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Sample records for asian foot-and-mouth disease

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

  2. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can sometimes occur in adults. Symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease include fever, mouth sores, and a skin rash. More About Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Describes causes of the disease, its symptoms, ...

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. Although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the...

  4. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  5. Hand, foot and mouth disease in Nagpur.

    PubMed

    Saoji, Vikrant A

    2008-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral infection of children caused by Coxsackie virus-A16, a type of enterovirus closely related with the virus that causes herpangina. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. Hand, foot and mouth disease is sporadically reported from India as a mild illness. This report describes four cases of HFMD from Nagpur, Central India, seen between September 2005 and April 2006. All patients presented with a mild febrile prodrome followed by the appearance of aphthous-like oral ulcers and vesicular lesions on the hands and feet. All cases were clinically diagnosed. Coxsackie virus A16 was isolated from the serum of one of the patients. All the patients were in the age group of 3-5 years from different schools. It was a mild illness and all the four patients recovered without any complication. There were no secondary cases in the families. PMID:18388372

  6. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies. PMID:27217177

  7. Hand, foot and mouth disease - a short case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajesh-Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, that was once considered a disease of cattle, has been emerging as a common human childhood disease in the last few years. It is a viral disease characterized by a brief febrile illness and typical vesicular rashes. In rare cases, patients may also develop neurological complications. This report describes a case of hand, foot and mouth disease, presented with typical clinical features in the South Indian region. Key words:Hand, foot and mouth disease, viral lesions, blisters. PMID:26155357

  8. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Veena, KM; Jagadishchandra, H; Bhat, Sham S; Shetty, Shishir Ram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hand, foot and mouth disease usually affect infants and children. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics, usually during the summer and autumn months. The incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease has recently been on the rise in India due to the probable mass immunization programs. This report describes a case of hand foot and mouth disease from Mangalore, South India. How to cite this article: Rao PK, Veena KM, Jagadishchandra H, Bhat SS, Shetty SR. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):220-222. PMID:25206173

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease: global status and Indian perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and transboundary viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic loss to the livestock farming and industry has increased the concern worldwide. The di...

  11. Novel antiviral therapeutics to control foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccines require approximately 7 days to induce protection, thus prior to this time vaccinated animals are still susceptible to the disease. Our group has previously shown that swine inoculated with 1x10...

  12. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Preliminarily Diagnosed as Hypochondriasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Michael Jay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A case in which a dental student with hand, foot, and mouth disease was told he had "medical student disease" (MSD), or hypochondriasis, is related; literature pertaining to the occurrence and treatment of MSD is reviewed, and the importance of care in approaches to both students and patients are discussed. (MSE)

  13. Novel approaches to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for better Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines is not new, a report from the Research Commission on FMD, authored by F. Loeffler and P. Frosch in 1897, highlighted the need for developing a vaccine against FMD and qualified this as a devastating disease causing “severe economic damage to ...

  14. The early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is of critical importance to ongoing and future efforts to decrease the impact of FMD in endemic regions and prevent incursions to disease-free territories. The importance of the early phase of virus-host interaction lies in two ke...

  15. Mosaic Structure Of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the results of a simple pairwise scanning analysis designed to identify inter-serotype recombination events applied to genome data from 144 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) representing all seven serotypes. We identify large numbers of candidate recombinant fragments from a...

  16. Mosaic Structure of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the results of a simple pairwise scanning analysis designed to identify inter-serotype recombination events applied to genome data from 144 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) representing all seven serotypes. We identify large numbers of candidate recombinant fragments from al...

  17. The pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greatest segment of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies that are specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental invest...

  18. Hand, foot, and mouth disease on the soles (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is cause by a coxsackie virus. It produces mouth ulcers and small blisters (vesicles) on the hands and feet. The vesicles often have a reddish border with a white or lighter colored area in the center.

  19. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Gloster, J; Jones, A; Redington, A; Burgin, L; Sorensen, J H; Turner, R; Dillon, M; Hullinger, P; Simpson, M; Astrup, P; Garner, G; Stewart, P; D'Amours, R; Sellers, R; Paton, D

    2008-09-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. It spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route - with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. Over the years a number of workers have developed or adapted atmospheric dispersion models to assess the risk of foot-and-mouth disease virus spread through the air. Six of these models were compared at a workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office during 2008. A number of key issues emerged from the workshop and subsequent modelling work: (1) in general all of the models predicted similar directions for 'at risk' livestock with much of the remaining differences strongly related to differences in the meteorological data used; (2) determination of an accurate sequence of events is highly important, especially if the meteorological conditions vary substantially during the virus emission period; and (3) differences in assumptions made about virus release, environmental fate, and subsequent infection can substantially modify the size and location of the downwind risk area. Close relationships have now been established between participants, which in the event of an outbreak of disease could be readily activated to supply advice or modelling support.

  20. Modeling the intrinsic dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Mushayabasa, Steady; Posny, Drew; Wang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the transmission and spread of foot-and-mouth disease. Our models incorporate relevant biological and ecological factors, vaccination effects, and seasonal impacts during the complex interaction among susceptible, vaccinated, exposed, infected, carrier, and recovered animals. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction numbers. In addition, numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the analytical findings. PMID:27105988

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. The disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a picornavirus. Seven different serotypes (and numerous variants) of FMDV have been identified. Some serotypes have a restricted geographical distribution, e.g. Asia-1, whereas others, notably serotype O, occur in many different regions. There is no cross-protection between serotypes and sometimes protection conferred by vaccines even of the same serotype can be limited. Thus it is important to characterize the viruses that are circulating if vaccination is being used for disease control. This review describes current methods for the detection and characterization of FMDVs. Sequence information is increasingly being used for identifying the source of outbreaks. In addition such information can be used to understand antigenic change within virus strains. The challenges and opportunities for improving the control of the disease within endemic settings, with a focus on Eurasia, are discussed, including the role of the FAO/EuFMD/OIE Progressive Control Pathway. Better control of the disease in endemic areas reduces the risk of incursions into disease-free regions. PMID:24308718

  2. Update on hand-foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Ventarola, Daniel; Bordone, Lindsey; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral exanthem caused, primarily by Coxsackie A16 and enterovirus 71 with typical clinical features of fever, painful papules and blisters over the extremities and genitalia and an enanthem involving ulceration of the mouth, palate, and pharynx. Other enteroviruses have recently been noted to cause severe neurologic illness and paralysis (enterovirus 68) with variable cutaneous features. A recent outbreak of Coxsackie A6 infection has been seen worldwide with cases reported in the United States, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Europe. These cases have caused extensive cutaneous disease variants, some of which are not previously recognized in Coxsackie infection, namely vesicobullous and erosive eruptions, extensive cutaneous involvement, periorificial lesions, localization in areas of atopic dermatitis or in children with atopic dermatitis (the so-called eczema coxsackium), Gianotti-Crosti-like lesions, petechial/purpuric eruptions, delayed onychomadesis, and palmoplantar desquamation. Finally, adult cases appear to occur with this form of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, likely due to fecal-oral transmission in a household setting. PMID:25889136

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease: current world situation.

    PubMed

    Kitching, R P

    1999-03-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has increased in significance as a major constraint to international trade in live animals and animal products as the World Trade Organization agreements remove other obstructions. A consequence will be reluctance to immediately declare the presence of FMD if it is thought possible to quickly eliminate its presence and so avoid trade embargoes. This will predispose to spread of disease between trading partners. In addition, as countries tend to increase the requirements for testing and certification of imported animals with the objective of reducing the risk of importing disease, the increased costs and delays that this involves will encourage the illegal trade and therefore have the converse result. PMID:10194838

  4. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: progress and problems.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Liu, Zaixin

    2016-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been a major threat to livestock across the world. The predominant method of controlling this disease in endemic regions is through regular vaccination with inactivated vaccine. However, there are many limitations. For instance, cultivation of virulent FMD virus (FMDV) in the manufacturing units poses a risk of escape from production sites. Vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral non-structural proteins (NSPs), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological differentiation infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Moreover, vaccines are unable to eliminate virus from carrier animals. To address the shortcomings of inactivated vaccines, many efforts are currently devoted to develop novel vaccines including attenuated and/or marker inactivated vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, synthetic peptide vaccines, and empty capsid vaccines. Here, we review the research progress of novel vaccines, problems that remain to be solved, and also raise some suggestions that would help in the development of FMD vaccines. PMID:26760264

  6. Custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine elicits protective immune responses in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) of which the antigenic properties can be readily manipulated is a potentially powerful approach in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in sub-Saharan Africa. FMD vaccine application is complicated by the extensive variability of the South Africa...

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease virus modulates cellular vimentin for virus survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. During infection with FMDV, several host cell membrane rearrangements occur to form sites of viral replication. The largest viral protein in the replication complex,...

  8. Hand, foot and mouth disease--outbreak in Romania?

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Foia, Liliana; Chiriac, Anca; Nanescu, Sonia; Filip, Florina; Solovan, C; Gorduza, E V

    2013-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral illness usually occurring during the summer months in children younger than 5 years of age. In the North-East area of Romania the incidence is usually low, each dermatologist reporting 1-2 cases or even less per year. The diagnosis is usually based on the characteristic clinical aspect: vesicles and papules on the hands and feet and superficial oral ulcers. HFMD is typically a benign and self-limiting disease that resolves in approximately 7 days; in Asia there have been few reported severe cases that developed neurological complications and even death, while in certain areas of China this disease is a more and more serious public health problem. In the summer of 2012 in North-East Romania numerous cases of disease have been reported, some with atypical clinical manifestations and most of them with mild or moderate forms of disease. The present article is a discussion on one of these cases. The diagnosis was made based on lesions location and clinical appearance. An outbreak of HFMD should be confirmed by virology tests. PMID:24505914

  9. Novel foot-and-mouth disease virus in Korea, July-August 2014.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Lee, Seo-Yong; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Kim, Su-Mi; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Chun, Ji-Eun; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Kim, Byounghan

    2016-01-01

    Despite nation-wide immunization with O, A, and Asia 1 type vaccines in Republic of Korea, foot-and-mouth disease type O occurred again in July 2014 after three years and three months. This virus was a Mya-98 strain of the Southeast Asian topotype and was most similar to the identified type that circulated in East Asia in 2014. This was new virus with the deletion of 23 amino acids in 3A/3B1 region and low pathogenic property. PMID:26866028

  10. Novel foot-and-mouth disease virus in Korea, July-August 2014

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite nation-wide immunization with O, A, and Asia 1 type vaccines in Republic of Korea, foot-and-mouth disease type O occurred again in July 2014 after three years and three months. This virus was a Mya-98 strain of the Southeast Asian topotype and was most similar to the identified type that circulated in East Asia in 2014. This was new virus with the deletion of 23 amino acids in 3A/3B1 region and low pathogenic property. PMID:26866028

  11. [Foot and mouth disease in sheep and goats].

    PubMed

    Ganter, M; Graunke, W D; Steng, G; Worbes, H

    2001-12-01

    Small ruminants play an important role in the epidemiology and transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD). The main reasons therefore are: FMD is difficult to diagnose as infected sheep not always show typical clinical symptoms or as the cardinal signs mimicked other diseases. Sheep and goats may be carriers. Infected herds which practice transhumance or are nomadic can spread the infection to other herds long before diagnose of the disease is established. Shipping and trade with live sheep and goats is much more common world wide than in other FMD susceptible species. Lack of registration of all sheep and goat herds (especially of small hobby herds) and lack of individual identifications signs (ear tags) may result in incomplete control measurements under FMD conditions. Basing on published experiences with the actual FMD epidemic in the UK and basing on the own experiences with the restrictions to prevent from spreading of the FMD from the UK to Germany suggestions for future disease control are made. PMID:11822163

  12. Echovirus 4 associated to hand, foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Russo, Denise Hage; Luchs, Adriana; Machado, Bráulio Caetano; Carmona, Rita de Cássia; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio

    2006-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious enteroviral infection occurring primarily in children and characterized by vesicular palmoplantar eruptions and erosive stomatitis. Echovirus 4 (EV-4) has been commonly associated with aseptic meningitis. The association of HFMD with EV-4 has not been reported previously. Two samples of a 14-month child who presented mild fever, sores in the mouth, rash with blisters on the palm of hands and soles of feet were sent to Enteric Viruses Laboratory of Adolfo Lutz Institute. Clinical samples were inoculated in three different cell lines, and those which presented cytopathic effect (CPE), were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and "one step" RT-PCR. Agarose gel electrophoresis from RT-PCR product, showed a product with 437 bp, which is characteristic of Enterovirus group. Echovirus 4 was identified by IFA. Although HFMD is a viral infection associated mainly with Enterovirus 71 (HEV-71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), our results demonstrate a diversity of serotype related to HFMD and stress the importance of epidemiological surveillance to this disease and its complications. PMID:17119674

  13. Gold Nanoparticles Impair Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Rafiei, Solmaz; Rezatofighi, Seyedeh Elham; Roayaei Ardakani, Mohammad; Rastegarzadeh, Saadat

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), that causes a contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals. The anti-FMDV activity of AuNPs was assessed using plaque reduction assay. MTT assay was used for quantitatively measuring the cytopathic effect caused by the viral infection. The 50% cytotoxicity concentration of nanoparticles was measured and found to be 10.4 μg/ml. The virus yield reduction assay showed that AuNP have an approximately 4-fold virus titer reduction compared with controls. Plaque reduction assay showed that at non-cytotoxic concentrations, AuNPs do not show extracellular virucidal activity and inhibition of FMDV growth at the early stages of infection including attachment and penetration. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that AuNPs inhibited post-entry stages of viral replication concomitant with the onset of intracellular viral RNA synthesis; however, the mechanism of AuNPs against FMDV was unclear. PMID:26685261

  14. Is a multivalent hand, foot, and mouth disease vaccine feasible?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Michel; Chong, Pele

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. Although enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the predominant causes of HFMD epidemics worldwide, EV-A71 has emerged as a major neurovirulent virus responsible for severe neurological complications and fatal outcomes. HFMD is a serious health threat and economic burden across the Asia-Pacific region. Inactivated EV-A71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV-A71 but not against CV-A16 infections in large efficacy trials. The current development of a bivalent inactivated EV-A71/CV-A16 vaccine is the next step toward that of multivalent HFMD vaccines. These vaccines should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses A (CV-A6 and CV-A10), coxsackieviruses B (B3 and B5) and echovirus 30 that often co-circulate during HFMD epidemics and can cause severe HFMD, aseptic meningitis and acute viral myocarditis. The prospect and challenges for the development of such multivalent vaccines are discussed. PMID:26009802

  15. RISK FACTORS FOR SEVERE HAND, FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Owatanapanich, Somchai; Wutthanarungsan, Rochana; Jaksupa, Wipaporn; Thisyakorn, Usa

    2015-05-01

    We studied risk factors associated with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enteroviruses among patients aged less than 15 years admitted to King Narai Hospital, Lopburi, Thailand during 2011-2013. Cases were divided into either mild or severe. Severe cases were those with encephalitis, meningitis, myocarditis, pneumonia, pulmonary edema or respiratory failure. Risk factors for severe infection were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. One hundred eighteen patients met the case definition of HFMD. Of these, 95 (80.5%) were classified as mild cases, and 23 (19.5%) as severe cases; there were 5 deaths (4.2%). Of the 23 severe cases, 9 were infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), 8 with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and 4 with both EV71 and CA16. The most common presentations among the severe caseswere: seizures (74%), pneumonia (39%), encephalitis (39%), and meningitis (13%). The clinical manifestations significantly related to severe HFMD on univariate analysis were highest body temperature 39.00C, duration of fever 23 days, absence of skin lesions, diarrhea, dyspnea, seizures and hyperglycemia. The clinical manifestations significantly related to severe HFMD on both univariate and multivariate analyses were age less than 1 year, absence of oral lesions and drowsiness/lethargy. Clinicians should be aware of these factors. Early recognition of severe cases is important to increase the rates of successful outcomes and reduce mortality. PMID:26521518

  16. Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6, Beijing, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hongyan, Gu; Chengjie, Ma; Qiaozhi, Yang; Wenhao, Hua; Juan, Li; Lin, Pang; Yanli, Xu; Hongshan, Wei; Xingwang, Li

    2014-12-01

    Specimens and clinical data were collected from 243 hand, foot and mouth disease patients in Beijing in 2013. In total, 130 stool specimens were genotyped for enterovirus. Hand, foot and mouth disease was mainly detected in suburban areas and at the edges of urban areas between May and August. Coxsackievirus (CV) A6 replaced enterovirus (EV) 71 and CVA16, becoming the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease. CVA6 infection led to significantly reduced fever duration and glucose levels compared with EV71 infection. PMID:25037037

  17. The Hampshire epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease, 1967

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, R. F.; Forman, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis was made of the spread of foot-and-mouth disease during the epidemic in Hampshire in January and February 1967. To explain the pattern of spread, it had to be postulated that virus was present seven days before the first outbreak was reported. It is suggested that the disease occurred initially in pigs fed on infected meat and that the virus was subsequently disseminated from the local abattoir, where the pigs were killed, to four farms by movement of animals, slaughterhouse waste, people or vehicles, and to fifteen by the airborne route. Subsequent spread from these farms was by movement in two instances and by the airborne route in five. The source and route of infection of the last farm in the outbreak were not determined. The risk of spread through movement was associated more with carriage of infected slaughterhouse waste, movement of animals, people or vehicles carrying animals than through collection of milk, artificial insemination or movement of other types of vehicles. Outbreaks of disease among pigs gave rise to more secondary spread than outbreaks in cattle. Secondary outbreaks attributed to airborne spread occurred only in ruminants. Most airborne spread was into areas of high livestock density and cattle in the larger herds became infected. Airborne spread could be correlated with wind direction and speed but not with rain. The reduction in the number of outbreaks at the end of the epidemic could be attributed to the elimination of the largest sources of virus, the control of movements and the fact that in all instances except two the wind was blowing virus over towns and out to sea, to areas of low stock density and to areas where animals had been killed. PMID:4511946

  18. Recent outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in countries of east Asia.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, K; Yoshida, K

    2002-12-01

    Japan regained the status of freedom from foot and mouth disease (FMD) without vaccination in September 2000 and the Republic of Korea likewise obtained this status in September 2001. However, new outbreaks of FMD caused by the pan-Asian topotype have occurred in pigs in the Republic of Korea since May 2002. Taipei China has not experienced an outbreak of FMD since February 2001 and the country is currently implementing an eradication programme. These countries had been free from FMD for many decades when in 1997, the FMD virus (FMDV) once again invaded the region, particularly in 2000; this resulted in widespread occurrence of the disease. The types of FMDV were investigated by genome analysis, and in each case the virus concerned was found to be a member of the pan-Asian O lineage. The authors present the recent situations and the characteristics of FMD in countries of east Asia. PMID:12523687

  19. The Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; de Los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV) infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx) than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in contrast to

  20. The Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; de los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV) infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx) than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in contrast to

  1. [Retrospective study of foot and mouth disease in West Africa from 1970 to 2003].

    PubMed

    Couacy-Hymann, E; Aplogan, G L; Sangaré, O; Compaoré, Z; Karimu, J; Awoueme, K A; Seini, A; Martin, V; Valarcher, J F

    2006-12-01

    A retrospective study of foot and mouth disease in seven West African countries was conducted for the period 1970 to 2003. The study included three cattle-exporting Sahel countries (Burkina-Faso, Mali and Niger) and four cattle-importing coastal countries (Benin, Côte d'lvoire, Ghana and Togo). Foot and mouth disease has been enzootic in these countries since 1990/1991. Four of the seven serotypes are regularly notified (O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2). In the seven countries as a whole, 198 biological samples from identified foot and mouth disease outbreaks confirmed the involvement of the following serotypes: O (62 outbreaks); A (32 outbreaks); SAT 1 (18 outbreaks); SAT 2 (86 outbreaks). This result, which is largely underestimated, clearly demonstrates the seriousness of foot and mouth disease in West Africa, whose livestock production system characterised by continual uncontrolled animal movements facilitates the spread of the disease. Unlike in Southern Africa, for foot and mouth disease to be controlled in West Africa it is necessary immediately to introduce a regional strategy involving all countries which takes into account the real situation in the field: transhumance, nomadism and live-animal imports by coastal countries. PMID:17361767

  2. Cloned Viral Protein Vaccine for Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Responses in Cattle and Swine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleid, Dennis G.; Yansura, Daniel; Small, Barbara; Dowbenko, Donald; Moore, Douglas M.; Grubman, Marvin J.; McKercher, Peter D.; Morgan, Donald O.; Robertson, Betty H.; Bachrach, Howard L.

    1981-12-01

    A DNA sequence coding for the immunogenic capsid protein VP3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus A12, prepared from the virion RNA, was ligated to a plasmid designed to express a chimeric protein from the Escherichia coli tryptophan promoter-operator system. When Escherichia coli transformed with this plasmid was grown in tryptophan-depleted media, approximately 17 percent of the total cellular protein was found to be an insoluble and stable chimeric protein. The purified chimeric protein competed equally on a molar basis with VP3 for specific antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. When inoculated into six cattle and two swine, this protein elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody and protection against challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus.

  3. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines. PMID:25536888

  4. Early adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract of foot and mouth disease-infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease which affects both domestic and wildlife biungulate species. This acute disease, caused by the FMD virus (FMDV), usually includes an active replication phase in the respiratory tract up to 72 h post-infection followed by hematogenous ...

  5. An alternate delivery system improves vaccine performance against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals with severe agricultural and economic implications. One of the most highly infectious and contagious livestock pathogens known, the disease spreads rapidly in naïve populations making it critical to have rapidly ac...

  6. Characterization of cytotoxic T lymphocyte function following foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that remains a global threat to livestock species. The induction of neutralizing antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) has been the central goal of vaccination efforts against this disease. Although these effort...

  7. Natural Killer Cells in Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Immunological knowledge required to design a rational vaccine against FMDV is presently limited. We examined the reactivity of swine and cattle NK cells following infection for their capability to express intracell...

  8. Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infected Cattle Using Infrared Thermography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease of livestock that has significant economic, social and environmental impacts. One problem hampering the diagnosis, control and eradication efforts is the need for veterinarians to inspect hundreds of animals from suspected case premis...

  9. Phylogeographic analysis of the 2000-2002 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease of livestock. FMD has been eradicated from many countries and the consequences of FMD epidemics are, in some cases, devastating. That was the case of Argentina in 2000-2002, where within few months, FMD virus spread throughout most of t...

  10. Heterogeneity in the antibody response to foot-and-mouth disease primo-vaccinated calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important viral disease of wild and domesticated biungulate species and presents a major constraint to international trade of livestock and their associated products. FMD vaccines are routinely used as effective control tools in large regions wor...

  11. Development of vaccines toward the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most economically and socially devastating diseases affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. Although mortality is low, millions of animals have been killed in efforts to rapidly control and eradicate FMD. The causing virus (FMDV) is a highly vari...

  12. Understanding the mechanism of interferon-induced protection against foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infects cloven-hoofed animals and causes a highly contagious disease that rapidly spreads among many susceptible species. Vaccination with an inactivated whole virus antigen in formulation with adjuvant, or with a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) ab...

  13. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease I; viral pathways in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1898 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) earned a place in history as the first disease of animals shown to be caused by a virus. Yet, despite over a century of active investigation and elucidation of many aspects of FMD pathogenesis, critical knowledge about the virus-host interactions is still lacking...

  14. Foot and mouth disease virus non structural protein 2C interacts with Beclin1 modulating virus replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. Replication of the virus occurs in association with replication complexes that are formed by host cell membrane rearrangements. The largest viral protein in th...

  15. Chimeric Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses: Evaluation of Their Efficacy as Potential Marker Vaccines in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work in swine has demonstrated that full protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) can be achieved following vaccination with chimeric Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) vaccines, whereby the VP1 G-H loop has been substituted with a non-homologous alternative. If proven to be effect...

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease in British deer: transmission of virus to cattle, sheep and deer.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, E P; Herniman, K A; Lawman, M J; Sellers, R F

    1975-06-28

    After exposure for two hours to cattle with foot-and-mouth disease, each of the five species of deer found in the British countryside became infected. Clinical disease was typical and severe in the roe and muntjac deer, with some animals dying, less severe in the sika deer and usually subclinical in the fallow and red deer. Each species transmitted disease to its own species and to cattle and sheep. The amounts of virus present in the blood, and in oesophageal/pharyngeal samples and excreted as an aerosol during the course of the infection in the deer were similar to those recorded for the sheep and cattle in the same experiment. The fallow and sika deer commonly carried virus in the pharynx beyond 28 days after exposure; some red deer also became carriers. In epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK, it is likely that deer would have such intimate contact with farm animals as occurred in this study. The natural behavior of free-living deer in the UK suggests that, although the five species are susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease, they are unlikely to be an important factor in the maintenance and transmission of the virus during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in domestic livestock. PMID:167503

  17. Hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6, Thailand, 2012.

    PubMed

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Korkong, Sumeth; Thongkomplew, Siwanat; Vichaiwattana, Preyaporn; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2013-04-01

    In Thailand, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by enterovirus 71 or coxsackievirus A16. To determine the cause of a large outbreak of HFMD in Thailand during June-August 2012, we examined patient specimens. Coxsackievirus A6 was the causative agent. To improve prevention and control, causes of HFMD should be monitored. PMID:23631943

  18. Control of foot-and-mouth disease during 2010-2011 epidemic, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Ko, Young-Joon; Kim, Su-Mi; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Sohn, Hyun-Joo; Park, Jee-Yong; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Joo, Yi-Seok; Yoon, Hachung; Yoon, Soon-Seek; Cho, In-Soo; Kim, Byounghan

    2013-04-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease caused by serotype O virus occurred in cattle and pigs in South Korea during November 2010-April 2011. The highest rates of case and virus detection were observed 44 days after the first case was detected. Detection rates declined rapidly after culling and completion of a national vaccination program. PMID:23632094

  19. Epididymitis Caused by Coxsackievirus A6 in Association with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Österback, Riikka; Kuisma, Jani; Ylipalosaari, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) caused hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with a unique manifestation of epididymitis. The patient underwent operation due to suspicion of testicular torsion. Epididymitis was diagnosed by ultrasound examination. Enterovirus was detected from epididymal fluid by PCR and typed by partial sequencing of viral protein 1 as CV-A6. PMID:25232161

  20. Mapping of Antigenic Sites on a SAT2 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Vaccine Strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) exist as seven serologically distinct serotypes based on the absence of cross-protection following infection. Even within a serotype, distinct genetic and antigenic variants are present, a likely consequence of the high mutation rate of the virus, giving rise to t...

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the type species of the Aphthovirus genus, of the family Picornaviridae. Infection of cells with positive-strand RNA viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. However, the origin of these membranes remains u...

  2. SAT Type Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Chimeric Vaccine Elicits Protection in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent development of infectious cDNA clone technology for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Southern African Territories (SAT) viruses has provided a valuable tool for genetic and biological characterization of field and laboratory strains. Recombinant chimeric viruses, containing the capsid-coding...

  3. Immune Evasion During Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Infection of Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interface between successful pathogens and their hosts is often a tenuous balance. In acute viral infections, this involves induction and inhibition of innate responses. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is considered one of the most contagious viruses known and is characterized by rapid induc...

  4. The early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after aerosol inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the efforts described in this dissertation was to characterize the early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle after simulated natural infection. More specifically, emphasis was placed upon two critical knowledge gaps: identification of the primary site(s) of infectio...

  5. Growth Determination for Genetic Engineered SAT Type Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is endemic throughout large parts of Africa where six of the seven serotypes, viz. A, C, O, SAT (South Africa Territories) 1, 2, 3, occur. The SAT types, usually confined to sub-Saharan Africa, show marked genomic and antigenic variation, with the ID-coding sequen...

  6. Examination of soluble integrin resistant mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) initiates infection in vitro via recognition of at least four cell-surface integrin molecules avb1, avb3, avb6 or avb8 through the interaction of a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) amino acid sequence motif located in the GH loop of VP1. In this work, soluble i...

  7. Induction of foot-and-mouth disease virus specific cytotoxic T cell killing by vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be a significant threat to the health and economic value of livestock species. This acute infection is caused by the highly contagious FMD virus which infects cloven-hoofed animals including large and small ruminants and swine. Current vaccine strategies are...

  8. The foot-and-mouth disease carrier state divergence in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated following simulated-natural virus exposure of 43 cattle that were either naïve or vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine. Although vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical dise...

  9. Review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has seven different serotypes. Within each serotype there is a diversity of genetic lineages, subtypes and strains. Some of these strains behave differently and sometimes spread beyond the endemic areas where they normally circulate. Lineages emergence and die...

  10. Towards broadly protective polyvalent vaccines against hand, foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingwei; Tong, Xin; Huang, Zhong

    2015-02-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by multiple enterovirus infections is a serious health threat to children in the Asia-Pacific region. This article reviews progresses in the development of vaccines for HFMD and discusses the need for polyvalent HFMD vaccines for conferring broad-spectrum protection. PMID:25449959

  11. Enzyme-labelled immunosorbent assay techniques in foot-and-mouth disease virus research.

    PubMed Central

    Abu Elzein, E. M.; Crowther, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The indirect ELISA technique has been developed successfully to measure antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in cattle sera. Preliminary studies using a standard serum assay show that reproducible results are obtained. The method should prove useful for the examination of antibody titres in sera from large numbers of cattle or other animals. PMID:206625

  12. Adenovirus serotype 5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease subunit vaccines: the first decade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we present the results of the first decade of development of a replication-defective human adenovirus (Ad5) containing the capsid and 3C protease coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) as a vaccine candidate. In proof-of concept studies we demonstrated that a single inoculation w...

  13. Type III interferon protects swine against foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years we have developed novel strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) including the use of biotherapeutics such as interferons (IFN) delivered by a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). Swine can be sterilely protected after vaccination with an Ad5 that encodes po...

  14. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 in long-horned Ankole calf, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda. PMID:25531186

  15. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda. PMID:25531186

  16. Degradation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B During Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that the leader proteinase (L pro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) interferes with the innate immune response by blocking the translation of interferon (IFN) protein and by reducing the immediate-early induction of IFN-Beta mRNA and IFN stimulated genes. Here we repor...

  17. Degradation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B During Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that wild-type foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) interferes with the immune response by blocking the expression of interferon (IFN) protein and by reducing the immediate-early induction of IFN beta mRNA and IFN stimulated genes. This effect is directly associated with the ...

  18. Pathologic studies of fatal cases in outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease, Taiwan.

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, W. J.; Jung, S. M.; Hsueh, C.; Kuo, T. T.; Mounts, A.; Parashar, U.; Yang, C. F.; Guarner, J.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Dawson, J.; Goldsmith, C.; Chang, G. J.; Oberste, S. M.; Pallansch, M. A.; Anderson, L. J.; Zaki, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, an outbreak of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease occurred in Taiwan. Pathologic studies of two fatal cases with similar clinical features revealed two different causative agents, emphasizing the need for postmortem examinations and modern pathologic techniques in an outbreak investigation. PMID:11266307

  19. Review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus affects livestock worldwide. There are seven different serotypes, each with a diversity of topotypes, genetic lineages and strains. Some lineages have different properties that may contribute to sporadic spread beyond their recognized endemic areas. The objective o...

  20. Mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism inferred from differential tissue gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) has a characteristic tropism in terms of primary, secondary, and persistent infection and vesicular lesion sites. The virus targets specific tissues for primary replication. From these tissues, the virus spreads via the blood stream to a few preferred secondary in...

  1. Impact of the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Britain: Implications for Rural Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alister; Christie, Michael; Midmore, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in terms of its implications for the discipline of rural studies. In particular, it focuses on the position of agriculture in rural economy and society, the standing of the government after its management of the outbreak, and the performance of the new devolved regional…

  2. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD): emerging epidemiology and the need for a vaccine strategy.

    PubMed

    Aswathyraj, S; Arunkumar, G; Alidjinou, E K; Hober, D

    2016-10-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral disease and mainly affects infants and young children. The main manifestations are fever, vesicular rashes on hand, feet and buttocks and ulcers in the oral mucosa. Usually, HFMD is self-limiting, but a small proportion of children may experience severe complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis and neurorespiratory syndrome. Historically, outbreaks of HFMD were mainly caused by two enteroviruses: the coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and the enterovirus 71 (EV-A71). In the recent years, coxsackievirus A6 and coxsackievirus A10 have been widely associated with both sporadic cases and outbreaks of HFMD worldwide, particularly in India, South East Asia and Europe with an increased frequency of neurological complications as well as mortality. Currently, there is no pharmacological intervention or vaccine available for HFMD. A formalin-inactivated EV-A71 vaccine has completed clinical trial in several Asian countries. However, this vaccine cannot protect against other major emerging etiologies of HFMD such as CV-A16, CV-A6 and CV-A10. Therefore, the development of a globally representative multivalent HFMD vaccine could be the best strategy. PMID:27406374

  3. Immunity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia 1 by sublingual vaccination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-tai; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL) route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea pigs exhibited clinical disease, including fever, viremia, and lesions, specifically vesicle formation in feet. Animals vaccinated with the 1/16 and 1/4 doses were protected after challenge at days 7, 28, and 35 post vaccination. These data suggest that effective protection against foot-and-mouth disease can be achieved with 1/16 of the recommended vaccine dose using SL vaccination, indicating that the sublingual route is an attractive alternative for the administration of the FMDV vaccine. PMID:23717497

  4. [Hand, foot and mouth disease--more than a harmless "childhood disease"].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious, world-wide distributed viral illness that affects predominantly children. It is caused by several enteroviruses, such as coxsackieviruses A6, A10, A16 and enterovirus 71. In most cases, HFMD follows a benign and self-limiting course. After an incubation period of 3 to 10 days, fever and sore throat, the first symptoms of the disease, appear. A few days later, maculopapular or vesicular eruptions form on the palms and soles as well as in the oral cavity. Since the year 2000, several large HFMD outbreaks have been reported in many Asian regions such as China, Malaysia and Vietnam. In some of these outbreaks, high incidences of severe progressive HFMD forms with some fatalities were observed. Such diseases have been caused primarily by enterovirus 71 strains and were characterized frequently by sudden onset of fever, encephalitis/meningitis and severe respiratory symptoms such as pulmonary edema. Further severe neurological and cardiac complications have also been observed during these outbreaks. Recently, some HFMD outbreaks caused by the coxsackievirus A6 have been reported in several parts of the world. These illnesses also affected adults and were characterized by more severe symptoms of "classical" HFMD. In addition, outbreaks of coxsackievirus-A6-associated HFMD in many countries were associated with onychomadesis, with the loss of nails occurring up to two months after initial symptoms. Treatment of "classical" HFMD is usually symptomatic, a generally recommended antiviral therapy does not exist. In severe HFMD cases, suitable treatment also encompasses mechanical ventilation, as well as the additional application of antiviral agents such as ribavirin. In the last years, several novel agents with good in vitro and in vivo activity against enteroviruses have been developed. A vaccine against HFMD is not yet available. PMID:24490433

  5. Serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs (Bos gaurus), concurrently infected with foot and mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Chandranaik, Basavegowdanadoddi Marinaik; Hegde, Raveendra; Shivashankar, Beechagondahalli Papanna; Giridhar, Papanna; Muniyellappa, Handenahally Kaverappa; Kalge, Rajeshwar; Sumathi, Benamanahalli Raju; Nithinprabhu, Kumble; Chandrashekara, Narasimhaiah; Manjunatha, Venkataramanappa; Jaisingh, Nirupama; Mayanna, Asha; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli; Kanaka, Sermaraja; Venkatesha, Mudalagiri Dasappagupta

    2015-06-01

    We report the serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs which were concurrently infected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. Bannerghatta biological park (BBP), a national park located in the outskirts of Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India, is bordered by several villages. These villages witnessed massive outbreaks of FMD which spread rapidly to the herbivores at BBP. Post-mortem was conducted on carcasses of two Indian gaurs that died with symptoms of FMD. The salient gross findings included extensive vesicular lesions on the tongue, gums, cheeks, upper palate and hooves. Haemorrhagic tracheitis and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the heart were characteristic. The vesicular lesions of oral cavity were positive for 'O' type of FMD virus by sandwich enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The heart blood and spleen samples yielded growth of pure cultures of P. multocida. The isolates were typed as P. multocida type B using KTSP61 and KTT72 primers yielding specific amplicons of 620 bp. The phylogenetic analysis of the isolates was carried by sequencing of 1.4-Kbp nucleotides on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the isolates. PMID:25894817

  6. Transgenic shRNA pigs reduce susceptibility to foot and mouth disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengwei; Qiao, Jun; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Chuangfu; Ni, Wei; Wujiafu, Sai; Ma, Shiwei; Zhang, Hui; Sheng, Jingliang; Wang, Pengyan; Wang, Dawei; Huang, Jiong; Cao, Lijuan; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an economically devastating viral disease leading to a substantial loss to the swine industry worldwide. A novel alternative strategy is to develop pigs that are genetically resistant to infection. Here, we produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively expressed FMDV-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) derived from small hairpin RNA (shRNA). In vitro challenge of TG fibroblasts showed the shRNA suppressed viral growth. TG and non-TG pigs were challenged by intramuscular injection with 100 LD50 of FMDV. High fever, severe clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease and typical histopathological changes were observed in all of the non-TG pigs but in none of the high-siRNA pigs. Our results show that TG shRNA can provide a viable tool for producing animals with enhanced resistance to FMDV. PMID:26090904

  7. Elimination of foot-and-mouth disease in South America: lessons and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, José; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed livestock. Although vaccines are available and have been instrumental in eliminating the disease from most of the South American animal population, viral circulation still persists in some countries and areas, posing a threat to the advances of the last 60 years by the official veterinary services with considerable support of the livestock sectors. The importance of the disease for the social and economic development of the American continent led to the establishment in 1951 of the Pan American Centre for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (PANAFTOSA), which has been providing technical cooperation to countries for the elimination of the disease. The first FMD national elimination programmes were established in South America around the 1960s and 1970s. To advance the regional elimination efforts in the 1980s, countries agreed on a Plan of Action 1988–2009 of the Hemispheric Program for the Eradication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease. The Plan of Action 1988–2009 did not reach the goal of elimination from the continent; and a new Plan of Action 2011–2020 was developed in 2010 based on the experience acquired by the countries and PANAFTOSA during the past 60 years. This plan is now being implemented; several challenges are still to be overcome to ensure the elimination of FMD from the Americas by 2020, however, the goal is achievable. PMID:23798699

  8. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease in Saskatchewan, Canada, 1951-1952.

    PubMed Central

    Daggupaty, S M; Sellers, R F

    1990-01-01

    Farms affected with foot-and-mouth disease during the epidemic in Saskatchewan, in 1951-1952, for which the origin of virus was not known or uncertain, were studied to determine if infection could have been introduced by the airborne route. A short-range Gaussian plume dispersion model was used to estimate the concentration of virus downwind and the dose available for individual animals. The investigation suggested that a large virus source due to infected pigs in a feedlot in January 1952 could have been responsible for airborne dispersion northwestwards downwind to farms up to 20 km distant. Subsequent spread from these farms was to neighboring farms and was influenced by the local topography of a creek. The dispersion model could be used for predicting airborne spread if foot-and-mouth disease should occur. PMID:2174297

  9. Genome Sequence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Isolated from Morocco in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, J.; Gray, A.; Abouchoaib, N.; King, D. P.; Knowles, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    The genome of a virus isolated from an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Morocco in 2015 is described here. This virus is classified as lineage Ind-2001d within serotype O, topotype ME-SA (Middle East-South Asia). This lineage is endemic on the Indian subcontinent but has caused outbreaks in the Middle East and North Africa since 2013. PMID:27103736

  10. Genome Sequence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Isolated from Morocco in 2015.

    PubMed

    Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Wadsworth, J; Gray, A; Abouchoaib, N; King, D P; Knowles, N J

    2016-01-01

    The genome of a virus isolated from an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Morocco in 2015 is described here. This virus is classified as lineage Ind-2001d within serotype O, topotype ME-SA (Middle East-South Asia). This lineage is endemic on the Indian subcontinent but has caused outbreaks in the Middle East and North Africa since 2013. PMID:27103736

  11. Hand, foot, and mouth disease: identifying and managing an acute viral syndrome.

    PubMed

    Repass, Gregory L; Palmer, William C; Stancampiano, Fernando F

    2014-09-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common, typically self-limited viral syndrome in children and adults. It is marked by fever, oral ulcers, and skin manifestations affecting the palms, soles, and buttocks, with symptoms usually lasting less than 1 week. Because it has the potential to reach epidemic levels in the United States, general practitioners need to be aware of it. PMID:25183845

  12. The growth and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the bovine mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, R.; Mann, J. A.; Greig, A.; Chapman, W. G.; Goodridge, D.

    1971-01-01

    In animals exposed to foot-and-mouth disease virus by indirect contact, virus was recovered from the blood, milk, pharynx, vagina and rectum for variable periods of time before clinical disease was apparent. Virus instilled into the mammary gland multiplied rapidly and virus concentrations greater than 107 p.f.u./ml. were recorded within 8-32 hr., depending on the virus strain and dose inoculated. Virus multiplication was accompanied by clinical signs of mastitis but the classical signs of foot-and-mouth disease did not appear for 52-117 hr. Dissemination of virus from the mammary gland occurred within 4-24 hr. and in some animals samples taken from the pharynx, mouth, nose and vagina contained virus for periods up to 97 hr. before the appearance of vesicular lesions. Virus production in the udder declined with the appearance of virus neutralizing activity in the blood and the milk but persisted in some animals for periods of 3-7 weeks. The ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus to persist in mammary tissue was confirmed by the demonstration of virus multiplication in the udders of immune animals. PMID:4326249

  13. [Foot-and-mouth disease:: an old disease--new solutions].

    PubMed

    Pastoret, P P

    2005-01-01

    The recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in United Kingdom provoked a crisis in the European Union with deleterious consequences not only for livestock industry. Public opinion is more and more concerned about stamping out measures used to control the disease even with previously vaccinated animals. Presently the trend is to "vaccinate for life". This policy change requires to improve vaccines and diagnostic tools. It is not foreseen nevertheless to come back to a generalized vaccination of cattle as it was the case previously in continental Europe, despite its efficacy. According to the new policy, it will only be emergency vaccination to control outbreaks; it will compulsorily use inactivated vaccines. The vaccines will have to confer quickly a strong (sterile) protection against several serotypes during the same outbreak. Several serotypes could be involved in case of agroterrorism. Another feature of foot-and-mouth virus infection is the generation of asymptomatic carriers of wild virus after infection even in previously vaccinated animals. In order to get round this problem, so-called "marker vaccines" associated with a companion diagnostic test are developed: it aims to be able to differentiate simply vaccinated animals from infected ones, whether they were previously vaccinated or not. These vaccines are presently highly purified inactivated vaccines and the companion diagnostic test is based upon the detection of specific antibodies directed against virus-induced non-structural proteins. These antibodies should not be detected in simply vaccinated animals. This technology takes into account the fact that foot-and-mouth disease virus multiplication implies the synthesis of a polyprotein subsequently cleaved. It allows to certify the absence of infection at a herd level not yet at an individual level. Another research trend is to identify virus receptors in animals in order to better understand the pathogenesis of the infection and the reasons why some

  14. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of routine vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chang; Li, Huachun; Edwards, John; Hawkins, Chris; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-08-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks have been reported in China for many years. Recently, due to the rapid economic development, the price of meat and its demand have grown quickly. This trend has resulted in an increase in the number of livestock moving from south-east Asian countries into China. Foot and mouth disease is becoming one of the most important trans-boundary animal diseases affecting the livelihood of livestock owners in China. To contribute to the long term goal to control and eradicate FMD from China, the Chinese government has adopted a series of control measures which includes compulsory routine vaccination against the disease. In this paper, the surveillance results of the routine vaccination programme were systemically reviewed. The results from 28 published papers were combined and analysed through a meta-analysis approach. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the vaccination programme has been very successful in China with more than 70% of animals protected against serotypes Asia-1 and O. PMID:24768436

  15. New England Foot and Mouth Disease Tabletop Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hullinger, P

    2008-09-30

    The Multiscale Epidemiologic/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) Decision Support System (DSS) is the product of investments that began in FY05 by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate and continue today with joint funding by both DHS and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The DSS consists of a coupled epidemiologic/economic model, a standalone graphical user interface (GUI) that supports both model setup and post-analysis, and a Scenario Bank archive to store all content related to foreign animal disease (FAD) studies (Figure 1). The MESA epi model is an object-oriented, agent-based, stochastic, spatio-temporal simulator that parametrically models FAD outbreaks and response strategies from initial disease introduction to conclusion over local, regional, and national scales. Through its output database, the epi model couples to an economic model that calculates farm-level impacts from animal infections, responsive control strategies and loss of trade. The MESA architecture contains a variety of internal models that implement the major components of the epi simulation, including disease introduction, intra-herd spread, inter-herd spread (direct and indirect), detection, and various control strategies (movement restrictions, culling, vaccination) in a highly configurable and extensible fashion. MESA will produce both overall and daily summary statistics for the outbreak, epidemic curves, and costs associated with the outbreak. This information can be used to reconstruct and analyze the course of the outbreak. Geographical information produced by MESA can be used to produce maps and movies as visual aids to understand the distribution characteristics of a simulated outbreak.

  16. Studies on the 1967-8 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Hugh-Jones, M. E.; Wright, P. B.

    1970-01-01

    An analysis of the 1967-8 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic with reference to the initial spread, the origin of outbreaks more than 60 km. from the main epidemic area, the series of outbreaks near Worcester, a specific case history and the daily rate of spread of the epidemic, strongly suggests that the weather played a major part in the spread of disease. The two main factors involved in this type of spread are wind and precipitation. It is noted that after the epidemic had been checked, following anticyclonic weather, the association between the weather and the spread of disease was less apparent. PMID:5270205

  17. Epidemiological Research on Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhi-Chao; Kou, Zeng-Qiang; Bai, Yong-Juan; Cong, Xiang; Wang, Li-Hong; Li, Chun; Zhao, Li; Yu, Xue-Jie; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Wen, Hong-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which has led to millions of attacks and several outbreaks across the world and become more predominant in Asia-Pacific Region, especially in Mainland China, is caused by several Human Enteroviruses including new enterovirus, coxsakievirus and echovirus. In recent years, much research has focused on the epidemiological characteristics of HFMD. In this article, multiple characteristics of HFMD such as basic epidemiology, etiology and molecular epidemiology; influencing factors; detection; and surveillance are reviewed, as these can be help protect high risks groups, prevalence prediction and policy making for disease prevention. PMID:26690202

  18. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype O by ELISA using a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-Tai; Peng, Yun-Hua; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Liu, Xiang-Tao

    2013-02-01

    An ELISA assay with monoclonal antibody (MELISA) was used to type serotype O of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). All FMDV serotype O reference strains were positive by MELISA, while other viruses such as FMDV serotypes Asia 1, C, and A and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. Furthermore, FMDV serotype O positive samples were able to be detected by MELISA. This assay may be particularly suitable for diagnosis of FMDV serotype O infection in field stations. PMID:23600506

  19. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype O by ELISA using a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-tai; Peng, Yun-hua; Zhang, Yong-guang; Liu, Xiang-tao

    2012-12-01

    An ELISA assay with monoclonal antibody (MELISA) was used to type serotype O of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). All FMDV serotype O reference strains were positive by MELISA, while other viruses such as FMDV serotypes Asia 1, C, A and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. Further, FMDV serotype O positive samples were able to be detected by MELISA. This assay may be particularly suitable for diagnosis of FMDV serotype O infection in field stations. PMID:23244327

  20. Evaluating the transmission routes of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Limei; Lin, Hualiang; Lin, Jinyan; He, Jianfeng; Deng, Aiping; Kang, Min; Zeng, Hanri; Ma, Wenjun; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-02-01

    Although it is an enteroviral infectious disease, recent studies suggest that respiratory transmission might play a role in the transmission of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). We evaluated the transmission modes (respiratory and fecal-oral transmission) of HFMD among children using a case-control study in Guangdong, China. Our analyses suggested that fecal-oral transmission might be the principal transmission mode of HFMD among children in the study area, and handwashing habits of the children and their parents should be emphasized to control this infection. PMID:26803935

  1. A dynamic, optimal disease control model for foot-and-mouth disease: I. Model description.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mimako; Carpenter, Tim E; Dickey, Bradley F; Howitt, Richard E

    2007-05-16

    A dynamic optimization model was developed and used to evaluate alternative foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control strategies. The model chose daily control strategies of depopulation and vaccination that minimized total regional cost for the entire epidemic duration, given disease dynamics and resource constraints. The disease dynamics and the impacts of control strategies on these dynamics were characterized in a set of difference equations; effects of movement restrictions on the disease dynamics were also considered. The model was applied to a three-county region in the Central Valley of California; the epidemic relationships were parameterized and validated using the information obtained from an FMD simulation model developed for the same region. The optimization model enables more efficient searches for desirable control strategies by considering all strategies simultaneously, providing the simulation model with optimization results to direct it in generating detailed predictions of potential FMD outbreaks. PMID:17280729

  2. Genetic relationships between southern African SAT-2 isolates of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Vosloo, W.; Knowles, N. J.; Thomson, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    Sequencing of part of the 1D gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to determine the relationships between SAT-2 viruses isolated from outbreaks which occurred in cattle in Zimbabwe and Namibia and in impala in South Africa between 1979 and 1989. The results demonstrated that the outbreaks in different countries were unrelated. Surprisingly close relationships were shown between all SAT-2 viruses isolated from cattle in Zimbabwe since 1983 but the two major epizootics which occurred in 1989 were caused by viruses which were clearly different. Conversely, two apparently unrelated outbreaks in impala in South Africa were caused by viruses which could not be distinguished. PMID:1334842

  3. Protection of Cattle against Foot-and-Mouth Disease by a Synthetic Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimarchi, Richard; Brooke, Gerald; Gale, Charles; Cracknell, Victor; Doel, Timothy; Mowat, Noel

    1986-05-01

    A chemically synthesized peptide consisting essentially of two separate regions (residues 141 to 158 and 200 to 213) of a virus coat protein (VP1) from the 01 Kaufbeuren strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus was prepared free of any carrier protein. It elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody and protected cattle against intradermolingual challenge by inoculation with infectious virus. Comparative evaluation of this peptide with a single-site peptide (residues 141 to 158) in guinea pigs suggests the importance of the VP1 carboxyl terminal residues in enhancing the protective response.

  4. Multiplexed Molecular Assays for Rapid Rule-Out of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-Arani, P; Thissen, J; Olivas, J; Carillo, C; Chinn, C; Rasmussen, M; Messenger, S; Suer, L; Smith, S M; Tammero, L; Vitalis, E; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; Hindson, B J; Hietala, S; Crossley, B; Mcbride, M

    2007-06-26

    A nucleic acid-based multiplexed assay was developed that combines detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) with rule-out assays for two other foreign animal diseases and four domestic animal diseases that cause vesicular or ulcerative lesions indistinguishable from FMDV infection in cattle, sheep and swine. The FMDV 'look-alike' diagnostic assay panel contains five PCR and twelve reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) signatures for a total of seventeen simultaneous PCR amplifications for seven diseases plus incorporating four internal assay controls. It was developed and optimized to amplify both DNA and RNA viruses simultaneously in a single tube and employs Luminex{trademark} liquid array technology. Assay development including selection of appropriate controls, a comparison of signature performance in single and multiplex testing against target nucleic acids, as well of limits of detection for each of the individual signatures is presented. While this assay is a prototype and by no means a comprehensive test for FMDV 'look-alike' viruses, an assay of this type is envisioned to have benefit to a laboratory network in routine surveillance and possibly for post-outbreak proof of freedom from foot-and-mouth disease.

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus).

