Science.gov

Sample records for asia oceania research

  1. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  2. Postgraduate Education in Gerontology in the Asia-Oceania Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Cherry; Mahony, Mary Jane; Hughes, Ian; Kendig, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of opportunities for graduate education in Gerontology in the Asia-Oceania Region. It locates emerging demand in a demographic context, highlighting high rates of growth in the aged population within the Region and growing awareness of governments of the need for appropriate planning. An important component of…

  3. Environmental Education in the Asia and Oceania Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connect, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This newsletter is principally devoted to analyzing the policies and progress of environmental education within the Oceania Region and in Asia. Specifically treated are environmental education at the primary level, at the secondary level, and at the post-secondary level. Specific environmental education projects and programs are briefly described.…

  4. Brief histories of medical physics in Asia-Oceania.

    PubMed

    Round, W H; Jafari, S; Kron, T; Azhari, H A; Chhom, S; Hu, Y; Mauldon, G F; Cheung, K Y; Kuppusamy, T; Pawiro, S A; Lubis, L E; Soejoko, D S; Haryanto, F; Endo, M; Han, Y; Suh, T S; Ng, K H; Luvsan-Ish, A; Maung, S O; Chaurasia, P P; Jafri, S M A; Farrukh, S; Peralta, A; Toh, H J; Sarasanandarajah, S; Shiau, A C; Krisanachinda, A; Suriyapee, S; Vinijsorn, S; Nguyen, T C

    2015-09-01

    The history of medical physics in Asia-Oceania goes back to the late nineteenth century when X-ray imaging was introduced, although medical physicists were not appointed until much later. Medical physics developed very quickly in some countries, but in others the socio-economic situation as such prevented it being established for many years. In others, the political situation and war has impeded its development. In many countries their medical physics history has not been well recorded and there is a danger that it will be lost to future generations. In this paper, brief histories of the development of medical physics in most countries in Asia-Oceania are presented by a large number of authors to serve as a record. The histories are necessarily brief; otherwise the paper would quickly turn into a book of hundreds of pages. The emphasis in each history as recorded here varies as the focus and culture of the countries as well as the length of their histories varies considerably. PMID:25894289

  5. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Ngan, Hextan Y. S.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Bhatla, Neerja; Pagliusi, Sonia R.; Chan, Karen K. L.; Cheung, Annie N. Y.; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Domingo, Efren J.; Qiao, You Lin; Park, Jong Sup; Tay, Eng Hseon; Supakarapongkul, Wisit

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to healthcare is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed. PMID:21559068

  6. Marine pollution by persistent organochlorines in Asia and Oceania

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, S.; Iwata, H.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1995-12-31

    The global chemical trade increased year by year and exceeded US$300 billion in 1991. In this context, the share of chemical exports in developing countries is expanding markedly from 7% of the world total value in 1980to 13% in 1991, almost doubling within 10 years. It was also reported that the growth rates of chemical exports in 1991 were less than 1% in developed nations, whereas those in developing countries revealed more than 13%. Among several developing nations, Asian countries have the largest bulk of chemical exports and now top the list of chemical exporters. It is also remarkable that 68% of the share of Asia`s chemical exports in 1991 has gone to the regional market in the same area. These statistics indicate that the growth in supply and demand of chemicals has been far outpaced in developing, countries, particularly the Asian region, and therefore corresponding, environmental problems caused by toxic chemicals are of great concern. The present paper overviews the marine pollution by toxic organochlorines such as PCBs, DDT, HCHs and chlordane compounds in Asia and Oceania, and also deals with their ecotoxicological implications in marine ecosystems. The recent pattern of contamination by organochlorines is prominent in tropical coastal regions, suggesting their continuous usage in the low-latitude developing countries. Due to the high temperature, the toxic contaminants used in the tropics are rapidly evaporated into the air, and then carried by the long-range atmospheric transport on global terms and eventually deposited in the water phase in the polar regions. These situations may accelerate the biological contaminations and possible toxic effects to marine organisms, particularly mammals which are now facing the extraordinary contamination by persistent organochlorines and serious mass mortalities.

  7. Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and Oceania. Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania. Number 21, June 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This issue contains a regional review, discussion of technical and vocational education in countries of Asia and Oceania, articles dealing with various aspects of technical and vocational education, and a bibliographical supplement. The brief statistical review in section 1 concerns second-level technical and vocational education in the developing…

  8. An overview of developments and applications of oceanographic radar networks in Asia and Oceania countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Heron, Malcolm L.; Kim, Kuh; Lai, Jian-Wu; Lee, Sang-Ho; Wu, Xiangbai; Wu, Xiongbin; Wyatt, Lucy R.; Yang, Wen-Chang

    2013-03-01

    More than 110 radar stations are in operation at the present time in Asia and Oceania countries, which is nearly half of all the existing radar stations in the world, for purposes related to marine safety, oil spill response, tsunami warning, coastal zone management and understanding of ocean current dynamics, depending mainly on each country's coastal sea characteristics. This paper introduces the oceanographic radar networks of Australia, China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, presented at the 1st Ocean Radar Conference for Asia (ORCA) held in May 2012, Seoul, Korea, to share information about the radar network developments and operations, knowledge and experiences of data management, and research activity and application of the radar-derived data of neighbouring countries. We hope this overview paper may contribute as the first step to promotion of regional collaborations in the radar observations and data usages and applications in order to efficiently monitor the coastal and marginal sea waters along the western Pacific Ocean periphery.

  9. Education in Asia and Oceania: Reviews, Reports and Notes. Number 15, June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This periodical contains special reports, reviews, and notes of recent documents on education in Asia and Oceania. The first section contains special reports on Pakistan's new educational policy and Thailand's new educational system. Pakistan's 1978 policy provides for village workshops for out-of-school youth; a national council on adult…

  10. Asia & Oceania Today: A Reproducible Atlas. 1995 Revised Edition. World Eagle's Today Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Independent Broadcasting Associates, Inc., Littleton, MA.

    This book contains blank outline maps of the continent or region, tables, and graphics depicting various aspects of Asia and Oceania. Sections of the book include: (1) "The Land and Population Figures"; (2) "Cities and Countries"; (3) "People: Languages, Literacy, Ethnic groups, Demographic Statistics and Projections, Population Age, Women"; (4)…

  11. Education in Asia and Oceania: Reviews, Reports and Notes. Numbers 13-14, September 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This periodical contains special reports, reviews, and notes of recent documents on education in Asia and Oceania. The first special report, "Education in the People's Republic of China," describes that country's task of educating millions of laborers to have a socialist consciousness, to master modern production skills, and to become specialists…

  12. Denisova Admixture and the First Modern Human Dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Kircher, Martin; Delfin, Frederick; Nandineni, Madhusudan R.; Pugach, Irina; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Ko, Ying-Chin; Jinam, Timothy A.; Phipps, Maude E.; Saitou, Naruya; Wollstein, Andreas; Kayser, Manfred; Pääbo, Svante; Stoneking, Mark

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been shown that ancestors of New Guineans and Bougainville Islanders have inherited a proportion of their ancestry from Denisovans, an archaic hominin group from Siberia. However, only a sparse sampling of populations from Southeast Asia and Oceania were analyzed. Here, we quantify Denisova admixture in 33 additional populations from Asia and Oceania. Aboriginal Australians, Near Oceanians, Polynesians, Fijians, east Indonesians, and Mamanwa (a “Negrito” group from the Philippines) have all inherited genetic material from Denisovans, but mainland East Asians, western Indonesians, Jehai (a Negrito group from Malaysia), and Onge (a Negrito group from the Andaman Islands) have not. These results indicate that Denisova gene flow occurred into the common ancestors of New Guineans, Australians, and Mamanwa but not into the ancestors of the Jehai and Onge and suggest that relatives of present-day East Asians were not in Southeast Asia when the Denisova gene flow occurred. Our finding that descendants of the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia do not all harbor Denisova admixture is inconsistent with a history in which the Denisova interbreeding occurred in mainland Asia and then spread over Southeast Asia, leading to all its earliest modern human inhabitants. Instead, the data can be most parsimoniously explained if the Denisova gene flow occurred in Southeast Asia itself. Thus, archaic Denisovans must have lived over an extraordinarily broad geographic and ecological range, from Siberia to tropical Asia. PMID:21944045

  13. Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Kircher, Martin; Delfin, Frederick; Nandineni, Madhusudan R; Pugach, Irina; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Ko, Ying-Chin; Jinam, Timothy A; Phipps, Maude E; Saitou, Naruya; Wollstein, Andreas; Kayser, Manfred; Pääbo, Svante; Stoneking, Mark

    2011-10-01

    It has recently been shown that ancestors of New Guineans and Bougainville Islanders have inherited a proportion of their ancestry from Denisovans, an archaic hominin group from Siberia. However, only a sparse sampling of populations from Southeast Asia and Oceania were analyzed. Here, we quantify Denisova admixture in 33 additional populations from Asia and Oceania. Aboriginal Australians, Near Oceanians, Polynesians, Fijians, east Indonesians, and Mamanwa (a "Negrito" group from the Philippines) have all inherited genetic material from Denisovans, but mainland East Asians, western Indonesians, Jehai (a Negrito group from Malaysia), and Onge (a Negrito group from the Andaman Islands) have not. These results indicate that Denisova gene flow occurred into the common ancestors of New Guineans, Australians, and Mamanwa but not into the ancestors of the Jehai and Onge and suggest that relatives of present-day East Asians were not in Southeast Asia when the Denisova gene flow occurred. Our finding that descendants of the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia do not all harbor Denisova admixture is inconsistent with a history in which the Denisova interbreeding occurred in mainland Asia and then spread over Southeast Asia, leading to all its earliest modern human inhabitants. Instead, the data can be most parsimoniously explained if the Denisova gene flow occurred in Southeast Asia itself. Thus, archaic Denisovans must have lived over an extraordinarily broad geographic and ecological range, from Siberia to tropical Asia. PMID:21944045

  14. Education in Asia and Oceania. Regional Conference of Ministers of Education and Those Responsible for Economic Planning in Asia and Oceania (4th, Colombo, Sri Lanka, July 24-August 1, 1978). Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The book presents background information and papers which were prepared for a conference on educational development in Asia and Oceania. The document is presented in three major sections. Section I offers an overview of regional development strategies with emphasis on the relationship of education to economic development. Major regional objectives…

  15. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Asia, the Far East and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R

    2014-04-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for Asia, the Far East and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements. PMID:25000779

  16. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region. PMID:17360400

  17. IFLA General Conference, 1992. Division of Regional Activities: Section on Africa; Section on Asia/Oceania; Section on Latin America and the Caribbean. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, London (England).

    Seven papers delivered at the 1992 International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions annual meeting relating to regional activities are presented. These papers deal with library issues in Africa, Asia and Oceania, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The papers are: (1) "Designing National Information Policies in African: Process and…

  18. Towards understanding the origin and dispersal of Austronesians in the Solomon Sea: HLA class II polymorphism in eight distinct populations of Asia-Oceania.

    PubMed

    Zimdahl, H; Schiefenhövel, W; Kayser, M; Roewer, L; Nagy, M

    1999-12-01

    HLA class II nucleotide sequence polymorphisms were examined in eight ethnic groups of Asia-Oceania using DNA typing methods. Allele frequencies and characteristic DR/DQ haplotypes were determined and compared with those of other populations of Asia-Oceania. Genetic distances were measured to show the genetic relationship within the studied populations as well as between the studied populations and previously published populations. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on HLA allele frequencies using the neighbour-joining method. The populations, mainly Trobriand Islanders, Roro, Tolai, Western Samoans and Taiwanese Aborigines, are characterized by a reduced diversity at the HLA loci examined, especially for DPB1. The high frequency of the 'Asian'-specific DPB1*0501 allele in Trobrianders and Roro, but also in Western Samoans and Taiwanese Aborigines, was the most striking result. The prevalence of DPB1*0501 and the short genetic distance from Trobriander and Roro to Taiwanese Aborigines provide evidence that the origin of the Austronesian odyssey is south-east Asia, and Taiwan could be an important part of it. The relatedness of Trobrianders to the Polynesian population from Western Samoa indicates a probable recent common ancestor. The observed lack of diversity may reflect bottleneck(s) and/or limited diversity of the founding population. Analysis of HLA class I antigens, together with mt-DNA and Y-chromosomal studies, will give us further information about the settlement of the Trobriand and other islands during the colonization of the Pacific. PMID:10583462

  19. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Russell, P. B.; Palacios, S. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Broughton, J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the CIRPAS Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of phytoplankton for coastal zone research.

  20. Shipboard monitoring of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Asia and Oceania using commercially cargo vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Mukai, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Hashimoto, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been performing a long-term program for monitoring trace gases of atmospheric importance over the Pacific Ocean since 1995. The NIES Voluntary Observing Ships (NIES-VOS) program currently makes use of commercial cargo vessels because they operate regularly over fixed routes for long periods and sail over a wide area between various ports (e.g., between Japan and the United States, between Japan and Australia/New Zealand, and between Japan and southeast Asia). This program allows systematic and continuous measurements of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, providing long-term datasets for background air over the Pacific Ocean and regionally polluted air around east Asia. We observe both long-lived greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived air pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide) on a continuous basis. Flask samples are collected for later laboratory analysis of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide by using gas chromatographic techniques. In addition, we recently installed cavity ringdown spectrometers for high-resolution measurement of methane and carbon dioxide to capture their highly variable features in regionally polluted air around southeast Asia (e.g., Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippine), which is now thought to be a large source due to expanding socioeconomic activities as well as biomass burnings. Contrasting the Japan-Australia/New Zealand and Japan-southeast Asia cruises revealed regional characteristics of sources and sinks of these atmospherically important species, suggesting the existence of additional sources for methane, nitrous oxides, and carbon monoxide in this tropical Asian region.

  1. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions in Support of Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Kudela, Raphael; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Myers, Jeffrey; Dunagan, Stephen; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John; Negrey, Kendra; Torres-Perez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data were accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the CIRPAS Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of phytoplankton for coastal zone research. Further, this airborne capability can be responsive to first flush rain events that deliver higher concentrations of sediments and pollution to coastal waters via watersheds and overland flow.

  2. Language Teacher Research in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The Language Teacher Research Series aims to connect research and practice by highlighting the insights that teachers themselves describe after examining their own practices. This first volume of the five-volume series presents research conducted by language teachers at all levels, from high school English teachers to English language teacher…

  3. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1990-01-01

    Summaries of eight language-related research projects are presented from Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Topics include children's reading, nonstandard spoken Indonesian, English speech act performance, classroom verbal interaction, journal writing, and listening comprehension. (LB)

  4. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1992-01-01

    Summaries of eight language-related research projects are presented from Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include a sociolinguistic profile, teacher and learner views of language lessons, Malay-accented English and employability, reading difficulties, language culture disjunction, placement interviews, and…

  5. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1989-01-01

    Summaries of six language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbook evaluation, translatability of Filipino texts, group discussions in Thai junior colleges, bilingual language, and children's reading development. (LB)

  6. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1991-01-01

    Summaries of seven language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include a lexicon of Kelabit, cognitive theory for second-language acquisition, academic writing in Filipino, cultural politics of English instruction, use of conjunctions, and communicative grammar. (LB)

  7. Advancing Research on Comparative and International Education in Asia: Contribution of the "Asia Pacific Education Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Enes; Weidman, John C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the contribution of Asia Pacific Education Review (APER) to expanding the scope of research on comparative and international education in Asia. We developed a rubric based on extensive studies (Rust et al. in "Comp Educ Rev," 43(1):86-109, 1999; Foster et al. in "Int J Educ Dev" 32:711-732, 2012) of…

  8. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  9. Current status of Barrett's esophagus research in Asia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Yang; Cook, Michael B; Lee, Yi-Chia; Lin, Jaw-Town; Ando, Takafumi; Bhatia, Shobna; Chow, Wong-Ho; El-Omar, Emad M; Goto, Hidemi; Li, Yang-Qing; McColl, Kenneth; Reddy, Nageshwar; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sharma, Prateek; Sung, Joseph J-Y; Ghoshal, Uday; Wong, Jennie Y-Y; Wu, Justin C-Y; Zhang, Jun; Ho, Khek-Yu

    2011-02-01

    In Western countries, the epidemiology of esophageal cancer has changed considerably over the past decades with a rise in the ratio of adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma. Although the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux is increasing in Asia, the prevalences of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have remained low in most Asian countries. The Asian Barrett's Consortium recently conducted a review of published studies on BE from Asia to assess the current status of BE research in Asia, and to recommend potential areas for future BE research in the region. Differences in study design, enrolled population, and endoscopic biopsy protocols used have led to substantial variability in the reported BE prevalence (0.06% to 19.9%) across Asia. In particular, some Japanese studies used diagnostic criteria that differed considerably from what was used in most Asian studies. As in Western countries, increased age, male sex, tobacco smoking, reflux symptoms, and erosive esophagitis have been found to be risk factors for BE in several case-control studies from Asia. The Prague C and M criteria, developed to provide better interobserver reliability in diagnosis and grading of BE, are currently under extensive evaluation in the Asian population. There is a need for standardized protocols for endoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis before initiating collaborative projects to identify etiologic determinants of BE and its ensuing malignant transformation. At present, data regarding the management and long-term outcome of BE are extremely limited in Asia. More studies of BE in this geographic area are warranted. PMID:21155883

  10. Asia and the Pacific in 2020: Scenarios for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Colin

    2009-01-01

    By 2020 our world will have changed and with it the shape and role of education and of educational research. One cannot predict the future, but in this paper three possible scenarios are outlined reflecting alternative approaches of government to the economic, political, social and environmental challenges facing the Asia Pacific region. For each…

  11. Psychological Education, Research and Publication in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Weining C.

    This paper recognizes that psychology, as a formal, organized discipline researched and taught in great institutions of learning since its inception in 1879, has been a Western enterprise, whose applications and generalizations to the behaviors of people from non-Western cultural communities seem to be questionable. There is a need for developing…

  12. International Voices: Reading in Kazakhstan and Oceania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith; Golopyatova, Nina; Goodwin, Maureen; Peirce, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This column focuses on the innovative strategies some teachers from Kazakhstan and Oceania are using to overcome the challenges they face. In Kazakhstan, schools organize reading days to encourage and inspire children to read. In the predominantly oral culture of the Cook Islands, Niue Island, and Rarotonga, teachers and administrators model…

  13. Breast cancer research in Asia: adopt or adapt Western knowledge?

    PubMed

    Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Yip, Cheng-Har; Hartman, Mikael; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Devi, Beena C R; Peeters, Petra H M; Taib, Nur Aishah; van Gils, Carla H; Verkooijen, Helena M

    2013-02-01

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer continues to rise rapidly in Asian countries. However, most of our current knowledge on breast cancer has been generated in Western populations. As the socio-economic profile, life style and culture of Asian and Western women are substantially different, and genetic backgrounds vary to some extent, we need to answer the question on whether to 'adopt' or 'adapt' Western knowledge before applying it in the Asian setting. It is generally accepted that breast cancer risk factors, which have mainly been studied in Western populations are similar worldwide. However, the presence of gene-environment or gene-gene interactions may alter their importance as causal factors across populations. Diagnostic and prognostic study findings, including breast cancer prediction rules, are increasingly shown to be 'setting specific' and must therefore be validated in Asian women before implementing them in clinical care in Asia. Interventional research findings from Caucasian patients may not be applicable in patients in Asia due to differences in tumour biology/profiles, metabolism of drugs and also health beliefs which can influence treatment acceptance and adherence. While breast cancer research in Asia is warranted in all domains of medical research, it is felt that for Asian breast cancer patients, needs are highest for diagnostic and prognostic studies. International clinical trials meanwhile need to include breast cancer patients from various Asian settings to provide an insight into the effectiveness of new treatment modalities in this part of the world. PMID:23040889

  14. Stem cell research in Asia: a critical view.

    PubMed

    Sipp, Douglas

    2009-08-01

    Stem cell research stands as a high-priority field in many countries across the Asia-Pacific region, and the past decade has seen remarkable investment into facilities and programs intended to increase competitiveness in the drive to find clinical applications. In the years roughly framed by Korean cloner Woo-Suk Hwang's meteoric ascent and fall, speculation was rampant that Asia was poised to overtake the West in this field of science. But that potential remains unfulfilled. In this article, I will look at some of the deficits in infrastructure and governance that underlie the East-West stem cell gap, and suggest a number of measures that might be taken to remedy them. PMID:19365812

  15. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dacca Univ., Bangladesh. Inst. of Education and Research.

    Bangladesh stresses the importance of education responsive to the country's development needs and capable of producing, through formal or non-formal methods, skilled, employable manpower. Although no pre-vocational training exists, new curricula have introduced practical work experience in the primary schools and have integrated agriculture,…

  16. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan).

    In Pakistan, academic education is a luxury. Instead, education must be geared to production, solving practical problems, and promoting national development. Since 1951, Pakistan has attempted to bring work and education together and to throw off the structural and attitudinal restrictions of a foreign educational system which strangled tradition,…

  17. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipines National Commission for UNESCO.

    Since the launching of the New Society in 1972, educational focus in the Philippines has been on manpower development and the creation of employable graduates, thus tying education to economic and national development. Despite an 83% literacy rate, low productivity and employment were cause for a revised elementary/secondary curriculum which…

  18. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Indian educational policy is based on the Gandhian philosophy that personality development and social transformation result from education based on Socially Useful Productive Work; that is, meaningful manual work resulting in goods or services useful to the community. Decentralized work programs plus a core curriculum are basic to secondary…

  19. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Committee, Kathmandu (Nepal).

    The 1971-76 National Education System Plan to modernize education in Nepal and the 1975-1980 Fifth Plan of His Majesty's Government, emphasizing vocational education to meet the country's technical manpower needs, are attempts to make education relevant to the needs and aspirations of Nepal by linking education with productive enterprise and…

  20. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugasu, V.

