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Sample records for asian house shrew

  1. The complete mitogenome of Asian House Shrews, Suncus murinus (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shunde; Wei, Haixue; Peng, Hongyuan; Yong, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The Asian House Shrew, Suncus murinus belongs to the family Soricidae, and widely distributes in East, Southeast and South Asia, Southwest Island in the Pacific Ocean and East Africa. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Suncus murinus was determined. The mitogenome is 17,240 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region, with a base composition of 33.0% A, 32.7% T, 21.2% C and 13.1% G. The present study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of S. murinus, and may facilitate further investigation of the molecular evolution of Soricidae. PMID:24976048

  2. Genetic Diversity of Thottapalayam Virus, a Hantavirus Harbored by the Asian House Shrew (Suncus murinus) in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Shrestha, Mrigendra P.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recent discovery of genetically divergent hantaviruses in shrews of multiple species in widely separated geographic regions, data are unavailable about the genetic diversity and phylogeography of Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a hantavirus originally isolated from an Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) captured in southern India more than four decades ago. To bridge this knowledge gap, the S, M, and L segments of hantavirus RNA were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from archival lung tissues of Asian house shrews captured in Nepal from January to September 1996. Pair-wise alignment and comparison revealed approximately 80% nucleotide and > 94% amino acid sequence similarity to prototype TPMV. Phylogenetic analyses, generated by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed geographic-specific clustering of TPMV, similar to that observed for rodent- and soricid-borne hantaviruses. These findings confirm that the Asian house shrew is the natural reservoir of TPMV and suggest a long-standing virus–host relationship. PMID:21896819

  3. Resting-Associated Vocalization Emitted by Captive Asian House Shrews (Suncus murinus): Acoustic Structure and Variability in an Unusual Mammalian Vocalization

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals. PMID:25390304

  4. Prevalence of SFTSV among Asian House Shrews and Rodents, China, January–August 2013

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Wei; Wen, Hong-Ling; Fang, Li-Zhu; Zhang, Zhen-Tang; He, Shu-Ting; Xue, Zai-Feng; Ma, Dong-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Tao; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the role of small mammals as hosts of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), we tested serum samples from rodents and shrews in China, collected in 2013. SFTSV antibodies and RNA were detected, suggesting that rodents and shrews might be hosts for SFTSV. PMID:25418111

  5. The proximal gastric corpus is the most responsive site of motilin-induced contractions in the stomach of the Asian house shrew.

    PubMed

    Dudani, Amrita; Aizawa, Sayaka; Zhi, Gong; Tanaka, Toru; Jogahara, Takamichi; Sakata, Ichiro; Sakai, Takafumi

    2016-07-01

    The migrating motor complex (MMC) is responsible for emptying the stomach during the interdigestive period, in preparation for the next meal. It is known that gastric phase III of MMC starts from the proximal stomach and propagates the contraction downwards. We hypothesized that a certain region of the stomach must be more responsive to motilin than others, and that motilin-induced strong gastric contractions propagate from that site. Stomachs of the Suncus or Asian house shrew, a small insectivorous mammal, were dissected and the fundus, proximal corpus, distal corpus, and antrum were examined to study the effect of motilin using an organ bath experiment. Motilin-induced contractions differed in different parts of the stomach. Only the proximal corpus induced gastric contraction even at motilin 10(-10) M, and strong contraction was induced by motilin 10(-9) M in all parts of the stomach. The GPR38 mRNA expression was also higher in the proximal corpus than in the other sections, and the lowest expression was observed in the antrum. GPR38 mRNA expression varied with low expression in the mucosal layer and high expression in the muscle layer. Additionally, motilin-induced contractions in each dissected part of the stomach were inhibited by tetrodotoxin and atropine pretreatment. These results suggest that motilin reactivity is not consistent throughout the stomach, and an area of the proximal corpus including the cardia is the most sensitive to motilin. PMID:27062028

  6. Adoption of a nestling house mouse by a female short-tailed shrew

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Johnson, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    A nursing female short-tailed shrew adopted a nestling house mouse. The mouse was observed in the nest with the female and her litter of shrews three days after it was introduced into the aluminum box containing the shrews, but it was found dead in the nest four days later.

  7. Intestinal disaccharidases in the house musk shrew, Suncus murinus: occurrence of sucrase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yokota, K; Oda, S; Takesue, S; Takesue, Y

    1992-11-01

    1. Disaccharidase activities of the small-intestinal brush border membrane were studied in six laboratory lines of the house musk shrew, Suncus murinus. 2. Sucrase activity was detected in all shrews of one line, but not in any shrew of three lines. In the other two lines it was found in some shrews, but not in the others. 3. Maltase, isomaltase, trehalase and lactase activities were found in all shrews of all the lines examined. 4. Sucrase was normally associated with isomaltase to form an enzyme complex. 5. Detergent-solubilized isomaltase, whether associated with sucrase or not, was inhibited by antibodies against rabbit sucrase-isomaltase to almost the same extent as the rabbit one, suggesting that isomaltase is not affected by a mutation(s) in sucrase. PMID:1458837

  8. Gross anatomical study of the sympathetic cardiac nerves in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ai; Tanaka, Shigenori; Miyamoto, Kensaku; Yi, Shuang-Qin; Nakatani, Toshio

    2007-05-01

    The sympathetic cardiac nerves originating from the cervical and upper thoracic sympathetic ganglia in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) were examined using macroscopic and whole-mount immunohistochemical methods. Based on the results, the nerves were macroscopically classified into the following three groups: nerves innervating the cervical sympathetic ganglia mainly to the arterial porta of the heart; nerves supplying the stellate and thoracic sympathetic ganglia at the level of T2-T5 or T6 for both the arterial and venous portae of the heart; and nerves innervating the thoracic sympathetic ganglia at the level of T4-T9 to the esophagus and lung and then the heart via the blood vessels within the mediastinal pleura. These findings in the house musk shrew suggest a possible primitive morphological pattern of the cervical and thoracic sympathetic nervous system that may be related to those in other mammals, including humans. PMID:17393537

  9. Parvalbumin immunoreactive neurons in the main olfactory bulb of the house musk shrew, Suncus murinus.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, S; Oda, S; Takayanagi, M; Kishi, K

    1998-01-01

    The distribution, morphological features, and postnatal development of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactive neurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of the house musk shrew, Suncus murinus, were studied to report for the first time on PV positive bulbar interneurons in the order Insectivora. In adult animals, PV neurons are distributed in the glomerular layer (GL), the external plexiform layer (EPL), the internal plexiform layer (IPL) and the granule cell layer (GCL) of the MOB. These neurons were identified as a subpopulation of periglomerular cells and perinidal cells [Alonso et al., 1995] in the GL and at the GL-EPL border, respectively, and as bipolar and multipolar neurons in the EPL and four types of the interneurons (horizontal cells, Cajal cells, Golgi cells, and bitufted cells) in the layers deeper than the mitral cell layer. During development of PV neurons, neurons exhibiting extremely faint PV immunoreactivity first appeared in the GCL at postnatal day 14 and increased markedly in number and intensity of their PV immunoreactivity from postnatal days 14 to 28. At postnatal day 21, PV neurons were identified as periglomerular cells in the GL, perinidal cells at the GL-EPL border, and morphologically unidentifiable neurons in the EPL, IPL and GCL. At postnatal day 28, PV neurons exhibited a nearly adult pattern with respect to distribution and structural features. The present results strongly suggest that a wide variety of PV positive neurons in the MOB of the house musk shrew may develop postnatally. PMID:9807013

  10. Conditioned Flavor Preference and the US Postexposure Effect in the House Musk Shrew (Suncus Murinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sawa, Kosuke; Ishii, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is the only species of mammalian insectivore that can be domesticated and used as a laboratory animal, and is an interesting subject in terms of evolutionary and comparative aspects. The present study on the learning faculties of shrews examines the possibility of acquiring a conditioned flavor preference and the effects of US postexposure. Subjects were allowed to a drink sucrose solution with flavor A and tap water with flavor B during training. Two extinction tests were administered after every four conditioning trials, and a significant preference for flavor A was observed. After each test, the animals were divided into two groups. Subjects in Group US were presented with a sucrose solution without flavor, while those in Group Water were given tap water. After these trials, all subjects received choice tests where they were presented with water containing the two flavors. The preference ratio was lower in Group US than in Group Water, suggesting a postexposure effect. The findings were discussed in terms of habituation to the US. PMID:22811673

  11. Regulation of longitudinal esophageal motility in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Shiina, Takahiko; Naitou, Kiyotada; Nakamori, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Hiroki; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2015-05-01

    Suncus murinus (house musk shrew; suncus) is a species of insectivore that has an ability to vomit. Although longitudinal movement of the esophagus would be related to the emetic response, regulatory mechanisms for the suncus esophageal motility are unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify components that regulate esophageal motility in the suncus. An isolated segment of the suncus esophagus was placed in an organ bath, and longitudinal mechanical responses were recorded using a force transducer. Electrical stimulation of the vagus trunk evoked a biphasic contractile response. The first phase of the contractile response was blocked by α-bungarotoxin, a blocker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on striated muscle cells, whereas the second one was blocked by atropine, a blocker of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on smooth muscle cells. Next, we investigated whether mast cells are involved in motor functions of the suncus esophagus. Application of a mast cell stimulator, compound 48/80, elicited contractile responses, which was resistant to tetrodotoxin. Exogenous application of serotonin and histamine induced contractile responses. The mast cell activation-mediated contraction was abolished by double desensitization by serotonin and histamine and pre-treatment with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. The findings show that cholinergic and non-cholinergic transmitters induce longitudinal contraction in the suncus esophagus, which might contribute to esophageal shortening during emesis. Cholinergic transmitters are derived from vagal efferents, and non-cholinergic transmitters, which are thought to be serotonin, histamine and prostaglandins, are released from mast cells. PMID:25694232

  12. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior) in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tanganya virus (TGNV), the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae), and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) and Imjin virus (MJNV) in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura). The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Methods Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi), 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae), 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior) and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri) captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Results A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV), was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Conclusions Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution of hantaviruses

  13. The morphological and histological characters of the male external genitalia of the house musk shrew, Suncus murinus.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa-Miyado, Mami; Ogi, Hidenao; Ogino, Yukiko; Katoh, Hironori; Suzuki, Kentaro; Uemura, Masanori; Kitoh, Junzoh; Oda, Sen-Ichi; Yamada, Gen