    PubMed

    Officer, Kirsty; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Wicker, Leanne; Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Weegenaar, Annemarie; Robinson, Jill; Ryoji, Yamaguchi; Loukopoulos, Panayiotis

    2014-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, debilitating, and globally significant viral disease typically affecting cloven-hoofed hosts. The diagnosis of FMD in bears in Vietnam is described. The current study describes a confirmed case of FMD in a bear species, and the clinical signs compatible with FMD in a Malayan sun bear. Thirteen Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) and 1 Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) were apparently affected. In August 2011, an adult bear became lethargic, and developed footpad vesicles. Over 15 days, 14 out of 17 bears developed similar signs; the remaining 3 co-housed bears and another 57 resident bears did not. All affected bears developed vesicles on all footpads, and most were lethargic for 24-48 hr. Nasal and oral lesions were noted in 6 and 3 cases, respectively. Within 1 month, all looked normal. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, classified as serotype O, and isolated by virus isolation techniques. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of 3 bear isolates, in a branch distinct from other FMDV type O isolates. The outbreak likely occurred due to indirect contact with livestock, and was facilitated by the high density of captive bears. It showed that Asiatic black bears are capable of contracting FMDV and developing clinical disease, and that the virus spreads easily between bears in close contact. PMID:25135011

  6. Atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease: a vesiculobullous eruption caused by Coxsackie virus A6.

    PubMed

    Feder, Henry M; Bennett, Nicholas; Modlin, John F

    2014-01-01

    A previously well infant aged 9 months presented with an acute, self-limiting illness characterised by high fever and a papular eruption that started on the face. Although fever subsided within 3 days, the rash worsened and extended over the whole body, with some papules evolving into vesiculobullous lesions. The infant had been exposed to children with a similar illness 1 week before onset. PCR of vesicular swabs and stool samples taken on day 6 of illness showed Coxsackie virus A6. The illness resolved within 10 days of onset, although onychomadesis was seen on both big toes at follow-up 5 weeks later. Our case exemplifies the severe, atypical cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease that have been reported worldwide since 2008, and in the USA since the 2011. Atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease is caused by a new lineage of Coxsackie virus A6 and is characterised by high fever and vesiculobullous eruptions on the calves and backs of the hands. Infants with eczema might be predisposed to severe disease. PMID:24287184

  7. Strategy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in Southeast Asia (SEAFMD).

    PubMed

    Edwards, J R

    2004-01-01

    The OIE Southeast Asia Foot-and-Mouth Disease Campaign (SEAFMD) involves the coordinated control of foot-and-mouth disease by eight of the ASEAN countries. A long term vision for SEAFMD has been developed and the core element is a progressive zoning approach to the control and eradication of FMD in the region. This paper describes the current status of FMD in Southeast Asia and progress towards achievement of OIE free zone status for FMD in parts of the Philippines and Malaysia and the initiation of the Malaysia-Thailand-Myanmar (MTM) Peninsular Campaign for FMD Freedom. In mainland Southeast Asia, the progressive zoning approach involves several sub-regional groups working in parallel to oversee the epidemiological and economic studies required to determine the feasibility of the approach. Areas involved include the Lower Mekong Basin, Upper Mekong Basin, parts of Myanmar and the Red River Delta of Vietnam. The paper describes the current usage of vaccines for FMD in Southeast Asia and provides recommendations for their supply and use in the new regional initiatives. PMID:15742655

  8. Inoculation of swine with foot-and-mouth disease SAP-mutant virus induces early protection against disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader proteinase (L^pro) cleaves itself from the viral polyprotein and cleaves the translation initiation factor eIF4G. As a result, host cell translation is inhibited, affecting the host innate immune response. We have demonstrated that L^pro is also associated ...

  9. Accuracy of Herdsmen Reporting versus Serologic Testing for Estimating Foot-and-Mouth Disease Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Handel, Ian G.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Nfon, Charles; Bergman, Ingrid E.; Malirat, Viviana; Sorensen, Karl J.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de C.

    2014-01-01

    Herdsman-reported disease prevalence is widely used in veterinary epidemiologic studies, especially for diseases with visible external lesions; however, the accuracy of such reports is rarely validated. Thus, we used latent class analysis in a Bayesian framework to compare sensitivity and specificity of herdsman reporting with virus neutralization testing and use of 3 nonstructural protein ELISAs for estimates of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevalence on the Adamawa plateau of Cameroon in 2000. Herdsman-reported estimates in this FMD-endemic area were comparable to those obtained from serologic testing. To harness to this cost-effective resource of monitoring emerging infectious diseases, we suggest that estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of herdsmen reporting should be done in parallel with serologic surveys of other animal diseases. PMID:25417556

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease in pigs: current epidemiological situation and control methods.

    PubMed

    León, Emilio A

    2012-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the paradigm of a transboundary animal disease. Beyond any doubt, it is the most serious challenge for livestock's health. Official Veterinary Services from free countries invest considerable amount of money to prevent its introduction, whereas those from endemic countries invest most of their resources in the control of the disease. A very important volume of scientific production is developed every year in different aspects of FMD, and for that reason, the current knowledge makes the diagnosis of the disease easier to a great extent. However, FMD is still endemic in about two-thirds of the countries, and periodically re-emergent in several countries. This paper is a review of recent publications, focusing mainly on control measures and current world epidemiological situation, emphasizing primarily pigs. PMID:22225815

  11. Cloning of cDNA of major antigen of foot and mouth disease virus and expression in E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küpper, Hans; Keller, Walter; Kurz, Christina; Forss, Sonja; Schaller, Heinz

    1981-02-01

    Double-stranded DNA copies of the single-stranded genomic RNA of foot and mouth disease virus have been cloned into the Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. A restriction map of the viral genome was established and aligned with the biochemical map of foot and mouth disease virus. The coding sequence for structural protein VP1, the major antigen of the virus, was identified and inserted into a plasmid vector where the expression of this sequence is under control of the phage λ PL promoter. In an appropriate host the synthesis of antigenic polypeptide can be demonstrated by radioimmunoassay.

  12. Workshop on Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chea, Sokkosal; Cheng, Yi-bing; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Hafy, Zen; Kawichai, Surinda; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Nam, Nguyen Tran; Ooi, Mong How; Wolbers, Marcel; Zeng, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The South East Asia Infectious Disease Clinical Research Network convened subject matter experts at a workshop to make consensus recommendations for study design of a clinical trial for use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). HFMD is a highly contagious emerging infection among children in the region, a small proportion of whom develop neurologic and cardiopulmonary complications with high case-fatality rates. The use of IVIg for treatment of severe disease is widespread and a part of local, national, and international guidelines, but no clinical evidence warrants the use of this drug, which is expensive and has potentially serious side effects. During a 2-day workshop in March 2014, a group of HFMD experts reviewed the current evidence related to use of IVIg in HFMD and discussed potential study design, feasibility, inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample size, primary and secondary endpoints, and subsidiary studies for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PMID:25531166

  13. Diagnostic assays developed for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Mahajan, Sonalika; Matura, Rakesh; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra; Rout, Manoranjan; Mohapatra, Jajati Keshari; Dash, Bana Bihari; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of livestock, primarily affecting cattle, buffalo and pigs. FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia1 are prevalent in India and systematic efforts are on to control and eventually eradicate the disease from the country. FMD epidemiology is complex due to factors like co-circulation, extinction, emergence and re-emergence of genotypes/lineages within the three serotypes, animal movement, diverse farm practices and large number of susceptible livestock in the country. Systematic vaccination, prompt diagnosis, strict biosecurity measures, and regular monitoring of vaccinal immunity and surveillance of virus circulation are indispensible features for the effective implementation of the control measures. Availability of suitable companion diagnostic tests is very important in this endeavour. In this review, the diagnostic assays developed and validated in India and their contribution in FMD control programme is presented. PMID:26279990

  14. Diagnostic assays developed for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Mahajan, Sonalika; Matura, Rakesh; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra; Rout, Manoranjan; Mohapatra, Jajati Keshari; Dash, Bana Bihari; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-08-12

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of livestock, primarily affecting cattle, buffalo and pigs. FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia1 are prevalent in India and systematic efforts are on to control and eventually eradicate the disease from the country. FMD epidemiology is complex due to factors like co-circulation, extinction, emergence and re-emergence of genotypes/lineages within the three serotypes, animal movement, diverse farm practices and large number of susceptible livestock in the country. Systematic vaccination, prompt diagnosis, strict biosecurity measures, and regular monitoring of vaccinal immunity and surveillance of virus circulation are indispensible features for the effective implementation of the control measures. Availability of suitable companion diagnostic tests is very important in this endeavour. In this review, the diagnostic assays developed and validated in India and their contribution in FMD control programme is presented. PMID:26279990

  15. On The Use Of Models To Assess Foot-And-Mouth Disease Transmission And Control

    SciTech Connect

    Kostova-Vassilevska, T

    2004-07-12

    The 2001 outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe (Ferguson et al. 2001a, 2001b; Bouma et al. 2003) and concern about the possibility of an intentional introduction of a devastating foreign animal disease triggered renewed interest in both theoretical and experimental research related to FMD. Theoretical models of disease transmission, which influenced the tactical decisions of the United Kingdom (UK) government during the epidemic (Taylor 2003), resulted in large numbers of uninfected animals being slaughtered. After the epidemic, the adopted control policies were sharply criticized (Kitching 2004;, Taylor 2003). Still, the role of computationaL modeling for analyzing the scope of the epidemic and devising control strategies was recognized as substantial and necessary.

  16. Delivery of Both Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural and Nonstructural Antigens Improves Protection of Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of one of the most contagious diseases affecting cloven-hoofed animals and is the most important constraint on trade in live animals and animal products. The current vaccine has limitations when used in disease-free countries including dif...

  17. Effect of foot-and-mouth disease virus on the frequency, phenotype and function of circulating dendritic cells in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. Disease symptoms in FMDV-infected animals appear within 2 to 3 days of exposure. Dendritic cells (DC) play an essential role in protective immune responses agai...

  18. Evidence of activation and suppression during the early immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a serious disease of livestock species, threatening free global trade and food security. The disease spreads rapidly between animals, and in order to ensure a window of opportunity for such spread the virus has evolved multiple mechanisms to subvert the ea...

  19. Epidemiological features of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Shenzhen, China from 2008 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S; Cao, C X; Cheng, J Q; Wu, Y S; Xie, X; Xu, M

    2014-08-01

    This study analysed the spatio-temporal distribution and propagation of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in Shenzhen from 2008 to 2010. Specifically, we examined the epidemiological data, temporal distribution and spatial distribution, and then the relationship between meteorological, social factors and the number of reported HFMD cases was analysed using Spearman's rank correlation. Finally, a geographically weighted regression model was constructed for the number of reported HFMD cases in 2009. It was found that three independent variables, i.e. the number of reported HFMD cases in 2008 and, annual average temperature and precipitation, had different spatial impacts on the number of reported HFMD cases in 2009. In addition, these variables accounted for the propagation mechanism of HFMD in the centre and east of Shenzhen, where the high incidence rate areas are located. These results will be of great help in understanding the spatio-temporal distribution of HFMD and developing approaches to prevent this disease. PMID:24139426

  20. Interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus with dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Bayry, Jagadeesh; Tough, David F

    2006-08-01

    Despite several decades of investigation, the manner in which foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) interacts with the innate and adaptive immune compartments is not completely understood. The importance of elucidating this relationship is emphasized by the inability of current FMDV vaccines to provide long-term protection and the recent outbreaks of FMDV in formerly disease-free countries. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that have evolved to monitor the environment and provide a link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Comprehending the cross-talk between DC and FMDV will provide valuable information towards understanding the host response to the virus and will aid in the design of effective tools and vaccines to block virus spread. PMID:16781155

  1. Comparison of alternatives to passive surveillance to detect foot and mouth disease incursions in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Garner, M G; East, I J; Kompas, T; Ha, P V; Roche, S E; Nguyen, H T M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate strategies to enhance the early detection of foot and mouth disease incursions in Australia. Two strategies were considered. First, improving the performance of the current passive surveillance system. Second, supplementing the current passive system with active surveillance strategies based on testing animals at saleyards or through bulk milk testing of dairy herds. Simulation modelling estimated the impact of producer education and awareness by either increasing the daily probability that a farmer will report the presence of diseased animals or by reducing the proportion of the herd showing clinical signs required to trigger a disease report. Both increasing the probability of reporting and reducing the proportion of animals showing clinical signs resulted in incremental decreases in the time to detection, the size and the duration of the outbreak. A gold standard system in which all producers reported the presence of disease once 10% of the herd showed clinical signs reduced the median time to detection of the outbreak from 20 to 15days, the duration of the subsequent outbreak from 53 to 42days and the number of infected farms from 46 to 32. Bulk milk testing reduced the median time to detection by two days and the number of infected farms by six but had no impact on the duration of the outbreak. Screening of animals at saleyards provided no improvement over the current passive surveillance system alone while having significant resource issues. It is concluded that the most effective way to achieve early detection of incursions of foot and mouth disease into Victoria, Australia is to invest in improving producer reporting. PMID:27237393

  2. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and regulations thereunder (9 CFR, chapter III... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  3. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and regulations thereunder (9 CFR, chapter III... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  4. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and regulations thereunder (9 CFR, chapter III... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  5. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (9 CFR, chapter III), including requirements that the pork or pork products be prepared only in... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE...

  6. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and regulations thereunder (9 CFR, chapter III... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  7. [Limb torsion and developmental regression for one month after hand, foot and mouth disease in an infant].

    PubMed

    Feng, Li-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Li, Dong-Xiao; Ding, Yuan; Jin, Ying; Song, Jin-Qing; Yang, Yan-Ling

    2016-05-01

    A one-year-old girl visited the hospital due to limb torsion and developmental regression for one month after hand, foot and mouth disease. At the age of 11 months, she visited a local hospital due to fever for 5 days and skin rash with frequent convulsions for 2 days and was diagnosed with severe hand, foot and mouth disease, viral encephalitis, and status epilepticus. Brain MRI revealed symmetric abnormal signals in the bilateral basal ganglia, bilateral thalamus, cerebral peduncle, bilateral cortex, and hippocampus. She was given immunoglobulin, antiviral drugs, and anticonvulsant drugs for 2 weeks, and the effect was poor. Blood and urine screening for inherited metabolic diseases were performed to clarify the etiology. The analysis of urine organic acids showed significant increases in glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, which suggested glutaric aciduria type 1, but her blood glutarylcarnitine was normal, and free carnitine significantly decreased. After the treatment with low-lysine diets, L-carnitine, and baclofen for 1 month, the patient showed a significant improvement in symptoms. Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common viral infectious disease in children, and children with underlying diseases such as inherited metabolic diseases and immunodeficiency may experience serious complications. For children with hand, foot and mouth disease and unexplained encephalopathy, inherited metabolic diseases should be considered. PMID:27165592

  8. Phylogeography of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Luiz Max Fagundes; Santos, Leonardo Bacelar Lima; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; de Castro Silveira, Waldemir

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of the most important disease of domestic cattle, foot-and-mouth disease. In Ecuador, FMDV is maintained at an endemic state, with sporadic outbreaks. To unravel the tempo and mode of FMDV spread within the country we conducted a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis using a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) to model the diffusion of FMDV between Ecuadorian provinces. We implement this framework through Markov chain Monte Carlo available in the BEAST package to study 90 FMDV serotype O isolates from 17 provinces in the period 2002-2010. The Bayesian approach also allowed us to test hypotheses on the mechanisms of viral spread by incorporating environmental and epidemiological data in our prior distributions and perform Bayesian model selection. Our analyses suggest an intense flow of viral strains throughout the country that is possibly coupled to animal movements and ecological factors, since most of inferred viral spread routes were in Coast and Highland regions. Moreover, our results suggest that both short- and long-range spread occur within Ecuador. The province of Esmeraldas, in the border with Colombia and where most animal commerce is done, was found to be the most probable origin of the circulating strains, pointing to a transboundary behavior of FMDV in South America. These findings suggest that uncontrolled animal movements can create a favorable environment for FMDV maintenance and pose a serious threat to control programmes. Also, we show that phylogeographic modeling can be a powerful tool in unraveling the spatial dynamics of viruses and potentially in controlling the spread of these pathogens. PMID:22985683

  9. Porcine type I interferon rapidly protects swine against challenge with multiple serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that rapidly replicates and spreads within infected animals and into the environment. Vaccines require approximately 7 days to induce protection, but prior to this time vaccinated animals are still suscep...

  10. Analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus integrin receptor expression in tissues from naive and infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals principally affecting cattle, pigs and sheep. FMD virus (FMDV) uses the alphaVbeta1, alphaVbeta3, alphaVbeta6 and alphaVbeta8 integrins as receptors in vitro via a highly conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic ac...

  11. Evading the Host Immune Response: How Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Has Become an Effective Pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. In this review we discuss the mechanisms FMDV has evolved to counteract or block both the host innate and adaptive immune responses allowing it to become such a successful pathogen. The role of a...

  12. Loss of plasmacytoid dendritic cell function coincides with lymphopenia and viremia during foot-and-mouth disease infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an acute, highly contagious disease of livestock. Though FMDV is very sensitive to interferon (IFN) alpha, beta, and gamma, the virus has evolved mechanisms to evade such innate responses. For instance, during acute infection, FMDV suppresses IFNa productio...

  13. Control of foot-and-mouth disease by using replication-defective human adenoviruses to deliver vaccines and biotherapeutics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  14. Sequence-based prediction for vaccine strain selection and identification of antigenic variability in foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying when past exposure to an infectious disease will protect against newly emerging strains is central to understanding the spread and the severity of epidemics, but the prediction of viral cross-protection remains an important unsolved problem. For foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) resea...

  15. Suppression of Swine NK Cell Function During Acute Infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infects cloven-hoofed animals and causes an economically devastating disease. This highly acute infection has multiple negative effects on the innate response, presumably contributing to the rapid spread of virus within the host. Understanding the regulation of in...

  16. Poly ICLC increases the potency of a replication-defective human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. We have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 vector carrying the FMDV capsid coding region of serotype A24 Cruzeiro (Ad5-CI-A24-2B) protects swine and cattle against FM...

  17. Early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to ...

  18. Epidemiological analysis, serological prevalence, and genotypic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease in Nigeria 2008-2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemiological situation of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is uncertain in Nigeria, where the disease is endemic, and the majority of outbreaks are unreported. Control measures for FMD in Nigeria are not being implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and an official ban ...

  19. Constitutively active IRF7/IRF3 fusion protein completely protects swine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most devastating livestock diseases around the world. Several serotype specific vaccine formulations exist but require about 5-7 days to induce protective immunity. Our previous studies have shown that a constitutively active fusion protein of porcine ...

  20. IgA antibody response of swine to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection and vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Control of the disease involves the use of killed virus vaccines, a control measure developed decades ago. However, the primary site of replication of FMDV after natural infection is the pharyngeal area and...

  1. Adenoviral-based foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine: evaluation of new vectors expressing serotype O in bovines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), an antigenically variable virus, is considered the most important infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Recently serotypes A and O have been the cause of major outbreaks. We previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based FMDV serotype A24 subunit vaccine...

  2. Evaluation of antiviral activity of plant extracts against foot and mouth disease virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Younus, Ishrat; Siddiq, Afshan; Ishaq, Humera; Anwer, Laila; Badar, Sehrish; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antiviral activity of chloroformic leaves extracts of three plants: Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera and Morus alba against Foot and Mouth disease virus using MTT assay (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Antiviral and cytotoxic activity of each extract was evaluated as cell survival percentage and results were expressed as Means ± S.D. The concentrations which resulted in cell survival percentages of greater than 50% are considered to be effective antiviral concentrations. From the tested plant extracts, Moringa oleifera showed potent antiviral activity (p<0.05) while Azadirachta indica showed significant antiviral activity in the range of 1-50μ/ml & 12-100μ/ml respectively. In contrast no antiviral activity was observed by Morus alba as all the tested concentration resulted in significant reduction (p<0.05) in cell survival percentage. PMID:27393440

  3. Carcass disposal: lessons from The Netherlands after the foot and mouth disease outbreak of 2001.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, P F

    2002-12-01

    The main logistical problems of the foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak that occurred in the Netherlands in 2001 were a lack of culling and rendering capacity. Suppressive vaccination formed the basis for the solution to both problems and was primarily used to halt the possible spread of the virus. This allowed culls to take place on vaccinated farms when sufficient culling capacity eventually became available. In addition, the vaccinated cloven-hoofed animals could be removed alive and then killed in central culling places fourteen or more days after vaccination. Using slaughterhouses as central culling places meant that parts of carcasses could be deep-frozen, which solved the lack of rendering capacity. The deep-frozen carcass parts were destroyed later, when rendering capacity became available. To guarantee that all vaccinated, culled and temporarily deep-frozen cloven-hoofed animals were eventually destroyed, a balanced audit trail, partly based on kilogram records, was vital in this situation. PMID:12523715

  4. Structure-based energetics of protein interfaces guides foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, Abhay; Seago, Julian; Scott, Katherine; Burman, Alison; Loureiro, Silvia; Ren, Jingshan; Porta, Claudine; Ginn, Helen M; Jackson, Terry; Perez-Martin, Eva; Siebert, C Alistair; Paul, Guntram; Huiskonen, Juha T; Jones, Ian M; Esnouf, Robert M; Fry, Elizabeth E; Maree, Francois F; Charleston, Bryan; Stuart, David I

    2015-10-01

    Virus capsids are primed for disassembly, yet capsid integrity is key to generating a protective immune response. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids comprise identical pentameric protein subunits held together by tenuous noncovalent interactions and are often unstable. Chemically inactivated or recombinant empty capsids, which could form the basis of future vaccines, are even less stable than live virus. Here we devised a computational method to assess the relative stability of protein-protein interfaces and used it to design improved candidate vaccines for two poorly stable, but globally important, serotypes of FMDV: O and SAT2. We used a restrained molecular dynamics strategy to rank mutations predicted to strengthen the pentamer interfaces and applied the results to produce stabilized capsids. Structural analyses and stability assays confirmed the predictions, and vaccinated animals generated improved neutralizing-antibody responses to stabilized particles compared to parental viruses and wild-type capsids. PMID:26389739

  5. Identification of a protein kinase activity in purified foot- and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Grubman, M J; Baxt, B; La Torre, J L; Bachrach, H L

    1981-01-01

    Purified preparations of foot-and-mouth disease virus types A, O, and C contain a protein kinase activity which can transfer the gamma phosphate of [32P]ATP to virion structural proteins VP2 and VP3 and exogenous acceptor proteins. Utilizing protamine sulfate as an acceptor, the kinase activity can be demonstrated in disrupted virus but not in intact virus. The enzyme is heat labile with optimal activity at pH 7 or greater. Serine residues of protamine sulfate were identified as the amino acid phosphorylated by the protein kinase. Treatment of purified virus with trypsin, which cleaves VP3, did not affect the protein kinase activity. The results indicate that the protein kinase activity found in FMDV is present in an internally located protein of viral or host origin. Images PMID:6268834

  6. Antiviral effects of a thiol protease inhibitor on foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kleina, L G; Grubman, M J

    1992-01-01

    The thiol protease inhibitor E-64 specifically blocks autocatalytic activity of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and interferes with cleavage of the structural protein precursor in an in vitro translation assay programmed with virion RNA. Experiments with FMDV-infected cells and E-64 or a membrane-permeable analog, E-64d, have confirmed these results and demonstrated interference in virus assembly, causing a reduction in virus yield. In addition, there is a lag in the appearance of virus-induced cellular morphologic alterations, a delay in cleavage of host cell protein p220 and in shutoff of host protein synthesis, and a decrease in viral protein and RNA synthesis. The implications of using E-64-based compounds as potential antiviral agents for FMDV are discussed. Images PMID:1331517

  7. Spatio-temporal modelling of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Malesios, C; Demiris, N; Kostoulas, P; Dadousis, K; Koutroumanidis, T; Abas, Z

    2016-09-01

    We present and analyse data collected during a severe epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) that occurred between July and September 2000 in a region of northeastern Greece with strategic importance since it represents the southeastern border of Europe and Asia. We implement generic Bayesian methodology, which offers flexibility in the ability to fit several realistically complex models that simultaneously capture the presence of 'excess' zeros, the spatio-temporal dependence of the cases, assesses the impact of environmental noise and controls for multicollinearity issues. Our findings suggest that the epidemic was mostly driven by the size and the animal type of each farm as well as the distance between farms while environmental and other endemic factors were not important during this outbreak. Analyses of this kind may prove useful to informing decisions related to optimal control measures for potential future FMD outbreaks as well as other acute epidemics such as FMD. PMID:27150839

  8. Coxsackievirus A6: a new emerging pathogen causing hand, foot and mouth disease outbreaks worldwide.

    PubMed

    Bian, Lianlian; Wang, Yiping; Yao, Xin; Mao, Qunying; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant pathogens causing outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. Other human enterovirus A (HEV-A) serotypes tend to cause only sporadic HFMD cases. However, since a HFMD caused by coxsackievirus A6 broke out in Finland in 2008, CA6 has been identified as the responsible pathogen for a series of HFMD outbreaks in Europe, North America and Asia. Because of the severity of the clinical manifestations and the underestimated public health burden, the epidemic of CA6-associated HFMD presents a new challenge to the control of HFMD. This article reviewed the epidemic characteristics, molecular epidemiology, clinical features and laboratory diagnosis of CA6 infection. The genetic evolution of CA6 strains associated with HFMD was also analyzed. It indicated that the development of a multivalent vaccine combining EV71, CA16 and CA6 is an urgent necessity to control HFMD. PMID:26112307

  9. Neutralization kinetics studies with type SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Rweyemamu, M. M.; Booth, J. C.; Parry, N.; Pay, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of homologous and heterologous rates of neutralization demonstrated that antigenic relationships of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains could be differentiated quantitatively by the kinetics of neutralization method described previously (Rwysed this way gave R values which were similar to those obtained with other neutralization test methods but which were generally smaller than those obtained with complement fixation test results. It was demonstrated that there were wide differences between the vaccine strains tested as demonstrated by R value relationships. An examination of r values, however, demonstrated that antisera to the Moz 1/70 strain were highly reactive with most of the virus strains from Central and Southern Africa. The selection of FMD virus strains with a wide serological range for vaccine production is discussed. PMID:68071

  10. Detection of hand, foot and mouth disease in the yucatan peninsula of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Dzul-Rosado, Alma R; Yeh-Gorocica, Aarón B; Rodriguez-Ruz, Katia G; Noh-Pech, Henry; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Castro-Mussot, María Eugenia; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Garcia-Rejon, Julián E; Puerto-Manzano, Fernando I; Blitvich, Bradley J

    2014-11-19

    We report a case of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in a 5-year-old male from Merida City in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. A clinical and physical examination revealed that the patient had symptoms typical of HFMD, including fever, fatigue, odynophagia, throat edema, hyperemia, lesions on the hands and feet, and blisters in the oral cavity. The patient fully recovered after a convalescence period of almost three weeks. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing revealed that the etiological agent was enterovirus 71 (EV71). The sequence has greatest (90.4%) nucleotide identity to the corresponding regions of EV71 isolates from the Netherlands and Singapore. Although HFMD is presumably common in Mexico, surprisingly there are no data in the PubMed database to support this. This case report provides the first peer-reviewed evidence of HFMD in Mexico. PMID:25568757

  11. Promising MS2 mediated virus-like particle vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan-mei; Zhang, Guo-guang; Huang, Xiao-jun; Chen, Liang; Chen, Hao-tai

    2015-05-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has caused severe economic losses to millions of farmers worldwide. In this work, the coding genes of 141-160 epitope peptide (EP141-160) of VP1 were inserted into the coat protein (CP) genes of MS2 in prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLP). Results showed that the CP-EP141-160 VLP had a strong immunoreaction with the FMD virus (FMDV) antigen in vitro, and also had an effective immune response in mice. Further virus challenge tests were carried out on guinea pigs and swine, high-titer neutralizing antibodies were produced and the CP-EP141-160 VLP vaccine could protect most of the animals against FMDV. PMID:25676866

  12. Modeling the Effects of Multiple Intervention Strategies on Controlling Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mushayabasa, Steady; Tapedzesa, Gift

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a threat to economic security and infrastructure as well as animal health, in both developed and developing countries. We propose and analyze an optimal control problem where the control system is a mathematical model for FMD that incorporates vaccination and culling of infectious animals. The control functions represent the fraction of animals that are vaccinated during an outbreak, infectious symptomatic animals that are detected and culled, and infectious nonsymptomatic animals that are detected and culled. Our aim was to study how these control measures should be implemented for a certain time period, in order to reduce or eliminate FMD in the community, while minimizing the interventions implementation costs. A cost-effectiveness analysis is carried out, to compare the application of each one of the control measures, separately or in combination. PMID:26516625

  13. Dynamic impacts of a catastrophic production event: the foot-and-mouth disease case.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Alexandre; Gohin, Jean; Krebs, Stephane; Rault, Arnaud

    2013-03-01

    In foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) free countries, the occurrence of an FMD outbreak is a rare event with potentially large economic losses. We explore the dynamic effects of an FMD outbreak on market variables and economic surplus taking into account the largely neglected issue of farm bankruptcy. Simulations are performed on a stylized agricultural economy, which is a net exporter before the outbreak. We find complex dynamic market effects when the farm credit market suffers from information imperfections leading to farm closure. Welfare effects are also dramatically altered. Domestic consumers may lose in the long run from an FMD outbreak because domestic supply contracts. On the other hand, farmers able to resist this event may ultimately gain. Our analysis also shows that these effects are not monotone, making any efficient policy response to this catastrophic event quite challenging. PMID:23078069

  14. Pancreatitis in hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Deng, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Wei, Jian-Qiang

    2016-02-14

    Some viruses, including certain members of the enterovirus genus, have been reported to cause pancreatitis, especially Coxsackie virus. However, no case of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) associated with pancreatitis has been reported so far. We here report a case of EV71-induced hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) presenting with pancreatitis in a 2-year-old girl. This is the first report of a patient with acute pancreatitis in HFMD caused by EV71. We treated the patient conservatively with nasogastric suction, intravenous fluid and antivirals. The patient's symptoms improved after 8 d, and recovered without complications. We conclude that EV71 can cause acute pancreatitis in HFMD, which should be considered in differential diagnosis, especially in cases of idiopathic pancreatitis. PMID:26877620

  15. Pancreatitis in hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Deng, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Wei, Jian-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Some viruses, including certain members of the enterovirus genus, have been reported to cause pancreatitis, especially Coxsackie virus. However, no case of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) associated with pancreatitis has been reported so far. We here report a case of EV71-induced hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) presenting with pancreatitis in a 2-year-old girl. This is the first report of a patient with acute pancreatitis in HFMD caused by EV71. We treated the patient conservatively with nasogastric suction, intravenous fluid and antivirals. The patient’s symptoms improved after 8 d, and recovered without complications. We conclude that EV71 can cause acute pancreatitis in HFMD, which should be considered in differential diagnosis, especially in cases of idiopathic pancreatitis. PMID:26877620

  16. QS-21 enhances the early antibody response to oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One of the most important tools against foot-and-mouth disease, a highly contagious and variable viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is vaccination. However, the effectiveness of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines on slowing the spread of the disease is questionable. In contrast, high potency vaccines providing early protection may solve issues with the spread of the disease, escaping mutants, and persistency. To increase the potency of the vaccine, additives such as saponin and aluminium hydroxide are used. However, the use of saponin with an oil adjuvant is not common and is sometimes linked to toxicity. QS-21, which is less toxic than Quil A, has been presented as an alternative for use with saponin. In this study, the addition of QS-21 to a commercially available foot-and-mouth disease water-in-oil-in-water emulsion vaccine was evaluated in cattle. Materials and Methods After vaccination, serum samples were collected periodically over 3 months. Sera of the QS-21 and normal oil vaccine groups were compared via serum virus neutralization antibody titre and liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody titre. Results The results showed that there was a significant early antibody increase in the QS-21 group. Conclusion Strong early virus neutralizing antibody response will be useful for emergency or ring vaccinations against foot-and-mouth disease in target animals. PMID:27489804

  17. Structure-based discovery of foot-and-mouth disease inhibitors that target the 3Dpol RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) primarily targets cloven-hoofed animals. The FMDV outbreak results in significant economic losses. There are currently no available antiviral drugs for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) treatment, and vaccination needs at least 7 days to effectively trigger the immune...

  18. Mechanisms of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Tropism Inferred from Differential Tissue Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, James J.; Arzt, Jonathan; Puckette, Michael C.; Smoliga, George R.; Pacheco, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Luis L.

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) targets specific tissues for primary infection, secondary high-titer replication (e.g. foot and mouth where it causes typical vesicular lesions) and long-term persistence at some primary replication sites. Although integrin αVβ6 receptor has been identified as primary FMDV receptors in animals, their tissue distribution alone fails to explain these highly selective tropism-driven events. Thus, other molecular mechanisms must play roles in determining this tissue specificity. We hypothesized that differences in certain biological activities due to differential gene expression determine FMDV tropism and applied whole genome gene expression profiling to identify genes differentially expressed between FMDV-targeted and non-targeted tissues in terms of supporting primary infection, secondary replication including vesicular lesions, and persistence. Using statistical and bioinformatic tools to analyze the differential gene expression, we identified mechanisms that could explain FMDV tissue tropism based on its association with differential expression of integrin αVβ6 heterodimeric receptor (FMDV receptor), fibronectin (ligand of the receptor), IL-1 cytokines, death receptors and the ligands, and multiple genes in the biological pathways involved in extracellular matrix turnover and interferon signaling found in this study. Our results together with reported findings indicate that differences in (1) FMDV receptor availability and accessibility, (2) type I interferon-inducible immune response, and (3) ability to clear virus infected cells via death receptor signaling play roles in determining FMDV tissue tropism and the additional increase of high extracellular matrix turnover induced by FMDV infection, likely via triggering the signaling of highly expressed IL-1 cytokines, play a key role in the pathogenesis of vesicular lesions. PMID:23724025

  19. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  20. Genome Sequence of Coxsackievirus A6, Isolated during a Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Finland in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Satu; Merilahti, Pirjo; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Blomqvist, Soile; Roivainen, Merja; Laiho, Asta; Susi, Petri; Waris, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Reports of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks caused by coxsackievirus A6 have increased worldwide after the report of the first outbreak in Finland in 2008. The complete genome of the first outbreak strain from a vesicle fluid specimen was determined. PMID:25323709

  1. A partial deletion in non-structural protein 3A can attenuate foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of non-structural protein 3A in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) on the virulence in cattle has received significant attention. Particularly, a characteristic 10–20 amino acid deletion has been implicated as being responsible for virus attenuation in cattle: a 10 amino acid deletion in t...

  2. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O phylodynamics: genetic variability associated with epidemiological factors in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most challenging aspects of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control is the high genetic variability of the FMD virus (FMDV). In endemic settings such as the Indian subcontinent, this variability has resulted in the emergence of pandemic strains that have spread widely and caused devastating ...

  3. Interferon Alpha Production by Circulating Dendritic Cells is Inhibited During Acute Infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, particularly the actions of interferons (IFN). We have previously reported that exposure of dendritic cells (DCs) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro yields no infection and induces a strong IFN response indica...

  4. IgA antibody response of swine to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) specific antibodies, specifically neutralizing antibodies, are known to protect against virus infection in vitro and are predictive of protection in vivo. Of interest is the role of antibodies against FMDV in mucosal secretions, in particular in the oropharyngeal ...

  5. Adaptive Responses and Asset Strategies: The Experience of Rural Micro-Firms and Foot and Mouth Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Jeremy; Bennett, Katy; Lowe, Philip; Raley, Marian

    2004-01-01

    The 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) epidemic effectively closed large parts of the UK countryside for several months. Local firms found their operations disrupted and suffered losses of trade. The individual and collective experiences of affected firms provide vivid insights into how rural businesses and the local economies they constitute…

  6. Adenoviral-based foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine: effect of duration of antigen expression on immunogenicity in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adenoviral (Ad5)-based foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) subunit vaccine, Ad5-A24, is an effective alternative to the current inactivated whole virus vaccine and has a number of advantages including no requirement for infectious FMDV and DIVA (Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals...

  7. Interferon Alpha Production by Swine Dendritic Cells is Inhibited During Acute Infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, particularly the actions of interferons (IFN). We have previously reported that exposure of dendritic cells (DCs) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro yields no infection and induces a strong IFN response indic...

  8. Cell culture adaptation mutations in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A capsid proteins: implications for receptor interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A strains during propagation in cell monolayers. Viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (BHK-21, LFBK and IB-RS-2), consistently gained several positively charged amino acids...

  9. Role of Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) in infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can utilize as many as three distinct groups of receptor molecules to attach and enter a susceptible host cell. Four integrin heterodimers (alphavBeta1, alphavBeta3, alphavBeta6, and alphavBeta8) can function as the primary receptor for FMDV field strains. FMDV ...

  10. Heparan Sulfate-Binding Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Enters Cells Via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) utilizes different cell surface macromolecules to facilitate infection of cultured cells. Virus which is virulent for susceptible animals infects cells via four members of the alpha V subclass of cellular integrins. In contrast, tissue culture adaptation of some...

  11. Pathogenesis of primary foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle following simulated-natural virus exposure. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection from b...

  12. Role of Jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) in infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can utilize as many as three distinct groups of receptor molecules to attach and enter a susceptible host cell. Four integrin heterodimers (alphavBeta1, alphavBeta3, alphavBeta6, and alphavBeta8) can function as the primary receptor for FMDV field strains. FMDV ...

  13. An integrative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus carriers in Vietnam achieved through targeted surveillance and molecular epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multidisciplinary, molecular and conventional epidemiological approach was applied to an investigation of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in Vietnam. Within the study space, it was found that 22.3 percent of sampled ruminants had previously been infected with FMD virus (FMDV) and that 2.4 percent w...

  14. A colorimetric bioassay for high-througput and cost-effectively assessing anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most contagious animal viruses and has a devastating effect on livestock industries if an outbreaks occurs, especially in FMD-free countries. The virus is very sensitive to inhibition by type I interferons. Currently, a reported assay to measure FM...

  15. Complete Genome Sequences of Three African Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Clinical Samples Isolated in 2009 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Rosseel, Toon; Haegeman, Andy; Fana, Mpolokang Elliot; Seoke, Latoa; Hyera, Joseph; Matlho, George; Vandenbussche, Frank; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype SAT1, SAT2 and O) were directly sequenced from RNA extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals. PMID:27151795

  16. Enhanced antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus by the combination of bovine type 1 and 2 interferons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. In emergency control of outbreaks, it is fundamental to develop rapid protection to prevent spread of the infection. It has been shown that inoculation of 10^10 pfu of human aden...

  17. Complete Genome Sequences of Three African Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Clinical Samples Isolated in 2009 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Van Borm, Steven; Rosseel, Toon; Haegeman, Andy; Fana, Mpolokang Elliot; Seoke, Latoa; Hyera, Joseph; Matlho, George; Vandenbussche, Frank; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype SAT1, SAT2 and O) were directly sequenced from RNA extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals. PMID:27151795

  18. Expression of porcine fusion protein IRF7/3(5D) efficiently controls foot-and-mouth disease virus replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have demonstrated that administration of type I, II, or III interferons (IFN) delivered using a replication defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector is effective to control Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) in cattle and swine during experimental infections. However, high doses are requi...

  19. Early Events in the Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Cattle After Controlled Aerosol Exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to identify the primary sites of replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in cattle subsequent to aerogenous inoculation. A novel aerosol inoculation method was developed to simulate natural, airborne transmission and thereby allow the identification of early rep...

  20. Enhanced Antiviral Activity Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by the Combination of Bovine Type 1 and 2 Interferons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. The emergency control of outbreaks is dependent on rapid protection and prevention of spread of the infection. Human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine interferon alpha (Ad5-pI...

  1. Bovine type III interferon significantly delays and reduces the severity of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Although type I and II IFNs have proven effective to inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in swine, a similar approach has had only limited efficacy in cattle. Recently, a new family of IFNs, type III IFN o...

  2. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus replicon particles can induce rapid protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that swine pretreated with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (Ad5) containing the porcine type I interferon gene (poIFN-alpha/Beta) are sterilely protected when challenged one day later with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), but the dose required is relativ...

  3. Optimization of immunohistochemical and fluorescent antibody techniques for localization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in animal tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunohistochemical (IHC) and immunofluorescent (IF) techniques were optimized for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) structural and non-structural proteins in frozen and paraformaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (PFPE) tissues of bovine and porcine origin. Immunohistochemical local...

  4. Differential gene expression in bovine cells infected with wild type and leaderless foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. Molecular studies have demonstrated that Lpro inhibits the translation of host capped mRNAs and transcription of some genes involved in the innate immune response to viral infection. Here...

  5. Stress and Stereotypes: Children's Reactions to the Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in the UK in 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerlich, Brigitte; Hillyard, Sam; Wright, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In 2001 foot and mouth disease broke out in the UK and millions of farm animals were slaughtered in order to eradicate it. This affected farmers, town dwellers, adults and children. Based on a small sample of 56 e-mails to a children's BBC (CBBC) message board and using an ethnomethodological approach, this article explores the way in which…

  6. Cellular Changes Induced by Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Expressing Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural and Nonstructural Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. The emergency control of outbreaks is dependent on rapid protection and prevention of virus spread. Adenovirus-based FMD subunit vaccines containing the coding region of viral ca...

  7. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs using two novel simulated natural inoculation methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to characterize foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) dynamics in pigs, two simulated-natural inoculation systems were developed and evaluated using two different strains of FMDV (O1-Manisa and A24-Cruzeiro) at varying doses. Direct intra-oropharyngeal (IOP) and intra-nasopharyngeal (INP) in...

  8. Poetic Justice? Rural Policy Clashes with Rural Poetry in the 2001 Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerlich, Brigitte; Doring, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the foot and mouth disease epidemic in the UK gave rise to widespread individual and community trauma and has had negative health, economic and social impacts on the people who live in affected rural areas. Many found strength by sharing their experiences with friends and relatives; others expressed their feelings in poems and art. Using…

  9. Studies on Sam68 a cell factor involved in the life cycle of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with other RNA viruses, Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) recruits various host cell factors to assist in translation and replication of the virus genome. While FMDV translation has been thoroughly investigated, much remains unknown regarding replication of the positive-sense RNA genome. In th...

  10. Foot and mouth disease virus virulence in cattle is co-determined by viral replication dynamics and route of infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle were investigated through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (IEL) inoculations of a cDNA-derived FMDV-A24 wild type virus (FMDV-WT) or a mutant derived from the same clone (FMDV- Mut). We had previously sho...

  11. Porcine Interferon Gamma Promotes a Protective Innate Immune Response Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have recently demonstrated that the synergistic action of type I and II interferons (IFN) can rapidly protect swine against challenge with a low dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). While we did not detect antiviral activity or the presence of IFN alpha or gamma in any of the protected an...

  12. Exploring the role of the lab protein of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) during viral infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leader (L) protein of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) displays two forms, Lab and Lb, through initiation of translation at two in-frame AUG codons positioned 84 nucleotides apart. The short form (Lb) is the most abundant and functionally well characterized form of L. The presence of these tw...

  13. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following intra-nasopharyngeal inoculation or contact exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated-natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. Antemortem infecti...

  14. 75 FR 54589 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine, Live Adenovirus Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... adenovirus vector. The EA, which is based on a risk analysis prepared to assess the risks associated with the... Road Unit 118, Riverdale, MD 20737-1238. Please state that your comment refers to Docket No....

  15. Enhanced Antiviral Activity against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by a Combination of Type 1 and 2 Porcine Interfereons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we showed that type I interferon (IFN alpha/beta) can inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in cell culture and swine inoculated with 109 pfu human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine IFN-alpha (Ad5-pIFN alpha) were protected when challenged one day later. In this stud...

  16. Prolonged Breastfeeding Is Associated With Lower Risk Of Severe Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease In Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaping; Deng, Huiling; Li, Mei; Wang, Wenjun; Jia, Xiaoli; Gao, Ning; Dang, Shuangsuo

    2016-03-01

    To assess whether breastfeeding duration can affect risk of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) later in childhood, we retrospectively analyzed demographic, environmental and breastfeeding data on 603 children with severe HFMD and 1036 children with mild HFMD. Multivariate analysis showed that breastfeeding for 6-12 months significantly reduced the risk of severe HFMD, as did breastfeeding for >12 months. PMID:26650113

  17. International approach to eradication and surveillance for foot-and-mouth disease in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Torres, J G

    2000-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was introduced into the Americas in 1870. At that time the disease was described simultaneously in the North coast of the United States of North America, the Province of Buenos Aires in Argentina, the central region of Chile, Uruguay, and South Brazil. At the beginning of the twentieth century the disease spread to the rest of Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Perú. In 1950 the disease was introduced into Venezuela, and in the same year to Colombia, and from there to Ecuador. The United States of America eradicated an outbreak of FMD in 1929. Outbreaks of FMD were also eradicated from Mexico in 1947 and from Canada in 1952. The last outbreak that occurred in Mexico in 1954 was also eradicated. In 1951 the Americas Animal Health Authorities decided to establish a Pan-American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center (PANAFTOSA), initially as a special program within the American States Organization (OAS). The center was later transferred to the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO). In the early 1970s PANAFTOSA developed a proposal for a continental surveillance system for vesicular diseases, which was approved by Agriculture Ministers at an International Meeting for FMD and Zoonoses (RICAZ). Since then, PANAFTOSA dedicated all efforts to collaborate with each country in the implementation of the system and to receive, analyze, and distribute a weekly report of vesicular diseases. The model was elaborated using coordinate grid maps, one for the South American Continent, others for each country in the region. The reports from each country consist of the grid location for any suspicious outbreak of vesicular disease. Using the information gathered during visits to the countries, as well as weekly reports, and by studying the most frequent animal movements within the region, PANAFTOSA developed a proposal for FMD eradication. This plan was approved by the Government of South America and implemented in cooperation with PANAFTOSA. The hemispheric plan

  18. Statistical monitoring of the hand, foot and mouth disease in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingnan; Kang, Yicheng; Yang, Yang; Qiu, Peihua

    2015-09-01

    In a period starting around 2007, the Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) became wide-spreading in China, and the Chinese public health was seriously threatened. To prevent the outbreak of infectious diseases like HFMD, effective disease surveillance systems would be especially helpful to give signals of disease outbreaks as early as possible. Statistical process control (SPC) charts provide a major statistical tool in industrial quality control for detecting product defectives in a timely manner. In recent years, SPC charts have been used for disease surveillance. However, disease surveillance data often have much more complicated structures, compared to the data collected from industrial production lines. Major challenges, including lack of in-control data, complex seasonal effects, and spatio-temporal correlations, make the surveillance data difficult to handle. In this article, we propose a three-step procedure for analyzing disease surveillance data, and our procedure is demonstrated using the HFMD data collected during 2008-2009 in China. Our method uses nonparametric longitudinal data and time series analysis methods to eliminate the possible impact of seasonality and temporal correlation before the disease incidence data are sequentially monitored by a SPC chart. At both national and provincial levels, our proposed method can effectively detect the increasing trend of disease incidence rate before the disease becomes wide-spreading. PMID:25832170

  19. Moving towards the global control of foot and mouth disease: an opportunity for donors.

    PubMed

    Forman, S; Le Gall, F; Belton, D; Evans, B; François, J L; Murray, G; Sheesley, D; Vandersmissen, A; Yoshimura, S

    2009-12-01

    Livestock contributes significantly to the world economy. However, animal diseases are still a major constraint on economic growth, the reduction of poverty and food security. Among the most significant diseases is foot and mouth disease (FMD), a highly contagious, multi-species animal disease with a devastating impact on national economies and trade. Less obvious is the severe constraint that FMD places on both development and the reduction of poverty in developing countries where this disease is endemic. As a result of its global implications and the high costs that it imposes on society, FMD is an infectious disease whose control and prevention are recognised as being a global public good. Moving towards the global control of FMD should be considered a priority for donors, but will require long-term commitment from all parties, strong political will from governments and concerted financial support from donors. Areas of intervention must fall within the framework of programmes developed by international organisations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), through the FAO/OIE Global Framework for the Progressive Control of FMD and Other Transboundary Animal Diseases, as well as the disease control programmes of the regions concerned. Such a goal should specifically focus on analytical work (micro-economic impact and cost-benefit analyses of FMD at the household level and on the poor), research, surveillance networks, communication, monitoring and evaluation, and continuous strengthening of Veterinary Services. PMID:20462147

  20. Epidemic simulation of a foot and mouth disease outbreak in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Gale, S B; Miller, G Y; Eshelman, C E; Wells, S J

    2015-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a primary transboundary livestock disease of international concern. Outbreaks of the disease have recently occurred in several countries that were previously FMD-free. For countries with limited direct experience of this disease, modelling is a useful tool for the study of a potential outbreak. The objectives of this study were to determine specific FMD risk parameters for Minnesota and the United States (USA) and to use these parameters to create a baseline FMD outbreak model for Minnesota. Of specific interest was to assess whether the type of herd in which the outbreak began (a dairy herd or a large-scale swine herd) influenced the basic model outcomes of outbreak size and duration, and to examine the effects of depopulation and movement controls. The mean values for disease duration, outbreak duration and number of farms and animals infected were larger in the scenario with a dairy index herd. The results of these two outbreak models demonstrated the entire spectrum of FMD outbreak types; that is, from limited, focal outbreaks to widespread, uncontrolled outbreaks. The findings from this study provide details of a baseline model that emergency preparedness planners can use to evaluate response strategies for a potential incursion of FMD into the USA. These findings are also of value for all countries as veterinary authorities develop or adjust their FMD emergency response plans. PMID:27044160

  1. Phylogeographic analysis of the 2000-2002 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Brito, Barbara; König, Guido; Cabanne, Gustavo Sebastian; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Rodriguez, Luis; Perez, Andres

    2016-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease of hooved livestock. Although FMD has been eradicated from many countries, economic and social consequences of FMD reintroductions are devastating. After achieving disease eradication, Argentina was affected by a major epidemic in 2000-2002, and within few months, FMD virus spread throughout most of the country and affected >2500 herds. Available records and viral strains allowed us to assess the origins, spread and progression of this FMD epidemic, which remained uncertain. We used whole genome viral sequences and a continuous phylogeographic diffusion approach, which revealed that the viruses that caused the outbreaks spread fast in different directions from a central area in Argentina. The analysis also suggests that the virus that caused the outbreaks in the year 2000 was different from those found during the 2001 epidemic. To estimate if the approximate overall genetic diversity of the virus was related to disease transmission, we reconstructed the viral demographic variation in time using Bayesian Skygrid approach and compared it with the epidemic curve and the within-herd transmission rate and showed that the genetic temporal diversity of the virus was associated with the increasing number of outbreaks in the exponential phase of the epidemic. Results here provide new evidence of how the disease entered and spread throughout the country. We further demonstrate that genetic data collected during a FMD epidemic can be informative indicators of the progression of an ongoing epidemic. PMID:27074336

  2. Decision-making for foot-and-mouth disease control: Objectives matter.

    PubMed

    Probert, William J M; Shea, Katriona; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Runge, Michael C; Carpenter, Tim E; Dürr, Salome; Garner, M Graeme; Harvey, Neil; Stevenson, Mark A; Webb, Colleen T; Werkman, Marleen; Tildesley, Michael J; Ferrari, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    Formal decision-analytic methods can be used to frame disease control problems, the first step of which is to define a clear and specific objective. We demonstrate the imperative of framing clearly-defined management objectives in finding optimal control actions for control of disease outbreaks. We illustrate an analysis that can be applied rapidly at the start of an outbreak when there are multiple stakeholders involved with potentially multiple objectives, and when there are also multiple disease models upon which to compare control actions. The output of our analysis frames subsequent discourse between policy-makers, modellers and other stakeholders, by highlighting areas of discord among different management objectives and also among different models used in the analysis. We illustrate this approach in the context of a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in Cumbria, UK using outputs from five rigorously-studied simulation models of FMD spread. We present both relative rankings and relative performance of controls within each model and across a range of objectives. Results illustrate how control actions change across both the base metric used to measure management success and across the statistic used to rank control actions according to said metric. This work represents a first step towards reconciling the extensive modelling work on disease control problems with frameworks for structured decision making. PMID:27266845

  3. Poverty impacts of foot-and-mouth disease and the poverty reduction implications of its control.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Rich, K M

    2007-02-17

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most important livestock diseases of the world, given its highly infectious nature, its broad economic impacts on animal wellbeing and productivity, and its implications for successful access to domestic and export markets for livestock and products. The impacts of the disease vary markedly between developed and developing countries, and also within many developing countries. These differences in impact shape some markedly heterogeneous incentives for FMD control and eradication, which become of particular importance when setting priorities for poverty reduction in developing countries. Some consider that the benefits from FMD control accrue only to the better off in such societies and, as such, may not be a priority for investments targeted at poverty reduction. But is that view justified? Others see the control of FMD as a major development opportunity in a globalised environment. In this paper, Brian Perry and Karl Rich summarise the differential impacts of FMD and its control, and link these findings with the growing understanding of how the control of this globally important disease may contribute to the processes of pro-poor growth in certain countries of the developing world. PMID:17308024

  4. Control of the deliberate spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Farsang, Attila; Frentzel, Hendrik; Kulcsár, Gábor; Soós, Tibor

    2013-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most feared of transboundary animal diseases. Accidental or deliberate release of the causative agent can have both direct and indirect effects that result in massive economic losses and disruption. The direct effects of an FMD outbreak include immediate losses to agricultural production and disruption of local economies, while the indirect effects are mainly related to disease control measures such as restriction of market access at local and global levels and the high costs of disease control. To improve the capacity of the European Union (EU) to counter animal bioterrorism threats, AniBioThreat was launched with a special focus on threats to living animals, feed, and food of animal origin. As part of this project, several zoonotic or animal pathogenic agents are considered from different perspectives. FMD virus was selected as one agent to be scrutinized because it is highly contagious and an outbreak can have a severe economic impact. Ways to fight a deliberate outbreak can be demonstrated through the example of FMD. In this article, the virology and epidemiology of FMD virus are discussed with special attention to the related law enforcement aspects. PMID:23971796