    Work oriented education has been tied to national development in Malaysia since the 1960's. Increasing population, unemployment, and shortages of skilled manpower led the government to relate education more closely to work and develop technical and vocational education. Malaysia extended basic education to lower secondary manpower needs; and…

  1. Vernacular and Culturally Based Education in Oceania Today: Articulating Global, National and Local Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jourdan, Christine; Salaün, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Much research has focused on a linguistic view of vernacular or culturally based education programmes, while the political aspects of creating such programmes have been less frequently addressed. Throughout Oceania, formal schooling is linked to the colonial encounter, and although the legacy of colonial education continues to shape current…

  2. Collaborative addiction research in the United States and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons between Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) and, when possible, similar populations from their ancestral land of origin may allow for unique insights into the development of substance use disorders. Drawn from research conducted within the Hmong residing in the United States and from ongoing collaborative work between the United States and Vietnam, this paper presents a few examples of the types of addiction research that may be possible in Asian populations, both in the United States and in Asia, with a focus on developing South East Asian countries and their AAPI counterparts in the United States. Approaches to research may include epidemiological surveys, evaluation of treatment need and outcome, and genetic contributors to the risk for substance use disorders (SUDs) as well as response to SUD treatment. PMID:25242874

  3. Climate Variability and the Settlement of Oceania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avis, C.; Montenegro, A.; Weaver, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    The initial discovery and settlement of the islands of Oceania is an important issue in Pacific anthropology. Settlement of this region generally proceeded against the direction of the dominant trade winds leading to questions concerning the degree of maritime skill possessed by early Pacific mariners. We use a computer simulation to test two basic exploration strategies: drift voyages and downwind sailing, focusing on the region of the initial eastward expansion into Oceania by the Lapita people. Simulations are driven by high resolution surface wind and current data from atmosphere and ocean models forced by real observations and which capture the high degree of seasonal and interannual variability in the region. We find that climatic variability associated with the Australian monsoon circulation and El Nino plays a key role in facilitating eastward crossings. Both drift and sailing voyages can account for the discovery of all the islands in the Lapita region based on initial starting points in the Bismarck and Solomon archipelagos. Many of our findings differ from an important, earlier modeling study performed by Levison et al. (1973).

  4. Exploring Ecosystems and Health by Shifting to a Regional Focus: Perspectives from the Oceania EcoHealth Chapter

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Jonathan; Patrick, Rebecca; Horwitz, Pierre; Parkes, Margot; Jenkins, Aaron; Massy, Charles; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Arabena, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights contributions that can be made to the public health field by incorporating “ecosystem approaches to health” to tackle future environmental and health challenges at a regional level. This qualitative research reviews attitudes and understandings of the relationship between public health and the environment and the priorities, aspirations and challenges of a newly established group (the Oceania EcoHealth Chapter) who are attempting to promote these principles. Ten semi-structured interviews with Oceania EcoHealth Chapter members highlighted the important role such groups can play in informing organisations working in the Oceania region to improve both public health and environmental outcomes simultaneously. Participants of this study emphasise the need to elevate Indigenous knowledge in Oceania and the role regional groups play in this regard. They also emphasis that regional advocacy and ecosystem approaches to health could bypass silos in knowledge and disciplinary divides, with groups like the Oceania EcoHealth Chapter acting as a mechanism for knowledge exchange, engagement, and action at a regional level with its ability to bridge the gap between environmental stewardship and public health. PMID:26473903

  5. Oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS in Asia: Systematic review and future research guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder-Singh; Vohra, Puneeta; Nagpal, Archna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The authors have conducted a systematic review of oral manifestations of HIV from studies conducted in Asia to establish the characteristics and prevalence of individual oral manifestations in Asia, and to assess the direction of future research studies on oral manifestations of HIV in Asia. Material and Methods The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE], EBSCO, and EMBASE. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period January 1995 to August 2014. The authors reached a final overall sample of 39 studies that were conducted in Asia. Results The median population size among all studies was 312.7 patients. Oral candidiasis [OC] was the most common oral manifestation [37.7%] in studies conducted in Asia. The overall prevalence of oral hairy leukoplakia and melanotic hyperpigmentation was computed to be 10.1% and 22.8% respectively. Thailand and India are primarily countries with maximum research on oral manifestations. Conclusions The research on oral manifestations of HIV in Asia has to upgrade to more interventional and therapeutic studies rather than the contemporary cross- sectional epidemiological descriptive studies. The authors have given suggestions and future directions for the implementation of clinical research of oral manifestations in HIV patients. Key words:Oral manifestations, HIV/AIDS, Asia, Systematic review. PMID:26330942

  6. Adult Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue reproduces articles adapted from country reports presented to a Regional Seminar on Adult Education and Development in Asia and Oceania, Bangkok, November 1980. A summary of adult and nonformal education in the region forms section 1. Highlights of the country articles in section 2 include Afghanistan--national literacy campaign;…

  7. Terra Australis to Oceania: racial geography in the "fifth part of the world".

    PubMed

    Douglas, Bronwen

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a synoptic history of racial geography in the 'fifth part of the world' or Oceania - an extended region embracing what are now Australia, Island Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, Aotearoa/New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. The period in question stretches from classical antiquity to the Enlightenment, to focus on the consolidation of European racial thinking with the marriage of geography and raciology in the early 19th century. The paper investigates the naming of places by Europeans and its ultimate entanglement with their racial classifications of people. The formulation of geographical and anthropological knowledge is located at the interface of metropolitan discourses and local experience. This necessitates unpacking the relationships between, on the one hand, the deductive reasoning of metropolitan savants, and, on the other hand, the empirical logic of voyagers and settlers who had visited or lived in particular places, encountered their inhabitants, and been exposed, often unwittingly, to indigenous agency and knowledge. PMID:20836257

  8. A Synthesis of Reviews of Research on Principal Leadership in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Hallinger, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesize findings from five systematic reviews of research on principal leadership in East Asia contained in this special issue. The goal is to identify commonalities as well as differences concerning both approaches to research and the enactment of school leadership within this rapidly developing and…

  9. Higher Education Research in Asia: A Publication and Co-Publication Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    This study explores higher education research in Asia. Drawing on scientometrics, the mapping of science and social network analysis, this paper examines the publications of 38 specialised journals on higher education over the past three decades. The findings indicate a growing number of higher education research publications but the proportion of…

  10. Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Blurring Borders, Changing Balance. Routledge Research on Public and Social Policy in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to systematically chart and comparatively assess the trend towards private higher education in South East Asia. Caught between conflicting imperatives of spiralling demand, and limited resources, the balance between public and private higher education systems in South East, South, and East Asia has shifted markedly. The…

  11. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices

  12. Physical activity and obesity research in the Asia-Pacific: a review.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony

    2012-05-01

    Obesity is a global health concern and has a great impact on countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for obesity, but physical activity levels are declining in much of this region. Increasing physical activity is a priority in many countries. Considerable research has been conducted on physical activity related to obesity in Western countries, but populations in the Asia-Pacific region differ in physical, psychological, social, and cultural ways that warrant local and regional research. The authors reviewed research conducted in the Asia-Pacific region that examined either the impact of physical activity interventions on obesity-related outcomes or the effect of behavior-change interventions on physical activity participation. The number of studies found was limited, and their samples and methods varied too much to draw conclusions. The authors recommend further research in the Asia-Pacific region using systematic protocols to permit sound conclusions to be drawn and promote informed action at local levels. PMID:22593220

  13. An Analysis of Asia-Pacific Educational Technology Research Published Internationally in 2000-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung; Yoo, Mina

    2014-01-01

    The past fourteen years have seen a significant rise in the percentage of Asia-Pacific papers on educational technology (ET) published internationally: from 13.7% in 2000 to 38.4% in 2013. This study seeks to identify the overall trends and gaps in this research. Of the 4,332 articles published in five selected international journals between 2000…

  14. Complementary feeding practices in South Asia: analyses of recent national survey data by the South Asia Infant Feeding Research Network.

    PubMed

    Senarath, Upul; Dibley, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    South Asian region has the highest global burden of child undernutrition, with almost 41% of children stunted, 16% wasted and 33% underweight. Improved feeding of children less than 2 years of age is particularly important because they experience rapid growth and development, and are vulnerable to illnesses such as acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases. The present supplement aimed to describe complementary feeding practices in five South Asian countries - Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka - using the new and updated global complementary feeding indicators and to identify determinants of inappropriate complementary feeding practices. The South Asia Infant Feeding Research Network held a series of workshops to study and discuss the operational guidelines for the new complementary feeding indicators in consultation with regional and international experts. The latest Demographic and Health Surveys for Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and the National Family Health Survey of India were used as data sources. Four key indicators were calculated: introduction of solid, semisolid or soft foods in 6-8 months aged, minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet in 6-23-month-aged children. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of poor complementary feeding practices. The papers in this supplement present results of these analyses for each individual country and a comparison between countries. The results have important implications for policies, programmes and research on infant and young child feeding in the region, especially for targeting groups at high risk for suboptimal practices. PMID:22168515

  15. The Diffusion of Research: Four Examples from Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowat, Susanne

    1981-01-01

    Examines the factors affecting the diffusion of educational assessment studies done in four countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Phillipines, Thailand). The author concludes that educational research designs in developing countries must include mechanisms for information diffusion to the public and policy-makers to insure both short and long-term…

  16. Neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia: an overview of research from Asia.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2012-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia help clarify the neural substrates underlying the pathogenesis of this neuropsychiatric disorder. Contemporary brain imaging in schizophrenia is predominated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based research approaches. This review focuses on the various imaging studies from India and their relevance to the understanding of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. The existing studies are predominantly comprised of structural MRI reports involving region-of-interest and voxel-based morphometry approaches, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and single-photon emission computed tomography/positron emission tomography (SPECT/PET) studies. Most of these studies are significant in that they have evaluated antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients--a relatively difficult population to obtain in contemporary research. Findings of these studies offer robust support to the existence of significant brain abnormalities at very early stages of the disorder. In addition, theoretically relevant relationships between these brain abnormalities and developmental aberrations suggest possible neurodevelopmental basis for these brain deficits. PMID:23057977

  17. Radio Spectrum Management in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzioumis, T.

    2004-06-01

    The Asia-Pacific region comprises countries in ITU-R Region 3 from South and East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific islands, while excluding the Americas. Organizations in the Asia- Pacific region face special challenges in coping with the very diverse cultures and languages of the different nations. Telecommunications in each country are usually administered by a single National Communications Administration. These administrations participate in a number of regional umbrella organizations which promote cooperation in the development of communications in the Asia-Pacific. Those with relevance to radio astronomy are briefly oulined in this paper.

  18. Development of an International Research Project of Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, C.

    2006-05-01

    Monson Asia has been recommended as one of the critical regions of integrated study of global change. Among a number of reasons, the most significant features of Monsoon Asia is that this is a region where the major features of landscape, such as vegetation, soil and water system are mainly developed under the most representative monsoon climate. On the other hand, the Monsoon Asia is a region with the most active human development. It has more than 5000 years long history of civilization and highest population density of the world, reaching 57 percent of word population. It also had the most rapid development in last decades and is projected to maintain its high growth rates in the foreseeable future. The human-monsoon system interactions and their linkages with the earth system dynamics could be a challenge issue of global change research and a sustainable Asia . A science plan of MAIRS is under drafting by SSC of MAIRS under the guidance of START and an international project office of MAIRS was formally opened in IAP/Chinese Academy of Sciences under the support of Chinese government. The overall objectives of the MAIRS that will combine field experiments, process studies, and modeling components are: 1) To better understand how human activities in regions are interacting with and altering natural regional variability of the atmospheric, terrestrial, and marine components of the environment; 2) To contribute to the provision of a sound scientific basis for sustainable regional development; 3) To develop a predictive capability of estimating changes in global-regional linkages in the Earth System and to recognize on a sound scientific basis the future consequences of such changes.

  19. Environmental Prime Movers for Prehistoric Colonization of Islands in Remote Oceania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, Alvaro; Callaghan, Richard T.; Fitzpatrick, Scott M.

    2016-04-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceania was one of the last great waves of human migration in the ancient past. Beginning around 3500 BP, peoples from Island Southeast Asia began colonizing western Micronesia, and shortly thereafter ca. 3400 BP, Lapita groups began moving east from Near Oceania (e.g., the Solomons and Bismarck Archipelago) to islands in Eastern Melanesia and West Polynesia, including Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa. It is remarkable that over the next 2500 years, even the most remote islands, known now to represent the distant nodes of the Polynesian triangle (New Zealand, Hawaii, and Easter Island), were eventually visited by Austronesian speakers and their descendants across this seemingly boundless ocean. One of the more enduring questions - and one that has perplexed scholars for decades - is how and when these ancient seafarers were able to develop navigational/wayfinding techniques and seafaring technologies to overcome a number of environmental challenges. This would ultimately help determine what combination of social and environmental stimuli forced or encouraged people to colonize some of the most isolated patches of land on earth. To advance our understanding of ancient Pacific colonization strategies, we integrate seafaring simulation models, ease of eastward travel estimates based on land distribution and wind pattern analysis, and new climatic datasets for precipitation in Micronesia and Polynesia to examine intra-annual variations in wind and precipitation that would have influenced travel. Combined with statistical modeling of winds and currents, we argue that: land distribution could have contributed to the pause in eastward expansion seen at about 3000 BP; simple downwind sailing and downwind sailing during eastward spells are viable navigation strategies for reaching islands to the east; seasonality of eastward winds would facilitate voyage planning and increase chances of success; knowledge of annual and interannual variability

  20. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) onboard the HALO research aircraft during OMO-ASIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safadi, Layal; Neumaier, Marco; Fischbeck, Garlich; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We report on first results of VOC measurements during the OMO-Asia campaign that took place in summer 2015 on Cyprus and on the island of Gan (Maldives) to study the free-radical chemistry at higher altitudes during the Asian summer monsoon. The deployed instrument (KMS = Karlsruhe Mass Spectrometer) is based on a commercial PTRMS from Ionicon and was strongly modified for the use onboard the research aircraft HALO (a modified Gulfstream GV-550 having a ceiling altitude of ~15.5 km). By the construction of an aluminum vacuum system, the development of largely custom-made electronics and the use of light-weight pumps, the weight was reduced to ~55 kg compared to 120-130 kg of the commercial instrument. The KMS is in addition very robust and field-compliant. Before OMO-Asia the HALO payload was tested first during a technical field campaign OMO-EU which took place in Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) in winter 2015. During OMO-Asia the instrument was calibrated before and after each flight by diluting an external gas standard (Apel-Riemer Environmental, Inc. Denver, Colorado) containing ~1 ppm of 10 VOCs. The determined sensitivity for acetone was ~380 cps/ppb showing a variation of ±5% over a period of 8 weeks. The detection limit amounted to ~35 ppt for acetone at an integration time of 6 s. The measurements during all together 17 flights took place over a wide range of Asia, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman and Sri Lanka. Referring to the meteorological forecasts of carbon monoxide (CO), remnant of the Asia monsoon outflow was measured during some flights (e.g. over Oman). Acetone mixing ratios of up to ~1500 ppt and up to ~100 ppt of benzene were measured in the outflow of the plume. The gathered data shows a good correlation with the measurements taken with other instruments (e.g. CO measurements by Max Planck Institute for Chemistry). The poster will describe the instrument and the main features derived.

  1. Deploying the Post-Colonial Predicaments of Researching on/with "Asia" in Education: A Standpoint from a Rich Peripheral Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Against the current infatuation with Asia in Australian education, this article rearticulates the notion of "Asia literacy" to explore new ways of researching on/with/through Asia. Drawing on the post-colonial critique of Western social science knowledge, I first demonstrate the problematic nature of Australian knowledge production on…

  2. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  3. Challenges of cross-cultural research: Lessons from a U.S.-Asia HIV collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Simoni, Jane M.; Chuang, Peing; Zhao, Hongxin; Bao, Meijuan; Lu, Hongzhou

    2013-01-01

    Many Asian countries have scaled up their research to combat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV experts from the West have teamed up with these countries to assist in designing research protocols and providing necessary training. In this paper, we document the formation and maintenance of international and interdisciplinary HIV research collaboration among cross-disciplinary researchers working in the United States, Taiwan, and China. We conducted international social-behavioral HIV studies in several major metropolitan areas in Asia. Culturally sensitive issues that could be attributed to social and disciplinary differences have emerged throughout the collaboration process, including questions of who should be the research leader, where should resources be allocated, how should tasks be shared, which topics are valuable for investigation, and what survey questions are allowable. There is now a window of opportunity for greater international and interdisciplinary collaboration; however, for such collaboration to flourish, team dynamics in international research collaboration should be carefully identified and managed before studies are begun. PMID:23419838

  4. Problems and potential of researching epidemiological transition: examples from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D R

    1991-01-01

    The concept of epidemiological transition is now quite widely recognized, if not so widely accepted. The transition appears to progress at varying speeds and to different extents spatially; it seems that there can be considerable international, regional and local variations in its progress. The paper examines this contention in the case of a number of countries in Southeast Asia, principally Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand. Drawing on evidence from this region, the paper highlights the importance when researching epidemiological transition of the time period under consideration; socio-cultural variations; the nature and quality of data, and spatial scale. It makes some suggestions as to the potential of the concept of epidemiological transition in health care planning and development studies. PMID:1948152

  5. Progress in research, control and elimination of helminth infections in Asia.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W; Leonardo, Lydia; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Bergquist, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Global health has substantially improved over the past 20 years. In low- and middle-income countries, in particular, great strives have been made in the control of communicable diseases, including helminth infections. Nevertheless, the most marginalised communities still suffer from infectious diseases that are intimately connected with poverty and lack of access to essential commodities and services, such as clean water, improved sanitation and sufficient food. A two-pronged approach is thus necessary: (i) intensifying control in remaining high-endemicity areas and pockets of high transmission; and (ii) moving from morbidity control to interruption of disease transmission in low-endemicity areas with the goal of local elimination. The latter will require new tools and strategies, going hand-in-hand with strong partnerships and new strategic alliances. In this special issue of Acta Tropica, 35 articles are featured that, together, provide an up-to-date overview of the latest progress made in research, control and elimination of helminth infections in East and Southeast Asia. The first 12 articles expound tools and approaches for improved detection, surveillance and monitoring of helminth infections. Control and elimination approaches for the most important helminth infections are revisited in the next 20 articles. The three remaining articles are cross-cutting pieces examining the interface of agriculture, environment and helminth infections and providing a rationale for integrated, multi-sectorial control approaches that are necessary for sustaining helminthiasis control and progressively moving towards elimination. An interesting aspect revealed through an in-depth analysis of the provenance of the 35 contributions is that the People's Republic of China emerges as a key player in global health, which is documented through its prominent role in research and control of helminth infection and networking throughout Asia. Policy implications are discussed and will

  6. East Asia Dust Source Location Using the Naval Research Laboratory's 1-km Dust Enhancement Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    In the effort to predict dust storms and their effects on local, regional and global scales an often cited uncertainty is the precise location of dust sources. Many approaches have been used to identify major dust source regions in East Asia. These approaches include analysis of station data for frequency of dust storms, drifting dust, dusty day, wind speed, and PM10 total suspended particulates. Some approaches emphasize the location of land surface type (Gobi, sandy desert, and loess) and geomorphological setting/features (basins, plateaus, alluvial fans, dry rivers, or oases). Other approaches use remote sensing to locate areas of high dust activity using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index (TOMS AI) data, to correlate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) vegetation cover with dust storm frequency, or to track dust storm event origination by analyzing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. It is also customary for researchers to combine two or more of these approaches to identify dust source regions. In this paper we use a novel approach to locate dust sources in East Asia. Utilizing the Naval Research Laboratory's satellite derived 1-km Dust Enhancement Product (DEP) imagery we can readily distinguish elevated dust over land from other components of the scene and individual dust plumes are readily seen. The high resolution of the DEP allows the many small, eroding point sources (measuring 1-10s km across) that form individual plumes to be located. Five years (2007 - 2011) of East Asia DEP imagery have been analyzed. Dust source frequency plots will be shown highlighting the most active dust source areas in East Asia. Our results show the most active point sources are located along the slopes and around the rim of large basins. Within basins, on plateaus and in valleys point sources are concentrated in smaller depressions relative to the surrounding topography. Point sources are also associated with the action of

  7. Coordinating research on neglected parasitic diseases in Southeast Asia through networking.

    PubMed

    Olveda, Remigio; Leonardo, Lydia; Zheng, Feng; Sripa, Banchob; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    The new dialogue between stakeholders, that is, scientists, research administrators and donors as well as the populations victimized by endemic infections, is initiating a virtuous circle leading to lower disease-burdens, improved public health and the mitigation of poverty. There is now general agreement that control activities need research collaboration to advance, while surveillance plays an increasingly important role in sustaining long-term relief. On the part of the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)), this has led to a new vision not only focused on general strengthening of research capabilities but also on furthering efforts to close the gap between research and control and bridge different branches of science. From its original, exclusive focus on schistosomiasis, RNAS(+) has expanded to include food-borne and soil-transmitted helminth infections as well. Its current repository of data on the distribution, prevalence and severity of these diseases is increasingly utilised by decision makers charged with epidemiological control in the endemic countries. Thanks to a more rapid translation of research results into control applications and the dissemination of data and new technology through networking, the overall situation is improving. Working as a virtual organisation of researchers and control officers in the endemic countries of Southeast Asia, RNAS(+) is playing an important role in this conversion. Its responsibilities are divided along disease lines into five main areas, but no serious, endemic disease is considered to be outside the network's sphere of interest. This chapter recounts some of the more important RNAS(+) accomplishments, pinpoints potential directions for future operations and highlights areas where research is most needed. PMID:20624528

  8. English Language Education among Young Learners in East Asia: A Review of Current Research (2004-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages to young learners is growing in popularity around the world. Research in this field, particularly of English as a second/foreign language education in East Asia, is a relatively new area of empirical inquiry, and it has the potential to make significant contributions to child second-language acquisition…

  9. Coordinating Centers in Cancer-Epidemiology Research: The Asia Cohort Consortium Coordinating Center

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Betsy; Smith, Briana R; Potter, John D