    2005-04-01

    External genitalia are the reproductive organs necessary for efficient copulation and internal fertilization in various mammalian species. Their morphogeneses display significant morphological and developmental differences among species. The house musk shrew, Suncus murinus (hereafter described as suncus) is a species of the order Insectivora, which has been considered as primitive and one of the earliest eutheria phylogenetically. Comparative anatomical analyses of phylogenetically different mammals will contribute to the better understanding of morphological diversity of external genitalia. This study performed various anatomical and histological analyses concerning the organization of the external genitalia of male suncus. It was shown that the external genitalia of suncus possessed a muscular structure, which we proposed as musculus ischiocavernosus dorsalis of suncus. The musculus ischiocavernosus dorsalis is originated from the inner surface of the tuber ischiadicum and was allocated adjacent to the corpus cavernosum penis. In addition, a pair of alpha-smooth muscle actin positive muscles was located bilaterally to the urethra. This unique morphology of the external genitalia of suncus males may provide a unique model system to investigate genital morphogenesis. PMID:15846055

  14. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  15. Multilocus phylogeny and cryptic diversity in Asian shrew-like moles (Uropsilus, Talpidae): implications for taxonomy and conservation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genus Uropsilus comprises a group of terrestrial, montane mammals endemic to the Hengduan and adjacent mountains. These animals are the most primitive living talpids. The taxonomy has been primarily based on cursory morphological comparisons and the evolutionary affinities are little known. To provide insight into the systematics of this group, we estimated the first multi-locus phylogeny and conducted species delimitation, including taxon sampling throughout their distribution range. Results We obtained two mitochondrial genes (~1, 985 bp) and eight nuclear genes (~4, 345 bp) from 56 specimens. Ten distinct evolutionary lineages were recovered from the three recognized species, eight of which were recognized as species/putative species. Five of these putative species were found to be masquerading as the gracile shrew mole. The divergence time estimation results indicated that climate change since the last Miocene and the uplift of the Himalayas may have resulted in the diversification and speciation of Uropsilus. Conclusions The cryptic diversity found in this study indicated that the number of species is strongly underestimated under the current taxonomy. Two synonyms of gracilis (atronates and nivatus) should be given full species status, and the taxonomic status of another three potential species should be evaluated using extensive taxon sampling, comprehensive morphological, and morphometric approaches. Consequently, the conservation status of Uropsilus spp. should also be re-evaluated, as most of the species/potential species have very limited distribution. PMID:24161152

  16. Synergy between cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid, and Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol in the regulation of emesis in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew).

    PubMed

    Rock, Erin M; Parker, Linda A

    2015-06-01

    Smoked marijuana contains over 100 different cannabinoids, including the psychoactive compound Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC, CBD, and its acidic precursor, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), have all been shown to have antiemetic properties in the Suncus murinus (S. murinus; house musk shrew). Here we show that when subthreshold antiemetic doses of CBD (2.5 mg/kg ip) or CBDA (0.05 mg/kg ip) are combined with a subthreshold antiemetic dose of THC (1 mg/kg ip) in the S. murinus, both lithium-chloride-induced vomiting and abdominal retching are dramatically suppressed. These results suggest that combined effects of these compounds may lead to better control of vomiting with fewer side effects. PMID:26030435

  17. The FAAH inhibitor URB-597 interferes with cisplatin- and nicotine-induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew)

    PubMed Central

    Parker, LA; Limebeer, CL; Rock, EM; Litt, DL; Kwiatkowska, M.; Piomelli, D.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence implicates the endocannabinoid system as a neuromodulator of nausea and vomiting. The action of anandamide (AEA) can be prolonged by inhibiting its degradation, through the use of URB597 (URB), a Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme inhibitor. Here we present evidence that the FAAH inhibitor, URB, interferes with cisplatin- and nicotine -induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus. In Experiment 1, shrews were injected with URB (0.9 mg/kg) or vehicle 120 min prior to the behavioral testing. They received a second injection of AEA (5 mg/kg) or vehicle 15 min prior to being injected with cisplatin (20 mg/kg) or saline and the number of vomiting episodes were counted for 60 min. In Experiment 2, shrews were injected with vehicle or URB (0.9 mg/kg) 120 min prior to receiving an injection of nicotine (5 mg/kg) or saline and the number of vomiting episodes were counted for 15 min. Experiment 3 evaluated the potential of the CB1 antagonist, SR141716, to reverse the effect of URB on nicotine-induced vomiting. URB attenuated vomiting produced by cisplatin and nicotine and the combination of URB+AEA suppressed vomiting produced by cisplatin. The effect of URB on nicotine-induced vomiting was reversed by SR141716. These data suggest that the EC system plays a tonic role in the regulation of toxin-induced vomiting. PMID:19239915

  18. Housing and Living Arrangements of South Asian Immigrant Seniors in Edmonton, Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Cheuk Fan; Northcott, Herbert C.; Abu-Laban, Sharon McIrvin

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian population is aging and becoming more ethnically diverse. This paper focuses on South Asian immigrant seniors and examines differences in housing and living arrangements among seniors who immigrated at different life stages. We interviewed a convenience sample of 161 immigrant seniors of South Asian descent in Edmonton, Alberta, to…

  19. The Taming of the Shrew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, M.

    1996-11-01

    Considering the extreme complexity of the turbulence problem in general and the unattainability of first-principles analytical solutions in particular, it is not surprising that controlling a turbulent flow remains a challenging task, mired in empiricism and unfulfilled promises and aspirations. Brute force suppression, or taming, of turbulence via active control strategies is always possible, but the penalty for doing so often exceeds any potential savings. The artifice is to achieve a desired effect with minimum energy expenditure. Spurred by the recent developments in chaos control, microfabrication and neural networks, efficient reactive control of turbulent flows, where the control input is optimally adjusted based on feedforward or feedback measurements, is now in the realm of the possible for future practical devices. But regardless of how the problem is approached, combating turbulence is always as arduous as the taming of the shrew. The former task will be emphasized during the oral presentation, but for this abstract we reflect on a short verse from the latter. From William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Curtis (Petruchio's servant, in charge of his country house): Is she so hot a shrew as she's reported? Grumio (Petruchio's personal lackey): She was, good Curtis, before this frost. But thou know'st winter tames man, woman, and beast; for it hath tamed my old master, and my new mistress, and myself, fellow Curtis.

  20. Measuring airborne components of seismic body vibrations in a Middle-Asian sand-dwelling Insectivora species, the piebald shrew (Diplomesodon pulchellum).

    PubMed

    Volodin, Ilya A; Zaytseva, Alexandra S; Ilchenko, Olga G; Volodina, Elena V; Chebotareva, Anastasia L

    2012-08-15

    Self-produced seismic vibrations have been found for some subterranean rodents but have not been reported for any Insectivora species, although seismic sensitivity has been confirmed for blind sand-dwelling chrysochlorid golden moles. Studying the vocal behaviour of captive piebald shrews, Diplomesodon pulchellum, we documented vibrations, apparently generated by the whole-body wall muscles, from 11 (5 male, 6 female) of 19 animals, placed singly on a drum membrane. The airborne waves of the vibratory drumming were digitally recorded and then analysed spectrographically. The mean frequency of vibration was 160.5 Hz. This frequency matched the periodicity of the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation (159.4 Hz) found in loud screech calls of the same subjects. The body vibration was not related to thermoregulation, hunger-related depletion of energy resources or fear, as it was produced by well-fed, calm animals, at warm ambient temperatures. We hypothesize that in the solitary, nocturnal, digging desert piebald shrew, body vibrations may be used for seismic exploration of substrate density, to avoid energy-costly digging of packed sand for burrowing and foraging. At the same time, the piercing quality of screech calls due to the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation, matching the periodicity of body vibration, may be important for agonistic communication in this species. PMID:22837458

  1. Whole-Genome Sequencing Reveals Genetic Variation in the Asian House Rat.

    PubMed

    Teng, Huajing; Zhang, Yaohua; Shi, Chengmin; Mao, Fengbiao; Hou, Lingling; Guo, Hongling; Sun, Zhongsheng; Zhang, Jianxu

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of wild-derived rat species can provide novel genomic resources, which may help decipher the genetics underlying complex phenotypes. As a notorious pest, reservoir of human pathogens, and colonizer, the Asian house rat, Rattus tanezumi, is successfully adapted to its habitat. However, little is known regarding genetic variation in this species. In this study, we identified over 41,000,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, plus insertions and deletions, through whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses. Moreover, we identified over 12,000 structural variants, including 143 chromosomal inversions. Further functional analyses revealed several fixed nonsense mutations associated with infection and immunity-related adaptations, and a number of fixed missense mutations that may be related to anticoagulant resistance. A genome-wide scan for loci under selection identified various genes related to neural activity. Our whole-genome sequencing data provide a genomic resource for future genetic studies of the Asian house rat species and have the potential to facilitate understanding of the molecular adaptations of rats to their ecological niches. PMID:27172215

  2. Temperature, field activity and post-feeding metabolic response in the Asian house gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus.

    PubMed

    Lei, Juan; Booth, David T

    2014-10-01

    Temperature has significant effects on physiological activities and geographical distribution of ectotherms. The Asian house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus has become one of the most widely distributed reptiles in the world and is an invasive species in Australia. Since being introduced into northern Australia, Asian house geckos have spread rapidly and expanded into south-east Queensland and northern New South Wales. Despite their rapid spread, there have been few studies that address thermal adaptability of this species. In order to understand how temperature might limit the distribution and feeding behavior of H. frenatus we observed gecko foraging activities in the wild over the winter period, measured the temperature at which voluntary feeding ceases, and assessed the effect of temperature (30, 25, 20, and 18 °C) on post-feeding metabolic rate. Resting metabolic rate and post-feeding peak in metabolic rate decreased with low temperature, while the duration of elevated metabolic rate after feeding increased at lower temperature. The SDA coefficient (a ratio of the energy expended due to the post-feeding rise in metabolic rate to the energy contained within the meal) did not change systematically with ambient temperature. Field observations and voluntary feeding experiments showed that H. frenatus stop feeding when ambient temperature drops below 17 °C, so that persistent night time temperatures below 17 °C may be limiting the distribution of this species. PMID:25436968

  3. Whole-Genome Sequencing Reveals Genetic Variation in the Asian House Rat

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Huajing; Zhang, Yaohua; Shi, Chengmin; Mao, Fengbiao; Hou, Lingling; Guo, Hongling; Sun, Zhongsheng; Zhang, Jianxu