  5. Understanding foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission biology: identification of the indicators of infectiousness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The control of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) outbreaks in non-endemic countries relies on the rapid detection and removal of infected animals. In this paper we use the observed relationship between the onset of clinical signs and direct contact transmission of FMDV to identify predictors for the onset of clinical signs and identify possible approaches to preclinical screening in the field. Threshold levels for various virological and immunological variables were determined using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and then tested using generalized linear mixed models to determine their ability to predict the onset of clinical signs. In addition, concordance statistics between qualitative real time PCR test results and virus isolation results were evaluated. For the majority of animals (71%), the onset of clinical signs occurred 3–4 days post infection. The onset of clinical signs was associated with high levels of virus in the blood, oropharyngeal fluid and nasal fluid. Virus is first detectable in the oropharyngeal fluid, but detection of virus in the blood and nasal fluid may also be good candidates for preclinical indicators. Detection of virus in the air was also significantly associated with transmission. This study is the first to identify statistically significant indicators of infectiousness for FMDV at defined time periods during disease progression in a natural host species. Identifying factors associated with infectiousness will advance our understanding of transmission mechanisms and refine intra-herd and inter-herd disease transmission models. PMID:23822567

  6. Options for control of foot-and-mouth disease: knowledge, capability and policy.

    PubMed

    Paton, David J; Sumption, Keith J; Charleston, Bryan

    2009-09-27

    Foot-and-mouth disease can be controlled by zoo-sanitary measures and vaccination but this is difficult owing to the existence of multiple serotypes of the causative virus, multiple host species including wildlife and extreme contagiousness. Although intolerable to modern high-production livestock systems, the disease is not usually fatal and often not a priority for control in many developing countries, which remain reservoirs for viral dissemination. Phylogenetic analysis of the viruses circulating worldwide reveals seven principal reservoirs, each requiring a tailored regional control strategy. Considerable trade benefits accrue to countries that eradicate the disease but as well as requiring regional cooperation, achieving and maintaining this status using current tools takes a great deal of time, money and effort. Therefore, a progressive approach is needed that can provide interim benefits along the pathway to final eradication. Research is needed to understand and predict the patterns of viral persistence and emergence and to improve vaccine selection. Better diagnostic methods and especially better vaccines could significantly improve control in both the free and the affected parts of the world. In particular, vaccines with improved thermostability and a longer duration of immunity would facilitate control and make it less reliant on advanced veterinary infrastructures. PMID:19687036

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease in Tanzania from 2001 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Picado, A; Speybroeck, N; Kivaria, F; Mosha, R M; Sumaye, R D; Casal, J; Berkvens, D

    2011-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Tanzania, with outbreaks occurring almost each year in different parts of the country. There is now a strong political desire to control animal diseases as part of national poverty alleviation strategies. However, FMD control requires improving the current knowledge on the disease dynamics and factors related to FMD occurrence so control measures can be implemented more efficiently. The objectives of this study were to describe the FMD dynamics in Tanzania from 2001 to 2006 and investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of transmission. Extraction maps, the space-time K-function and space-time permutation models based on scan statistics were calculated for each year to evaluate the spatial distribution, the spatiotemporal interaction and the spatiotemporal clustering of FMD-affected villages. From 2001 to 2006, 878 FMD outbreaks were reported in 605 different villages of 5815 populated places included in the database. The spatial distribution of FMD outbreaks was concentrated along the Tanzania-Kenya, Tanzania-Zambia borders, and the Kagera basin bordering Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania. The spatiotemporal interaction among FMD-affected villages was statistically significant (P≤0.01) and 12 local spatiotemporal clusters were detected; however, the extent and intensity varied across the study period. Dividing the country in zones according to their epidemiological status will allow improving the control of FMD and delimiting potential FMD-free areas. PMID:21078082

  8. An overview of control strategy and diagnostic technology for foot-and-mouth disease in China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yao-Zhong; Chen, Hao-Tai; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Liang; Gu, Yuanxin; Liu, Yong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of most contagious animal diseases. It affects millions of cloven-hoofed animals and causes huge economic losses in many countries of the world. There are seven serotypes of which three (O, A and Asia 1) are endemic in China. Efficient control of FMD in China is crucial for the prevention and control of FMD in Asia and throughout the world. For the control of FMD, a powerful veterinary administration, a well-trained veterinary staff, a system of rapid and accurate diagnostic procedures and, in many countries, compulsory vaccination of susceptible animals are indispensable. This article strives to outline the Chinese animal disease control and prevention system, in particular for FMD, with the emphasis on diagnostic procedures applied in Chinese laboratories. In addition, new technologies for FMD diagnosis, which are currently in the phase of development or in the process of validation in Chinese laboratories, are described, such as lateral flow devices (LFD), Mab-based ELISAs, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and gold nanopariticle immuno-PCR (GNP-IPCR). PMID:23497282

  9. Transmission of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and Its Potential Driving Factors in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Wu, Peng; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood disease with substantial disease burden in Asia. Mixed results were reported on the associations between HFMD incidence and meteorological factors or school holidays, while limited studies focused on their association on transmissibility. We aimed to measure the transmissibility of HFMD and to examine its potential driving factors in Hong Kong. A likelihood-based procedure was used to estimate time-dependent effective reproduction number (Rt) based on weekly number of HFMD-associated hospitalizations from 2010 to 2014. The associations of between-year effects, depletion of susceptibles, absolute humidity and school holidays with Rt were examined using linear regression. Rt usually started increasing between early spring and summer and peaked in April to May at around 1.1–1.2, followed by a slight rebound in autumn. Depletion of susceptibles and between-years effects explained most of the variances (19 and 13% respectively) in Rt. We found a negative association between depletion of susceptibles and Rt (coefficients ranged from −0.14 to −0.03 for different years), but the estimated effects of absolute humidity and school holidays were insignificant. Overall, HFMD transmission was moderate in Hong Kong and was mainly associated with depletion of susceptibles. Limited impact was suggested from meteorological factors and school holidays. PMID:27271966

  10. Options for control of foot-and-mouth disease: knowledge, capability and policy

    PubMed Central

    Paton, David J.; Sumption, Keith J.; Charleston, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease can be controlled by zoo-sanitary measures and vaccination but this is difficult owing to the existence of multiple serotypes of the causative virus, multiple host species including wildlife and extreme contagiousness. Although intolerable to modern high-production livestock systems, the disease is not usually fatal and often not a priority for control in many developing countries, which remain reservoirs for viral dissemination. Phylogenetic analysis of the viruses circulating worldwide reveals seven principal reservoirs, each requiring a tailored regional control strategy. Considerable trade benefits accrue to countries that eradicate the disease but as well as requiring regional cooperation, achieving and maintaining this status using current tools takes a great deal of time, money and effort. Therefore, a progressive approach is needed that can provide interim benefits along the pathway to final eradication. Research is needed to understand and predict the patterns of viral persistence and emergence and to improve vaccine selection. Better diagnostic methods and especially better vaccines could significantly improve control in both the free and the affected parts of the world. In particular, vaccines with improved thermostability and a longer duration of immunity would facilitate control and make it less reliant on advanced veterinary infrastructures. PMID:19687036

  11. Skin as a potential source of infectious foot and mouth disease aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    This review examines whether exfoliated, virus-infected animal skin cells could be an important source of infectious foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) aerosols. Infectious material rafting on skin cell aerosols is an established means of transmitting other diseases. The evidence for a similar mechanism for FMDV is: (i) FMDV is trophic for animal skin and FMDV epidermis titres are high, even in macroscopically normal skin; (ii) estimates for FMDV skin cell aerosol emissions appear consistent with measured aerosol emission rates and are orders of magnitude larger than the minimum infectious dose; (iii) the timing of infectious FMDV aerosol emissions is consistent with the timing of high FMDV skin concentrations; (iv) measured FMDV aerosol sizes are consistent with skin cell aerosols; and (v) FMDV stability in natural aerosols is consistent with that expected for skin cell aerosols. While these findings support the hypothesis, this review is insufficient, in and of itself, to prove the hypothesis and specific follow-on experiments are proposed. If this hypothesis is validated, (i) new FMDV detection, management and decontamination approaches could be developed and (ii) the relevance of skin cells to the spread of viral disease may need to be reassessed as skin cells may protect viruses against otherwise adverse environmental conditions. PMID:21450741

  12. Foot and mouth disease and livestock husbandry practices in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bronsvoort, B M deC; Tanya, V N; Kitching, R P; Nfon, C; Hamman, S M; Morgan, K L

    2003-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of even-toed ungulates and is endemic in most of the tropics. A cross-sectional study using a stratified, two-stage random sample design was undertaken in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon. The objectives were to measure the reported herd-level prevalence of FMD and a range of husbandry practices important for its transmission. The owner-reported prevalence for the previous 12 months was 57.9% (50.4-65.4%), although there was a significant variation across the Province. During the previous dry season, 46.5% (38.6-54.4%) of herds had gone on transhumance. Herds had high numbers of contacts with other herds while on transhumance (98.6%), at pasture (95.8%) and at night (74.4%), with medians of 7-10, 4-6 and 1-3 daily contacts, respectively. The high level of endemic FMD and potential for disease spread presents a significant challenge for control and eradication. Locally sustainable methods need to be developed upon which larger regional control programmes could be built in the future. PMID:14690088

  13. Modeling Estimated Personnel Needs for a Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, K; Hullinger, P

    2008-01-29

    Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed livestock that was last detected in the United States (US) in 1929. The prevalence of FMD in other countries, as well as the current potential for this virus to be used as a form of agroterrorism, has made preparations for a potential FMD outbreak a national priority. To assist in the evaluation of national preparedness, all 50 states were surveyed via e-mail, telephone and web search to obtain emergency response plans for FMD or for foreign animal diseases in general. Information from 33 states was obtained and analyzed for estimates of personnel resources needed to respond to an outbreak. These estimates were consolidated and enhanced to create a tool that could be used by individual states to better understand the personnel that would be needed to complete various tasks over time during an outbreak response. The estimates were then coupled, post-processing, to the output from FMD outbreaks simulated in California using the Multiscale Epidemiological/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) model at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to estimate the personnel resource demands, by task, over the course of an outbreak response.

  14. Serotype-independent detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Muller, Janine D; McEachern, Jennifer A; Bossart, Katharine N; Hansson, Eric; Yu, Meng; Clavijo, Alfonso; Hammond, Jef M; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2008-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious vesicular disease affecting cloven hoofed animals and is considered the most economically important disease worldwide. Recent FMD outbreaks in Europe and Taiwan and the associated need for rapid diagnostic turnaround have identified limitations that exist in current diagnostic capabilities. To aid improved diagnosis, a serotype-independent FMDV antigen capture assay was developed using antibodies directed against a highly conserved cross-reactive protein fragment (1AB') located within the structural protein 1AB. Cattle sera raised against all 7 serotypes of FMDV bound purified 1AB' demonstrating its immunogenicity in infected animals. Polyclonal anti-1AB' antiserum was produced in chickens and applied as a universal detector of FMDV antigen. Western blot analysis and ELISA both demonstrated that anti-1AB' serum could recognize FMDV antigens independent of serotype. Two recently characterized anti-FMDV monoclonal antibodies were also evaluated for their ability to capture FMDV antigen independently of serotype. When used in combination with chicken anti-1AB' antibodies in an antigen capture ELISA format, all serotypes of FMDV were detected. These data represent the first demonstration of the use of serotype-independent FMDV antigen capture reagents which may enable the development of rapid laboratory based assays or perhaps more significantly, rapid field-based pen-side or point of entry border control diagnostic tests. PMID:18440078

  15. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes.

    PubMed

    Cloete, M; Dungu, B; Van Staden, L I; Ismail-Cassim, N; Vosloo, W

    2008-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS) adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oil-based ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain. PMID:18575060

  16. Transmission of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and Its Potential Driving Factors in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H Y; Wu, Peng; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood disease with substantial disease burden in Asia. Mixed results were reported on the associations between HFMD incidence and meteorological factors or school holidays, while limited studies focused on their association on transmissibility. We aimed to measure the transmissibility of HFMD and to examine its potential driving factors in Hong Kong. A likelihood-based procedure was used to estimate time-dependent effective reproduction number (Rt) based on weekly number of HFMD-associated hospitalizations from 2010 to 2014. The associations of between-year effects, depletion of susceptibles, absolute humidity and school holidays with Rt were examined using linear regression. Rt usually started increasing between early spring and summer and peaked in April to May at around 1.1-1.2, followed by a slight rebound in autumn. Depletion of susceptibles and between-years effects explained most of the variances (19 and 13% respectively) in Rt. We found a negative association between depletion of susceptibles and Rt (coefficients ranged from -0.14 to -0.03 for different years), but the estimated effects of absolute humidity and school holidays were insignificant. Overall, HFMD transmission was moderate in Hong Kong and was mainly associated with depletion of susceptibles. Limited impact was suggested from meteorological factors and school holidays. PMID:27271966

  17. Implementation of an HACCP model in foot and mouth disease control programmes.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, C J; Durrieu, M; Schudel, A A

    2015-12-01

    The organisation and structure of the official Veterinary Services (OVS) are designed to meet a specific aim--the health certification of animal health, welfare and food safety in the production and processing stage. Disease prevention and control calls for programmes and projects that, depending on the characteristics of each disease, may involve any branch of the OVS, from the laboratory to field activities. For the purpose of this work, the model used is that of a country that is 'free from foot and mouth disease with vaccination' in accordance with the conditions stipulated in Chapter 8.8. of the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code. These conditions state that, to maintain this health status, a programme of monitoring and continuous control of the relevant variables must be implemented. This is achieved by applying good practice and identifying the critical control points in all processes, using a checklist that simplifies the task. The system that is developed can also serve as a guide for internal or external programme audits. PMID:27044166

  18. Control of foot and mouth disease: the experience of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Correa Melo, E; López, A

    2002-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) was first recognised in South America in 1870, almost simultaneously in the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina), in the central region of Chile, in Uruguay, in southern Brazil and coincidentally, on the northeastern coast of the United States of America. The epidemiology of the disease was unknown and no government action was taken following the initial outbreaks. This resulted in the disease spreading to other areas of Chile, as well as to Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay, reaching Venezuela and Colombia in the 1950s, and Ecuador in 1961. The entire continent was affected in the 1960s when national FMD control programmes were initiated, with the exception of Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana and Patagonia. In the 1970s, steps were taken to implement a regional control and eradication strategy in view of the impact of production and trade on the persistence of the virus. The Plan Hemisférico de Erradicación de la Fiebre Aftosa (PHEFA: Hemispheric FMD Eradication Plan), public- and private-sector policies, new diagnostic tools, the oil-adjuvanted FMD vaccine and regional strategies played a part in improving the epidemiological situation during the 1990s. A setback was encountered in 2000 and 2001, with outbreaks due to virus types A and 0 recorded in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. PMID:12523707

  19. Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in Peninsular Malaysia from 2001 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Ramanoon, Siti Zubaidah; Robertson, Ian Duncan; Edwards, John; Hassan, Latiffah; Isa, Kamaruddin Md

    2013-02-01

    This is a retrospective study of the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Peninsular Malaysia between 2001 and May 2007. In total, 270 outbreaks of FMD were recorded. Serotype O virus (89.95 %) and serotype A (7.7 %) had caused the outbreaks. Significant differences on the occurrence of FMD were found between the years (t = 5.73, P = 0.000, df = 11), months (t = 4.7, P = 0.000, df = 11), monsoon season (t = 2.63, P = 0.025, df = 10) and states (t = 4.84, P = 0.001, df = 10). A peak of outbreaks observed in 2003 could be due to increased animal movement and the other peak in 2006 could be due to a compromised FMD control activities due to activities on the eradication of highly pathogenic avian influenza. Cattle (86 % of outbreaks) suffered the most. However, no difference in disease occurrence between species was observed. The populations of cattle (r = 0.672, P = 0.023) and sheep (r = 0.678, P = 0.022) were significantly correlated with occurrence of FMD. Movement of animals (66 % of outbreaks) was the main source for outbreaks. A combination of control measures were implemented during outbreaks. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that FMD is endemic in Peninsular Malaysia, and information gained could be used to improve the existing control strategy. PMID:22826115

  20. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in China: Critical Community Size and Spatial Vaccination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Takahashi, Saki; Liao, Qiaohong; Xing, Weijia; Lai, Shengjie; Hsiao, Victor; Liu, Fengfeng; Zheng, Yaming; Chang, Zhaorui; Yuan, Chen; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Yu, Hongjie; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) constitutes a considerable burden for health care systems across China. Yet this burden displays important geographic heterogeneity that directly affects the local persistence and the dynamics of the disease, and thus the ability to control it through vaccination campaigns. Here, we use detailed geographic surveillance data and epidemic models to estimate the critical community size (CCS) of HFMD associated enterovirus serotypes CV-A16 and EV-A71 and we explore what spatial vaccination strategies may best reduce the burden of HFMD. We found CCS ranging from 336,979 (±225,866) to 722,372 (±150,562) with the lowest estimates associated with EV-A71 in the southern region of China where multiple transmission seasons have previously been identified. Our results suggest the existence of a regional immigration-recolonization dynamic driven by urban centers. If EV-A71 vaccines doses are limited, these would be optimally deployed in highly populated urban centers and in high-prevalence areas. If HFMD vaccines are included in China’s National Immunization Program in order to achieve high coverage rates (>85%), routine vaccination of newborns largely outperforms strategies in which the equivalent number of doses is equally divided between routine vaccination of newborns and pulse vaccination of the community at large. PMID:27125917

  1. The Effects of Weather Factors on Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Weihua; Li, Xian'En; Yang, Peng; Liao, Hua; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) are increasing in Beijing, China. Previous studies have indicated an association between incidents of HFMD and weather factors. However, the seasonal influence of these factors on the disease is not yet understood, and their relationship with the enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16) viruses are not well documented. We analysed 84,502 HFMD cases from 2008 to 2011 in Beijing to explore the seasonal influence of weather factors (average temperature [AT], average relative humidity [ARH], total precipitation [TP] and average wind speed [AWS]) on incidents of HFMD by using a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The results indicated that weather factors differ significantly in their influence on HFMD depending on the season. AT had the greatest effect among the four weather factors, and while the influence of AT and AWS was greater in the summer than in the winter, the influence of TP was positive in the summer and negative in the winter. ARH was negatively correlated with HFMD. Also, we observed more EV71-associated cases than CV-A16 but there is no convincing evidence to show significant differences between the influences of the weather factors on EV71 and CV-A16.

  2. Application of mouse model for effective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seo-Yong; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Choi, Joo-Hyung; You, Su-Hwa; Pyo, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Kim, Byounghan; Lee, Jong-Soo; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2016-07-19

    Efficacy evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines has been conducted in target animals such as cows and pigs. In particular, handling FMD virus requires a high level of biosafety management and facilities to contain the virulent viruses. The lack of a laboratory animal model has resulted in inconvenience when it comes to using target animals for vaccine evaluation, bringing about increased cost, time and labor for the experiments. The FMD mouse model has been studied, but most FMD virus (FMDV) strains are not known to cause disease in adult mice. In the present study, we created a series of challenge viruses that are lethal to adult C57BL/6 mice. FMDV types O, A, and Asia1, which are related to frequent FMD outbreaks, were adapted for mice and the pathogenesis of each virus was evaluated in the mouse model. Challenge experiments after vaccination using in-house and commercial vaccines demonstrated vaccine-mediated protection in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we propose that FMD vaccine evaluation should be carried out using mouse-adapted challenge viruses as a swift, effective efficacy test of experimental or commercial vaccines. PMID:27340094

  3. Seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease virus infection in pigs from Zuru, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fakai, L. U.; Faleke, O. O.; Magaji, A. A.; Ibitoye, E. B.; Alkali, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and distribution of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in pigs from Zuru, Kebbi State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional serological surveys were conducted between May and December 2013 using the immunochromatography assay technique. Structured questionnaires were administered to households identified at pig rearing areas to obtain the population structures and some information on managemental practices. Results: A total number of 849 pigs were enumerated at 37 pigs rearing households. Tudun wada had the largest concentration of pigs (237 pigs), while Dabai has the least (38 pigs). A total of 250 blood samples were collected, of which 45 (18%) were positive; Zango has the highest seroprevalence (1.6%), while Dabai recorded the least (0.4%). Based on sex and age, the infection was higher in female (10.4%) and young pigs (11.6%) than male (7.6%) and adult pigs (6.4%), respectively. There was no significant (p>0.05) association between infection and pig rearing areas, sex, and age. Furthermore, none of the 250 pigs examined for classical FMDV lesions was positive. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that FMD is an important disease of pigs in the study areas. This result justifies the need for more attention and subsequent molecular study to identify the circulating FMDV in the area, which will help in the implementation of effective control measures. PMID:27047166

  4. The Effects of Weather Factors on Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Weihua; Li, Xian’en; Yang, Peng; Liao, Hua; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) are increasing in Beijing, China. Previous studies have indicated an association between incidents of HFMD and weather factors. However, the seasonal influence of these factors on the disease is not yet understood, and their relationship with the enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16) viruses are not well documented. We analysed 84,502 HFMD cases from 2008 to 2011 in Beijing to explore the seasonal influence of weather factors (average temperature [AT], average relative humidity [ARH], total precipitation [TP] and average wind speed [AWS]) on incidents of HFMD by using a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The results indicated that weather factors differ significantly in their influence on HFMD depending on the season. AT had the greatest effect among the four weather factors, and while the influence of AT and AWS was greater in the summer than in the winter, the influence of TP was positive in the summer and negative in the winter. ARH was negatively correlated with HFMD. Also, we observed more EV71-associated cases than CV-A16 but there is no convincing evidence to show significant differences between the influences of the weather factors on EV71 and CV-A16. PMID:26755102

  5. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in China: Critical Community Size and Spatial Vaccination Strategies.

    PubMed

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Takahashi, Saki; Liao, Qiaohong; Xing, Weijia; Lai, Shengjie; Hsiao, Victor; Liu, Fengfeng; Zheng, Yaming; Chang, Zhaorui; Yuan, Chen; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Yu, Hongjie; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2016-01-01

    Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) constitutes a considerable burden for health care systems across China. Yet this burden displays important geographic heterogeneity that directly affects the local persistence and the dynamics of the disease, and thus the ability to control it through vaccination campaigns. Here, we use detailed geographic surveillance data and epidemic models to estimate the critical community size (CCS) of HFMD associated enterovirus serotypes CV-A16 and EV-A71 and we explore what spatial vaccination strategies may best reduce the burden of HFMD. We found CCS ranging from 336,979 (±225,866) to 722,372 (±150,562) with the lowest estimates associated with EV-A71 in the southern region of China where multiple transmission seasons have previously been identified. Our results suggest the existence of a regional immigration-recolonization dynamic driven by urban centers. If EV-A71 vaccines doses are limited, these would be optimally deployed in highly populated urban centers and in high-prevalence areas. If HFMD vaccines are included in China's National Immunization Program in order to achieve high coverage rates (>85%), routine vaccination of newborns largely outperforms strategies in which the equivalent number of doses is equally divided between routine vaccination of newborns and pulse vaccination of the community at large. PMID:27125917

  6. Simulation of foot-and-mouth disease spread within an integrated livestock system in Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Highfield, Linda D; Vongseng, Pailin; Graeme Garner, M

    2009-04-01

    We used a simulation study to assess the impact of an incursion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus on the livestock industries in an 8-county area of the Panhandle region of Texas, USA. The study was conducted in a high-density livestock area, with an estimated number of cattle on-feed of approximately 1.8 million. We modified an existing stochastic, spatial simulation model to simulate 64 scenarios for planning and decision-making. Our scenarios simulated four different herd types for the index herd (company feedlot, backgrounder feedlot, large beef, backyard) and variations in three mitigation strategies (time-of-detection, vaccine availability, and surveillance during disease control). Under our assumptions about availability of resources to manage an outbreak, median epidemic lengths in the scenarios with commercial feedlot, backgrounder feedlot, large beef and backyard index herd types ranged from 28 to 52, 19 to 39, 18 to 32, and 18 to 36 days, respectively, and the average number of herds depopulated ranged from 4 to 101, 2 to 29, 1 to 15 and 1 to 18, respectively. Early detection of FMD in the index herd had the largest impact on reducing ( approximately 13-21 days) the length of epidemics and the number of herds ( approximately 5-34) depopulated. Although most predicted epidemics lasted only approximately 1-2 months, and <100 herds needed to be depopulated, large outbreaks lasting approximately 8-9 months with up to 230 herds depopulated might occur. PMID:19178967

  7. The effect of meteorological factors on adolescent hand, foot, and mouth disease and associated effect modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haixia; Wang, Hongchun; Wang, Qingzhou; Xin, Qinghua; Lin, Hualiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral illness that commonly affects infants and children. This infection is an emerging infectious disease in Rizhao in recent years. The present study examined the short-term effects of meteorological factors on adolescent HFMD in Rizhao. Design A generalized additive Poisson model was applied to estimate the effects of meteorological factors on adolescent HFMD occurrence in 2010–2012. Subgroup analyses were also conducted to examine the potential effect modifiers of the association in terms of age, sex, and occupation. Results A positive effect of temperature was observed (ER [excess risk]=1.93%, 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.82% for 1°C increase on lag 5 day). A negative effect of relative humidity at lag 1 day and positive effects were found on lag 5–7 days, and an adverse effect was observed for sunshine at lag days 3–4 (ER=−0.71%, 95% CI: −1.25 to −0.17% on lag day 4). We also found that age, sex, and occupation might be important effect modifiers of the effects of weather variables on HFMD. Conclusions This study suggests that meteorological factors might be an important predictor of adolescent HFMD occurrence in Rizhao. Age, sex, and occupation might be important effect modifiers of the effects. PMID:25098727

  8. Emergence of foot-and-mouth disease virus SAT 2 in Egypt during 2012.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, H A; Salem, S A H; Habashi, A R; Arafa, A A; Aggour, M G A; Salem, G H; Gaber, A S; Selem, O; Abdelkader, S H; Knowles, N J; Madi, M; Valdazo-González, B; Wadsworth, J; Hutchings, G H; Mioulet, V; Hammond, J M; King, D P

    2012-12-01

    The epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in North Africa is complicated by the co-circulation of endemic FMD viruses (FMDV), as well as sporadic incursions of exotic viral strains from the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa. This report describes the molecular characterization of SAT 2 FMD viruses that have caused widespread field outbreaks of FMD in Egypt during February and March 2012. Phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses from these outbreaks fell into two distinct lineages within the SAT 2 topotype VII, which were distinct from a contemporary SAT 2 lineage of the same toptype from Libya. These were the first FMD outbreaks due to this serotype in Egypt since 1950 and required the development of a tailored real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay that can be used in the laboratory to distinguish FMD viruses of these lineages from other endemic FMD viruses that might be present in North Africa. These data highlight the ease by which FMDV can cross international boundaries and emphasize the importance of deploying systems to continuously monitor the global epidemiology of this disease. PMID:23025522

  9. Emergency vaccination use in a modelled foot and mouth disease outbreak in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Miller, G; Gale, S B; Eshelman, C E; Wells, S J

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological modelling is an important approach used by the Veterinary Services of the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to evaluate the potential effectiveness of different strategies for handling foot and mouth disease (FMD). Identifying the potential spread of FMD by modelling an outbreak, and then considering the impacts of FMD vaccination, is important in helping to inform decision-makers about the potential outcomes of vaccination programmes. The objective of this study was to evaluate emergency vaccination control strategies used in a simulated FMD outbreak in Minnesota. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM, Version 3.2.18) was used to simulate the outbreak. Large-scale (1,500 herds per day) emergency vaccination reduced the size of the modelled outbreak in both swine and dairy production types, but the effect was larger when the outbreak began in a dairy herd. Large-scale vaccination also overcame limitations caused by delays in vaccine delivery. Thus, even if vaccination did not begin until 21 days into the outbreak, large-scale vaccination still reduced the size and duration of the outbreak. The quantity of vaccine used was markedly larger when large-scale vaccination was used, compared with small-scale (50 herds per day) vaccine administration. In addition, the number of animals and herds vaccinated in an outbreak originating in a herd of swine was substantially lower than in an outbreak beginning in a herd of dairy cattle. PMID:27044148

  10. Serological Survey of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sikombe, T. K. W.; Mweene, A. S.; Muma, John; Kasanga, C.; Sinkala, Y.; Banda, F.; Mulumba, M.; Fana, E. M.; Mundia, C.; Simuunza, M.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) circulating in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) from selected areas in Zambia. Sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against FMDV while probang samples were used to isolate the FMDV by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). Samples with CPE were further analysed using antigen ELISA. High FMD seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes were detected in four study areas represented as follows: SAT2 was 72.7 percent; SAT1 was 62.6 percent; and SAT3 was 26.2 percent. Mixed infections accounted for 68.6 percent of those that were tested positive. For probang samples, CPE were observed in three of the samples, while the antigen ELISA results showed positivity and for SAT1 (n = 1) and SAT2 (n = 2). It is concluded that FMDV is highly prevalent in Zambian buffaloes which could play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Therefore livestock reared at interface with the game parks should be included in all routine FMDV vaccination programmes. PMID:26347208

  11. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    PubMed

    Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated. PMID:26732723

  12. Socioeconomic burden of hand, foot and mouth disease in children in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z L; Xia, A M; Li, Y F; Su, H L; Zhan, L W; Chen, Y P; Xi, Y; Zhao, L F; Liu, L J; Xu, Z Y; Zeng, M

    2016-01-01

    In the near future, the inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine is expected to become available on the market in China. Since EV71 is a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), the vaccine is expected to significantly reduce the number of cases, as well as the detrimental economic effect of the disease. However, for a national vaccination strategy to be developed, policy-makers need more information on the socioeconomic burden of EV71 HFMD infection. Based on the 2011 population data, we estimated the clinical and economic effect of EV71 HFMD infection in children aged 0-9 years in Shanghai, China. The annual cost related to HFMD is >US$7.66 million for a population of 1·42 million children aged 0-9 years with an average cost of US$208.2/case. The extrapolated cost for EV71 HFMD infection was US$3.53 million, comprising 46·1% of the overall cost associated with HFMD. Around 97% of all of the HFMD-related expenses were paid for by the families creating a considerable economic burden. Our findings could provide the necessary recommendations on the most effective national EV71 vaccine implementation, as well as a baseline data for assessing the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine in China. PMID:26159305

  13. The Effects of Weather Factors on Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weihua; Li, Xian'en; Yang, Peng; Liao, Hua; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) are increasing in Beijing, China. Previous studies have indicated an association between incidents of HFMD and weather factors. However, the seasonal influence of these factors on the disease is not yet understood, and their relationship with the enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16) viruses are not well documented. We analysed 84,502 HFMD cases from 2008 to 2011 in Beijing to explore the seasonal influence of weather factors (average temperature [AT], average relative humidity [ARH], total precipitation [TP] and average wind speed [AWS]) on incidents of HFMD by using a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The results indicated that weather factors differ significantly in their influence on HFMD depending on the season. AT had the greatest effect among the four weather factors, and while the influence of AT and AWS was greater in the summer than in the winter, the influence of TP was positive in the summer and negative in the winter. ARH was negatively correlated with HFMD. Also, we observed more EV71-associated cases than CV-A16 but there is no convincing evidence to show significant differences between the influences of the weather factors on EV71 and CV-A16. PMID:26755102

  14. Emergence and Distribution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A and O in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S P; Rahman, M Z; Momtaz, S; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Bangladesh and is predominantly due to FMDV serotype O. In 2012, FMD outbreaks were identified in five different districts of Bangladesh. Of 56 symptomatic cattle epithelial tissue samples, diagnostic PCR assay based on 5'-URT detected 38 FMDV infections. Viral genotyping targeting VP1-encoding region confirmed emergence of two distinct serotypes, A and O with an abundance of serotype A in Chittagong and Gazipur districts and serotype O in Pabna and Faridpur. Only single lineage of both A and O was retrieved from samples of five different regions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences revealed that serotype O sequences were closely related to the Ind 2001 sublineage of Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype that was previously circulating in Bangladesh, and serotype A sequences belonging to the genotype VII that was dominant in India during the last decade. The results suggest that extensive cross-border animal movement from neighbouring countries is the most likely source of FMDV serotypes in Bangladesh. PMID:23734722

  15. Massive pulmonary hemorrhage in enterovirus 71-infected hand, foot, and mouth disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Seong; Lee, Young Il; Ahn, Jeong Bae; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Nam Hee; Hwang, Jong Hee; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Chong Guk

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute, mostly self-limiting infection. Patients usually recover without any sequelae. However, a few cases are life threatening, especially those caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). A 12-month-old boy was admitted to a primary hospital with high fever and vesicular lesions of the mouth, hands, and feet. After 3 days, he experienced 3 seizure episodes and was referred to our hospital. On admission, he was conscious and his chest radiograph was normal. However, 6 hours later, he suddenly lost consciousness and had developed a massive pulmonary hemorrhage that continued until his death. He experienced several more intermittent seizures, and diffuse infiltration of both lung fields was observed on chest radiography. Intravenous immunoglobulin, dexamethasone, cefotaxime, leukocyte-depleted red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, inotropics, vitamin K, and endotracheal epinephrine were administered. The patient died 9 hours after intubation, within 3 days from fever onset. EV71 subgenotype C4a was isolated retrospectively from serum and nasopharyngeal swab by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Here, we report a fatal case of EV71-associated HFMD with sudden-onset massive pulmonary hemorrhage and suspected encephalitis. PMID:25861335

  16. Productive Entry of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus via Macropinocytosis Independent of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shi-Chong; Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi; Jin, Ye; Wei, Yan-Quan; Feng, Xia; Yao, Xue-Ping; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Xiang Liu, Ding; Liu, Xiang-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay, siRNA interference, specific pharmacological inhibitors, and dominant negative mutation, we demonstrated that the entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) triggered a substantial amount of plasma membrane ruffling. We also found that the internalization of FMDV induced a robust increase in fluid-phase uptake, and virions internalized within macropinosomes colocalized with phase uptake marker dextran. During this stage, the Rac1-Pak1 signaling pathway was activated. After specific inhibition on actin, Na+/H+ exchanger, receptor tyrosine kinase, Rac1, Pak1, myosin II, and protein kinase C, the entry and infection of FMDV significantly decreased. However, inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) did not reduce FMDV internalization but increased the viral entry and infection to a certain extent, implying that FMDV entry did not require PI3K activity. Results showed that internalization of FMDV exhibited the main hallmarks of macropinocytosis. Moreover, intracellular trafficking of FMDV involves EEA1/Rab5-positive vesicles. The present study demonstrated macropinocytosis as another endocytic pathway apart from the clathrin-mediated pathway. The findings greatly expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of FMDV entry into cells, as well as provide potential insights into the entry mechanisms of other picornaviruses. PMID:26757826

  17. An infectious recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus expressing a fluorescent marker protein

    PubMed Central

    Juleff, Nicholas; Moffat, Katy; Berryman, Stephen; Christie, John M.; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most extensively studied animal pathogens because it remains a major threat to livestock economies worldwide. However, the dynamics of FMDV infection are still poorly understood. The application of reverse genetics provides the opportunity to generate molecular tools to further dissect the FMDV life cycle. Here, we have used reverse genetics to determine the capsid packaging limitations for a selected insertion site in the FMDV genome. We show that exogenous RNA up to a defined length can be stably introduced into the FMDV genome, whereas larger insertions are excised by recombination events. This led us to construct a recombinant FMDV expressing the fluorescent marker protein, termed iLOV. Characterization of infectious iLOV-FMDV showed the virus has a plaque morphology and rate of growth similar to the parental virus. In addition, we show that cells infected with iLOV-FMDV are easily differentiated by flow cytometry using the inherent fluorescence of iLOV and that cells infected with iLOV-FMDV can be monitored in real-time with fluorescence microscopy. iLOV-FMDV therefore offers a unique tool to characterize FMDV infection in vitro, and its applications for in vivo studies are discussed. PMID:23559477

  18. Spatio-temporal epidemiology of hand, foot and mouth disease in Liaocheng City, North China

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, SHIYING; ZHAO, JINXING

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has posed a notable threat to public health and become a public health priority in China. This study was based on the reported cases of HFMD between 2007 and 2011. A total of 34,176 HFMD cases were geo-coded at town level (n=134). Firstly, a descriptive analysis was conducted to evaluate the epidemic characteristics of HFMD. Then, the Kulldorff scan statistic based on a discrete Poisson model was used to detect spatial-temporal clusters. Spatial distribution of HFMD in Liaocheng City, China from 2007 to 2011 was mapped at town level in the aspects of crude incidence, excess hazard and spatial smoothed incidence. The spatial distribution of HFMD was non-random and clustered with a significant Moran’s I value every year. The local Moran’s I Z-score detected three significant spatial clusters for high incidence of HFMD. The space-time analysis identified one most likely cluster and twenty-five secondary clusters for high incidence of HFMD. We demonstrate evidence of the existence of statistically significant HFMD clusters in Liaocheng City. Our results provide better guidance for formulating regional prevention and control strategies. PMID:25667633

  19. Inactivation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Citric Acid and Sodium Carbonate with Deicers

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jang-Kwan; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    Three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) since 2010 in the Republic of Korea have occurred in the winter. At the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. In this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, ethyl alcohol, and commercial windshield washer fluid) to keep disinfectants (0.2% citric acid and 4% sodium carbonate) from freezing, and we tested their virucidal efficacies under simulated cold temperatures in a tube. The 0.2% citric acid could reduce the virus titer 4 logs at −20°C with all the deicers. On the other hand, 4% sodium carbonate showed little virucidal activity at −20°C within 30 min, although it resisted being frozen with the function of the deicers. In conclusion, for the winter season, we may recommend the use of citric acid (>0.2%) diluted in 30% ethyl alcohol or 25% sodium chloride solvent, depending on its purpose. PMID:26319879

  20. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in an infant with hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Hou, Shu; Du, Peng-Fei; Li, Jia-Bin; Ye, Ying

    2012-05-01

    An 11-month-old male infant was admitted to our hospital with fever, fussiness, poor feeding, vomiting, and tachypnea for two days prior. Physical examination revealed sporadic papules and vesicles occurring on his hands, feet, face, and perianal mucosa. Enterovirus 71 was identified from both throat swab and vesicle fluid using virus isolation techniques. The patient's heart rate fluctuated in a very narrow range from 180~210/beats/min regardless of his physiologic state. An electrocardiogram showed P-waves buried within or occurring just after regular, narrow, QRS complexes. The patient was diagnosed as having hand, foot, and mouth disease in combination with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). The child recovered well with symptomatic treatment, including intravenous administration of acyclovir, glucocorticoids, immunoglobulin, adenosine, and sotalol. PSVT was terminated within 36 hours of hospitalization. The skin lesions became crusted on the third day, and then proceeded to heal spontaneously. Here we report on this unusual case and review the associated literature. PMID:22577272

  1. Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dingmei; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Wangjian; Guo, Pi; Ma, Zhanzhong; Chen, Qian; Du, Shaokun; Peng, Jing; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong Province were enlisted as participants. Data comprising demographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavior factors were collected from children’s parents through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases. Results of further multivariate analysis indicated that older age (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34–0.56) and hand-washing before meals (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.13–0.70) are protective factors, whereas airing out bedding more than thrice a month (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.19–17.37) was associated with increased risk for HFMD. Therefore, hand-washing should be recommended to prevent HFMD, and the potential threat of airing out bedding should be carefully considered. However, further studies are needed to examine other possible risk factors. PMID:27322307

  2. Some guidelines for determining foot-and-mouth disease vaccine strain matching by serology.

    PubMed

    Mattion, Nora; Goris, Nesya; Willems, Tom; Robiolo, Blanca; Maradei, Eduardo; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Perez, Alejandro; Smitsaart, Eliana; Fondevila, Norberto; Palma, Eduardo; De Clercq, Kris; La Torre, José

    2009-01-29

    The selection of matching strains for use in outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus can be assessed in vivo or by serological r-value determination. Sera from animals involved in vaccine potency and cross-protection trials performed using the "Protection against Podal Generalization" (PPG) test for two serotype A strains were collected and analyzed by the virus neutralization test (VNT) and liquid-phase ELISA (lpELISA) in three laboratories. The average VNT r-values for medium and high serum titer classes from the A(24) Cruzeiro vaccinated animals were in line with the A/Arg/01 heterologous PPG outcome for all testing laboratories, suggesting that the vaccine strain A(24) Cruzeiro is unlikely to protect against the field isolate A/Arg/01. The corresponding lpELISA r-values were slightly higher and indicate a closer relationship between both strains. Pooling of serum samples significantly reduced the inter-animal and inter-trial variation. The results suggest that a suitable reference serum for vaccine matching r-value experiments might be a pool or a medium to high VNT or lpELISA titer serum. Furthermore, the VNT seems to produce the most reproducible inter-laboratory results. More work is, however, needed in order to substantiate these claims. PMID:19041355

  3. An epidemic analysis of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Zunyi, China between 2012 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiwei; Huang, Bo; She, Chaokun; Liu, Yan; Tong, Huabo; Wang, Fengxue; Wu, Kaifeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To re-evaluate the epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in a non-vaccinated population in Zunyi, China. Methods: We used laboratory-based data from the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi, China to assess the epidemiology of the HFMD caused by enteroviruses between January 2012 and November 2014. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine human enteroviruses from a total of 12313 probable cases enrolled in this retrospective study. All analyses were stratified by enterovirus serotype, gender, and age. Results: Virological results were available for 12313 cases of probable HFMD. A total of 5750 cases were positive for viral detection, and the positive rates of infection caused by other enteroviruses was 46.7%, EV71 9%, and CVA16 4.7%. During the study period there was a substantial increase in the occurrence of HFMD. Most of the HFMD patients (87.4%) were aged 0-59 months (median 24; range 0-59). Males showed a higher HFMD prevalence rate (62.4%) than females (37.6%). Conclusion: Enterovirus infection remains an important public health problem and other entroviruses are emerging as the major causative agent of the HFMD in Zunyi, China. PMID:25935181

  4. Epidemiological and Etiological Characteristics of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Henan, China, 2008–2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xueyong; Wei, Haiyan; Wu, Shuyu; Du, Yanhua; Liu, Licheng; Su, Jia; Xu, Yuling; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Xingle; Wang, Yanxia; Liu, Guohua; Chen, Weijun; Klena, John David; Xu, Bianli

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. HFMD outbreaks and reported cases have sharply increased in China since 2008. Epidemiological and clinical data of HFMD cases reported in Henan Province were collected from 2008 to 2013. Clinical specimens were obtained from a subset of these cases. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the time, region and population distribution. The VP1 gene from EV71 and CA16 isolates was amplified, and the sequences were analyzed. 400,264 cases of HFMD were reported in this study, including 22,309 severe and 141 fatal cases. Incidence peaked between April and May. Laboratory confirmation was obtained for 27,692 (6.9%) cases; EV71, CA16, and other enteroviruses accounted for 59.5%, 14.1%, 26.4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EV71 belonged to the C4a evolution branch of C4 sub-genotype and CA16 belonged to subtype B1a or B1b. The occurrence of HFMD in Henan was closely related to season, age and region distribution. Children under five were the most affected population. The major pathogens causing HFMD and their genotypes have not notably changed in Henan. The data strongly support the importance of EV71 vaccination in a high population density area such as Henan, China. PMID:25754970

  5. Brazilian foot and mouth disease status and meat exportation to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Ramos; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Seixas, Luiza; McManus, Concepta

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to define the differences between the Brazilian states that export and do not export meat to the European Union (EU) and to identify the variables that are important to meet the export requirements. Infrastructure and computerization of the control of animal transit in Brazil that impact on regional health status were evaluated and linked to other variables such as status for foot and mouth disease (FMD) and qualification to export meat to EU. Variables related to transit control of bovines implemented by the state agencies of animal health and inspection in each Brazilian state were evaluated. Using a discriminant analysis, four variables were selected that explained the variation between Brazilian states that were "free" and "not free" of FMD while another four were selected to explain the variation between the zones "approved" and "not approved" to export meat to the EU, including number of official veterinarians, total transit of bovines and buffaloes, total number of animal transit certificates issued for bovine and buffaloes at the state or zone level, and total number of municipalities in the state or zone. It was possible to correctly discriminate between "free" and "not free" FMD states or zones. Variables related to animal transit are important in assessing the state for the classification of animal health situation and for EU approval for the exportation of meat. PMID:24338447

  6. Development of high-affinity single chain Fv against foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joon-Goo; Jeong, Gu Min; Yim, Sung Sun; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2016-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is caused by the FMD virus (FMDV) and results in severe economic losses in livestock farming. For rapid FMD diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, an effective antibody against FMDV is needed. Here, we developed a high-affinity antibody against FMDV by FACS-based high throughput screening of a random library. With the FITC-conjugated VP1 epitope of FMDV and high-speed FACS sorting, we screened the synthetic antibody (scFv) library in which antibody variants are displayed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. After three rounds of sorting, we isolated one antibody fragment (#138-scFv) against the VP1 epitope of FMDV. Next, to improve its affinity, a mutation library of #138-scFV was constructed by error-prone PCR and screened by FACS. After three rounds of sorting, we isolated one antibody (AM-32 scFv), which has a higher binding affinity (KD=42.7nM) than that of the original #138-scFv. We also confirmed that it specifically binds to whole inactivated FMDV. PMID:26827774

  7. Productive Entry of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus via Macropinocytosis Independent of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase.

    PubMed

    Han, Shi-Chong; Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi; Jin, Ye; Wei, Yan-Quan; Feng, Xia; Yao, Xue-Ping; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Xiang Liu, Ding; Liu, Xiang-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay, siRNA interference, specific pharmacological inhibitors, and dominant negative mutation, we demonstrated that the entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) triggered a substantial amount of plasma membrane ruffling. We also found that the internalization of FMDV induced a robust increase in fluid-phase uptake, and virions internalized within macropinosomes colocalized with phase uptake marker dextran. During this stage, the Rac1-Pak1 signaling pathway was activated. After specific inhibition on actin, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, receptor tyrosine kinase, Rac1, Pak1, myosin II, and protein kinase C, the entry and infection of FMDV significantly decreased. However, inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) did not reduce FMDV internalization but increased the viral entry and infection to a certain extent, implying that FMDV entry did not require PI3K activity. Results showed that internalization of FMDV exhibited the main hallmarks of macropinocytosis. Moreover, intracellular trafficking of FMDV involves EEA1/Rab5-positive vesicles. The present study demonstrated macropinocytosis as another endocytic pathway apart from the clathrin-mediated pathway. The findings greatly expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of FMDV entry into cells, as well as provide potential insights into the entry mechanisms of other picornaviruses. PMID:26757826

  8. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks. PMID:26691487

  9. Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Henan, China, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xueyong; Wei, Haiyan; Wu, Shuyu; Du, Yanhua; Liu, Licheng; Su, Jia; Xu, Yuling; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Xingle; Wang, Yanxia; Liu, Guohua; Chen, Weijun; Klena, John David; Xu, Bianli

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. HFMD outbreaks and reported cases have sharply increased in China since 2008. Epidemiological and clinical data of HFMD cases reported in Henan Province were collected from 2008 to 2013. Clinical specimens were obtained from a subset of these cases. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the time, region and population distribution. The VP1 gene from EV71 and CA16 isolates was amplified, and the sequences were analyzed. 400,264 cases of HFMD were reported in this study, including 22,309 severe and 141 fatal cases. Incidence peaked between April and May. Laboratory confirmation was obtained for 27,692 (6.9%) cases; EV71, CA16, and other enteroviruses accounted for 59.5%, 14.1%, 26.4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EV71 belonged to the C4a evolution branch of C4 sub-genotype and CA16 belonged to subtype B1a or B1b. The occurrence of HFMD in Henan was closely related to season, age and region distribution. Children under five were the most affected population. The major pathogens causing HFMD and their genotypes have not notably changed in Henan. The data strongly support the importance of EV71 vaccination in a high population density area such as Henan, China. PMID:25754970

  10. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of human enterovirus 71 and hand, foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Zhifang, Liu; Juanjuan, Gui; Qihang, Hua; Changzheng, Dong

    2015-05-01

    Human enterovirus 71(EV71), one of the major pathogens of the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), causes skin rashes in palms, feet and mouth ulcers and complication in the central nervous system such as aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis that may lead to death. EV71 infection has been reported to be associated with many outbreaks of HFMD worldwide, especially the great outbreaks that occurred in the Asia-Pacific region and caused numerous death since 1997. The studies of molecular epidemiology and evolution of EV71 are important for the prevention and control of HFMD since no vaccines and antiviral drugs have been developed except symptomatic treatment for HFMD. In this review, we summarize genotype classification, temporal and spatial distribution, evolutionary characteristics and modes of EV71 as well as typical EV71 epidemics. Further studies on EV71 and HFMD may lead to better understanding of pathological mechanisms of EV71, development of antiviral drugs and prevention and control of HFMD. PMID:25998430

  11. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks. PMID:26691487

  12. Degradation of foot-and-mouth disease virus during composting of infected pig carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Guan, J.; Chan, M.; Grenier, C.; Brooks, B.W.; Spencer, J.L.; Kranendonk, C.; Copps, J.; Clavijo, A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation and degradation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus during composting of infected pig carcasses as measured by virus isolation in tissue culture and by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Three FMD-infected pig carcasses were composted in a mixture of chicken manure and wood shavings in a biocontainment level 3 facility. Compost temperatures had reached 50°C and 70°C by days 10 and 19, respectively. Under these conditions, FMD virus was inactivated in specimens in compost by day 10 and the viral RNA was degraded in skin and internal organ tissues by day 21. In comparison, at ambient temperatures close to 20°C, FMD virus survived to day 10 in the skin tissue specimen from the pig that had the highest initial level of viral RNA in its tissues and the viral RNA persisted to day 21. Similarly, beta-actin mRNA, tested as a PCR control, persisted to day 21 in specimens held at ambient temperatures, but it was degraded in the remnants of tissues recovered from compost on day 21. Results from this study provide evidence that composting could be used for safe disposal of pig carcasses infected with FMD virus. PMID:20357957

  13. Severe hand, foot and mouth disease in Shenzhen, South China: what matters most?

    PubMed

    Mou, J; Dawes, M; Li, Y; He, Y; Ma, H; Xie, X; Griffiths, S; Cheng, J

    2014-04-01

    Case report data and a matched case-control study were used to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children in Shenzhen, China between 2008 and 2011. Multivariate analyses were used to evaluate factors associated with severity of infection. Laboratory tests were performed to determine aetiological identification for samples from 163 severe and fatal cases as well as an outpatient-based HFMD sentinel surveillance system (n = 446). All identified EV71 belonged to sub-genotype C4a. No major changes in the CA16 and EV71 viruses were found until the end of 2011. Annual attack rates and the case-severity ratios (CSRs) rose from 0.82/1000 and 0.56/1000, respectively, in 2008 to 2.12/1000 and 6.13/1000 in 2011. The CSR was higher in migrants than in local residents. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of having a severe attack for being a migrant was 2.45, having a fever >39°C (OR 5.77), visiting a private clinic (OR 2.65), longer time from symptom onset to diagnosis (OR 1.49), visiting a doctor (OR 1.51), early use of intramuscular pyrazolone (OR 3.36), early use of intravenous glucocorticoids (OR 2.28), or the combination of both (OR 3.75). The mortality and increasing case severity appears to be associated with socioeconomic factors including migration and is of worldwide concern. PMID:23809877

  14. Massive pulmonary hemorrhage in enterovirus 71-infected hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Seong; Lee, Young Il; Ahn, Jeong Bae; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Nam Hee; Hwang, Jong Hee; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Chong Guk; Song, Tae Won

    2015-03-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute, mostly self-limiting infection. Patients usually recover without any sequelae. However, a few cases are life threatening, especially those caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). A 12-month-old boy was admitted to a primary hospital with high fever and vesicular lesions of the mouth, hands, and feet. After 3 days, he experienced 3 seizure episodes and was referred to our hospital. On admission, he was conscious and his chest radiograph was normal. However, 6 hours later, he suddenly lost consciousness and had developed a massive pulmonary hemorrhage that continued until his death. He experienced several more intermittent seizures, and diffuse infiltration of both lung fields was observed on chest radiography. Intravenous immunoglobulin, dexamethasone, cefotaxime, leukocyte-depleted red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, inotropics, vitamin K, and endotracheal epinephrine were administered. The patient died 9 hours after intubation, within 3 days from fever onset. EV71 subgenotype C4a was isolated retrospectively from serum and nasopharyngeal swab by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Here, we report a fatal case of EV71-associated HFMD with sudden-onset massive pulmonary hemorrhage and suspected encephalitis. PMID:25861335

  15. Characterization of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shenzhen, China, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Zhou, Yuanping; Lu, Hong; Yang, Hong; Feng, Qianjin; Dai, Yingchun; Chen, Long; Yu, Shouyi; Yao, Xiangjie; Zhang, Hailong; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Yujie; Han, Ning; Hu, Guifang; He, Yaqing

    2015-09-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by human enteroviruses, especially by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). Patients infected with different enteroviruses show varied clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether the etiological spectrum of mild and severe HFMD changed, and the association between pathogens and clinical features. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 2,299 stool or rectal specimens were collected with corresponding patient data. A dynamic view of the etiological spectrum of mild and severe HFMD in Shenzhen city of China was provided. EV71 accounted for the majority proportion of severe HFMD cases and fatalities during 2009-2013. CA16 and EV71 were gradually replaced by coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) as the most common serotype for mild HFMD since 2010. Myoclonic jerk and vomiting were the most frequent severe symptoms. Nervous system complications, including aseptic encephalitis and aseptic meningitis were observed mainly in patients infected by EV71. Among EV71, CA16, CA6, and CA10 infection, fever and pharyngalgia were more likely to develop, vesicles on the hand, foot, elbow, knee and buttock were less likely to develop in patients infected with CA10. Vesicles on the mouth more frequently occurred in the patients with CA6, but less in the patient with EV71. Associations between diverse enterovirus serotypes and various clinical features were discovered in the present study, which may offer further insight into early detection, diagnosis and treatment of HFMD. PMID:25951788

  16. Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dingmei; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Wangjian; Guo, Pi; Ma, Zhanzhong; Chen, Qian; Du, Shaokun; Peng, Jing; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong Province were enlisted as participants. Data comprising demographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavior factors were collected from children's parents through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases. Results of further multivariate analysis indicated that older age (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34-0.56) and hand-washing before meals (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) are protective factors, whereas airing out bedding more than thrice a month (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.19-17.37) was associated with increased risk for HFMD. Therefore, hand-washing should be recommended to prevent HFMD, and the potential threat of airing out bedding should be carefully considered. However, further studies are needed to examine other possible risk factors. PMID:27322307

  17. Inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by citric acid and sodium carbonate with deicers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jang-Kwan; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-11-01

    Three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) since 2010 in the Republic of Korea have occurred in the winter. At the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. In this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, ethyl alcohol, and commercial windshield washer fluid) to keep disinfectants (0.2% citric acid and 4% sodium carbonate) from freezing, and we tested their virucidal efficacies under simulated cold temperatures in a tube. The 0.2% citric acid could reduce the virus titer 4 logs at -20°C with all the deicers. On the other hand, 4% sodium carbonate showed little virucidal activity at -20°C within 30 min, although it resisted being frozen with the function of the deicers. In conclusion, for the winter season, we may recommend the use of citric acid (>0.2%) diluted in 30% ethyl alcohol or 25% sodium chloride solvent, depending on its purpose. PMID:26319879

  18. Engineering viable foot-and-mouth disease viruses with increased thermostability as a step in the development of improved vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Roberto; Luna, Eva; Rincón, Verónica; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2008-12-01

    We have rationally engineered foot-and-mouth disease virus to increase its stability against thermal dissociation into subunits without disrupting the many biological functions needed for its infectivity. Amino acid side chains located near the capsid intersubunit interfaces and either predicted or found to be dispensable for infectivity were replaced by others that could establish new disulfide bonds or electrostatic interactions between subunits. Two engineered viruses were normally infectious, genetically stable, and antigenically indistinguishable from the natural virus but showed substantially increased stability against irreversible dissociation. Electrostatic interactions mediated this stabilizing effect. For foot-and-mouth disease virus and other viruses, some evidence had suggested that an increase in virion stability could be linked to an impairment of infectivity. The results of the present study show, in fact, that virion thermostability against dissociation into subunits may not be selectively constrained by functional requirements for infectivity. The thermostable viruses obtained, and others similarly engineered, could be used for the production, using current procedures, of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines that are less dependent on a faultless cold chain. In addition, introduction of those stabilizing mutations in empty (nucleic acid-free) capsids could facilitate the production of infection-risk-free vaccines against the disease, one of the economically most important animal diseases worldwide. PMID:18829763

  19. Parameter Values for Epidemiological Models of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Kinsley, Amy C.; Patterson, Gilbert; VanderWaal, Kimberly L.; Craft, Meggan E.; Perez, Andres M.

