbrock, Eva Holtgrewe; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge; Hansen, Troels Toftebjerg; Dutheil, Julien Yann; Schierup, Mikkel Heide

2012-01-01

381

Plant-ants use symbiotic fungi as a food source: new insight into the nutritional ecology of ant-plant interactions  

PubMed Central

Usually studied as pairwise interactions, mutualisms often involve networks of interacting species. Numerous tropical arboreal ants are specialist inhabitants of myrmecophytes (plants bearing domatia, i.e. hollow structures specialized to host ants) and are thought to rely almost exclusively on resources derived from the host plant. Recent studies, following up on century-old reports, have shown that fungi of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales live in symbiosis with plant-ants within domatia. We tested the hypothesis that ants use domatia-inhabiting fungi as food in three ant–plant symbioses: Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana, Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa and Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. Labelling domatia fungal patches in the field with either a fluorescent dye or 15N showed that larvae ingested domatia fungi. Furthermore, when the natural fungal patch was replaced with a piece of a 15N-labelled pure culture of either of two Chaetothyriales strains isolated from T. aethiops colonies, these fungi were also consumed. These two fungi often co-occur in the same ant colony. Interestingly, T. aethiops workers and larvae ingested preferentially one of the two strains. Our results add a new piece in the puzzle of the nutritional ecology of plant-ants. PMID:22859596

Blatrix, Rumsais; Djieto-Lordon, Champlain; Mondolot, Laurence; La Fisca, Philippe; Voglmayr, Hermann; McKey, Doyle

2012-01-01

382

A natural O-ring optimizes the dispersal of fungal spores  

PubMed Central

The forcibly ejected spores of ascomycete fungi must penetrate several millimetres of nearly still air surrounding sporocarps to reach dispersive airflows, and escape is facilitated when a spore is launched with large velocity. To launch, the spores of thousands of species are ejected through an apical ring, a small elastic pore. The startling diversity of apical ring and spore shapes and dimensions make them favoured characters for both species descriptions and the subsequent inference of relationships among species. However, the physical constraints shaping this diversity and the adaptive benefits of specific morphologies are not understood. Here, we develop an elastohydrodynamic theory of the spore's ejection through the apical ring and demonstrate that to avoid enormous energy losses during spore ejection, the four principal morphological dimensions of spore and apical ring must cluster within a nonlinear one-dimensional subspace. We test this prediction using morphological data for 45 fungal species from two different classes and 18 families. Our sampling encompasses multiple loss and gain events and potentially independent origins of this spore ejection mechanism. Although the individual dimensions of the spore and apical ring are only weakly correlated with each other, they collapse into the predicted subspace with high accuracy. The launch velocity appears to be within 2 per cent of the optimum for over 90 per cent of all forcibly ejected species. Although the morphological diversity of apical rings and spores appears startlingly diverse, a simple principle can be used to organize it. PMID:23782534

Fritz, Joerg A.; Seminara, Agnese; Roper, Marcus; Pringle, Anne; Brenner, Michael P.

2013-01-01

383

Neurospora crassa Light Signal Transduction Is Affected by ROS.  

PubMed

In the ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa blue-violet light controls the expression of genes responsible for differentiation of reproductive structures, synthesis of secondary metabolites, and the circadian oscillator activity. A major photoreceptor in Neurospora cells is WCC, a heterodimeric complex formed by the PAS-domain-containing polypeptides WC-1 and WC-2, the products of genes white collar-1 and white collar-2. The photosignal transduction is started by photochemical activity of an excited FAD molecule noncovalently bound by the LOV domain (a specialized variant of the PAS domain). The presence of zinc fingers (the GATA-recognizing sequences) in both WC-1 and WC-2 proteins suggests that they might function as transcription factors. However, a critical analysis of the phototransduction mechanism considers the existence of residual light responses upon absence of WCC or its homologs in fungi. The data presented point at endogenous ROS generated by a photon stimulus as an alternative input to pass on light signals to downstream targets. PMID:22046507

Belozerskaya, Tatiana A; Gessler, Natalia N; Isakova, Elena P; Deryabina, Yulia I

2012-01-01

384

Neurospora crassa Light Signal Transduction Is Affected by ROS  

PubMed Central

In the ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa blue-violet light controls the expression of genes responsible for differentiation of reproductive structures, synthesis of secondary metabolites, and the circadian oscillator activity. A major photoreceptor in Neurospora cells is WCC, a heterodimeric complex formed by the PAS-domain-containing polypeptides WC-1 and WC-2, the products of genes white collar-1 and white collar-2. The photosignal transduction is started by photochemical activity of an excited FAD molecule noncovalently bound by the LOV domain (a specialized variant of the PAS domain). The presence of zinc fingers (the GATA-recognizing sequences) in both WC-1 and WC-2 proteins suggests that they might function as transcription factors. However, a critical analysis of the phototransduction mechanism considers the existence of residual light responses upon absence of WCC or its homologs in fungi. The data presented point at endogenous ROS generated by a photon stimulus as an alternative input to pass on light signals to downstream targets. PMID:22046507

Belozerskaya, Tatiana A.; Gessler, Natalia N.; Isakova, Elena P.; Deryabina, Yulia I.