    2011-01-01

    Although it is tacitly recognized that a good Coordinating Center (CC) is essential to the success of any multi-site collaborative project, very little study has been done on what makes a CC successful, why some CCs fail, or how to build a CC that meets the needs of a given project. Moreover, very little published guidance is available, as few CCs outside the clinical-trial realm write about their work. The Asia Cohort Consortium (ACC) is a collaborative cancer-epidemiology research project that has made strong scientific and organizational progress over the past three years by focusing its CC on the following activities: collaboration development; operations management; statistical and data management; and communications infrastructure and tool development. Our hope is that, by sharing our experience building the ACC CC, we can begin a conversation about what it means to run a coordinating center for multi-institutional collaboration in cancer epidemiology, help other collaborative projects solve some of the issues associated with collaborative research, and learn from others. PMID:21803842

  10. Coordinating centers in cancer epidemiology research: the Asia Cohort Consortium coordinating center.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Betsy; Smith, Briana R; Potter, John D

    2011-10-01

    Although it is tacitly recognized that a good coordinating center (CC) is essential to the success of any multisite collaborative project, very little study has been done on what makes a CC successful, why some CCs fail, or how to build a CC that meets the needs of a given project. Moreover, very little published guidance is available, as few CCs outside the clinical trial realm write about their work. The Asia Cohort Consortium (ACC) is a collaborative cancer epidemiology research project that has made strong scientific and organizational progress over the past 3 years by focusing its CC on the following activities: collaboration development; operations management; statistical and data management; and communications infrastructure and tool development. Our hope is that, by sharing our experience building the ACC CC, we can begin a conversation about what it means to run a CC for multi-institutional collaboration in cancer epidemiology, help other collaborative projects solve some of the issues associated with collaborative research, and learn from others. PMID:21803842

  11. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nick; Moore, Tim; Crofts, Nick

    2012-01-01

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers.In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness.While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050

  12. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers. In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness. While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050

  13. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  14. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  15. ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the ‘ELSI 2.0’ initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586

  16. ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Go; Ho, Calvin Wai-Loon; Zhu, Wei; Hu, Chingli; Syukriani, Yoni; Lee, Ilhak; Kim, Hannah; Tsai, Daniel Fu Chang; Minari, Jusaku; Kato, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the 'ELSI 2.0' initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586

  17. Distribution of rickettsioses in Oceania: past patterns and implications for the future.

    PubMed

    Derne, Bonnie; Weinstein, Philip; Musso, Didier; Lau, Colleen

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsioses present a threat to human health worldwide, but relatively little is known on their epidemiology and ecology in Oceania. These bacteria are the cause of potentially fatal febrile illnesses in humans (categorized into scrub typhus, typhus group and spotted fever group rickettsioses). They are transmitted by arthropod vectors such as ticks, mites, fleas and lice, which are associated with vertebrate host animals including rodents and companion animals. We conducted a search in the scientific and grey literature of Rickettsia spp. and Orientia tsutsugamushi within the Oceania region. Human case reports, human serosurveys and PCR-based testing of vectors and host animals reviewed here highlight the widespread distribution of these pathogens in the region, with the majority of human serological and vector surveys reporting positive results. These findings suggest that rickettsioses may have a significantly higher burden of disease in Oceania than is currently appreciated due to diagnostic challenges. Furthermore, consideration of the ecology and risk factors for rickettsioses reported for Oceania suggests that their importance as a cause of undifferentiated acute febrile illness may grow in the future: environmental and social changes driven by predicted climate change and population growth have the potential to lead to the emergence of rickettsioses as a significant public health problem in Oceania. PMID:25446172

  18. PREFACE: Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Toru; Okano, Ken

    2012-03-01

    AP-IRC Logo Scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and policymakers gather at the first truly interdisciplinary conference held in Asia-Pacific http://www.apirc.jp/ The inaugural Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011) was held at Toyohashi University of Technology (Toyohashi Tech) on 17-18 November 2011. The conference is a forum for enhancing mutual understanding between scientists, engineers, policymakers and experts from a wide spectrum of pure and applied sciences, to resolve the daunting global issues facing mankind. The conference attracted approximately 300 participants including delegates from France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, USA and Vietnam. AP-IRC 2011 was chaired by Dr Yoshiyuki Sakaki, President of Toyohashi Tech, who opened the proceedings by stressing the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to research, to resolve global scientific and technical issues. Recalling his own experience as the leader of Japan's efforts in the Human Genome Project, Sakaki also encouraged participants to make an effort to try to understand the sometimes difficult concepts and terminology of other areas of research. The presentations at AP-IRC 2011 were divided into three focus sessions: innovative mechano-magneto-electronic systems, life sciences, and green science and technology. A total of 174 papers were presented over the two-day conference including eight by invited speakers. Highlights of AP-IRC 2011 included a first-hand account of the damage caused by the massive earthquake in March 2011 to experimental facilities at Tohoku University by Masayoshi Esashi; the fascinating world of bees and the inborn numerical competence of humans and animals by Hans J Gross; research on robots and cognition-enabled technical systems at Technische Universität München by Sandra Hirche; the history of events leading to the invention of the world's strongest NdFeB permanent magnet by Masato Sagawa

  19. Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-East Asia Union Office

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, S.; Berger, S. Dar; Chadha, S. S.; Singh, R. J.; Lal, P.; Tonsing, J.; Harries, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-East Asia Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012—both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere. PMID:26400596

  20. Recent Advances in Sarcopenia Research in Asia: 2016 Update From the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Liu, Li-Kuo; Arai, Hidenori; Akishita, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    Sarcopenia was recently classified a geriatric syndrome and is a major challenge to healthy aging. Affected patients tend to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality than those without sarcopenia. Although there is general agreement on the principal diagnostic characteristics, initial thresholds for muscle mass, strength, and physical performance were based on data from populations of predominantly Europid ancestry and may not apply worldwide. The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) issued regional consensus guidelines in 2014, and many more research studies from Asia have since been published; this review summarizes recent progress. The prevalence of sarcopenia estimated by the AWGS criteria ranges between 4.1% and 11.5% of the general older population; however, prevalence rates were higher in Asian studies that used European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People cut-offs. Risk factors include age, sex, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, daily alcohol consumption, and low protein or vitamin intake; physical activity is protective. Adjusting skeletal muscle mass by weight rather than height is better in showing the effect of older age in sarcopenia and identifying sarcopenic obesity; however, some Asian studies found no significant skeletal muscle loss, and muscle strength might be a better indicator. Although AWGS 2014 diagnostic cut-offs were generally well accepted, some may require further revision in light of conflicting evidence from some studies. The importance of sarcopenia in diverse therapeutic areas is increasingly evident, with strong research interest in sarcopenic obesity and the setting of malignancy. Pharmacologic interventions have been unsatisfactory, and the core management strategies remain physical exercise and nutritional supplementation; however, further research is required to determine the most beneficial approaches. PMID:27372539

  1. Biology Education in Asia: Report of a Regional Workshop (Quezon City, Philippines, August 18-23, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City.

    Proceedings of a Workshop organized by the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania and with the Science Education Center of the University of the Philippines are presented. The primary purpose of the workshop was to review biology education at the secondary level, focusing on: (1) environmental aspects; (2) molecular and genetic…

  2. Data and Data Products for Climate Research: Web Services at the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, S.; Potemra, J. T.; Wang, K.

    2012-12-01

    The International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) at the University of Hawaii maintains a data center for climate studies called the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC). This data center was designed within a center of excellence in climate research with the intention of serving the needs of the research scientist. The APDRC provides easy access to a wide collection of climate data and data products for a wide variety of users. The data center maintains an archive of approximately 100 data sets including in-situ and remote data, as well as a range of model-based output. All data are available via on-line browsing tools such as a Live Access Server (LAS) and DChart, and direct binary access is available through OPeNDAP services. On-line tutorials on how to use these services are now available. Users can keep up-to-date with new data and product announcements via the APDRC facebook page. The main focus of the APDRC has been climate scientists, and the services are therefore streamlined to such users, both in the number and types of data served, but also in the way data are served. In addition, due to the integration of the APDRC within the IPRC, several value-added data products (see figure for an example using Argo floats) have been developed via a variety of research activities. The APDRC, therefore, has three main foci: 1. acquisition of climate-related data, 2. maintenance of integrated data servers, and 3. development and distribution of data products The APDRC can be found at http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu. The presentation will provide an overview along with specific examples of the data, data products and data services available at the APDRC.; APDRC product example: gridded field from Argo profiling floats

  3. International Conference of Directors of National Libraries on Resource Sharing in Asia and Oceania, Canberra, 1979: Papers from Australasia and Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnie, Mary; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes four library resource sharing projects in (1) New Zealand, (2) Papua New Guinea, (3) Australia, and (4) Fiji. Numerous shared services are discussed, including national bibliographies, publications exchanges, staff exchanges, clearing centers for duplicates, library planning, and national collections. (LLS)

  4. National and Regional Scale Rice Crop Monitoring in Asia with the RIICE and PRISM Projects: From Research to Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A.; Quicho, E. D.; Maunahan, A. A.; Setiyono, T. D.; Raviz, J. V.; Rala, A. B.; Laborte, A. G.; Holecz, F.; Collivignarelli, F.; Gatti, L.; Barbieri, M.; Mabalay, M. R. O.; De Dios, J. L.; Quilang, E. J. P.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, remote sensing based mapping and monitoring of the rice crop have been demonstrated in many pilot studies and research sites - mainly in Asia - using both optical and SAR sensors and ground based observations. These efforts have been partly driven by the high demand for more timely, more detailed and more accurate information on the rice crop for applications in both public and private sector, such as food security policy, crop and land management, infrastructure investment and crop insurance. The basic premise being that better access to better information leads to eventual benefits for both producers and consumers through better investment and management at all levels. To realise these benefits means scaling up this work to national and regional levels. This presentation summarises the progress of two related projects in Asia: RIICE (Remote Sensing-based Information and Insurance in emerging Economies) and PRISM (Philippine Rice Information SysteM) that are making the transition from research to operation with the support of national governments and international donors. The presentation focuses on the technology, the partnerships, the achievements and the challenges in embedding both the capacity and the technology for remote sensing based monitoring of rice in countries in South and South East Asia. We highlight several aspects which are essential for a successful transition to a sustainable operational status and lessons learned in each country where the two projects have been operating.

  5. Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

  6. Relationship between Socio-Economic Values and Wellbeing: An Overview Research in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Cheong, Kimoon; Nghi, Pham Thanh; Kim, Won Joong

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates ten Asian nations to consider how socio-economic values affect happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, it considers whether economic factors can strongly affect wellbeing under certain conditions. Males in Asia are said they have more opportunities to obtain higher happiness and satisfaction but it does not happen in the…

  7. Teachers, Teacher Education and Development: Report on an APEID Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region. Final Report of a Regional Meeting (July 7-15, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The 1997 Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region reviewed research from the Asia-Pacific region related to teachers, teacher education, and teacher development. The meeting identified common…

  8. The Work of Glendon Lean on the Counting Systems of Papua New Guinea and Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay

    2001-01-01

    Introduces data collated by Glendon Lean on nearly 900 counting systems in Papua New Guinea, Oceania, and Irian Jaya (West Papua) which came from a questionnaire completed by students and talks with village elders. Lean's thesis on the spontaneous developments of these ancient cultures challenged traditional theories describing the spread of…

  9. Political Science in Asia and the Pacific: Status Reports on Teaching and Research in Ten Countries. Social and Human Sciences in Asia and the Pacific, RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Takeo

    This publication contains reports on the status of teaching and research in political science in ten countries in the Asia-Pacific Region. These reports prepared according to a common guideline provide an opportunity for comparison. The essays review how political science has grown and taken root in the respective countries; the problems it faces;…

  10. Research and policy guidelines from the World Fertility Survey in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Rele, J R

    1979-01-01

    Recently, World Fertility Survey (WFS) Project Director Sir Maurice Kendall summarized WFS 1st report findings. Some of the highlights of Kendall's paper, based on the 1st reports of 9 countries (Bangladesh, Fiji, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand) are as follows: 1) a marked decline in fertility levels is underway in many areas of the Asia and Pacific region; 2) the mean age at 1st marriage is rising, moderately in some countries but sharply in others; 3) over 80% of ever-married women have heard of contraception, but use varies widely from 10% in Pakistan to 68% in Fiji; and 4) of the exposed women, between 30-74% of the women, want no more children. Initial success of family planning programs in the Asia and Pacific region is evident in the widespread knowledge of contraceptive methods. Future fertility preferences indicate that on the average more than 1/2 of the exposed women want no more children, suggesting a potential demand for family planning services. Current contraceptive practices make the knowledge, attitude, and practice gap very apparent in the countries of the region. PMID:12261702

  11. Bridging near and remote Oceania: mtDNA and NRY variation in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Delfin, Frederick; Myles, Sean; Choi, Ying; Hughes, David; Illek, Robert; van Oven, Mannis; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Although genetic studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of the colonization of Near and Remote Oceania, important gaps still exist. One such gap is the Solomon Islands, which extend between Bougainville and Vanuatu, thereby bridging Near and Remote Oceania, and include both Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups. Here, we describe patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nonrecombining Y chromosome (NRY) variation in over 700 individuals from 18 populations in the Solomons, including 11 Austronesian-speaking groups, 3 Papuan-speaking groups, and 4 Polynesian Outliers (descended via back migration from Polynesia). We find evidence for ancient (pre-Lapita) colonization of the Solomons in old NRY paragroups as well as from M2-M353, which probably arose in the Solomons ∼9,200 years ago and is the most frequent NRY haplogroup there. There are no consistent genetic differences between Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups, suggesting extensive genetic contact between them. Santa Cruz, which is located in Remote Oceania, shows unusually low frequencies of mtDNA and NRY haplogroups of recent Asian ancestry. This is in apparent contradiction with expectations based on archaeological and linguistic evidence for an early (∼3,200 years ago), direct colonization of Santa Cruz by Lapita people from the Bismarck Archipelago, via a migration that "leapfrogged" over the rest of the Solomons. Polynesian Outliers show dramatic island-specific founder events involving various NRY haplogroups. We also find that NRY, but not mtDNA, genetic distance is correlated with the geographic distance between Solomons groups and that historically attested spheres of cultural interaction are associated with the recent genetic structure of Solomons groups, as revealed by mtDNA HV1 sequence and Y-STR haplotype diversity. Our results fill an important lacuna in human genetic studies of Oceania and aid in understanding the colonization and genetic history of

  12. The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study: Epidemiologic and Neuropathologic Research on Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gelber, Rebecca P.; Launer, Lenore J.; White, Lon R.

    2016-01-01

    The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) is a longitudinal epidemiologic investigation of rates, risk factors, and neuropathologic abnormalities associated with cognitive decline and dementia in aged Japanese-American men. The project was established in 1991 and will be brought to closure in 2012. Age-specific rates of total dementia and the major specific types of dementia in HAAS participants are generally similar to those reported from other geographic, cultural, and ethnic populations. Risk factors for dementia in the HAAS include midlife hypertension and other factors previously shown to influence cardiovascular disease. The autopsy component of the project has yielded novel findings, the most illuminating of which is the demonstration of 5 important lesion types linked independently to cognitive impairment. While one of these – generalized atrophy – is strongly associated with both Alzheimer lesions and microinfarcts, it also occurs in the absence of these lesions and is independently correlated with dementia. Each lesion type is viewed as representing a distinct underlying pathogenic process. Their summed influences is an especially robust correlate of dementia in the months and years prior to death. PMID:22471866

  13. Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

  14. International Conference of Directors of National Libraries on Resource Sharing in Asia and Oceanic [Proceedings] (Canberra, Australia, May 14-18, 1979). Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Networks Study No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    The proceedings of this 1979 conference on library cooperation begin with proposals for the promotion of resource sharing among the national libraries of Asia and Oceania, the text of a policy statement on the role of national and international systems as approved at a 1976 meeting of directors of national libraries held in Lausanne, and a summary…

  15. Migrations of European honey bee lineages into Africa, Asia, and North America during the Oligocene and Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Wappler, Torsten; Engel, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Today honey bees, principally the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, represent a multi-billion dollar agricultural industry. Through the efforts of humans they have become established well outside of their modern native ranges, having been introduced multiple times into the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and many areas of Oceania. The native, i.e., non-human influenced, distribution and migration of honey bee species and populations has been a matter of serious and continued debate. Apicultural dogma informs us that the center of origin of honey bees (genus Apis) resides in Asia, with subsequent migration and diversification into Europe and Asia. Recent population genetic studies of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, slightly modified this received wisdom by suggesting that this species originated in Africa and subsequently reinvaded Eurasia. Research into the historical biogeography of honey bees has ignored entirely the abundant fossil evidence distributed through a variety of Late Paleogene (Oligocene) and Early Neogene (Miocene) deposits, a diversity which is predominantly European in origin, particularly among the most basal species of the genus. We have examined the morphological disparity and affinities of the full living and fossil diversity of honey bees ranging from their earliest origins to the present day. This analysis indicates that honey bees exhibited a greater morphological disparity during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs, a time when the principal lineages were established, and that Apis apparently originated in Europe, spreading from there into Asia, Africa, and North America, with subsequent diversification in the former two regions and extinction in the latter. During the human migrations and colonization honey bees were once again introduced multiple times into the Americas, as well as into Australia and Asia.

  16. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  17. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children and Young People: Reviewing Research Conducted and Distilling Implications for the Education Sector in Asia. Discussion Paper No. I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijngaarden, Jan; Shaeffer, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This discussion paper evaluates the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in the Asia Pacific region. It looks at the impact of the epidemic on children (aged 0-18) focusing on how the presence of HIV/AIDS in the household affects the education sector. Examples are summarized from research papers from inter-governmental agencies including…

  18. The Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA): Critique and Research Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Baluch, Suraiya; Carielli, Dominick

    1998-01-01

    The conceptual basis and development of The Suinn Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA) are reviewed. This study of psychometric strengths and limitations includes 16 published empirical studies concerning reliability and validity of SL-ASIA. Measures of reliability and methods of establishing construct validity are discussed, and…

  19. Climate variability and change: a perspective from the oceania region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Tom

    2014-12-01

    This brief review identifies seven key science questions in relation to climate variability and change and examines recent research within the Australian and Pacific context: 1. How do the key processes controlling climate variability and predictability operate? 2. What are the nature and causes of regional climate anomalies, past variations in regional climate and extreme weather events and how will they change in the future? 3. How can we provide improved seasonal-to-interannual climate predictions? 4. What are the best projection methods? 5. What are the sea-level changes now and in the future; and how will these impact the coasts? 6. How to have significant benefits on climate service delivery and environmental management? 7. What are the best methods for assessing climate change risks, vulnerability and adaptation options?

  20. Asia Lakes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Central Asia - Mongolia, China and Russia     View Larger ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Mongolia, China and Russia covers an area of about 317 kilometers x 412 kilometers, and ...

  1. National Information Policies for the Asia Oceania Region. Proceedings of the General Assembly and Congress of the International Federation for Information and Documentation Commission for Asia and Oceania (11th, Seoul, Korea, October 29-31, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ian, Ed.; Dwyer, Lisa, Ed.

    The 18 papers presented at this conference address national information policies, information for industry, and electronic publishing. The titles of the papers are as follows: (1) "Industrial Information Policies of Developing Countries" (keynote address, Sung Jin Choi); (2) "National Information Policy. Current Trends and Issues--an Australian…

  2. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44–0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima’s D and Fu’s FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while

  3. IHY activities in West Asia: Research and Education in Astronomy and Space Sciences for Arab Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naimiy, H. M. K.

    2006-11-01

    alnaimiy2@yahoo.com Astronomy and Space Sciences (ASS) are important fields of research, study, knowledge and culture. They have been the cradle of both eastern and western sciences. We all know, from education and psychology, about the effective teaching and learning of ASS. Unfortunately, a small percentage of this knowledge is actually used in teaching at schools, universities level and any other academic institutions in the Arab countries. The challenge is to provide effective professional development for ASS educators and researchers at all levels, from elementary school to university. ASS is the most appealing subject to young students and very important tool to convey scientific knowledge? Once students have understood the importance of science, they might be more easily pursued to continue their education in science and technology. The aim of this paper is to show the importance of the formal and informal ASS research, and education, giving an example of a possible curriculum, projects, and comments on the activities that have been carried out in a few Arab countries. We feel the need for a new communication channel among the Arab people based on our common scientific ground. ASS is, in this respect, the best possible choice in the vast cultural heritage of the Arab basin. The final purpose is scientific and economical. Building modern and good observatories, planetariums and research centers in the region jointly by Arab astronomers and space scientists is essential and will be an excellent step toward developing astronomy and astrophysics (for research, education and knowledge).

  4. Designing Instructional Materials for General Education and Teacher Training. A Portfolio of Experiences in Asia and Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Centre of Educational Innovation for Development, Bangkok (Thailand).

    This portfolio presents papers that were engendered by a conference held in 1978 at Udorn Thani, Thailand. The meeting was organized by the Asian Centre of Educational Innovation for Development and dealt with developing instructional materials and educational aids, particularly those which are produced from local and community resources, by…

  5. IFLA General Conference, 1990. Regional Activities: Africa; Asia and Oceania; Latin America and the Caribbean. Booklet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The 12 papers in this collection were presented during the meetings of three sections of the Division of Regional Activities: (1) "Which Way African Librarianship?" (Kingo Mchombu); (2) "The Expansion of the University of the Air of Japan and the Changing Function of Regional University Libraries" (Katsuhiro Jinzaki); (3) "Mobilization of Library…

  6. The role of evolutionary biology in research and control of liver flukes in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Mallory, Frank F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Stimulated largely by the availability of new technology, biomedical research at the molecular-level and chemical-based control approaches arguably dominate the field of infectious diseases. Along with this, the proximate view of disease etiology predominates to the exclusion of the ultimate, evolutionary biology-based, causation perspective. Yet, historically and up to today, research in evolutionary biology has provided much of the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease transmission dynamics, virulence, and the design of effective integrated control strategies. Here we review the state of knowledge regarding the biology of Asian liver Fluke-host relationship, parasitology, phylodynamics, drug-based interventions and liver Fluke-related cancer etiology from an evolutionary biology perspective. We consider how evolutionary principles, mechanisms and research methods could help refine our understanding of clinical disease associated with infection by Liver Flukes as well as their transmission dynamics. We identify a series of questions for an evolutionary biology research agenda for the liver Fluke that should contribute to an increased understanding of liver Fluke-associated diseases. Finally, we describe an integrative evolutionary medicine approach to liver Fluke prevention and control highlighting the need to better contextualize interventions within a broader human health and sustainable development framework. PMID:27197053

  7. The Current Status of Mapping in the World - Spotlight on Oceania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinder, John C.