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) incursion, response strategies are required to control, contain, and eradicate the pathogen as efficiently as possible. Infectious disease simulation models are widely used tools that mimic disease dispersion in a population and that can be useful in the design and support of prevention and mitigation activities. However, there are often gaps in evidence-based research to supply models with quantities that are necessary to accurately reflect the system of interest. The objective of this study was to quantify values associated with the duration of the stages of FMD infection (latent period, subclinical period, incubation period, and duration of infection), probability of transmission (within-herd and between-herd via spatial spread), and diagnosis of a vesicular disease within a herd using a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion. The latent period ranged from 1 to 7 days and incubation period ranged from 1 to 9 days; both were influenced by strain. In contrast, the subclinical period ranged from 0 to 6 days and was influenced by sampling method only. The duration of infection ranged from 1 to 10 days. The probability of spatial spread between an infected and fully susceptible swine farm was estimated as greatest within 5 km of the infected farm, highlighting the importance of possible long-range transmission through the movement of infected animals. Finally, while most swine practitioners are confident in their ability to detect a vesicular disease in an average sized swine herd, a small proportion expect that up to half of the herd would need to show clinical signs before detection via passive surveillance would occur. The results of this study will be useful in within- and between-herd simulation models to develop efficient response strategies in the event an FMD in swine populations of disease-free countries or regions. PMID:27314002

  20. Robust Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR for Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Neutralizing Carryover Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Yong-Keol; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jeesoo; Kim, Su-Mi; Kim, Byounghan; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    During an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) is the most commonly used diagnostic method to detect viral RNA. However, while this assay is often conducted during the outbreak period, there is an inevitable risk of carryover contamination. This study shows that the carryover contamination can be prevented by the use of target-specific restriction endonuclease in that assay. PMID:26560537

  1. The VP3 structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits the IFN-β signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Yang, Wenping; Yang, Fan; Liu, Huanan; Zhu, Zixiang; Lian, Kaiqi; Lei, Caoqi; Li, Shu; Liu, Xiangtao; Zheng, Haixue; Shu, Hongbing

    2016-05-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a frequently occurring disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is caused by infection with the foot-and-mouth virus (FMDV). FMDV circumvents the type-I IFN response by expressing proteins that antagonize cellular innate immunity, such as leader protease and 3C protease. We identified the FMDV structural protein VP3 as a negative regulator of the virus-triggered IFN-β signaling pathway. Expression of FMDV VP3 inhibited the Sendai virus-triggered activation of IFN regulatory factor-3 and the expression of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I/melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5. Transient transfection and coimmunoprecipitation confirmed that the structural protein VP3 interacts with virus-induced signaling adapter (VISA), which is dependent on the C-terminal aa 111-220 of VP3. In addition, we found that FMDV VP3 inhibits the expression of VISA by disrupting its mRNA. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel strategy used by the structural VP3 protein of FMDV to evade host innate immunity.-Li, D., Yang, W., Yang, F., Liu, H., Zhu, Z., Lian, K., Lei, C., Li, S., Liu, X., Zheng, H., Shu, H. The VP3 structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits the IFN-β signaling pathway. PMID:26813975

  2. Enteroviruses isolated from herpangina and hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Korean children.

    PubMed

    Park, KwiSung; Lee, BaeckHee; Baek, KyoungAh; Cheon, DooSung; Yeo, SangGu; Park, JoonSoo; Soh, JaeWan; Cheon, HaeKyung; Yoon, KyungAh; Choi, YoungJin

    2012-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are commonly prevalent illness in young children. They are similarly characterized by lesions on the skin and oral mucosa. Both diseases are associated with various enterovirus serotypes. In this study, enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Korea in 2009 were isolated and analyzed. Demographic data for patients with HFMD and herpangina were compared and all enterovirus isolates were amplified in the VP1 region by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Among the enterovirus isolates, prevalent agents were coxsackievirus A16 in HFMD and coxsackievirus A5 in herpangina. More prevalent months for HFMD were June (69.2%) and May (11.5%), and June (40.0%) and July (24.0%) for herpangina. Age prevalence of HFMD patients with enterovirus infection was 1 year (23.1%), 4 years (19.2%), and over 5 years (19.2%). However, the dominant age group of herpangina patients with enterovirus infection was 1 year (48.0%) followed by 2 years (28.0%). Comparison of pairwise VP1 nucleotide sequence alignment of all isolates within the same serotypes revealed high intra-type variation of CVA2 isolates (84.6-99.3% nucleotide identity). HFMD and herpangina showed differences in demographic data and serotypes of isolated enteroviruses, but there was no notable difference in amino acid sequences by clinical syndromes in multiple comparison of the partial VP1 gene sequence. PMID:22985487

  3. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 3 - Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed research knowledge gaps in the field of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) vaccines. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD vaccine research. Vaccines play a vital role in FMD control, used both to limit the spread of the virus during epidemics in FMD-free countries and as the mainstay of disease management in endemic regions, particularly where sanitary controls are difficult to apply. Improvements in the performance or cost-effectiveness of FMD vaccines will allow more widespread and efficient disease control. FMD vaccines have changed little in recent decades, typically produced by inactivation of whole virus, the quantity and stability of the intact viral capsids in the final preparation being key for immunogenicity. However, these are exciting times and several promising novel FMD vaccine candidates have recently been developed. This includes the first FMD vaccine licensed for manufacture and use in the USA; this adenovirus-vectored FMD vaccine causes in vivo expression of viral capsids in vaccinated animals. Another promising vaccine candidate comprises stabilized empty FMDV capsids produced in vitro in a baculovirus expression system. Recombinant technologies are also being developed to improve otherwise conventionally produced inactivated vaccines, for example, by creating a chimeric vaccine virus to increase capsid stability and by inserting sequences into the vaccine virus for desired antigen expression. Other important areas of ongoing research include enhanced adjuvants, vaccine quality control procedures and predicting vaccine protection from immune correlates, thus reducing dependency on animal challenge studies. Globally, the degree of independent vaccine evaluation is highly variable, and this is essential for vaccine quality. Previously neglected, the

  4. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 7 - Pathogenesis and Molecular Biology.

    PubMed

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed research knowledge gaps in the fields of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) pathogenesis and molecular biology by performing a literature review (2011-15) and collecting research updates (2014) from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future research. There have been important advances in FMDV pathogenesis; FMDV remains in lymph nodes of many recovered animals that otherwise do not appear persistently infected, even in species previously not associated with the carrier state. Whether virus retention helps maintain host immunity and/or virus survival is not known. Studies of FMDV pathogenesis in wildlife have provided insights into disease epidemiology, in endemic and epidemic settings. Many aspects of FMDV infection and virus entry remain unknown; however, at the cellular level, we know that expression level and availability of integrins (that permit viral entry), rate of clearance of infected cells and strength of anti-viral type I IFN (interferon) response are key determinants of tissue tropism. Extending findings to improved understanding of transmission requires a standardized approach and adoption of natural routes of infection during experimental study. There has been recognition of the importance of autophagosomes for FMDV entry into the cytoplasm following cell surface receptor binding, and that distinct internal cellular membranes are exploited for viral replication and immune evasion. New roles for viral proteins in blocking type I IFN production and downstream signalling have been identified facilitating research in anti-viral therapeutics. We know more about how infection affects cell protein expression, and research into molecular determinants of capsid stability has aided the development of stable vaccines. We have an expanding knowledge of viral and host molecular determinates of virulence and infectiousness, and of how phylogenetics may be used to estimate vaccine match and strain

  5. Economic effects of foot and mouth disease outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers’ incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Results: Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. Conclusion: All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing. PMID:27397974

  6. Study on the epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayelet, G; Gelaye, E; Negussie, H; Asmare, K

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to describe the status of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Ethiopia, through analysis of FMD outbreak reports and the detection of antibodies, to address the possibility of establishing a disease-free zone. Serum samples collected from cattle between 2003 and 2006 for the serosurveillance of rinderpest were used for this study. The records of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development from 2002 to 2006 indicate that FMD outbreaks occurred each year in Ethiopia during this period, with the highest number in 2004, when 134 outbreaks took place. The highest rates were from the North Shoa zones of both the Oromia and Amhara regions. The serum samples were tested using the 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, to identify antibodies against FMD. From a total of 4,465 sera, 10.5% (n = 467) tested positive. The highest seroprevalence was detected in samples from the Eastern zone of Rgray with 41.5%; followed by the Guji zone of Oromia and Yeka district of the city of Addis Ababa, with 32.7% and 30%, respectively. Antibodies specific to FMD virus were not detected in Gambella or Benishangul. The effects of cattle, sheep and goat density, both separately and together, were analysed with a spatial regression model, but did not have a significant effect on seroprevalence. This indicates that other factors, such as farming systems and livestock movement, play a significant role in the occurrence of FMD. Based on these study findings, it might be appropriate to establish disease-free zones in Gambella and Benishangul. PMID:23520733

  7. Evaluation of Multiplexed Foot-and-Mouth Disease Nonstructural Protein Antibody Assay Against Standardized Bovine Serum Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J; Parida, S; Clavijo, A

    2007-05-14

    Liquid array technology has previously been used to show proof-of-principle of a multiplexed non structural protein serological assay to differentiate foot-and-mouth infected and vaccinated animals. The current multiplexed assay consists of synthetically produced peptide signatures 3A, 3B and 3D and recombinant protein signature 3ABC in combination with four controls. To determine diagnostic specificity of each signature in the multiplex, the assay was evaluated against a naive population (n = 104) and a vaccinated population (n = 94). Subsequently, the multiplexed assay was assessed using a panel of bovine sera generated by the World Reference Laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease in Pirbright, UK. This sera panel has been used to assess the performance of other singleplex ELISA-based non-structural protein antibody assays. The 3ABC signature in the multiplexed assay showed comparative performance to a commercially available non-structural protein 3ABC ELISA (Cedi test{reg_sign}) and additional information pertaining to the relative diagnostic sensitivity of each signature in the multiplex is acquired in one experiment. The encouraging results of the evaluation of the multiplexed assay against a panel of diagnostically relevant samples promotes further assay development and optimization to generate an assay for routine use in foot-and-mouth disease surveillance.

  8. A point pattern model of the spread of foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Gerbier, G; Bacro, J N; Pouillot, R; Durand, B; Moutou, F; Chadoeuf, J

    2002-11-29

    The spatial spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is influenced by several sources of spatial heterogeneity: heterogeneity of the exposure to the virus, heterogeneity of the animal density and heterogeneity of the networks formed by the contacts between farms. A discrete space model assuming that farms can be reduced to points is proposed to handle these different factors. The farm-to-farm process of transmission of the infection is studied using point-pattern methodology. Farm management, commercial exchanges, possible airborne transmission, etc. cannot be explicitly taken into account because of lack of data. These latter factors are introduced via surrogate variables such as herd size and distance between farms. The model is built on the calculation of an infectious potential for each farm. This method has been applied to the study of the 1967-1968 FMD epidemic in UK and allowed us to evaluate the spatial variation of the probability of infection during this epidemic. Maximum likelihood estimation has been conducted conditional on the absence of data concerning the farms which were not infected during the epidemic. Model parameters have then been tested using an approximated conditional-likelihood ratio test. In this case study, results and validation are limited by the lack of data, but this model can easily be extended to include other information such as the effect of wind direction and velocity on airborne spread of the virus or the complex interactions between the locations of farms and the herd size. It can also be applied to other diseases where point approximation is convenient. In the context of an increase of animal density in some areas, the model explicitly incorporates the density and known epidemiological characteristics (e.g. incubation period) in the calculation of the probability of FMD infection. Control measures such as vaccination or slaughter can be simply introduced, respectively, as a reduction of the susceptible population or as a

  9. Antiviral activity of Paulownia tomentosa against enterovirus 71 of hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ping; Chen, Changmai; Hu, Yanan; Zhan, Zixuan; Pan, Wei; Li, Rongrong; Li, Erguang; Ge, Hui-Ming; Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The bark, leaves, and flowers of Paulownia trees have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases. We investigated the antiviral effects of Paulownia tomentosa flowers, an herbal medicine used in some provinces of P. R. China for the treatment of skin rashes and blisters. Dried flowers of P. tomentosa were extracted with methanol and tested for antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CAV16), the predominant etiologic agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in P. R. China. The extract inhibited EV71 infection, although no effect was detected against CAV16 infection. Bioactivity-guided fractionation was performed to identify apigenin as an active component of the flowers. The EC50 value for apigenin to block EV71 infection was 11.0 µM, with a selectivity index of approximately 9.3. Although it is a common dietary flavonoid, only apigenin, and not similar compounds like naringenin and quercetin, were active against EV71 infection. As an RNA virus, the genome of EV71 has an internal ribosome entry site that interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and regulates viral translation. Cross-linking followed by immunoprecipitation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that EV71 RNA was associated with hnRNPs A1 and A2. Apigenin treatment disrupted this association, indicating that apigenin suppressed EV71 replication through a novel mechanism by targeting the trans-acting factors. This study therefore validates the effects of Paulownia against EV71 infection. It also yielded mechanistic insights on apigenin as an active compound for the antiviral activity of P. tomentosa against EV71 infection. PMID:25744451

  10. Foot-and-mouth Disease Transmission in Africa: Implications for Control, a Review.

    PubMed

    Tekleghiorghis, T; Moormann, R J M; Weerdmeester, K; Dekker, A

    2016-04-01

    In Africa, for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), more information is needed on the spread of the disease at local, regional and inter-regional level. The aim of this review is to identify the role that animal husbandry, trade and wildlife have on the transmission of FMD and to provide a scientific basis for different FMD control measures in Africa. Review of literature, published reports and databases shows that there is more long distance spread of FMD virus serotypes within North, West, Central and East Africa than in southern Africa. In North, West, Central and East Africa migratory animal husbandry systems often related with search for grazing and water as well as trade are practiced to a greater extent than in southern Africa. In southern Africa, the role of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is more extensively studied than in the other parts of Africa, but based on the densities of African buffalo in Central and East Africa, one would assume that buffalo should also play a role in the epidemiology of FMD in this part of Africa. More sampling of buffalo is necessary in West, Central and East Africa. The genetic analysis of virus strains has proven to be valuable to increase our understanding in the spread of FMD in Africa. This review shows that there is a difference in FMD occurrence between southern Africa and the rest of the continent; this distinction is most likely based on differences in animal husbandry and trade systems. Insufficient data on FMD in wildlife outside southern Africa is limiting our understanding on the role wildlife plays in the transmission of FMD in the other buffalo inhabited areas of Africa. PMID:25052411

  11. Tracking the Antigenic Evolution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Richard; Borley, Daryl W; Maree, Francois F; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Lukhwareni, Azwidowi; Esterhuysen, Jan J; Harvey, William T; Blignaut, Belinda; Fry, Elizabeth E; Parida, Satya; Paton, David J; Mahapatra, Mana

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying and predicting the antigenic characteristics of a virus is something of a holy grail for infectious disease research because of its central importance to the emergence of new strains, the severity of outbreaks, and vaccine selection. However, these characteristics are defined by a complex interplay of viral and host factors so that phylogenetic measures of viral similarity are often poorly correlated to antigenic relationships. Here, we generate antigenic phylogenies that track the phenotypic evolution of two serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by combining host serology and viral sequence data to identify sites that are critical to their antigenic evolution. For serotype SAT1, we validate our antigenic phylogeny against monoclonal antibody escape mutants, which match all of the predicted antigenic sites. For serotype O, we validate it against known sites where available, and otherwise directly evaluate the impact on antigenic phenotype of substitutions in predicted sites using reverse genetics and serology. We also highlight a critical and poorly understood problem for vaccine selection by revealing qualitative differences between assays that are often used interchangeably to determine antigenic match between field viruses and vaccine strains. Our approach provides a tool to identify naturally occurring antigenic substitutions, allowing us to track the genetic diversification and associated antigenic evolution of the virus. Despite the hugely important role vaccines have played in enhancing human and animal health, vaccinology remains a conspicuously empirical science. This study advances the field by providing guidance for tuning vaccine strains via site-directed mutagenesis through this high-resolution tracking of antigenic evolution of the virus between rare major shifts in phenotype. PMID:27448206

  12. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 5 - Biotherapeutics and Disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research. Findings are reported in a series of papers, and in this article, we consider biotherapeutics and disinfectants. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. While vaccines will remain the key immunological intervention used against FMD virus (FMDV) for the foreseeable future, it takes a few days for the immune system to respond to vaccination. In an outbreak situation, protection could potentially be provided during this period by the application of rapid, short-acting biotherapeutics, aiming either to stimulate a non-specific antiviral state in the animal or to specifically inhibit a part of the viral life cycle. Certain antiviral cytokines have been shown to promote rapid protection against FMD; however, the effects of different immune-modulators appear to vary across species in ways and for reasons that are not yet understood. Major barriers to the effective incorporation of biotherapeutics into control strategies are cost, limited understanding of their effect on subsequent immune responses to vaccines and uncertainty about their potential impact if used for disease containment. Recent research has highlighted the importance of environmental contamination in FMDV transmission. Effective disinfectants for FMDV have long been available, but research is being conducted to further develop methods for quantitatively evaluating their performance under field, or near-field, conditions. During outbreaks in South Korea in 2010 there was public concern about potential environmental contamination after the mass use of disinfectant and mass burial of culled stock; this should be considered during outbreak contingency planning. PMID:27320166

  13. Tracking the Antigenic Evolution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Lukhwareni, Azwidowi; Esterhuysen, Jan J.; Harvey, William T.; Blignaut, Belinda; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Parida, Satya; Paton, David J.; Mahapatra, Mana

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying and predicting the antigenic characteristics of a virus is something of a holy grail for infectious disease research because of its central importance to the emergence of new strains, the severity of outbreaks, and vaccine selection. However, these characteristics are defined by a complex interplay of viral and host factors so that phylogenetic measures of viral similarity are often poorly correlated to antigenic relationships. Here, we generate antigenic phylogenies that track the phenotypic evolution of two serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by combining host serology and viral sequence data to identify sites that are critical to their antigenic evolution. For serotype SAT1, we validate our antigenic phylogeny against monoclonal antibody escape mutants, which match all of the predicted antigenic sites. For serotype O, we validate it against known sites where available, and otherwise directly evaluate the impact on antigenic phenotype of substitutions in predicted sites using reverse genetics and serology. We also highlight a critical and poorly understood problem for vaccine selection by revealing qualitative differences between assays that are often used interchangeably to determine antigenic match between field viruses and vaccine strains. Our approach provides a tool to identify naturally occurring antigenic substitutions, allowing us to track the genetic diversification and associated antigenic evolution of the virus. Despite the hugely important role vaccines have played in enhancing human and animal health, vaccinology remains a conspicuously empirical science. This study advances the field by providing guidance for tuning vaccine strains via site-directed mutagenesis through this high-resolution tracking of antigenic evolution of the virus between rare major shifts in phenotype. PMID:27448206

  14. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-02-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers' knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers' knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; 'under-reporting' was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and 'selling FMD-infected animals' is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should be levied for

  15. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 2 - Epidemiology, Wildlife and Economics.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research, and in this study, we consider (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) economics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. During 2011-2015, modelling studies were dominant in the broad field of epidemiology; however, continued efforts are required to develop robust models for use during outbreaks in FMD-free countries, linking epidemiologic and economics models. More guidance is needed for both the evaluation and the setting of targets for vaccine coverage, population immunity and vaccine field efficacy. Similarly, methods for seroprevalence studies need to be improved to obtain more meaningful outputs that allow comparison across studies. To inform control programmes in endemic countries, field trials assessing the effectiveness of vaccination in extensive smallholder systems should be performed to determine whether FMD can be controlled with quality vaccines in settings where implementing effective biosecurity is challenging. Studies need to go beyond measuring only vaccine effects and should extend our knowledge of the impact of FMD and increase our understanding of how to maximize farmer participation in disease control. Where wildlife reservoirs of virus exist, particularly African Buffalo, we need to better understand when and under what circumstances transmission to domestic animals occurs in order to manage this risk appropriately, considering the impact of control measures on livelihoods and wildlife. For settings where FMD eradication is unfeasible, further ground testing of commodity-based trade is recommended. A thorough review of global FMD control programmes, covering successes and failures, would be extremely valuable and could be used to guide other control programmes. PMID:27320163

  16. Genomic characteristics of coxsackievirus A8 strains associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease and herpangina.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Yang, Hong; Wang, Chao; Yao, Xiang-Jie; Zhang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Ren-Li; He, Ya-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A8 (CV-A8), a member of the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae, can cause a variety of infectious diseases, such as hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina (HA), encephalitis, paralysis, myelitis, and meningitis. This is a first report of complete genome sequences of CV-A8 strains associated with HFMD/HA since the prototype strain Donovan was identified in 1949. The complete genome sequences of eight new CV-A8 strains showed 19.2 %-20.6 % nucleotide differences when compared to the prototype strain Donovan, and 81.5 %-99.9 % similarity to each other. The topology of a polyphyletic tree based on complete capsid protein gene sequences indicated that the new CV-A8 strains and Donovan are monophyletic. However, seven CV-A8 strains clustered with CV-A10 and CV-A2 in the 5'UTR and P2 region, respectively. In the P3 region, three and four CV-A8 strains grouped with CV-A6 and CV-A2, respectively. Seven CV-A8 strains segregated from Donovan and grouped in a separate lineage in the 3'UTR. The strain CVA8/SZ266/CHN/2014 was most similar to EV71 in the nonstructural proteins regions. Phylogenetic analysis classified worldwide CV-A8 isolates into four distinct clusters, and almost all Chinese and Thai CV-A8 strains evolved independently in their respective lineages, which indicated geographical evolution of CV-A8. PMID:26483280

  17. The Foot-and-Mouth Disease Carrier State Divergence in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Eschbaumer, Michael; Rekant, Steven I.; Pacheco, Juan M.; Smoliga, George R.; Hartwig, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Luis L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated in 46 cattle that were either naive or had been vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine 2 weeks before challenge. The prevalence of FMDV persistence was similar in both groups (62% in vaccinated cattle, 67% in nonvaccinated cattle), despite vaccinated cattle having been protected from clinical disease. Analysis of antemortem infection dynamics demonstrated that the subclinical divergence between FMDV carriers and animals that cleared the infection had occurred by 10 days postinfection (dpi) in vaccinated cattle and by 21 dpi in nonvaccinated animals. The anatomic distribution of virus in subclinically infected, vaccinated cattle was restricted to the pharynx throughout both the early and the persistent phases of infection. In nonvaccinated cattle, systemically disseminated virus was cleared from peripheral sites by 10 dpi, while virus selectively persisted within the nasopharynx of a subset of animals. The quantities of viral RNA shed in oropharyngeal fluid during FMDV persistence were similar in vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. FMDV structural and nonstructural proteins were localized to follicle-associated epithelium of the dorsal soft palate and dorsal nasopharynx in persistently infected cattle. Host transcriptome analysis of tissue samples processed by laser capture microdissection indicated suppression of antiviral host factors (interferon regulatory factor 7, CXCL10 [gamma interferon-inducible protein 10], gamma interferon, and lambda interferon) in association with persistent FMDV. In contrast, during the transitional phase of infection, the level of expression of IFN-λ mRNA was higher in follicle-associated epithelium of animals that had cleared the infection. This work provides novel insights into the intricate mechanisms of FMDV persistence and contributes to further understanding of this critical aspect of FMDV pathogenesis

  18. Characteristics of leachate in Foot and Mouth Disease Carcass Disposal using Molecular Biology Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, E. J.; Kim, B. J.; Wi, D. W.; Choi, N. C.; Lee, S. J.; Min, J. E.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Leachate from Foot and Mouth Disease(FMD) carcass disposal by is one of the types of high-concentration contaminated wastewater with the greatest environmental impact. This is due to its pollutants: nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and pathogenic microorganisms. Satisfactory treatment of leachate is not an easy task for its high concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore suitable FMD leachate treatment processes should be adopted to improve treatment performance and to reduce overall running costs. The objective of this study was to determine the leachate characteristics through environmental analysis and molecular biology method (bacteria identification and Polymerase Chain Reaction) using FMD leachate samples for optimal FMD leachate treatment processes. The Sixteen FMD leachate samples was obtained from carcass disposal regions in Korea. Results of environmental analysis showed that pH and Eh was observed from 5.57 to 7.40, -134~358mV. This data was exhibited typical early carcass disposal (Neutral pH and Reducing Environment by abundant organic matter). TOC and nitrate nitrogen high concentrations in FMD leachate showed a large variability from 2.3 to 38,730 mg/L(mean - 6,821.93mg/L) and 0.335 ~231.998mg/L(mean - 37.46mg/L), respectively. The result of bacteria identification was observed Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter ursingii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia liquefaciens, Brevundimonas naejangsanensis, Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter ursingii. The results of Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) using EzTaxon server data revealed Pseudoclavibacter helvolus, Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum, Corynebacterium callunae, Paenibacillus lautus, Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus arvi, Brevundimonas bullata, Acinetobacter ursingii, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus psychrodurans, Pseudomonas sp.

  19. Peripheral T lymphocyte subset imbalances in children with enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuxian; Cai, Chunyan; Feng, Jinyan; Li, Xuejing; Wang, Yingshuo; Yang, Jun; Chen, Zhimin

    2014-02-13

    Inflammatory mediators (i.e. cytokines) play a pivotal role in the regulation of pathophysiological processes during EV71-induced hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Different T cell subsets have distinct cytokine secretion profiles, and alteration in the T cell subsets frequency (imbalance) during infection leads to changed cytokine patterns. However, the effects of EV71 infection on T cell subsets were not clear. The objective of this study was to determine whether EV71-induced HFMD can be explained by the emergence of particular T-cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Tc1, Tc2, Th17, Tc17 and Treg cells) and the cytokine they produced (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A and TGF-β1), as well as distinct responses to EV71 infection. We found that when compared to the control group, the percentage of Th1 and Tc1 cells was significantly higher in mild and severe HFMD group. Similar results were found in the Th1/Th2 ratio and IFN-γ levels. On the other hand, the percentage of Th17 cells and IL-17A levels were the highest in severe HFMD cases, and lowest in controls. Similar trend was also found for the Th17/Treg cell ratio. An optimal cutoff value of 2.15% for Th17 cell and 6.72 pg/ml for IL-17A provided a discriminatory value for differentiating the severity of HFMD cases by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. These findings reveal that the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg imbalance exist in HFMD patients, suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of EV71 infection, which may have potential value as biomarkers. PMID:24316007

  20. Cyclical Patterns of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Enterovirus A71 in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Rampal, Sanjay; WanNorAmalina, Wmz; NurAtifah, Ghazali; Verasahib, Khebir; Ong, Chia Ching; MohdAdib, MohdAidinniza; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-03-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an important emerging pathogen causing large epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. In Malaysia, since the first EV-A71 epidemic in 1997, recurrent cyclical epidemics have occurred every 2-3 years for reasons that remain unclear. We hypothesize that this cyclical pattern is due to changes in population immunity in children (measured as seroprevalence). Neutralizing antibody titers against EV-A71 were measured in 2,141 residual serum samples collected from children ≤12 years old between 1995 and 2012 to determine the seroprevalence of EV-A71. Reported national HFMD incidence was highest in children <2 years, and decreased with age; in support of this, EV-A71 seroprevalence was significantly associated with age, indicating greater susceptibility in younger children. EV-A71 epidemics are also characterized by peaks of increased genetic diversity, often with genotype changes. Cross-sectional time series analysis was used to model the association between EV-A71 epidemic periods and EV-A71 seroprevalence adjusting for age and climatic variables (temperature, rainfall, rain days and ultraviolet radiance). A 10% increase in absolute monthly EV-A71 seroprevalence was associated with a 45% higher odds of an epidemic (adjusted odds ratio, aOR1.45; 95% CI 1.24-1.69; P<0.001). Every 10% decrease in seroprevalence between preceding and current months was associated with a 16% higher odds of an epidemic (aOR = 1.16; CI 1.01-1.34 P<0.034). In summary, the 2-3 year cyclical pattern of EV-A71 epidemics in Malaysia is mainly due to the fall of population immunity accompanying the accumulation of susceptible children between epidemics. This study will impact the future planning, timing and target populations for vaccine programs. PMID:27010319

  1. Clinical Features for Mild Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoyan; Luo, Lin; Yan, Shiyan; Wen, Tiancai; Bai, Wenjing; Li, Hongjiao; Zhang, Guoliang; Lu, Xiaoying; Liu, Yan; He, Liyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Mild hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is at a critical stage owing to its ease of communicability and a higher risk of developing severe complications and death. Clinical diagnosis of mild HFMD was made by the presenting symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief) alone. We aim to evaluate the frequencies of symptoms in a retrospective case series study. Methods We collected epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from outpatient and inpatient settings on the clinical data warehouse system. We principally described the frequencies of symptoms of mild HFMD. Correlations between symptoms with laboratory-confirmed cases were then analyzed. Results The clinical data warehouse system included 3649 probable cases, between 2010 and 2012, of which 956 (26.20%) were laboratory confirmed. The peak incidence was identified in children 2 years of age. A total of 370 of the 956 laboratory confirmed cases (38.70%) were associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71). Logistic regression analysis adjusted for geographical variables, age, sex, month of onset, and time from onset to diagnosis showed that the clinical features constipation (P<0.0001; adjusted OR, 95%CI (2.99, 2.28–3.91)), and blisters (P<0.0001; adjusted OR, 95%CI (2.16, 1.82–2.56)) were positively correlated with the confirmed cases. Conclusions This is the largest case series study, including all the guideline-mentioned symptoms of mild HFMD. Our findings suggest that blisters and constipation should be considered as potential warning signs while front-line clinicians manage surges of children diagnosed with mild HFMD during a pandemic. PMID:26302092

  2. Meteorological factors affect the hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic in Qingdao, China, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Jiang, F C; Yang, F; Chen, L; Jia, J; Han, Y L; Hao, B; Cao, G W

    2016-08-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused public health concerns worldwide. We aimed to investigate the effect of meteorological factors on the HFMD epidemic in Qingdao, a port city in China. A total of 78641 cases were reported in Qingdao between January 2007 and December 2014. Of those, 71084 (90·39%) occurred in children aged 0-5 years, with an incidence of 1691·2/100000. The incidence increased from early spring, peaked between spring and summer, and decreased in late summer. Aetiological agents in all severe cases and selected mild cases were characterized by examining throat swabs. Except for enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), other EVs caused >50% of the HFMD cases between 2011 and 2014. EV71 was more frequent in the off-peak months than in the peak months and prone to causing more severe cases compared to CA16 (χ 2 = 46·3, P < 0·001). CA10 caused more severe HFMD than did CA6 (χ 2 = 20·49, P < 0·001) and all non-CA10 EVs (χ 2 = 41·01, P < 0·001). Community-derived HFMD cases accounted for 65·11%. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that HFMD incidence in children aged 0-5 years was positively correlated with atmospheric temperature (r s = 0·77, P < 0·001), relative humidity (r s = 0·507, P < 0·001), and precipitation (r s = 0·328, P < 0·001). Climate changes and CA10 surveillance in communities should be integrated into the current prophylactic programme. PMID:27018924

  3. Effect of Climatic Factors on Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in South Korea, 2010-2013

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bryan Inho; Ki, Hyunok; Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhi

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) causes characteristic blisters and sores mainly in infants and children, and has been monitored in South Korea through sentinel surveillance since 2009. We described the patterns of HFMD occurrence and analyzed the effect of climatic factors on national HFMD incidence. Weekly clinically diagnosed HFMD case rates (per 1,000 outpatients) in sentinel sites and weekly climatic factors, such as average temperature, relative humidity, duration of sunshine, precipitation, and wind speed from 2010 to 2013, were used in this study. A generalized additive model with smoothing splines and climatic variables with time lags of up to 2 weeks were considered in the modeling process. To account for long-term trends and seasonality, we controlled for each year and their corresponding weeks. The autocorrelation issue was also adjusted by using autocorrelation variables. At an average temperature below 18°C, the HFMD rate increased by 10.3% for every 1°C rise in average temperature (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4, 12.3%). We also saw a 6.6% increase in HFMD rate (95% CI: 3.6, 9.7%) with every 1% increase in relative humidity under 65%, with a 1.5% decrease in HFMD rate observed (95% CI: 0.4, 2.7%) with each 1% humidity increase above 65%. Modeling results have shown that average temperature and relative humidity are related to HFMD rate. Additional research on the environmental risk factors of HFMD transmission is required to understand the underlying mechanism between climatic factors and HFMD incidence. PMID:27285850

  4. Impact of foot-and-mouth disease on pork and chicken prices in Central Luzon, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Abao, Lary Nel B; Kono, Hiroichi; Gunarathne, Anoma; Promentilla, Rolando R; Gaerlan, Manolita Z

    2014-03-01

    Central Luzon is the number one pig-producing region in the Philippines and was affected by Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) in 1995. In this paper, the impact of FMD on the Central Luzon meat market from 1995 to 1999 was examined. Employing the error correction model (ECM) and historical decomposition, the impact of FMD on the Central Luzon pork and chicken meat market was quantified. The following findings were observed: (a) pig farm and pork wholesale prices dropped 11.8% and 15.7%, respectively, after the initial FMD outbreaks in January, 1995; (b) in February, 1995, chicken farm and wholesale prices declined by 21.1% and 14.2%, respectively (while chicken retail prices also went down by 10.5%); (c) the margins of pig and chicken traders were also adversely affected at some point; and (d) FMD caused changes of dynamic interdependence among prices by meat type at different levels of the meat supply chain. This study makes several contributions to the literature on the impact of FMD outbreaks. This study is the first that simultaneously investigates the impact of FMD outbreaks on meat prices, price margins along the supply chain, and price interdependence in the meat system in Central Luzon, Philippines. Also, the Philippine pork industry is dominated by backyard farmers rather than the predominantly large commercial pig farmers existing in developed countries. Secondly, it yielded the novel finding of price decline in both pig and chicken prices as a result of the FMD outbreaks. And lastly, the study showed that the profit margins of the pig traders, pork traders, chicken traders and chicken meat traders were also negatively affected by the FMD outbreaks in January 1995. However, over the long term, the price margins of pork traders were more severely affected in contrast to that of the other traders' profits. PMID:24433637

  5. Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus type A in South America.

    PubMed

    Malirat, Viviana; Bergmann, Ingrid Evelyn; de Mendonça Campos, Renata; Conde, Florangel; Quiroga, José Luis; Villamil, Mariluz; Salgado, Gustavo; Ortiz, Salomón

    2012-07-01

    A databank of 78 VP(1) complete sequences of type A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from South American isolates was constructed. Forty-nine samples corresponded to FMDV that circulated between the years 1999-2008, mainly in Venezuela, where most type A outbreaks have occurred lately and twenty-nine to strains historically relevant for the continent. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all South American FMDV belonged to the Euro-SA topotype. Sixteen subgenotypes could be identified, based on a 15% nucleotide divergence cut-off criterion: eight are extinguished, three were active until the year 2002 and the remaining five circulated in Venezuela during the years 2001-2007, illustrating the potential for FMDV diversification under appropriate selective pressure. The last emergencies reported in already-free areas of Colombia in 2004 and 2008 were closely related to isolates acting in Venzuela. Evidence of positive selection over codon 170, within the immunogenic site 4 of VP1 protein, was recorded. A codon deletion in amino acid position 142, within the G-H loop, was found in some isolates within subgenotypes 14, 15 and 16. Conversely amino acid deletion 197 was restricted to all isolates within a particular genetic cluster. The present work is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of FMDV type A in South America, filling a gap of knowledge with respect to both, historical and acting viruses. The results provided evidence that supports the ecosystem dynamics in the region, and also served as an input to establish genetic links of emergencies in already-declared free areas, highlighting the need for strengthening control activities. PMID:22397938

  6. Electrical Resistivity Monitoring for Leachate Distribution at Two Foot-and-Mouth- Disease (FMD) Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.; Leem, K.; Ko, K.

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide the basic information on leachate distribution with time changes through the electrical resistivity monitoring for a certain period of time in the Foot-and-Mouth-Disease (FMD) burial facilities which is needed to prevent further soil and groundwater contamination and to build an effective plan for stabilization of the burial site. In this study, dipole-dipoles surveys were carried out around two FMD burial sites in Iceon-si, Gyeonggi-do. The FMD burial facility installed at Daewall-myeon is consists of one block but, at Yul-myeon, it is divided into 2 blocks named A and B blocks. Dipole-Dipole surveys with 8 lines at Yul-myeon and 3 lines at Daewall-myeon were carried out. The observed leachate distribution along survey lines was not clearly evident as time passes at Daewall-myeon site, but, at Yul-myeon site, the leachate distribution around the survey lines showed a decrease of resistivity around the burial facility. At and around A and B blocks of Yul-myeon site, interpretations of the survey data show low resistivity zones below 10 Ωm from a depth 3 m to 10 m and such low resistivity zones of the A block are thicker than the B block by about 5~10 m. From the geochemical data and resistivity survey at two FMD burial sites, it is inferred that the groundwater within a 50-meter radius around burial facilities of the Yul-myeon site are contaminated by leachate. The general resistivity distribution around the burial site is seemed affected by the leachate with high electrical conductivity. The detail distribution patterns can be explained by local distributions of soil and weathered rocks and associated leachate flow. This subject is supported by Brain Korea 21 and Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The GAIA Project (173-092-009)'.

  7. Effect of Climatic Factors on Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in South Korea, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bryan Inho; Ki, Hyunok; Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhi; Chun, Byung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) causes characteristic blisters and sores mainly in infants and children, and has been monitored in South Korea through sentinel surveillance since 2009. We described the patterns of HFMD occurrence and analyzed the effect of climatic factors on national HFMD incidence. Weekly clinically diagnosed HFMD case rates (per 1,000 outpatients) in sentinel sites and weekly climatic factors, such as average temperature, relative humidity, duration of sunshine, precipitation, and wind speed from 2010 to 2013, were used in this study. A generalized additive model with smoothing splines and climatic variables with time lags of up to 2 weeks were considered in the modeling process. To account for long-term trends and seasonality, we controlled for each year and their corresponding weeks. The autocorrelation issue was also adjusted by using autocorrelation variables. At an average temperature below 18°C, the HFMD rate increased by 10.3% for every 1°C rise in average temperature (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4, 12.3%). We also saw a 6.6% increase in HFMD rate (95% CI: 3.6, 9.7%) with every 1% increase in relative humidity under 65%, with a 1.5% decrease in HFMD rate observed (95% CI: 0.4, 2.7%) with each 1% humidity increase above 65%. Modeling results have shown that average temperature and relative humidity are related to HFMD rate. Additional research on the environmental risk factors of HFMD transmission is required to understand the underlying mechanism between climatic factors and HFMD incidence. PMID:27285850

  8. The nucleotide sequence at the 5' end of foot and mouth disease virus RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, T J

    1979-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus RNA has been treated with RNase H in the presence of oligo (dG) specifically to digest the poly(C) tract which lies near the 5' end of the molecule (10). The short (S) fragment containing the 5' end of the RNA was separated from the remainder of the RNA (L fragment) by gel electrophoresis. RNA ligase mediated labelling of the 3' end of S fragment showed that the RNase H digestion gave rise to molecules that differed only in the number of cytidylic acid residues remaining at their 3' ends and did not leave the unique 3' end necessary for fast sequence analysis. As the 5' end of S fragment prepared form virus RNA is blocked by VPg, S fragment was prepared from virus specific messenger RNA which does not contain this protein. This RNA was labelled at the 5' end using polynucleotide kinase and the sequence of 70 nucleotides at the 5' end determined by partial enzyme digestion sequencing on polyacrylamide gels. Some of this sequence was confirmed from an analysis of the oligonucleotides derived by RNase T1 digestion of S fragment. The sequence obtained indicates that there is a stable hairpin loop at the 5' terminus of the RNA before an initiation codon 33 nucleotides from the 5' end. In addition, the RNase T1 analysis suggests that there are short repeated sequences in S fragment and that an eleven nucleotide inverted complementary repeat of a sequence near the 3' end of the RNA is present at the junction of S fragment and the poly(C) tract. Images PMID:231762

  9. Importance of foot and mouth disease vaccine purity in interpreting serological surveys.

    PubMed

    Smitsaart, E; Espinoza, A M; Maradei, E; Cosentino, B; Guinzburg, M; Madonni, G; Cadenazzi, G; Bottini, R; Filippi, J; Bergmann, I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the degree of purity achieved in conventional vaccines against the foot and mouth disease virus in Argentina interferes with the interpretation of seroepidemiological surveys for confirming the absence of viral activity, which are performed to support the recognition of free zones practising vaccination. The evaluation of 168 vaccine series due to be marketed in Argentina (2006-2012) and subjected to official control testing in cattle, as well as repeated vaccination of cattle and other species using vaccines with high antigen concentrations, demonstrated that they did not induce antibodies to non-structural proteins (NSPs). The results show clearly that vaccines with satisfactory potency do not induce a response to NSPs, even by forcing the immune response through more concentrated doses with multiple valences and revaccination protocols at shorter irtervals than in vaccination campaigns. These results confirm that the vaccines used in routine vaccination programmes have a degree of antigen purification consistent with the needs observed on the basis of sampling for serological surveillance. Moreover, serological surveys conducted in 2006-2011 by Argentina's official Veterinary Services--the National Health and Agrifood Quality Service (SENASA)--on more than 23,000 sera per year from cattle included in the vaccination programme, in order to confirm the absence of virus circulation, revealed an average 0.05% of reactive results, consistent with the specificity of the tests. In conclusion, the vaccines produced by conventional methods and with proven potencythat are available in Argentina are sufficiently purified to ensure thatthey do not interfere with the interpretation of sampling for serological surveillance performed to support the recognition of FMD-free zones practising vaccination. PMID:27044149

  10. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 6 - Immunology.

    PubMed

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed gaps and priorities for FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) research in the field of immunology. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. Improved understanding of FMDV immunology facilitates the development of vaccines, adjuvants and diagnostic tests, and will allow better assessment and prediction of vaccine potency and match, with reduced use of animals, particularly large animals, in experimental studies. Continued characterization of the immune systems of several FMD host species has underpinned substantial advances in knowledge of their interaction with FMDV. Recent studies have shed light on the mechanisms underlying formation of the bovine B- and T-cell response; there is also a greater understanding of the significance of non-neutralizing antibodies during FMDV infection and the interactions of antibody-bound virus with immune cells. This knowledge is directly relevant to vaccine development, as well as understanding protection and cross-protection. Despite ongoing research, significant knowledge gaps remain in the areas of neonatal and mucosal immunity. The impact of maternally derived antibody upon the neonate's ability to respond to FMD vaccination has received some attention, but few firm conclusions can be drawn at this stage, and little is known of the cellular response of young animals in general. The mucosal immune system of FMDV-susceptible species requires continued characterization, especially if the potential of mucosal vaccine-delivery systems is to be realized for FMD immunization. PMID:27320167

  11. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 4 - Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research in the field of diagnostics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from around the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. Molecular and genetic technologies, including sequencing, are developing at an increasing rate both in terms of capability and affordability. These advances potentiate progress in many other fields of research, from vaccine development to epidemiology. The development of RT-LAMP represents an important breakthrough allowing greater use and access to molecular diagnostics. It is now possible to determine virus serotype using PCR, although only for certain virus pools, continued progress is needed to cover the global spectrum of FMD viruses. Progress has also been made in the development of pen-side rapid diagnostics, some with the ability to determine serotype. However, further advances in pen-side serotype or strain determination would benefit both FMD-free countries and endemic countries with limited access to well-resourced laboratories. Novel sampling methods that show promise include air sampling and baited ropes, the latter may aid sampling in wildlife and swine. Studies of infrared thermography for the early detection of FMD have not been encouraging, although investigations are ongoing. Multiplex tests have been developed that are able to simultaneously screen for multiple pathogens with similar clinical signs. Crucial for assessing FMDV freedom, tests exist to detect animals that have been infected with FMDV regardless of vaccination status; however, limitations exist, particularly when testing previously vaccinated animals. Novel vaccines are being developed with complementary DIVA tests for this purpose. Research is also needed to improve the current imprecise approaches to FMD vaccine matching. The development of simple, affordable

  12. Aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus Asia-1 under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Colenutt, C; Gonzales, J L; Paton, D J; Gloster, J; Nelson, N; Sanders, C

    2016-06-30

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. Direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. Transmission of FMDV by aerosol may not be prevented by these control measures and this route of transmission may allow infection of animals at distance from the infection source. Understanding the potential for aerosol spread of specific FMDV strains is important for informing control strategies in an outbreak. Here, the potential for transmission of an FMDV Asia 1 strain between pigs and cattle by indirect aerosol exposure was evaluated in an experimental setting. Four naïve calves were exposed to aerosols emitted from three infected pigs in an adjacent room for a 10h period. Direct contact between pigs and cattle and fomite transfer between rooms was prevented. Viral titres in aerosols emitted by the infected pigs were measured to estimate the dose that calves were exposed to. One of the calves developed clinical signs of FMD, whilst there was serological evidence for spread to cattle by aerosol transmission in the remaining three calves. This highlights the possibility that this FMDV Asia 1 strain could be spread by aerosol transmission given appropriate environmental conditions should an outbreak occur in pigs. Our estimates suggest the exposure dose required for aerosol transmission was higher than has been previously quantified for other serotypes, implying that aerosols are less likely to play a significant role in transmission and spread of this FMDV strain. PMID:27259825

  13. Evaluating vaccination strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease: a model comparison study.

    PubMed

    Roche, S E; Garner, M G; Sanson, R L; Cook, C; Birch, C; Backer, J A; Dube, C; Patyk, K A; Stevenson, M A; Yu, Z D; Rawdon, T G; Gauntlett, F

    2015-04-01

    Simulation models can offer valuable insights into the effectiveness of different control strategies and act as important decision support tools when comparing and evaluating outbreak scenarios and control strategies. An international modelling study was performed to compare a range of vaccination strategies in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Modelling groups from five countries (Australia, New Zealand, USA, UK, The Netherlands) participated in the study. Vaccination is increasingly being recognized as a potentially important tool in the control of FMD, although there is considerable uncertainty as to how and when it should be used. We sought to compare model outputs and assess the effectiveness of different vaccination strategies in the control of FMD. Using a standardized outbreak scenario based on data from an FMD exercise in the UK in 2010, the study showed general agreement between respective models in terms of the effectiveness of vaccination. Under the scenario assumptions, all models demonstrated that vaccination with 'stamping-out' of infected premises led to a significant reduction in predicted epidemic size and duration compared to the 'stamping-out' strategy alone. For all models there were advantages in vaccinating cattle-only rather than all species, using 3-km vaccination rings immediately around infected premises, and starting vaccination earlier in the control programme. This study has shown that certain vaccination strategies are robust even to substantial differences in model configurations. This result should increase end-user confidence in conclusions drawn from model outputs. These results can be used to support and develop effective policies for FMD control. PMID:25078780

  14. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against a type SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, J. R.; Rowe, C. A.; Butcher, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is the first to describe characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a South African Territories 2 (SAT 2) foot-and-mouth disease virus (isolate Rho 1/48). Twelve MAbs which neutralized homologous virus were characterized in indirect and sandwich ELISA using purified Rho 1/48 virus particles, subunits, trypsin-treated, and chemically denatured virus. All the MAbs inhibited haemagglutination by parental virus. Binding of the MAbs to 73 SAT 2 field isolates was measured in a sandwich ELISA and defined four distinct antigenic regions. Preliminary characterization of escape mutants selected with some of the MAbs using virus neutralization tests, ELISA, and amino acid sequencing is included. MAbs 2, 25, 40, 48 and 64, reacted with a linear epitope on the VP1 loop region. An amino acid change at position 149 (valine to glutamic acid) was detected in mutants selected by MAb 2 and 40 and this eliminated binding and neutralization by all the other MAb. This epitope was conformation-dependent and was conserved in all 73 isolates of SAT 2 examined. Escape mutants isolated with MAb 41 and 44, had changes at positions 156 (glycine to aspartic acid), or 158 (serine to leucine) respectively. These MAbs bound with Rho 1/48 only out of 73 field strain viruses studies and the reactions of MAbs from the other groups was unaltered. MAb 27, 28 and 37 reacted with a conformation-dependent epitope on VP1 which was not conserved in field isolates. All mutants selected by these MAbs had a single amino acid substitution at position 149 (valine to alanine). The same change was always found in field isolates which did not bind MAbs from this group. MAb 11 reacted with a linear epitope associated with amino acids 147 or 148 on VP1 and showed similar binding characteristics to a conformation dependent MAb 7, no amino acid residue changes were found within VP1 for monoclonal antibody 7 mutants. PMID:7691630

  15. A Lagrangian particle model to predict the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D.; Reiczigel, J.; Rubel, F.

    Airborne spread of bioaerosols in the boundary layer over a complex terrain is simulated using a Lagrangian particle model, and applied to modelling the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus. Two case studies are made with study domains located in a hilly region in the northwest of the Styrian capital Graz, the second largest town in Austria. Mountainous terrain as well as inhomogeneous and time varying meteorological conditions prevent from application of so far used Gaussian dispersion models, while the proposed model can handle these realistically. In the model, trajectories of several thousands of particles are computed and the distribution of virus concentration near the ground is calculated. This allows to assess risk of infection areas with respect to animal species of interest, such as cattle, swine or sheep. Meteorological input data like wind field and other variables necessary to compute turbulence were taken from the new pre-operational version of the non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model LMK ( Lokal-Modell-Kürzestfrist) running at the German weather service DWD ( Deutscher Wetterdienst). The LMK model provides meteorological parameters with a spatial resolution of about 2.8 km. To account for the spatial resolution of 400 m used by the Lagrangian particle model, the initial wind field is interpolated upon the finer grid by a mass consistent interpolation method. Case studies depict a significant influence of local wind systems on the spread of virus. Higher virus concentrations at the upwind side of the hills and marginal concentrations in the lee are well observable, as well as canalization effects by valleys. The study demonstrates that the Lagrangian particle model is an appropriate tool for risk assessment of airborne spread of virus by taking into account the realistic orographic and meteorological conditions.