2012-01-01

385

Sequencing of the Dutch Elm Disease Fungus Genome Using the Roche/454 GS-FLX Titanium System in a Comparison of Multiple Genomics Core Facilities  

PubMed Central

As part of the DNA Sequencing Research Group of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities, we have tested the reproducibility of the Roche/454 GS-FLX Titanium System at five core facilities. Experience with the Roche/454 system ranged from <10 to >340 sequencing runs performed. All participating sites were supplied with an aliquot of a common DNA preparation and were requested to conduct sequencing at a common loading condition. The evaluation of sequencing yield and accuracy metrics was assessed at a single site. The study was conducted using a laboratory strain of the Dutch elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi strain H327, an ascomycete, vegetatively haploid fungus with an estimated genome size of 30–50 Mb. We show that the Titanium System is reproducible, with some variation detected in loading conditions, sequencing yield, and homopolymer length accuracy. We demonstrate that reads shorter than the theoretical minimum length are of lower overall quality and not simply truncated reads. The O. novo-ulmi H327 genome assembly is 31.8 Mb and is comprised of eight chromosome-length linear scaffolds, a circular mitochondrial conti of 66.4 kb, and a putative 4.2-kb linear plasmid. We estimate that the nuclear genome encodes 8613 protein coding genes, and the mitochondrion encodes 15 genes and 26 tRNAs. PMID:23542132

Forgetta, Vincenzo; Leveque, Gary; Dias, Joana; Grove, Deborah; Lyons, Robert; Genik, Suzanne; Wright, Chris; Singh, Sushmita; Peterson, Nichole; Zianni, Michael; Kieleczawa, Jan; Steen, Robert; Perera, Anoja; Bintzler, Doug; Adams, Scottie; Hintz, Will; Jacobi, Volker; Bernier, Louis; Levesque, Roger; Dewar, Ken

2013-01-01

386

Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review  

SciTech Connect

'Blue' copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

Zhukhlistova, N. E., E-mail: amm@ns.crys.ras.ru; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Zaitsev, V. N. [University of St. Andrews, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences (United Kingdom); Mikhailov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2008-01-15

387

Molecular systematics of the marine Dothideomycetes  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analyses of four nuclear genes, namely the large and small subunits of the nuclear ribosomal RNA, transcription elongation factor 1-alpha and the second largest RNA polymerase II subunit, established that the ecological group of marine bitunicate ascomycetes has representatives in the orders Capnodiales, Hysteriales, Jahnulales, Mytilinidiales, Patellariales and Pleosporales. Most of the fungi sequenced were intertidal mangrove taxa and belong to members of 12 families in the Pleosporales: Aigialaceae, Didymellaceae, Leptosphaeriaceae, Lenthitheciaceae, Lophiostomataceae, Massarinaceae, Montagnulaceae, Morosphaeriaceae, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleosporaceae, Testudinaceae and Trematosphaeriaceae. Two new families are described: Aigialaceae and Morosphaeriaceae, and three new genera proposed: Halomassarina, Morosphaeria and Rimora. Few marine species are reported from the Dothideomycetidae (e.g. Mycosphaerellaceae, Capnodiales), a group poorly studied at the molecular level. New marine lineages include the Testudinaceae and Manglicola guatemalensis in the Jahnulales. Significantly, most marine Dothideomycetes are intertidal tropical species with only a few from temperate regions on salt marsh plants (Spartina species and Juncus roemerianus), and rarely totally submerged (e.g. Halotthia posidoniae and Pontoporeia biturbinata on the seagrasses Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosum). Specific attention is given to the adaptation of the Dothideomycetes to the marine milieu, new lineages of marine fungi and their host specificity. PMID:20169029

Suetrong, S.; Schoch, C.L.; Spatafora, J.W.; Kohlmeyer, J.; Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, B.; Sakayaroj, J.; Phongpaichit, S.; Tanaka, K.; Hirayama, K.; Jones, E.B.G.