    2016-06-01

    A summary is presented of the results of questionnaires sent to mapping agencies in Oceania, covering Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Island countries, to investigate the status of mapping in those countries. After World War II, the Australian Federal Government funded the initial small scale mapping of the whole country leading to increased percentages of map coverage of Australia. Mapping at larger scales is undertaken by the states and territories in Australia, including cadastral mapping. In New Zealand mapping is maintained by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) at 1:50,000 scale and smaller with regular updating. The results of the questionnaires also demonstrate the extent of map coverage in six Pacific Islands, but there is little information available on the actual percent coverage. Overall there are estimated to be an increases in the percentages of coverage of most map scales in Oceania. However, there appear to be insufficient professionals in most Pacific Island countries to maintain the mapping programs. Given that many Pacific Island countries will be impacted by rising sea level in the future, better mapping of these countries is essential. The availability of modern technology especially satellite images, digital aerial photography and airborne lidar data should enable the Pacific Island countries to provide better map products in future, but this would depend on foreign aid on many occasions.

  8. Neglected Tropical Diseases of Oceania: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Opportunities for Control

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Kevin; McCarthy, James S.; Pearson, Mark; Loukas, Alex; Hotez, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Among Oceania's population of 35 million people, the greatest number living in poverty currently live in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. These impoverished populations are at high risk for selected NTDs, including Necator americanus hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), balantidiasis, yaws, trachoma, leprosy, and scabies, in addition to outbreaks of dengue and other arboviral infections including Japanese encephalitis virus infection. PNG stands out for having the largest number of cases and highest prevalence for most of these NTDs. However, Australia's Aboriginal population also suffers from a range of significant NTDs. Through the Pacific Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, enormous strides have been made in eliminating LF in Oceania through programs of mass drug administration (MDA), although LF remains widespread in PNG. There are opportunities to scale up MDA for PNG's major NTDs, which could be accomplished through an integrated package that combines albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and azithromycin, in a program of national control. Australia's Aboriginal population may benefit from appropriately integrated MDA into primary health care systems. Several emerging viral NTDs remain important threats to the region. PMID:23383349

  9. Neglected tropical diseases of Oceania: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    PubMed

    Kline, Kevin; McCarthy, James S; Pearson, Mark; Loukas, Alex; Hotez, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Among Oceania's population of 35 million people, the greatest number living in poverty currently live in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. These impoverished populations are at high risk for selected NTDs, including Necator americanus hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), balantidiasis, yaws, trachoma, leprosy, and scabies, in addition to outbreaks of dengue and other arboviral infections including Japanese encephalitis virus infection. PNG stands out for having the largest number of cases and highest prevalence for most of these NTDs. However, Australia's Aboriginal population also suffers from a range of significant NTDs. Through the Pacific Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, enormous strides have been made in eliminating LF in Oceania through programs of mass drug administration (MDA), although LF remains widespread in PNG. There are opportunities to scale up MDA for PNG's major NTDs, which could be accomplished through an integrated package that combines albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and azithromycin, in a program of national control. Australia's Aboriginal population may benefit from appropriately integrated MDA into primary health care systems. Several emerging viral NTDs remain important threats to the region. PMID:23383349

  10. Integrated Assessments of the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: An Overview of AgMIP Regional Research in South Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermid, Sonali P.; Dileepkumar, Guntuku; Murthy, K. M. Dakshina; Nedumaran, S.; Singh, Piara; Srinivasa, Chukka; Gangwar, B.; Subash, N.; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    South Asia's growing population. In order to assess the future of food and livelihood security across South Asia, the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has undertaken integrated climate-crop-economic assessments of the impact of climate change on food security and poverty in South Asia, encompassing Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. AgMIP has funded, on a competitive basis, four South Asian regional research teams (RRTs) and one South Asian coordination team (CT) to undertake climate-crop-economic integrated assessments of food security for many districts in each of these countries, with the goal of characterizing the state of food security and poverty across the region, and projecting how these are subject to change under future climate change conditions.

  11. Operational research capacity building in Asia: innovations, successes and challenges of a training course

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, S.; Wilson, N.; Zachariah, R.; Harries, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    A structured training course on operational research (OR) based on the model created by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and Médecins Sans Frontières was conducted in the South Asian region in 2012. Many innovations were introduced into the administration, structure and content of the course. Of 12 participants, 11 successfully completed all pre-defined milestones. Several challenges were identified. The main challenges included shortage of time, especially for data analysis and interpretation, and insufficient numbers of experienced facilitators. Appropriate modifications have been made to the structure and processes of the next course scheduled for 2013. We describe these modifications and the innovations, successes and challenges of this model of training. PMID:26393025

  12. Genetic evidence for the proto-Austronesian homeland in Asia: mtDNA and nuclear DNA variation in Taiwanese aboriginal tribes.

    PubMed Central

    Melton, T; Clifford, S; Martinson, J; Batzer, M; Stoneking, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies of mtDNA variation in indigenous Taiwanese populations have suggested that they held an ancestral position in the spread of mtDNAs throughout Southeast Asia and Oceania (Melton et al. 1995; Sykes et al. 1995), but the question of an absolute proto-Austronesian homeland remains. To search for Asian roots for indigenous Taiwanese populations, 28 mtDNAs representative of variation in four tribal groups (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, and Paiwan) were sequenced and were compared with each other and with mtDNAs from 25 other populations from Asia and Oceania. In addition, eight polymorphic Alu insertion loci were analyzed, to determine if the pattern of mtDNA variation is concordant with nuclear DNA variation. Tribal groups shared considerable mtDNA sequence identity (P>.90), where gene flow is believed to have been low, arguing for a common source or sources for the tribes. mtDNAs with a 9-bp deletion have considerable mainland-Asian diversity and have spread to Southeast Asia and Oceania through a Taiwanese bottleneck. Only four Taiwanese mtDNA haplotypes without the 9-bp deletion were shared with any other populations, but these shared types were widely dispersed geographically throughout mainland Asia. Phylogenetic and principal-component analyses of Alu loci were concordant with conclusions from the mtDNA analyses; overall, the results suggest that the Taiwanese have temporally deep roots, probably in central or south China, and have been isolated from other Asian populations in recent history. PMID:9837834

  13. LCLUC as an entry point for transdisciplinary research--reflections from an agriculture land use change study in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Nagabhatla, Nidhi; Padmanabhan, Martina; Kühle, Peter; Vishnudas, Suma; Betz, Lydia; Niemeyer, Bastian

    2015-01-15

    This article highlights applied understanding of classifying earth imaging data for land cover land use change (LCLUC) information. Compared to the many previous studies of LCLUC, the present study is innovative in that it applied geospatial data, tools and techniques for transdisciplinary research. It contributes to a wider discourse on practical decision making for multi-level governance. Undertaken as part of the BioDIVA project, the research adopted a multi-tiered methodical approach across three key dimensions: socioecology as the sphere of interest, a transdisciplinary approach as the disciplinary framework, and geospatial analysis as the applied methodology. The area of interest was the agroecosystem of Wayanad district in Kerala, India (South Asia). The methodology was structured to enable analysis of multi-scalar and multi-temporal data, using Wayanad as a case study. Three levels of analysis included: District (Landsat TM-30m), Taluk or sub-district (ASTER-15m) and Village or Gram Panchayat (GeoEye-0.5m). Our hypothesis, that analyzing patterns of land use change is pertinent for up-to-date assessment of agroecosystem resources and their wise management is supported by the outcome of the multi-tiered geospatial analysis. In addition, two examples from the project that highlight the adoption of LCLUC by different disciplinary experts are presented. A sociologist assessed the land ownership boundary for a selected tribal community. A faunal ecologist used it to assess the effect of landscape structure on arthropods and plant groups in rice fields. Furthermore, the Google Earth interface was used to support the overall validation process. Our key conclusion was that a multi-level understanding of the causes, effects, processes and mechanisms that govern agroecosystem transformation requires close attention to spatial, temporal and seasonal dynamics, for which the incorporation of local knowledge and participation of local communities is crucial. PMID

  14. Derivation of indices of socioeconomic status for health services research in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Arul; Ong, Marcus E.H.; Shahidah, Nur; Chan, Angelique; Wah, Win; Thumboo, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental contexts have been shown to predict health behaviours and outcomes either directly or via interaction with individual risk factors. In this paper, we created indexes of socioeconomic disadvantage (SEDI) and socioeconomic advantage (SAI) in Singapore to test the applicability of these concepts in an Asian context. These indices can be used for health service resource allocation, research and advocacy. Methods We used principal component analysis (PCA) to create SEDI and SAI using a structured and iterative process to identify and include influential variables in the final index. Data at the master plan geographical level was obtained from the most recent Singapore census 2010. Results The 3 areas with highest SEDI scores were Outram (120.1), followed by Rochor (111.0) and Downtown Core (110.4). The areas with highest SAI scores were Tanglin, River Valley and Newton. The SAI had 89.6% of variation explained by the final model, as compared to 67.1% for SEDI, and we recommend using both indices in any analysis. Conclusion These indices may prove useful for policy-makers to identify spatially varying risk factors, and in turn help identify geographically targeted intervention programs, which can be more cost effective to conduct. PMID:26844087

  15. Investigation of comparative effectiveness research in Asia, Europe, and North America

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Isha; Rarus, Rachel; Tan, Xi; Lee, EK; Guy, Jason; Ahmad, Akram; Chang, Jongwha

    2015-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is an important branch of pharmacoeconomics that systematically studies and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions. CER plays instrumental roles in guiding government public health policy programs and insurance. Countries throughout the world use different methods of CER to help make medical decisions based on providing optimal therapy at a reduced cost. Expenses to the healthcare system continue to rise, and CER is one-way in which expenses could be curbed in the future by applying cost-effectiveness evidence to clinical decisions. China, India, South Korea, and the United Kingdom are of essential focus because these country's economies and health care expenses continue to expand. The structures and use of CER are diverse throughout these countries, and each is of prime importance. By conducting this thorough comparison of CER in different nations, strategies and organizational setups from different countries can be applied to help guide public health and medical decision-making in order to continue to expand the establishment and role of CER programs. The patient-centered medical home has been created to help reduce costs in the primary care sector and to help improve the effectiveness of therapy. Barriers to CER are also important as many stakeholders need to be able to work together to provide the best CER evidence. The advancement of CER in multiple countries throughout the world provides a possible way of reducing costs to the healthcare system in an age of expanding expenses. PMID:26729947

  16. Investigation of comparative effectiveness research in Asia, Europe, and North America.

    PubMed

    Patel, Isha; Rarus, Rachel; Tan, Xi; Lee, E K; Guy, Jason; Ahmad, Akram; Chang, Jongwha

    2015-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is an important branch of pharmacoeconomics that systematically studies and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions. CER plays instrumental roles in guiding government public health policy programs and insurance. Countries throughout the world use different methods of CER to help make medical decisions based on providing optimal therapy at a reduced cost. Expenses to the healthcare system continue to rise, and CER is one-way in which expenses could be curbed in the future by applying cost-effectiveness evidence to clinical decisions. China, India, South Korea, and the United Kingdom are of essential focus because these country's economies and health care expenses continue to expand. The structures and use of CER are diverse throughout these countries, and each is of prime importance. By conducting this thorough comparison of CER in different nations, strategies and organizational setups from different countries can be applied to help guide public health and medical decision-making in order to continue to expand the establishment and role of CER programs. The patient-centered medical home has been created to help reduce costs in the primary care sector and to help improve the effectiveness of therapy. Barriers to CER are also important as many stakeholders need to be able to work together to provide the best CER evidence. The advancement of CER in multiple countries throughout the world provides a possible way of reducing costs to the healthcare system in an age of expanding expenses. PMID:26729947

  17. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D K; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-02-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3-S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2). The level of DS was most prevalent at L4-L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3-L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5-S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in facet

  18. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D. K.; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3–S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m2. The level of DS was most prevalent at L4–L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3–L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5–S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in

  19. AIDS vaccine research in Asia: needs and opportunities. Report from a UNAIDS/WHO/NIID meeting Tokyo, 28-30 October 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-07-30

    A meeting was organized by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Japanese National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) with the following objectives: (i) to discuss public health and economic rationale to accelerate the development and evaluation of HIV vaccines suitable for use in Asia; (ii) to review ongoing preclinical HIV vaccine research in Asia; (iii) to review the Asian experience in conducting clinical trials of HIV candidate vaccines; (iv) to explore possibilities for international collaboration between countries in the region and with other countries and institutions; and (v) to discuss issues related to availability of future effective HIV vaccines. The meeting was attended by participants from Australia, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The HIV epidemic in Asia is rapidly spreading and has already resulted in a total of 7 million HIV infections in the region. The epidemic already has a significant public health and economic impact, which may be worse in the future, unless effective intervention programmes are successfully implemented. A safe, effective, and affordable vaccine should be considered as the best hope for a long-term solution to the HIV epidemic in Asia. Asian scientists and institutions have established a number of international collaborations to isolate and characterize prevalent HIV-1 strains (mostly belonging to subtypes C and E) and are developing candidate vaccines based on these subtypes. In the region, phase I/II clinical trials of preventative HIV candidate vaccines have been conducted in Australia, China and Thailand. Since 1993, a comprehensive National AIDS Vaccine Plan has allowed Thailand to conduct phase I/II trials of six different preventative or therapeutic candidate vaccines, and the first phase III preventative efficacy trial has been approved. The meeting

  20. Eco-bio-social research on dengue in Asia: a multicountry study on ecosystem and community-based approaches for the control of dengue vectors in urban and peri-urban Asia.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeld, Johannes; Kroeger, Axel

    2012-12-01

    This article provides an overview of methods and cross-site insights of a 5-year research and capacity building initiative conducted between 2006 and 2011 in six countries of South Asia (India, Sri Lanka) and South-East Asia (Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand).The initiative managed an interdisciplinary investigation of ecological, biological, and social (i.e., eco-bio-social) dimensions of dengue in urban and peri-urban areas, and developed community-based interventions aimed at reducing dengue vector breeding and viral transmission. The multicountry study comprised interdisciplinary research groups from six leading Asian research institutions. The groups conducted a detailed situation analysis to identify and characterize local eco-bio-social conditions, and formed a community-of-practice for EcoHealth research where group partners disseminated results and collaboratively developed site-specific intervention tools for vector-borne diseases. In sites where water containers produced more than 70% of Aedes pupae, interventions ranged from mechanical lid covers for containers to biological control. Where small discarded containers presented the main problem, groups experimented with solid waste management, composting and recycling schemes. Many intervention tools were locally produced and all tools were implemented through community partnership strategies. All sites developed socially and culturally appropriate health education materials. The study also mobilised and empowered women's, students' and community groups and at several sites organized new volunteer groups for environmental health. The initiative's programmes showed significant impact on vector densities in some sites. Other sites showed varying effect - partially attributable to the 'contamination' of control groups - yet led to significant outcomes at the community level where local groups united around broad interests in environmental hygiene and sanitation. The programme's findings are relevant

  1. American Foundation for AIDS Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Press Corporate Support amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research Research Overview Research Grants Research Accomplishments Scientific ... Archive TREAT Asia TREAT Asia About TREAT Asia AIDS in Asia Research and Treatment Education and AIDS ...

  2. Maternal History of Oceania from Complete mtDNA Genomes: Contrasting Ancient Diversity with Recent Homogenization Due to the Austronesian Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Ana T.; Evans, Bethwyn; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Friedlaender, Jonathan S.; Koki, George; Merriwether, D. Andrew; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Archaeology, linguistics, and existing genetic studies indicate that Oceania was settled by two major waves of migration. The first migration took place approximately 40 thousand years ago and these migrants, Papuans, colonized much of Near Oceania. Approximately 3.5 thousand years ago, a second expansion of Austronesian-speakers arrived in Near Oceania and the descendants of these people spread to the far corners of the Pacific, colonizing Remote Oceania. To assess the female contribution of these two human expansions to modern populations and to investigate the potential impact of other migrations, we obtained 1,331 whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 34 populations spanning both Near and Remote Oceania. Our results quantify the magnitude of the Austronesian expansion and demonstrate the homogenizing effect of this expansion on almost all studied populations. With regards to Papuan influence, autochthonous haplogroups support the hypothesis of a long history in Near Oceania, with some lineages suggesting a time depth of 60 thousand years, and offer insight into historical interpopulation dynamics. Santa Cruz, a population located in Remote Oceania, is an anomaly with extreme frequencies of autochthonous haplogroups of Near Oceanian origin; simulations to investigate whether this might reflect a pre-Austronesian versus Austronesian settlement of the island failed to provide unequivocal support for either scenario. PMID:24726474

  3. Maternal history of Oceania from complete mtDNA genomes: contrasting ancient diversity with recent homogenization due to the Austronesian expansion.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Ana T; Evans, Bethwyn; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Friedlaender, Jonathan S; Koki, George; Merriwether, D Andrew; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Archaeology, linguistics, and existing genetic studies indicate that Oceania was settled by two major waves of migration. The first migration took place approximately 40 thousand years ago and these migrants, Papuans, colonized much of Near Oceania. Approximately 3.5 thousand years ago, a second expansion of Austronesian-speakers arrived in Near Oceania and the descendants of these people spread to the far corners of the Pacific, colonizing Remote Oceania. To assess the female contribution of these two human expansions to modern populations and to investigate the potential impact of other migrations, we obtained 1,331 whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 34 populations spanning both Near and Remote Oceania. Our results quantify the magnitude of the Austronesian expansion and demonstrate the homogenizing effect of this expansion on almost all studied populations. With regards to Papuan influence, autochthonous haplogroups support the hypothesis of a long history in Near Oceania, with some lineages suggesting a time depth of 60 thousand years, and offer insight into historical interpopulation dynamics. Santa Cruz, a population located in Remote Oceania, is an anomaly with extreme frequencies of autochthonous haplogroups of Near Oceanian origin; simulations to investigate whether this might reflect a pre-Austronesian versus Austronesian settlement of the island failed to provide unequivocal support for either scenario. PMID:24726474

  4. Optimising reproductive and child health outcomes by building evidence-based research and practice in South East Asia (SEA-ORCHID): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Henderson-Smart, David J; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Mohammad, Hakimi; McDonald, Steve J; Green, Sally; Crowther, Caroline A

    2007-01-01

    Background Disorders related to pregnancy and childbirth are a major health issue in South East Asia. They represent one of the biggest health risk differentials between the developed and developing world. Our broad research question is: Can the health of mothers and babies in Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia be improved by increasing the local capacity for the synthesis of research, implementation of effective interventions, and identification of gaps in knowledge needing further research? Methods/Design The project is a before-after study which planned to benefit from and extend existing regional and international networks. Over five years the project was designed to comprise five phases; pre-study, pre-intervention, intervention, outcome assessment and reporting/dissemination. The study was proposed to be conducted across seven project nodes: four in South East Asia and three in Australia. Each South East Asian study node was planned to be established within an existing department of obstetrics and gynaecology or neonatology and was intended to form the project coordinating centre and focus for evidence-based practice activities within that region. Nine hospitals in South East Asia planned to participate, representing a range of clinical settings. The three project nodes in Australia were intended to provide project support. The intervention was planned to consist of capacity-strengthening activities targeted at three groups: generators of evidence, users of evidence and teachers of evidence. The primary outcome was established as changes in adherence to recommended clinical practices from baseline to completion of the project and impact on health outcomes. Discussion The SEA-ORCHID project was intended to improve care during pregnancy and the perinatal period of mothers and their babies in South East Asia. The possible benefits extend beyond this however, as at the end of this project there is hoped to be an existing network of South East Asian

  5. Advances in research of Asian geology—A summary of 1:5M International Geological Map of Asia project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jishun; Niu, Baogui; Wang, Jun; Jin, Xiaochi; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Renyan

    2013-08-01

    The International Geological Map of Asia at a 1:5,000,000 scale (IGMA5000) is the first digital Asian geological map under the standard of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). Major advances that have been achieved in compiling the map are manifested in the following understandings. Large amounts of Mesozoic volcanic rocks occurring in the eastern Asian coastal area are mainly Cretaceous instead of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous. Most of the Carboniferous-Permian volcanic rocks in Central Asia seem not to be arc volcanics, but the product of an extensional stage. The basal boundary of the Meso-Neoproterozoic Jixian section in China is not dated at 1.8 Ga as defined previously, but less than 1.68 Ga. The most significant Neoarchean tectono-thermal events in the Sino-Korean craton and the Indian craton took place at 2.5 Ga rather than at 2.7 Ga. The basement of the Yangtze craton was finally formed at 0.75-0.8 Ga, which is 0.2-0.3 Ga later than the Greenville orogenic cycle. Geologically, South China is identified to be an Early Paleozoic Caledonian foldbelt. The Qinling belt, where no oceanic basin was developed in Triassic times, is not an Indosinian collisional orogen, but a continental crust subduction one. When Pangea was formed, Indo-Australian Gondwana had been joined to Paleo-Asia and between them there was no oceanic basin, i.e. no Paleo-Tethys which continued from Paleozoic to Mesozoic. A huge Indosinian orogenic belt existed on the southern margin of Paleo-Asia to the north of the Zagros-Himalayas. Asia is a composite continent consisting of three major cratons—the Siberian, Indian and Arabian and three huge orogenic belts with a number of minor cratons and numerous microcontinents included. The main body of the Asian continent took its shape during the Mesozoic. The orogenic belts belong respectively to three global tectonic domains: the Paleo-Asian, Tethyan and Pacific. The small cratons, such as Sino-Korea, Yangtze, Tarim, and

  6. The Tectonic Evolution of Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tung-Yi

    Asia is the youngest continent on our planet and has been assembled largely over the past 400 m.y. In the past decade, following rapid developments on the economic front and political transformations in Asia, Earth science research has continuously become more important for both natural resources evaluation and hazards reduction. Consequently, more and more attempts have been focused on Asia in order to understand this complex region. The more the geoscience community works in this region, however, the more we realize our insufficient knowledge of the largest continent on Earth. This problem is not only caused by the region's inaccessibility, but also by cultural and political barriers.