  16. Cyclical Patterns of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Enterovirus A71 in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    NikNadia, NMN; Sam, I-Ching; Rampal, Sanjay; WanNorAmalina, WMZ; NurAtifah, Ghazali; Verasahib, Khebir; Ong, Chia Ching; MohdAdib, MohdAidinniza; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an important emerging pathogen causing large epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. In Malaysia, since the first EV-A71 epidemic in 1997, recurrent cyclical epidemics have occurred every 2–3 years for reasons that remain unclear. We hypothesize that this cyclical pattern is due to changes in population immunity in children (measured as seroprevalence). Neutralizing antibody titers against EV-A71 were measured in 2,141 residual serum samples collected from children ≤12 years old between 1995 and 2012 to determine the seroprevalence of EV-A71. Reported national HFMD incidence was highest in children <2 years, and decreased with age; in support of this, EV-A71 seroprevalence was significantly associated with age, indicating greater susceptibility in younger children. EV-A71 epidemics are also characterized by peaks of increased genetic diversity, often with genotype changes. Cross-sectional time series analysis was used to model the association between EV-A71 epidemic periods and EV-A71 seroprevalence adjusting for age and climatic variables (temperature, rainfall, rain days and ultraviolet radiance). A 10% increase in absolute monthly EV-A71 seroprevalence was associated with a 45% higher odds of an epidemic (adjusted odds ratio, aOR1.45; 95% CI 1.24–1.69; P<0.001). Every 10% decrease in seroprevalence between preceding and current months was associated with a 16% higher odds of an epidemic (aOR = 1.16; CI 1.01–1.34 P<0.034). In summary, the 2–3 year cyclical pattern of EV-A71 epidemics in Malaysia is mainly due to the fall of population immunity accompanying the accumulation of susceptible children between epidemics. This study will impact the future planning, timing and target populations for vaccine programs. PMID:27010319

  17. [Immune response against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle: effect of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Braun, M; Sigal, L; Mundo, S; Ramayo, L; Jar, A M; Gómez, G; Fontanals, A; Mazzuca, G O

    1989-01-01

    Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is one of the most feared animal virus and vaccination still has to be used in many countries. In previous reports, using a murine model, we studied the cellular basis of immune responses against FMDV and were able to show that they are atypical. In cattle, although complete protection may be attained after only one dose of killed virus vaccine, very little is known about protection against FMDV, except for antibody responses, but practically nothing concerning the cellular basis of their immune response. Moreover, since neutralizing titers do not always correlate with protection, the potency of vaccines in controlled by viral challenge. Our aim is to study cellular immune responses against FMDV, and to search for a correlate to protection. As a first step, 55 virgin cattle from a non endemic area (Patagonia) were divided into three groups: C: non immunized controls; HS: immunized with saponine containing vaccine; and EO: with oil emulsified vaccine. After vaccination, they were carried to an endemic area (Buenos Aires), where they were challenged with live FMDV. Animals were bled immediately before and 7 days after challenge, and their white blood cells and lymphocyte subpopulations were counted. All animals showed a marked neutropenia and eosinophilia, significantly higher in HS than in EO and C groups; both parameters were significantly better in the 2nd assay. Total lymphocyte counts were normal. Lymphocyte subpopulations were assessed by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies: their proportions were normal and did not change during illness in group C. Several factors could have induced the observed eosinophilia and neutropenia: parasites, stress, saponine, others.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2562135

  18. A dynamic model for the outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, C-C; Jiang, D-S; Wu, H-M; Chen, H-H

    2016-05-01

    The first large outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with severe complications primarily caused by enterovirus 71 was reported in Taiwan in 1998. Surveillance of HFMD to evaluate the spread of HFMD with and without infection control policy is needed. We developed a new dynamic epidemic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model to fit the surveillance data on containing valuable information on the severity of HFMD in order to accurately estimate the basic reproductive number (R 0) of HFMD. After fitting the empirical data, in conjunction with other relevant parameters extracted from the literature, the estimated transmission coefficients were close to 5 × 10-7 (per day) and the proportion of severe HFMD cases ranged between 0 and 0·0036 (per day). Taking into account the distribution of all parameters considered in our dynamic epidemic model, the R 0 computed was 1·37 (95% confidence interval 0·24-5·84), suggesting a higher likelihood of the spread of HFMD if no infection control policy is provided. The isolation strategy against the spread of HFMD not only delayed the epidemic peak with the delayed time ranging from 4 weeks for only 20% isolation to 47 weeks for 100% isolation but also reduced total number of HFMD cases with the percentage of reduction ranging from 1·3% for only 20% isolation to 13·3% for 100% isolation. The proposed model can also be flexible for evaluating the effectiveness of two other possible policies for containing HFMD, quarantine and vaccination (if the vaccine can be developed). PMID:26567705

  19. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in China: Patterns of Spread and Transmissibility during 2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Feng, Zijian; Yang, Yang; Self, Steve; Gao, Yongjun; Longini, Ira M.; Wakefield, Jon; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Liping; Chen, Xi; Yao, Lena; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Wang, Zijun; Yang, Weizhong

    2011-01-01

    Background Large outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) were observed in both 2008 and 2009 in China. Methods Using the national surveillance data since May 2, 2008, epidemiological characteristics of the outbreaks are summarized, and the transmissibility of the disease and the effects of potential risk factors were evaluated via a susceptible-infectious-recovered transmission model. Results Children of 1.0–2.9 years were the most susceptible group to HFMD (odds ratios [OR] > 2.3 as compared to other age groups). Infant cases had the highest incidences of severe disease (ORs > 1.4) and death (ORs > 2.4), as well as the longest delay from symptom onset to diagnosis (2.3 days). Males were more susceptible to HFMD than females (OR=1.56 [95% confidence interval=1.56, 1.57]). An one day delay in diagnosis was associated with increases in the odds of severe disease by 40.3% [38.7%, 41.9%] and in the odds of death by 53.7% [43.6%, 64.5%]. Compared to Coxsackie A16, enterovirus (EV) 71 is more strongly associated with severe disease (OR=15.6 [13.4, 18.1]) and death (OR=40.7 [13.0, 127.3]). The estimated local effective reproductive numbers among prefectures ranged from 1.4 to 1.6 (median=1.4) in spring and stayed below 1.2 in other seasons. A higher risk of transmission was associated with temperatures in the range of 70-80F, higher relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, population density, and the periods in which schools were open. Conclusion HFMD is a moderately transmittable infectious disease, mainly among pre-school children. EV71 was responsible for most severe cases and fatalities. Mixing of asymptomatically infected children in schools might have contributed to the spread of HFMD. Timely diagnosis may be a key to reducing the high mortality rate in infants. PMID:21968769

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease in the Americas: epidemiology and ecologic changes affecting distribution.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Victor

    2004-10-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease(FMD) was first recorded in South America (SA) circa 1870, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in Uruguay, and in southern Brazil as a result of the introduction of cattle from Europe during the early days of colonization. Livestock production to trade with neighboring countries was established in the La Plata Region, and the trade of livestock and products with Chile, northeastern and central western states of Brazil, to Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay spread FMD, which reached Venezuela and Colombia in the 1950s and finally Ecuador in 1961. The traditional forms of livestock husbandry influence the diffusion and maintenance of the FMD virus (FMDV) in different areas. Cattle production in SA depends mainly on a strong relation between cattle-calf operations and fattening operations in a complementary cycle, revealing the vulnerability and susceptibility of these areas to FMDV. Understanding the relationship between time-space behavior of the disease and the forms of production defines the FMD ecosystems, a key concept to elaborating the control/eradication strategies of national FMD eradication programs, which must be modified when trade opportunities between zones of differing sanitary status change. The role of other susceptible species besides bovines, including wildlife, in maintaining and spreading FMDV has been the subject of several studies, but in SA, bovines are so far considered to determine disease presentation. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) have been implicated in the spread of the disease between farms in at least one case in Brazil. Sheep are almost on a par with bovine in terms of number, especially in the Southern Cone, but their role in the maintenance of infection is not considered important, possibly owing to rearing practices. Camelid populations in the Andean region do not play an important role in the maintenance of FMD, because of short persistence of infection and low population densities in these species. The importance of wildlife

  1. Risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, E; Zamir, L; Hamd, F; Even Tov, B; Klement, E

    2015-06-15

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. Recurrence of FMD outbreaks in Israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. Grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. Nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of FMD among these herds have never been investigated. In 2011, Israel faced a large scale outbreak of serotype O FMD virus, which strongly affected beef cattle. We conducted a case-control study of 44 beef cattle herds grazing in the Golan Heights in order to determine the risk factors for FMDV infection. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimation equation (GEE) with a logit link function. Multivariable analysis was conducted for factors with p-value lower than 0.1 in the univariable analysis. The presence of calves under 6 months of age was found as a significant risk factor for FMDV infection in the univariable analysis (odds ratio (OR)=5.95, confidence intervals of 95% (CI95%)=1.59-22.29, p=0.008). This was also the only variable that remained statistically significant in the multivariable analysis. Herds in which more than 6 months between vaccination of adults and exposure had elapsed were in higher risk, albeit not statistically significant, for the occurrence of FMDV infection (OR=3.29, CI95%=0.83-12.99, p=0.089). The higher probability of infection in herds, which included young calves may be a result of their higher susceptibility due to administration of only one or no vaccine prior to the outbreak. The results of the study thus support increasing the frequency of vaccination of both cows and calves in grazing beef herds. Intensifying surveillance where young calves are abundant may also prove efficient for early detection of infected herds and for mitigating outbreaks

  2. Decisions on control of foot-and-mouth disease informed using model predictions.

    PubMed

    Halasa, T; Willeberg, P; Christiansen, L E; Boklund, A; Alkhamis, M; Perez, A; Enøe, C

    2013-11-01

    The decision on whether or not to change the control strategy, such as introducing emergency vaccination, is perhaps one of the most difficult decisions faced by the veterinary authorities during a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic. A simple tool that may predict the epidemic outcome and consequences would be useful to assist the veterinary authorities in the decision-making process. A previously proposed simple quantitative tool based on the first 14 days outbreaks (FFO) of FMD was used with results from an FMD simulation exercise. Epidemic outcomes included the number of affected herds, epidemic duration, geographical size and costs. The first 14 days spatial spread (FFS) was also included to further support the prediction. The epidemic data was obtained from a Danish version (DTU-DADS) of a pre-existing FMD simulation model (Davis Animal Disease Spread - DADS) adapted to model the spread of FMD in Denmark. The European Union (EU) and Danish regulations for FMD control were used in the simulation. The correlations between FFO and FFS and the additional number of affected herds after day 14 following detection of the first infected herd were 0.66 and 0.82, respectively. The variation explained by the FFO at day 14 following detection was high (P-value<0.001). This indicates that the FFO may take a part in the decision of whether or not to intensify FMD control, for instance by introducing emergency vaccination and/or pre-emptive depopulation, which might prevent a "catastrophic situation". A significant part of the variation was explained by supplementing the model with the FFS (P-value<0.001). Furthermore, the type of the index-herd was also a significant predictor of the epidemic outcomes (P-value<0.05). The results of the current study suggest that national veterinary authorities should consider to model their national situation and to use FFO and FFS to help planning and updating their contingency plans and FMD emergency control strategies. PMID:24080392

  3. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers’ knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers’ knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; ‘under-reporting’ was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and ‘selling FMD-infected animals’ is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should

  4. Simulation modelling of a hypothetical introduction of foot-and-mouth disease into Alberta.

    PubMed

    Sanson, R L; Dubé, C; Cork, S C; Frederickson, R; Morley, C

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the use of simulation modelling to evaluate the predicted benefits of an effective livestock traceability system in responding to a hypothetical introduction of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in to the province of Alberta, Canada, and whether or not the implementation of emergency ring vaccination in addition to a standard stamping-out (SO) strategy would lead to smaller and shorter epidemics. Three introduction scenarios were defined, with the primary case in either an intensive beef feedlot operation, an extensive cow-calf operation or in a swine operation. Disease spread was simulated using, three levels of tracing effectiveness, five types of vaccination zone, three different vaccination start times, three lengths of vaccination campaigns, two levels of culling resource and using FMD strains with two different virulence levels. Using standard SO procedures (without vaccination), improving traceability effectiveness from a level whereby only 65% of movements were traced within 5-7 days, to a capability whereby all movements were traced within 1 day, led to a reduction in the number of infected premises (IPs) between 18.7 and 64.5%, an average saving of CAN$29,000,000 in livestock compensation costs alone, and a reduction in the length of epidemics ranging from 1 to 22 days. The implementation of emergency vaccination also led to a reduction in the number of IPs and a shortening of epidemics. The effects were more pronounced when the higher virulence settings were used, with a predicted reduction in IPs of 16.6-68.7% (mean=48.6%) and epidemics shortened by up to 37 days. Multi-variable analyses showed these effects were highly significant, after accounting for the incursion location, virulence of virus and time of first detection. The results clearly demonstrated the benefits of having effective traceability systems with rapid query and reporting functionality. The results also supported the value of early vaccination as an adjunct to SO in

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and mouth disease infection in cattle in Israel.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, Ehud; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Abed El Khaliq, Mohamad; Sharir, Beni; Berke, Olaf; Klement, Eyal

    2016-08-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease with major economic consequences. In Israel, FMD epidemics recur almost every year and mostly affect cattle. The highest number of outbreaks occurs among beef cattle farms, followed by feedlot farms and dairy farms. We performed several cross-sectional serological studies in Israel during 2006-2014, aimed to reveal if the virus is endemic among cattle and to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP) of FMD virus. Additionally we aimed to determine the risk factors for such sero-positivity. A risk based sampling was performed and the presence of anti-NSP antibodies was estimated using the PrioCHECK(®) ELISA kit. Beef cattle showed the highest sero-prevalence (13.2%, CI95%=10.8-15.8%). Higher FMD sero-prevalence in beef cattle sampled in 2014 was associated with previous FMD outbreaks in the farm and with age (adult cows versus calves (p<0.05)). Sero-prevalence in feedlot calves was significantly lower with only one sero-positive calf out of 256 (0.4%, CI95%=0-2.2%). Sero-prevalence among dairy cattle was 2.7% (CI95%=2-3.6%) with location of up to 3km from FMD outbreaks in multiple farms and location of up to 5km from the nearest border standing out as significant (p<0.05) risk factors for sero-positivity. The extremely low sero-prevalence of FMD in feedlot cattle and the significant association of infection in beef cattle with previous outbreaks suggest absence of virus circulation between these two populations during the study period, although previous data show that during outbreaks such transmission can occur. Low sero-prevalence in dairy cattle located in areas adjacent to previous FMD outbreaks may be attributed to intense routine vaccination and stringent control measures that were applied during outbreaks such as emergency vaccination and strict quarantine. Early detection of FMD outbreaks among grazing beef herds as well as the implementation

  6. Farmers’ Intentions to Implement Foot and Mouth Disease Control Measures in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jemberu, Wudu T.; Mourits, M. C. M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore farmers’ intentions to implement foot and mouth disease (FMD) control in Ethiopia, and to identify perceptions about the disease and its control measures that influence these intentions using the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework. Data were collected using questionnaires from 293 farmers in three different production systems. The influence of perceptions on the intentions to implement control measures were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The effect of socio-demographic and husbandry variables on perceptions that were found to significantly influence the intentions were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. Almost all farmers (99%) intended to implement FMD vaccination free of charge. The majority of farmers in the pastoral (94%) and market oriented (92%) systems also had the intention to implement vaccination with charge but only 42% of the crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to do so. Only 2% of pastoral and 18% of crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction continuously. These proportions increased to 11% for pastoral and 50% for crop-livestock mixed farmers when the measure is applied only during an outbreak. The majority of farmers in the market oriented system (>80%) had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure, both continuously and during an outbreak. Among the HBM perception constructs, perceived barrier was found to be the only significant predictor of the intention to implement vaccination. Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit and perceived barrier were the significant predictors of the intention for herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure. In turn, the predicting perceived barrier on vaccination control varied significantly with the production system and the age of farmers. The significant HBM perception predictors on herd isolation and animal movement

  7. Farmers' Intentions to Implement Foot and Mouth Disease Control Measures in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jemberu, Wudu T; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' intentions to implement foot and mouth disease (FMD) control in Ethiopia, and to identify perceptions about the disease and its control measures that influence these intentions using the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework. Data were collected using questionnaires from 293 farmers in three different production systems. The influence of perceptions on the intentions to implement control measures were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The effect of socio-demographic and husbandry variables on perceptions that were found to significantly influence the intentions were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. Almost all farmers (99%) intended to implement FMD vaccination free of charge. The majority of farmers in the pastoral (94%) and market oriented (92%) systems also had the intention to implement vaccination with charge but only 42% of the crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to do so. Only 2% of pastoral and 18% of crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction continuously. These proportions increased to 11% for pastoral and 50% for crop-livestock mixed farmers when the measure is applied only during an outbreak. The majority of farmers in the market oriented system (>80%) had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure, both continuously and during an outbreak. Among the HBM perception constructs, perceived barrier was found to be the only significant predictor of the intention to implement vaccination. Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit and perceived barrier were the significant predictors of the intention for herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure. In turn, the predicting perceived barrier on vaccination control varied significantly with the production system and the age of farmers. The significant HBM perception predictors on herd isolation and animal movement

  8. Circadian Rhythm Disruption Was Observed in Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu; Jiang, Zhou; Xiao, Guoguang; Cheng, Suting; Wen, Yang; Wan, Chaomin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with central nerve system complications may rapidly progress to fulminated cardiorespiratory failure, with higher mortality and worse prognosis. It has been reported that circadian rhythms of heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate are useful in predicting prognosis of severe cardiovascular and neurological diseases. The present study aims to investigate the characteristics of the circadian rhythms of HR, respiratory rate, and temperature in HFMD patients with neurological complications. Hospitalized HFMD patients including 33 common cases (common group), 61 severe cases (severe group), and 9 critical cases (critical group) were contrasted retrospectively. Their HR, respiratory rate, and temperatures were measured every 4 hours during the first 48-hour in the hospital. Data were analyzed with the least-squares fit of a 24-hour cosine function by the single cosinor and population-mean cosinor method. Results of population-mean cosinor analysis demonstrated that the circadian rhythm of HR, respiratory rate, and temperature was present in the common and severe group, but absent in the critical group. The midline-estimating statistic of rhythm (MESOR) (P = 0.016) and acrophase (P < 0.01) of temperature and respiratory rate were significantly different among 3 groups. But no statistical difference of amplitude in temperature and respiratory rate was observed among the 3 groups (P = 0.14). MESOR value of HR (P < 0.001) was significantly different in 3 groups. However, amplitude and acrophase revealed no statistical difference in circadian characteristics of HR among 3 groups. Compared with the common group, the MESOR of temperature and respiratory rate was significantly higher, and acrophase of temperature and respiratory rate was 2 hours ahead in the severe group, critical HFMD patients lost their population-circadian rhythm of temperature, HR, and respiratory rate. The high values of temperature and respiratory

  9. Circadian rhythm disruption was observed in hand, foot, and mouth disease patients.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Jiang, Zhou; Xiao, Guoguang; Cheng, Suting; Wen, Yang; Wan, Chaomin

    2015-03-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with central nerve system complications may rapidly progress to fulminated cardiorespiratory failure, with higher mortality and worse prognosis. It has been reported that circadian rhythms of heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate are useful in predicting prognosis of severe cardiovascular and neurological diseases. The present study aims to investigate the characteristics of the circadian rhythms of HR, respiratory rate, and temperature in HFMD patients with neurological complications. Hospitalized HFMD patients including 33 common cases (common group), 61 severe cases (severe group), and 9 critical cases (critical group) were contrasted retrospectively. Their HR, respiratory rate, and temperatures were measured every 4 hours during the first 48-hour in the hospital. Data were analyzed with the least-squares fit of a 24-hour cosine function by the single cosinor and population-mean cosinor method. Results of population-mean cosinor analysis demonstrated that the circadian rhythm of HR, respiratory rate, and temperature was present in the common and severe group, but absent in the critical group. The midline-estimating statistic of rhythm (MESOR) (P = 0.016) and acrophase (P < 0.01) of temperature and respiratory rate were significantly different among 3 groups. But no statistical difference of amplitude in temperature and respiratory rate was observed among the 3 groups (P = 0.14). MESOR value of HR (P < 0.001) was significantly different in 3 groups. However, amplitude and acrophase revealed no statistical difference in circadian characteristics of HR among 3 groups. Compared with the common group, the MESOR of temperature and respiratory rate was significantly higher, and acrophase of temperature and respiratory rate was 2 hours ahead in the severe group, critical HFMD patients lost their population-circadian rhythm of temperature, HR, and respiratory rate. The high values of temperature and respiratory rate for

  10. Phylodynamics of Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. IMPORTANCE EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a

  11. Foot and mouth disease risk assessment in Mongolia--local expertise to support national policy.

    PubMed

    Wieland, B; Batsukh, B; Enktuvshin, S; Odontsetseg, N; Schuppers, M

    2015-06-01

    To address weaknesses in the current foot and mouth disease (FMD) control system and to inform the formulation of a national control strategy, Mongolia conducted two separate risk assessments, one for the Eastern region which in the past has seen re-current introductions of infection, and one for the Western region, where freedom from disease had been demonstrated over several years until FMD was re-introduced in 2013. The risk assessment was conducted in three stages: first local experts developed entry, exposure and consequence pathways during separate workshops in both regions, then data was collected, compiled and analysed, and finally, during a second workshop local experts provided risk estimations for both regions and identified recommendations for risk management. Risk estimates for each pathway were individually recorded, which ensured that views of all experts were equally represented in the risk estimation and which allowed assessing possible impact of different factors related to the background of participating local experts on risk estimates. Entry risk pathways with highest risk estimates were related to livestock movements and in the consequence assessment due to direct contacts. Uncertainty, for which disagreement between participants acted as a proxy, was high in entry pathways and in the assessment of effectiveness of control measures. The risk assessment was conducted with local experts who had no previous risk assessment experience. Through their involvement in the whole process however, they assumed a high level of ownership and despite lively discussions for some risk pathways, a high level of agreement was achieved and credible results were communicated to decision makers. Especially valuable were the derived recommendations. Through the risk assessment the local experts gained a thorough understanding of the FMD risk which resulted in sensible and realistic recommendations, which, if implemented, can lead to a sustainable strengthening of

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and mouth disease infection in small ruminants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, Ehud; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Berdenstain, Svetlane; Berke, Olaf; Klement, Eyal

    2016-03-01

    During the last decade, 27% of the foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Israel affected small ruminant (SR) farms. FMD outbreaks reoccur in Israel despite vaccination of all livestock and application of control measures. We performed a cross-sectional serological study, aimed at estimating the prevalence of FMD infection in SR in Israel and the possible risk factors for infection. Overall, 2305 samples of adult sheep (n=1948) and goats (n=357) were collected during 2011-14 in two separate surveys. One survey was based on random sampling of intensive management system farms and the other was originally aimed at the detection of Brucella melitensis at extensive and semi-intensive management system farms. Sera were tested by NS blocking ELISA (PrioCHECK(®)). The serological prevalence of antibodies against non structural proteins (NSP) of FMD virus was estimated at 3.7% (95% confidence interval (CI95%)=3.0% -4.5%). Additionally, a significantly lower infection prevalence (p value=0.049) of 1.0% (CI95%=0.1%-3.6%) was found in a small sample (197 sera) of young SR, collected during 2012. The positive samples from adult SR were scattered all over Israel, though two significant infection clusters were found by the spatial scan statistic. Occurrence of an outbreak on a non-SR farm within 5km distance was associated with a fifteen times increase in the risk of FMD infection of SR in the univariable analysis. Yet, this variable was not included in the multivariable analysis due to collinearities with the other independent variables. Multivariable logistic regression modeling found significantly negative associations (P value<0.05) of grazing and being in a herd larger than 500 animals with risk of infection. Grazing herds and herds larger than 500 animals, both represent farms that are intensively or semi-intensively managed. Higher maintenance of bio-safety, fewer introductions of new animals and higher vaccination compliance in these farms may explain their lower

  13. Exposure of in vitro-produced bovine embryos to foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Marguant-Le Guienne, B; Rémond, M; Cosquer, R; Humblot, P; Kaiser, C; Lebreton, F; Crucière, C; Guerin, B; Laporte, J; Thibier, M

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) interacts with in vitro produced (IVP) bovine embryos. One milliliter of a suspension of FMDV (2 x 10(7) TCID50/mL) was added to several batches of these embryos 7 d after in vitro fertilization, by which time they had either developed to the morula/blastocyst stage (n = 256) or degenerated (n = 260). Six experiments were performed in which developed or degenerated batches of embryos were incubated with FMDV for periods of 1 h (3), 2 h (2) or 4h (1). After this, the embryos were washed 10 times according to the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS), then pooled and ground up to form a suspension, and assayed on cell cultures for FMDV. The cell cultures were observed daily for cytopathic effects for 3 d post exposure. In addition to the cell culture method, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to assay for the presence of the virus in the washing fluids. Assays for FMDV were also conducted on the first and second wash and on the pooled sample constituting the eight, ninth and tenth wash. With the exception of the second wash from a batch of embryos exposed to FMDV for 2 h, all samples of the first and second wash produced FMDV cytopathic effects, but none occurred with the pooled samples of the 8th, 9th and 10th wash. FMDV was also isolated from all but 1 of the batches of embryos after 1 h of incubation, from 1 of 4 batches after 2 h of incubation and from all batches after 4 h incubation. By contrast, the presence of virus could not be demonstrated by PCR based on the technique used here. These results show that 7 d old IVP bovine embryos can retain FMDV after washing, unlike in vivo-derived embryos, which do not appear to carry risks of FMDV transmission when washed according to IETS recommendations. Stricter controls are, therefore, necessary when using IVP embryos from cattle in a non-FMD-free zone in domestic or international trade. PMID:10734479

  14. Seroprevalence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Susceptible Wildlife in Israel.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, Ehud; King, Roni; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemics recur in Israel almost every year. Wild even-toed ungulates are seldom affected during these epidemics. The seroprevalence of FMD in wild ungulates during 2000 and 2005-2013 was estimated using anti-non-structural proteins ELISA. Overall, 209 samples were tested, comprising sera of 120 wild boar (Sus scrofa lybicus), 64 mountain gazelles (Gazella gazella gazella), 6 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and 19 Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica). None of the tested animals presented clinical signs of FMD during blood collection. Sixteen samples [7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI95%) = 4.4-12.1%)] were found to be seropositive. Fifteen out of 120 samples (12.5%) from wild boar were seropositive, compared with only 1 out of 89 samples (1.1%) from all other species combined (Fisher's exact test: p = 0.003). Most of the positive samples obtained from wild boar [13/15 (86.7%)] were collected during 2007, and analysis was restricted to that year and species only. The seroprevalence of FMD in this species during 2007 was estimated at 54.2% (CI95% = 32.8-74.5%; n = 24). A significant infection cluster, comprising nine seropositive samples collected in three different locations, was identified in the north-eastern part of Israel. These findings indicate that wild boar was affected during the 2007 FMD epidemic, even though wild boar presenting FMD typical clinical signs were not observed during that year. The actual role of wild boar in the spread of FMD virus in this epidemic, however, could not be determined. The negligible seroprevalence of FMD found for all other surveillance years indicates that ongoing circulation of FMD among wildlife in Israel is unlikely. It is concluded that while the role of wildlife species in the dynamics of FMD in Israel is usually limited, there might be occasions, in which wildlife plays a part in the spread of the virus. PMID:27200364

  15. Genotypes of the Enterovirus Causing Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Shanghai, China, 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Menghua; Su, Liyun; Cao, Lingfeng; Zhong, Huaqing; Dong, Niuniu; Dong, Zuoquan; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic HFMD (hand foot and mouth disease, HFMD) cases and outbreaks caused by etiologic agents other than EV71 and CA16 have increased globally. We conducted this study to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of enteroviruses, especially the non-EV71 and non-CA16 enteroviruses, causing HFMD in Shanghai. Clinical specimens were collected from patients with a diagnosis of HFMD. A partial length of VP1 was amplified with RT-PCR and subjected to direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using MEGA 5.0. The ages of the HFMD cases ranged from 3 to 96 months, and the male/female ratio was 1.41. The median hospital stay was 2.96 days. Up to 18.0% of patients had neurologic system complications such as encephalitis, meningoencephalitis or meningitis. Of the 480 samples, 417 were positive for enterovirus (86.9%) with RT-PCR. A total of 13 enterovirus genotypes were identified. The most frequent genotypes were CA6 (31.9%), EV71 (30.6%), CA16 (8.8%) and CA10 (7.5%). Infections with CA6, EV71, CA16 and CA10 were prevalent throughout the years of study, while the proportion of CA6 notably increased from Sep. 2012 to Dec. 2013. Phylogenetic analyses showed that EV71 strains belonged to the C4a subgenogroup and CA16 was identified as B1b subgenogroup. The CA6 strains were assigned to genogroup F, whereas the CA10 strains were assigned to genogroup D. Patients infected with CA6 were typically younger, had a shorter hospital stay and had a lower incidence of neurologic system complications when compared to patients infected with EV71. Our study demonstrates that the enterovirus genotypes causing HFMD were diversified, and there was an increasing prevalence of the non-EV71 and non-CA16 enteroviruses from 2012 to 2013. CA6 was the most predominant pathogen causing HFMD from Sep. 2012 to Dec. 2013, and it often caused relatively mild HFMD symptoms. Most severe HFMD cases were associated with EV71 infection. PMID:26398767

  16. Effect of different culture systems on the production of foot and mouth disease trivalent vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Amr Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of the stationary rawx, roller, and the suspension cell culture systems on the total virus yield infectivity and antigenicity. Materials and Methods: Three serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) (serotype A, O and SAT-2) were inoculated separately into baby hamster kidney-21 cell line in rawx, roller, and suspension cultivation systems using multiplicity of infection (1:100). Samples were taken from the total virus yield from each system at 15, 18, 21, and 24 h post-inoculation. Testing the total virus yield infectivity through virus titration and antigenicity through estimation of complement fixing titer and 146S content and evaluation of the potency of the vaccine prepared from the different cultivation systems were done. Results: The results showed that the FMDV titer of serotype A, O, and SAT-2 obtained from the roller cultivation system showed the highest level followed by suspension cultivation system then the rawx cultivation system. The FMDV titer showed its highest level at 21 h post-inoculation in all the cultivation systems and then decline at 24 h post-inoculation. The antigenicity reached its highest value content at 18 h post-inoculation either by complement fixation test or by quantifying the 146S intact virion. Montanide ISA 206 oil inactivated trivalent vaccines were prepared from the tested serotypes (A Iran O5. O Panasia and SAT-2/EGY/2012) harvested at 18 h post-inoculation from the 3 culture systems. The results of tracing the antibody response showed that the mean antibody response from the roller cultivation system start its protective antibody titer earlier at 2 weeks post-vaccination (WPV) than the vaccine prepared from the other two cultivation system and the immune protection period lasts longer for 36 WPV for the roller cultivation system vaccine than the other two cultivation systems. Conclusion: The best cultivation system used for the production of FMD vaccine regarding its

  17. Seroprevalence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Susceptible Wildlife in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Elnekave, Ehud; King, Roni; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemics recur in Israel almost every year. Wild even-toed ungulates are seldom affected during these epidemics. The seroprevalence of FMD in wild ungulates during 2000 and 2005–2013 was estimated using anti-non-structural proteins ELISA. Overall, 209 samples were tested, comprising sera of 120 wild boar (Sus scrofa lybicus), 64 mountain gazelles (Gazella gazella gazella), 6 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and 19 Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica). None of the tested animals presented clinical signs of FMD during blood collection. Sixteen samples [7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI95%) = 4.4–12.1%)] were found to be seropositive. Fifteen out of 120 samples (12.5%) from wild boar were seropositive, compared with only 1 out of 89 samples (1.1%) from all other species combined (Fisher’s exact test: p = 0.003). Most of the positive samples obtained from wild boar [13/15 (86.7%)] were collected during 2007, and analysis was restricted to that year and species only. The seroprevalence of FMD in this species during 2007 was estimated at 54.2% (CI95% = 32.8–74.5%; n = 24). A significant infection cluster, comprising nine seropositive samples collected in three different locations, was identified in the north-eastern part of Israel. These findings indicate that wild boar was affected during the 2007 FMD epidemic, even though wild boar presenting FMD typical clinical signs were not observed during that year. The actual role of wild boar in the spread of FMD virus in this epidemic, however, could not be determined. The negligible seroprevalence of FMD found for all other surveillance years indicates that ongoing circulation of FMD among wildlife in Israel is unlikely. It is concluded that while the role of wildlife species in the dynamics of FMD in Israel is usually limited, there might be occasions, in which wildlife plays a part in the spread of the virus. PMID:27200364

  18. Recombinant adeno-vaccine expressing enterovirus 71-like particles against hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Yu, Shu-Ling; Wu, Shang-Rung; Lin, Hsiao-Yu; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Huang, Chieh; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). There is not currently a vaccine available against HFMD, even though a newly developed formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccine has been tested in clinical trial and has shown efficacy against EV71. We have designed and genetically engineered a recombinant adenovirus Ad-EVVLP with the EV71 P1 and 3CD genes inserted into the E1/E3-deleted adenoviral genome. Ad-EVVLP were produced in HEK-293A cells. In addition to Ad-EVVLP particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) formed from the physical association of EV71 capsid proteins, VP0, VP1, and VP3 expressed from P1 gene products. They were digested by 3CD protease and confirmed to be produced by Ad-EVVLP-producing cells, as determined using transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Mouse immunogenicity studies showed that Ad-EVVLP-immunized antisera neutralized the EV71 B4 and C2 genotypes. Activation of VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-γ T cells associated with Th1/Th2-balanced IFN-ɣ, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-13 was induced; in contrast, FI-EV71 induced only Th2-mediated neutralizing antibody against EV71 and low VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The antiviral immunity against EV71 was clearly demonstrated in mice vaccinated with Ad-EVVLP in a hSCARB2 transgenic (hSCARB2-Tg) mouse challenge model. Ad-EVVLP-vaccinated mice were 100% protected and demonstrated reduced viral load in both the CNS and muscle tissues. Ad-EVVLP successfully induced anti-CVA16 immunities. Although antisera had no neutralizing activity against CVA16, the 3C-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-γ T cells were identified, which could mediate protection against CVA16 challenge. FI-EV71 did not induce 3C-mediated immunity and had no efficacy against the CVA16 challenge. These results suggest that Ad-EVVLP can enhance neutralizing antibody and protective cellular immune responses to prevent EV71 infection and cellular immune

  19. Prevalence of enteroviruses in children with and without hand, foot, and mouth disease in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of human enteroviruses (HEVs) among healthy children, their parents, and children with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Methods We conducted a case–control study that included throat samples from 579 children with HFMD and from 254 healthy controls. Throat samples from 49 households (98 parents and 53 healthy children) were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to study genetic relationships of EV71 strains. Results The HEV positive rate in HFMD patients was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (76.0% vs. 23.2%, P < 0.001). The EV71 (43.7% vs. 15.0%, P < 0.001), CVA16 (18.0% vs. 2.8%, P < 0.001), and CVA10 (5.7% vs. 0.8%, P = 0.001) serotypes were significantly overrepresented in HFMD patients in comparison to healthy children. Other HEV serotypes were detected with comparable frequency in cases and controls. The HEV positive rate in severe HFMD patients was significantly higher than that in mild group (82.1% vs. 73.8%, P = 0.04). The EV71 (55.0% vs. 39.7%, P = 0.001) and CVA16 (11. 9% vs. 20.0%, P = 0.024) positive rate differed significantly between severe and mild HFMD patients. Other HEV serotypes were detected with comparable frequency between severe and mild HFMD patients. Among 49 households, 22 households (44.9%) had at least 1 family member positive for HEV. Children had significantly higher HEV positive rate than adult (28.3% vs. 14.3%, P = 0.037). The HEV positive rate was similar between mothers and fathers (12.24% vs. 16.32%, P = 0.56). The VP1 sequences of EV71 from HFMD patients and healthy children were nearly identical and all were clustered in the same clade, C4a. Conclusions Our study demonstrated the co-circulation of multiple HEV serotypes in children with and without HFMD during epidemic. Our study deserves the attention on HFMD control. PMID:24370001

  20. Recombinant Adeno-Vaccine Expressing Enterovirus 71-Like Particles against Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Yu, Shu-Ling; Wu, Shang-Rung; Lin, Hsiao-Yu; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Huang, Chieh; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). There is not currently a vaccine available against HFMD, even though a newly developed formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccine has been tested in clinical trial and has shown efficacy against EV71. We have designed and genetically engineered a recombinant adenovirus Ad-EVVLP with the EV71 P1 and 3CD genes inserted into the E1/E3-deleted adenoviral genome. Ad-EVVLP were produced in HEK-293A cells. In addition to Ad-EVVLP particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) formed from the physical association of EV71 capsid proteins, VP0, VP1, and VP3 expressed from P1 gene products. They were digested by 3CD protease and confirmed to be produced by Ad-EVVLP-producing cells, as determined using transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Mouse immunogenicity studies showed that Ad-EVVLP-immunized antisera neutralized the EV71 B4 and C2 genotypes. Activation of VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-γ T cells associated with Th1/Th2-balanced IFN-ɣ, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-13 was induced; in contrast, FI-EV71 induced only Th2-mediated neutralizing antibody against EV71 and low VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The antiviral immunity against EV71 was clearly demonstrated in mice vaccinated with Ad-EVVLP in a hSCARB2 transgenic (hSCARB2-Tg) mouse challenge model. Ad-EVVLP-vaccinated mice were 100% protected and demonstrated reduced viral load in both the CNS and muscle tissues. Ad-EVVLP successfully induced anti-CVA16 immunities. Although antisera had no neutralizing activity against CVA16, the 3C-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-γ T cells were identified, which could mediate protection against CVA16 challenge. FI-EV71 did not induce 3C-mediated immunity and had no efficacy against the CVA16 challenge. These results suggest that Ad-EVVLP can enhance neutralizing antibody and protective cellular immune responses to prevent EV71 infection and cellular immune

  1. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    PubMed

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development. PMID:23413740

  2. The leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus: structure-function relationships in a proteolytic virulence factor

    PubMed Central

    Steinberger, Jutta; Skern, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus, inhibits the host innate immune response by at least three different mechanisms. The most well characterised is the prevention of the synthesis of cytokines such as interferons immediately after infection, brought about by specific proteolytic cleavage of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4G. This prevents the recruitment of capped cellular mRNA; the viral RNA can however be translated under these conditions. The two other mechanisms are the induction of NF-κB cleavage and the deubiquitination of immune signalling molecules. This review focuses on the structure-function relationships in Lpro responsible for these widely divergent activities. PMID:24670358

  3. Temporal assessment of seroconversion in response to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Kilgallon, C P; Bailey, T A; O'Donovan, D; Wernery, U; Alexandersen, S

    2008-12-13

    Ten male Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) were vaccinated with a commercially available standard aqueous foot-and-mouth-disease vaccine containing aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, and their antibody titres against serotypes O and A were measured using solid-phase blocking elisa and the virus neutralisation test. Mean elisa antibody titres greater than 1.45 log(10) were recorded for serotype A, but low elisa titres were recorded for serotype 0; low titres were recorded by VNT for both serotypes. PMID:19074789

  4. Effect of the nucleotides surrounding the start codon on the translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Ma, X X; Feng, Y P; Gu, Y X; Zhou, J H; Ma, Z R

    2016-06-01

    As for the alternative AUGs in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), nucleotide bias of the context flanking the AUG(2nd) could be used as a strong signal to initiate translation. To determine the role of the specific nucleotide context, dicistronic reporter constructs were engineered to contain different versions of nucleotide context linking between internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and downstream gene. The results indicate that under FMDV IRES-dependent mechanism, the nucleotide contexts flanking start codon can influence the translation initiation efficiencies. The most optimal sequences for both start codons have proved to be UUU AUG(1st) AAC and AAG AUG(2nd) GAA. PMID:27265464

  5. Genome sequences of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease viruses from Egypt and Palestinian Autonomous Territories (Gaza Strip).

    PubMed

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Knowles, Nick J; Hammond, Jef; King, Donald P

    2012-08-01

    Two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome sequences have been determined for isolates collected from recent field outbreaks in North Africa (Egypt) and the Middle East (Palestinian Autonomous Territories). These data represent the first examples of complete genomic sequences for the FMDV SAT 2 topotype VII, which is thought to be endemic in countries immediately to the south of the Sahara desert. Further studies are now urgently required to provide insights into the epidemiological links between these outbreaks and to define the pathogenicity of this emerging lineage. PMID:22843860

  6. Genome Sequences of SAT 2 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Egypt and Palestinian Autonomous Territories (Gaza Strip)

    PubMed Central

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Knowles, Nick J.; Hammond, Jef

    2012-01-01

    Two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome sequences have been determined for isolates collected from recent field outbreaks in North Africa (Egypt) and the Middle East (Palestinian Autonomous Territories). These data represent the first examples of complete genomic sequences for the FMDV SAT 2 topotype VII, which is thought to be endemic in countries immediately to the south of the Sahara desert. Further studies are now urgently required to provide insights into the epidemiological links between these outbreaks and to define the pathogenicity of this emerging lineage. PMID:22843860

  7. Comparison of Serum Protection Tests in Guinea-pigs and Mice for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Antibody Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Raymundo G.

    1963-01-01

    A comparison of serum protection tests carried out in guinea-pigs, young adult mice and suckling mice for evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease antibody is described in this paper. The results indicate that the test performed in young adult mice is the most accurate and consistent. The dose of serum giving the 50 per cent lesion score end-point in guinea-pigs is about 45 and 170 times larger than that giving 50 per cent protection to suckling mice and to young adult mice, respectively. PMID:17649423

  8. Evolving perception on the benefits of vaccination as a foot and mouth disease control policy: contributions of South America.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Ingrid E; Malirat, Viviana; Falczuk, Abraham J

    2005-12-01

    Within the past decade, changes in perceptions on the benefits of vaccination as an appropriate tool to achieve complete foot and mouth disease eradication have become evident. The former negative view was derived from misconceptions, resulting mainly from the belief that vaccines are not entirely effective and that vaccination masks asymptomatic viral circulation. The advent in the 1990s of vaccination policies implemented within a strategic eradication plan in South America, and during recurrence of the disease in disease-free regions contributed towards generating more reliable and visible outcomes of vaccination programs, paving the way towards a new perception. Particularly relevant was the development and application of novel serodiagnostic approaches to assess silent viral circulation, irrespective of vaccination. The use in South America of vaccination allied to serosurveys to accompany viral clarification during eradication campaigns and after emergencies clearly established the importance of this control tool to stop the spread of viral infection. This alliance gave input to break many myths associated with the use of vaccines, including the belief that immunized carrier animals pose an epidemiologic risk. This experience launched new concepts that supported the internationally recognized status of foot and mouth disease-free regions with vaccination and the 'vaccination to live' policy as an alternative to 'stamping out'. PMID:16372885

  9. Immunoprotective mechanisms in swine within the "grey zone" in antibody response after immunization with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liu; Feng, Xia; Jin, Ye; Ma, Junwu; Cai, Hu; Zhang, Xiaoxia

    2016-07-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Vaccination represents one approach for limiting the effects of FMD. The level of protection in vaccinated animals after challenge with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is closely related to the antibody titer, which can be classified into three zones: a "white zone", a "grey zone", and a "black zone". The aim of the present study was to clarify the immunoprotective mechanisms operating in the grey zone, in which vaccinated animals have intermediate antibody titers, making it difficult to predict the level of protection. Thirty-three pigs were used to analyze the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in whole blood and the expression levels of 40 cytokines before vaccination and challenge. The antibody titer in pigs in the grey zone ranged from 1:6-1:45. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte subpopulations, expression levels of Th1 cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15, IL-18, and monocyte interferon gamma inducing factor (MIG), and of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1α, transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), and TWEAK R varied between protected and unprotected animals. The results of this study suggest that the cellular immune response is the key factor responsible for immunoprotection in vaccinated animals with antibody titers within the grey zone. PMID:27067203

  10. Esterase D enhances type I interferon signal transduction to suppress foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Zixiang; Cao, Weijun; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Xiangle; Li, Dan; Zhang, Keshan; Li, Pengfei; Mao, Ruoqing; Liu, Xiangtao; Zheng, Haixue

    2016-07-01

    The enzymatic activities of esterase D (ESD) are involved in many human diseases. However, no antiviral property of ESD has been described to date. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of foot-and-mouth disease. In this study, we showed that FMDV infection triggered ESD expression. Overexpression of ESD significantly suppressed FMDV replication and knockdown of ESD expression enhanced virus replication, showing an essential antiviral role of ESD. Furthermore, we found that Sendai-virus-induced interferon (IFN) signaling was enhanced by upregulation of ESD, and ESD promoted activation of the IFN-β promoter simulated by IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3 or its upstream molecules (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5, virus-induced signaling adaptor and TANK binding kinase 1). Detailed analysis revealed that ESD protein enhanced IRF3 phosphorylation during FMDV infection. Overexpression of ESD also promoted the expression of various antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and knockdown of ESD impaired the expression of these antiviral genes during FMDV infection. Our findings demonstrate a new mechanism evolved by ESD to enhance type I IFN signal transduction and suppress viral replication during FMDV infection. PMID:27267271

  11. Bioinformatics and Molecular Analysis of the Evolutionary Relationship between Bovine Rhinitis A Viruses and Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Devendra K.; Lawrence, Paul; Pauszek, Steve J.; Piccone, Maria E.; Knowles, Nick J.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRVs) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full-length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1), isolated from infected cattle from the UK in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Compared to other closely related Aphthoviruses, major differences were detected in the leader protease (Lpro), P1, 2B, and 3A proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RS3X was a member of the species bovine rhinitis A virus (BRAV). Using different codon-based and branch-site selection models for Aphthoviruses, including BRAV RS3X and foot-and-mouth disease virus, we observed no clear evidence for genomic regions undergoing positive selection. However, within each of the BRV species, multiple sites under positive selection were detected. The results also suggest that the probability (determined by Recombination Detection Program) for recombination events between BRVs and other Aphthoviruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus was not significant. In contrast, within BRVs, the probability of recombination increases. The data reported here provide genetic information to assist in the identification of diagnostic signatures and research tools for BRAV. PMID:27081310

  12. Psychosocial effects of the 2001 UK foot and mouth disease epidemic in a rural population: qualitative diary based study

    PubMed Central

    Mort, Maggie; Convery, Ian; Baxter, Josephine; Bailey, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To understand the health and social consequences of the 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic for a rural population. Design Longitudinal qualitative analysis. Setting North Cumbria, the worst affected area in Britain. Sample Purposive sample of 54 respondents divided in six demographically balanced rural occupational and population groups. Main outcome measures 3071 weekly diaries contributed over 18 months; 72 semistructured interviews (with the 54 diarists and 18 others); 12 group discussions with diarists Results The disease epidemic was a human tragedy, not just an animal one. Respondents' reports showed that life after the foot and mouth disease epidemic was accompanied by distress, feelings of bereavement, fear of a new disaster, loss of trust in authority and systems of control, and the undermining of the value of local knowledge. Distress was experienced across diverse groups well beyond the farming community. Many of these effects continued to feature in the diaries throughout the 18 month period. Conclusions The use of a rural citizens' panel allowed data capture from a wide spectrum of the rural population and showed that a greater number of workers and residents had traumatic experiences than has previously been reported. Recommendations for future disaster management include joint service reviews of what counts as a disaster, regular NHS and voluntary sector sharing of intelligence, debriefing and peer support for front line workers, increased community involvement in disposal site or disaster management, and wider, more flexible access to regeneration funding and rural health outreach work. PMID:16214809

  13. A dynamic, optimal disease control model for foot-and-mouth-disease: II. Model results and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mimako; Carpenter, Tim E; Dickey, Bradley F; Howitt, Richard E

    2007-05-16

    A dynamic optimization model was used to search for optimal strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the three-county region in the Central Valley of California. The model minimized total regional epidemic cost by choosing the levels of depopulation of diagnosed herds, preemptive depopulation, and vaccination. Impacts of limited carcass disposal capacity and vaccination were also examined, and the shadow value, the implicit value of each capacity, was estimated. The model found that to control FMD in the region, (1) preemptive depopulation was not optimal, (2) vaccination, if allowed, was optimal, reducing total cost by 3-7%, (3) increased vaccination capacity reduced total cost up to US$119 per dose, (4) increased carcass disposal capacity reduced total cost by US$9000-59,400 per head with and without vaccination, respectively, and (5) dairy operations should be given preferential attention in allocating limited control resources. PMID:17280730

  14. Infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus derived from a cloned full-length cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Zibert, A; Maass, G; Strebel, K; Falk, M M; Beck, E

    1990-01-01

    A full-length cDNA plasmid of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been constructed. RNA synthesized in vitro by means of a bacteriophage SP6 promoter inserted in front of the cDNA led to the production of infectious particles upon transfection of BHK-21 cells. These particles were also found to be highly infectious for primary bovine kidney cells as well as for baby mice. The difficulty in cloning the foot-and-mouth disease virus cytidyl tract in Escherichia coli was circumvented by joining two separate cloned parts, representing the S and L fragments of the genome, and, in a second step, inserting a dC-dG homopolymer. Homopolymeric sequences of up to 25 cytidyl residues did not lead to the production of virus. Replicons containing poly(C) tracts long enough to permit virus replication were first established in yeast cells. One of these constructs could also be maintained in E. coli and was used to produce infectious RNA in vitro. The length of the poly(C) sequence in this cDNA plasmid was 32 nucleotides. However, the poly(C) tracts of two recombinant viruses found in transfected BHK-21 cells were 60 and 80 nucleotides long, respectively. Possible mechanisms leading to the enlargement of the poly(C) tract during virus replication are discussed. Images PMID:2159523

  15. Analysis of neutralizing antigenic sites on the surface of type A12 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Baxt, B; Vakharia, V; Moore, D M; Franke, A J; Morgan, D O

    1989-01-01

    A series of seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nMAbs) directed against type A12 foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to generate neutralization-resistant variants. Both plaque reduction neutralization and microneutralization assays showed that the variants were no longer neutralized by the nMAbs used to generate them, although some of the variants still reacted with the nMAbs at high antibody concentrations. Results of cross-neutralization studies by both plaque reduction neutralization and microneutralization assays suggested the presence of at least one immunodominant antigenic site on the surface of type A12 foot-and-mouth disease virus, along with evidence of a second antigenic site on the viral surface. Two of the variants had reduced virulence in tissue culture as evidenced by their inability to inhibit cellular protein synthesis and a marked reduction in virus-induced cellular morphological alterations. Nucleotide sequencing of the variant genomes placed three epitopes of the major antigenic site on VP1 and the fourth epitope on VP3 and VP1. The one epitope of the minor site appears to reside only on VP1. Images PMID:2467993

  16. Tongue Epithelium Cells from shRNA Mediated Transgenic Goat Show High Resistance to Foot and Mouth Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenting; Wang, Kejun; Kang, Shimeng; Deng, Shoulong; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The gene 3Dpol in FMDV genome encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a vital element for FMDV replication. In this study, a conserved 3D-7414shRNA targeting FMDV-3Dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. Sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3D-7414shRNA. Loss of function assay demonstrated that siRNA effectively knockdown 3Dpol gene in skin epithelium cells of transgenic goats. Subsequently, the tongue epithelium cells from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were infected with FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 strain. A significant decrease of virus titres and virus copy number was observed in cells of transgenic goats compared with that of non-transgenic goats, which indicated that 3D-7414siRNA inhibited FMDV replication by interfering FMDV-3Dpol gene. Furthermore, we found that expression of TLR7, RIG-I and TRAF6 was lower in FMDV infected cells from transgenic goats compared to that from non-transgenic goats, which might result from lower virus copy number in transgenic goats’ cells. In conclusion, we successfully produced transgenic goats highly expressing 3D-7414siRNA targeting 3Dpol gene, and the tongue epithelium cells from the transgenic goats showed effective resistance to FMDV. PMID:26671568

  17. Synonymous Deoptimization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Causes Attenuation In Vivo while Inducing a Strong Neutralizing Antibody Response

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Medina, Gisselle N.; Ramirez-Medina, Elizabeth; Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Koster, Marla; Grubman, Marvin J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Codon bias deoptimization has been previously used to successfully attenuate human pathogens, including poliovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. We have applied a similar technology to deoptimize the capsid-coding region (P1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite the introduction of 489 nucleotide changes (19%), synonymous deoptimization of the P1 region rendered a viable FMDV progeny. The resulting strain was stable and reached cell culture titers similar to those obtained for wild-type (WT) virus, but at reduced specific infectivity. Studies in mice showed that 100% of animals inoculated with the FMDV A12 P1 deoptimized mutant (A12-P1 deopt) survived, even when the animals were infected at doses 100 times higher than the dose required to cause death by WT virus. All mice inoculated with the A12-P1 deopt mutant developed a strong antibody response and were protected against subsequent lethal challenge with WT virus at 21 days postinoculation. Remarkably, the vaccine safety margin was at least 1,000-fold higher for A12-P1 deopt than for WT virus. Similar patterns of attenuation were observed in swine, in which animals inoculated with A12-P1 deopt virus did not develop clinical disease until doses reached 1,000 to 10,000 times the dose required to cause severe disease in 2 days with WT A12. Consistently, high levels of antibody titers were induced, even at the lowest dose tested. These results highlight the potential use of synonymous codon pair deoptimization as a strategy to safely attenuate FMDV and further develop live attenuated vaccine candidates to control such a feared livestock disease. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most feared viral diseases that can affect livestock. Although this disease appeared to be contained in developed nations by the end of the last century, recent outbreaks in Europe, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, etc., have demonstrated that infection can spread rapidly, causing

  18. How do resources influence control measures during a simulated outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Australia?