2009-01-01

388

Coral-associated marine fungi form novel lineages and heterogeneous assemblages  

PubMed Central

Coral stress tolerance is intricately tied to the animal's association with microbial symbionts. The most well-known of these symbioses is that between corals and their dinoflagellate photobionts (Symbiodinium spp.), whose genotype indirectly affects whether a coral can survive cyclical and anthropogenic warming events. Fungi comprise a lesser-known coral symbiotic community whose taxonomy, stability and function is largely un-examined. To assess how fungal communities inside a coral host correlate with water temperature and the genotype of co-occurring Symbiodinium, we sampled Acropora hyacinthus coral colonies from adjacent natural pools with different water temperatures and Symbiodinium identities. Phylogenetic analysis of coral-associated fungal ribosomal DNA amplicons showed a high diversity of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes, including several clades separated from known fungal taxa by long and well-supported branches. Community similarity did not correlate with any measured variables, and total fungal community composition was highly variable among A. hyacinthus coral colonies. Colonies in the warmer pool contained more phylogenetically diverse fungal communities than the colder pool and contained statistically significant ‘indicator' species. Four taxa were present in all coral colonies sampled, and may represent obligate associates. Messenger RNA sequenced from a subset of these same colonies contained an abundance of transcripts involved in metabolism of complex biological molecules. Coincidence between the taxonomic diversity found in the DNA and RNA analysis indicates a metabolically active and diverse resident marine fungal community. PMID:22189500

Amend, Anthony S; Barshis, Daniel J; Oliver, Thomas A

2012-01-01

389

Host associations between fungal root endophytes and boreal trees.  

PubMed

Fungal root endophytes colonize root tissue concomitantly with mycorrhizal fungi, but their identities and host preferences are largely unknown. We cultured fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized Cenococcum geophilum ectomycorrhizae of Betula papyrifera, Abies balsamea, and Picea glauca from two boreal sites in eastern Canada. Isolates were initially grouped on the basis of cultural morphology and then identified by internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequencing or by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data revealed 31 distinct phylotypes among the isolates, comprising mainly members of the ascomycete families Helotiaceae, Dermateaceae, Myxotrichaceae, and Hyaloscyphaceae, although other fungi were also isolated. Multivariate analyses indicate a clear separation among the endophyte communities colonizing each host tree species. Some phylotypes were evenly distributed across the roots of all three host species, some were found preferentially on particular hosts, and others were isolated from single hosts only. The results indicate that fungal root endophytes of boreal trees are not randomly distributed, but instead form relatively distinct assemblages on different host tree species. PMID:21475991

Kernaghan, Gavin; Patriquin, Glenn

2011-08-01

390

Furocoumarins and coumarins photoinactivate Colletotrichum acutatum and Aspergillus nidulans fungi under solar radiation.  

PubMed

The increasing tolerance to currently-used fungicides is a major problem both in clinical and agricultural areas leading to an urgent need for the development of novel antifungal strategies. This study investigated the in vitro antimicrobial photo treatment (APT) of conidia of the plant-pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum and the ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans with the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and isopimpinellin, and a mixture of two coumarins (7-methoxy coumarin and citropten). Subcellular localization of the photosensitizer 8-MOP was also determined in C. acutatum conidia. Additionally, the effects of APT on the leaves of the plant host Citrus sinensis were determined. APT with 8-MOP (50?M) led to a reduction of approximately 4 logs in the survival of the conidia of both species, and the mixture of the two coumarins (12.5mgL(-1)) resulted in a reduction of approximately 4 logs for A. nidulans and 3 logs for C. acutatum. Isopimpinellin (50?M) displayed a reduction of 4 logs for A. nidulans but less than 2 logs for C. acutatum. Washing the conidia to remove unbound photosensitizers before light exposure reduced the photodynamic inactivation of C. acutatum both with 8-MOP and the mixture of the two coumarins. The reduction was smaller for A. nidulans. 8-MOP spread throughout the cytoplasm and accumulated in structures such as lipid bodies of C. acutatum conidia. No damage to orange tree leaves was observed after APT with any of the photosensitizers. PMID:24509069

de Menezes, Henrique D; Pereira, Ana C; Brancini, Guilherme T P; de Leão, Helton Carlos; Massola Júnior, Nelson S; Bachmann, Luciano; Wainwright, Mark; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Braga, Gilberto U L

2014-02-01

391

Genome Sequencing of the Plant Pathogen Taphrina deformans, the Causal Agent of Peach Leaf Curl  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Taphrina deformans is a fungus responsible for peach leaf curl, an important plant disease. It is phylogenetically assigned to the Taphrinomycotina subphylum, which includes the fission yeast and the mammalian pathogens of the genus Pneumocystis. We describe here the genome of T. deformans in the light of its dual plant-saprophytic/plant-parasitic lifestyle. The 13.3-Mb genome contains few identifiable repeated elements (ca. 1.5%) and a relatively high GC content (49.5%). A total of 5,735 protein-coding genes were identified, among which 83% share similarities with other fungi. Adaptation to the plant host seems reflected in the genome, since the genome carries genes involved in plant cell wall degradation (e.g., cellulases and cutinases), secondary metabolism, the hallmark glyoxylate cycle, detoxification, and sterol biosynthesis, as well as genes involved in the biosynthesis of plant hormones. Genes involved in lipid metabolism may play a role in its virulence. Several locus candidates for putative MAT cassettes and sex-related genes akin to those of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were identified. A mating-type-switching mechanism similar to that found in ascomycetous yeasts could be in effect. Taken together, the findings are consistent with the alternate saprophytic and parasitic-pathogenic lifestyles of T. deformans. PMID:23631913