  7. Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from

  8. Research on farmers' objectives for tree breeding. Report of a workshop following a regional study in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Raintree, J.B.; Taylor, D.A.

    1991-09-01

    In 1989, a study of farmers' tree breeding objectives was carried out in 31 villages in 7 countries of Asia. These conference proceedings contain discussion of the study's findings and its methodology and recommendations for follow-up activities. The primary aim of the study was to describe 'ideotypes' (plant models designed to yield products of greater quality and quantity than a conventional cultivar or wild plant) of multipurpose trees desired by farmer respondents. The study's main conclusion is that farmers' tree-breeding objectives can be elicited by the methodology used, and factors related to local situations. Recommended follow-up activities include: (1) consultation which extends beyond farmers to include other interest groups within the community; and (2) a small-scale study of processes by which farmers improve trees, with consideration of a larger scale study if warranted. Individual reports discuss tree breeding in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Nepal.

  9. Three millennia of human and sea turtle interactions in Remote Oceania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. S.

    2007-12-01

    Sea turtles are one of the largest vertebrates in the shallow water ecosystems of Remote Oceania, occurring in both sea grass pastures and on coral reefs. Their functional roles, however, over ecological and evolutionary times scales are not well known, in part because their numbers have been so drastically reduced. Ethnographic and archaeological data is analysed to assess long-term patterns of human sea turtle interactions (mainly green and hawksbill) prior to western contact and the magnitude of turtle losses in this region. From the ethnographic data two large-scale patterns emerge, societies where turtle capture and consumption was controlled by chiefs and priests versus those where control over turtle was more flexible and consumption more egalitarian. Broadly the distinction is between societies on high (volcanic and raised coral) islands versus atolls, but the critical variables are the ratio of land to shallow marine environments, combined with the availability of refugia. Archaeological evidence further highlights differences in the rate and magnitude of turtle losses across these two island types, with high islands suffering both large and rapid declines while those on atolls are less marked. These long-term historical patterns help explain the ethnographic endpoints, with areas that experienced greater losses apparently developing more restrictive social controls over time. Finally, if current turtle migration patterns held in the past, with annual movements between western foraging grounds and eastern nesting beaches, then intensive harvesting from 2,800 Before Present in West Polynesia probably affected turtle abundance and coral reef ecology in East Polynesia well before the actual arrival of human settlers, the latter a process that most likely began 1,400 years later.

  10. Youth in Transition: The Challenges of Generational Change in Asia. Proceedings of the Biennial General Conference of the Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils (15th, Canberra, Australia, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Fay, Ed.; Fahey, Stephanie, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book originates from a conference of the Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils and contains writings and research reports on Youth in Transition in the Asia and Pacific region. The definition of "youth" varies from country to country and ranges between the ages of 10 to 35. The publication summarizes issues in the region,…

  11. Teaching and Research in International Law in Asia and the Pacific. Report of a Regional Consultation Meeting Including Nine Country Status Surveys (Seoul, Republic of Korea, October 10-13, 1984). Social and Human Sciences in Asia and the Pacific. RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Information on teaching and research in international law for countries of the Asia-Pacific region is presented in proceedings of a 1984 conference sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. In addition to a regional overview, suggestions are offered for promoting regional cooperation in international law.…

  12. Bringing the Ocean into Finer Focus through the NASA COAST, HyspIRI, and OCEANIA Suborbital Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, S. L.; Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    High-quality ocean color measurements are needed to characterize water quality and phytoplankton functional types in the coastal zone. Accurate ocean color retrievals are often confounded by inadequacies in atmospheric correction. The recent NASA COAST, HyspIRI, and OCEANIA suborbital missions over Monterey Bay, CA have used novel instruments in a multi-sensor, multi-platform approach to collect above- and in-water measurements to better characterize ocean color through improvements in instrument dynamic range and attention to atmospheric correction. High-level objectives of these missions are to characterize the coastal ocean through end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, and sea-truth observations to improve vicarious calibration and validation of satellite ocean color products. We present results from COAST, HyspIRI, and OCEANIA to demonstrate the importance of coincident atmospheric and sea-truth measurements to improve atmospheric correction. Our specific objective was to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the atmospheric correction algorithm, Tafkaa, on Headwall Imaging Spectrometer data using input parameters of atmospheric aerosol optical depth spectra and column water vapor obtained from the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) collected on the CIRPAS Twin Otter during COAST (2011). Use of the high dynamic-range, in-water Compact-Optical Profiling System (C-OPS) and above-water Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) with matched wavelength channels enabled accurate observations of exact water-leaving radiance to use in validating imagery. Results from HyspIRI and OCEANIA (October 2013) flown on the NASA ER-2 and CIRPAS Twin Otter will be presented. Knowledge gained from these missions will improve vicarious calibration and validation of legacy (MODIS) and future (PACE & GEO-CAPE) satellite sensors to better characterize coastal ecosystems using ocean color observations.

  13. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  14. Gondwana to Asia: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sanghoon; Kim, Sung Won; Santosh, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula, China, Japan, India, Sri Lanka, and Timor, among other regions, preserve important clues for the tectonic evolution of present-day Asia derived from the break-up of Mesozoic supercontinent Pangea. Evidence for the formation, evolution, and destruction of Earth's first coherent supercontinent Columbia during Paleoproterozoic, followed by the Neoproterozoic Rodinia and late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Gondwana supercontinents are also recorded in many of these regions. The debates surrounding some of these aspects and the state-of-the-art knowledge from these terranes were the focal themes of discussion during the "2013 Annual Convention of the International Association for Gondwana Research (IAGR) and the 10th Gondwana to Asia International Conference" held at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Korea during September 30th to October 2nd 2013. The conference was attended by more than 200 delegates representing 11 countries. The discussion continued at the "International conference on Continental Dynamics" held in Xian, China during April 2014. This special issue of Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, assembling 24 research papers is an outcome of the deliberations under various sessions of the above conferences. In assembling this special issue, we attempt to provide evidence-driven discussions on the construction and destruction of Precambrian and Paleozoic supercontinents preserved in present-day Asian continents. We also address a variety of themes including magmatic, metamorphic and metallogenic processes, as well as issues related to natural environment. We hope that the papers assembled in this special issue offer new insights into some of the key issues surrounding the geological, geophysical and geodynamic milieu in Asia, and a better understanding of analogous processes in other parts of the world.

  15. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Melanesian futsal players: a first approach to talent identification in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Zongo, P; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A; Michalak, E; Dellal, A; Castagna, C; Hue, O

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite Melanesian futsal players in order to determine the best performance predictors. Physiological parameters of performance were measured in 14 Melanesian (MEL-G, 24.4±4.4 yrs) and 8 Caucasian (NMEL-G, 22.9±4.9) elite futsal players, using tests of jump-and-reach (CMJ), agility (T-Test), repeated sprint ability (RSA), RSA with change-of-direction (RSA-COD), sprints with 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 30 m lap times, and aerobic fitness with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). The anthropometric data revealed significantly lower height for MEL-G compared with NMEL-G: 1.73±0.05 and 1.80±0.08 m, respectively; P = 0.05. The CMJ was significantly higher for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 50.4±5.9 and 45.2±4.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.05. T-Test times were significantly lower for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 10.47±0.58 and 11.01±0.64 seconds, respectively; P = 0.05. MEL-G height was significantly related to CMJ (r = 0.706, P = 0.01), CMJpeakP (r = 0.709, P = 0.01) and T-Test (r = 0.589, P = 0.02). No significant between-group differences were observed for sprint tests or 30-15 IFT, including heart rate and estimated VO2max. Between groups, the percentage decrement (%Dec) in RSA-COD was significantly lower in MEL-G than NMEL-G (P = 0.05), although no significant difference was noted between RSA and RSA-COD. Within groups, no significant difference was observed between %Dec in RSA or RSA-COD; P = 0.697. This study presents specific anthropometric (significantly lower height) and physiological (significantly greater agility) reference values in Melanesians, which, taken together, might help coaches and physical fitness trainers to optimize elite futsal training and talent identification in Oceania. PMID:26060337

  16. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Melanesian futsal players: a first approach to talent identification in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Galy, O; Zongo, P; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A; Michalak, E; Dellal, A; Castagna, C; Hue, O

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite Melanesian futsal players in order to determine the best performance predictors. Physiological parameters of performance were measured in 14 Melanesian (MEL-G, 24.4±4.4 yrs) and 8 Caucasian (NMEL-G, 22.9±4.9) elite futsal players, using tests of jump-and-reach (CMJ), agility (T-Test), repeated sprint ability (RSA), RSA with change-of-direction (RSA-COD), sprints with 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 30 m lap times, and aerobic fitness with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). The anthropometric data revealed significantly lower height for MEL-G compared with NMEL-G: 1.73±0.05 and 1.80±0.08 m, respectively; P = 0.05. The CMJ was significantly higher for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 50.4±5.9 and 45.2±4.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.05. T-Test times were significantly lower for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 10.47±0.58 and 11.01±0.64 seconds, respectively; P = 0.05. MEL-G height was significantly related to CMJ (r = 0.706, P = 0.01), CMJpeakP (r = 0.709, P = 0.01) and T-Test (r = 0.589, P = 0.02). No significant between-group differences were observed for sprint tests or 30-15 IFT, including heart rate and estimated VO2max. Between groups, the percentage decrement (%Dec) in RSA-COD was significantly lower in MEL-G than NMEL-G (P = 0.05), although no significant difference was noted between RSA and RSA-COD. Within groups, no significant difference was observed between %Dec in RSA or RSA-COD; P = 0.697. This study presents specific anthropometric (significantly lower height) and physiological (significantly greater agility) reference values in Melanesians, which, taken together, might help coaches and physical fitness trainers to optimize elite futsal training and talent identification in Oceania. PMID:26060337

  17. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher Ck; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-07-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  18. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher CK; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-01-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  19. Strategic Asia 2002 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ellings; Aaron Friedberg; Michael Wills

    2002-09-01

    The Strategic Asia Program made considerable progress over the course of 2002--the program's first year with support from the Department of Energy--and completed all its tasks on schedule and within budget. Following a planning meeting in Washington in February 2002, a team of leading specialists wrote a series of original assessments regarding the impact of September 11 on the strategic environment in Asia, examining how perceptions and strategies of countries in the region changed following the terrorist attacks. The final products, Strategic Asia 2002-03: Asian Aftershocks and its accompanying executive summary, were published in September 2002. The program's research findings (some of which are summarized) were presented to policymakers in Washington and elsewhere throughout the year, and almost 2,000 copies of the book had been distributed by mid-2003.

  20. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  1. Women of Southeast Asia. Occasional Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Esterik, Penny, Ed.

    Nine chapters emphasizing religious, domestic, and economic aspects of women in Southeast Asia are presented. In an introductory chapter, Penny Van Esterik discusses women and Buddhism, societal and domestic roles, occupational patterns, research on women in Southeast Asia, and Southeast Asia's past and future. In chapter 2, "Buddhism, Sex-Roles,…

  2. GSSML: An Observations and Measurements profile for GlobalSoilMap.net (Oceania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Alistair; Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The Oceania node of the GlobalSoilMap.net consortium has defined GSMML, a profile of the Observations and Measurements (O&M) Geography Markup Language (GML) application schema, to support the delivery of project data using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Services (WFS). This paper describes GSMML, and the results of initial testing, and proposes linkages to other OGC service types and soil data exchange standards. GlobalSoilMap.net will create a global soil dataset providing predictions for twelve agreed soil properties within a three-dimensional grid. The grid consists of 'Spatial Entities' spaced at 3 arc second intervals and extending to a depth of 2 meters with ten physical soil property predictions made at six predefined depth intervals. In addition, two properties predicting the depth of the profile are made for each Spatial Entity. Each prediction must include: an estimate of its uncertainty; its age and that of the source data; and a description of the process used to generate the value. The approach taken in GSMML is to map the GlobalSoilMap.net requirements on to classes within the O&M Observation and Sampling Features packages. The GlobalSoilMap.net Spatial Entities represent a sampling regime across the earth's terrestrial surface and are modelled as nested O&M 'SF_SpatialSamplingFeatures'. The property predictions are related 'OM_Observation' instances that carry the result, age properties, estimation process, and uncertainty. GSMML defines two concrete classes ('GSM_PrimarySpatialEntity' and 'GSM_SecondarySpatialEntity') with no properties of their own that specialize the SF_SpatialSamplingFeature. Uncertainty is encoded by adopting the UncertML profile of O&M. The schema is accompanied by a set of conformance classes to constrain content, and Semantic Web vocabularies that define the observed properties. Test GSMML services show that a WFS can only reliably support the provision of comprehensive data for requests returning a few hundred

  3. Pharmacovigilance in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Pipasha

    2013-01-01

    An increase in drug safety concerns in recent years with some high profile drug withdrawals have led to raising the bar by various stakeholders more importantly by the regulatory authorities. The number of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reported have also resulted in an increase in the volume of data handled and to understand pharmacovigilance a high level of expertise is required to rapidly detect drug risks as well as to defend the product against an inappropriate removal. Proactive pharmacovigilance throughout the product life cycle is the way forward and the future direction for drug safety in Asia. It has been a constant challenge to standardize pharmacovigilance in Asia, in the context of clinical trials and post-marketing pharmacovigilance due to varied geaographical, cultural and medical practices in these regioon. While major advancements of the discipline of pharmacovigilance have taken place in the West, not much has been achieved in Asian countries, though several attempts have been taken. However, with more clinical trials and clinical research activity being conducted in the Asian continent, there is an immense need to understand and implement pharmacovigilance. For this to happen, the mind set of people working in regulatory agencies, the Pharmaceutical companies, prescribers and patients/consumers need to change. PMID:24347987

  4. Uniportal VATS in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The history of uniportal Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) stretches back almost a decade with the treatment of simple thoracic conditions. As the technique matures with increasing ability to tackle the full spectrum of thoracic surgical diseases, most notably major lung resections for lung tumours, the spread of uniportal VATS across the globe has been phenomenal. VATS centres in Asia are now performing uniportal VATS, and developing their individual styles and techniques with great successes. The enthusiasm from surgeons, demand from patients, as well as the dynamism and diversity of uniportal VATS in the region have helped fuel this excitement and change. The 1st Asian Single Port VATS Symposium in 2013 heralded the beginning of academic exchange between uniportal VATS centres in Asia and experts from around the world. Wetlabs in the region will provide further training for thoracic surgeons interested in super-specializing in uniportal VATS. The future of this approach will hinge on good regional collaboration, research and training. PMID:24040529

  5. Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    There are growing concerns about the health impacts of climate change with ecosystem degradation and global warming, finite reserves of non-renewable energy, water shortages in food-producing regions, limits to contemporary agriculture with its dependence on exhaustible petrochemical nitrogen and rock phosphate fertilizers, and failure of the global financial system. To date, health security has meant attention to safe environments especially water, sanitation and waste disposal; and access to health care and its affordability. Its dependency on food security (safety, sufficiency, sustainability, and satisfaction which requires diversity and quality) has been under-estimated because the current and imminent risks have increased and extended to more populations, because these may be less tractable and because the nature, extent and dynamics of nutritionally-related health are better appreciated. As a step towards more collaborative food and health systems, the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has created an interdisciplinary Nutrition Consortium (NC) with research and policy agendas. The NC held a food in Health Security (FIHS) in the Asia Pacific region roundtable in conjunction with the World Vegetable Center based in Tainan, supported by the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the Australian Academies of Science and of Science Technology and Engineering, August 2-5th 2009 in Taiwan. A FIHS Network is being established to further the initiative. It should form part of the broader Human Security agenda. PMID:19965334

  6. Culture and Disability in the Pacific. Summaries of Papers Prepared for a Working Session of the Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania (New Orleans, Louisiana, February 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Maureen, Ed.; Armstrong, Jocelyn, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue is devoted to summaries of 12 papers on culture and disability issues in the Pacific. The summaries presented span Oceania and are based on papers representing Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Nstasinge: The Sickness of a Small Boy from the Finisterre Range in Papua New…

  7. Economics in Asia: Status Reports on Teaching and Research in Nine Countries. RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This book contains reports on the teaching of and research in economics in nine countries: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Each report covers the historical development and growth of the discipline in the country; the development of infra-structures for teaching and…

  8. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  9. Conclusion: applying South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme science to land-use management policy and practice in a changing landscape and climate

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Rory P. D.; Nussbaum, Ruth; Fowler, David; Weilenmann, Maja; Hector, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The context and challenges relating to the remaining tropical rainforest are briefly reviewed and the roles which science can play in addressing questions are outlined. Key messages which articles in the special issue, mainly based on projects of the Royal Society South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme (SEARRP), have raised of relevance to policies on land use, land management and REDD+ are then considered. Results from the atmospheric science and hydrology papers, and some of the ecological ones, demonstrate the very high ecosystem service values of rainforest (compared with oil palm) in maintaining high biodiversity, good local air quality, reducing greenhouse emissions, and reducing landslide, flooding and sedimentation consequences of climate change—and hence provide science to underpin the protection of remaining forest, even if degraded and fragmented. Another group of articles test ways of restoring forest quality (in terms of biodiversity and carbon value) or maintaining as high biodiversity and ecological functioning levels as possible via intelligent design of forest zones and fragments within oil palm landscapes. Finally, factors that have helped to enhance the policy relevance of SEARRP projects and dissemination of their results to decision-makers are outlined. PMID:22006974

  10. Conclusion: applying South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme science to land-use management policy and practice in a changing landscape and climate.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Rory P D; Nussbaum, Ruth; Fowler, David; Weilenmann, Maja; Hector, Andy

    2011-11-27

    The context and challenges relating to the remaining tropical rainforest are briefly reviewed and the roles which science can play in addressing questions are outlined. Key messages which articles in the special issue, mainly based on projects of the Royal Society South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme (SEARRP), have raised of relevance to policies on land use, land management and REDD+ are then considered. Results from the atmospheric science and hydrology papers, and some of the ecological ones, demonstrate the very high ecosystem service values of rainforest (compared with oil palm) in maintaining high biodiversity, good local air quality, reducing greenhouse emissions, and reducing landslide, flooding and sedimentation consequences of climate change-and hence provide science to underpin the protection of remaining forest, even if degraded and fragmented. Another group of articles test ways of restoring forest quality (in terms of biodiversity and carbon value) or maintaining as high biodiversity and ecological functioning levels as possible via intelligent design of forest zones and fragments within oil palm landscapes. Finally, factors that have helped to enhance the policy relevance of SEARRP projects and dissemination of their results to decision-makers are outlined. PMID:22006974

  11. Population structure of wild musk shrews (Suncus murinus) in Asia based on mitochondrial DNA variation, with research in Cambodia and Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Kurachi, Megumi; Chau, Ba-Loc; Dang, Vu-Binh; Dorji, Tashi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Nyunt, Maung Maung; Maeda, Yoshizane; Chhum-Phith, Loan; Namikawa, Takao; Yamagata, Takahiro

    2007-04-01

    The musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is a small mammalian species belonging to Insectivora. It is widely distributed in Asia. To identify the genetic relationship among wild musk shrew populations and examine its migration route, we investigated the populations of Cambodia and Bhutan by using mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and compared them with other Asian populations previously described. Four haplotypes were detected in Cambodia and eight in Bhutan. A total of 53 haplotypes were detected in Asia and were classified largely into two groups, the Continental and Island types, based on a minimum spanning network. From the distribution of mtDNA types in wild musk shrews, three major population groups are identified in Asia: South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Malay. It is suggested that the Malay population group was a mix of South and Southeast Asian population groups and that this was a contact area of the two groups. In addition, other contact areas between the South and Southeast Asian groups exist in Myanmar, but unlike the Malay, the Myanmar area was the border of these groups. PMID:17318375

  12. AED in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of AED endeavors in Asia. AED's work in Asia has centered on institution-building, taking advantage of its…

  13. ESP in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Tony, Ed.

    Seven conference papers discuss English language training and political development in Asia, including language project design and evaluation, counterparting, sustainability, appropriate technology, and languages and the politics of development. Papers included are: "Linguistic and Cultural Considerations of Writing ELT Texts for Use in Asia"…

  14. Combiner L'Education Et Le Travail; Experiences en Asie et en Oceanie: Viet Nam (Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Viet Nam).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vien, Hguyen Khac

    Educational policy in Viet Nam has closely followed the revolutionary movement. In the essentially democratic period from 1945 to 1960, Viet Nam created a nationwide 10-grade school system and fought illiteracy on a large scale. By 1960, as socialism began to predominate, especially in the North, traditional educational methods and values began to…

  15. IFLA General Conference 1991. Division of Regional Activities: Section of Africa; Section of Asia and Oceania; Section of Latin America and the Carribean. Booklet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The six papers in this collection were presented at three sections of the Division of Regional Activities: (1) "A la recherche d'Approches adaptees aux Besoins en Documentation des Africains (In Search of an Approach Adapted to the Information Needs of Africans)" (Touria Temsamani Haji, Morocco); (2) "People's Libraries: An African Perspective"…

  16. Combining high-resolution gross domestic product data with home and personal care product market research data to generate a subnational emission inventory for Asia.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Juliet Elizabeth Natasha; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher; Rowson, Matthew; Miah, Taqmina; Price, Oliver Richard