    PubMed

    Roche, S E; Garner, M G; Wicks, R M; East, I J; de Witte, K

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) could seriously impact Australia's livestock sector and economy. As an FMD-free country, an outbreak would trigger a major disease control and eradication program that would include the culling of infected and at risk animals ('stamping out'), movement restrictions and zoo-sanitary measures. Additional control measures may also include pre-emptive culling or vaccination. However, it is unclear what disease strategy would be most effective under Australian conditions and different resource levels. Using a stochastic simulation model that describes FMD transmission between farms in a livestock dense region of Australia, our results suggest that using current estimates of human resource capacity for surveillance, infected premises operations and vaccination, outbreaks were effectively controlled under a stamping out strategy. However, under more constrained resource allocations, ring vaccination was more likely to achieve eradication faster than stamping out or pre-emptive culling strategies. PMID:24412502

  19. Systemic foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in cattle promotes specific antibody secreting cells at the respiratory tract and triggers local anamnestic-compatible responses upon aerosol infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting biungulate species. Commercial vaccines, formulated with inactivated whole FMD virus (FMDV) particles, are regularly used worldwide in regions recognized as free from the disease. Here, we studied the generation of antibody ...

  20. Repeated exposure to 5D9, an inhibitor of 3D polymerase, effectively limits the replication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in host cells.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of livestock caused by a highly variable RNA virus that has seven serotypes and more than sixty subtypes. Both prophylactic and post-infection means of controlling the disease outbreak, including universally applicable vaccines and emergenc...

  1. Effects of Meteorological Parameters and PM10 on the Incidence of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Children in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruixue; Bian, Guolin; He, Tianfeng; Chen, Lv; Xu, Guozhang

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a globally-prevalent infectious disease. However, few data are available on prevention measures for HFMD. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impacts of temperature, humidity, and air pollution, particularly levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 10 micrometers (PM10), on the incidence of HFMD in a city in Eastern China. Daily morbidity, meteorological, and air pollution data for Ningbo City were collected for the period from January 2012 to December 2014. A total of 86,695 HFMD cases were enrolled in this study. We used a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution to analyze the nonlinear lag effects of daily mean temperature, daily humidity, and found significant relationships with the incidence of HFMD; in contrast, PM10 level showed no relationship to the incidence of HFMD. Our findings will facilitate the development of effective preventive measures and early forecasting of HFMD outbreaks. PMID:27171104

  2. Protection induced by a commercial bivalent vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease 2010 field virus from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Duque, Hernando; Naranjo, Jose; Carrillo, Consuelo; Burbano, Alexandra; Vargas, Javier; Pauszek, Lisa; Olesen, Ian; Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J; Cosivi, Ottorino; Allende, Rossana M

    2016-07-29

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease serotype O circulated endemically in Ecuador for many years, with an upsurge occurring in 2009. This manuscript describes retrospectively in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies to predict the field effectiveness of a commercial FMD vaccine to protect against the field strain, and explains the key actions and epidemiological strategies followed by the country to control the disease. The results established that the use of a good quality oil vaccine, manufactured with strains that were isolated long ago: O1 Campos Br/58 and A24 Cruzeiro Br/55; combined with the correct epidemiological strategies, are useful to control field strains when used in periodic biannual vaccination campaigns. PMID:27395565

  3. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-tai; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yong-sheng; Liu, Xiang-tao

    2011-01-01

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA. The amplification was able to finish in 45 min under isothermal condition at 64°C by employing a set of four primers targeting FMDV 2B. The assay showed higher sensitivity than RT-PCR. No cross reactivity was observed from other RNA viruses including classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Japanese encephalitis virus. Furthermore, the assay correctly detected 84 FMDV positive samples but not 65 FMDV negative specimens. The result indicated the potential usefulness of the technique as a simple and rapid procedure for the detection of FMDV infection. PMID:22070774

  4. Effects of Meteorological Parameters and PM10 on the Incidence of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Children in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruixue; Bian, Guolin; He, Tianfeng; Chen, Lv; Xu, Guozhang

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a globally-prevalent infectious disease. However, few data are available on prevention measures for HFMD. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impacts of temperature, humidity, and air pollution, particularly levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 10 micrometers (PM10), on the incidence of HFMD in a city in Eastern China. Daily morbidity, meteorological, and air pollution data for Ningbo City were collected for the period from January 2012 to December 2014. A total of 86,695 HFMD cases were enrolled in this study. We used a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution to analyze the nonlinear lag effects of daily mean temperature, daily humidity, and found significant relationships with the incidence of HFMD; in contrast, PM10 level showed no relationship to the incidence of HFMD. Our findings will facilitate the development of effective preventive measures and early forecasting of HFMD outbreaks. PMID:27171104

  5. Vaccination as a means of control of foot-and-mouth disease in sub-saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Hunter, P

    1998-01-01

    The presence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in a country is a major obstacle to the development of agriculture because of its adverse effects on livestock production and agricultural exports. The eradication of FMD in sub-saharan Africa by the implementation of slaughtering-out is impractical for various reasons, but vaccination with good quality FMD vaccines can help prevent losses in stock production and reduce the overall incidence of the disease. Oil based FMD vaccines have been used with success in South American countries and have logistic and immunological advantages which would make them useful in sub-saharan African countries. The wide intratypic variation of SAT strains prevalent in sub-saharan Africa and their endemicity in African buffalo, presents a challenge to vaccine producers and requires constant epidemiological surveillance to ensure the relevance of vaccines to field conditions. PMID:9607040

  6. Recovery of Viral RNA and Infectious Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus from Positive Lateral-Flow Devices

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Veronica L.; Bankowski, Bartlomiej M.; Armson, Bryony; Di Nardo, Antonello; Valdazo-Gonzalez, Begoña; Reid, Scott M.; Barnett, Paul V.; Wadsworth, Jemma; Ferris, Nigel P.; Mioulet, Valérie; King, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. In developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. These factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise FMD virus in countries where the disease is endemic. Furthermore, the high cost of sending infectious virus material and the biosecurity risk it presents emphasises the need for a thermo-stable, non-infectious mode of transporting diagnostic samples. This paper investigates the potential of using FMDV lateral-flow devices (LFDs) for dry transportation of clinical samples for subsequent nucleic acid amplification, sequencing and recovery of infectious virus by electroporation. FMDV positive samples (epithelial suspensions and cell culture isolates) representing four FMDV serotypes were applied to antigen LFDs: after which it was possible to recover viral RNA that could be detected using real-time RT-PCR. Using this nucleic acid, it was also possible to recover VP1 sequences and also successfully utilise protocols for amplification of complete FMD virus genomes. It was not possible to recover infectious FMDV directly from the LFDs, however following electroporation into BHK-21 cells and subsequent cell passage, infectious virus could be recovered. Therefore, these results support the use of the antigen LFD for the dry, non-hazardous transportation of samples from FMD endemic countries to international reference laboratories. PMID:25313787

  7. Cytokine mRNA expression in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) persistently infected bovine pharynx cultures: effect of IFNgamma on replication of persistent virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the family Picornaviridae, genus Aphtovirus, causes a highly contagious disease in livestock. Following acute infection in ruminants, up to 50% of both vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals become persistently infected asymptomatic carriers with low-l...

  8. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  9. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease II; viral pathways in swine, small ruminants, and wildlife, myotropism, chronic syndromes, and molecular virus-host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigation of the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has focused on study of the disease in cattle with less emphasis on pigs, small ruminants, and wildlife. “Atypical” FMD-associated syndromes such as myocarditis, reproductive losses, and chronic heat-intolerance have also received lit...

  10. Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax, reared for mass release do not carry and spread foot-and-mouth disease virus and classical swine fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transporting live screwworms Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel for developing new strains from countries where foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and classical swine fever (CSF) are endemic, to the mass rearing facilities in Mexico and Panama may introduce these exotic diseases. This study was conducted to...

  11. Sero-prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in large ruminants at peri urban dairy farms near Islamabad, Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important, endemic, trans-boundary viral disease affecting livestock in Pakistan and associated with high economic losses. This survey was conducted to estimate sero-prevalence of FMD in large ruminants from peri-urban dairy farms near Islamabad. Serum samples were...

  12. The effect of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination on virus transmission and the significance for the field

    PubMed Central

    Orsel, Karin; Bouma, Annemarie

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) might be one of the control measures used during an FMD epidemic depending on the local epidemiological situation, the status of the country, and the opinion of policy makers. A sound decision on vaccination can be made only if there is sufficient scientific knowledge on the effectiveness of vaccination in eliminating the virus from the population. An important question is whether a single vaccination applied as an emergency vaccine can contribute to the control of an epidemic. This paper presents the results of transmission experiments on vaccine efficacy in groups of cattle, pigs, and sheep and concludes that vaccination seemed to be effective in cattle and sheep, but was less effective in pigs. The possible implications for application to field conditions are discussed. PMID:20046605

  13. The Fecal Virome of Children with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease that Tested PCR Negative for Pathogenic Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Linsuwanon, Piyada; Poovorawan, Yong; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Delwart, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) affects infant and young children. A viral metagenomic approach was used to identify the eukaryotic viruses in fecal samples from 29 Thai children with clinical diagnosis of HFMD collected during the 2012 outbreak. These children had previously tested negative by PCR for enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 and A6. Deep sequencing revealed nine virus families: Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Caliciviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Adenoviridae, Reoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, and Polyomaviridae. The highest number of viral sequences belonged to human rhinovirus C, astrovirus-MLB2, and coxsackievirus A21. Our study provides an overview of virus community and highlights a broad diversity of viruses found in feces from children with HFMD. PMID:26288145

  14. Neurovirulence in cynomolgus monkeys of enterovirus 71 isolated from a patient with hand, foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, I; Hagiwara, A; Kodama, H

    1978-01-01

    Six cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated subcutaneously with enteroviurs 71 (E71), isolated from the stools of a patient with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Clinical symptoms were observed in three of the six monkeys. One monkey showed complete paralysis of the lower extremities and two animals showed weakness in the hind limbs 4 to 7 days after inoculation. Lesions were found in the central nervous system (CNS) of all monkeys. Mild to moderate vascular lesions, perivascular cuffings, degeneration and disappearance of the neurons and meningial lymphocytic infiltration were observed in the grey and/or white matter of the spinal cord, medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex and brain stem. No virus was recovered from the CNS or liver of any of the six monkeys. However, serum neutralizing antibody titers had risen in monkeys inoculated with E71. PMID:205198

  15. Residue L143 of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Leader Proteinase Is a Determinant of Cleavage Specificity▿

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christina; Neubauer, David; Nchinda, Aloysius T.; Cencic, Regina; Trompf, Katja; Skern, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader proteinase (Lpro) self-processes inefficiently at the Lpro/VP4 cleavage site LysLeuLys*GlyAlaGly (* indicates cleaved peptide bond) when the leucine at position P2 is replaced by phenylalanine. Molecular modeling and energy minimization identified the Lpro residue L143 as being responsible for this discrimination. The variant Lpro L143A self-processed efficiently at the Lpro/VP4 cleavage site containing P2 phenylalanine, whereas the L143M variant did not. Lpro L143A self-processing at the eIF4GII sequence AspPheGly*ArgGlnThr was improved but showed more-extensive aberrant processing. Residue 143 in Lpro is occupied only by leucine and methionine in all sequenced FMDV serotypes, implying that these bulky side chains are one determinant of the restricted specificity of Lpro. PMID:18305051

  16. A clonal selection based timecourse model for antibody responses to killed vaccine, with applications to foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Hingley, P J

    1991-09-01

    Published models for the timecourse of the immune response are reviewed for their applicability to data from animals that have been injected with killed vaccine. Simple models are required so that statistical fitting procedures become straightforward. A class of models that incorporates the concept of clonal selection has been found useful. Immune memory is described in terms of persistence of mean antibody affinity when the overall concentration of antibody has declined towards background. The model is demonstrated on multipoint affinity distributions and initial negative exponential densities, from which conditions for boundedness can be developed. Predictions are made that are consistent with experiments on the evolution of immunoassay data using foot and mouth disease vaccine. PMID:1742428

  17. A neonate with hand, foot, and mouth disease complicated with brainstem encephalitis and pulmonary edema:A complete recovery.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi-Jie; Wang, Dong-Xuan; Dai, Chun-Lai; Wu, Hui

    2014-07-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with serious complications and fatal cases have been reported over the last decade worldwide. The authors report a rare case of HFMD in a neonate complicated with brainstem encephalitis and pulmonary edema. She had fever, lethargy, dyspnea. Physical examination revealed shock signs, fine rales on both lungs, absent Moro reflex. The patient had a rapidly progressive course with seizures, coma, no spontaneous breathing, chemosis. There were some vesicles on left sole and red maculopapular rashes on perianal skin. She had a history of exposure to HFMD. Fecal sample was positive for EV71 RNA by real-time PCR. Chest X-rays showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. MRI of the brain showed significant hypointensity in the brainstem on T1WI and hyperintensity on T2WI. She recovered well. This case highlights severe HFMD in neonates is rare. Medical history and physical examination are important in making diagnosis. PMID:25097545

  18. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs using two novel simulated-natural inoculation methods.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, C; Pacheco, J M; Rodriguez, L L; Arzt, J

    2014-04-01

    In order to characterize foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection dynamics in pigs, two simulated-natural inoculation systems were developed and evaluated. Intra-oropharyngeal (IOP) and intra-nasopharyngeal (INP) inoculation both enabled precise control of dose and timing of inoculation while simulating field exposure conditions. There were substantial differences between outcomes of infections by the two routes. IOP inoculation resulted in consistent and synchronous infection, whereas INP inoculation at similar doses resulted in delayed, or completely absent infection. All pigs that developed clinical infection had detectable levels of FMDV RNA in their oropharynx directly following inoculation. Furthermore, FMDV antigens were localized to the oropharyngeal tonsils suggesting a role in early infection. The utility of IOP inoculation was further demonstrated in a vaccine-challenge experiment. Thus, the novel system of IOP inoculation described herein, offers a valid alternative to traditionally used systems for FMDV inoculation of pigs, applicable for experimental studies of FMDV pathogenesis and vaccinology. PMID:24548596

  19. An investigation into the source and spread of foot and mouth disease virus from a wildlife conservancy in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, S K; Foggin, C M; Anderson, E C; Bastos, A D S; Thomson, G R; Ferris, N P; Knowles, N J

    2004-12-01

    African buffalo were introduced into a wildlife conservancy in the southeast of Zimbabwe in an effortto increase the conservancy's economic viability, which is primarily based on eco-tourism. The buffalo were infected with SAT serotypes (SAT-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3) of foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus, and in order to isolate the conservancy and prevent the transmission of FMD to adjacent populations of domestic livestock, the conservancy was surrounded by a double-fence system, 1.8 m in height. The intention was to prevent the movement of both wildlife and domestic animals across the perimeter. However, two years after the buffalo were introduced, FMD occurred in cattle farmed just outside of the conservancy. Using serological and molecular diagnostic tests, epidemiological investigations showed that it was most likely that antelope (impala or kudu), infected through contact with the buffalo herd within the conservancy, had jumped over the fence and transmitted the virus to the cattle. PMID:15861873

  20. Nucleotide sequence of the P1 region of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain O1 Caseros.

    PubMed

    Tami, C; Kaplan, G; Piccone, M E; Palma, E L

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that variation of antigenic site I in VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) plays an important role in the antigenic diversification of this virus. However, the O1 Campos strain is able to efficiently cross-protect cattle against the O1 Caseros strain, despite having a different sequence in the site I. In this paper we report and compare the P1 coding region for the capsid proteins of FMDV O1 Caseros and O1 Campos. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a total of 31 amino acid differences. Eight of them are located in surface-exposed loops that have been implicated in antigenic sites. This study should help to identify additional sites to be considered in the development of a new generation of FMDV vaccines. PMID:9311571

  1. Use of ethnoveterinary remedies in the management of foot and mouth disease lesions in a diary herd.

    PubMed

    Gakuya, D W; Mulei, C M; Wekesa, S B

    2011-01-01

    An outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) affecting 95 (57.2%) out of 166 cattle occurred in a medium-scale dairy farm in Kikuyu district, Kenya. Ethnoveterinary remedies of natural Soda ash solution (97% sodium bicarbonate), honey and finger millet flour were used to manage the FMD lesions. The lesions were washed with soda ash solution to remove the necrotic tissue after which raw honey and finger millet flour were applied to the cleaned lesions. The lesions were examined daily and those with necrotic material washed again with the Soda ash solution. Honey and finger millet flour were applied daily for three days. There was rapid healing of the lesions with the animals resuming feeding after three days. The fast healing of the lesions vindicates the use of these cheap, locally available and easy to apply products in the management of FMD lesions. However, more studies are needed to evaluate further their potencies. PMID:22238498

  2. The position of the Dutch Farmers' Union on lessons learned and future prevention and control of foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, M P; Osinga, K J

    2002-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has devastated animal husbandry in The Netherlands frequently in the past and still constitutes a threat. The use of vaccination reduced the number of outbreaks in The Netherlands in the 20th Century. However, the desire of some member states of the European Community not to use vaccination led to a new strategy based on stamping-out of infected and contagious farms and to strict transportation regulations. In 2001, this proved very disruptive to the wider rural economy, such as the recreational and tourism sectors. The policy also caused severe animal welfare problems and psychological problems among farmers and their families. This raised questions about the wider, and not only veterinary or agricultural, implications of control strategies of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). The technology seems to be in place for a return to the use of protective vaccination against FMDV during an outbreak, provided the Office International des Epizooties (OIE: World organisation for animal health) and European Commission (EC) receive data that substantiate the reliability of differentiating tests such as the 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for use in individual animals. Research is in progress but may not be able to produce these data until 2003 or 2004. High potency vaccines should be used to elicit sufficient immunity within three to four days. During an FMD crisis, farmers should be assisted to find markets for products from areas affected by FMDV. The human dimension of any FMD outbreak must be dealt with sufficiently in any contingency plan. PMID:12523719

  3. Structure of Foot-and-mouth Disease virus serotype A1061 alone and complexed with oligosaccharide receptor: receptor conservation in the face of antigenic variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth Disease viruses (FMDVs) target epithelial cells via integrin receptors, but can acquire the capacity to bind cell-surface heparan sulphate (or alternative receptors) on passage in cell culture. Vaccine viruses must be propagated in cell culture and, hence, some rationale for the selec...

  4. Analysis of sat type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins: influence of receptor usage on the properties of virus particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The viral mechanism involved in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) tissue tropism, host range and the events during viral entry into susceptible cells is not well understood. Using infectious cDNA clones of the three South African Territories (SAT) type viruses prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, the biologi...

  5. Role of the Arg56 of the structural protein VP3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 01 campos in virus virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an extremely infectious and antigenically diverse picornavirus that causes high incidences of morbidity within naive livestock populations. Several reports indicate that FMDV O1 subtype strains undergo antigenic variation under diverse growth conditions. Of par...

  6. Type I and II Interferons Activate the Innate Immune System to Promote Early Protection of Swine Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have demonstrated that the synergistic action of type I and II interferons (IFN) can rapidly protect swine against challenge with a low dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Protection correlated with an upregulation of some IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), including IP-10, INDO, and OAS in PB...

  7. Delivery of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Empty Capsid Subunit Antigen with Nonstructural Protein 2B Improves Protection of Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector carrying the capsid (P1-2A) and 3C protease coding regions as well as a portion of the 2B coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) (Ad5-A24) protects cattle and swine from direct inocula...

  8. Role of the Region Located Between the Two AUG Initiation Codons in the Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Translation of the viral polyprotein in picornavirus initiates at an AUG located immediately after the IRES in the 5’UTR. In the case of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) there are two functional AUGs in this region separated by 84 nucleotides. The role of this region in the viral life cycle has r...

  9. Molecular Characterization of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Containing a 57-Nucleotide Insertion in the 3' Untranslated Region (3'UTR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) virus containing a 57 nt insertion in the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR) was generated by a transposon (tn) mediated mutagenesis. Characterization of the mutant virus (A24-3’UTR8110) revealed no significant differences in virus growth, translation efficiency and...

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Serotype A Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus from an Outbreak in Saudi Arabia during 2015.

    PubMed

    Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Wadsworth, J; Thapa, B; King, D P; Knowles, N J

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) type A virus isolated from cattle in Saudi Arabia in 2015 is described here. This virus belongs to an FMD virus lineage named genotype VII, which is normally endemic on the Indian subcontinent. PMID:26798100

  11. Redistribution of demethylated RNA helicase A during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: role of jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 in RHA demethylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that RNA Helicase A (RHA) re-localized from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected cells, coincident with a reduction in methylation of arginine residues in the RHA C-terminus. To further define the mechanism of RHA demethylation in FMDV-...

  12. A Conserved Domain in the Leader Proteinase of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus is Required for Proper Sub-Cellular Localization and Function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is involved in antagonizing the innate immune response by blocking the expression of interferon (IFN) protein and by reducing the immediate-early induction of IFN beta mRNA and IFN stimulated genes. In addition to its role in shutti...

  13. A Conserved Domain in the Leader Proteinase of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus is Required for Proper Subcellular Localization and Function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is involved in antagonizing the innate immune response by blocking the expression of interferon (IFN) protein and by reducing the immediate-early induction of IFNß mRNA and IFN stimulated genes. Recently we have shown that expressio...

  14. Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus RNA and capsid protein in lymphoid tissues of convalescent pigs does not indicate existence of a carrier state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A systematic study was performed to investigate the potential of pigs to maintain persistent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) infection. Infectious virus could not be recovered from sera, oral, nasal- or oropharyngeal fluids obtained after resolution of clinical infection with FMDV serotypes A, O...

  15. Domain disruptions of individual 3B proteins for foot-and-mouth disease virus do not alter growth in cell culture nor virulence in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picornavirus RNA replication is initiated by a small viral protein primer, 3B (also known as VPg), that is covalently linked to the 5’RNA of the viral genome. In contrast to other picornaviruses that encode a single copy of 3B, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) encodes three copies of 3B that are ...

  16. A Reverse Genetic System Provides a Powerful Tool in the Design of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses with Enhanced Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fact that the foot-and-mouth disease viral (FMDV) RNA can be made infectious in the absence of other components of the virion allows the recovery of genetically engineered new viruses from in vitro-generated RNA molecules. We utilize infectious cDNA technology to produce recombinant FMDV, retain...

  17. The region between the two polyprotein initiation codons of foot-and-mouth disease virus is critical for virulence in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Translation of the viral polyprotein in picornaviruses initiates at an AUG located immediately after the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the 5’UTR. In the case of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), there are two functional AUG in this region separated by 75-84 nucleotides (inter-AUG) with A...

  18. Analysis of SAT type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins and the identification of putative amino acid residues in virus stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) initiates infection by adhering to integrin receptors on target cells, followed by cell entry and disassembly of the virion through acidification within endosomes. Mild heating of the virions also leads to irreversible dissociation into pentamers, a characteristic...

  19. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) with a stable FLAG epitope in the VP1 G-H loop as a new tool for studying FMDV pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we generated a recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particle derived from A24 Cruzeiro with a FLAG tag (DYKDDDDK) substitution in the hypervariable antigenic site of the G-H loop of the VP1 capsid protein in an effort to expand the immunogenicity of the virus particle and t...

  20. Infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) induces a natural killer (NK) cell response in cattle that is lacking following vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a role in innate antiviral immunity by directly lysing virus-infected cells and producing antiviral cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFNgamma). We developed a system for characterizing the bovine NK response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which causes a dis...

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a Serotype A Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus from an Outbreak in Saudi Arabia during 2015

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, J.; Thapa, B.; King, D. P.; Knowles, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) type A virus isolated from cattle in Saudi Arabia in 2015 is described here. This virus belongs to an FMD virus lineage named genotype VII, which is normally endemic on the Indian subcontinent. PMID:26798100

  2. Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural inoculation. The earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglotic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi) charact...

  3. Multiple efficacy studies of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A24 subunit vaccine in cattle using direct homologous challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The safety and efficacy of an experimental, replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A24 Cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (AdtA24) was examined in eight independent cattle studies. AdtA24 non-adjuvanted vaccine was administered intramuscularl...

  4. Persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of cattle: tissue-specific distribution and local cytokine expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of FMDV and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. Analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 st...

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle suggests impairment of cell-mediated immunity in the nasopharynx

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, transcriptome alterations associated with the FMDV carrier state were characterized using a bovine whole-transcriptome microarray. Eighteen cattle (8 vaccinated with a recombinant FMDV A vac...

  6. INFECTION WITH FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS CAUSES LOSS OF CIRCULATING PLASMACYTOID DENDRITIC CELLS AND ABROGATES THE INTERFERON ALPHA RESPONSE TO TLR AGONISTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immune evasion by pathogens is often critical to virulence and spread of the infectious agent. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is considered one of the most contagious infections known yet is very sensitive to both type I and type II interferons (IFN). In many species including swine, plasmacyto...

  7. An adenovirus vectored mucosal adjuvant augments protection of mice immunized intranasally with an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus subunit vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes severe morbidity and economic losses to the livestock industry in many countries. The oral and respiratory mucosae are the main ports of entry of FMDV, so the stimulation of local immunity in these tissues may help preve...

  8. Synonymous deoptimization of the foot-and-mouth disease virus P1 coding region causes attenuation in vivo while inducing a strong neutralizing antibody response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codon bias deoptimization has been previously used to successfully attenuate human pathogens including polio, respiratory syncytial and influenza viruses. We have applied a similar technology to deoptimize the capsid coding region (P1 region) of the cDNA infectious clone of foot-and-mouth disease vi...

  9. The use of the haemagglutination-inhibition test for detecting antibodies to type SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in cattle sera.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, J. C.; Pay, T. W.; Hedger, R. S.; Barnett, I. T.

    1975-01-01

    Two strains of type SAT 2-foot-and-mouth disease virus which gave high titres of haemagglutinin activity reacted type-specifically in direct haemagglutination-inhibition tests with reference, bovine convalescent antisera. Comparisons of the haemagglutination-inhibition and the serum neutralization tests using cattle sera showed that both were equally specific and sensitive for detecting virus antibody. PMID:163274

  10. Morphologic and phenotypic characteristics of myocarditis in two pigs infected by foot-and mouth disease virus strains of serotypes O or A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myocarditis is often cited as the cause of fatalities associated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection; however the pathogenesis of FMDV-associated myocarditis has not been described in detail. The current report describes substantial quantities of FMDV in association with a marked mono...

  11. Predicting antigenic sites on the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid of the South African Territories (SAT) types using virus neutralization data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) outer capsid proteins 1B, 1C and 1D contribute to the virus serotype distribution and antigenic variants that exist within each of the seven serotypes. This study presents a phylogenetic, genetic and antigenic analysis of the South African Territories (SAT) seroty...

  12. Direct contact transmission of three different foot-and-mouth disease virus strains in swine demonstrates important strain-specific differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel direct contact transmission model for the study of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection of swine was utilized to investigate transmission characteristics of three FMDV strains belonging to serotypes A, O and Asia1. Each strain demonstrated distinct transmission characteristics and r...

  13. Interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A with host protein DCTN3 is important for viral virulence in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-structural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids in most FMDVs examined to date. The role of 3A in virus growth and virulence within the natural host is not well understood. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we identified cellular ...

  14. Early detection and visualization of human adenovirus serotype 5-viral vectors carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus or luciferase transgenes in cell lines and bovine tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vaccines containing capsid-coding regions from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have been demonstrated to induce effective immune responses and provide homologous protective immunity against FMDV in cattle. However, basic mechanisms ...

  15. Selection of Variants Utilizing Heparin Sulphate For Cell Entry When South African Territories Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus is Adapted for Growth on Cell Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) attains entry to epithelial cells by affinity for at least four members of the integrin family of receptors. Adaptation of field isolates to grow in cultured cells is an essential step towards development of vaccines against new outbreak strains. This is made poss...

  16. Innate Immune Defenses Induced by CpG do not Promote Vaccine-Induced Protection Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emergency vaccination as part of the control strategies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) epidemics has the potential not only to limit the spread of the virus but also to reduce large-scale culling of affected herds. With the aim to reduce the time between vaccination and the onset of immunity, ...

  17. Factors associated with within-herd transmission of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus during the 2001 outbreak in Argentina: a protective effect of vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Argentina suffered an extensive foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in 2001, shortly after obtaining the official FMD-free without vaccination status conferred by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). This epidemic affected at least 2,519 herds and it is one of the largest FMD epidemics ...

  18. Introduction of tag epitopes in the inter-AUG region of foot and mouth disease virus: effect on the L protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) initiates translation from two in–frame AUG codons producing two forms of the leader (L) proteinase, termed Lab (starting at the first AUG) and Lb (starting at second AUG). In a previous study, we have demonstrated that acDNA-derived mutant FMDV (A24-L1123) conta...

  19. Interferon induced protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus correlates with enhanced tissue specific innate immune cell infiltration and interferon stimulated gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous studies we have demonstrated that type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) or a combination of IFN-alpha/beta and type II IFNs (IFN-gamma) delivered by replication-defective human adenovirus (Ad5) vectors can protect swine when challenged 1 day later with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). P...

  20. Serotype diversity of Foot-and-Mouth-Disease virus in livestock without history of vaccination in the far north region of Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. Cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because FMD vaccination is not practiced. We carried out a prospective study including se...

  1. Surveillance strategies for foot and mouth disease to prove absence of disease and absence of viral circulation.

    PubMed

    Caporale, V; Giovannini, A; Zepeda, C

    2012-12-01

    Free trade of animals and their products is based on the international or bilateral recognition of the health status of the animal populations being traded. This recognition is based on documentation of their health status by the exporting country, based on the results of continuing surveillance. According to the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), this may be based on various methods of surveillance, such as: documenting non-specific surveillance (clinical surveillance, passive notification of suspect cases, etc.); documenting activities that increase the sensitivity of non-specific surveillance (training activities, rewards/sanctions for notification/failure to notify, etc.); documenting all specific surveillance and its results (random surveys, targeted and risk-based surveillance, convenience-testing activities, etc.). Usually, the infection is the subject of the declaration of freedom. While clinical and passive surveillance can provide a high level of confidence that foot and mouth disease (FMD) infection is absent, this is not the case in vaccinated populations. In these populations, specific surveillance becomes much more important than non-specific clinical surveillance. Specific surveillance is severely restricted by the performance of the test(s) employed. The imperfect specificity of any serological test is further complicated when techniques to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) are used, because imperfect purification of the antigen used for vaccination may foster the production of undesired antibodies in the vaccinated animals. The authors discuss various approaches to overcome this problem; their merits and flaws in documenting the absence of infection or virus circulation for animal diseases in general, and for FMD in particular. Particular attention is paid to finding methods that can be applied in a variety of epidemiological conditions and organisational structures, since these

  2. The impact of seasonal variability in wildlife populations on the predicted spread of foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Highfield, Linda D; Ward, Michael P; Laffan, Shawn W; Norby, Bo; Wagner, Gale

    2009-01-01

    Modeling potential disease spread in wildlife populations is important for predicting, responding to and recovering from a foreign animal disease incursion such as foot and mouth disease (FMD). We conducted a series of simulation experiments to determine how seasonal estimates of the spatial distribution of white-tailed deer impact the predicted magnitude and distribution of potential FMD outbreaks. Outbreaks were simulated in a study area comprising two distinct ecoregions in South Texas, USA, using a susceptible-latent-infectious-resistant geographic automata model (Sirca). Seasonal deer distributions were estimated by spatial autoregressive lag models and the normalized difference vegetation index. Significant (P < 0.0001) differences in both the median predicted number of deer infected and number of herds infected were found both between seasons and between ecoregions. Larger outbreaks occurred in winter within the higher deer-density ecoregion, whereas larger outbreaks occurred in summer and fall within the lower deer-density ecoregion. Results of this simulation study suggest that the outcome of an FMD incursion in a population of wildlife would depend on the density of the population infected and when during the year the incursion occurs. It is likely that such effects would be seen for FMD incursions in other regions and countries, and for other diseases, in cases in which a potential wildlife reservoir exists. Study findings indicate that the design of a mitigation strategy needs to take into account population and seasonal characteristics. PMID:19134466

  3. The impact of seasonal variability in wildlife populations on the predicted spread of foot and mouth disease

    PubMed Central

    Highfield, Linda D.; Ward, Michael P.; Laffan, Shawn W.; Norby, Bo; Wagner, Gale

    2009-01-01

    Modeling potential disease spread in wildlife populations is important for predicting, responding to and recovering from a foreign animal disease incursion such as foot and mouth disease (FMD). We conducted a series of simulation experiments to determine how seasonal estimates of the spatial distribution of white-tailed deer impact the predicted magnitude and distribution of potential FMD outbreaks. Outbreaks were simulated in a study area comprising two distinct ecoregions in South Texas, USA, using a susceptible-latent-infectious-resistant geographic automata model (Sirca). Seasonal deer distributions were estimated by spatial autoregressive lag models and the normalized difference vegetation index. Significant (P < 0.0001) differences in both the median predicted number of deer infected and number of herds infected were found both between seasons and between ecoregions. Larger outbreaks occurred in winter within the higher deer-density ecoregion, whereas larger outbreaks occurred in summer and fall within the lower deer-density ecoregion. Results of this simulation study suggest that the outcome of an FMD incursion in a population of wildlife would depend on the density of the population infected and when during the year the incursion occurs. It is likely that such effects would be seen for FMD incursions in other regions and countries, and for other diseases, in cases in which a potential wildlife reservoir exists. Study findings indicate that the design of a mitigation strategy needs to take into account population and seasonal characteristics. PMID:19134466

  4. Atmospheric Spread of Foot-and-mouth Disease During The Early Phase of The Uk Epidemic 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, J. H.; Mikkelsen, T.; Astrup, P.; Alexandersen, S.; Donaldson, A. I.

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease in cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of species which are susceptible, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions and secretions which can be infectious, the stability of the virus in the environment, the multiplicity of routes of infection and the very small doses of virus that can initiate infection in susceptible hosts. One of the routes for the spread of the disease is the atmospheric dispersion of virus exhaled by infected animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have occurred over a distance of several hundred kilometres. For the FMD epidemic in UK in 2001, atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to describe the atmospheric dispersion of virus for the larger outbreaks of the disease. The operational value of such modelling is first of all to identify risk zones, which is helpful to the emergency management. The paper addresses the modelling techniques and presents results related with the epidemic in UK in 2001.

  5. Participatory diagnosis of a heat-intolerance syndrome in cattle in Tanzania and association with foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Catley, A; Chibunda, R T; Ranga, E; Makungu, S; Magayane, F T; Magoma, G; Madege, M J; Vosloo, W

    2004-08-30

    A heat-intolerance (HI) syndrome in cattle in Tanzania was suspected to be associated with previous, clinical foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A participatory appraisal (PA) method called "matrix scoring" was used to explore livestock-keeper perceptions of association between HI and cattle diseases. A PA method called 'proportional piling' was used to estimate herd incidence of FMD and other diseases, herd incidence of HI, and association between HI and other cattle diseases. Use of matrix scoring and proportional piling with pastoral Maasai informants demonstrated association between FMD and HI. With agropastoral Sukuma informants, the matrix-scoring method did not indicate an association between FMD and HI, whereas the proportional piling method indicated a weak association. Results were supported by calculation of positive predictive values for herder diagnosis of HI and FMD. Clinical examination of cattle by veterinarians was used to confirm HI cases and detection of antibody to non-structural proteins of FMD virus was used to confirm previous clinical FMD. PMID:15454324

  6. 75 FR 65431 - Change in Disease Status of Japan Because of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... has been confirmed in Japan. This action restricts the importation of ruminants and swine and the fresh meat and other animal products of ruminants and swine from that country and is necessary to..., including cattle, deer, goats, sheep, swine, and other animals. The disease is highly communicable and...

  7. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Hong Kong: A Time-Series Analysis on Its Relationship with Weather

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pin; Goggins, William B.; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an emerging enterovirus-induced infectious disease for which the environmental risk factors promoting disease circulation remain inconclusive. This study aims to quantify the association of daily weather variation with hospitalizations for HFMD in Hong Kong, a subtropical city in China. Methods A time series of daily counts of HFMD public hospital admissions from 2008 through 2011 in Hong Kong was regressed on daily mean temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation and total rainfall, using a combination of negative binomial generalized additive models and distributed lag non-linear models, adjusting for trend, season, and day of week. Results There was a positive association between temperature and HFMD, with increasing trends from 8 to 20°C and above 25°C with a plateau in between. A hockey-stick relationship of relative humidity with HFMD was found, with markedly increasing risks over 80%. Moderate rainfall and stronger wind and solar radiation were also found to be associated with more admissions. Conclusions The present study provides quantitative evidence that short-term meteorological variations could be used as early indicators for potential HFMD outbreaks. Climate change is likely to lead to a substantial increase in severe HFMD cases in this subtropical city in the absence of further interventions. PMID:27532865

  8. Evaluation of a combinatorial RNAi lentivirus vector targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIAOXI; ZHENG, HAIXUE; XU, MINJUN; ZHOU, YU; LI, XIANGPING; YANG, FAN; LIU, QINGYOU; SHI, DESHUN

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which leads to serious economical losses. FMDV is not adequately controlled by vaccination or biosecurity measures. To generate genetically modified FMDV-resistant animals, a combinatorial expression cassette producing three short hairpin (sh) RNAs was constructed using the lentivirus (LV) vector, LV-3shRNA. The three shRNAs were expressed under the regulation of DNA polymerase III promoters from a buffalo and a bovine source, with one targeted to the non-structural protein 3B, and the other two targeted to the viral polymerase protein 3D of FMDV, respectively. The role of LV-3shRNA in the inhibition of the replication of FMDV was determined in BHK-21 cells and in suckling mice. The results revealed that LV-3shRNA reduced viral growth 3-fold (24 h post-infection) when the cells were challenged with 107-times the tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/ml of O serotype FMDV. The suckling mice pretreated with LV-3shRNA were completely protected on administration of 5-times the dose of FMDV otherwise sufficient to kill 50% of the experimental animals (LD50). These results demonstrated that the LV-mediated dual expression of three FMDV-specific shRNAs provided a novel strategy towards combating FMDV, which facilitates the permanent introduction of novel disease-resistance traits into the buffalo and bovine genomes in the future. PMID:26323462

  9. A Portable Reverse Transcription Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; El-Deeb, Ayman; El-Tholoth, Mohamed; Abd El Kader, Hanaa; Ahmed, Abeer; Hassan, Sayed; Hoffmann, Bernd; Haas, Bernd; Shalaby, Mohamed A.; Hufert, Frank T.; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a trans-boundary viral disease of livestock, which causes huge economic losses and constitutes a serious infectious threat for livestock farming worldwide. Early diagnosis of FMD helps to diminish its impact by adequate outbreak management. In this study, we describe the development of a real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The FMDV RT-RPA design targeted the 3D gene of FMDV and a 260 nt molecular RNA standard was used for assay validation. The RT-RPA assay was fast (4–10 minutes) and the analytical sensitivity was determined at 1436 RNA molecules detected by probit regression analysis. The FMDV RT-RPA assay detected RNA prepared from all seven FMDV serotypes but did not detect classical swine fever virus or swine vesicular disease virus. The FMDV RT-RPA assay was used in the field during the recent FMD outbreak in Egypt. In clinical samples, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-RPA showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% and 98%, respectively. In conclusion, FMDV RT-RPA was quicker and much easier to handle in the field than real-time RT-PCR. Thus RT-RPA could be easily implemented to perform diagnostics at quarantine stations or farms for rapid spot-of-infection detection. PMID:23977101

  10. A portable reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; El-Deeb, Ayman; El-Tholoth, Mohamed; Abd El Kader, Hanaa; Ahmed, Abeer; Hassan, Sayed; Hoffmann, Bernd; Haas, Bernd; Shalaby, Mohamed A; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a trans-boundary viral disease of livestock, which causes huge economic losses and constitutes a serious infectious threat for livestock farming worldwide. Early diagnosis of FMD helps to diminish its impact by adequate outbreak management. In this study, we describe the development of a real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The FMDV RT-RPA design targeted the 3D gene of FMDV and a 260 nt molecular RNA standard was used for assay validation. The RT-RPA assay was fast (4-10 minutes) and the analytical sensitivity was determined at 1436 RNA molecules detected by probit regression analysis. The FMDV RT-RPA assay detected RNA prepared from all seven FMDV serotypes but did not detect classical swine fever virus or swine vesicular disease virus. The FMDV RT-RPA assay was used in the field during the recent FMD outbreak in Egypt. In clinical samples, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-RPA showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% and 98%, respectively. In conclusion, FMDV RT-RPA was quicker and much easier to handle in the field than real-time RT-PCR. Thus RT-RPA could be easily implemented to perform diagnostics at quarantine stations or farms for rapid spot-of-infection detection. PMID:23977101

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the lake zone of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Genchwere, Joseph M; Kasanga, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the spatiotemporal distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) serotypes and evaluate the awareness of livestock keepers about FMD in Tanzania. An observational prospective study involving serological analysis, FMDV antigen detection and questionnaire survey was carried out in the lake zone of Tanzania. Seroprevalence of antibodies to the nonstructural protein 3ABC of FMDV and serotype-specific antigen detection were investigated by using SVANOVIR® FMDV 3ABC-Ab ELISA and indirect-sandwich ELISA (sELISA), respectively, whilst a structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the awareness of livestock keepers about FMD. During the period of 2010-2011, both serum and tissue (foot-and-mouth epithelia) samples were collected from cattle suspected of FMD in 13 districts of the four regions of the lake zone. A total of 107 (80.5%) out of 133 tested serum samples were seropositive to nonstructural protein 3ABC, with at least one sample being positive from all 10 districts screened. Fifteen (53.6%) out of 28 tissue epithelial samples collected from FMD cases in eight districts during the course of this study were positive to serotype O FMDV antigen. Of these eight districts, serotype O FMDV antigens were detected from seven districts and no other serotypes were recovered from animal samples screened. Questionnaire surveys in six districts indicated that livestock keepers in the lake zone were aware of the clinical manifestations (26/29 = 90.0%) and economic impact (23/29 = 79.0%) of FMD in the region. The questionnaire data showed that FMD outbreaks often occurred after rainy seasons (22/29 = 75.9%), with the highest peaks predominantly occurring just after the long rains in May and June, and at the end of the short rains in November and December of each year. The spatial distribution of the FMD cases suggested that serotype O virus exposure was the only widespread cause of the 2010-2011 outbreaks in the lake zone. PMID

  12. Economic Impacts of Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Agro-terrorism in the United States: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Rose, Adam; Bumsoo, Lee

    2013-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus has high agro-terrorism potential because it is contagious, can be easily transmitted via inanimate objects and can be spread by wind. An outbreak of FMD in developed countries results in massive slaughtering of animals (for disease control) and disruptions in meat supply chains and trade, with potentially large economic losses. Although the United States has been FMD-free since 1929, the potential of FMD as a deliberate terrorist weapon calls for estimates of the physical and economic damage that could result from an outbreak. This paper estimates the economic impacts of three alternative scenarios of potential FMD attacks using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy. The three scenarios range from a small outbreak successfully contained within a state to a large multi-state attack resulting in slaughtering of 30 percent of the national livestock. Overall, the value of total output losses in our simulations range between $37 billion (0.15% of 2006 baseline economic output) and $228 billion (0.92%). Major impacts stem from the supply constraint on livestock due to massive animal slaughtering. As expected, the economic losses are heavily concentrated in agriculture and food manufacturing sectors, with losses ranging from $23 billion to $61 billion in the two industries.

  13. Full protection of swine against foot-and-mouth disease by a bivalent B-cell epitope dendrimer peptide.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Esther; Guerra, Beatriz; de la Torre, Beatriz G; Defaus, Sira; Dekker, Aldo; Andreu, David; Sobrino, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. We have reported (Cubillos et al., 2008) that a synthetic dendrimeric peptide consisting of four copies of a B-cell epitope [VP1(136-154)] linked through thioether bonds to a T-cell epitope [3A(21-35)] of FMDV [B4T(thi)] elicits potent B- and T-cell specific responses and confers solid protection in pigs to type C FMDV challenge. Herein we show that downsized versions of this peptide bearing two copies of a B-cell epitope from a type O isolate and using thioether [B2T(thi)] or maleimide [B2T(mal)] conjugation chemistries for their synthesis elicited in swine similar or higher B and T-cell specific responses than tetravalent B4T(thi). Moreover, while partial protection was observed in animals immunized with B4T(thi) (60%) and B2T(thi) (80%), B2T(mal) conferred full (100%) protection against FMDV challenge, associated to high levels of circulating IgG2 and mucosal IgGA, and entirely prevented virus shedding. Interestingly, B2T(mal) is also the most advantageous option in terms of synthetic practicality. Taken together, the results reported here point out to B2T(mal) as a highly valuable, cost-effective FMDV candidate vaccine. PMID:26956030

  14. Induction of systemic IFITM3 expression does not effectively control foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Haixue; Qian, Ping; Xu, Jinfang; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-08-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. Our previous study showed that overexpression of swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) impeded replication of the FMD virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells and mice. In this study, sIFITM3-transgenic (TG) pigs were produced by handmade cloning. Results showed that sIFITM3 was highly overexpressed in many organs of sIFITM3-TG pigs compared to wild-type pigs. After a virulent FMDV strain (O/ES/2001) was intramuscularly inoculated, the sIFITM3-TG pigs showed slightly higher susceptibility to FMDV infection than wild-type pigs. Both groups displayed comparable degrees of clinical symptoms throughout the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the induction of systemic sIFITM3 expression does not protect pigs against FMDV infection. Based on these observations, we propose that a combination of interferons and vaccines be used to control FMDV infections and subsequent FMD outbreaks. PMID:27374903

  15. Development of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus replicon vector for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jeeva, Subbiah; Lee, Jung-Ah; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important global animal disease. To control FMD virus (FMDV) outbreaks, a lot of different novel approaches have been attempted. In this study, we proposed a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) as a replicon vector to express FMDV structural protein. Materials and Methods PRRSV infectious clone (PRRSVK418DM) was used to develop an expression vector through the reverse genetic manipulation of PRRSV; FMDVP12A3C gene of serotype O was synthesized and used for an antigen. MARC-145 cells (African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line) were used for electroporation mediated transfection. The transfection or the expression of P12A3C and N protein of PRRSV was analyzed by either replicon containing PRRSV alone or by co-infection of helper PRRSV. Results We constructed PRRSVK418DM replicon vector containing FMDVP12A3C, and genome sequences were confirmed by subsequent sequence analysis. In vitro expression of P12A3C and PRRSV N protein was confirmed by immunofluorescence antibody assay using antibodies specific for PRRSV N protein (anti-PRRSV N MAb), FMDV-VP1 (anti-VP1 MAb). Conclusion The results indicate that PRRSV replicon vector can be a promising novel vector system to control FMDV and useful for vaccine development in the future. PMID:24427767

  16. Risk factors for herdsman-reported foot-and-mouth disease in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bronsvoort, B M de C; Nfon, C; Hamman, S M; Tanya, V N; Kitching, R P; Morgan, K L

    2004-12-15

    We analysed responses from 147 Fulani herdsmen to a questionnaire about cattle herd-level risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the previous year. The study used a cross-sectional design with a stratified, two-stage random sample of cattle herds in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon. The questionnaire was pre-tested at a local cattle market before a final version was translated into Foulfoulde (the local Fulani dialect). Variables were screened using a univariable analysis and logistic multiple-regression models were developed in a forward-selection process. Fifty-eight percent (50-65; 90% CIs) of herdsmen reported FMD in their herd in the previous 12 months. Important risk factors for FMD in the previous 12 months included going on transhumance (OR=2.6), buying cattle from markets (OR=2.2), mixing of herds at watering points (OR=2.4), feeding cotton-seed cake (OR=3.3), buffalo near the herd (OR=2.2) and administrative division. For the subset of herds that went on transhumance, coming in contact with an FMDV-diseased herd while on transhumance was the strongest factor (OR=16). PMID:15579340

  17. Some challenges to progressive control of foot and mouth disease in Pakistan--findings of a pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Abbas, T; Younus, M; Muhmmad, S A; Ijaz, M; Shakoor, A

    2014-02-01

    Pakistan is at an initial stage for progressive control of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Understanding the risk factors for introduction, spread and persistence of the infection is important to design an evidence-based disease control programme. A rapid appraisal method was adopted, and a convenient sample of twenty commercial dairy farmers was interviewed. The following were considered to contribute in secondary transmission of infection: (i) intermediaries and service providers [animal health workers, animal traders and transporters, raw milk collectors, persons who remove skin of dead animals], (ii) places where animals come in close contact [livestock markets, animal fairs, communal grazing pastures, routes in villages where livestock move, watering points, animal transport vehicles], (iii) use of bulls immediately after recovery from FMD infection, (iv) range land/desert livestock production, (v) small holder sheep and goat production, (vi) purchase of replacement stock and fodder from infected locations. This article reveals contacts within and between villages, some of which may act as routes of transmission of FMD. The study suggests the need for zoosanitary education of the livestock keepers. PMID:22978294

  18. Identification of Health Risks of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in China Using the Geographical Detector Technique

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jixia; Wang, Jinfeng; Bo, Yanchen; Xu, Chengdong; Hu, Maogui; Huang, Dacang

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease, causing thousands of deaths among children in China over the past two decades. Environmental risk factors such as meteorological factors, population factors and economic factors may affect the incidence of HFMD. In the current paper, we used a novel model—geographical detector technique to analyze the effect of these factors on the incidence of HFMD in China. We collected HFMD cases from 2,309 counties during May 2008 in China. The monthly cumulative incidence of HFMD was calculated for children aged 0–9 years. Potential risk factors included meteorological factors, economic factors, and population density factors. Four geographical detectors (risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector, and interaction detector) were used to analyze the effects of some potential risk factors on the incidence of HFMD in China. We found that tertiary industry and children exert more influence than first industry and middle school students on the incidence of HFMD. The interactive effect of any two risk factors increases the hazard for HFMD transmission. PMID:24662999

  19. Risk factors for neurologic complications of hand, foot and mouth disease in the Republic of Korea, 2009.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Joon; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kang, Jin-Han; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Young-Hoon; Chung, Ju-Young; Bin, Joong Hyun; Jung, Da Eun; Kim, Ji Hong; Kim, Hwang Min; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Kang, Byung Hak; Seo, Soon Young

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the first outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) or herpangina (HP) caused by enterovirus 71 occurred in the Republic of Korea. This study inquired into risk factors associated with complications of HFMD or HP. A retrospective medical records review was conducted on HFMD or HP patients for whom etiologic viruses had been verified in 2009. One hundred sixty-eight patients were examined for this investigation. Eighty patients were without complications while 88 were accompanied by complications, and 2 had expired. Enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4a was the most prevalent in number with 67 cases (54.9%). In the univariate analysis, the disease patterns of HFMD rather than HP, fever longer than 4 days, peak body temperature over 39℃, vomiting, headache, neurologic signs, serum glucose over 100 mg/dL, and having an enterovirus 71 as a causative virus were significant risk factors of the complications. After multiple logistic analysis, headache (Odds ratio [OR], 10.75; P < 0.001) and neurologic signs (OR, 42.76; P < 0.001) were found to be the most significant factors. Early detection and proper management of patients with aforementioned risk factors would be necessary in order to attain a better clinical outcome. PMID:23341722

  20. Evolutionary Analysis of Structural Protein Gene VP1 of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingxun; Liu, Xinsheng; Fang, Yuzhen; Pan, Li; Lv, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhongwang; Zhou, Peng; Ding, Yaozhong; Chen, Haotai; Shao, Junjun; Zhao, Furong; Lin, Tong; Chang, Huiyun; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Yongguang

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1 was mostly endemic in Asia and then was responsible for economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, but the study on its selection and evolutionary process is comparatively rare. In this study, we characterized 377 isolates from Asia collected up until 2012, including four vaccine strains. Maximum likelihood analysis suggested that the strains circulating in Asia were classified into 8 different groups (groups I–VIII) or were unclassified (viruses collected before 2000). On the basis of divergence time analyses, we infer that the TMRCA of Asia 1 virus existed approximately 86.29 years ago. The result suggested that the virus had a high mutation rate (5.745 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year) in comparison to the other serotypes of FMDV VP1 gene. Furthermore, the structural protein VP1 was under lower selection pressure and the positive selection occurred at many sites, and four codons (positions 141, 146, 151, and 169) were located in known critical antigenic residues. The remaining sites were not located in known functional regions and were moderately conserved, and the reason for supporting all sites under positive selection remains to be elucidated because the power of these analyses was largely unknown. PMID:25793223

  1. Quantitative proteomics by amino acid labeling in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu; Yan, Guangrong; Luo, Yongwen; Tong, Tiezhu; Liu, Xiangtao; Xin, Chaoan; Liao, Ming; Fan, Huiying

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an important disease agent that can be difficult to effectively eradicate from herds. Because it is an obligate intracellular parasite, the virus has multiple effects on the host cell during infection. Here, a high-throughput quantitative proteomic approach was used to develop an unbiased holistic overview of the protein changes in IBRS-2 cells infected with FMDV. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) combined with LC-MS/MS was performed to identify and quantify 1260 cellular and 2 viral proteins after 6 h of infection of IBRS-2 cells with FMDV. Of these identified and measured cellular protein pairs, 77 were significantly up-regulated, and 50 were significantly down-regulated based on significance B ≤ 0.05. The differentially altered proteins included a number of proteins involved in endolysosomal proteases system, cell cycle, cellular growth and proliferation, and immune cell trafficking. Selected data were validated by Western blot. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that proteins that changed in response to infection could be assigned to defined canonical pathways and functional groupings, such as integrin signaling. The obtained data might not only improve the understanding of the dynamics of FMDV and host interaction but may also help elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of FMDV infection. PMID:23170859

  2. Poly ICLC increases the potency of a replication-defective human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Dias, Camila C; Moraes, Mauro P; Weiss, Marcelo; Perez-Martin, Eva; Salazar, Andres M; Grubman, Marvin J; de los Santos, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. We have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 vector carrying the FMDV capsid coding region of serotype A24 Cruzeiro (Ad5-CI-A24-2B) protects swine and cattle against FMDV challenge by 7 days post-vaccination. However, since relatively large amounts of Ad5-CI-A24-2B are required to induce protection this strategy could be costly for livestock production. Poly ICLC is a synthetic double stranded RNA that activates multiple innate and adaptive immune pathways. In this study, we have tested for the first time, the adjuvant effect of poly ICLC in combination with Ad5-CI-A24-2B in swine. We found that the combination resulted in a reduction of the vaccine protective dose by 80-fold. Interestingly, the lowest dose of Ad5-CI-A24-2B plus 1mg of poly ICLC protected animals against challenge even in the absence of detectable FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies at the time of challenge. PMID:25216089

  3. Clinical and Etiological Characteristics of Atypical Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Children from Chongqing, China: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiang; Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Yang, Zhen-Hua; Zhu, Chao-Min; Hu, Yun-Ge; Liu, Quan-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a disease that had similar manifestations to chickenpox, impetigo, and measles, which is easy to misdiagnose and subsequently causes delayed therapy and subsequent epidemic. To date, no study has been conducted to report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of atypical HFMD. Methods. 64 children with atypical HFMD out of 887 HFMD children were recruited, stool was collected, and viral VP1 was detected. Results. The atypical HFMD accounted for 7.2% of total HFMD in the same period (64/887) and there were two peaks in its prevalence in nonepidemic seasons. Ten children (15.6%) had manifestations of neurologic involvement, of whom 4 (6.3%) were diagnosed with severe HFMD and 1 with critically severe HFMD, but all recovered smoothly. Onychomadesis and desquamation were found in 14 patients (21.9%) and 15 patients (23.4%), respectively. The most common pathogen was coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) which accounted for 67.2%, followed by nontypable enterovirus (26.6%), enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) (4.7%), and coxsackievirus A16 (A16) (1.5%). Conclusions. Atypical HFMD has seasonal prevalence. The manifestations of neurologic involvement in atypical HFMD are mild and usually have a good prognosis. CV-A6 is a major pathogen causing atypical HFMD, but not a major pathogen in Chongqing, China. PMID:26693489

  4. PREVALENCE OF HUMAN ENTEROVIRUS AMONG PATIENTS WITH HAND, FOOT, AND MOUTH DISEASE AND HERPANGINA IN THAILAND, 2013.

    PubMed

    Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Korkong, Sumeth; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Human enterovirus (EV) infection causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA). We studied the prevalence of enterovirus (EV) among patients with HFMD and HA in Thailand during 2013. We conducted a study in archived specimens of patients sent for screening for enterovirus. A total of 203 clinical specimens from 184 individuals with painful blister in the oropharynx and on the palms, soles, knees, elbows or buttock were examined by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 5'UTR and VP1 genes of EV. Eighty-six samples were positive: EV71 was detected in 14 (30%), CV-A8 in 12 (26%) and CV-A16 in 10 (21%). Classification of EV species detected revealed that 46 specimens were EV-A, 14 specimens were EV-B, 1 specimen was EV-D, and 16 specimens were positive for unclassified enterovirus. The majority of individuals with EV infection were aged 2-6 years. Multiple EV-A serotypes were detected among HFMD and HA patients in our study. PMID:26867359

  5. Pan-Serotype Diagnostic for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Using the Consensus Antigen of Nonstructural Protein 3B

    PubMed Central

    Van Dreumel, Alyssa K.; Michalski, Wojtek P.; McNabb, Leanne M.; Shiell, Brian J.; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B.