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of wild-derived rat species can provide novel genomic resources, which may help decipher the genetics underlying complex phenotypes. As a notorious pest, reservoir of human pathogens, and colonizer, the Asian house rat, Rattus tanezumi, is successfully adapted to its habitat. However, little is known regarding genetic variation in this species. In this study, we identified over 41,000,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, plus insertions and deletions, through whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses. Moreover, we identified over 12,000 structural variants, including 143 chromosomal inversions. Further functional analyses revealed several fixed nonsense mutations associated with infection and immunity-related adaptations, and a number of fixed missense mutations that may be related to anticoagulant resistance. A genome-wide scan for loci under selection identified various genes related to neural activity. Our whole-genome sequencing data provide a genomic resource for future genetic studies of the Asian house rat species and have the potential to facilitate understanding of the molecular adaptations of rats to their ecological niches. PMID:27172215

  4. A visual health assessment of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) housed in India.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Anand; Mallapur, Avanti

    2008-06-01

    A visual health assessment and survey questionnaire was conducted on 81 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) housed in 10 animal facilities throughout India between November 2004 and February 2005. The survey questionnaire consisted of 10 questions that evaluated the health of the elephants, and they were completed after visually assessing each individual elephant. The information collected was ranked on a scale that was used to statistically compare the health among the study subjects. This study documented that 43.21% of the captive elephants surveyed exhibited hyperkeratosis. A significant proportion of the elephants owned by tourist camps had poor skin condition when compared with elephants from zoos and at a forest camp. Similarly, captive-born individuals were found to have better skin condition than animals that were caught from the wild. Sixty (74.1%) of the captive elephants that were observed during this study had fissures in their footpads, 20% of which were severe. The prevalence of foot fissures was significantly higher in females. A greater proportion of elephants owned by tourist camps displayed vertical and horizontal toenail cracks in comparison with the forest camp and zoo elephants. It was noted that 76.9% of the wounded animals and 80% of those having abscesses were housed at temples and tourist camps. Also, approximately 8.5% of the captive elephant population observed during this study had eye-related problems, and they were all housed at temples and tourist camps. In conclusion, it was evident that elephants housed at temples or tourist camps exhibited poor skin condition with wounds and abscesses. These findings suggest that the overall condition of the elephants housed at tourist camps was poor compared with elephants housed at zoos and at the forest camp. PMID:18634204

  5. Profile of Antiemetic Activity of Netupitant Alone or in Combination with Palonosetron and Dexamethasone in Ferrets and Suncus murinus (House Musk Shrew)

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, John A.; Ngan, Man P.; Lu, Zengbing; Higgins, Guy A.; Giuliano, Claudio; Lovati, Emanuela; Pietra, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Chemotherapy-induced acute and delayed emesis involves the activation of multiple pathways, with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) playing a major role in the initial response. Substance P tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists can reduce emesis induced by disparate emetic challenges and therefore have a clinical utility as broad inhibitory anti-emetic drugs. In the present studies, we investigate the broad inhibitory anti-emetic profile of a relatively new NK1 receptor antagonist, netupitant, alone or in combination with the long acting 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, palonosetron, for a potential to reduce emesis in ferrets and shrews. Materials and Methods: Ferrets were pretreated with netupitant and/or palonosetron, and then administered apomorphine (0.125 mg/kg, s.c.), morphine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.), ipecacuanha (1.2 mg/kg, p.o.), copper sulfate (100 mg/kg, intragastric), or cisplatin (5–10 mg/kg, i.p.); in other studies netupitant was administered to Suncus murinus before motion (4 cm horizontal displacement, 2 Hz for 10 min). Results: Netupitant (3 mg/kg, p.o.) abolished apomorphine-, morphine-, ipecacuanha- and copper sulfate-induced emesis. Lower doses of netupitant (0.03–0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently reduced cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced emesis in an acute (8 h) model, and motion-induced emesis in S. murinus. In a ferret cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced acute and delayed emesis model, netupitant administered once at 3 mg/kg, p.o., abolished the first 24 h response and reduced the 24–72 h response by 94.6%; the reduction was markedly superior to the effect of a three times per day administration of ondansetron (1 mg/kg, i.p.). A single administration of netupitant (1 mg/kg, p.o.) plus palonosetron (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) combined with dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p., once per day), also significantly antagonized cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis and was comparable with a once-daily regimen of ondansetron (1 mg/kg, p.o.) plus

  6. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses.

    PubMed

    Epps, Mary Jane; Menninger, Holly L; LaSala, Nathan; Dunn, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relative distributions and frequency of native and nonnative camel crickets in human homes across North America. Participants contributed survey data about the presence or absence of camel crickets in homes, as well as photographs and specimens of camel crickets allowing us to identify the major genera and/or species in and around houses. Together, these data offer insight into the geographical distribution of camel crickets as a presence in homes, as well as the relative frequency and distribution of native and nonnative camel crickets encountered in houses. In so doing, we show that the exotic Diestrammena asynamora not only has become a common presence in eastern houses, but is found in these environments far more frequently than native camel crickets. Supplemental pitfall trapping along transects in 10 urban yards in Raleigh, NC revealed that D. asynamora can be extremely abundant locally around some homes, with as many as 52 individuals collected from pitfalls in a single yard over two days of sampling. The number of D. asynamora individuals present in a trap was negatively correlated with the trap's distance from a house, suggesting that these insects may be preferentially associated with houses but also are present outside. In addition, we report the establishment in the northeastern United States of a second exotic species, putatively Diestrammena japanica Blatchley, which was previously undocumented in the literature. Our results offer new insight into the relative frequency

  7. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

    PubMed Central

    Menninger, Holly L.; LaSala, Nathan; Dunn, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relative distributions and frequency of native and nonnative camel crickets in human homes across North America. Participants contributed survey data about the presence or absence of camel crickets in homes, as well as photographs and specimens of camel crickets allowing us to identify the major genera and/or species in and around houses. Together, these data offer insight into the geographical distribution of camel crickets as a presence in homes, as well as the relative frequency and distribution of native and nonnative camel crickets encountered in houses. In so doing, we show that the exotic Diestrammena asynamora not only has become a common presence in eastern houses, but is found in these environments far more frequently than native camel crickets. Supplemental pitfall trapping along transects in 10 urban yards in Raleigh, NC revealed that D. asynamora can be extremely abundant locally around some homes, with as many as 52 individuals collected from pitfalls in a single yard over two days of sampling. The number of D. asynamora individuals present in a trap was negatively correlated with the trap’s distance from a house, suggesting that these insects may be preferentially associated with houses but also are present outside. In addition, we report the establishment in the northeastern United States of a second exotic species, putatively Diestrammena japanica Blatchley, which was previously undocumented in the literature. Our results offer new insight into the relative

  8. Ticks of four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Horak, Ivan G; Welman, Shaun; Hallam, Stacey L; Lutermann, Heike; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi

    2011-01-01

    Several studies on ticks infesting small mammals, including elephant shrews, have been conducted in South Africa; however, these studies have included only a single four-toed elephant shrew and no hedgehogs. This study thus aimed to identify and quantify the ixodid ticks infesting four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs. Four-toed elephant shrews (Petrodromus tetradactylus) were trapped in dense shrub undergrowth in a nature reserve in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal. They were separately housed, first in cages and later in glass terraria fitted with wire-mesh bases to allow detached ticks to fall through for collection. Southern African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis) were hand caught on a farm in the eastern region of the Northern Cape Province and all visible ticks were collected by means of tweezers while the animals were anaesthetised. The ticks from each animal were preserved separately in 70% ethanol for later identification and counting. The immature stages of five ixodid tick species were collected from the elephant shrews, of which Rhipicephalus muehlensi was the most common. It has not been recorded previously on any species of elephant shrew. Three ixodid tick species were collected from the hedgehogs. Large numbers of adult Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, which has not been encountered previously on hedgehogs, were collected from these animals. Four-toed elephant shrews are good hosts of the larvae and nymphs of R. muehlensi, and Southern African hedgehogs are good hosts of adult H. colesbergensis. PMID:23327207

  9. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K.; Mench, Joy A.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals’ experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001). Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001). Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience) and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001). There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138) and Asian (N = 117) species or between males (N = 54) and females (N = 201). The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05). The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes. PMID:27414034

  10. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001). Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001). Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience) and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001). There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138) and Asian (N = 117) species or between males (N = 54) and females (N = 201). The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05). The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes. PMID:27414034

  11. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  12. Phylogeography of wild musk shrew (Suncus murinus) populations in Asia based on blood protein/enzyme variation.

    PubMed

    Kurachi, Megumi; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsubota, Yuji; Chau, Ba-Loc; Dang, Vu-Binh; Dorji, Tashi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Nyunt, Maung Maung; Maeda, Yoshizane; Chhum-Phith, Loan; Namikawa, Takao; Yamagata, Takahiro

    2007-08-01

    The musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is an insectivore species that inhabits tropical and subtropical Asia widely. To clarify the genetic relationship among wild musk shrew populations, we examined the electrophoretic variants of biparentally inherited genetic markers at 10 loci coding for eight blood proteins/enzymes in a total of 639 animals and compared the results obtained from the mitochondrial DNA data. The principal-component analysis performed using the allele frequency data revealed that the 17 populations could be divided into two major groups, a South Asian group and a Southeast Asian group that includes several island populations bound by Myanmar. The degrees of genetic divergence among populations were higher within the Southeast Asian group than within the South Asian group. This finding was incongruent with the mtDNA diversity. Analysis conducted at the individual level showed that a shrew from the central region in Myanmar that carries a South Asian type of mtDNA showed the electrophoretic variants specific to the Southeast Asian group, suggesting that this region is a contact zone between the two major groups. PMID:17551826

  13. Divergent ancestral lineages of newfound hantaviruses harbored by phylogenetically related crocidurine shrew species in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Satoru; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Tabara, Kenji; Bennett, Shannon; Oh, Hong-Shik; Takada, Nobuhiro; Kang, Hae Ji; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the recent isolation of a novel hantavirus, named Imjin virus (MJNV), from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), targeted trapping was conducted for the phylogenetically related Asian lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura shantungensis). Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S, M and L segments of a newfound hantavirus, designated Jeju virus (JJUV), indicated remarkably low nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarity with MJNV. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed divergent ancestral lineages for JJUV and MJNV, despite the close phylogenetic relationship of their reservoir soricid hosts. Also, no evidence of host switching was apparent in tanglegrams, generated by TreeMap 2.0β. PMID:22230701

  14. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Xin-Li; Ding, Ze-Yang; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews. PMID:23572369

  15. Asian Americans: A Status Report. Fact Sheet for the Chairman, Select Committee on Hunger, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This fact sheet presents information on the status of Asians in the United States. The following sections are included: (1) "Introduction," which includes Asian American population statistics, and the objectives, scope, and methodology of the study; (2) "Overall Income and Employment Status Comparable With U.S. Population, But Varies Widely Among…