    2014-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is reliant on good estimates of product usage information and robust exposure models. Over the past 20 to 30 years, much progress has been made with the development of exposure models that simulate the transport and distribution of chemicals in the environment. However, little progress has been made in our ability to estimate chemical emissions of home and personal care (HPC) products. In this project, we have developed an approach to estimate subnational emission inventory of chemical ingredients used in HPC products for 12 Asian countries including Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (Asia-12). To develop this inventory, we have coupled a 1 km grid of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) estimates with market research data of HPC product sales. We explore the necessity of accounting for a population's ability to purchase HPC products in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform. The implications of using high resolution data on inter- and intracountry subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored. It was demonstrated that for low value products (<500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the maximum deviation from baseline (emission distributed via population) is less than a factor of 3 and it would not result in significant differences in chemical risk assessments. However, for other product types (>500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude. The implications of this on conducting national or regional level risk assessments may be significant. Further work is needed to explore the implications of this variability in HPC emissions to enable the HPC industry and/or governments to advance risk-based chemical

  17. Improving capacity for evidence-based practice in South East Asia: evaluating the role of research fellowships in the SEA-ORCHID Project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fellowships are a component of many professional education programs. They provide opportunities to develop skills and competencies in an environment where time is protected and resources and technical support are more readily available. The SEA-ORCHID fellowships program aimed to increase capacity for evidence-based practice and research synthesis, and to encourage fellows to become leaders in these areas. Methods Fellows included doctors, nurses, midwives and librarians working in the maternal and neonatal areas of nine hospitals in South East Asia. Fellowships were undertaken in Australia and involved specific outputs related to evidence-based practice or research synthesis. Training and support was tailored according to the type of output and the fellow's experience and expertise. We evaluated the fellowships program quantitatively and qualitatively through written evaluations, interviews and follow-up of fellowship activities. Results During 2006-07, 23 fellows from Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines undertook short-term fellowships (median four weeks) in Australia. The main outputs were drafts of Cochrane systematic reviews, clinical practice guidelines and protocols for randomised trials, and training materials to support evidence-based practice. Protocols for Cochrane systematic reviews were more likely to be completed than other outcomes. The fellows identified several components that were critical to the program's overall success; these included protected time, tailored training, and access to technical expertise and resources. On returning home, fellows identified a lack of time and limited access to the internet and evidence-based resources as barriers to completing their outputs. The support of colleagues and senior staff was noted as an important enabler of progress, and research collaborators from other institutions and countries were also important sources of support. Conclusions The SEA-ORCHID fellowships program provided

  18. Neurology in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. PMID:25666629

  19. Asia and the Pacific: A Survey of Distance Education 1992. Vol. II: Republic of Korea-Vietnam. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Suk-Ying; And Others

    This report is intended to serve as a general reference for people either new to the field or involved in planning and decision-making in the field of distance education, specifically in Asia and the Pacific region. Volume II contains data from 15 countries: the Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan,…

  20. Virtual Mobility as an Inclusion Strategy in Higher Education: Research on Distance Education Master Degrees in Europe, Latin America and Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Corbella, Marta; Álvarez-González, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Mobility of higher education students is one of the main indicators of competitiveness among universities, and a key aspect for quality in education. Colleges with virtual and distance methodologies include student mobility programmes. Within this context, the Active Projects (Erasmus MUNDUS Programme, EC: Net-Active and Active-Asia) compare and…

  1. Review of Research on Educational Leadership and Management in Asia: A Comparative Analysis of Research Topics and Methods, 1995-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Chen, Junjun

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades scholars have called for a more concerted effort to develop an empirically grounded literature on educational leadership outside of mainstream "Western" contexts. This paper reports the results of a review of research topics and methods that comprise the literature on educational leadership and management in…

  2. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Six Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13–16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions. PMID:26580638

  3. Stroke in Asia.

    PubMed

    Thammaroj, Jureerat; Subramaniam, Valarmathi; Bhattacharya, Joti J

    2005-05-01

    The epidemic of cardiovascular disease across most of Asia is at a different stage from that in the West; the incidence and prevalence of stroke are increasing steadily, associated with nutritional changes and aging of the population. Epidemiologic data, crucial in combating stroke, have been relatively sparse in Asian populations, but a few international collaborative studies on stroke have been in progress for several years. Through these, we now know that ischemic stroke is actually the most frequent type of cerebrovascular accident in Asia, although hemorrhagic stroke remains more common in Asia than in the West. Also, the percentage of ischemic stroke attributable to intracranial vascular disease is much higher than in the West. In Japan and a few other countries, stroke rates are declining; however, increasing rates in most other countries make primary prevention of critical importance in minimizing the severe impact of this epidemic in Asia. PMID:16198940

  4. Pass Over Southeastern Asia

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over Southeastern Asia was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 7, 2011, from 12:41:10 to 12:50:46 GMT, on ...

  5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and motor neuron syndromes in Asia.

    PubMed

    Shahrizaila, N; Sobue, G; Kuwabara, S; Kim, S H; Birks, Carol; Fan, D S; Bae, J S; Hu, C J; Gourie-Devi, M; Noto, Y; Shibuya, K; Goh, K J; Kaji, R; Tsai, C P; Cui, L; Talman, P; Henderson, R D; Vucic, S; Kiernan, M C

    2016-08-01

    While the past 2 decades have witnessed an increasing understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) arising from East Asia, particularly Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and China, knowledge of ALS throughout the whole of Asia remains limited. Asia represents >50% of the world population, making it host to the largest patient cohort of ALS. Furthermore, Asia represents a diverse population in terms of ethnic, social and cultural backgrounds. In this review, an overview is presented that covers what is currently known of ALS in Asia from basic epidemiology and genetic influences, through to disease characteristics including atypical phenotypes which manifest a predilection for Asians. With the recent establishment of the Pan-Asian Consortium for Treatment and Research in ALS to facilitate collaborations between clinicians and researchers across the region, it is anticipated that Asia and the Pacific will contribute to unravelling the uncertainties in ALS. PMID:27093948

  6. Asia-MIP: Multi Model-data Synthesis of Terrestrial Carbon Cycles in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ito, A.; Kang, M.; Sasai, T.; SATO, H.; Ueyama, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Saigusa, N.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Asia, which is characterized by monsoon climate and intense human activities, is one of the prominent understudied regions in terms of terrestrial carbon budgets and mechanisms of carbon exchange. To better understand terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia, we initiated multi-model and data intercomparison project in Asia (Asia-MIP). We analyzed outputs from multiple approaches: satellite-based observations (AVHRR and MODIS) and related products, empirically upscaled estimations (Support Vector Regression) using eddy-covariance observation network in Asia (AsiaFlux, CarboEastAsia, FLUXNET), ~10 terrestrial biosphere models (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, LPJ, SEIB-DGVM, TRIFFID, VISIT models), and atmospheric inversion analysis (e.g. TransCom models). We focused on the two difference temporal coverage: long-term (30 years; 1982-2011) and decadal (10 years; 2001-2010; data intensive period) scales. The regions of covering Siberia, Far East Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia (60-80E, 10S-80N), was analyzed in this study for assessing the magnitudes, interannual variability, and key driving factors of carbon cycles. We will report the progress of synthesis effort to quantify terrestrial carbon budget in Asia. First, we analyzed the recent trends in Gross Primary Productivities (GPP) using satellite-based observation (AVHRR) and multiple terrestrial biosphere models. We found both model outputs and satellite-based observation consistently show an increasing trend in GPP in most of the regions in Asia. Mechanisms of the GPP increase were analyzed using models, and changes in temperature and precipitation play dominant roles in GPP increase in boreal and temperate regions, whereas changes in atmospheric CO2 and precipitation are important in tropical regions. However, their relative contributions were different. Second, in the decadal analysis (2001-2010), we found that the negative GPP and carbon uptake anomalies in 2003 summer in Far East Asia is one of the largest

  7. Climate change and postglacial human dispersals in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Soares, Pedro; Trejaut, Jean Alain; Loo, Jun-Hun; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Lee, Chien-Liang; Chen, Yao-Ming; Hudjashov, Georgi; Forster, Peter; Macaulay, Vincent; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Lin, Marie; Richards, Martin B

    2008-06-01

    Modern humans have been living in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) for at least 50,000 years. Largely because of the influence of linguistic studies, however, which have a shallow time depth, the attention of archaeologists and geneticists has usually been focused on the last 6,000 years--in particular, on a proposed Neolithic dispersal from China and Taiwan. Here we use complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequencing to spotlight some earlier processes that clearly had a major role in the demographic history of the region but have hitherto been unrecognized. We show that haplogroup E, an important component of mtDNA diversity in the region, evolved in situ over the last 35,000 years and expanded dramatically throughout ISEA around the beginning of the Holocene, at the time when the ancient continent of Sundaland was being broken up into the present-day archipelago by rising sea levels. It reached Taiwan and Near Oceania more recently, within the last approximately 8,000 years. This suggests that global warming and sea-level rises at the end of the Ice Age, 15,000-7,000 years ago, were the main forces shaping modern human diversity in the region. PMID:18359946

  8. Investigating Functional Dyspepsia in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (FD) is challenging since it depends largely on symptoms which are often heterogeneous and overlapping. This is particularly so in Asia with many different cultures and languages. Symptom-based diagnosis of FD based on Rome III criteria has not been fully validated and it may not be suitable in some Asian populations. Clinicians often assume that investigations in FD are not rewarding and physiological tests are often not available unless in the research setting. Investigation of alarm features and role of Helicobacter pylori in FD remain controversial but experts agreed that both should be tested. Physiological tests including gastric accommodation and chemical hypersensitivity tests are underutilized in Asia and available studies were few. While experts do not recommend routine clinical use of gastric accommodation tests but they agree that these tests can be advocated if clinically indicated. Empiric therapeutic trial is not currently a diagnostic option. The pathogenesis of FD is still poorly understood and there is a substantial placebo response. As a conclusion, a diagnosis of FD is challenging especially so in the context of Asia and despite the limitations of available physiological tests experts agreed that these tests can be advocated if and when clinically indicated. PMID:22837871

  9. From Patronage to Profiteering? New Zealand's Educational Relationship with the Small States of Oceania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxon, Eve

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the educational implications of the geopolitical changes arising from the associated processes of globalisation and regionalisation for the small island states of the South Pacific. As an educationist whose research field combines analysis of the New Zealand educational reforms undertaken over the last decade within a wider…

  10. Lapita Diet in Remote Oceania: New Stable Isotope Evidence from the 3000-Year-Old Teouma Site, Efate Island, Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Kinaston, Rebecca; Buckley, Hallie; Valentin, Frederique; Bedford, Stuart; Spriggs, Matthew; Hawkins, Stuart; Herrscher, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Remote Oceania was colonized ca. 3000 BP by populations associated with the Lapita Cultural Complex, marking a major event in the prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Islands. Although over 250 Lapita sites have been found throughout the Western Pacific, human remains associated with Lapita period sites are rare. The site of Teouma, on Efate Island, Vanuatu has yielded the largest burial assemblage (n = 68 inhumations) of Lapita period humans ever discovered, providing a unique opportunity for assessing human adaptation to the environment in a colonizing population. Stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) of human bone collagen from forty-nine Teouma adults were analyzed against a comprehensive dietary baseline to assess the paleodiet of some of Vanuatu's earliest inhabitants. The isotopic dietary baseline included both modern plants and animals (n = 98) and prehistoric fauna from the site (n = 71). The human stable isotope data showed that dietary protein at Teouma included a mixture of reef fish and inshore organisms and a variety of higher trophic marine (e.g. marine turtle) and terrestrial animals (e.g. domestic animals and fruit bats). The domestic pigs and chickens at Teouma primarily ate food from a C3 terrestrial environment but their δ15N values indicated that they were eating foods from higher trophic levels than those of plants, such as insects or human fecal matter, suggesting that animal husbandry at the site may have included free range methods. The dietary interpretations for the humans suggest that broad-spectrum foraging and the consumption of domestic animals were the most important methods for procuring dietary protein at the site. Males displayed significantly higher δ15N values compared with females, possibly suggesting dietary differences associated with labor specialization or socio-cultural practices relating to food distribution. PMID:24598939

  11. Lapita diet in remote oceania: new stable isotope evidence from the 3000-year-old Teouma site, Efate Island, Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Kinaston, Rebecca; Buckley, Hallie; Valentin, Frederique; Bedford, Stuart; Spriggs, Matthew; Hawkins, Stuart; Herrscher, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Remote Oceania was colonized ca. 3000 BP by populations associated with the Lapita Cultural Complex, marking a major event in the prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Islands. Although over 250 Lapita sites have been found throughout the Western Pacific, human remains associated with Lapita period sites are rare. The site of Teouma, on Efate Island, Vanuatu has yielded the largest burial assemblage (n=68 inhumations) of Lapita period humans ever discovered, providing a unique opportunity for assessing human adaptation to the environment in a colonizing population. Stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) of human bone collagen from forty-nine Teouma adults were analyzed against a comprehensive dietary baseline to assess the paleodiet of some of Vanuatu's earliest inhabitants. The isotopic dietary baseline included both modern plants and animals (n=98) and prehistoric fauna from the site (n=71). The human stable isotope data showed that dietary protein at Teouma included a mixture of reef fish and inshore organisms and a variety of higher trophic marine (e.g. marine turtle) and terrestrial animals (e.g. domestic animals and fruit bats). The domestic pigs and chickens at Teouma primarily ate food from a C3 terrestrial environment but their δ15N values indicated that they were eating foods from higher trophic levels than those of plants, such as insects or human fecal matter, suggesting that animal husbandry at the site may have included free range methods. The dietary interpretations for the humans suggest that broad-spectrum foraging and the consumption of domestic animals were the most important methods for procuring dietary protein at the site. Males displayed significantly higher δ15N values compared with females, possibly suggesting dietary differences associated with labor specialization or socio-cultural practices relating to food distribution. PMID:24598939

  12. Literature of Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, John M.

    This paper provides a brief description of the literature of Southeast Asia. This area, which embraces the region south of China and east of India, includes the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest historical influence came from India around the beginnings of the…

  13. OCLC in Asia Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Min-min

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and the changing Asia Pacific library scene under the broad headings of the three phases of technology innovation. Highlights include WorldCat and the OCLC shared cataloging system; resource sharing and interlibrary loan; enriching OCLC online catalog with Asian collections; and future outlooks.…

  14. Multicultural Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  15. HRD Issues in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) issues in Asia. "The Japanese Human Resource Development System" (Kiyoe Harada) provides a comprehensive model of the Japanese HRD system based on the current state of the art, including management practices and issues and trends in Japanese HRD. "Structured…

  16. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  17. Complete mtDNA genomes of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups: a melting pot of recent and ancient lineages in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Delfin, Frederick; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Li, Mingkun; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen D; Tabbada, Kristina A; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Calacal, Gayvelline C; Sagum, Minerva S; Datar, Francisco A; Padilla, Sabino G; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is a strategic point in the Asia-Pacific region for the study of human diversity, history and origins, as it is a cross-road for human migrations and consequently exhibits enormous ethnolinguistic diversity. Following on a previous in-depth study of Y-chromosome variation, here we provide new insights into the maternal genetic history of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups by surveying complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a total of 14 groups (11 groups in this study and 3 groups previously published) including previously published mtDNA hypervariable segment (HVS) data from Filipino regional center groups. Comparison of HVS data indicate genetic differences between ethnolinguistic and regional center groups. The complete mtDNA genomes of 14 ethnolinguistic groups reveal genetic aspects consistent with the Y-chromosome, namely: diversity and heterogeneity of groups, no support for a simple dichotomy between Negrito and non-Negrito groups, and different genetic affinities with Asia-Pacific groups that are both ancient and recent. Although some mtDNA haplogroups can be associated with the Austronesian expansion, there are others that associate with South Asia, Near Oceania and Australia that are consistent with a southern migration route for ethnolinguistic group ancestors into the Asia-Pacific, with a timeline that overlaps with the initial colonization of the Asia-Pacific region, the initial colonization of the Philippines and a possible separate post-colonization migration into the Philippine archipelago. PMID:23756438

  18. Complete mtDNA genomes of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups: a melting pot of recent and ancient lineages in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Delfin, Frederick; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Li, Mingkun; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen D; Tabbada, Kristina A; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Calacal, Gayvelline C; Sagum, Minerva S; Datar, Francisco A; Padilla, Sabino G; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-02-01

    The Philippines is a strategic point in the Asia-Pacific region for the study of human diversity, history and origins, as it is a cross-road for human migrations and consequently exhibits enormous ethnolinguistic diversity. Following on a previous in-depth study of Y-chromosome variation, here we provide new insights into the maternal genetic history of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups by surveying complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a total of 14 groups (11 groups in this study and 3 groups previously published) including previously published mtDNA hypervariable segment (HVS) data from Filipino regional center groups. Comparison of HVS data indicate genetic differences between ethnolinguistic and regional center groups. The complete mtDNA genomes of 14 ethnolinguistic groups reveal genetic aspects consistent with the Y-chromosome, namely: diversity and heterogeneity of groups, no support for a simple dichotomy between Negrito and non-Negrito groups, and different genetic affinities with Asia-Pacific groups that are both ancient and recent. Although some mtDNA haplogroups can be associated with the Austronesian expansion, there are others that associate with South Asia, Near Oceania and Australia that are consistent with a southern migration route for ethnolinguistic group ancestors into the Asia-Pacific, with a timeline that overlaps with the initial colonization of the Asia-Pacific region, the initial colonization of the Philippines and a possible separate post-colonization migration into the Philippine archipelago. PMID:23756438

  19. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  20. On The Trail of Disease in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Maxmen, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Infectious disease research is blossoming in cities like Bangkok, as local clinicians and scientists delve into the surrounding muddy tropics of Southeast Asia to learn about endemic pathogens. PMID:19153251

  1. Emerging drug problems in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    This session, “Emerging Drug Problems in Asia,” focused on emerging drug problems in Asia. Dr. Juana Tomás-Rosselló discussed “East and Southeast Asia: Emerging Drug Problems and Response” and Dr. Wei J. Chen discussed “Ketamine Use among Regular Tobacco and Alcohol Users as Revealed by Respondent Driven Sampling in Taipei: Prevalence, Expectancy, and Users' Risky Decision Making.” PMID:25267884

  2. Human Population Admixture in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Genetic admixture in human, the result of inter-marriage among people from different well-differentiated populations, has been extensively studied in the New World, where European colonization brought contact between peoples of Europe, Africa, and Asia and the Amerindian populations. In Asia, genetic admixing has been also prevalent among previously separated human populations. However, studies on admixed populations in Asia have been largely underrepresented in similar efforts in the New World. Here, I will provide an overview of population genomic studies that have been published to date on human admixture in Asia, focusing on population structure and population history. PMID:23166524

  3. Labor migration in Asia.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1991-01-01

    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." PMID:12316776

  4. Mortality in Asia.

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    Although the general trend in mortality between 1950 and 1975 in South and East Asia has been downward, there is considerable country-to-country variation in the rate of decline. In countries where combined economic, social, and political circumstances resulted in controlling the disease spectrum (e.g., China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka), mortality levels declined to those seen in low-mortality countries. In most of the large countries of the region however, mortality declined at a slower rate, even slowing down considerably in the 1970's while the death rates remained high (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines); this slowing down of mortality level is attributed essentially to the poverty-stricken masses of society which were not able to take advantage of social, technological, and health-promoting behavioral changes conducive to mortality decline. Infant mortality levels, although declining since 1950, followed the same dismal pattern of the general mortality level. The rate varies from less than 10/1000 live births (Japan) to more than 140/1000 (Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal). Generally, rural areas exhibited higher infant mortality than urban areas. The level of child mortality declines with increases in the mother's educational level in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The largest decline in child mortality occurs when at least 1 parent has secondary education. The premature retardation of mortality decline is caused by several factors: economic development, nutrition and food supply, provision and adequacy of health services, and demographic trends. The outlook for the year 2000 for most of Asia's countries will depend heavily on significant population increases. In most countries, particularly in South Asia, population is expected to increase by 75%, much of it in rural areas and among poorer socioeconomic groups. In view of this, Asia's health planners and policymakers will have to develop health policies which will strike a balance

  5. Prevalence and Prescription of Antidepressants in Depression with Somatic Comorbidity in Asia: The Research on East Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao; Si, Tian-Mei; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Ungvari, Gabor S; Wang, Chuan-Yue; He, Yan-Ling; Kua, Ee-Heok; Fujii, Senta; Sim, Kang; Trivedi, Jitendra K; Chung, Eun-Kee; Udomratn, Pichet; Chee, Kok-Yoon; Sartorius, Norman; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression is often comorbid with chronic somatic diseases. Few previous studies have investigated the prevalence of somatic diseases in depression or the prescription pattern of antidepressants in comorbidly depressed patients in Asia. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of somatic comorbidity (SC) in depression and compared the prescriptions of antidepressants in depressed patients with and without SC. Methods: A total of 2320 patients treated with antidepressants in 8 Asian countries were examined, and a diagnosis was based on the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision. We listed 17 common chronic somatic diseases. Patients’ socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and psychotropic drug prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Results: Of the patients examined, 1240 were diagnosed with depression and 30% of them (n = 375) had SC. The most common comorbid condition was diabetes (23.7%). The patients with SC were more likely to seek help at a general hospital (74.7% vs. 47.2%), and had a higher incidence of symptoms involving sadness, disturbed sleep, and poor appetite. Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant was prescribed more for patients with SC than for those without SC (30.4% vs. 22.9%). Conclusions: SC is common in depressed Asian patients. It is important to strengthen the recognition of depression, especially in general hospitals and when patients report some somatic discomfort. It is also a matter of urgency to establish evidence-based guidelines for the use of new antidepressants in depressed patients with SC. PMID:25836602

  6. Asia Wise Workbook Number One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    This workbook is a compilation of work sheets from the teacher's sections of the 1989 issues of "Asia Wise," an Auatralian magazine devoted to the study of Asia. Profiles and worksheets are provided for the countries of China, Indo-China, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, and Thailand. Worksheets feature the following themes: Asian Australians; food…