    2015-01-01

    An amino acid consensus sequence for the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural protein 3B, including all three contiguous repeats, and its use in the development of a pan-serotype diagnostic test for all seven FMDV serotypes are described. The amino acid consensus sequence of the 3B protein was determined from a multiple-sequence alignment of 125 sequences of 3B. The consensus 3B (c3B) protein was expressed as a soluble recombinant fusion protein with maltose-binding protein (MBP) using a bacterial expression system and was affinity purified using amylose resin. The MBP-c3B protein was used as the antigen in the development of a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for detection of anti-3B antibodies in bovine sera. The comparative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity at 47% inhibition were estimated to be 87.22% and 93.15%, respectively. Reactivity of c3B with bovine sera representing the seven FMDV serotypes demonstrated the pan-serotype diagnostic capability of this bioreagent. The consensus antigen and competition ELISA are described here as candidates for a pan-serotype diagnostic test for FMDV infection. PMID:25788546

  6. Neurological complications and risk factors of cardiopulmonary failure of EV-A71-related hand, foot and mouth disease

    PubMed Central

    Long, Lili; Xu, Lin; Xiao, Zhenghui; Hu, Shixiong; Luo, Ruping; Wang, Hua; Lu, Xiulan; Xu, Zhiyue; Yao, Xu; Zhou, Luo; Long, Hongyu; Gong, Jiaoe; Song, Yanmin; Zhao, Li; Luo, Kaiwei; Zhang, Mengqi; Feng, Li; Yang, Liming; Sheng, Xiaoqi; Fan, Xuegong; Xiao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, large outbreaks of EV-A71-related- hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred annually in China. Some cases had neurological complications and were closely associated with fatal cardiopulmonary collapse, but not all children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement demonstrated a poor prognosis. To identify which patients and which neurological complications are more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure, we retrospectively studied 1,125 paediatric inpatients diagnosed with EV-A71-related HFMD in Hunan province, including 1,017 cases with CNS involvement. These patients were divided into cardiopulmonary failure (976 people) group and group without cardiopulmonary failure (149 people). A logistic regression analysis was used to compare the clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and neurological complications between these two groups. The most significant risk factors included young age, fever duration ≥3 days, coma, limb weakness, drowsiness and ANS involvement. Patients with brainstem encephalitis and more CNS-involved regions were more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure. These findings can help front-line clinicians rapidly and accurately determine patient prognosis, thus rationally distributing the limited medical resources and implementing interventions as early as possible. PMID:27001010

  7. A computational study of the interaction of the foot and mouth disease virus VP1 with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Ruben; Limardo, Ramiro Rodríguez; Carrillo, Elisa; König, Guido A; Turjanski, Adrián G

    2015-10-01

    Foot and mouth disease is caused by a non-enveloped virus (FMDV), which disposes several antigenic sites at the surface of their capsid proteins. The most relevant and immunodominant antigenic site of FMDV (site A or AnSA) includes a key virus-cell interaction element (RGD motif) located in the Viral Protein 1 (VP1), more precisely at the GH loop. AnSA includes a set of overlapped and mainly linear epitopes, which are the main targets of the humoral immune response. Taking advantage over specific structural features of the GH loop, we have evaluated the influence of every amino acid residue at AnSA in the interaction with 2 neutralizing antibodies by molecular modeling techniques. Additionally, we constructed diverse interaction complexes with multiple site A mutants and discussed about the structural influence of amino acidic insertions in such relevant antigenic site of FMDV. Our approach is in agreement with previous ELISA experiments and allows the understanding of how FMDV mutations may alter the interaction with different antibodies, as we can estimate the contribution of each amino acid to the interaction. Overall, our work contributes to the development of specific vaccination strategies for FMD control. PMID:26093030

  8. Rapid selection of genetic and antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus during persistence in cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, F; de la Torre, J C; Gomes, I; Mateu, M G; Barahona, H; Tiraboschi, B; Bergmann, I; de Mello, P A; Domingo, E

    1988-01-01

    Rapid evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is documented during persistent infections of cattle. The carrier state was established experimentally with plaque-purified FMDV of serotype C3. Virus was recovered from the esophageal pharyngeal area of the animals up to 539 days postinfection. Analysis of capsid proteins by electrofocusing and by electrophoretic mobility of the genomic poly(C)-rich tract suggested heterogeneity in several isolates and sequential dominance of viral subpopulations. Nucleotide sequences of the VP1-coding region of the parental FMDV C3 clones and of seven isolates from the carrier cattle showed point mutations that represented rates of fixation of mutations of 0.9 X 10(-2) to 7.4 X 10(-2) substitutions per nucleotide per year; 59% of the base changes led to amino acid substitutions, some of which were located within residues 135 to 151, a region involved in neutralization of FMDV. In the esophageal pharyngeal fluid samples, FMDV C3-neutralizing activity was present. Antigenic variation was demonstrated with monoclonal antibodies raised against FMDV C3. Two isolates from carrier cattle differed from the parental virus by 10(2)- or 10(3)-fold decreased reactivity with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. We suggest that persistent, inapparent infections of ruminants, in addition to being a reservoir of virus, may promote the rapid selection of antigenically variant FMDVs. Images PMID:2835508

  9. A laboratory evaluation of medicinal herbs used in china for the treatment of hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chunyang; Xu, Lanfang; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Guang; Tan, Ren Xiang; Li, Erguang; Jin, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). During recent epidemics of HFMD in China, medicinal herbals and preparations containing herbal extracts have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy with relative safety profiles. There have been no microbiological studies to validate their usefulness for HFMD. We selected 12 commonly used herbs for HFMD from government recommended guidelines as well as published reports and tested for their antiviral activity and anti-inflammatory activity. A water extract of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) inhibited EV71 infection significantly and was marginally active against CVA16 infection. The IC50 (concentration to have 50% inhibitory effect) values of HCT against a Fuyang strain and a BrCr strain of EV71 were determined at 8.9  μ g/mL and 20.6  μ g/mL, respectively. Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (MHB) water extract was active against CVA16, with an IC50 value of 70.3  μ g/mL. The extract did not exhibit activity against EV71 infection. Although the majority of the extracts showed no activity against viral infection, several extracts demonstrated activity in blocking proinflammatory response by viral infection. This study therefore validates the effectiveness of Chinese herbs for HFMD since some formulations containing the correct combination of the herbs can block viral replication as well as proinflammatory response of HFMD. PMID:23554831

  10. Immunogenicity of a recombinant Sendai virus expressing the capsid precursor polypeptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Ging; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Qian, Ping; Chen, Huan-Chun; Li, Xiang-Min

    2016-02-01

    In this study, SeV was used as a vector to express capsid precursor polypeptide (P1) of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by using reverse genetics. The rescue recombinant SeV (rSeV-P1) can efficiently propagate and express P1 protein by Western blot and IFA analysis. To evaluate the immunogenicity of rSeV-P1, BALB/c mice were divided into several groups and immunized intramuscularly with various doses of rSeV-P1, rSeV-eGFP, PBS and commercial FMD vaccine, respectively, and then challenged with an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 10(6) TCID50 of virulent serotype O FMDV O/ES/2001 strain 4 weeks after booster immunization. Mice vaccinated with rSeV-P1 acquired FMDV-specific ELISA antibodies, neutralizing antibodies as well as cellular immune response. Meantime, mice immunized with rSeV-P1 (dose-dependent) had the ability to inhibit the replication of FMDV in the sera after FMDV challenge. Our results indicated that the recombinant SeV-P1 virus could be utilized as an alternative strategy to develop a new generation of safety and efficacious vaccine against FMDV infection. PMID:26850558

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A inhibits the interferon-β signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Lei, Caoqi; Xu, Zhisheng; Yang, Fan; Liu, Huanan; Zhu, Zixiang; Li, Shu; Liu, Xiangtao; Shu, Hongbing; Zheng, Haixue

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of FMD, which affects cloven-hoofed animals. The pathophysiology of FMDV has not been fully understood and the evasion of host innate immune system is still unclear. Here, the FMDV non-structural protein 3A was identified as a negative regulator of virus-triggered IFN-β signaling pathway. Overexpression of the FMDV 3A inhibited Sendai virus-triggered activation of IRF3 and the expressions of RIG-I/MDA5. Transient transfection and co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that FMDV 3A interacts with RIG-I, MDA5 and VISA, which is dependent on the N-terminal 51 amino acids of 3A. Furthermore, 3A also inhibited the expressions of RIG-I, MDA5, and VISA by disrupting their mRNA levels. These results demonstrated that 3A inhibits the RLR-mediated IFN-β induction and uncovered a novel mechanism by which the FMDV 3A protein evades the host innate immune system. PMID:26883855

  12. Biological function of Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural proteins and non-coding elements.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Sun, Shi-Qi; Guo, Hui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) represses host translation machinery, blocks protein secretion, and cleaves cellular proteins associated with signal transduction and the innate immune response to infection. Non-structural proteins (NSPs) and non-coding elements (NCEs) of FMDV play a critical role in these biological processes. The FMDV virion consists of capsid and nucleic acid. The virus genome is a positive single stranded RNA and encodes a single long open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a long structured 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and a short 3'-UTR. The ORF is translated into a polypeptide chain and processed into four structural proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4), 10 NSPs (L(pro), 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B1-3, 3C(pro), and 3D(pol)), and some cleavage intermediates. In the past decade, an increasing number of studies have begun to focus on the molecular pathogenesis of FMDV NSPs and NCEs. This review collected recent research progress on the biological functions of these NSPs and NCEs on the replication and host cellular regulation of FMDV to understand the molecular mechanism of host-FMDV interactions and provide perspectives for antiviral strategy and development of novel vaccines. PMID:27334704

  13. Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A inhibits the interferon-β signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Lei, Caoqi; Xu, Zhisheng; Yang, Fan; Liu, Huanan; Zhu, Zixiang; Li, Shu; Liu, Xiangtao; Shu, Hongbing; Zheng, Haixue

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of FMD, which affects cloven-hoofed animals. The pathophysiology of FMDV has not been fully understood and the evasion of host innate immune system is still unclear. Here, the FMDV non-structural protein 3A was identified as a negative regulator of virus-triggered IFN-β signaling pathway. Overexpression of the FMDV 3A inhibited Sendai virus-triggered activation of IRF3 and the expressions of RIG-I/MDA5. Transient transfection and co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that FMDV 3A interacts with RIG-I, MDA5 and VISA, which is dependent on the N-terminal 51 amino acids of 3A. Furthermore, 3A also inhibited the expressions of RIG-I, MDA5, and VISA by disrupting their mRNA levels. These results demonstrated that 3A inhibits the RLR-mediated IFN-β induction and uncovered a novel mechanism by which the FMDV 3A protein evades the host innate immune system. PMID:26883855

  14. Foot-and-mouth disease virus replicates independently of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Stephen; Moffat, Katy; Harak, Christian; Lohmann, Volker; Jackson, Terry

    2016-08-01

    Picornaviruses form replication complexes in association with membranes in structures called replication organelles. Common themes to emerge from studies of picornavirus replication are the need for cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). In infected cells, type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4KIIIs) generate elevated levels of PI4P, which is then exchanged for cholesterol at replication organelles. For the enteroviruses, replication organelles form at Golgi membranes in a process that utilizes PI4KIIIβ. Other picornaviruses, for example the cardioviruses, are believed to initiate replication at the endoplasmic reticulum and subvert PI4KIIIα to generate PI4P. Here we investigated the role of PI4KIII in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. Our results showed that, in contrast to the enteroviruses and the cardioviruses, FMDV replication does not require PI4KIII (PI4KIIIα and PI4KIIIβ), and PI4P levels do not increase in FMDV-infected cells and PI4P is not seen at replication organelles. These results point to a unique requirement towards lipids at the FMDV replication membranes. PMID:27093462

  15. Crystal structure of the 3C protease from Southern African Territories type 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingjie; Leen, Eoin N.; Maree, Francois F.

    2016-01-01

    The replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro). As in other picornaviruses, 3Cpro performs most of the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein expressed from the large open reading frame in the RNA genome of the virus. Previous work revealed that the 3Cpro from serotype A—one of the seven serotypes of FMDV—adopts a trypsin-like fold. On the basis of capsid sequence comparisons the FMDV serotypes are grouped into two phylogenetic clusters, with O, A, C, and Asia 1 in one, and the three Southern African Territories serotypes, (SAT-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3) in another, a grouping pattern that is broadly, but not rigidly, reflected in 3Cpro amino acid sequences. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of 3C proteases from four SAT serotype viruses (SAT2/GHA/8/91, SAT1/NIG/5/81, SAT1/UGA/1/97, and SAT2/ZIM/7/83) and the crystal structure at 3.2 Å resolution of 3Cpro from SAT2/GHA/8/91. PMID:27168976

  16. The rescue and evaluation of FLAG and HIS epitope-tagged Asia 1 type foot-and-mouth disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Huanan; Jin, Ye; Cao, Weijun; Zhu, Zixiang; Zheng, Haixue; Yin, Hong

    2016-02-01

    The VP1 G-H loop of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) contains the primary antigenic site, as well as an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) binding motif for the αv-integrin family of cell surface receptors. We anticipated that introducing a foreign epitope tag sequence downstream of the RGD motif would be tolerated by the viral capsid and would not destroy the antigenic site of FMDV. In this study, we have designed, generated, and characterized two recombinant FMDVs with a FLAG tag or histidine (HIS) inserted in the VP1 G-H loop downstream of the RGD motif +9 position. The tagged viruses were genetically stable and exhibited similar growth properties with their parental virus. What is more, the recombinant viruses rFMDV-FLAG and rFMDV-HIS showed neutralization sensitivity to FMDV type Asia1-specific mAbs, as well as to polyclonal antibodies. Additionally, the r1 values of the recombinant viruses were similar to that of the parental virus, indicating that the insertion of FLAG or HIS tag sequences downstream of the RGD motif +9 position do not eradicate the antigenic site of FMDV and do not affect its antigenicity. These results indicated that the G-H loop of Asia1 FMDV is able to effectively display the foreign epitopes, making this a potential approach for novel FMDV vaccines development. PMID:26732485

  17. Mass vaccination, immunity and coverage: modelling population protection against foot-and-mouth disease in Turkish cattle

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Gubbins, S.; Bulut, A. N.; Stärk, K. D. C.; Pfeiffer, D. U.; Sumption, K. J.; Paton, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Turkey is controlled using biannual mass vaccination of cattle. However, vaccine protection is undermined by population turnover and declining immunity. A dynamic model of the Turkish cattle population was created. Assuming biannual mass vaccination with a single-dose primary course, vaccine history was calculated for the simulated population (number of doses and time since last vaccination). This was used to estimate population immunity. Six months after the last round of vaccination almost half the cattle aged <24 months remain unvaccinated. Only 50% of all cattle would have received >1 vaccine dose in their life with the last dose given ≤6 months ago. Five months after the last round of vaccination two-thirds of cattle would have low antibody titres (<70% protection threshold). Giving a two-dose primary vaccination course reduces the proportion of 6–12 month old cattle with low titres by 20–30%. Biannual mass vaccination of cattle leaves significant immunity gaps and over-reliance on vaccine protection should be avoided. Using more effective vaccines and vaccination strategies will increase population immunity, however, the extent to which FMD can be controlled by vaccination alone without effective biosecurity remains uncertain. PMID:26916556

  18. Role of Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) in infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Paul; Rai, Devendra; Conderino, Joseph S; Uddowla, Sabena; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) utilizes four integrins (αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ6, and αvβ8) as its primary cell receptor. During cell culture propagation, FMDV frequently adapts to use heparan sulfate (HS), and rarely utilizes an unidentified third receptor. Capsid mutations acquired by a soluble integrin resistant FMDV cause (i) adaptation to CHO-677 cells (ii) increased affinity to membrane-bound Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) (iii) induced JMJD6 re-localization from the cell surface and cytoplasm to the nucleus. Interestingly, pre-treatment of cells with N- and C-terminal JMJD6 antibodies or by simultaneous incubation of mutant virus with soluble JMJD6 (but not by treatment with HS or αvβ6) impaired virus infectivity in cultured cells. JMJD6 and mutant virus co-purified by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation. Molecular docking predictions suggested JMJD6 C-terminus interacts with mutated VP1 capsid protein. We conclude when specific VP1 mutations are displayed, JMJD6 contributes to FMDV infectivity and may be a previously unidentified FMDV receptor. PMID:26896934

  19. Crystal structure of the 3C protease from Southern African Territories type 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingjie; Leen, Eoin N; Maree, Francois F; Curry, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3C protease (3C(pro)). As in other picornaviruses, 3C(pro) performs most of the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein expressed from the large open reading frame in the RNA genome of the virus. Previous work revealed that the 3C(pro) from serotype A-one of the seven serotypes of FMDV-adopts a trypsin-like fold. On the basis of capsid sequence comparisons the FMDV serotypes are grouped into two phylogenetic clusters, with O, A, C, and Asia 1 in one, and the three Southern African Territories serotypes, (SAT-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3) in another, a grouping pattern that is broadly, but not rigidly, reflected in 3C(pro) amino acid sequences. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of 3C proteases from four SAT serotype viruses (SAT2/GHA/8/91, SAT1/NIG/5/81, SAT1/UGA/1/97, and SAT2/ZIM/7/83) and the crystal structure at 3.2 Å resolution of 3C(pro) from SAT2/GHA/8/91. PMID:27168976

  20. Construction of a bovine enterovirus-based vector expressing a foot-and-mouth disease virus epitope.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jia-Qi; Lee, Yeo-Joo; Park, Jeong-Nam; Kim, Su-Mi; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Ko, Young-Joon; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Cho, In-Soo; Kim, Byounghan; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2013-04-01

    A recombinant infectious bovine enterovirus (BEV) vector was constructed to express a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein (VP1) epitope. Sequences encoding the VP1 epitope (amino acid residues 141-160) of FMDV (vaccine strain O1/Manisa/Turkey/69) were inserted into pBLUBEV at the VP1/2A junction. The growth characteristics of the parental virus and viruses derived from recombinant plasmids (pBLUBEV, pBLUBEV-Manisa-epi) were determined by plaque assay and one-step growth curve analysis. There were no significant differences in the growth kinetics and plaque morphologies between transfectant viruses and their parental virus. The expressed VP1 epitope was detected successfully by using indirect immunofluorescence assay with a polyclonal antibody against the FMDV VP1 epitope from Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells infected with BEV-Manisa-epi transfectant virus. This study demonstrated a novel alternative live viral vector that may be utilized as a candidate vaccine vector for veterinary applications. PMID:23391822

  1. Genetic basis of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease serotype A viruses from the Middle East☆

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Ayelet, Gelagay; Paul, Guntram; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.; Mahapatra, Mana

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) from serotype A exhibit high antigenic diversity. Within the Middle East, a strain called A-Iran-05 emerged in 2003, and subsequently replaced the A-Iran-96 and A-Iran-99 strains that were previously circulating in the region. Viruses from this strain did not serologically match with the established A/Iran/96 vaccine, although most early samples matched with the older A22/Iraq vaccine. However, many viruses from this strain collected after 2006 had poor serological match with the A22/Iraq vaccine necessitating the development of a new vaccine strain (A/TUR/2006). More recently, viruses from the region now exhibit lower cross-reactivity with the A/TUR/2006 antisera highlighting the inadequacy of the serotype A vaccines used in the region. In order to understand the genetic basis of these antigenic phenotypes, we have determined the full capsid sequence for 57 Middle Eastern viruses isolated between 1996 and 2011 and analysed these data in context of antigenic relationship (r1) values that were generated using antisera to A22/Iraq and A/TUR/2006. Comparisons of capsid sequences identified substitutions in neutralising antigenic sites (1, 2 and 4), which either individually or together underpin these observed antigenic phenotypes. PMID:24035435

  2. Time Clustered Sampling Can Inflate the Inferred Substitution Rate in Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil T.; Frandsen, Peter; Wekesa, Sabenzia N.; Heller, Rasmus; Sangula, Abraham K.; Wadsworth, Jemma; Knowles, Nick J.; Muwanika, Vincent B.; Siegismund, Hans R.

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of analytical software for the inference of viral evolution, a number of studies have focused on estimating important parameters such as the substitution rate and the time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for rapidly evolving viruses. Coupled with an increasing abundance of sequence data sampled under widely different schemes, an effort to keep results consistent and comparable is needed. This study emphasizes commonly disregarded problems in the inference of evolutionary rates in viral sequence data when sampling is unevenly distributed on a temporal scale through a study of the foot-and-mouth (FMD) disease virus serotypes SAT 1 and SAT 2. Our study shows that clustered temporal sampling in phylogenetic analyses of FMD viruses will strongly bias the inferences of substitution rates and tMRCA because the inferred rates in such data sets reflect a rate closer to the mutation rate rather than the substitution rate. Estimating evolutionary parameters from viral sequences should be performed with due consideration of the differences in short-term and longer-term evolutionary processes occurring within sets of temporally sampled viruses, and studies should carefully consider how samples are combined. PMID:26630483

  3. Increased humoral immune responses of pigs to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine supplemented with ginseng stem and leaf saponins.

    PubMed

    Li, Yutao; Xie, Feng; Chen, Jian; Fan, Qing; Zhai, Lijuan; Hu, Songhua

    2012-10-01

    Vaccination is a conventional approach against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in pigs. However, failure to elicit an immune response to vaccine has been reported. Our previous investigation showed that ginseng stem and leaf saponins (GSLS) and mineral oil acted synergistically to promote Th1/Th2 immune responses to FMD vaccine in mice. This study was designed to i) find the optimal doses of GSLS in oil-emulsified FMD vaccines to induce immune responses in mice and pigs and ii) to evaluate the effect of oil-emulsified FMD vaccine supplemented with GSLS on the immune responses in pigs, by measuring the serum indirect hemagglutination (IHA) titer and IgG and IgG subclass levels. The GSLS-enhanced immune response to FMD oil-emulsion vaccine depended on the dose of GSLS added to the vaccine. Addition of GSLS at a dose of 40 μg to 2 ml of FMD oil-emulsified vaccine significantly enhanced the humoral immune responses in pigs, when compared to the vaccine without GSLS (P<0.05). The increased antibodies included IgG1 and IgG2. Hence, GSLS and oil adjuvant synergistically promoted the immune responses to vaccination against FMD in pigs, and GSLS could be a promising vaccine additive to improve oil-emulsified veterinary vaccines. PMID:23081923

  4. The Epidemiological Study of Coxsackievirus A6 revealing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Epidemic patterns in Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hanri; Lu, Jing; Zheng, Huanying; Yi, Lina; Guo, Xue; Liu, Leng; Rutherford, Shannon; Sun, Limei; Tan, Xiaohua; Li, Hui; Ke, Changwen; Lin, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EVA71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are regarded as the two major causative pathogens in hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics. However, CVA6, previously largely ignored, became the predominant pathogen in China in 2013. In this study, we describe the epidemiological trendsofCVA6 during the annual HFMD outbreaks from 2008 to 2013 in Guangdong, China. The study results show that CVA6 has been one of three major causative agents of HFMD epidemics since 2009. The periodic rotation and dominance of the three pathogens, EVA71, CVA16 and CVA6, may have contributed to the continuously increasing HFMD epidemics. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene shows that major circulating CVA6 strains collected from 2009 to 2013 are distinct from the earlier strains collected before 2009. In conclusion, the discovery from this research investigating epidemiological trends of CVA6 from 2008 to 2013 explains the possible pattern of the continuous HFMD epidemic in China. The etiological change pattern also highlights the need for improvement for pathogen surveillance and vaccine strategies for HFMD control in China. PMID:25993899

  5. Reconstructing Geographical Movements and Host Species Transitions of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 2

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew D.; Knowles, Nick J.; Wadsworth, Jemma; Rambaut, Andrew; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Of the three foot-and-mouth-disease virus SAT serotypes mainly confined to sub-Saharan Africa, SAT 2 is the strain most often recorded in domestic animals and has caused outbreaks in North Africa and the Middle East six times in the last 25 years, with three apparently separate events occurring in 2012. This study updates the picture of SAT 2 phylogenetics by using all available sequences for the VP1 section of the genome available at the time of writing and uses phylogeographic methods to trace the origin of all outbreaks occurring north of the Sahara since 1990 and identify patterns of spread among countries of endemicity. Transitions between different host species are also enumerated. Outbreaks in North Africa appear to have origins in countries immediately south of the Sahara, whereas those in the Middle East are more often from East Africa. The results of the analysis of spread within sub-Saharan Africa are consistent with it being driven by relatively short-distance movements of animals across national borders, and the analysis of host species transitions supports the role of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) as an important natural reservoir. PMID:24149511

  6. Experimental infection of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with SAT-1 and SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, W; Swanepoel, S P; Bauman, M; Botha, B; Esterhuysen, J J; Boshoff, C I; Keet, D F; Dekker, A

    2011-04-01

    The potential role of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) SAT types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. In two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a SAT-1 or SAT-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. Viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-infection and virus isolated from mouth washes and faeces only occasionally up to day 13. The SAT-1 virus was transmitted to only one in-contact control animal, probably via saliva that contained virus from vesicles in the mouth of a needle-infected animal. None of the animals infected with the SAT-2 virus had any vesicles in the mouth, and there was no evidence of transmission to the in-contact controls. No virus was detected in probang samples for the duration of the experiments (60 days post-infection), indicating that persistent infection probably did not establish with either of these isolates. Giraffe most likely do not play an important role in FMD dissemination. Transmission of infection would possibly occur only during close contact with other animals when mouth vesicles are evident. PMID:26353052

  7. A serological evaluation of 1979-1982 Kenyan foot-and-mouth disease type SAT 2 viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Ndiritu, C. G.; Ouldridge, E. J.; Head, M.; Rweyemamu, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    Serological evaluations of foot-and-mouth disease type SAT 2 viruses isolated in Kenya between 1979 and 1982 were performed using the two-dimensional microneutralization test. Nine field isolates of epizootiological significance were compared with four vaccine viruses. The results obtained identified Tan 5/68 as the most appropriate reference vaccine virus strain since it had the broadest serological spectrum. Potent Tan 5/68 vaccines would be expected to provide adequate protection against the contemporary SAT 2 field viruses. In the case of K183/74, which also was shown to have a broad spectrum with viruses isolated in Kenya, the results show that the 1982 isolate from central Kenya was significantly divergent (r less than 1.00 at P = 0.01) and warranted tactical revaccination for its control. The study highlighted the fact that strain R1215 which had been isolated from the oesophageal-pharyngeal swabs of asymptomatic carrier cattle had a narrow serological spectrum suggesting that such viruses could be unsuitable as vaccine for the national campaign. PMID:6315815

  8. Enhanced immune response to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine by oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins.

    PubMed

    Li, Renjun; Ma, Yanfen; Zhai, Lijuan; Lu, Yisong; Chi, Xiaoqing; Wu, Jiusheng; Hu, Songhua

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination is an important approach to the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). This study evaluated the effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) on the immune response to FMD vaccine and the gut mucosal immunity in mice. In experiment 1, mice were orally administered GSLS or not treated as a control. The animals were then immunized twice with FMD vaccine. Blood was sampled weekly within five weeks after the boost immunization for measurement of serum IgG and the isotypes. In experiment 2, mice were orally administrated GSLS or not treated as a control. After that, splenocytes were prepared from sacrificed mice for lymphocyte proliferation assay and intestinal tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and histological examination. The results showed that oral administration of GSLS significantly enhanced serum IgG and the isotype responses to FMD vaccine as well as the number of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and immunoglobulin A (IgA)+ cells. Therefore, GSLS may be a potent oral adjuvant and deserve further study to improve vaccination in susceptible animals. PMID:27216768

  9. Neurological complications and risk factors of cardiopulmonary failure of EV-A71-related hand, foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Long, Lili; Xu, Lin; Xiao, Zhenghui; Hu, Shixiong; Luo, Ruping; Wang, Hua; Lu, Xiulan; Xu, Zhiyue; Yao, Xu; Zhou, Luo; Long, Hongyu; Gong, Jiaoe; Song, Yanmin; Zhao, Li; Luo, Kaiwei; Zhang, Mengqi; Feng, Li; Yang, Liming; Sheng, Xiaoqi; Fan, Xuegong; Xiao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, large outbreaks of EV-A71-related- hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred annually in China. Some cases had neurological complications and were closely associated with fatal cardiopulmonary collapse, but not all children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement demonstrated a poor prognosis. To identify which patients and which neurological complications are more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure, we retrospectively studied 1,125 paediatric inpatients diagnosed with EV-A71-related HFMD in Hunan province, including 1,017 cases with CNS involvement. These patients were divided into cardiopulmonary failure (976 people) group and group without cardiopulmonary failure (149 people). A logistic regression analysis was used to compare the clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and neurological complications between these two groups. The most significant risk factors included young age, fever duration ≥3 days, coma, limb weakness, drowsiness and ANS involvement. Patients with brainstem encephalitis and more CNS-involved regions were more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure. These findings can help front-line clinicians rapidly and accurately determine patient prognosis, thus rationally distributing the limited medical resources and implementing interventions as early as possible. PMID:27001010

  10. Mass vaccination, immunity and coverage: modelling population protection against foot-and-mouth disease in Turkish cattle.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Gubbins, S; Bulut, A N; Stärk, K D C; Pfeiffer, D U; Sumption, K J; Paton, D J

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Turkey is controlled using biannual mass vaccination of cattle. However, vaccine protection is undermined by population turnover and declining immunity. A dynamic model of the Turkish cattle population was created. Assuming biannual mass vaccination with a single-dose primary course, vaccine history was calculated for the simulated population (number of doses and time since last vaccination). This was used to estimate population immunity. Six months after the last round of vaccination almost half the cattle aged <24 months remain unvaccinated. Only 50% of all cattle would have received >1 vaccine dose in their life with the last dose given ≤6 months ago. Five months after the last round of vaccination two-thirds of cattle would have low antibody titres (<70% protection threshold). Giving a two-dose primary vaccination course reduces the proportion of 6-12 month old cattle with low titres by 20-30%. Biannual mass vaccination of cattle leaves significant immunity gaps and over-reliance on vaccine protection should be avoided. Using more effective vaccines and vaccination strategies will increase population immunity, however, the extent to which FMD can be controlled by vaccination alone without effective biosecurity remains uncertain. PMID:26916556

  11. Spatiotemporal Cluster Patterns of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease at the County Level in Mainland China, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Xu, Qin; Huang, Fangfang; Cao, Kai; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Gao, Qi; Wang, Wei; Fang, Liqun; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is known to be a highly contagious childhood illness. In recent years, the number of reported cases of HFMD has significantly increased in mainland China. This study aims at the epidemiological features, spatiotemporal patterns of HMFD at the county/district level in mainland China. Methods Data on reported HFMD cases for each county from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Cluster analysis, spatial autocorrelation, and retrospective scan methods were used to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of the disease. Results The annual incidences varied greatly among the counties, ranging from 0 to 74.31‰ with the median of 5.42‰ (interquartile range: 1.54‰–13.55‰) during 2008–2012 in mainland China. Counties close to provincial capital cities generally had higher incidences than rural counties. A seasonal distribution was observed between the northern and southern China, of which dual epidemic were shown in southern China and usually only one in northern China. Based on the global and local spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found that the spatial distribution of HFMD was presented a significant clustering pattern for each year (P<0.001), and hotspots of the disease were mostly distributed in coastal provinces of China. The retrospective scan statistic further identified the dynamics of spatiotemporal clustering areas of the disease, which were mainly distributed in the counties of eastern and southern China, as well as provincial capitals and their surrounding counties. Conclusions The spatiotemporal clustering areas of the disease identified in this way were relatively stable, and imminent public health planning and resource allocation should be focused within those areas. PMID:26809151

  12. Evaluating the potential for the environmentally sustainable control of foot and mouth disease in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kenneth J; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel Thomas; Caron, Alexandre; Kock, Richard A; Lembo, Tiziana; Hopcraft, J Grant C; Chardonnet, Bertrand; Nyariki, Thomas; Keyyu, Julius; Paton, David James; Kivaria, Fredrick Mathias

    2013-09-01

    Strategies to control transboundary diseases have in the past generated unintended negative consequences for both the environment and local human populations. Integrating perspectives from across disciplines, including livestock, veterinary and conservation sectors, is necessary for identifying disease control strategies that optimise environmental goods and services at the wildlife-livestock interface. Prompted by the recent development of a global strategy for the control and elimination of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), this paper seeks insight into the consequences of, and rational options for potential FMD control measures in relation to environmental, conservation and human poverty considerations in Africa. We suggest a more environmentally nuanced process of FMD control that safe-guards the integrity of wild populations and the ecosystem dynamics on which human livelihoods depend while simultaneously improving socio-economic conditions of rural people. In particular, we outline five major issues that need to be considered: 1) improved understanding of the different FMD viral strains and how they circulate between domestic and wildlife populations; 2) an appreciation for the economic value of wildlife for many African countries whose presence might preclude the country from ever achieving an FMD-free status; 3) exploring ways in which livestock production can be improved without compromising wildlife such as implementing commodity-based trading schemes; 4) introducing a participatory approach involving local farmers and the national veterinary services in the control of FMD; and 5) finally the possibility that trans frontier conservation might offer new hope of integrating decision-making at the wildlife-livestock interface. PMID:23797715

  13. Heterogeneity in a communal cattle-farming system in a zone endemic for foot and mouth disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Schalkwyk, Ockert Louis; De Clercq, Eva M; De Pus, Claudia; Hendrickx, Guy; Van den Bossche, Peter; Knobel, Darryn L

    2016-01-01

    In South Africa, communal livestock farming is predominant in the foot and mouth disease control zone adjacent to the Greater Kruger National Park (KNP), where infected African buffaloes are common. During routine veterinary inspections of cattle in this area, a large amount of production and demographic parameters were being recorded. These data were collated for a five-year period (2003-2007) in three study sites to better understand the temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity in this system. A decreasing gradient from South to North with respect to both human and cattle population densities was observed. Rainfall and human population density alone could explain 71% of the variation in cattle density. Northern and central sites showed an overall decrease in total cattle numbers (15.1 and 2.9%, respectively), whereas a 28.6% increase was recorded in the South. The number of cattle owners in relation to cattle numbers remained stable during the study period. Only 4.0% of households in the South own cattle, compared to 13.7 and 12.7% in the North and Centre. The overall annual calving rate was 23.8%. Annual mortality rates ranged from 2.4 to 3.2%. Low calf mortality (2.1%) was recorded in the North compared to the South (11.6%). Annual off-take in the form of slaughter averaged 0.2, 11.7, and 11.0% in the North, Central and South sites, respectively. These figures provide valuable baseline data and demonstrate considerable spatial heterogeneity in cattle demography and production at this wildlife-livestock interface, which should be taken into consideration when performing disease risk assessments or designing disease control systems. PMID:27245790

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder in participants of foot-and-mouth disease epidemic control in Miyazaki, Japan, in 2010

    PubMed Central

    HIBI, Juri; KUROSAWA, Aiko; WATANABE, Takuto; KADOWAKI, Hazumu; WATARI, Michiko; MAKITA, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred in Miyazaki, Japan, in 2010, and 290,000 animals were culled. This paper describes the mental distress of the volunteers who had been dispatched to Miyazaki for disease control two years after the epidemic. It also assesses risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A participatory appraisal and self-administered questionnaire survey were conducted in 2012 for those who were dispatched to Miyazaki in 2010. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used as an indicator of PTSD, and univariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Of the 875 respondents, 1.3% had higher IES-R scores than the cut-off point (25), which is suggestive of PTSD. Mental stresses during and soon after FMD control and after two years were described. Four risk factors associated with high IES-R scores were found: transporting culled animals (P<0.01), stress during FMD control (P<0.01) and at the time of the survey (P<0.01), and lack of someone to talk to about FMD-associated stress at the time of the survey (P<0.01). Veterinarians, livestock technicians and clerical officers involved in FMD control still suffer from mental stress two years later. Public services should provide an opportunity for them to consult with mental health specialists. These findings should be used to better prepare workers who deal with infectious diseases of animals, especially when they must be culled. The establishment of a collaborative framework between veterinary and mental health services is recommended. PMID:25843114

  15. HAND-FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STATUS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES IN GUANGZHOU, SOUTHERN CHINA, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tiegang; Yang, Zhicong; Liu, Xiangyi; Kang, Yan; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is becoming one of the extremely common airborne and contact transmission diseases in Guangzhou, southern China, leading public health authorities to be concerned about its increased incidence. In this study, it was used an ecological study plus the negative binomial regression to identify the epidemic status of HFMD and its relationship with meteorological variables. During 2008-2012, a total of 173,524 HFMD confirmed cases were reported, 12 cases of death, yielding a fatality rate of 0.69 per 10,000. The annual incidence rates from 2008 to 2012 were 60.56, 132.44, 311.40, 402.76, and 468.59 (per 100,000), respectively, showing a rapid increasing trend. Each 1 °C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 9.47% (95% CI 9.36% to 9.58%) in the weekly number of HFMD cases, while a one hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 7.53% (95% CI -7.60% to -7.45%). Similarly, each one percent rise in relative humidity corresponded to an increase of 1.48% or 3.3%, and a one meter per hour rise in wind speed corresponded to an increase of 2.18% or 4.57%, in the weekly number of HFMD cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. These findings revealed that epidemic status of HFMD in Guangzhou is characterized by high morbidity but low fatality. Weather factors had a significant influence on the incidence of HFMD. PMID:25351550

  16. Financial Impact of Foot and Mouth Disease on Large Ruminant Smallholder Farmers in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, S; Khounsy, S; Phonvisay, A; Young, J R; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2015-10-01

    A retrospective investigation of financial losses incurred by large ruminant smallholder farmers due to outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in 2010-12 in northern Laos was conducted in 2012. The aim was to support recommendations on sustainable transboundary animal disease control strategies in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Large ruminant smallholders in the three northern provinces of Luang Prabang (LPB), Xiengkhoung (XK) and Xayyabouli (XYL) were interviewed (n = 310). Financial losses were determined, including direct losses due to mortality (100% of pre-FMD sale value) and morbidity (difference between the expected sale price pre-FMD and 1 month following onset of FMD), and indirect losses due to costs of treatments. The losses due to FMD per household varied between provinces (P < 0.001) and were USD 1124, USD 862 and USD 381 in LPB, XK and XYL, respectively, being 60, 40 and 16% of annual household income. Comparison of the costs of FMD with annual household income from sales of large ruminants indicated losses of 213, 181 and 60% of the income in LPB, XK and XYL, respectively. The variation in losses between provinces was due to differences in levels of morbidity with highest in LPB, treatment methods with antibiotic use common in LPB, age of animals sold and sale prices with higher prices in XK. Partial budget analysis of biannual FMD vaccination indicated an average net benefit of USD 22 and USD 33 for cattle and buffalo, respectively. However, vaccination alone is unlikely to control FMD in the region. Promotion of multiple large ruminant health and production intervention programmes to stimulate interest in biosecurity in addition to vaccination is recommended, providing a more sustainable pathway for poverty reduction through the current expansion of livestock investments in the GMS. PMID:24191844

  17. Household Financial Status and Gender Perspectives in Determining the Financial Impact of Foot and Mouth Disease in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, S; Khounsy, S; Abila, R; Dy, C; Windsor, P A

    2016-08-01

    The socioeconomic impacts of foot and mouth disease (FMD) during 2011-12 outbreaks on large ruminant smallholders in Laos were investigated, including examination of data on gender, household financial status and farmer husbandry practices. A mix of participatory tools and survey questionnaires at the village and household level, respectively, were conducted, involving individual farmer interviews (n = 124) and group meetings with village elders to establish criteria for classification of household financial status as being 'poor, medium or well off' according to rice sufficiency, assets and household incomes. FMD-attributable financial losses were determined by inclusion of losses due to: mortality, morbidity and costs of treatments. The estimated mean financial losses due to FMD were USD 436 (±92) in the 'poor' and USD 949 (±76) in the 'well off' household categories (P < 0.001), being 128% and 49% of income from the sale of large ruminants, respectively. Variation in financial losses reflected differences in morbidity, farmer husbandry practices including frequency of observation of animals and thus recognition of FMD and choice of treatments. Of concern were adverse financial impacts of treatment especially where antibiotics were used; delays in reporting of FMD cases after observation of signs (mean of 2 days); admission that 10% of farmers had sold FMD-affected livestock; and that 22% of respondents claimed their large ruminants were cared for by females. The findings confirm that FMD has the most severe financial impact on poorer households and that females have a significant role in large ruminant production. It is recommended that livestock extension activities promote the benefits of prevention rather than treatment for FMD and encourage participation of women in biosecurity and disease risk management interventions including rapid reporting and regulatory compliance, particularly with animal movement controls and other biosecurity practices that

  18. Predicting the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in Sichuan province, China using the ARIMA model.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Luan, R S; Yin, F; Zhu, X P; Lü, Q

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by enteroviruses, which usually occurs in children aged <5 years. In China, the HFMD situation is worsening, with increasing number of cases nationwide. Therefore, monitoring and predicting HFMD incidence are urgently needed to make control measures more effective. In this study, we applied an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to forecast HFMD incidence in Sichuan province, China. HFMD infection data from January 2010 to June 2014 were used to fit the ARIMA model. The coefficient of determination (R 2), normalized Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and mean absolute percentage of error (MAPE) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the constructed models. The fitted ARIMA model was applied to forecast the incidence of HMFD from April to June 2014. The goodness-of-fit test generated the optimum general multiplicative seasonal ARIMA (1,0,1) × (0,1,0)12 model (R 2 = 0·692, MAPE = 15·982, BIC = 5·265), which also showed non-significant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model (P = 0·893). The forecast incidence values of the ARIMA (1,0,1) × (0,1,0)12 model from July to December 2014 were 4103-9987, which were proximate forecasts. The ARIMA model could be applied to forecast HMFD incidence trend and provide support for HMFD prevention and control. Further observations should be carried out continually into the time sequence, and the parameters of the models could be adjusted because HMFD incidence will not be absolutely stationary in the future. PMID:26027606

  19. Serotype-Specific Transmission and Waning Immunity of Endemic Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Laura W.; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.; Kim, Hyeyoung; Jumbo, Simon Dickmu; Abdoulkadiri, Souley; Garabed, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes morbidity and mortality in a range of animals and threatens local economies by acting as a barrier to international trade. The outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001 that cost billions to control highlighted the risk that the pathogen poses to agriculture. In response, several mathematical models have been developed to parameterize and predict both transmission dynamics and optimal disease control. However, a lack of understanding of the multi-strain etiology prevents characterization of multi-strain dynamics. Here, we use data from FMDV serology in an endemic setting to probe strain-specific transmission and immunodynamics. Five serotypes of FMDV affect cattle in the Far North Region of Cameroon. We fit both catalytic and reverse catalytic models to serological data to estimate the force of infection and the rate of waning immunity, and to detect periods of sustained transmission. For serotypes SAT2, SAT3, and type A, a model assuming life-long immunity fit better. For serotypes SAT1 and type O, the better-fit model suggests that immunity may wane over time. Our analysis further indicates that type O has the greatest force of infection and the longest duration of immunity. Estimates for the force of infection were time-varying and indicated that serotypes SAT1 and O displayed endemic dynamics, serotype A displayed epidemic dynamics, and SAT2 and SAT3 did not sustain local chains of transmission. Since these results were obtained from the same population at the same time, they highlight important differences in transmission specific to each serotype. They also show that immunity wanes at rates specific to each serotype, which influences patterns of local persistence. Overall, this work shows that viral serotypes can differ significantly in their epidemiological and immunological characteristics. Patterns and processes that drive transmission in endemic settings must consider complex viral dynamics for accurate

  20. Development of a multiplex lateral flow strip test for foot-and-mouth disease virus detection using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Caterer, Nigel R; Xu, Wanhong; Goolia, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the world's most highly contagious animal diseases with tremendous economic consequences. A rapid and specific test for FMD diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. This project developed a multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (multiplex-LFI) for the rapid detection and serotyping of FMD viruses. The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against serotypes O, A, and Asia 1 were used as capture mAbs. The mAbs were conjugated with fluorescein, rhodamine or biotin for serotype O, A and Asia 1, respectively. The detection mAbs which consisted of a serotype-independent mAb in combination with one serotype A-specific mAb and one Asia 1-specific mAb, were each colloidal gold-conjugated. The strips used in this study contained one control line and three test lines, which corresponded to one of the three serotypes, O, A or Asia 1. The newly developed multiplex-LFI strip test specifically identified serotype O (n=46), A (n=45) and Asia 1 (n=17) in all tested field isolates. The sensitivity of this strip test was comparable to the double antibody sandwich ELISA for serotypes O and A, but lower than the ELISA for serotype Asia 1. The multiplex-LFI strip test identified all tissue suspensions from animals that were experimentally inoculated with serotypes O, A or Asia 1. FMD viruses were detected in 38% and 50% of the swab samples from the lesion areas of experimentally inoculated sheep for serotypes O and A, respectively. The capability of the multiplex-LFI strip tests to produce rapid results with high specificity for FMD viruses of multiple serotypes makes this test a valuable tool to detect FMD viruses at outbreak sites. PMID:25977185

  1. Molecular epidemiology of coxsackievirus A6 associated with outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Tianjin, China, in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaojuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Baomin; Jorba, Jaume; Su, Xu; Ji, Tianjiao; Yang, Dongjing; Lv, Likun; Li, Jiameng

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, Mainland China has undergone widespread outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In order to determine the characteristics of epidemics and enteroviruses (EV) associated with HFMD in Tianjin, in northern China, epidemiological and virological data from routine surveillance were collected and analyzed. In Tianjin, a persistent epidemic of HFMD was demonstrated during 2008–2013, involving 102,705 mild, 179 severe, and 16 fatal cases. Overall, 8234 specimens were collected from 7829 HFMD patients for EV detection during 2008–2013. Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) were the dominant serotypes during 2008–2012, and they were replaced by CV-A6 as the major causative agent in 2013. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete VP1 nucleotide sequences revealed that multiple CV-A6 lineages co-circulated in Tianjin, which grouped together with strains from China and other countries and split into two distinct clusters (clusters 1 and 2). Most Tianjin strains grouped in cluster 1 and were closely related to strains from several eastern and southern provinces of China during 2012 and 2013. Estimates from Bayesian MCMC analysis suggested that multiple lineages had been transmitted silently before the outbreaks at an estimated evolutionary rate of 4.10 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year without a specific distribution of rate variances among lineages. The sudden outbreak of CV-A6 in Tianjin during 2013 is attributed to indigenous CV-A6 lineages, which were linked to the wide spread of endemic strains around eastern and southern China. PMID:25680566

  2. Mutations That Hamper Dimerization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3A Protein Are Detrimental for Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    González-Magaldi, Mónica; Postigo, Raúl; de la Torre, Beatriz G.; Vieira, Yuri A.; Rodríguez-Pulido, Miguel; López-Viñas, Eduardo; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Andreu, David; Kremer, Leonor; Rosas, María F.