  16. Thermoregulatory correlates of nausea in rats and musk shrews

    PubMed Central

    Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Cerri, Matteo; Vecchio, Flavia Del; Corrigan, Joshua J.; Kamphee, Amornrat; Dragic, Alexander S.; Rudd, John A.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Nausea is a prominent symptom and major cause of complaint for patients receiving anticancer chemo- or radiation therapy. The arsenal of anti-nausea drugs is limited, and their efficacy is questionable. Currently, the development of new compounds with anti-nausea activity is hampered by the lack of physiological correlates of nausea. Physiological correlates are needed because common laboratory rodents lack the vomiting reflex. Furthermore, nausea does not always lead to vomiting. Here, we report the results of studies conducted in four research centers to investigate whether nausea is associated with any specific thermoregulatory symptoms. Two species were studied: the laboratory rat, which has no vomiting reflex, and the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), which does have a vomiting reflex. In rats, motion sickness was induced by rotating them in their individual cages in the horizontal plane (0.75 Hz, 40 min) and confirmed by reduced food consumption at the onset of dark (active) phase. In 100% of rats tested at three centers, post-rotational sickness was associated with marked (~1.5°C) hypothermia, which was associated with a short-lasting tail-skin vasodilation (skin temperature increased by ~4°C). Pretreatment with ondansetron, a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, which is used to treat nausea in patients in chemo- or radiation therapy, attenuated hypothermia by ~30%. In shrews, motion sickness was induced by a cyclical back-and-forth motion (4 cm, 1 Hz, 15 min) and confirmed by the presence of retching and vomiting. In this model, sickness was also accompanied by marked hypothermia (~2°C). Like in rats, the hypothermic response was preceded by transient tail-skin vasodilation. In conclusion, motion sickness is accompanied by hypothermia that involves both autonomic and thermoeffector mechanisms: tail-skin vasodilation and possibly reduction of the interscapular brown adipose tissue activity. These thermoregulatory symptoms may serve as physiological

  17. Thermoregulatory correlates of nausea in rats and musk shrews.

    PubMed

    Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Cerri, Matteo; Del Vecchio, Flavia; Corrigan, Joshua J; Kamphee, Amornrat; Dragic, Alexander S; Rudd, John A; Romanovsky, Andrej A; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2014-03-30

    Nausea is a prominent symptom and major cause of complaint for patients receiving anticancer chemo- or radiation therapy. The arsenal of anti-nausea drugs is limited, and their efficacy is questionable. Currently, the development of new compounds with anti-nausea activity is hampered by the lack of physiological correlates of nausea. Physiological correlates are needed because common laboratory rodents lack the vomiting reflex. Furthermore, nausea does not always lead to vomiting. Here, we report the results of studies conducted in four research centers to investigate whether nausea is associated with any specific thermoregulatory symptoms. Two species were studied: the laboratory rat, which has no vomiting reflex, and the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), which does have a vomiting reflex. In rats, motion sickness was induced by rotating them in their individual cages in the horizontal plane (0.75 Hz, 40 min) and confirmed by reduced food consumption at the onset of dark (active) phase. In 100% of rats tested at three centers, post-rotational sickness was associated with marked (~1.5°C) hypothermia, which was associated with a short-lasting tail-skin vasodilation (skin temperature increased by ~4°C). Pretreatment with ondansetron, a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, which is used to treat nausea in patients in chemo- or radiation therapy, attenuated hypothermia by ~30%. In shrews, motion sickness was induced by a cyclical back-and-forth motion (4 cm, 1 Hz, 15 min) and confirmed by the presence of retching and vomiting. In this model, sickness was also accompanied by marked hypothermia (~2°C). Like in rats, the hypothermic response was preceded by transient tail-skin vasodilation. In conclusion, motion sickness is accompanied by hypothermia that involves both autonomic and thermoeffector mechanisms: tail-skin vasodilation and possibly reduction of the interscapular brown adipose tissue activity. These thermoregulatory symptoms may serve as physiological

  18. Muscle Aging and Oxidative Stress in Wild-Caught Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Lawler, John M.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Horning, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18 month) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2× higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

  19. Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2010-04-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2x higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

  20. Lung parasites of shrews from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Haukisalmi, V; Merritt, J F

    1997-04-01

    We examined lung parasites of three species of soricids, Sorex cinereus (n = 58), Sorex fumeus (n = 23) and Blarina brevicauda (n = 45) collected from Pennsylvania (USA), from 1990 to 1995. Yeast-like cells of Hisfoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum were found in lung sections stained with Grocott's modification of Gomori's methenamine silver, periodic acid-Schiff, Giemsa, and hematoxylin-eosin in two (3%) S. cinereus, eight (35%) S. fumeus and two (4%) B. brevicauda. The number of spores of H. capsulatum in the lungs was low and no inflammatory reaction was evident. The infection was not disseminated to other organs. This is the first report of H. capsulatum infection in any species of shrews of the genus Sorex and the prevalence in S. fumeus was remarkably high compared to those reported for other wild mammals. A nematode, possibly Angiostrongylus michiganensis, was found in the lungs of one S. fumeus on necropsy and in a stained lung section of one S. cinereus. In both cases the host was also infected with the fungus. Pneumocystis carinii, which is the most common lung parasite in Sorex araneus (the numerically dominant Eurasian species of shrew), was not found in any of the North American species of shrew examined in this study. PMID:9131560

  1. Salmonella Isolates in the Introduced Asian House Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) with Emphasis on Salmonella Weltevreden, in Two Regions in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Randall R; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Abarca, Juan G; Porras, Laura P

    2015-09-01

    The Asian house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus has been widely introduced in Costa Rica and tends to establish in human settlements. Some studies in other invaded countries have suggested that this gecko plays a significant role in the epidemiology of salmonellosis and it is of value to public health. To our knowledge, no studies have examined Salmonella from this species in Costa Rica. Therefore, we collected 115 geckos from houses in two Costa Rican regions. We examined gut contents for Salmonella through microbiological analysis. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were sent to a reference laboratory for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Molecular typing was also conducted with the main Salmonella isolates of zoonotic relevance in Costa Rica. H. frenatus was found in 95% of the houses surveyed. Salmonella was isolated in 4.3% of the samples, and four zoonotic serovars were detected. None of the isolates were resistant to the antibiotics most frequently used for salmonellosis treatment in Costa Rica. All Salmonella isolates from the lower gut of H. frenatus are associated with human salmonellosis. Pulsotypes from Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden were identical to the only clone previously reported from human samples in Costa Rica. Molecular typing of Salmonella Weltevreden suggested that H. frenatus harbors a serovar of public health importance in Costa Rica. Results demonstrated that H. frenatus plays a role in the epidemiology of human salmonellosis in two regions of Costa Rica. However, more detailed epidemiological studies are needed to understand better the role of the Asian house gecko with human salmonellosis, especially caused by Salmonella Weltevreden, and to quantify its risk in Costa Rica accurately. PMID:26378974

  2. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife. PMID:26079728

  3. Hantavirus in northern short-tailed shrew, United States.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoru; Song, Jin-Won; Sumibcay, Laarni; Bennett, Shannon N; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Parmenter, Cheryl; Cook, Joseph A; Yates, Terry L; Yanagihara, Richard

    2007-09-01

    Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial medium- and large-segment sequences, support an ancient evolutionary origin of a genetically distinct hantavirus detected by reverse transcription-PCR in tissues of northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) captured in Minnesota in August 1998. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hantaviruses harbored by shrews in the Americas. PMID:18252128

  4. Population structure of wild musk shrews (Suncus murinus) in Asia based on mitochondrial DNA variation, with research in Cambodia and Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Kurachi, Megumi; Chau, Ba-Loc; Dang, Vu-Binh; Dorji, Tashi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Nyunt, Maung Maung; Maeda, Yoshizane; Chhum-Phith, Loan; Namikawa, Takao; Yamagata, Takahiro

    2007-04-01

    The musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is a small mammalian species belonging to Insectivora. It is widely distributed in Asia. To identify the genetic relationship among wild musk shrew populations and examine its migration route, we investigated the populations of Cambodia and Bhutan by using mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and compared them with other Asian populations previously described. Four haplotypes were detected in Cambodia and eight in Bhutan. A total of 53 haplotypes were detected in Asia and were classified largely into two groups, the Continental and Island types, based on a minimum spanning network. From the distribution of mtDNA types in wild musk shrews, three major population groups are identified in Asia: South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Malay. It is suggested that the Malay population group was a mix of South and Southeast Asian population groups and that this was a contact area of the two groups. In addition, other contact areas between the South and Southeast Asian groups exist in Myanmar, but unlike the Malay, the Myanmar area was the border of these groups. PMID:17318375

  5. Genetic variants of Cao Bang hantavirus in the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrew (Anourosorex yamashinai).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Lim, Burton K; Kang, Hae Ji; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-06-01

    To determine the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of Cao Bang virus (CBNV) and to ascertain the existence of CBNV-related hantaviruses, natural history collections of archival tissues from Chinese mole shrews (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrews (Anourosorex yamashinai), captured in Guizho Province, People's Republic of China, and in Nantou County, Taiwan, in 2006 and 1989, respectively, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment sequences indicated CBNV in two of five Chinese mole shrews and a previously unrecognized hantavirus, named Xinyi virus (XYIV), in seven of 15 Taiwanese mole shrews. XYIV was closely related to CBNV in Vietnam and China, as well as to Lianghe virus (LHEV), recently reported as a distinct hantavirus species in Chinese mole shrews from Yunnan Province in China. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that XYIV shared a common ancestry with CBNV and LHEV, in keeping with the evolutionary relationship between Anourosorex mole shrews. Until such time that tissue culture isolates of CBNV, LHEV and XYIV can be fully analyzed, XYIV and LHEV should be regarded as genetic variants, or genotypes, of CBNV. PMID:26921799

  6. The formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shujiang; Wang, Cong; Guo, Chengbing; Huang, Xu; Wang, Liecheng; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Fear is an emotion that is well-studied due to its importance for animal survival. Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, have been widely used to model fear. However, higher animals such as nonhuman primates have rarely been used to study fear due to ethical issues and high costs. Tree shrews are small mammals that are closely related to primates; they have been used to model human-related psychosocial conditions such as stress and alcohol tolerance. Here, we describe an experimental paradigm to study the formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews. We designed an experimental apparatus of a light/dark box with a voltage foot shock. We found that tree shrews preferred staying in the dark box in the daytime without stimulation and showed avoidance to voltage shocks applied to the footplate in a voltage-dependent manner. Foot shocks applied to the dark box for 5 days (10 min per day) effectively reversed the light–dark preference of the tree shrews, and this memory lasted for more than 50 days without any sign of memory decay (extinction) in the absence of further stimulation. However, this fear memory was reversed with 4 days of reverse training by applying the same stimulus to the light box. When reducing the stimulus intensity during the training period, a memory extinction and subsequently reinstatement effects were observed. Thus, our results describe an efficient method of monitoring fear memory formation and extinction in tree shrews. PMID:26283941

  7. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele A; Hogan, Jennifer N; Meehan, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health. PMID:27415763

  8. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michele A.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Meehan, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health. PMID:27415763

  9. Analysis of gamasid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with the Asian house rat, Rattus tanezumi (Rodentia: Muridae) in Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Qin; Guo, Xian-Guo; Speakman, John R; Dong, Wen-Ge

    2013-05-01

    During a survey lasting from 1990 to 2008, we captured 4,113 Asian house rats, Rattus tanezumi Temminck 1844 (Rodentia: Muridae) from 28 counties of Yunnan Province in southwestern China. From these rats, a total of 19,304 gamasid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) were collected and identified as comprising 50 different species. The species diversity of gamasid mites from this single rat species is higher than that reported previously from multiple hosts within a given geographical region. Of the 50 mite species, 31 species belonged to ectoparasites and 19 species belonged to free-living mites. The species diversity of the mites from rats trapped outdoors was much higher than from rats trapped indoors. The parameter K from the negative binomial distribution was used to measure the spatial distribution patterns of the dominant mite species and revealed that all the mites had an aggregated distribution among the rat hosts. Most mite species showed a predominantly female-biased population structure with many more females than males. PMID:23471780

  10. Genetic variation and phylogeography of central Asian and other house mice, including a major new mitochondrial lineage in Yemen.