Cisse, Ousmane H.; Almeida, Joao M. G. C. F.; Fonseca, Alvaro; Kumar, Ajay Anand; Salojarvi, Jarkko; Overmyer, Kirk; Hauser, Philippe M.; Pagni, Marco

2013-01-01

392

Paralog Re-Emergence: A Novel, Historically Contingent Mechanism in the Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance  

PubMed Central

Evolution of resistance to drugs and pesticides poses a serious threat to human health and agricultural production. CYP51 encodes the target site of azole fungicides, widely used clinically and in agriculture. Azole resistance can evolve due to point mutations or overexpression of CYP51, and previous studies have shown that fungicide-resistant alleles have arisen by de novo mutation. Paralogs CYP51A and CYP51B are found in filamentous ascomycetes, but CYP51A has been lost from multiple lineages. Here, we show that in the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune, re-emergence of CYP51A constitutes a novel mechanism for the evolution of resistance to azoles. Pyrosequencing analysis of historical barley leaf samples from a unique long-term experiment from 1892 to 2008 indicates that the majority of the R. commune population lacked CYP51A until 1985, after which the frequency of CYP51A rapidly increased. Functional analysis demonstrates that CYP51A retains the same substrate as CYP51B, but with different transcriptional regulation. Phylogenetic analyses show that the origin of CYP51A far predates azole use, and newly sequenced Rhynchosporium genomes show CYP51A persisting in the R. commune lineage rather than being regained by horizontal gene transfer; therefore, CYP51A re-emergence provides an example of adaptation to novel compounds by selection from standing genetic variation. PMID:24732957

Hawkins, Nichola J.; Cools, Hans J.; Sierotzki, Helge; Shaw, Michael W.; Knogge, Wolfgang; Kelly, Steven L.; Kelly, Diane E.; Fraaije, Bart A.

2014-01-01

393

Mitochondrial genes in the colourless alga Prototheca wickerhamii resemble plant genes in their exons but fungal genes in their introns.  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial DNA from the colourless alga Prototheca wickerhamii contains two mosaic genes as was revealed from complete sequencing of the circular extranuclear genome. The genes for the large subunit of the ribosomal RNA (LSUrRNA) as well as for subunit I of the cytochrome oxidase (coxI) carry two and three intronic sequences respectively. On the basis of their canonical nucleotide sequences they can be classified as group I introns. Phylogenetic comparisons of the coxI protein sequences allow us to conclude that the P.wickerhamii mtDNA is much closer related to higher plant mtDNAs than to those of the chlorophyte alga C.reinhardtii. The comparison of the intron sequences revealed several unusual features: (1) The P.wickerhamii introns are structurally related to mitochondrial introns from various ascomycetous fungi. (2) Phylogenetic analyses indicate a close relationship between fungal and algal intronic sequences. (3) The P. wickerhamii introns are located at positions within the structural genes which can be considered as preferred intron insertion sites in homologous mitochondrial genes from fungi or liverwort. In all cases, the sequences adjacent to the insertion sites are very well conserved over large evolutionary distances. Our finding of highly similar introns in fungi and algae is consistent with the idea that introns have already been present in the bacterial ancestors of present day mitochondria and evolved concomitantly with the organelles. PMID:7680126

Wolff, G; Burger, G; Lang, B F; Kuck, U

1993-01-01

394

Isolation and characterization of Cyniclomyces guttulatus (Robin) Van Der Walt and Scott, 1971 in dogs in Brazil.  

PubMed

Vegetative cells of an ascomycetous yeast, morphologically consistent with published descriptions of Cyniclomyces guttulatus, were observed in large numbers in the feces and stomach washes of three dogs with a recurrent medical history characterized by vomiting and diarrhea. Nucleotide sequence analysis of an approximately 600 base pair fragment of the variable D1/D2 domain of large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA of a pure culture, isolated from a Siberian Husky, revealed 98-99 % homology to sequences deposited in the GenBank as C. guttulatus. These data represent the first observation of C. guttulatus in association with canine gastrointestinal illness in the southern hemisphere and add weight to the hypothesis that this yeast may act as an opportunistic pathogen of dogs. An extended examination of wet mounts and smears prepared from feces collected from 63 dogs with no clinical symptoms of gastrointestinal illness, identified C. gluttulatus in 14 (22.2 %) of the animals, albeit at lower numbers than in diseased dogs, indicating that this yeast species is widely distributed as a component of the normal microflora of the canine gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22821151

Flausino, Gilberto; Leal, Paulo D S; McIntosh, Douglas; Amaral, Luciana G; Teixeira Filho, Walter L; Flausino, Walter; Lopes, Carlos W G

2012-11-01

395

Black yeast-like fungi associated with Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) in the mangrove-land crab, Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae).  