  7. Drug abuse in Asia.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  8. Inflammatory bowel disease in Asia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Prideaux, Lani; Kamm, Michael A; De Cruz, Peter P; Chan, Francis K L; Ng, Siew C

    2012-08-01

    The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are lower in Asia than in the West. However, across Asia the incidence and prevalence of IBD has increased rapidly over the last two to four decades. These changes may relate to increased contact with the West, westernization of diet, increasing antibiotics use, improved hygiene, vaccinations, or changes in the gut microbiota. Genetic factors also differ between Asians and the Caucasians. In Asia, UC is more prevalent than CD, although CD incidence is rapidly increasing in certain areas. There is a male predominance of CD in Asia, but a trend towards equal sex distribution for UC. IBD is diagnosed at a slightly older age than in the West, and there is rarely a second incidence peak as in the West. A positive family history is much less common than in the West, as are extra-intestinal disease manifestations. There are clear ethnic differences in incidence within countries in Asia, and an increased incidence in IBD in migrants from Asia to the West. Research in Asia, an area of rapidly changing IBD epidemiology, may lead to the discovery of critical etiologic factors that lead to the development of IBD. PMID:22497584

  9. Snakebite nephrotoxicity in Asia.

    PubMed

    Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak; Sitprija, Visith

    2008-07-01

    Snakebites have the highest incidence in Asia and represent an important health problem. Clinical renal manifestations include proteinuria, hematuria, pigmenturia, and renal failure. Nephropathy usually is caused by bites by snakes with hemotoxic or myotoxic venoms. These snakes are Russell's viper, saw-scaled viper, hump-nosed pit viper, green pit viper, and sea-snake. Renal pathologic changes include tubular necrosis, cortical necrosis, interstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis, and vasculitis. Hemodynamic alterations caused by vasoactive mediators and cytokines and direct nephrotoxicity account significantly for the development of nephropathy. Hemorrhage, hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, intravascular hemolysis, and rhabdomyolysis enhance renal ischemia leading to renal failure. Enzymatic activities of snake venoms account for direct nephrotoxicity. Immunologic mechanism plays a minor role. PMID:18620959

  10. Glaciers of Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    -glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

  11. International collaborative research on infectious diseases by Japanese universities and institutes in Asia and Africa, with a special emphasis on J-GRID.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Sumio; Imamura, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tamaki; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Ramamurthy, Thandavrayan

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries including Japan, malignant tumor (cancer), heart disease and cerebral apoplexy are major causes of death, but infectious diseases are still responsible for a high number of deaths in developing countries, especially among children aged less than 5 years. World Health Statistics published by WHO reports a high percentage of mortality from infectious diseases in children, and many of these diseases may be subject to transmission across borders and could possibly invade Japan.  Given this situation, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan initiated Phase I of the Program of Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Disease, which ran from FY 2005 to 2009, and involved 8 Japanese universities and 2 research centers. The program was established for the following purposes: 1) creation of a domestic research structure to promote the accumulation of fundamental knowledge about infectious diseases, 2) establishment of 13 overseas research collaboration centers in 8 countries at high risk of emerging and reemerging infections and at which Japanese researchers are stationed and conduct research in partnership with overseas instructors, 3) development of a network among domestic and overseas research centers, and 4) development of human resources.  The program was controlled under MEXT and managed by the RIKEN Center of Research Network for Infectious Diseases (Riken CRNID). Phase II of the program was set up as the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID), and has been running in FY 2010-2014.  Phase III will start in April 2015, and will be organized by the newly established Japanese governmental organization "Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED)", the so-called Japanese style NIH.  The Collaborative Research Center of Okayama University for Infectious Diseases in India (CRCOUI) was started up in 2007 at the National

  12. Concepts in research capabilities strengthening positive experiences of network approaches by TDR in the People's Republic of China and Eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wayling, Steven; Bergquist, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Strengthening human and physical resources for health research is an important function of any sustainable public health approach. The process of successfully embedding research into health systems in developing countries calls for the participation of competent, national scientists, with input and support where appropriate from international research institutions. Without a research-friendly environment, it is not easy for institutions and control programmes to engage and deliver products that can contribute to improving general health status. For example, monitoring is an important component of disease control but this can now be built upon to design surveillance systems capable of reporting activities in real time based on geographical information systems and continuous internet access. Informed surveillance can take on a stronger role than just capturing transmission foci to also become instrumental in directing swift responses in a spatially explicit and cost-effective manner. Further, whenever assessments of impact and control measures for different diseases are similar as they are, for example, with respect to schistosomiasis and food-borne trematode infections, the amalgamation of separate control programmes becomes realistic even if diverse strategies were originally developed for the diseases in question. Developments like this are guiding the expansion of research capabilities to espouse the integration of multidisciplinary research into national disease control programmes. The deployment of public-private partnerships as vehicles for operational progress and the endorsement of regional networks as platforms for driving research, while at the same time supporting and promoting training and dispersion of new knowledge, represent further manifestations of innovation in disease control. Some Asian examples of how this can be accomplished are provided. PMID:20627137

  13. Exploring Features of Highly Productive Research Contexts in Asia: A Comparison of Knowledge Production in Educational Leadership in Israel and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2016-01-01

    A recent review of research identified two Asian societies that represented "positive outliers" in the production of published knowledge on educational leadership and management: Hong Kong and Israel. These were the only Asian societies that had produced a critical mass of publications in this field in international journals over the…

  14. Strengthening the Research-Practice Nexus: A Special Issue as a Springboard for Building the Capacity of Teacher Education Institutions in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cher Ping

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the research-practice nexus may be strengthened in higher education by harnessing the conceptual ideas and key findings of a special issue to engage private and public organisations as partners to organise a regional workshop that is followed up by a suite of activities for teacher education institutions and their…

  15. American Images of Asia: Myth and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, James W.; Crabtree, Loren W.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests a unit to help students confront their misinformed perceptions of Asia. Students examine seven misconceptions: unchanging Asia, the spiritual East, the indistinct Asia, the inscrutable art of Asia, the unscientific Asian, oriental despotism, and modernization as Westernization. (Author/KC)

  16. Intensity patterns in eastern Asia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evernden, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Investigation of the intensity patterns of earthquakes of E Asia indicates a strong regional pattern of attenuation parameter k and systematic correlation of this pattern with topography, P residuals, and level of seismicity as in the USA.-Author

  17. Cyptotrama (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales) from Asia.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiao; Yang, Zhu-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Cyptotrama was divided into several sections, of which sect. Xerulina was often treated as a separate genus by some mycologists. In this study, collections of Cyptotrama from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia were studied. For comparison, materials from North America and New Zealand were analysed. Our multi-gene phylogenetic analyses indicated that Cyptotrama is monophyletic and Xerulina should be treated as a section within the genus Cyptotrama. Different scenarios of morphological character evolution in Cyptotrama are discovered. A total of seven species of Cyptotrama can be recognized from Asia, three of which, Cyptotrama angustispora, C. glabra, and C. shennongjia, are new to science. Meanwhile, three taxa previously placed in Xerulina or Marasmius were proved to be members of Cyptotrama, and the new combinations, namely Cyptotrama trogioides, C. megaspora, and C. myochroa, are accordingly proposed. A key for the diagnosis of worldwide Cyptotrama species is provided. PMID:27020153

  18. HIV in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Abrams, S

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeast Asia. Prostitution and injecting drug use are two major factors in the appearance of HIV/AIDS in a country. But, it is the correct social network that assures its transmission to epidemic proportions. Heterosexual transmission in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand is linked with prevalence among female sex workers and their clients. In Malaysia, the Ministry of Health responded immediately, but the number of new infections continued to increase. The failures suggest the need for more effective, intensive health education programs, outreach by nongovernmental organizations, and peer education at the grassroots level and in remote areas. Public health officials need to promote political change. International agencies could play an important role, if countries such as Myanmar, Cambodia, and Viet Nam were open to international exchanges. In Myanmar, political unrest has a priority over the need for aggressive health interventions. In Indonesia, the Islamic influence prevents recognition of the country's significant sex industry or the existence of a homosexual community. In Cambodia, health officials warned about the high number of sexual partners, high mobility rate, and low condom use, but HIV spread rapidly in the 1990s. Thailand initiated a 100% condom campaign to combat HIV prevalence in the 1990s, and HIV prevalence declined among sex workers and military recruits. Risk factors for rapid transmission include mobility, the number of sexual partners/sex worker, the proportion engaging in commercial sex, and the rate of regular condom use among sex workers. PMID:12294443

  19. Asia. Vancouver Conference Review.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    1997-02-01

    The 1997 International AIDS Conference in Vancouver gave relatively little attention to the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in most of the developing world. The popular press reported mainly prevention success stories from Thailand and Uganda, and the successes realized in reducing viral loads with combination drug therapies using protease inhibitors. Societal efforts in Thailand have dramatically reduced the rate of new infections, slowing the growth of the epidemic substantially. Few heard from the conference about how the HIV/AIDS epidemic is spreading rapidly and largely unchecked in much of the world, especially in Asia. Thailand, India, Myanmar, and Cambodia are the most heavily affected countries. Thailand and India, as well as Japan, were therefore heavily represented in the scientific program, while most other countries presented far fewer reports. With the exception of one report on a training course in Fiji, the Pacific Island nations were absent from the program. Vietnam, Malaysia, China, and Hong Kong have rapidly-evolving situations, while Japan, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Nepal, Singapore, Indonesia, Taiwan, Laos, South Korea, Mongolia, and Pakistan should be watched closely. The Asian epidemics are constantly evolving over time. PMID:9155914

  20. Respiratory infections unique to Asia.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kenneth W; File, Thomas M

    2008-11-01

    Asia is a highly heterogeneous region with vastly different cultures, social constitutions and populations affected by a wide spectrum of respiratory diseases caused by tropical pathogens. Asian patients with community-acquired pneumonia differ from their Western counterparts in microbiological aetiology, in particular the prominence of Gram-negative organisms, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the differences in socioeconomic and health-care infrastructures limit the usefulness of Western management guidelines for pneumonia in Asia. The importance of emerging infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza infection remain as close concerns for practising respirologists in Asia. Specific infections such as melioidosis, dengue haemorrhagic fever, scrub typhus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, penicilliosis marneffei, malaria, amoebiasis, paragonimiasis, strongyloidiasis, gnathostomiasis, trinchinellosis, schistosomiasis and echinococcosis occur commonly in Asia and manifest with a prominent respiratory component. Pulmonary eosinophilia, endemic in parts of Asia, could occur with a wide range of tropical infections. Tropical eosinophilia is believed to be a hyper-sensitivity reaction to degenerating microfilariae trapped in the lungs. This article attempts to address the key respiratory issues in these respiratory infections unique to Asia and highlight the important diagnostic and management issues faced by practising respirologists. PMID:18945321

  1. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. PMID:26254293

  2. Peritoneal dialysis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, I K

    1996-01-01

    The socioeconomic status of Asian countries is diverse, and government reimbursement policies for treatment of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vary greatly from one country to another. Both of these factors have a major impact not only on the choice of treatment for ESRD but also on the utilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this region. Based on the data collected from 11 representative Asian countries, several observations can be made. First, the treatment rates for ESRD in these countries correlated closely with their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita income. Second, the PD utilization rate appeared to have a biphasic relationship with the GDP per capita income and treatment rate, in that countries with the highest and the lowest treatment rates tended to have lower PD utilization rates, whereas countries with modest treatment rates tended to have higher PD utilization rates. The reason for low PD utilization in countries with the highest treatment rates differs from that in countries with low treatment rates. In the former, because of full government reimbursement, there is little physician incentive to introduce PD as an alternative form of ESRD treatment to in-center hemodialysis (HD), whereas in the latter, the complete lack of government reimbursement prevents the introduction of PD as a form of treatment. This pattern is likely to change in the future because, of the 11 countries surveyed, all except Thailand have recorded a growth rate which is higher for PD than HD over the last three years. The rate of utilization of different PD systems varies greatly among different Asian countries. Automated PD has yet to gain popularity in Asia. Conventional straight-line systems remain the dominant PD systems in use in Hong Kong, Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines, while in Malaysia and Singapore UV germicidal connection devices are most popular. However, in all these countries there has been a progressive shift over the last

  3. Changing epidemiological trends of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wee Khoon; Wong, Sunny H.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become more common in Asia over the past few decades. The rate of increase in prevalence of the disease varies greatly in Asia, with several countries in East Asia experiencing a more than doubled increase in IBD prevalence over the past decade. Historically, ulcerative colitis (UC) is more common than Crohn's disease (CD) in Asia. However, a reverse trend is beginning to appear in more developed countries in Asia such as Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. While Asian IBD patients share many similarities with their Western counterparts, there are important differences with significant clinical implications. In Asia, there are more men with CD, more ileo-colonic involvement in CD, less familial aggregation, fewer extra-intestinal manifestations and worse clinical outcomes for older-onset patients with UC. These differences are likely related to the different genetic makeup and environmental exposures in different regions. Evaluation of the differences and rates in epidemiologic trends may help researchers and clinicians estimate disease burden and understand the reasons behind these differences, which may hold the key to unravel the etiology of IBD. PMID:27175111

  4. Changing epidemiological trends of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wee Khoon; Wong, Sunny H; Ng, Siew C

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become more common in Asia over the past few decades. The rate of increase in prevalence of the disease varies greatly in Asia, with several countries in East Asia experiencing a more than doubled increase in IBD prevalence over the past decade. Historically, ulcerative colitis (UC) is more common than Crohn's disease (CD) in Asia. However, a reverse trend is beginning to appear in more developed countries in Asia such as Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. While Asian IBD patients share many similarities with their Western counterparts, there are important differences with significant clinical implications. In Asia, there are more men with CD, more ileo-colonic involvement in CD, less familial aggregation, fewer extra-intestinal manifestations and worse clinical outcomes for older-onset patients with UC. These differences are likely related to the different genetic makeup and environmental exposures in different regions. Evaluation of the differences and rates in epidemiologic trends may help researchers and clinicians estimate disease burden and understand the reasons behind these differences, which may hold the key to unravel the etiology of IBD. PMID:27175111

  5. Outlook and challenges to coal in Asia: 1994--2015

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

    1996-02-01

    The two key threats to coal`s long term dominance in Asia are: (1) its uneven distribution of reserves and lack of adequate rail transportation infrastructure, and (2) growing environmental concerns about coal-related pollution. Even with increased attention to emissions control for coal, continued growth in coal consumption is expected to result in further deterioration of the environment in Asia for another one to two decades. China will remain the largest polluter in Asia, but it`s believed it will become Asia`s largest user of emissions control technology by 2015. The authors have subjectively weighed the above constraints to increased coal use in preparing the projections of the future role of coal in the Asian region. This paper shows past trends in coal production and consumption, plus projections of coal production, consumption and trade over the 1994--2015 period. The projections in this paper are useful as a general indicator of long term patterns in Asia. However, there are too many uncertainties about economic growth rates and energy and environmental policies to suggest that the projections will be accurate for every economy. This paper concludes with the preliminary results of research under way, which suggests that increasing economic wealth in China is the most important factor in solving China`s coal-related pollution problems.

  6. The Asia pacific cohort studies collaboration: a decade of achievements.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-12-01

    The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) was established in the late 1990s when there was a distinct shortfall in evidence of the importance of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Asia. With few exceptions, most notably from Japan, most of the published reports on cardiovascular disease in the last century were from Western countries, and there was uncertainty how far etiological associations found in the West could be assumed to prevail in the East. Against this background, APCSC was set up as a pooling project, combining individual participant data (about 600,000 subjects) from all available leading cohort studies (36 from Asia and 8 from Australasia) in the region, to fill the knowledge gaps. In the past 10 years, APCSC has published 50 peer-reviewed publications of original epidemiological research, primarily concerned with coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This work has established that Western risk factors generally act similarly in Asia and in Australasia, just as they do in other parts of the world. Consequently, strategies to reduce the prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, and smoking are at least as important in Asia as elsewhere- and possibly more important when the vast size of Asia is considered. This article reviews the achievements of APCSC in the past decade, with an emphasis on coronary heart disease. PMID:25689943

  7. Developing Curriculum Materials on East Asia for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) is a research unit of the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i. Part of its mission is to develop curriculum materials for students in grades K-12. The social studies section of CRDG has been developing curriculum materials on Asia since the early 1990s. As part of a project entitled…

  8. Early Substance Use Initiation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts among School-Aged Adolescents in Four Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years) of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis) with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old) from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati) and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa). The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:26437423

  9. Early Substance Use Initiation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts among School-Aged Adolescents in Four Pacific Island Countries in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years) of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis) with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old) from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati) and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa). The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:26437423

  10. Nuclear nonproliferation strategy in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Yager, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The most immediate danger of a further spread of nuclear weapons in Asia is in South Asia, where both India and Pakistan have developed the means of producing nuclear explosive materials. In East Asia, North Korea appears to be in the early stages of a weapon-related nuclear program, and before the end of the century South Korea or Taiwan could revive their past efforts to move closer to a nuclear weapons capability. Over the longer run, Japan could conceivably decide to abandon its present strong opposition to the acquisition of nuclear weapons. At present, the United States has largely separate approaches to the nuclear weapons proliferation problems in South Asia and in East Asia. This paper argues that these separate approaches should be strengthened and integrated into a broader regional nonproliferation strategy. This regional strategy would have three major strands: inducing India and Pakistan to agree not to produce nuclear weapons or test nuclear explosive devices for a specific period; blostering the existing nonproliferation regime, principally by maintaining nonproliferation incentives and involving China more in the nonproliferation regime; and encouraging regional cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

  11. Nuclear nonproliferation strategy in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, F.W.

    1989-07-01

    The most immediate danger of a further spread of nuclear weapons in Asia is in South Asia, where both India and Pakistan have developed the means of producing nuclear explosive materials. In East Asia, North Korea appears to be in the early stages of a weapon-related nuclear program, and before the end of the century South Korea or Taiwan could revive their past efforts to move closer to a nuclear weapons capability. Over the longer run, Japan could conceivably decide to abandon its present strong opposition to the acquisition of nuclear Weapons. At present, the United States has largely separate approaches to the nuclear weapon proliferation problems in South Asia and in East Asia. This paper argues that these separate approaches should be strengthened and integrated into a broader regional nonproliferation strategy. This regional strategy would have three major strands: inducing India and Pakistan to agree not to produce nuclear weapons or test nuclear explosive devices for a specific period; bolstering the existing nonproliferation regime, principally by maintaining nonproliferation incentives and involving China more in the nonproliferation regime; and encouraging regional cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

  12. Acid deposition in east Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Phadnis, M.J.; Carmichael, G.R.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison between transport models was done to study the acid deposition in east Asia. The two models in question were different in the way the treated the pollutant species and the way simulation was carried out. A single-layer, trajectory model with simple (developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan) was compared with a multi-layered, eulerian type model (Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model - II [STEM-II]) treating the chemical processes in detail. The acidic species used in the simulation were sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The comparison was done for two episodes: each a month long in winter (February) and summer (August) of 1989. The predicted results from STEM-II were compared with the predicted results from the CRIEPI model as well as the observed data at twenty-one stations in Japan. The predicted values from STEM-II were similar to the ones from the CRIEPI results and the observed values in regards to the transport features. The average monthly values of SO{sub 2} in air, sulfate in air and sulfate in precipitation were in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were carried out under different scenarios of emissions, dry depositions velocities and mixing heights. The predicted values in these sensitivity studies showed a strong dependence on the mixing heights. The predicted wet deposition of sulfur for the two months is 0.7 gS/m2.mon, while the observed deposition is around 1.1 gS/m2.mon. It was also observed that the wet deposition on the Japan sea side of the islands is more than those on the Pacific side and the Okhotsk sea, mainly because of the continental outflow of pollutant air masses from mainland China and Korea. The effects of emissions from Russia and volcanoes were also evaluated.