    PubMed Central

    Prager, E M; Orrego, C; Sage, R D

    1998-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and flanking tRNAs were sequenced from 76 mice collected at 60 localities extending from Egypt through Turkey, Yemen, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nepal to eastern Asia. Segments of the Y chromosome and of a processed p53 pseudogene (Psip53) were amplified from many of these mice and from others collected elsewhere in Eurasia and North Africa. The 251 mtDNA types, including 54 new ones reported here, now identified from commensal house mice (Mus musculus group) by sequencing this segment can be organized into four major lineages-domesticus, musculus, castaneus, and a new lineage found in Yemen. Evolutionary tree analysis suggested the domesticus mtDNAs as the sister group to the other three commensal mtDNA lineages and the Yemeni mtDNAs as the next oldest lineage. Using this tree and the phylogeographic approach, we derived a new model for the origin and radiation of commensal house mice whose main features are an origin in west-central Asia (within the present-day range of M. domesticus) and the sequential spreading of mice first to the southern Arabian Peninsula, thence eastward and northward into south-central Asia, and later from south-central Asia to north-central Asia (and thence into most of northern Eurasia) and to southeastern Asia. Y chromosomes with and without an 18-bp deletion in the Zfy-2 gene were detected among mice from Iran and Afghanistan, while only undeleted Ys were found in Turkey, Yemen, Pakistan, and Nepal. Polymorphism for the presence of a Psip53 was observed in Georgia, Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Sequencing of a 128-bp Psip53 segment from 79 commensal mice revealed 12 variable sites and implicated >/=14 alleles. The allele that appeared to be phylogenetically ancestral was widespread, and the greatest diversity was observed in Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nepal. Two mice provided evidence for a second Psip53 locus in some commensal populations. PMID:9755213

  11. Circadian rhythms in the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda.

    PubMed

    Antipas, A J; Madison, D M; Ferraro, J S

    1990-08-01

    Circadian rhythms of wheel running and feeding were measured in the short-tailed shrew. Shrews were strongly nocturnal, and their activity rhythms entrained to both long-day (LD 16:8) and short-day (LD 6:18) photocycles. Under conditions of continuous light (LL) or darkness (DD), the activity rhythms free-ran with average periodicities of 25.1 hours and 24.1 hours, respectively. In LL the level of activity was depressed, and in some cases wheel running was completely inhibited. No significant sex differences were observed in the period or amplitude of the monitored circadian rhythms. All shrews fed throughout the day and night; however, unlike in previous reports, ultradian periods of feeding behavior were not found. The results are related to Aschoff's four observations for the effect of light on activity rhythms in nocturnal rodents. PMID:2255728

  12. The complete mitogenome of Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qun; Wang, Qiong; Chen, Guiying; Fu, Changkun; Chen, Shunde

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes belongs to the family Soricidae, and widely distributes in central and southern China, northern and south Burma, east India, northern Vietnam and Thailand. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Anourosorex squamipes was determined. The mitogenome is 17,121 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region, with base composition of 34.0% A, 31.3% T, 22.0% C, and 12.7% G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage did not differ significantly from those of other shrews. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Chinese Mole Shrew Anourosorex squamipes. PMID:24708118

  13. Distribution and coexistence of shrews in patchy landscapes: A field test of multiple hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortelliti, Alessio; Boitani, Luigi

    2009-11-01

    Despite the important role of shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) in the functioning of ecosystems, as predators and prey, the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on this guild of mammals are still unclear. We studied the distribution of 5 species (the greater white toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon; the lesser white toothed shrew Crocidura suaveolens; the pigmy shrew Sorex minutus; the Appennine shrew Sorex samniticus and the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus) in a fragmented landscape in central Italy. Shrews were trapped with pitfall traps made from plastic water bottles, the number of traps increased with patch size. A total of 170 individuals, of 5 species of shrews were captured. Shrews were widely distributed in our study area, however patch occupancy was determined mainly by vegetation and geometrical characteristics of the patches. Our data supports the hypotheses that patterns of habitat selection and the dynamics of seasonal abundance (habitat and temporal partitioning between similarly sized species) reduce competitive pressure, thus allowing coexistence of shrews in relatively species-rich assemblages, for such small amounts of habitat. The most important outcome of our results is the crucial role played by vegetation structure in determining distribution patterns. These results strongly suggest that measurements of the vegetation structure of habitat patches should always be included as explanatory variables when studying the distribution of shrews in fragmented landscapes.

  14. Discovery of Novel Alphacoronaviruses in European Rodents and Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Tsoleridis, Theocharis; Onianwa, Okechukwu; Horncastle, Emma; Dayman, Emma; Zhu, Miaoran; Danjittrong, Taechasit; Wachtl, Marta; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Chapman, Sarah; Strong, Victoria; Dobbs, Phillipa; Ball, Jonathan K.; Tarlinton, Rachael E.; McClure, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Eight hundred and thirteen European rodents and shrews encompassing seven different species were screened for alphacoronaviruses using PCR detection. Novel alphacoronaviruses were detected in the species Rattus norvegicus, Microtus agrestis, Sorex araneus and Myodes glareolus. These, together with the recently described Lucheng virus found in China, form a distinct rodent/shrew-specific clade within the coronavirus phylogeny. Across a highly conserved region of the viral polymerase gene, the new members of this clade were up to 22% dissimilar at the nucleotide level to the previously described Lucheng virus. As such they might represent distinct species of alphacoronaviruses. These data greatly extend our knowledge of wildlife reservoirs of alphacoronaviruses. PMID:27102167

  15. Bioenergetics and thermal physiology of American water shrews (Sorex palustris).

    PubMed

    Gusztak, R W; Macarthur, R A; Campbell, K L

    2005-02-01

    Rates of O(2) consumption and CO(2) production, telemetered body temperature (T(b)) and activity level were recorded from adult and subadult water shrews (Sorex palustris) over an air temperature (T(a)) range of 3-32 degrees C. Digesta passage rate trials were conducted before metabolic testing to estimate the minimum fasting time required for water shrews to achieve a postabsorptive state. Of the 228 metabolic trials conducted on 15 water shrews, 146 (64%) were discarded because the criteria for inactivity were not met. Abdominal T(b) of S. palustris was independent of T(a) and averaged 38.64 +/- 0.07 degrees C. The thermoneutral zone extended from 21.2 degrees C to at least 32 degrees C. Our estimate of the basal metabolic rate for resting, postabsorptive water shrews (96.88 +/- 2.93 J g(-1) h(-1) or 4.84 +/- 0.14 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) was three times the mass-predicted value, while their minimum thermal conductance in air (0.282 +/- 0.013 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) concurred with allometric predictions. The mean digesta throughput time of water shrews fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) or ground meat was 50-55 min. The digestibility coefficients for metabolizable energy (ME) of water shrews fed stickleback minnows (Culaea inconstans) and dragonfly nymphs (Anax spp. and Libellula spp.) were 85.4 +/- 1.3% and 82.8 +/- 1.1%, respectively. The average metabolic rate (AMR) calculated from the gas exchange of six water shrews at 19-22 degrees C (208.0 +/- 17.0 J g(-1) h(-1)) was nearly identical to the estimate of energy intake (202.9 +/- 12.9 J g(-1) h(-1)) measured for these same animals during digestibility trials (20 degrees C). Based on 24-h activity trials and our derived ME coefficients, the minimum daily energy requirement of an adult (14.4 g) water shrew at T(a) = 20 degrees C is 54.0 kJ, or the energetic equivalent of 14.7 stickleback minnows. PMID:15592850

  16. Discovery of Novel Alphacoronaviruses in European Rodents and Shrews.

    PubMed

    Tsoleridis, Theocharis; Onianwa, Okechukwu; Horncastle, Emma; Dayman, Emma; Zhu, Miaoran; Danjittrong, Taechasit; Wachtl, Marta; Behnke, Jerzy M; Chapman, Sarah; Strong, Victoria; Dobbs, Phillipa; Ball, Jonathan K; Tarlinton, Rachael E; McClure, C Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Eight hundred and thirteen European rodents and shrews encompassing seven different species were screened for alphacoronaviruses using PCR detection. Novel alphacoronaviruses were detected in the species Rattus norvegicus, Microtus agrestis, Sorex araneus and Myodes glareolus. These, together with the recently described Lucheng virus found in China, form a distinct rodent/shrew-specific clade within the coronavirus phylogeny. Across a highly conserved region of the viral polymerase gene, the new members of this clade were up to 22% dissimilar at the nucleotide level to the previously described Lucheng virus. As such they might represent distinct species of alphacoronaviruses. These data greatly extend our knowledge of wildlife reservoirs of alphacoronaviruses. PMID:27102167

  17. Asians and Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of Asians and Asian-Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within the following subject…

  18. Microparasite assemblages of conspecific shrew populations in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The microparasite component communities of 2 species of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, were investigated for the first time in 2 isolated and 3 continuous landscapes in southern California. With microscopical examination, a total of 6 parasite species was found in N. crawfordi and 8 species in S. ornatus. The highest number (5) of parasite species was detected in the lungs. The corrected estimate of parasite species richness did not significantly correlate with the host abundance in either shrew species. Altitude, and also latitude in N. crawfordi, appeared to be significantly positively associated with the parasite species richness, but this could be due to a false association because of the rare occurrence of some of the parasites or the small altitude range (or both). No other landscape variable analyzed (location, size of the study site, disturbance) was significantly associated with the parasite species richness of the shrews. The parasite assemblages of the 2 shrew species were similar despite the fact that N. crawfordi has a lower metabolic rate than S. ornatus.