PubMed

Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) caused extensive epizootic mortality of the mangrove land crab Ucides cordatus (Brachyura: Ocypodidae) along the Brazilian coast, mainly in the Northeastern region. The disease was named after the symptoms of slow movement of infected crabs. Causative agents were suspected to be two black yeast-like fungi of the family Herpotrichiellaceae (ascomycete order Chaetothyriales), judged by infected tissue biopsies from moribund U. cordatus. The aim of the present study is to prove that two species are involved in the disease: the recently described black yeast Exophiala cancerae, but also a less virulent, hitherto undescribed fonsecaea-like species, introduced here as the novel species Fonsecaea brasiliensis. Strains were identified by ITS rDNA sequencing, and species borderlines were established by multilocus sequencing and AFLP analysis. Fonsecaea brasiliensis proved to be closely related to the pathogenic species Cladophialophora devriesii which originally was isolated from a systemic infection in a human patient. The virulence of F. brasiliensis is lower than that of E. cancerae, as established by artificial inoculation of mangrove crabs. PMID:22440399

Vicente, Vania A; Orélis-Ribeiro, R; Najafzadeh, M J; Sun, Jiufeng; Guerra, Raquel Schier; Miesch, Stephanie; Ostrensky, Antonio; Meis, Jacques F; Klaassen, Corné H; de Hoog, G S; Boeger, Walter A

2012-07-01

396

Disruption of Yarrowia lipolytica biofilms by rhamnolipid biosurfactant  

PubMed Central

Background Yarrowia lipolytica is an ascomycetous dimorphic fungus that exhibits biofilm mode of growth. Earlier work has shown that biosurfactants such as rhamnolipids are efficient dispersants of bacterial biofilms. However, their effectiveness against fungal biofilms (particularly Y. lipolytica) has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rhamnolipid on a biofilm forming strain of Y. lipolytica. Two chemical surfactants, cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were used as controls for comparison. Results The methylene blue dye exclusion assay indicated an increase in fungal cell permeability after rhamnolipid treatment. Microtiter plate assay showed that the surfactant coating decreased Y. lipolytica biofilm formation by 50%. Rhamnolipid treatment disrupted pre-formed biofilms in a more effective manner than the other two surfactants. Confocal laser scanning microscopic studies showed that biofilm formation onto glass surfaces was decreased by 67% after sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) treatment with rhamnolipids. The disruption of biofilms after rhamnolipid treatment was significant (P<0.05) when compared to SDS and CTAB. Conclusion The results indicate a potential application of the biological surfactant to disrupt Y. lipolytica biofilms. PMID:22839701

2012-01-01

397

Isolation of Fungal Cellobiohydrolase I Genes from Sporocarps and Forest Soils by PCR?  

PubMed Central

Cellulose is the major component of plant biomass, and microbial cellulose utilization is a key step in the decomposition of plant detritus. Despite this, little is known about the diversity of cellulolytic microbial communities in soil. Fungi are well known for their cellulolytic activity and mediate key functions during the decomposition of plant detritus in terrestrial ecosystems. We developed new oligonucleotide primers for fungal exocellulase genes (cellobiohydrolase, cbhI) and used these to isolate distinct cbhI homologues from four species of litter-decomposing basidiomycete fungi (Clitocybe nuda, Clitocybe gibba, Clitopilus prunulus, and Chlorophyllum molybdites) and two species of ascomycete fungi (Xylaria polymorpha and Sarcoscypha occidentalis). Evidence for cbhI gene families was found in three of the four basidiomycete species. Additionally, we isolated and cloned cbhI genes from the forest floor and mineral soil of two upland forests in northern lower Michigan, one dominated by oak (Quercus velutina, Q. alba) and the other dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and American basswood (Tilia americana). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that cellobiohydrolase genes recovered from the floor of both forests tended to cluster with Xylaria or in one of two unidentified groups, whereas cellobiohydrolase genes recovered from soil tended to cluster with Trichoderma, Alternaria, Eurotiales, and basidiomycete sequences. The ability to amplify a key fungal gene involved in plant litter decomposition has the potential to unlock the identity and dynamics of the cellulolytic fungal community in situ. PMID:18408067

Edwards, Ivan P.; Upchurch, Rima A.; Zak, Donald R.