    2012-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural protein 3A plays important roles in virus replication, virulence, and host range. In other picornaviruses, homodimerization of 3A has been shown to be relevant for its biological activity. In this work, FMDV 3A homodimerization was evidenced by an in situ protein fluorescent ligation assay. A molecular model of the FMDV 3A protein, derived from the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the poliovirus 3A protein, predicted a hydrophobic interface spanning residues 25 to 44 as the main determinant for 3A dimerization. Replacements L38E and L41E, involving charge acquisition at residues predicted to contribute to the hydrophobic interface, reduced the dimerization signal in the protein ligation assay and prevented the detection of dimer/multimer species in both transiently expressed 3A proteins and in synthetic peptides reproducing the N terminus of 3A. These replacements also led to production of infective viruses that replaced the acidic residues introduced (E) by nonpolar amino acids, indicating that preservation of the hydrophobic interface is essential for virus replication. Replacements that favored (Q44R) or impaired (Q44D) the polar interactions predicted between residues Q44 and D32 did not abolish dimer formation of transiently expressed 3A, indicating that these interactions are not critical for 3A dimerization. Nevertheless, while Q44R led to recovery of viruses that maintained the mutation, Q44D resulted in selection of infective viruses with substitution D44E with acidic charge but with structural features similar to those of the parental virus, suggesting that Q44 is involved in functions other than 3A dimerization. PMID:22787230

  3. Inhibitors of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Targeting a Novel Pocket of the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Cornelison, Ceili A.; Rai, Devendra K.; Matzek, Kayla B.; Leslie, Maxwell D.; Schafer, Elizabeth; Marchand, Bruno; Adedeji, Adeyemi; Michailidis, Eleftherios; Dorst, Christopher A.; Moran, Jennifer; Pautler, Christie; Rodriguez, Luis L.; McIntosh, Mark A.; Rieder, Elizabeth; Sarafianos, Stefan G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a picornavirus that infects cloven-hoofed animals and leads to severe losses in livestock production. In the case of an FMD outbreak, emergency vaccination requires at least 7 days to trigger an effective immune response. There are currently no approved inhibitors for the treatment or prevention of FMDV infections. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a luciferase-based assay we screened a library of compounds and identified seven novel inhibitors of 3Dpol, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of FMDV. The compounds inhibited specifically 3Dpol (IC50s from 2-17 µM) and not other viral or bacterial polymerases. Enzyme kinetic studies on the inhibition mechanism by compounds 5D9 and 7F8 showed that they are non-competitive inhibitors with respect to NTP and nucleic acid substrates. Molecular modeling and docking studies into the 3Dpol structure revealed an inhibitor binding pocket proximal to, but distinct from the 3Dpol catalytic site. Residues surrounding this pocket are conserved among all 60 FMDV subtypes. Site directed mutagenesis of two residues located at either side of the pocket caused distinct resistance to the compounds, demonstrating that they indeed bind at this site. Several compounds inhibited viral replication with 5D9 suppressing virus production in FMDV-infected cells with EC50 = 12 µM and EC90 = 20 µM). Significance We identified several non-competitive inhibitors of FMDV 3Dpol that target a novel binding pocket, which can be used for future structure-based drug design studies. Such studies can lead to the discovery of even more potent antivirals that could provide alternative or supplementary options to contain future outbreaks of FMD. PMID:21203539

  4. Genetically engineered foot-and-mouth disease viruses with poly(C) tracts of two nucleotides are virulent in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, E; Bunch, T; Brown, F; Mason, P W

    1993-01-01

    To determine the role of the poly(C) tract found at the 5' end of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus, synthetic RNAs (in vitro transcripts) with poly(C) tracts of different lengths have been produced and evaluated. RNAs with poly(C) tracts of 35, 25, 16, 6, or 2 residues displayed similar specific infectivities in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Viruses recovered from cells transfected with in vitro transcripts containing 6 to 35 Cs had properties similar to those of the wild-type virus in cell culture, and poly(C) tracts present in the synthetic RNA-derived viruses ranged from 75 to 140 bases in length. Viruses recovered from transcripts containing only two Cs showed very different properties. Specifically, viruses grew to much lower levels in cell culture and maintained a poly(C) tract of only two residues. The pool of viruses harvested from cells transfected with the synthetic C2 RNA also contained a small amount of a virus with a 42-base deletion in the region of the poly(C) tract, which appeared to have arisen by recombination. Taken together, these data suggest that recombination provides the mechanism of poly(C) elongation and that viruses with poly(C) tracts over 75 bases in length have a selective advantage in cell culture. Interestingly, all of the in vitro transcript-derived viruses [including viruses with poly(C) tracts of only two residues] were equally virulent in mice, indicating that poly(C) tract length has no effect on virulence in this animal model. Images PMID:8394441

  5. Evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract as natural antivirus against foot and mouth disease virus strains (A, O, SAT2)

    PubMed Central

    Daoud, Hind M.; Soliman, Eman M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work was aimed to document the antiviral activates of Spirulina platensis extract against foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) different types to evaluate its replication in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cell culture and in baby mice. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity assay studied for S. platensis extract on BHK cells to determine the non-toxic dose. The non-toxic dose of Spirulina extract was mixed with each type of FMDV (A, O, SAT2). Then 10-fold dilutions from each mixture were done. FMDV titer for each type of treated FMDV was calculated to evaluate the antiviral activity of the Spirulina extract against FMDV. Furthermore, old baby Swiss mice were inoculated with 0.1 ml intraperitonially from the mixture of FMDV different types and different concentration of Spirulina extracts. After 48 h post inoculation, all the baby mice examined to evaluate the antiviral action of Spirulina extract. Results: The result showed that the non-toxic doses of S. platensis (50 ug/ml) revealed 35.7%, 28.5%, and 31% reductions in FMDV titers Type O, A, and SAT2 on BHK cells, respectively. The same non-toxic dose gave 50% of the inhibitory concentration in baby mice without cytotoxic effect. Conclusion: This study confirmed the biological activity of the ethanol extract of S. platensis against FMDV Types O, A, and SAT2. From the results, S. platensis could be useful as antiviral lead to limitation of infection among animals during outbreaks but further studies need to evaluate the S. platensis on experimental or natural infected farm animals to establish the effective dose side affected period of treatment of S. platensis. PMID:27047027

  6. Application of the thermofluor PaSTRy technique for improving foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, Abhay; Zhang, Fuquan; Juleff, Nicholas; Jackson, Terry; Perez, Eva; Stuart, Dave; Fry, Elizabeth; Charleston, Bryan; Seago, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has a major economic impact throughout the world and is a considerable threat to food security. Current FMD virus (FMDV) vaccines are made from chemically inactivated virus and need to contain intact viral capsids to maximize efficacy. FMDV exists as seven serotypes, each made up by a number of constantly evolving subtypes. A lack of immunological cross-reactivity between serotypes and between some strains within a serotype greatly complicates efforts to control FMD by vaccination. Thus, vaccines for one serotype do not afford protection against the others, and multiple-serotype-specific vaccines are required for effective control. The FMDV serotypes exhibit variation in their thermostability, and the capsids of inactivated preparations of the O, C and SAT serotypes are particularly susceptible to dissociation at elevated temperature. Methods to quantify capsid stability are currently limited, lack sensitivity and cannot accurately reflect differences in thermostability. Thus, new, more sensitive approaches to quantify capsid stability would be of great value for the production of more stable vaccines and to assess the effect of production conditions on vaccine preparations. Here we have investigated the application of a novel methodology (termed PaSTRy) that utilizes an RNA-binding fluorescent dye and a quantitative (q)PCR machine to monitor viral genome release and hence dissociation of the FMDV capsid during a slow incremental increase in temperature. PaSTRy was used to characterize capsid stability of all FMDV serotypes. Furthermore, we have used this approach to identify stabilizing factors for the most labile FMDV serotypes. PMID:27002540

  7. Proper Timing of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination of Piglets with Maternally Derived Antibodies Will Maximize Expected Protection Levels.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Aldo; Chénard, Gilles; Stockhofe, Norbert; Eblé, Phaedra L

    2016-01-01

    We investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. Groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points following birth, and the antibody titers to FMD virus (FMDV) were measured using virus neutralization tests (VNT). We used 50 piglets from 5 sows that had been vaccinated 3 times intramuscularly in the neck during pregnancy with FMD vaccine containing strains of FMDV serotypes O, A, and Asia-1. Four groups of 10 piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly in the neck at 3, 5, 7, or 9 weeks of age using a monovalent Cedivac-FMD vaccine (serotype A TUR/14/98). One group of 10 piglets with maternally derived antibodies was not vaccinated, and another group of 10 piglets without maternally derived antibodies was vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and served as a control group. Sera samples were collected, and antibody titers were determined using VNT. In our study, the antibody responses of piglets with maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 7 or 9 weeks of age were similar to the responses of piglets without maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 3 weeks of age. The maternally derived antibody levels in piglets depended very strongly on the antibody titer in the sow, so the optimal time for vaccination of piglets will depend on the vaccination scheme and quality of vaccine used in the sows and should, therefore, be monitored and reviewed on regular basis in countries that use FMD prophylactic vaccination. PMID:27446940

  8. Evaluation of a Fiber-Modified Adenovirus Vector Vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Gisselle N.; Montiel, Nestor; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Sturza, Diego; Ramirez-Medina, Elizabeth; Grubman, Marvin J.

    2015-01-01

    Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). Ad5 containing serotype A24 capsid sequences (Ad5.A24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against FMD in livestock species. However, Ad5-vectored FMDV serotype O1 Campos vaccine (Ad5.O1C.2B) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. It has been reported that a fiber-modified Ad5 vector expressing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) enhances transduction of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in mice. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of a fiber-modified Ad5 (Adt.O1C.2B.RGD) in cattle. Expression of FMDV capsid proteins was superior in cultured cells infected with the RGD-modified vector. Furthermore, transgene expression of Adt.O1C.2B.RGD was enhanced in cell lines that constitutively express integrin αvβ6, a known receptor for FMDV. In contrast, capsid expression in cattle-derived enriched APC populations was not enhanced by infection with this vector. Our data showed that vaccination with the two vectors yielded similar levels of protection against FMD in cattle. Although none of the vaccinated animals had detectable viremia, FMDV RNA was detected in serum samples from animals with clinical signs. Interestingly, CD4+ and CD8+ gamma interferon (IFN-γ)+ cell responses were detected at significantly higher levels in animals vaccinated with Adt.O1C.2B.RGD than in animals vaccinated with Ad5.O1C.2B. Our results suggest that inclusion of an RGD motif in the fiber of Ad5-vectored FMD vaccine improves transgene delivery and cell-mediated immunity but does not significantly enhance vaccine performance in cattle. PMID:26607309

  9. Proper Timing of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination of Piglets with Maternally Derived Antibodies Will Maximize Expected Protection Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Aldo; Chénard, Gilles; Stockhofe, Norbert; Eblé, Phaedra L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. Groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points following birth, and the antibody titers to FMD virus (FMDV) were measured using virus neutralization tests (VNT). We used 50 piglets from 5 sows that had been vaccinated 3 times intramuscularly in the neck during pregnancy with FMD vaccine containing strains of FMDV serotypes O, A, and Asia-1. Four groups of 10 piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly in the neck at 3, 5, 7, or 9 weeks of age using a monovalent Cedivac-FMD vaccine (serotype A TUR/14/98). One group of 10 piglets with maternally derived antibodies was not vaccinated, and another group of 10 piglets without maternally derived antibodies was vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and served as a control group. Sera samples were collected, and antibody titers were determined using VNT. In our study, the antibody responses of piglets with maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 7 or 9 weeks of age were similar to the responses of piglets without maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 3 weeks of age. The maternally derived antibody levels in piglets depended very strongly on the antibody titer in the sow, so the optimal time for vaccination of piglets will depend on the vaccination scheme and quality of vaccine used in the sows and should, therefore, be monitored and reviewed on regular basis in countries that use FMD prophylactic vaccination. PMID:27446940

  10. Evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus intra-sample sequence diversity during serial transmission in bovine hosts.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Marco J; Wright, Caroline F; Knowles, Nick J; Juleff, Nicholas; Paton, David J; King, Donald P; Haydon, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    RNA virus populations within samples are highly heterogeneous, containing a large number of minority sequence variants which can potentially be transmitted to other susceptible hosts. Consequently, consensus genome sequences provide an incomplete picture of the within- and between-host viral evolutionary dynamics during transmission. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an RNA virus that can spread from primary sites of replication, via the systemic circulation, to found distinct sites of local infection at epithelial surfaces. Viral evolution in these different tissues occurs independently, each of them potentially providing a source of virus to seed subsequent transmission events. This study employed the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform to sequence 18 FMDV samples collected from a chain of sequentially infected cattle. These data generated snap-shots of the evolving viral population structures within different animals and tissues. Analyses of the mutation spectra revealed polymorphisms at frequencies >0.5% at between 21 and 146 sites across the genome for these samples, while 13 sites acquired mutations in excess of consensus frequency (50%). Analysis of polymorphism frequency revealed that a number of minority variants were transmitted during host-to-host infection events, while the size of the intra-host founder populations appeared to be smaller. These data indicate that viral population complexity is influenced by small intra-host bottlenecks and relatively large inter-host bottlenecks. The dynamics of minority variants are consistent with the actions of genetic drift rather than strong selection. These results provide novel insights into the evolution of FMDV that can be applied to reconstruct both intra- and inter-host transmission routes. PMID:23452550

  11. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 1 - Overview of Global Status and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    The Global Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) Research Alliance periodically reviews the state of FMD research to assess progress and to identify new priorities. In this supplement we provide an update of global FMD research, comprising (i) this overview paper, which includes background information with key findings, and papers covering (ii) epidemiology, wildlife and economics, (iii) vaccines, (iv) diagnostics, (v) biotherapeutics and disinfectants, (vi) immunology and (vii) pathogenesis and molecular biology. FMD research publications were reviewed (2011-2015) and activity updates were obtained from 33 FMD research institutes from around the world. Although a continual threat, FMD has been effectively controlled in much of the world using existing tools. However, control remains a challenge in most developing countries, where little has been done to understand the ongoing burden of FMD. More research is needed to support control in endemically infected countries, particularly robust field studies. Traditional FMD vaccines have several limitations including short duration and spectrum of protection, cold chain requirements, and the costs and biosecurity risks associated with vaccine production. Significant progress has been made in the development of novel vaccine candidates, particularly in the use of recombinant vaccines and virus-like particles as an alternative to traditional inactivated whole virus vaccines. Continued investment is needed to turn these developments into improved vaccines produced at scale. Increased knowledge of cellular and mucosal immunity would benefit vaccine development, as would further advances in our ability to enhance vaccine capsid stability. Developments in molecular biology and phylogenetics underlie many of the recent advances in FMD research, including improved vaccines and diagnostics, and improved understanding of FMD epidemiology. Tools for genetic analyses continue to become both more powerful and more affordable enabling them to

  12. Antigenic analysis of SAT 2 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from Zimbabwe using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, F. L.; Crowther, J. R.; Nqindi, J.; Knowles, N. J.; Thevasagayam, S. J.; Van Vuuren, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype SAT (South African Territories) 2 viruses isolated from Zimbabwe and other African countries using monoclonal antibodies (MAb). A sandwich-ELISA was used to examine the relative binding of anti-SAT 2 MAb to the various viruses. The MAb-binding profiles of viruses isolated from field samples were compared using hierarchical cluster analysis. Viruses were obtained from game animals, mainly African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) which is the natural host and reservoir for SAT serotypes in Africa, and from cattle showing clinical signs of FMD, as well as from animals suspected of carrying the virus subclinically. Some isolates have been adapted for use as vaccine strains. The results showed that most of the Zimbabwe isolates collected between 1989 and 1992 were an antigenically closely-related group. Although differences were observed between Zimbabwe isolates collected between 1989 and 1992 and those collected in 1987, there was no correlation with the different MAb binding patterns within the 1987 group and the epidemiological information received from the field. Similar profiles were observed for many SAT 2 viruses, including viruses isolated over a 50-year period and from geographically distant areas. This indicates an inherent stability in antigenic profiles of SAT 2 viruses. The MAb panel was capable of assessing antigenic variation, since very different profiles were obtained for some isolates. The work also allowed comparison and characterization of anti-type SAT 2 MAb from different laboratories. The findings are discussed with reference to selection of vaccine strains. PMID:7543860

  13. Detection and characterization of viruses causing hand, foot and mouth disease from children in Seri Kembangan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ling, Beh Poay; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Harmal, Nabil Saad; Yubbu, Putri; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2014-12-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral infection among infants and children. The major causative agents of HFMD are enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). Recently, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) infections were reported in neighboring countries. Infected infants and children may present with fever, mouth/throat ulcers, rashes and vesicles on hands and feet. Moreover, EV71 infections might cause fatal neurological complications. Since 1997, EV71 caused fatalities in Sarawak and Peninsula Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to identify and classify the viruses which detected from the patients who presenting clinical signs and symptoms of HFMD in Seri Kembangan, Malaysia. From December 2012 until July 2013, a total of 28 specimens were collected from patients with clinical case definitions of HFMD. The HFMD viruses were detected by using semi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (snRT-PCR). The positive snRT-PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the viruses were performed. 12 of 28 specimens (42.9%) were positive in snRT-PCR, seven are CVA6 (58.3%), two CVA16 (16.7%) and three EV71 (25%). Based on phylogenetic analysis studies, EV71 strains were identified as sub-genotype B5; CVA16 strains classified into sub-genotype B2b and B2c; CVA6 strains closely related to strains in Taiwan and Japan. In this study, HFMD in Seri Kembangan were caused by different types of Enterovirus, which were EV71, CVA6 and CVA16. PMID:25776590

  14. Short-term effects of meteorological factors on children hand, foot and mouth disease in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun; Lin, Hualiang; Li, Xiaoquan; Lang, Lingling; Xiao, Xincai; Ding, Peng; He, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Ming; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-09-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral illness that commonly affects infants and children. The underlying risk factors have not yet been systematically examined. This study analyzed the short-term effects of meteorological factors on children HFMD in Guangzhou, China. Daily count of HFMD among children younger than 15 years and meteorological variables from 2009 to 2011 were collected to construct the time series. A generalized additive model was applied to estimate the effects of meteorological factors on HFMD occurrence, after adjusting for long-term trend, seasonal trend, day of week, and public holidays. A negative association between temperature and children HFMD occurrence was observed at lag days 1-3, with the relative risk (RR) for a 1 °C increase on lag day 2 being 0.983 (95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.977 to 0.989); positive effect was found for temperature at lag days 5-9, with the highest effect at lag day 6 (RR = 1.014, 95 % CI 1.006 to 1.023). Higher humidity was associated with increased HFMD at lag days 3-10, with the highest effect at lag day 8 (RR = 1.009 for 1 % increase in relative humidity, 95 % CI 1.007 to 1.010). And we also observed significant positive effect for rainfall at lag days 4 and 8 (RR = 1.001, 95 % CI 1.000 to 1.002) for 1-mm increase. Subgroup analyses showed that the positive effects of temperature were more pronounced among younger children. This study suggests that meteorological factors might be important predictors of children HFMD occurrence in Guangzhou.

  15. Evaluation of a Fiber-Modified Adenovirus Vector Vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Medina, Gisselle N; Montiel, Nestor; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Sturza, Diego; Ramirez-Medina, Elizabeth; Grubman, Marvin J; de los Santos, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). Ad5 containing serotype A24 capsid sequences (Ad5.A24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against FMD in livestock species. However, Ad5-vectored FMDV serotype O1 Campos vaccine (Ad5.O1C.2B) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. It has been reported that a fiber-modified Ad5 vector expressing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) enhances transduction of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in mice. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of a fiber-modified Ad5 (Adt.O1C.2B.RGD) in cattle. Expression of FMDV capsid proteins was superior in cultured cells infected with the RGD-modified vector. Furthermore, transgene expression of Adt.O1C.2B.RGD was enhanced in cell lines that constitutively express integrin αvβ6, a known receptor for FMDV. In contrast, capsid expression in cattle-derived enriched APC populations was not enhanced by infection with this vector. Our data showed that vaccination with the two vectors yielded similar levels of protection against FMD in cattle. Although none of the vaccinated animals had detectable viremia, FMDV RNA was detected in serum samples from animals with clinical signs. Interestingly, CD4(+) and CD8(+) gamma interferon (IFN-γ)(+) cell responses were detected at significantly higher levels in animals vaccinated with Adt.O1C.2B.RGD than in animals vaccinated with Ad5.O1C.2B. Our results suggest that inclusion of an RGD motif in the fiber of Ad5-vectored FMD vaccine improves transgene delivery and cell-mediated immunity but does not significantly enhance vaccine performance in cattle. PMID:26607309

  16. Epidemiologic and etiologic characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Chongqing, China between 2010 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fang-Fang; Yan, Qiang; Ge, Sheng-Xiang; Tang, Xiang; Chen, Ru-Juan; Xu, Hong-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has become very common in children, with widespread occurrence across China. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic and etiologic characteristics of HFMD, including etiologic variations in Chongqing, China. An epidemiologic investigation was based on 3,472 patients who presented with HFMD manifestations and were admitted at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between 2010 and 2013. Fecal specimens from 830 patients were analyzed by nested RT-PCR to identify the enterovirus pathogens, and the molecular characterization of HFMD was illustrated by phylogenetic tree analysis. The results of this study indicate that the peak of the HFMD epidemic in Chongqing between 2010 and 2013 occurred between April and July each year. The median age of onset was 2.24 years old, and children under the age of five accounted for 96.4% of all the HFMD cases; the male-to-female ratio was 1.89:1. Enterovirus 71 accounted for a major proportion of the isolated strains every year, including the majority (74%) of severe cases. However, the proportion of Coxsackie A (CV-A) 6 infections increased from 2.11% in 2010 to 16.36% in 2013, while the proportion of CV-A16 infections decreased from 31.23% in 2010 to 4.67% in 2013. Molecular epidemiologic study showed that all enterovirus 71 strains belonged to subgenotype C4a, whereas all CV-A16 strains belonged to genotype B1, including subgenotype B1a and subgenotype B1b. PMID:26255857

  17. Epidemiological characteristics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in China, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Junling; Wu, Joseph T; Chang, Zhaorui; Liu, Fengfeng; Fang, Vicky J; Zheng, Yingdong; Cowling, Benjamin J; Varma, Jay K; Farrar, Jeremy J; Leung, Gabriel M; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Hand–foot–and–mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. Increasingly it imposes a substantial disease burden throughout East and Southeast Asia. To better inform vaccine and other interventions, we characterized the epidemiology of HFMD in China based on enhanced surveillance. Methods We extracted epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data from reported HFMD cases during 2008–2012 and compiled climatic, geographic and demographic information. All analyses were stratified by age, disease severity, laboratory confirmation status and enterovirus subtype. Findings The surveillance registry captured 7,200,092 probable HFMD cases (annualized incidence, 1·2 per 1,000), of whom 3·7% were laboratory–confirmed and 0·03% died. Incidence and mortality were highest in children aged 12–23 months (in 2012: 38·2 cases per 1,000 and 1·5 death per 100,000). Median durations from onset to diagnosis and death were 1·5 days and 3·5 days respectively. The risk of cardiopulmonary or neurological complications was 1·1% and the severe-case fatality risk was 3·0%, with >90% of deaths associated with enterovirus 71. HFMD peaked annually in June in the North, whereas Southern China experienced semi-annual outbreaks in May and September/October. Geographic differences in seasonal patterns were weakly associated with climate and demographic factors (variance explained 8-23% and 3–19%, respectively). Interpretation This is the largest population-based study to date of the epidemiology of HFMD. Future mitigation policies should take full account of the heterogeneities of disease burden identified. Additional epidemiologic and serologic studies are warranted to elucidate local HFMD dynamics and immunity patterns and optimize interventions. Funding China–US Collaborative Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases; World Health Organization; The Li Ka Shing Oxford Global Health Programme and Wellcome Trust

  18. Strategy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, R

    2004-01-01

    FMD was diagnosed in Uruguay and in most of the South American countries in 1870. In 1961 the first law was issued to enforce the control of the disease. In 1990 a new regulation was approved which determined the process to eradicate FMD. The last clinical case was on June 18th 1990, and in 1996 the OIE declared Uruguay a free country without vaccination. In 2001 FMD was re-introduced, with an outbreak of 2057 animals which were controlled throughout four months of strong activity which ended with two vaccinations of all livestock. On May 22nd 2003, the OIE recognized Uruguay as a country 'free with vaccination'. PMID:15742654

  19. Modeling and Preventive Measures of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jinhui; Zhang, Xinan

    2014-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the HFMD data of China from March 2009 to December 2012. We set up a mathematical model to fit those data with the goodness of fit and obtain the optimal parameter values of the model. By the Chi-square test of statistical inference, the optimal parameter values of the model are reasonable. We obtained the basic reproductive number of the disease for each year, and it is larger than 1. Thus, we conclude that HFMD will persist in China under the current conditions, so we investigate the preventive measures to control the HFMD. If the preventive measures proposed in our paper were implemented, HFMD would be controlled quickly and the number of infections would decline rapidly over a period of time. PMID:24633146

  20. Evaluation of a genetically modified foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine candidate generated by reverse genetics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Control of the disease has been mainly based on large-scale vaccinations with whole-virus inactivated vaccines. In recent years, a series of outbreaks of type O FMD occurred in China (including Chinese Taipei, Chinese Hong Kong) posed a tremendous threat to Chinese animal husbandry. Its causative agent, type O FMDV, has evolved into three topotypes (East–South Asia (ME-SA), Southeast Asia (SEA), Cathay (CHY)) in these regions, which represents an important obstacle to disease control. The available FMD vaccine in China shows generally good protection against ME-SA and SEA topotype viruses infection, but affords insufficient protection against some variants of the CHY topotype. Therefore, the choice of a new vaccine strain is of fundamental importance. Results The present study describes the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of FMDV vaccine strain and a genetically modified virus with some amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites 1, 3, and 4, based on the established infectious clone. The recombinant viruses had similar growth properties to the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus. All swine immunized with inactivated vaccine prepared from the O/HN/CHA/93 were fully protected from challenge with the viruses of ME-SA and SEA topotypes and partially protected against challenge with the virus of CHY topotype at 28 days post-immunization. In contrast, the swine inoculated with the genetically modified vaccine were completely protected from the infection of viruses of the three topotypes. Conclusions Some amino acid substitutions in the FMDV vaccine strain genome did not have an effect on the ability of viral replication in vitro. The vaccine prepared from genetically modified FMDV by reverse genetics significantly improved the protective efficacy to the variant of the CHY topotype, compared with the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus

  1. Quantitative trait loci for variation in immune response to a Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus peptide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infectious disease of livestock continues to be a cause of substantial economic loss and has adverse welfare consequences in both the developing and developed world. New solutions to control disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. However, identifying selectable markers and the causal genes involved in disease resistance and vaccine response is not straightforward. The aims of this study were to locate regions of the bovine genome that control the immune response post immunisation. 195 F2 and backcross Holstein Charolais cattle were immunised with a 40-mer peptide derived from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). T cell and antibody (IgG1 and IgG2) responses were measured at several time points post immunisation. All experimental animals (F0, F1 and F2, n = 982) were genotyped with 165 microsatellite markers for the genome scan. Results Considerable variability in the immune responses across time was observed and sire, dam and age had significant effects on responses at specific time points. There were significant correlations within traits across time, and between IgG1 and IgG2 traits, also some weak correlations were detected between T cell and IgG2 responses. The whole genome scan detected 77 quantitative trait loci (QTL), on 22 chromosomes, including clusters of QTL on BTA 4, 5, 6, 20, 23 and 25. Two QTL reached 5% genome wide significance (on BTA 6 and 24) and one on BTA 20 reached 1% genome wide significance. Conclusions A proportion of the variance in the T cell and antibody response post immunisation with an FDMV peptide has a genetic component. Even though the antigen was relatively simple, the humoral and cell mediated responses were clearly under complex genetic control, with the majority of QTL located outside the MHC locus. The results suggest that there may be specific genes or loci that impact on variation in both the primary and

  2. Efficacy of a Trivalent Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Vaccine against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackieviruses A16 and A6 in Mice.

    PubMed

    Caine, Elizabeth A; Fuchs, Jeremy; Das, Subash C; Partidos, Charalambos D; Osorio, Jorge E

    2015-11-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has recently emerged as a major public health concern across the Asian-Pacific region. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the primary causative agents of HFMD, but other members of the Enterovirus A species, including Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), can cause disease. The lack of small animal models for these viruses have hampered the development of a licensed HFMD vaccine or antivirals. We have previously reported on the development of a mouse model for EV71 and demonstrated the protective efficacy of an inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate. Here, mouse-adapted strains of CVA16 and CVA6 were produced by sequential passage of the viruses through mice deficient in interferon (IFN) α/β (A129) and α/β and γ (AG129) receptors. Adapted viruses were capable of infecting 3 week-old A129 (CVA6) and 12 week-old AG129 (CVA16) mice. Accordingly, these models were used in active and passive immunization studies to test the efficacy of a trivalent vaccine candidate containing inactivated EV71, CVA16, and CVA6. Full protection from lethal challenge against EV71 and CVA16 was observed in trivalent vaccinated groups. In contrast, monovalent vaccinated groups with non-homologous challenges failed to cross protect. Protection from CVA6 challenge was accomplished through a passive transfer study involving serum raised against the trivalent vaccine. These animal models will be useful for future studies on HFMD related pathogenesis and the efficacy of vaccine candidates. PMID:26593938

  3. Efficacy of a Trivalent Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Vaccine against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackieviruses A16 and A6 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Caine, Elizabeth A.; Fuchs, Jeremy; Das, Subash C.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has recently emerged as a major public health concern across the Asian-Pacific region. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the primary causative agents of HFMD, but other members of the Enterovirus A species, including Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), can cause disease. The lack of small animal models for these viruses have hampered the development of a licensed HFMD vaccine or antivirals. We have previously reported on the development of a mouse model for EV71 and demonstrated the protective efficacy of an inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate. Here, mouse-adapted strains of CVA16 and CVA6 were produced by sequential passage of the viruses through mice deficient in interferon (IFN) α/β (A129) and α/β and γ (AG129) receptors. Adapted viruses were capable of infecting 3 week-old A129 (CVA6) and 12 week-old AG129 (CVA16) mice. Accordingly, these models were used in active and passive immunization studies to test the efficacy of a trivalent vaccine candidate containing inactivated EV71, CVA16, and CVA6. Full protection from lethal challenge against EV71 and CVA16 was observed in trivalent vaccinated groups. In contrast, monovalent vaccinated groups with non-homologous challenges failed to cross protect. Protection from CVA6 challenge was accomplished through a passive transfer study involving serum raised against the trivalent vaccine. These animal models will be useful for future studies on HFMD related pathogenesis and the efficacy of vaccine candidates. PMID:26593938

  4. Modeling the impact of vaccination control strategies on a foot and mouth disease outbreak in the Central United States.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, Sara W; Sanderson, Michael W; Reeves, Aaron; Hill, Ashley E

    2014-12-01

    The central United States (U.S.) has a large livestock population including cattle, swine, sheep and goats. Simulation models were developed to assess the impact of livestock herd types and vaccination on foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model. In this study, potential FMD virus outbreaks in the central region of the U.S. were simulated to compare different vaccination strategies to a depopulation only scenario. Based on data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service, a simulated population of 151,620 livestock operations characterized by latitude and longitude, production type, and herd size was generated. For the simulations, a single 17,000 head feedlot was selected as the initial latently infected herd in an otherwise susceptible population. Direct and indirect contact rates between herds were based on survey data of livestock producers in Kansas and Colorado. Control methods included ring vaccination around infected herds. Feedlots ≥3000 head were either the only production type that was vaccinated or were assigned the highest vaccination priority. Simulated vaccination scenarios included low and high vaccine capacity, vaccination zones of 10 km or 50 km around detected infected premises, and vaccination trigger of 10 or 100 detected infected herds. Probability of transmission following indirect contact, movement controls and contact rate parameters were considered uncertain and so were the subjects of sensitivity analysis. All vaccination scenarios decreased number of herds depopulated but not all decreased outbreak duration. Increased size of the vaccination zone during an outbreak decreased the length of the outbreak and number of herds destroyed. Increased size of the vaccination zone primarily resulted in vaccinating feedlots ≥3000 head across a larger area. Increasing the vaccination capacity had a smaller impact on the outbreak and may not be feasible if

  5. Expression of Porcine Fusion Protein IRF7/3(5D) Efficiently Controls Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Carvajal, Lisbeth; Díaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Hickman, Danielle; Long, Charles R.; Zhu, James; Rodríguez, Luis L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several studies have demonstrated that the delivery of type I, II, or III interferons (IFNs) by inoculation of a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector expressing IFNs can effectively control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and swine during experimental infections. However, relatively high doses are required to achieve protection. In this study, we identified the functional properties of a porcine fusion protein, poIRF7/3(5D), as a biotherapeutic and enhancer of IFN activity against FMD virus (FMDV). We showed that poIRF7/3(5D) is a potent inducer of type I IFNs, including alpha IFN (IFN-α), IFN-β, and IFN-ω but not type III IFN (interleukin-28B), without inducing cytotoxicity. Expression of poIRF7/3(5D) significantly and steadily reduced FMDV titers by up to 6 log10 units in swine and bovine cell lines. Treatment with an IFN receptor inhibitor (B18R) combined with an anti-IFN-α antibody neutralized the antiviral activity in the supernatants of cells transduced with an Ad5 vector expressing poIRF7/3(5D) [Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D)]. However, several transcripts with known antiviral function, including type I IFNs, were still highly upregulated (range of increase, 8-fold to over 500-fold) by poIRF7/3(5D) in the presence of B18R. Furthermore, the sera of mice treated with Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D) showed antiviral activity that was associated with the induction of high levels of IFN-α and resulted in complete protection against FMDV challenge at 6, 24, or 48 h posttreatment. This study highlights for the first time the antiviral potential of Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D) in vitro and in vivo against FMDV. IMPORTANCE FMD remains one of the most devastating diseases that affect livestock worldwide. Effective vaccine formulations are available but are serotype specific and require approximately 7 days before they are able to elicit protective immunity. We have shown that vector-delivered IFN is an option to protect animals against many FMDV serotypes as soon as 24 h

  6. Impact of foot-and-mouth disease on milk production on a large-scale dairy farm in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Nicholas A; Alexander, Neal; Stärk, Katharina D C; Dulu, Thomas D; Sumption, Keith J; James, Andrew D; Rushton, Jonathan; Fine, Paul E M

    2015-06-15

    The economic impact of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been poorly characterised particularly in endemic settings where such knowledge is important for decision-making on disease control with limited resources. In order to address this, a study was designed using individual animal data from a large-scale dairy farm in Kenya to estimate the impact of an FMD outbreak due to serotype SAT2 virus on milk yield. Daily milk yields from 218 mainly European-breed cattle that were lactating during the 29-day outbreak period were considered in the analysis. At the herd level, the average daily yields decreased from around 20 to 13kg per cow, recovering approximately 2 months after the commencement of the outbreak. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) and an autoregressive correlation matrix were used to compare yields of reported clinical FMD cases and non-cases. No difference was found between reported clinical and non-clinical cases suggesting inaccurate case recording, poor sensitivity of the case definition and subclinical infections being present. To further investigate the impact of FMD, yields were predicted for each individual animal based on historic data from the same herd using a similar GEE approach. For cattle lactating during the outbreak, comparisons were made between actual and predicted yields from the commencement of the outbreak to 305 days lactation using a linear regression model. Animals produced significantly less than predicted if in parity 2 or greater and between 0 and 50 days in milk (DIM) at the start of the outbreak period. The maximum effect was seen among animals in parity ≥4 and between 0 and 50 DIM at the start of the outbreak, producing on average 688.7kg (95%CI 395.5, 981.8) less milk than predicted for their remaining lactation, representing an average 15% reduction in the 305 day production for these animals. Generalisation of the results requires caution as the majority of Kenyan milk is produced in smallholder farms. However, such

  7. Human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: establishment of a vaccine product profile through in vitro testing.

    PubMed

    Brake, D A; McIlhaney, M; Miller, T; Christianson, K; Keene, A; Lohnas, G; Purcell, C; Neilan, J; Schutta, C; Barrera, J; Burrage, T; Brough, D E; Butman, B T

    2012-01-01

    Next generation, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) molecular vaccines based on replication deficient human adenovirus serotype 5 viral vectored delivery of FMD capsid genes (AdFMD) are being developed by the United States Dept. of Homeland Security and industry partners. The strategic goal of this program is to develop AdFMD licensed vaccines for the USA National Veterinary Stockpile for use, if needed, as emergency response tools during an FMD outbreak. This vaccine platform provides a unique opportunity to develop a set of in vitro analytical parameters to generate an AdFMD vaccine product profile to replace the current lot release test for traditional, inactivated FMD vaccines that requires FMDV challenge in livestock. The possibility of an indirect FMD vaccine potency test based on a serological alternative was initially investigated for a lead vaccine candidate, Adt.A24. Results show that serum virus neutralization (SVN) based serology testing for Adt.A24 vaccine lot release is not feasible, at least not in the context of vaccine potency assessment at one week post-vaccination. Thus, an in vitro infectious titer assay (tissue culture infectious dose 50, TCID50) which measures FMD infectious (protein expression) titer was established. Pre-validation results show acceptable assay variability and linearity and these data support further studies to validate the TCID50 assay as a potential potency release test. In addition, a quantitative physiochemical assay (HPLC) and three immunochemical assays (Fluorescent Focus-Forming Unit (FFU); tissue culture expression dose 50 (TCED50); Western blot) were developed for potential use as in vitro assays to monitor AdFMD vaccine lot-to-lot consistency and other potential applications. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a traditional modified-live vaccine virus infectivity assay in combination with a set of physiochemical and immunochemical tests to build a vaccine product profile that will ensure the each Ad

  8. A Refined Guinea Pig Model of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection for Assessing the Efficacy of Antiviral Compounds.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, A R; Lefebvre, D J; Willems, T; Paul, G; Billiet, A; Murao, L E; Neyts, J; Goris, N; De Clercq, K

    2016-04-01

    An antiviral containment strategy for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks could support or replace current contingency plans in case of an outbreak in Europe and could spare many healthy animals from being pre-emptively culled. Recently, substantial progress has been made towards the development of small molecule drugs that inhibit FMD virus (FMDV) replication in vitro. For the initial in vivo evaluation of antiviral lead molecules, a refined FMDV-infection model in guinea pigs (GP) is herewith described. This GP model was validated by demonstrating the antiviral effect of T-1105 (an influenza virus inhibitor with reported activity against FMDV). Sixteen animals were orally administered with T-1105 twice daily (400 mg/kg/day) for five consecutive days and inoculated intraplantarly with 100 GPID50 of the GP-adapted FMDV strain O1 Manisa 1 h after the first administration. The efficacy of T-1105 was compared with that of prophylactic vaccination with a highly potent double-oil emulsion-inactivated O1 Manisa vaccine. Ten animals received a single, full (2 ml) cattle vaccine dose and were inoculated 3 weeks later. Fourteen T-1105-treated and all vaccinated GP were completely protected from generalization of vesicular lesions. At 2 dpi, viral RNA was detected in serum of 9/16 T-1105-treated and of 6/10 vaccinated animals. At 4 dpi, viral RNA was detected in serum, organs and oral swabs of half of the T-1105-treated animals and only in the serum of 1/10 of the vaccinated animals. Mean viral RNA levels in serum and organs of T-1105-treated and vaccinated animals were reduced compared to untreated controls (P < 0.01). T-1105 conferred a substantial clinical and virological protection against infection with O1 Manisa, similar to the protection afforded by vaccination. These results validate the suitability of the enhanced GP model for the purpose of initial evaluation of inhibitors of FMDV replication and illustrate the potential of selective inhibitors of viral

  9. Pathogenesis of Primary Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Vaccinated and Non-Vaccinated Cattle.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Eschbaumer, Michael; Pacheco, Juan M; Rekant, Steven I; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection following simulated-natural (intra-nasopharyngeal) virus exposure of cattle that were non-vaccinated or vaccinated using a recombinant adenovirus-vectored FMDV vaccine. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection in both categories of animals with consistent predilection for the nasopharyngeal mucosa. A rapid progression of infection with viremia and widespread dissemination of virus occurred in non-vaccinated animals whilst vaccinated cattle were protected from viremia and clinical FMD. Analysis of micro-anatomic distribution of virus during early infection by lasercapture microdissection localized FMDV RNA to follicle-associated epithelium of the nasopharyngeal mucosa in both groups of animals, with concurrent detection of viral genome in nasopharyngeal MALT follicles in vaccinated cattle only. FMDV structural and non-structural proteins were detected in epithelial cells of the nasopharyngeal mucosa by immunomicroscopy 24 hours after inoculation in both non-vaccinated and vaccinated steers. Co-localization of CD11c+/MHC II+ cells with viral protein occurred early at primary infection sites in vaccinated steers while similar host-virus interactions were observed at later time points in non-vaccinated steers. Additionally, numerous CD8+/CD3- host cells, representing presumptive natural killer cells, were observed in association with foci of primary FMDV infection in the nasopharyngeal mucosa of vaccinated steers but were absent in non-vaccinated steers. Immunomicroscopic evidence of an activated antiviral response at primary infection sites of vaccinated cattle was corroborated by a relative induction of interferon -α, -β, -γ and -λ mRNA in micro-dissected samples of nasopharyngeal mucosa. Although vaccination protected cattle from viremia and clinical FMD, there was subclinical infection of

  10. Pathogenesis of Primary Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Vaccinated and Non-Vaccinated Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Eschbaumer, Michael; Pacheco, Juan M.; Rekant, Steven I.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection following simulated-natural (intra-nasopharyngeal) virus exposure of cattle that were non-vaccinated or vaccinated using a recombinant adenovirus-vectored FMDV vaccine. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection in both categories of animals with consistent predilection for the nasopharyngeal mucosa. A rapid progression of infection with viremia and widespread dissemination of virus occurred in non-vaccinated animals whilst vaccinated cattle were protected from viremia and clinical FMD. Analysis of micro-anatomic distribution of virus during early infection by lasercapture microdissection localized FMDV RNA to follicle-associated epithelium of the nasopharyngeal mucosa in both groups of animals, with concurrent detection of viral genome in nasopharyngeal MALT follicles in vaccinated cattle only. FMDV structural and non-structural proteins were detected in epithelial cells of the nasopharyngeal mucosa by immunomicroscopy 24 hours after inoculation in both non-vaccinated and vaccinated steers. Co-localization of CD11c+/MHC II+ cells with viral protein occurred early at primary infection sites in vaccinated steers while similar host-virus interactions were observed at later time points in non-vaccinated steers. Additionally, numerous CD8+/CD3- host cells, representing presumptive natural killer cells, were observed in association with foci of primary FMDV infection in the nasopharyngeal mucosa of vaccinated steers but were absent in non-vaccinated steers. Immunomicroscopic evidence of an activated antiviral response at primary infection sites of vaccinated cattle was corroborated by a relative induction of interferon -α, -β, -γ and -λ mRNA in micro-dissected samples of nasopharyngeal mucosa. Although vaccination protected cattle from viremia and clinical FMD, there was subclinical infection of

  11. Notes from the field: severe hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with coxsackievirus A6 - Alabama, Connecticut, California, and Nevada, November 2011-February 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-03-30

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness caused by enteroviruses that predominantly affects children aged <5 years. In the United States, outbreaks of HFMD typically occur during summer and autumn months. The most common cause of HFMD in the United States has been enterovirus serotype coxsackievirus A16. Most infections are asymptomatic; persons with signs and symptoms typically have a mild febrile illness with rash on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, and sores in the mouth. HFMD also has been associated, often weeks after initial symptom onset, with nail dystrophies (e.g., Beau's lines or nail shedding). PMID:22456122

  12. A study on the immune response of sheep to foot and mouth disease virus vaccine type 'O' prepared with different inactivants and adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Nair, S P; Sen, A K

    1992-10-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) type 'O' was inactivated either with formaldehyde or binaryethyleneimine (BEI). Vaccines were prepared with inactivated virus incorporating aluminum hydroxide gel or mineral oil as an adjuvant. The antibody response in sheep was monitored by serum neutralization and ELISA test for a period of six months. Significant difference in antibody response was not observed between vaccines inactivated with formaldehyde or BEI. On the other hand significant difference in the antibody response was noticed between alhydrogel and oil vaccines. The high titer of antibodies stimulated by oil adjuvant vaccines persisted longer than those of alhydrogel vaccines within the period of study. PMID:1364024

  13. Increased humoral antibody response of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in growing pigs pre-treated with poly-γ-glutamic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee-Hoon; Kang, Ik-Jae; Kim, A-Reum; Noh, You-Sun; Chung, Hee-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if humoral antibody response of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine improved in 8-week-old growing pigs born to well-vaccinated sows pre-treated with 60 mg of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) three days before vaccination. Antibody against FMD virus serotype O was measured 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-vaccination, using a PrioCHECK FMDV type O ELISA kit. The results showed that positive antibody reactions against FMDV serotype O antigen among a component of the vaccine significantly increased in response to pre-injection with γ-PGA. PMID:26645341

  14. Complete genome sequence analysis of enterovirus 71 isolated from children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Thailand, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Korkong, Sumeth; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-10-01

    The complete genomic sequences of 14 enterovirus 71 (EV71) strains isolated from children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Thailand from 2012 to 2014 were determined and compared to enterovirus group A prototypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 13 strains resembled the B5 subgroup, while one strain from a fatal case designated THA_1219 belonged to the C4 subgroup. Similarity plot and bootscan analyses suggested that THA_1219 underwent recombination in the P2 and P3 regions. Full-genome data from this work will contribute to the study of evolution dynamics of EV71. PMID:26303899

  15. Increased humoral antibody response of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in growing pigs pre-treated with poly-γ-glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-Hoon; Kang, Ik-Jae; Kim, A-Reum; Noh, You-Sun; Chung, Hee-Chun; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2016-06-30

    This study was conducted to determine if humoral antibody response of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine improved in 8-week-old growing pigs born to well-vaccinated sows pre-treated with 60 mg of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) three days before vaccination. Antibody against FMD virus serotype O was measured 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-vaccination, using a PrioCHECK FMDV type O ELISA kit. The results showed that positive antibody reactions against FMDV serotype O antigen among a component of the vaccine significantly increased in response to pre-injection with γ-PGA. PMID:26645341

  16. Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatial-Temporal Clusters of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Zhejiang Province, China, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianfang; Hua, Qihang; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Bin; Gu, Hua; Lv, Huakun; Dong, Changzheng

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is one of the major public health concerns in China. Being the province with high incidence rates of HFMD, the epidemiological features and the spatial-temporal patterns of Zhejiang Province were still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and the high-incidence clusters, as well as explore some potential risk factors. The surveillance data of HFMD during 2008–2012 were collected from the communicable disease surveillance network system of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The distributions of age, gender, occupation, season, region, pathogen’s serotype and disease severity were analyzed to describe the epidemiological features of HFMD in Zhejiang Province. Seroprevalence survey for human enterovirus 71 (EV71) in 549 healthy children of Zhejiang Province was also performed, as well as 27 seroprevalence publications between 1997 and 2015 were summarized. The spatial-temporal methods were performed to explore the clusters at county level. Furthermore, pathogens’ serotypes such as EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16) and meteorological factors were analyzed to explore the potential factors associated with the clusters. A total of 454,339 HFMD cases were reported in Zhejiang Province during 2008–2012, including 1688 (0.37%) severe cases. The annual average incidence rate was 172.98 per 100,000 (ranged from 72.61 to 270.04). The male-to-female ratio for mild cases was around 1.64:1, and up to 1.87:1 for severe cases. Of the total cases, children aged under three years old and under five years old accounted for almost 60% and 90%, respectively. Among all enteroviruses, the predominant serotype was EV71 (49.70%), followed by Cox A16 (26.05%) and other enteroviruses (24.24%) for mild cases. In severe cases, EV71 (82.85%) was the major causative agent. EV71 seroprevalence survey in healthy children confirmed that occult infection was common in

  17. Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatial-Temporal Clusters of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Zhejiang Province, China, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Gui, Juanjuan; Liu, Zhifang; Zhang, Tianfang; Hua, Qihang; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Bin; Gu, Hua; Lv, Huakun; Dong, Changzheng

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is one of the major public health concerns in China. Being the province with high incidence rates of HFMD, the epidemiological features and the spatial-temporal patterns of Zhejiang Province were still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and the high-incidence clusters, as well as explore some potential risk factors. The surveillance data of HFMD during 2008-2012 were collected from the communicable disease surveillance network system of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The distributions of age, gender, occupation, season, region, pathogen's serotype and disease severity were analyzed to describe the epidemiological features of HFMD in Zhejiang Province. Seroprevalence survey for human enterovirus 71 (EV71) in 549 healthy children of Zhejiang Province was also performed, as well as 27 seroprevalence publications between 1997 and 2015 were summarized. The spatial-temporal methods were performed to explore the clusters at county level. Furthermore, pathogens' serotypes such as EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16) and meteorological factors were analyzed to explore the potential factors associated with the clusters. A total of 454,339 HFMD cases were reported in Zhejiang Province during 2008-2012, including 1688 (0.37%) severe cases. The annual average incidence rate was 172.98 per 100,000 (ranged from 72.61 to 270.04). The male-to-female ratio for mild cases was around 1.64:1, and up to 1.87:1 for severe cases. Of the total cases, children aged under three years old and under five years old accounted for almost 60% and 90%, respectively. Among all enteroviruses, the predominant serotype was EV71 (49.70%), followed by Cox A16 (26.05%) and other enteroviruses (24.24%) for mild cases. In severe cases, EV71 (82.85%) was the major causative agent. EV71 seroprevalence survey in healthy children confirmed that occult infection was common in children

  18. [Epidemiological features and pathogenic characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease in Gansu Province, China during 2008-2012].

    PubMed

    Yu, De-Shan; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Jian-Hua; Duan, Li-Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Hong; Li, Xiao-Lei; Sun, Qiang; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Jian-Feng; Zheng, Yun-He; Meng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the epidemiological features and pathogenic characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Gansu Province, China and to provide a basis for the development of effective prevention and control measures. The descriptive epidemiological analysis was used to analyse the data of HFMD cases in Gansu. The specimens collected from hospitals were subjected to RT-PCR or real-time PCR to detect human enterovirus (HEV) nucleic acid, and HEV strains were isolated using human rhabdomyosarcoma cells and human laryngeal carcinoma cells. The complete VP1-encoding region of several identified enterovirus A71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) was subjected to full-length amplification by RT-PCR and then to sequencing and analysis. A total of 52 550 HFMD cases were reported in Gansu from 2008 to 2012, including 205 severe cases and 27 deaths. The incidence rates in the whole province from 2008 to 2012 were 22.42/10(5), 49.29/10(5), 47.20/10(5), 27.27/10(5), and 55.84/10(5), respectively. There were cases in all the 14 cities or prefectures in Gansu, and Lanzhou had the largest number of cases (16 001 cases), accounting for 30.45% of all cases in the province. HFMD cases were mostly reported during May to July, accounting for 51.69% of all cases throughout the year. The male-to-female ratio was 1.69:1. Of all the cases, 87.59% were under the age of five. Of the 5 416 cases for laboratory tests, 3 322 (61.34%) were positive for HEV nucleic acid, including EV71 (46.96%), CVA16 (41.57%), and other HEVs (11.47%). Among the 186 severe cases, 114 (61.29%) were positive for HEV nucleic acid, and 82.46% of the positive cases for EV71. All the 25 dead cases were infected with EV71. A total of 402 strains were isolated from 3 111 specimens collected from hospitals (2 123 throat swab specimens, 705 stool specimens, and 705 herpes specimens), including EV71 (70.15%), CVA16 (27.11), other coxsackievirus A (3.98%), coxsackievirus B (2.49%), echovirus (1

  19. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in China: Modeling Epidemic Dynamics of Enterovirus Serotypes and Implications for Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Saki; Liao, Qiaohong; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Xing, Weijia; Sun, Junling; Hsiao, Victor Y.; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Chang, Zhaorui; Liu, Fengfeng; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Joseph T.; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Farrar, Jeremy J.; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by serotypes of the Enterovirus A species in the genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family. The disease has had a substantial burden throughout East and Southeast Asia over the past 15 y. China reported 9 million cases of HFMD between 2008 and 2013, with the two serotypes Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) being responsible for the majority of these cases. Three recent phase 3 clinical trials showed that inactivated monovalent EV-A71 vaccines manufactured in China were highly efficacious against HFMD associated with EV-A71, but offered no protection against HFMD caused by CV-A16. To better inform vaccination policy, we used mathematical models to evaluate the effect of prospective vaccination against EV-A71-associated HFMD and the potential risk of serotype replacement by CV-A16. We also extended the model to address the co-circulation, and implications for vaccination, of additional non-EV-A71, non-CV-A16 serotypes of enterovirus. Methods and Findings Weekly reports of HFMD incidence from 31 provinces in Mainland China from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013 were used to fit multi-serotype time series susceptible–infected–recovered (TSIR) epidemic models. We obtained good model fit for the two-serotype TSIR with cross-protection, capturing the seasonality and geographic heterogeneity of province-level transmission, with strong correlation between the observed and simulated epidemic series. The national estimate of the basic reproduction number, R0, weighted by provincial population size, was 26.63 for EV-A71 (interquartile range [IQR]: 23.14, 30.40) and 27.13 for CV-A16 (IQR: 23.15, 31.34), with considerable variation between provinces (however, predictions about the overall impact of vaccination were robust to this variation). EV-A71 incidence was projected to decrease monotonically with higher coverage rates of EV-A71 vaccination. Across provinces

  20. Novel chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles harboring serotype O VP1 protect guinea pigs against challenge.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Li, Zhiyong; Xie, Yinli; Qin, Xiaodong; Qi, Xingcai; Sun, Peng; Bai, Xingwen; Ma, Youji; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious, acute viral disease of cloven-hoofed animal species causing severe economic losses worldwide. Among the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), serotype O is predominant, but its viral capsid is more acid sensitive than other serotypes, making it more difficult to produce empty serotype O VLPs in the low pH insect hemolymph. Therefore, a novel chimeric virus-like particle (VLP)-based candidate vaccine for serotype O FMDV was developed and characterized in the present study. The chimeric VLPs were composed of antigenic VP1 from serotype O and segments of viral capsid proteins from serotype Asia1. These VLPs elicited significantly higher FMDV-specific antibody levels in immunized mice than did the inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, the chimeric VLPs protected guinea pigs from FMDV challenge with an efficacy similar to that of the inactivated vaccine. These results suggest that chimeric VLPs have the potential for use in vaccines against serotype O FMDV infection. PMID:26790940