  19. Cortical organization in shrews: evidence from five species.

    PubMed

    Catania, K C; Lyon, D C; Mock, O B; Kaas, J H

    1999-07-19

    Cortical organization was examined in five shrew species. In three species, Blarina brevicauda, Cryptotis parva, and Sorex palustris, microelectrode recordings were made in cortex to determine the organization of sensory areas. Cortical recordings were then related to flattened sections of cortex processed for cytochrome oxidase or myelin to reveal architectural borders. An additional two species (Sorex cinereus and Sorex longirostris) with visible cortical subdivisions based on histology alone were analyzed without electrophysiological mapping. A single basic plan of cortical organization was found in shrews, consisting of a few clearly defined sensory areas located caudally in cortex. Two somatosensory areas contained complete representations of the contralateral body, corresponding to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2). A small primary visual cortex (V1) was located closely adjacent to S1, whereas auditory cortex (A1) was located in extreme caudolateral cortex, partially encircled by S2. Areas did not overlap and had sharp, histochemically apparent and electrophysiologically defined borders. The adjacency of these areas suggests a complete absence of intervening higher level or association areas. Based on a previous study of corticospinal connections, a presumptive primary motor cortex (M1) was identified directly rostral to S1. Apparently, in shrews, the solution to having extremely little neocortex is to have only a few small cortical subdivisions. However, the small areas remain discrete, well organized, and functional. This cortical organization in shrews is likely a derived condition, because a wide range of extant mammals have a greater number of cortical subdivisions. PMID:10397395

  20. Short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of Lyme disease and human babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Telford, S R; Mather, T N; Adler, G H; Spielman, A

    1990-10-01

    To determine whether short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) serve as reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and the agent of human babesiosis (Babesia microti), we examined nymphal ticks that had fed as larvae on shrews collected from 3 enzootic sites in coastal Massachusetts for evidence of infection by either or both of these agents. Xenodiagnosis indicated that 11 of 14 shrews were infected by B. burgdorferi. One of 3 piroplasm-infected shrews also infected ticks with B. microti. In a site where the piroplasm is endemic, 11 of 17 shrews showed patent parasitemias by thin blood smears. Of these, 4 had parasitemias exceeding 40%. Few immature ticks infested shrews, however, suggesting that B. brevicauda, although abundant in some endemic sites and serving as a competent reservoir, would contribute minimally to the population of infected nymphs. PMID:2213411

  1. Short-tailed shrews: Toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments involving dietary toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin were conducted with short-tailed shrews. Dietary concentrations of DDT dissolved in vegetable oils were usually more toxic than diets containing comparable amounts of powdered DDT. Younger shrews, particularly females, were more tolerant of powdered DDT than older animals; yet, there were no conspicuous age differences in toxicity of DDT dissolved in oils. In comparison to other mammals, short-tailed shrews are not unusually sensitive to DDT, dieldrin, or endrin on the basis of two-week feeding tests. The influence of age and sex on toxicity of DDT, endrin, and dieldrin was sometimes more important than body weight. Of those shrews of the same age and sex that were fed the same dietary dosage, heavier shrews were more tolerant than lighter individuals; and, heavier shrews tended to lose a greater percentage of body weight before death. There was a range of 15 to 105 DDT equivalents in brains of shrews dying on dietary dosages of DDT. Six shrews fed a high level of DDT seemed to have unusual metabolite capabilities and died with apparent lethal levels of DDD in their brains. Levels of dieldrin in brains of shrews that died on a dietary dosage of dieldrin ranged from 3.7 to 12.6 ppm. In the rates of gain and loss experiments where shrews were given diets containing 400 ppm DDT or 50 ppm dieldrin up to 17 days, high residues were noted in tissues of shrews after two weeks on a contaminated diet and a few died at that time. After shrews were placed on clean food, it was determined that >50% of the dieldrin residues in carcass and brain were lost in 50% of residues of DDT and metabolites in brains after 2 weeks on clean food; males lost nearly 50% of residues in carcasses after two weeks on clean food compared with a loss of only 11% in females.

  2. Solar Radiation during Rewarming from Torpor in Elephant Shrews: Supplementation or Substitution of Endogenous Heat Production?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michelle L.; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C.; McKechnie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external heat), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic heat production. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total heat production capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of heat during rewarming from heterothermy. PMID:25853244

  3. Solar radiation during rewarming from torpor in elephant shrews: supplementation or substitution of endogenous heat production?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michelle L; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external heat), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic heat production. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total heat production capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of heat during rewarming from heterothermy. PMID:25853244

  4. Reactivation of HSV-1 following explant of tree shrew brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Lihong; Li, Zhuoran; Li, Xin; Wang, Erlin; Lang, Fengchao; Xia, Yujie; Fraser, Nigel W; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Jumin

    2016-06-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus type I (HSV-1) latently infects peripheral nervous system (PNS) sensory neurons, and its reactivation leads to recurring cold sores. The reactivated HSV-1 can travel retrograde from the PNS into the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to be causative of Herpes Simplex viral encephalitis. HSV-1 infection in the PNS is well documented, but little is known on the fate of HSV-1 once it enters the CNS. In the murine model, HSV-1 genome persists in the CNS once infected through an ocular route. To gain more details of HSV-1 infection in the CNS, we characterized HSV-1 infection of the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) brain following ocular inoculation. Here, we report that HSV-1 enters the tree shrew brain following ocular inoculation and HSV-1 transcripts, ICP0, ICP4, and LAT can be detected at 5 days post-infection (p.i.), peaking at 10 days p.i. After 2 weeks, ICP4 and ICP0 transcripts are reduced to a basal level, but the LAT intron region continues to be expressed. Live virus could be recovered from the olfactory bulb and brain stem tissue. Viral proteins could be detected using anti-HSV-1 antibodies and anti-ICP4 antibody, during the acute stage but not beyond. In situ hybridization could detect LAT during acute infection in most brain regions and in olfactory bulb and brain stem tissue well beyond the acute stage. Using a homogenate from these tissues' post-acute infection, we did not recover live HSV-1 virus, supporting a latent infection, but using a modified explant cocultivation technique, we were able to recover reactivated virus from these tissues, suggesting that the HSV-1 virus latently infects the tree shrew CNS. Compared to mouse, the CNS acute infection of the tree shrew is delayed and the olfactory bulb contains most latent virus. During the acute stage, a portion of the infected tree shrews exhibit symptoms similar to human viral encephalitis. These findings, together with the fact that tree shrews are closely

  5. Neurochemical Characterization of the Tree Shrew Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Matthew W.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Perez-Costas, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington’s, Tourette’s syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei), which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally) can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia) are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry), and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum. PMID:21887131

  6. [A depression model of social defeat etiology using tree shrews].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lv, Long-Bao; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2012-02-01

    Depression is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, marked by depressed mood for at least two weeks. The World Health Organization predicts that depression will be the number one leading cause of disease and injury burden by 2030. Clinical treatment faces at least three serious obstacles. First, the disease mechanism is not fully understood and thus there are no effective ways to predict and prevent depression and no biological method of diagnosis. Second, available antidepressants are based on monoamine mechanisms that commonly have a long delay of action and possibly cause a higher risk of suicide. Third, no other antidepressant mechanisms are available, with fast action and few side effects. Unfortunately, several decades of research based on rodent models of depression have not been successful in resolving these problems, at least partially due to the huge differences in brain function between rodents and people. Tree shrews are the closest sister to primates, and brain functions in these species are closer to those of humans. In this review, we discuss a tree shrew model of depression with social defeat etiology and aspects of construct, face and predicted validity of an animal model. Although a tree shrew model of depression has long been ignored and not fully established, its similarities to those aspects of depression in humans may open a new avenue to address this human condition. PMID:22345016

  7. Brain Mass and Cranial Nerve Size in Shrews and Moles

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Duncan B.; Sarko, Diana K.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between body size, brain size, and fibers in selected cranial nerves in shrews and moles. Species include tiny masked shrews (S. cinereus) weighing only a few grams and much larger mole species weighing up to 90 grams. It also includes closely related species with very different sensory specializations – such as the star-nosed mole and the common, eastern mole. We found that moles and shrews have tiny optic nerves with fiber counts not correlated with body or brain size. Auditory nerves were similarly small but increased in fiber number with increasing brain and body size. Trigeminal nerve number was by far the largest and also increased with increasing brain and body size. The star-nosed mole was an outlier, with more than twice the number of trigeminal nerve fibers than any other species. Despite this hypertrophied cranial nerve, star-nosed mole brains were not larger than predicted from body size, suggesting that magnification of their somatosensory systems does not result in greater overall CNS size. PMID:25174995

  8. Affect intensity in voice recognized by tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Schehka, Simone; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-06-01

    Shared acoustic cues in speech, music, and nonverbal emotional expressions were postulated to code for emotion quality and intensity favoring the hypothesis of a prehuman origin of affective prosody in human emotional communication. To explore this hypothesis, we examined in playback experiments using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm whether a solitary foraging, highly vocal mammal, the tree shrew, is able to discriminate two behaviorally defined states of affect intensity (low vs. high) from the voice of conspecifics. Playback experiments with communication calls of two different types (chatter call and scream call) given in the state of low affect intensity revealed that habituated tree shrews dishabituated to one call type (the chatter call) and showed a tendency to do so for the other one (the scream call), both given in the state of high affect intensity. Findings suggest that listeners perceive the acoustic variation linked to defined states of affect intensity as different within the same call type. Our findings in tree shrews provide first evidence that acoustically conveyed affect intensity is biologically relevant without any other sensory cue, even for solitary foragers. Thus, the perception of affect intensity in voice conveyed in stressful contexts represents a shared trait of mammals, independent of the complexity of social systems. Findings support the hypothesis that affective prosody in human emotional communication has deep-reaching phylogenetic roots, deriving from precursors already present and relevant in the vocal communication system of early mammals. PMID:22309729