2008-01-01

398

Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals the New Genus Hemisphaericaspora of the Family Debaryomycetaceae  

PubMed Central

Four strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were recovered from the frass of wood-boring beetles collected from the Baotianman Nature Reserve and the Laojieling Nature Reserve in Henan Province, China. This species produced unconjugated and deliquescent asci with hemispheroid or helmet-shaped ascospores. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, as well as analysis of concatenated gene sequences for the nearly complete small subunit (SSU) rRNA and D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA placed the novel species in a small clade including only one recognised species, Candida insectamans, in the family Debaryomycetaceae (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that the novel species was distinct from all currently recognised teleomorphic yeast genus. The name Hemisphaericaspora nanyangensis gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the novel genus and species. The new genus can be distinguished from closely related teleomorphic genera Lodderomyces and Spathaspora through sequence comparison and ascospore morphology. The ex-type strain of H. nanyangensis is CBS 13020T (?=?CICC 33021?=?NYNU 13717). Furthermore, based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, C. insectamans is transferred to the newly described genus as Hemisphaericaspora insectamans comb. nov., in accordance with the changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. PMID:25075963

Hui, Fengli; Ren, Yongcheng; Chen, Liang; Li, Ying; Zhang, Lin; Niu, Qiuhong

2014-01-01

399

Root Infection and Systemic Colonization of Maize by Colletotrichum graminicola?  

PubMed Central

Colletotrichum graminicola is a filamentous ascomycete that causes anthracnose disease of maize. While the fungus can cause devastating foliar leaf blight and stalk rot diseases, little is known about its ability to infect roots. Previously published reports suggest that C. graminicola may infect maize roots and that root infections may contribute to the colonization of aboveground plant tissues, leading to disease. To determine whether C. graminicola can infect maize roots and whether root infections can result in the colonization of aboveground plant tissues, we developed a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain and used it to study the plant root colonization and infection process in vivo. We observed structures produced by other root pathogenic fungi, including runner hyphae, hyphopodia, and microsclerotia. A mosaic pattern of infection resulted from specific epidermal and cortical cells becoming infected by intercellular hyphae while surrounding cells were uninfected, a pattern that is distinctly different from that described for leaves. Interestingly, falcate conidia, normally restricted to acervuli, were also found filling epidermal cells and root hairs. Twenty-eight percent of plants challenged with soilborne inoculum became infected in aboveground plant parts (stem and/or leaves), indicating that root infection can lead to asymptomatic systemic colonization of the plants. Many of the traits observed for C. graminicola have been previously reported for other root-pathogenic fungi, suggesting that these traits are evolutionally conserved in multiple fungal lineages. These observations suggest that root infection may be an important component of the maize anthracnose disease cycle. PMID:18065625

Sukno, Serenella A.; Garcia, Veronica M.; Shaw, Brian D.; Thon, Michael R.

2008-01-01

400

In vitro activity of colistin as single agent and in combination with antifungals against filamentous fungi occurring in patients with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Because published reports indicate that the antibiotic colistin (COL) has antifungal properties, this study investigated the antifungal in vitro activity of COL as single agent and in combination with the antifungal compounds voriconazole (VRC), caspofungin (CAS) and amphotericin B (AMB) against Scedosporium/Pseudallescheria spp., Exophiala dermatitidis and Geosmithia argillacea. In total, susceptibility was determined for 77 Scedosporium/Pseudallescheria spp., 82 E. dermatitidis and 17 G. argillacea isolates. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of COL and the antifungals as single compound and in combination were determined with MIC test strips. Drug interactions were detected by crossing the MIC test strips at a 90º angle. The fractional inhibitory concentration index was used to categorise the drugs' interaction. The MIC50 value of COL was 12??g?ml(-1) for S. prolificans, 16??g?ml(-1) for P. apiosperma, 16??g?ml(-1) for P. boydii, 12??g?ml(-1) for E. dermatiditis and 6??g?ml(-1) for G. argillacea. VRC was the most active drug in combination without any antagonism with the exception of few P. boydii isolates. COL as single agent and in most combinations with antifungals exhibits in vitro antifungal activity against filamentous ascomycetes occurring in cystic fibrosis patients and may offer a novel therapeutic option, especially for multidrug-resistant S. prolificans. PMID:23170818

Schemuth, H; Dittmer, S; Lackner, M; Sedlacek, L; Hamprecht, A; Steinmann, E; Buer, J; Rath, P-M; Steinmann, J

2013-05-01

401

Sequencing and annotation of the Ophiostoma ulmi genome  

PubMed Central

Background The ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma ulmi was responsible for the initial pandemic of the massively destructive Dutch elm disease in Europe and North America in early 1910. Dutch elm disease has ravaged the elm tree population globally and is a major threat to the remaining elm population. O. ulmi is also associated with valuable biomaterials applications. It was recently discovered that proteins from O. ulmi can be used for efficient transformation of amylose in the production of bioplastics. Results We have sequenced the 31.5 Mb genome of O.ulmi using Illumina next generation sequencing. Applying both de novo and comparative genome annotation methods, we predict a total of 8639 gene models. The quality of the predicted genes was validated using a variety of data sources consisting of EST data, mRNA-seq data and orthologs from related fungal species. Sequence-based computational methods were used to identify candidate virulence-related genes. Metabolic pathways were reconstructed and highlight specific enzymes that may play a role in virulence. Conclusions This genome sequence will be a useful resource for further research aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity by O. ulmi. It will also facilitate the identification of enzymes necessary for industrial biotransformation applications. PMID:23496816

2013-01-01

402

Transgenic rice as a novel production system for Melanocarpus and Pycnoporus laccases.  