  13. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M., (compiler); Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  14. Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Mendez, Fernando L; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J Stephen; Hammer, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The highly structured distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups suggests that current patterns of variation may be informative of past population processes. However, limited phylogenetic resolution, particularly of subclades within haplogroup K, has obscured the relationships of lineages that are common across Eurasia. Here we genotype 13 new highly informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a worldwide sample of 4413 males that carry the derived allele at M526, and reconstruct an NRY haplogroup tree with significantly higher resolution for the major clade within haplogroup K, K-M526. Although K-M526 was previously characterized by a single polytomy of eight major branches, the phylogenetic structure of haplogroup K-M526 is now resolved into four major subclades (K2a–d). The largest of these subclades, K2b, is divided into two clusters: K2b1 and K2b2. K2b1 combines the previously known haplogroups M, S, K-P60 and K-P79, whereas K2b2 comprises haplogroups P and its subhaplogroups Q and R. Interestingly, the monophyletic group formed by haplogroups R and Q, which make up the majority of paternal lineages in Europe, Central Asia and the Americas, represents the only subclade with K2b that is not geographically restricted to Southeast Asia and Oceania. Estimates of the interval times for the branching events between M9 and P295 point to an initial rapid diversification process of K-M526 that likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q. PMID:24896152

  15. South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bain, I

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV infections in the Mekong Region countries of Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The HIV/AIDS situation is profiled in each country. The populations at risk include legal and undocumented cross-border migrants, internal migrants, sex workers, and mobile occupational persons, such as truck drivers, fishermen, seafarers, and cross-border traders. Currently, there is little regional cooperation on the issue of HIV among migrants. Prevalence is high in most of the region. Programs range from being very developed in Thailand to minimal in China. Recently, nongovernmental organizations have created innovative models. AIDSCAP studies have focused on river trade routes along the Thai-Lao border and fishing ports in Thailand and Cambodia. The Asian Research Center for Migration has researched fishermen in 6 countries; Burmese women in Thailand; migrants along the Thai-Myanmar borders; and the impact of transportation routes on the spread of HIV/AIDS along six main inter-country routes. Coordination of Action Research has engaged in research and action projects in 8 southeast Asian countries. The region would benefit from information exchanges about lessons learned and best practices. Field researchers could use better technical support. Regional strategies are useful for providing support from origin to destination. PMID:12295096

  16. Snake Bite in South Asia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alirol, Emilie; Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Bawaskar, Himmatrao Saluba; Kuch, Ulrich; Chappuis, François

    2010-01-01

    Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities living in the tropics. Because of serious misreporting, the true worldwide burden of snake bite is not known. South Asia is the world's most heavily affected region, due to its high population density, widespread agricultural activities, numerous venomous snake species and lack of functional snake bite control programs. Despite increasing knowledge of snake venoms' composition and mode of action, good understanding of clinical features of envenoming and sufficient production of antivenom by Indian manufacturers, snake bite management remains unsatisfactory in this region. Field diagnostic tests for snake species identification do not exist and treatment mainly relies on the administration of antivenoms that do not cover all of the important venomous snakes of the region. Care-givers need better training and supervision, and national guidelines should be fed by evidence-based data generated by well-designed research studies. Poorly informed rural populations often apply inappropriate first-aid measures and vital time is lost before the victim is transported to a treatment centre, where cost of treatment can constitute an additional hurdle. The deficiency of snake bite management in South Asia is multi-causal and requires joint collaborative efforts from researchers, antivenom manufacturers, policy makers, public health authorities and international funders. PMID:20126271

  17. Open File: Education in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, Victor, Ed.; Maclean, Rupert, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This collection of scholarly essays on comparative education is divided into four sections. The first section, Viewpoints/Controversies, contains the essay "Educational Policies and Contents in Developing Countries" (Jacques Hallak). The second section, Open File: Education in Asia, contains the following essays: "Some Current Issues, Concerns and…

  18. Phytosanitary irradiation in south Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation has the potential to solve phytosanitary problems related to trade in south Asia. In general, it is the phytosanitary treatment most tolerated by fresh agricultural commodities. Irradiation technology is available in some countries of the region but is only used for phytosanitary purpos...

  19. Transgenic horticultural crops in Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern biotechnology applications, including genetic engineering, are a powerful tool to complement the conventional methods of crop improvement. Asia currently has three countries cultivating biotech/transgenic crops – China, India, and the Philippines, but only China commercially grows a transgen...

  20. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  1. Exacerbation of erosion induced by human perturbation in a typical Oceania watershed: Insight from 45 years of hydrological records from the Lanyang-Hsi River, northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Shuh-Ji; Liu, Kon-Kee

    2002-03-01

    High precipitation, steep slopes, small basin areas, and frequent flood events can induce high erosion rates on Oceania islands. These natural characteristics make watersheds much more vulnerable to anthropogenic perturbation. We analyzed long-term data sets (1950-1994) of suspended sediment loading from two gauges in Lanyang-Hsi watershed, a typical mountainous river in northeastern Taiwan. Prior to road construction that began in 1957, the annual sediment yield for the downstream gauge near the river mouth was in the range of 730-5400 t km-2 yr-1 with a mean sediment yield of 2800 t km-2 yr-1, which was 18 times higher than the global mean (150 t km-2 yr-1). However, following massive road construction projects, sediment exports increased more than tenfold for the downstream gauge and fortyfold for the upstream gauge at an altitude of 450 m, indicating an exacerbation of erosion induced by human activities. Such conditions of high export lasted for 2-4 years before the sediment yield returned to lower level. From 1957 to 1994 the mean sediment yield for entire watershed went up to 12,800 t km-2 yr-1 ~75% of that resulted from human perturbation. By comparing the sediment loads from the two gauges we concluded that the extra sediments mainly originated from the upper reach. A huge amount of the sediments apparently had resided in the middle reach; subsequent flood events with enough physical strength may resuspend and sweep the sediments to the sea gradually. Since the Taiwanese rivers represent the extreme conditions in correlation plots for the calculation of sediment export from mountainous rivers, one should exercise great care in distinguishing natural from perturbed conditions when using sediment yield data from Taiwan.

  2. 76 FR 58774 - Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-- Asia AGENCY... Winds--Asia business forum (which is also open to U.S. companies not participating in the trade mission) in Singapore next May. U.S. trade mission members will participate in the Trade Winds-- Asia...

  3. A PRELIMINARY RECONNAISSANCE OF THE LANGUAGES OF ASIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MULDER, J.W.; STUART, DON G.

    THE PRESENT PRELIMINARY RECONNAISSANCE OF THE LANGUAGE OF ASIA WAS INTENDED TO PROVIDE A GENERAL BASIC REFERENCE WORK FOR THE GUIDANCE AND ORIENTATION OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, EDUCATORS, AND OTHERS CHARGED WITH THE RESPONSIBILITY OF DEVELOPING RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF THE SO-CALLED NEGLECTED LANGUAGES. EXCLUDED FROM THIS WORK WERE…

  4. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  5. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  6. Family, Community, and Educational Outcomes in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review research on the economics and sociology of education to assess the relationships between family and community variables and children's educational outcomes in South Asia. At the family level, we examine the variables of family socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, family structure, and religion and caste. At…

  7. Directory of Engineering Education Institutions: Africa, Asia, Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This directory presents data on 458 degree-awarding engineering education institutions in countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Data include the general educational pattern of the country and specific institutional information such as: structure, staff, enrollment, research, specializations offered, address, academic period, admissions…

  8. Central Asia Active Fault Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late

  9. Tethyan evolution of central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Sengor, A.M.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The study area extends from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the Helan Shan and Longmen Shan in the east and from about 40{degree}N parallel in the north to the neo-Tethyan sutures in the south, thus including what is called Middle Asia in the Soviet literature. In the region thus delineated lies the boundary between the largely late Paleozoic core of Asia (Altaids) and the Tethyside superorogenic complex. This boundary passes through continental objects that collided with nuclear Asia in the late Paleozoic to terminate its Altaid evolution. Subduction to the south of some of these had commenced before they collided (e.g., Tarim in the Kuen-Lun), in others later (e.g., South Ghissar area west of Pamirs). This subduction 1ed, in the late Paleozoic, to the opening of marginal basins, at least one of which may be partly extant (Tarim). Giant subduction accretion complexes of Paleozoic to earliest Triassic age dominate farther south in the basement of Turan (mainly in Turkmenian SSR) and in the Kuen-Lun/Nan Shan ranges. No discrete continental collisions or any continental basement in these regions could be unequivocally recognized contrary to most current interpretations. Magmatic arcs that developed along the southern margin of Asia in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic grew atop these subduction-accretion complexes and record a gradual southerly migration of magmatism through time. Subduction also dominated the northern margin of Gondwanaland between Iran and China in late Paleozoic time, although the record in Afghanistan and northwest Tibet is scrappy. It led to back-arc basin formation, which in Iran and Oman became neo-Tethys and, in at least parts of central Asia, the Waser-Mushan-Pshart/Banggong Co-Nu Jiang ocean. This ocean was probably connected with the Omani part of the neo-Tethys via the Sistan region.

  10. Migration in south Asia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1983-01-01

    Past studies on migration patterns and flows in south Asia have been based on limited data. The present overview is based on a detailed study of census and survey data reaching back to the early 1950's. The study incorporates the thinking of several research scholars who have dealt with specialized areas of migration in individual countries, and in the region as a whole. The interrelationships between migration and development are considered in a final chapter, with special mention of future trends, associated with traditional practices and historical circumstances. Migration will be of great importance in the coming decades. The activities of "sons of soil" anti-migrant movements and anti-migrant legislation have had little, if any, effect on migration flows. As the population increases in villages and towns and jobs become scarce, migration is likely to become even more of a political issue. Less politically volatile is circulation between village and town or between villages, whereby the migrants can have access to resources in 2 or more places. This option may play a critical role in the continued survival of much of the population in the future. This has been perhaps the most important factor in explaining the relatively slow rate of urbanization in south Asia as it allowed the rural people to take advantage of the towns without causing a massive and permanent transfer of population. The numbers who practice this "bilocality" are therefore likely to increase and migrants will continue to make up more significant proportions of the urban populations than their contribution to urban growth would suggest owing to the importance of "turnover migration." However, this circulation is not a new phenomenon: India and the other countries of south Asia have been characterized by tremendous mobility of population through circulation for considerable time but both its volume, and the distances over which it occurs are likely to increase as these countries develop. PMID

  11. Aetiology of cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohee; Bae, Jisuk; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2008-01-01

    Cancer has become the leading cause of death in many Asian countries. There is an increasing trend in breast, prostate and colon cancers, which are considered as typical of economically developed countries. Although breast and prostate cancer rates are still lower than in western countries, they are particularly rapidly increasing. In this paper, we review recently published literature to identify important etiologic factors affecting the cancer risk in Asian populations. Infectious agents such as Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B and C viruses, and human papillomavirus were shown to be associated with elevated risks of stomach, liver and cervical cancer, respectively. Tobacco smoking was shown to be significantly associated with higher lung cancer risk and moderately increased all cancer risk. Excessive alcohol drinking appeared to increase the risk of colorectal cancer in Japanese and breast cancer in the Korean population. Betel nut chewing was associated with higher risk of oral and esophageal cancer. In terms of diet, various studies have demonstrated that high caloric and fat intake was associated with breast cancer risk, salted food intake with stomach cancer, aflatoxin B1 with liver cancer, and low fruits and vegetables intake with breast and lung cancer. Environmental exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution, arsenic, radon, asbestos and second hand smoke was shown to increase the lung cancer risk. Reproductive factors such as late age at first childbirth, early menarche, late menopause, oral contraceptive intake, and short duration of lifetime lactation were shown to be associated with breast and/or colorectal cancer. Cancer has clearly become an emerging health threat in Asia and cancer control programs should be actively implemented and evaluated in this region. Various strategies for cancer control have been developed in some Asian countries, including the set-up of national cancer registries, cancer screening programs, education programs for health

  12. Asia's demographic future: the next 20 years.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1990-09-01

    Even with the decline of fertility rates in most of Asia, the problem of population growth is still very serious. It is important to stress to Asian leaders and Western researchers that the problem is by no means solved just because fertility rates have declined. In many countries the number of young people is quite substantial and when they increase their numbers, certain problems will develop. Over the next 20 years, urban areas will see a marked increase in population and the resultant problems. Unemployment, increased pollution, and overcrowding will greatly decrease the quality of life for millions of people. This will happen because of natural increases and from the migration of the rural communities. In the rural areas, because of high fertility rates, population will continue to grow in spite of the large numbers of peoples moving to the city. Asia has some of the most densely populated agricultural communities and as their numbers increase, poverty and its associated problem will follow. The solutions to these problems include continued efforts in family planning, maternal and child health, and the improvement of the status of women. PMID:12316744

  13. Priority nutritional concerns in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tee, E-Siong

    2002-12-01

    The sustained economic growth and increasing economic stability in the Asian region over the last three decades have been accompanied by changing lifestyles leading to significant changes in the food and nutrition issues facing Asian countries. The chronic diseases associated with excessive consumption of nutrients, especially fat, are becoming increasingly apparent. At the same time, Asia has a disproportionate share of the malnutrition problem. Underweight and stunting remain significant problems in many Asian communities, and micronutrient deficiencies of iron, iodine, and vitamin A continue to afflict large population groups. Effective data collection and analysis are essential to formulate and implement intervention programs to address both sides of the changing nutrition scenario in Asia. PMID:16619736

  14. Men's health issues in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2013-09-01

    Men's health has gained prominence over the past few years but it is still not on par with the attention or funding that women and child health is getting. In Asia, this issue is even more conspicuous. With westernization of lifestyle, Asian men's problems emulate their Western counterparts but there are certain issues unique to Asian men due to cultural differences. This review will discuss the health issues affecting Asian men and suggest measures that can be taken to overcome them. PMID:23822757

  15. First nimravid skull from Asia.

    PubMed

    Averianov, Alexander; Obraztsova, Ekaterina; Danilov, Igor; Skutschas, Pavel; Jin, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Maofelis cantonensis gen. and sp. nov. is described based on a complete cranium from the middle-upper Eocene Youganwo Formation of Maoming Basin, Guangdong Province, China. The new taxon has characters diagnostic for Nimravidae such as a short cat-like skull, short palate, ventral surface of petrosal dorsal to that of basioccipital, serrations on the distal carina of canine, reduced anterior premolars, and absence of posterior molars (M2-3). It is plesiomorphic nimravid taxon similar to Nimravidae indet. from Quercy (France) in having the glenoid pedicle and mastoid process without ventral projections, a planar basicranium in which the lateral rim is not ventrally buttressed, and P1 present. The upper canine is less flattened than in other Nimravidae. Maofelis cantonensis gen. and sp. nov. exemplifies the earliest stage of development of sabertooth specialization characteristic of Nimravidae. This taxon, together with other middle-late Eocene nimravid records in South Asia, suggests origin and initial diversification of Nimravidae in Asia. We propose that this group dispersed to North America in the late Eocene and to Europe in the early Oligocene. The subsequent Oligocene diversification of Nimravidae took place in North America and Europe, while in Asia this group declined in the Oligocene, likely because of the earlier development of open habitats on that continent. PMID:27161785

  16. First nimravid skull from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Averianov, Alexander; Obraztsova, Ekaterina; Danilov, Igor; Skutschas, Pavel; Jin, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Maofelis cantonensis gen. and sp. nov. is described based on a complete cranium from the middle-upper Eocene Youganwo Formation of Maoming Basin, Guangdong Province, China. The new taxon has characters diagnostic for Nimravidae such as a short cat-like skull, short palate, ventral surface of petrosal dorsal to that of basioccipital, serrations on the distal carina of canine, reduced anterior premolars, and absence of posterior molars (M2-3). It is plesiomorphic nimravid taxon similar to Nimravidae indet. from Quercy (France) in having the glenoid pedicle and mastoid process without ventral projections, a planar basicranium in which the lateral rim is not ventrally buttressed, and P1 present. The upper canine is less flattened than in other Nimravidae. Maofelis cantonensis gen. and sp. nov. exemplifies the earliest stage of development of sabertooth specialization characteristic of Nimravidae. This taxon, together with other middle-late Eocene nimravid records in South Asia, suggests origin and initial diversification of Nimravidae in Asia. We propose that this group dispersed to North America in the late Eocene and to Europe in the early Oligocene. The subsequent Oligocene diversification of Nimravidae took place in North America and Europe, while in Asia this group declined in the Oligocene, likely because of the earlier development of open habitats on that continent. PMID:27161785

  17. Preliminary northeast Asia geodynamics map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M., (compiler); Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2003-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. This map is the result of extensive geologic mapping and associated tectonic studies in Northeast Asia in the last few decades and is the first collaborative compilation of the geology of the region at a scale of 1:5,000,000 by geologists from Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. The map was compiled by a large group of international geologists using the below concepts and definitions during collaborative workshops over a six-year period. The map is a major new compilation and re-interpretation of pre-existing geologic maps of the region. The map is designed to be used for several purposes, including regional tectonic analyses, mineral resource and metallogenic analysis, petroleum resource analysis, neotectonic analysis, and analysis of seismic hazards and volcanic hazards. The map consists of two sheets. Sheet 1 displays the map at a scale of 1:5,000,000, explanation. Sheet 2 displays the introduction, list of map units, and source references. Detailed descriptions of map units and stratigraphic columns are being published separately. This map is one of a series of publications on the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and geodynamics,of Northeast Asia. Companion studies and other articles and maps , and various detailed reports are: (1) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000; Obolenskiy and others, in press a); (2) a series of

  18. Is Central Asia really exsiccating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia: Prevention strategy and planning

    PubMed Central

    Ashtari, Sara; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review all of epidemiological and etiological aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and examined the prevention of this disease in Asia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. We were chosen articles that published previously, from PubMed (MEDLINE), the Cochrane database and Scopus. The key words used in this research were as follows: HCC in Asia and the way of prevention of this disease, with no language limitations. We selected those papers published before 2014 that we considered to be most important and appropriate. All relevant articles were accessed in full text and all relevant materials was evaluated and reviewed. RESULTS: More than 70% of all new cases of liver cancer were diagnosed in Asia, a region that 75% of all those chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the world. Chronic HBV infection is the main cause of HCC in Asia, where the virus is endemic and vertical transmission is common. Japan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Pakistan are exception because of high prevalence of HCV infection in these regions. The prevalence of this cancer is high in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, But Middle Eastern countries are characterized as moderate prevalence rate of HCC region and Central Asia and some part of Middle Eastern countries are known as low prevalence rate of HCC. In addition of HBV and HCV the other factors such as aflatoxin, alcohol, obesity, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might be responsible for a low prevalence of HCC in Asian countries. Currently available HCC therapies, chemotherapy, surgical are inefficient, mainly due to usually late diagnosis and high recurrence rates after surgical resection, and usually end with treatment failure. Liver transplantation also remains as a difficult strategy in patients with HCC. Thus prevention of HCC by treating and prevention HBV and HCV infection, the major causative agents of HCC, and the other risk factors such as aflatoxin

  20. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  1. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  2. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh. PMID:12285939

  3. Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing through 1991, ending with the NOAA-11 satellite. Emphasis was placed upon delineating the and and semi-arid zones of Central Asia (largely Mongolia and adjacent areas), mapping broad categories of aggregated land cover, and upon studying photosynthetic capacity increases in Central Asia from 1982 to 1991.

  4. Asia-Pacific energy database

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Statistical data is presented in graphic and tabular form on the petroleum market in Asia and Pacific nations. Seven major categories are reported: (1) primary energy production and consumption; (2) historical petroleum product demand and forecasts; (3) crude oil production and exports; (4) import dependence; (5) crude and product pricing assumptions; (6) market share of refined products by suppliers in selected countries; and (7) refining margins. Petroleum demand and forecasts and crude oil production and exports are reported by country. Historical data are presented from 1970 through 1996, and forecasts are made through 2010.

  5. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  6. Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Asia: A preliminary synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, An

    2010-06-01

    of east Asia was developed in two stages: initially in a widely distributed zone that has an east-west width of 500-800 km during 65-35 Ma, which was followed by localized extension and opening of back-arc basins associated with the development of spreading centers at 32-17 Ma (e.g., Japan Sea or East Korea Sea, Bohai Bay, and South China Sea). Opening of the back-arc basins could be induced by (1) rapid eastward migration of the western Pacific trench system or (2) oblique subduction of Pacific plate beneath Asia that had produced a series of en echelon right-slip primary shear zones linking with back-arc spreading centers oriented obliquely to the strike of the nearby trench. Since ~ 15 Ma, the eastern margin of Asia became contractional in the east-west direction, as indicated by the collapse of back-arc basins in the western Pacific and the development of fold-thrust belts along the eastern continental margin. Coeval with the contraction is widespread east-west extension in Siberia, North China, and the Tibetan plateau. The above observations can be explained by a change in boundary condition along the eastern margin of Asia that allowed the thickened Asian continent to spread eastward, causing east-west extension in its trailing edge and east-west compression in its leading edge. In west Asia, continental-margin extension started at about 25-20 Ma in the Aegean and Cretan regions, which was associated with a rapid southward retreat of the Hellenic arc. The complex evolution of Cenozoic deformation in Asia may be explained by a combined effect of temporal changes in plate boundary conditions, thermal evolution of the upper mantle perturbed by collisional tectonics, and the built-up of gravitational energy through crustal thickening and thermal heating. Although the past research in Asia has treated the India-Asia and Arabia-Asia convergence as separate collisional processes, their interaction may have controlled the far-field Cenozoic deformation in Asia. The

  7. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-10-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region.

  8. Potential cooperative measures on nuclear issues in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, J.

    1997-08-01

    Cooperation on nuclear issues is receiving increased attention in Asia. In Northeast Asia, where the nuclear industry is well-developed, cooperation in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle could help deal with issues such as disposition of spent fuel and long term storage options. In Southeast Asia, where countries are just beginning to introduce nuclear energy, cooperation would be useful in developing standards for the nuclear industry. Throughout Asia, nuclear research and power activities can raise concerns about safety, environmental pollution and proliferation. The sharing of relevant information, i.e. cooperative monitoring, will be essential to addressing these issues. In fact, a number of regional interactions on nuclear issues are already occurring. These range from training exchanges sponsored by the more advanced states to participation in environmental monitoring of the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Several states are considering sharing information from their nuclear facilities; some exchanges of radiation data are already in place. The KEDO reactor project will involve close working relations between the nuclear experts of South Korea, North Korea, Japan, and the US. Areas for further regional cooperation are discussed.

  9. An evaluation of ozone dry deposition simulations in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.; Hong, Seungkyu K.; Kwon, Hyoung-Ahn; Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex B.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Loughner, C. P.

    2014-08-11

    We used a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine processes that determine O3 in East Asia; in particular, we focused on O3 dry deposition, which is an uncertain research area due to insufficient observation and numerical studies in East Asia. Here, we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, Wesely and M3DRY, which are used in the WRF-Chem and CMAQ models, respectively. The O3 dry deposition velocities simulated using the two aforementioned schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) due to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. The O3 concentration differed by up to 10 ppbv for the monthly mean. The simulated and observed dry deposition velocities were compared, which showed that the Wesely scheme model is consistent with the observations and successfully reproduces the observed diurnal variation. We conduct several sensitivity simulations by changing the land use data, the surface resistance of the water and the model’s spatial resolution to examine the factors that affect O3 concentrations in East Asia. As shown, the model was considerably sensitive to the input parameters, which indicates a high uncertainty for such O3 dry deposition simulations. Observations are necessary to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and input data to improve the East Asia air quality models.

  10. What Is Inner Asia? Teaching Aids for the Study of Inner Asia, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinor, Denis

    This pamphlet is the first of a series aimed at helping college and high school teachers incorporate facts pertaining to Inner Asia into their courses. Written in a narrative style, the pamphlet defines Inner Asia as a "cultural concept," part of the Eurasian continent lying outside the boundaries of Europe, the Middle East, India, Southeast Asia,…