  9. Social organization in Eulipotyphla: evidence for a social shrew.

    PubMed

    Valomy, M; Hayes, L D; Schradin, C

    2015-11-01

    Shrews and their close relatives (order Eulipotyphla) are typically considered to be solitary. This impacts our understanding of mammalian social evolution: (i) the ancestor of mammals is believed to have been shrew-like, and even though Eulipotyphla are not more basal than other mammalian orders, this might have been one reason why the first mammals have been assumed to be solitary-living; (ii) Eulipotyphla are the third largest mammalian order, with hundreds of species entering comparative analyses. We review primary field studies reporting the social organization of Eulipotyphla, doing a literature research on 445 species. Primary literature was only available for 16 of the 445 species. We found 56% of the studied species to be social (38% were living in pairs), which is in sharp contrast to the 0.5 and 8% reported in other databases. We conclude that the available information indicates that shrews are more sociable than generally believed. An interesting alternative hypothesis is that the mammalian ancestor might have been pair-living. To understand the social evolution of mammals, comparative studies must be based on reliable and specific information, and more species of all orders must be studied in the field. PMID:26559515

  10. Leptospira spp. in rodents and shrews in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified. PMID:25062275

  11. A synopsis of records of myxozoan parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from shrews, with additional data on Soricimyxum fegati from common shrew Sorex araneus in Hungary and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras; Cech, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have SSU rDNA sequences that differ by about 4%. Herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 from common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) from Hungary, and add a new geographic record for S. fegati in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus Linnaeus) from Slovakia. A limited survey of shrews from the northern United States, Blarina brevicauda Say and Sorex sp. from New York, and Sorex spp. from Oregon, did not discover any infections, which is in stark contrast to the relatively high infection rates (up to 66%) in European shrew populations. We also provide a summary and discussion of literature records of species of Soricimyxum and a host survey. Given the lack of distinguishing morphological or morphometric characters between Soricimyxum spp., and the overlap in vertebrate hosts and geographic ranges, unambiguous identification of these closely related shrew parasites can presently only be achieved through sequence comparison of one or more variable SSU rDNA regions. PMID:27312127

  12. Targeting of Transmembrane Protein Shrew-1 to Adherens Junctions Is Controlled by Cytoplasmic Sorting Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Viktor; Schreiner, Alexander; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2006-01-01

    We recently identified transmembrane protein shrew-1 and showed that it is able to target to adherens junctions in polarized epithelial cells. This suggested shrew-1 possesses specific basolateral sorting motifs, which we analyzed by mutational analysis. Systematic mutation of amino acids in putative sorting signals in the cytoplasmic domain of shrew-1 revealed three tyrosines and a dileucine motif necessary for basolateral sorting. Substitution of these amino acids leads to apical localization of shrew-1. By applying tannic acid to either the apical or basolateral part of polarized epithelial cells, thereby blocking vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, we obtained evidence that the apically localized mutants were primarily targeted to the basolateral membrane and were then redistributed to the apical domain. Further support for a postendocytic sorting mechanism of shrew-1 was obtained by demonstrating that μ1B, a subunit of the epithelial cell-specific adaptor complex AP-1B, interacts with shrew-1. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for a scenario where shrew-1 is primarily delivered to the basolateral membrane by a so far unknown mechanism. Once there, adaptor protein complex AP-1B is involved in retaining shrew-1 at the basolateral membrane by postendocytic sorting mechanisms. PMID:16707570

  13. Department of Education: Efforts by the Office for Civil Rights To Resolve Asian-American Complaints. Report to the Honorable Dana Rohrabacher, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horinko, Larry; And Others

    With the Department of Education's staff remaining stable during a period of increased civil rights complaints, this study examined the Department's Office of Civil Rights (OCR) investigations of discrimination cases involving Asian-Americans. In particular the evaluation looked at 13 specific cases, timeliness and outcomes for fiscal years…

  14. CXC Chemokine CXCL12 and Its Receptor CXCR4 in Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri): Structure, Expression and Function

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Shengke; Zhang, Lichao; Wang, Wenxue; Jiang, Zongmin; Yu, Min; Cui, Qinghua; Li, Meizhang

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines are small secreted proteins functionally involved in the immune system's regulation of lymphocyte migration across numerous mammalian species. Given its growing popularity in immunological models, we investigated the structure and function of chemokine CXCL12 protein in tree shrews. We found that CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in tree shrew had structural similarities to their homologous human proteins. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that tree shrew is evolutionarily-close to the primates. Our results also showed that the human recombinant CXCL12 protein directly enhanced the migration of tree shrew's lymphocytes in vitro, while AMD3100 enhanced the mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from bone marrow into peripheral blood in tree shrew in vivo. Collectively, these findings suggested that chemokines in tree shrews may play the same or similar roles as those in humans, and that the tree shrew is a viable animal model for studying human immunological diseases. PMID:24858548

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Shrew Gymnure, Neotetracus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Tu, Feiyun; Yan, Chaochao; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Zeng, Tao

    2013-06-01

    The Shrew Gymnure Neotetracus sinensis belongs to family Erinaceidae, and distributes in China, Myanmar, and northern Vietnam. In this study, the whole mitochondrial genome of N. sinensis was first sequenced and characterized. The genome is 16,982 bases in length. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees based on 12 concatenated protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analyses further confirm the subfamily Galericinae diverged prior to the subfamily Erinaceinae, support the species N. sinensis was in distinct genus Neotetracus rather than Hylomys, and N. sinensis diverged later than Echinosorex gymnura. PMID:23206249

  16. Water shrews detect movement, shape, and smell to find prey underwater.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C; Hare, James F; Campbell, Kevin L

    2008-01-15

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that feed on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic prey. They often forage at night, diving into streams and ponds in search of food. We investigated how shrews locate submerged prey using high-speed videography, infrared lighting, and stimuli designed to mimic prey. Shrews attacked brief water movements, indicating motion is an important cue used to detect active or escaping prey. They also bit, retrieved, and attempted to eat model fish made of silicone in preference to other silicone objects showing that tactile cues are important in the absence of movement. In addition, water shrews preferentially sniffed model prey fish and crickets underwater by exhaling and reinhaling air through the nostrils, suggesting olfaction plays an important role in aquatic foraging. The possibility of echolocation, sonar, or electroreception was investigated by testing for ultrasonic and audible calls above and below water and by presenting electric fields to foraging shrews. We found no evidence for these abilities. We conclude that water shrews detect motion, shape, and smell to find prey underwater. The short latency of attacks to water movements suggests shrews may use a flush-pursuit strategy to capture some prey. PMID:18184804

  17. Water shrews detect movement, shape, and smell to find prey underwater

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.; Hare, James F.; Campbell, Kevin L.

    2008-01-01

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that feed on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic prey. They often forage at night, diving into streams and ponds in search of food. We investigated how shrews locate submerged prey using high-speed videography, infrared lighting, and stimuli designed to mimic prey. Shrews attacked brief water movements, indicating motion is an important cue used to detect active or escaping prey. They also bit, retrieved, and attempted to eat model fish made of silicone in preference to other silicone objects showing that tactile cues are important in the absence of movement. In addition, water shrews preferentially sniffed model prey fish and crickets underwater by exhaling and reinhaling air through the nostrils, suggesting olfaction plays an important role in aquatic foraging. The possibility of echolocation, sonar, or electroreception was investigated by testing for ultrasonic and audible calls above and below water and by presenting electric fields to foraging shrews. We found no evidence for these abilities. We conclude that water shrews detect motion, shape, and smell to find prey underwater. The short latency of attacks to water movements suggests shrews may use a flush-pursuit strategy to capture some prey. PMID:18184804

  18. The complete mitogenome of Asiatic Short-tailed Shrew Blarinella quadraticauda (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Fu, Changkun; Chen, Shunde; Yong, Bin; Chen, Guiying; Zong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic Short-tailed Shrew, Blarinella quadraticauda, is an endemic shrew to China, and is only distributed in Sichuan. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of B. quadraticauda was determined. The mitogenome is 17,014 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region, with a base composition of 33.3 % A, 31.8% T, 22.3% C and 12.6% G. This study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of the Asiatic Short-tailed Shrew, B. quadraticauda. PMID:24660918

  19. The annular hematoma of the shrew yolk-sac placenta.

    PubMed

    King, B F; Enders, A C; Wimsatt, W A

    1978-05-01

    The annular hematoma of the shrew, Blarina brevicauda, is a specialized portion of the yolk-sac wall. In this study, we have examined the fine structure of the different cellular components of the anular hematoma. Small pieces of the gestation sacs from seven pregnant shrews were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In the area of the trophoblastic curtain, the maternal capillary endothelial cells were hypertrophied and syncytial trophoblast surrounded the capillaries. Cellular trophoblast covered part of the luminal surface of the curtain region, whereas masses of apparently degenerating syncytium were present on other areas of the surface. Maternal erythrocytes, released into the uterine lumen from the curtain region, were phagocytized and degraded by the columnar cells of the trophoblastic annulus. No evidence of iron or pigment accumulation was evident in the parietal endodermal cells underlying the annular trophoblast. Parietal endodermal cells were characterized by cuboidal shape, widely dilated intercellular spaces, and cytoplasm containing granular endoplasmic reticulum. Endodermal cells of the visceral yolk-sac accumulated large numbers of electron-dense granules as well as glycogen in their cytoplasm. Hemopoietic areas and vitelline capillaries were found subjacent to the visceral endoderm. The various portions of the yolk-sac wall of Blarina appear to perform complementary functions which are probably important in maternal-fetal iron transfer. PMID:677046

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhitao; Zhao, Wenge; Liu, Peng; Li, Shulan; Xu, Chunzhu

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) was determined using long PCR. The genome was 17,260 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A (33.0%), C (23.2%), T (30.9%) and G (12.9%). The base compositions present clearly the A-T skew, which is most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of Eurasian water shrew. Mitochondrial genomes analyses based on MP, ML, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees. Neomys elegans, Soriculus fumidus, and N. fodiens formed a monophyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100%) in all examinations. This clade with the Anourosorex squamipes as the sister taxon to Sorex. PMID:26006281

  1. Asian blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2014-08-01

    This article discusses in detail the cultural aesthetic issues that confront the surgeon interested in performing Asian blepharoplasty in terms of defining an aesthetic Asian ideal and the subject of natural and ethnic preservation of identity. The surgical methodology of how to perform a full-incision-based Asian blepharoplasty is outlined in a stepwise fashion along with the perioperative concerns (preoperative planning and counseling, nature of recovery, and complications and revision surgery). PMID:25049125