PubMed

Laccases have numerous biotechnological applications, among them food processing. The widespread use of laccases has increased the demand for an inexpensive and safe source of recombinant enzyme. We explored the use of a rice-based system for the production of two fungal laccases derived from the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces and the basidiomycete Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. High-expression levels of active recombinant laccases were achieved by targeting expression to the endosperm of rice seeds. The laccase cDNAs were fused to a plant-derived signal sequence for targeting to the secretory pathway, and placed under the control of a constitutive seed-specific promoter fused to an intron for enhanced expression. This construct enabled the recovery of on average 0.1-1% of soluble laccase in total soluble proteins (TSP). The highest yields of recombinant laccases obtained in rice seeds were 13 and 39 ppm for riceMaL and ricePycL, respectively. The rice-produced laccases were purified and characterized. The wild-type and the recombinant proteins showed similar biochemical features in terms of molecular mass, pI, temperature and optimal pH and the N-terminus was correctly processed. Although presenting lower kinetic parameters, the rice-produced laccases were also suitable for the oxidative cross-linking of a food model substrate [maize-bran feruloylated arabinoxylans (AX)]. PMID:17687629

de Wilde, Chris; Uzan, Eva; Zhou, Zhongyi; Kruus, Kristiina; Andberg, Martina; Buchert, Johanna; Record, Eric; Asther, Marcel; Lomascolo, Anne

2008-08-01

403

Survey of microfungi in the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord (Germany).  

PubMed

During an excursion in the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord in 2009 and 2010 we were able to collect and identify more than 100 specimens of microfungi on different parts of cultivated and wild plant species. We found parasitic and saprophytic microfungi on trees, bushes and herbaceous plants. Some of them have been observed only rarely until now. Most of the collected microfungi species belong to the classes of Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes - for example Leptosphaeria modesta (Desm.) Rabenh. on Knautia cf. arvensis (L.) Coult., Ramularia urticae Ces. on Urtica dioica L., Stigmina glomerulosa (Sacc.) S. Hughes on Juniperus communis L., Pseudomassaria corni (Sowerby) Arx on Cornus alba L., Mollisia discolor (Mont.) W. Phillips on Cornus alba L., Botryosphaeria quercuum (Schwein.) Sacc. on Quercus robur L., Peronospora cytisi Rostr. on Laburnum anagyroides Med., Microsphaera guarinonii Briosi and Cavara on Laburnum anagyroides Med., Brachysporium dingleyae S. Hughes on Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl and Rhododendron spec., Mamiania fimbriata (Pers.) Ces. and De Not. on Carpinus betulus L., Atopospora betulina (Fr.) Petr. on Betula pendula Roth, Septoria robiniae (Lib.) Desm. (=Phloeospora robiniae (Lib.) Höhn.) on Robinia pseudoacacia L., Chalara hughesii Nag Raj and W.B. Kendr. on Quercus robur L.. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:22702187

Jensen, M; Nerat, N; Ale-Agha, N

2011-01-01

404

Sporothrix brunneoviolacea and Sporothrix dimorphospora, two new members of the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii complex.  

PubMed

Sporothrix inflata is a saprobic member of the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii species complex, reported mainly from soil. Ophiostoma bragantinum, an ascomycete described from Brazil, has been proposed as its possible teleomorph. Previous studies revealed that Sporothrix inflata is phenotypically and genetically variable, suggesting the existence of cryptic species. During a continued survey on the biodiversity of microfungi from different countries, seven isolates morphologically similar to S. inflata were obtained from soil samples collected in Spain and USA. In this study their phenotypic features and phylogenetic relationships were assessed. DNA sequence data of two nuclear loci revealed that these isolates correspond to two unnamed clades in S. inflata s.l., one of which also included the type strain of Humicola dimorphospora, a species that traditionally has been considered a synonym of S. inflata. These two groups are proposed herein as Sporothrix brunneoviolacea sp. nov. and Sporothrix dimorphospora comb. nov. S. brunneoviolacea is characterized phenotypically by the production of a diffusible violet-brown pigment in culture and mostly globose, pigmented, lateral blastoconidia. On the other hand S. dimorphospora lacks diffusible pigments and shows mostly subglobose to obovoid pigmented lateral blastoconidia. In contrast to the type strain of S. inflata S. brunneoviolacea and S. dimorphospora assimilate raffinose. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that the proposed anamorph-teleomorph connection between S. inflata and O. bragantinum might not be correct. PMID:20943519

Madrid, H; Gené, J; Cano, J; Silvera, C; Guarro, J

2010-01-01

405

Microcyclospora and Microcyclosporella: novel genera accommodating epiphytic fungi causing sooty blotch on apple.  

PubMed

Recent studies have found a wide range of ascomycetes to be associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) blemishes on the surfaces of pomaceous fruits, specifically apples. Based on collections of such fungi from apple orchards in Germany and Slovenia we introduce two novel genera according to analyses of morphological characters and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences (large subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions). Microcyclosporella is represented by a single species, M. mali, and is presently known from Germany and Slovenia. Microcyclosporella is Pseudocercosporella-like in morphology, but genetically and morphologically distinct from Pseudocercosporella s.str., for which an epitype is designated based on a fresh collection of P. bakeri from Laos. Furthermore, Pseudocercosporella is shown to be paraphyletic within the Capnodiales. Microcyclospora gen. nov. is Pseudocercospora-like in morphology, but is genetically and morphologically distinct from Pseudocercospora s.str., which is based on P. vitis. Three species, Microcyclospora malicola, M. pomicola (both collected in Germany), and M. tardicrescens (collected in Slovenia) are described. Finally, a new species of Devriesia, D. pseudoamericana, is described from pome fruit surfaces collected in Germany. Devriesia is shown to be paraphyletic, and to represent several lineages of which only Devriesia s.str. is thermotolerant. Further collections are required, however, before the latter generic complex can be resolved. PMID:20664763

Frank, J; Crous, P W; Groenewald, J Z; Oertel, B; Hyde, K D; Phengsintham, P; Schroers, H-J

2010-06-01

406

Fungal Planet description sheets: 128-153.  

PubMed

Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Catenulostroma corymbiae from Corymbia, Devriesia stirlingiae from Stirlingia, Penidiella carpentariae from Carpentaria, Phaeococcomyces eucalypti from Eucalyptus, Phialophora livistonae from Livistona, Phyllosticta aristolochiicola from Aristolochia, Clitopilus austroprunulus on sclerophyll forest litter of Eucalyptus regnans and Toxicocladosporium posoqueriae from Posoqueria. Several species are also described from South Africa, namely: Ceramothyrium podocarpi from Podocarpus, Cercospora chrysanthemoides from Chrysanthemoides, Devriesia shakazului from Aloe, Penidiella drakensbergensis from Protea, Strelitziana cliviae from Clivia and Zasmidium syzygii from Syzygium. Other species include Bipolaris microstegii from Microstegium and Synchaetomella acerina from Acer (USA), Brunneiapiospora austropalmicola from Rhopalostylis (New Zealand), Calonectria pentaseptata from Eucalyptus and Macadamia (Vietnam), Ceramothyrium melastoma from Melastoma (Indonesia), Collembolispora aristata from stream foam (Czech Republic), Devriesia imbrexigena from glazed decorative tiles (Portugal), Microcyclospora rhoicola from Rhus (Canada), Seiridium phylicae from Phylica (Tristan de Cunha, Inaccessible Island), Passalora lobeliae-fistulosis from Lobelia (Brazil) and Zymoseptoria verkleyi from Poa (The Netherlands). Valsalnicola represents a new ascomycete genus from Alnus (Austria) and Parapenidiella a new hyphomycete genus from Eucalyptus (Australia). Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are also provided. PMID:23606771

Crous, P W; Shivas, R G; Wingfield, M J; Summerell, B A; Rossman, A Y; Alves, J L; Adams, G C; Barreto, R W; Bell, A; Coutinho, M L; Flory, S L; Gates, G; Grice, K R; Hardy, G E St J; Kleczewski, N M; Lombard, L; Longa, C M O; Louis-Seize, G; Macedo, F; Mahoney, D P; Maresi, G; Martin-Sanchez, P M; Marvanová, L; Minnis, A M; Morgado, L N; Noordeloos, M E; Phillips, A J L; Quaedvlieg, W; Ryan, P G; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Seifert, K A; Swart, W J; Tan, Y P; Tanney, J B; Thu, P Q; Videira, S I R; Walker, D M; Groenewald, J Z

2012-12-01

407

Melanin Production by a Filamentous Soil Fungus in Response to Copper and Localization of Copper Sulfide by Sulfide-Silver Staining  

PubMed Central

Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, a filamentous soil ascomycete, exhibited enhanced cell wall melanin accumulation when exposed to as little as 0.01 mM CuSO(inf4) in minimal broth culture. Because its synthesis was inhibited by tricyclazole, the melanin produced in respo