  2. Ticks and fleas of shrews in Appalachian Georgia and North Carolina.

    PubMed

    McCay, T S; Durden, L A

    1996-08-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) were recovered from 8 smoky shrews, Sorex fumeus Miller, and 9 northern short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda (Say), trapped at elevations of 720-1,310 m in Macon and Jackson counties in western North Carolina and Union County in northern Georgia from April 1994 to August 1995. The ticks Ixodes angustus Neumann and Ixodes woodi Bishopp, and the flea Corrodopsylla curvata (Rothschild), were recovered from smoky shrews. The same 2 tick species, in addition to the fleas, Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes Baker and Doratopsylla blarinae Fox, were recovered from northern short-tailed shrews. New state records for I. angustus from Georgia and I. woodi from North Carolina are established. PMID:8691385

  3. New infectious spirochete isolated from short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Andreadis, T G

    1987-08-01

    A spirochete with two periplasmic flagella was isolated from the blood or tissues of spleens and kidneys from short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in Connecticut and Minnesota. After inoculation, the shrew-mouse spirochete infected Swiss mice and Syrian hamsters. This spirochete is morphologically and serologically distinct from the species of Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, and Spirochaeta examined. PMID:3305565

  4. Genetic Diversity of Artybash Virus in the Laxmann's Shrew (Sorex caecutiens).

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoru; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Cook, Joseph A; Yashina, Liudmila N; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Abramov, Sergey A; Morikawa, Shigeru; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Oishi, Kazunori; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Although based on very limited M and L segment sequences, Artybash virus (ARTV) was proposed previously as a unique hantavirus harbored by the Laxmann's shrew (Sorex caecutiens). To verify this conjecture, lung tissues from 68 Laxmann's shrews, captured during 2006 to 2014 in eastern Siberia, Russia, and Hokkaido, Japan, were analyzed for ARTV RNA using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ARTV RNA was detected in six Laxmann's shrews. Pairwise alignment and comparison of partial- and full-length S, M, and L segment sequences from these Laxmann's shrews, as well as phylogenetic analyses, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods indicated that ARTV was distinct from other soricine shrew-borne hantaviruses and representative hantaviruses harbored by rodents, moles, and bats. Taxonomic identity of the ARTV-infected Laxmann's shrews was confirmed by full-length cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. Our data indicate that the hantavirus previously known as Amga virus (MGAV) represents genetic variants of ARTV. Thus, the previously proposed designation of ARTV/MGAV should be replaced by ARTV. PMID:27172519

  5. Dietary heavy metal uptake by the least shrew, Cryptotis parva

    SciTech Connect

    Brueske, C.C.; Barrett, G.W. )

    1991-12-01

    Heavy metals from sewage sludge have been reported to concentrate in producers, in primary consumers, and in detritivores. Little research, however, has focused on the uptake of heavy metals from sewage sludge by secondary consumers. The Family Soricidae represents an ideal mammalian taxonomic group to investigate rates of heavy metal transfer between primary and secondary consumers. The least shrew (Cryptotis parva) was used to evaluate the accumulation of heavy metals while maintained on a diet of earthworms collected from long-term sludge-treated old-field communities. This secondary consumer is distributed widely through the eastern United States and its natural diet includes earthworms which makes it a potentially good indicator of heavy metal transfer in areas treated with municipal sludge.

  6. Structural and functional characterization of enamel pigmentation in shrews.

    PubMed

    Dumont, M; Tütken, T; Kostka, A; Duarte, M J; Borodin, S

    2014-04-01

    Pigmented tooth enamel occurs in several vertebrate clades, ranging from mammals to fish. Although an iron compound is associated with this orange to red colored pigmentation, its chemical and structural organization within the enamel is unknown. To determine the nature of the iron compound, we investigated heavily pigmented teeth of the northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda using combined characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We found that the pigmentation of the enamel with an iron content of around 8wt% results from a close to amorphous magnetite phase deposited around the nm-sized enamel crystals. Furthermore, the influence of the pigmentation on the enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation measurements. Finally, the biomechanical function and biological context are discussed in light of the obtained results. PMID:24556576

  7. Molecular phylogeny of short-tailed shrews, Blarina (Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Brant, Sara V; Ortí, Guillermo

    2002-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the three described species of short-tailed shrews (genus Blarina) were inferred based on mitochondrial DNA sequences of 16S rRNA (506 bp) and cytochrome b (1137 bp) from 38 specimens representing B. brevicauda, B. hylophaga, and B. carolinensis, from across their range in North America. Phylogenetic analyses of both data sets combined followed tests showing lack of incongruence between these fragments. Analysis of substitution patterns indicated saturation of transitions at third codon positions in cytochrome b when Blarina sequences were compared to those of Sorex and Cryptotis, used as outgroups. Maximum-likelihood and weighted parsimony supported the monophyly of the genus and placed B. hylophaga as its basal branch, sister to B. brevicauda + B. carolinensis. Phylogeographic analysis revealed a significant partition between eastern and western populations of B. carolinensis and B. brevicauda, on either side of the Mississippi basin. These results are discussed in relation to cytogenetic, morphological, and fossil data. PMID:11820838

  8. Occipital roof development in the Japanese musk shrew, Suncus murinus.

    PubMed Central

    Niida, S; Okada, N; Wakisaka, H; Miyata, K; Maeda, N

    1994-01-01

    The occipital squama of the Japanese musk shrew, Suncus murinus, consists only of membrane bone which arises from the periosteal bony band of the supraoccipital cartilage. No cartilaginous tectum posterius, generally forming the dorsal border to the foramen magnum, was found in the developing chondrocranium. Also additional intramembranous ossification centres were occasionally observed, and could be interpreted as being the primordium of the interparietal bone. These observations indicate that the membrane bone is homologous not with the interparietal bone but with the tectum posterius, i.e. the membranous supraoccipital bone. This is an instance of interchangeability between cartilage and membrane bone in a mammal. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7961150

  9. Composition and Function of Haemolymphatic Tissues in the European Common Shrew

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Daniel P.; Bennett, Malcolm; Stockley, Paula; Hurst, Jane L.; Kipar, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies of wild animals responding to their native parasites are essential if we are to understand how the immune system functions in the natural environment. While immune defence may bring increased survival, this may come at a resource cost to other physiological traits, including reproduction. Here, we tested the hypothesis that wild common shrews (Sorex araneus), which produce large numbers of offspring during the one breeding season of their short life span, forgo investment in immunity and immune system maintenance, as increased longevity is unlikely to bring further opportunities for mating. In particular, we predicted that adult shrews, with shorter expected lifespans, would not respond as effectively as young animals to infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined haemolymphatic tissues from wild-caught common shrews using light and transmission electron microscopy, applied in conjunction with immunohistology. We compared composition and function of these tissues in shrews of different ages, and the extent and type of inflammatory reactions observed in response to natural parasitic infections. All ages seemed able to mount systemic, specific immune responses, but adult shrews showed some signs of lymphatic tissue exhaustion: lymphatic follicles in adults (n = 21) were both smaller than those in sub-adults (n = 18; Wald = 11.1, p<0.05) and exhibited greater levels of depletion (Wald = 13.3, p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance Contrary to our expectations, shrews respond effectively to their natural parasites, and show little indication of immunosenescence as adults. The pancreas of Aselli, a unique lymphoid organ, may aid in providing efficient immune responses through the storage of large numbers of plasma cells. This may allow older animals to react effectively to previously encountered parasites, but infection by novel agents, and eventual depletion of plasma cell reserves, could both still be factors in the near

  10. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Jessica L; McCay, Timothy S; Garneau, Danielle E

    2012-09-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards. PMID:25379219

  11. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet

    PubMed Central

    Czajka, Jessica L.; McCay, Timothy S.; Garneau, Danielle E.

    2012-01-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards. PMID:25379219

  12. The identity of the enigmatic "Black Shrew" (Sorex niger Ord, 1815)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The scientific name Sorex niger Ord, 1815 (Mammalia, Soricidae) was originally applied to a North American species that George Ord called the “Black Shrew.” The origin of the name “Black Shrew,” however, was obscure, and Samuel Rhoads subsequently wrote that the species represented by this name could not be determined. The names Sorex niger Ord and Black Shrew have since been mostly forgotten. Two of Ord's contemporaries, however, noted that Ord's use of these names probably alluded to Benjamin Smith Barton's Black Shrew, whose discovery near Philadelphia was announced by Barton in 1806. Examination of two unpublished illustrations of the Black Shrew made by Barton indicates that the animal depicted is Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1822). Had the connection between Ord's and Barton's names been made more clearly, one of the most common mammals in eastern North America would bear a different scientific name today. This connection also would have affected the validity of Sorex niger Horsfield, 1851. While Sorex niger Ord remains a nomen nudum, the animal it referenced can now be identified.

  13. Shedding of Infectious Borna Disease Virus-1 in Living Bicolored White-Toothed Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Nobach, Daniel; Bourg, Manon; Herzog, Sibylle; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Encarnação, Jorge A.; Eickmann, Markus; Herden, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Background Many RNA viruses arise from animal reservoirs, namely bats, rodents and insectivores but mechanisms of virus maintenance and transmission still need to be addressed. The bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon) has recently been identified as reservoir of the neurotropic Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1). Principal Findings Six out of eleven wild living bicoloured white-toothed shrews were trapped and revealed to be naturally infected with BoDV-1. All shrews were monitored in captivity in a long-term study over a time period up to 600 days that differed between the individual shrews. Interestingly, all six animals showed an asymptomatic course of infection despite virus shedding via various routes indicating a highly adapted host-pathogen interaction. Infectious virus and viral RNA were demonstrated in saliva, urine, skin swabs, lacrimal fluid and faeces, both during the first 8 weeks of the investigation period and for long time shedding after more than 250 days in captivity. Conclusions The various ways of shedding ensure successful virus maintenance in the reservoir population but also transmission to accidental hosts such as horses and sheep. Naturally BoDV-1-infected living shrews serve as excellent tool to unravel host and pathogen factors responsible for persistent viral co-existence in reservoir species while maintaining their physiological integrity despite high viral load in many organ systems. PMID:26313904

  14. Attempted isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis from native shrews in northern Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, Dennis J; Summerbell, Richard; Krajden, Sigmund; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Agrawal, Bobby; Bergeson, Mitch; Fuksa, Milan; Bemis, Christina; Baumgardner, Mark A

    2005-08-01

    The precise ecological niche of Blastomyces dermatitidis is unknown. The related dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, has been isolated from South American ground-dwelling insectivorous armadillos. We attempted to isolate Blastomyces from shrews, North American ground-dwelling insectivores that have been shown to harbor Histoplasma capsulatum in endemic areas. Forty-seven masked shrews (Sorex cinereus) and 13 northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were collected in endemic areas of northern Wisconsin and Michigan using pitfall traps. Specimens were collected between 1998 and summer 2002, stored frozen, then necropsied. Cultures of nasopharynx, lungs, liver, spleen and large and small bowel were placed on yeast extract phosphate agar with one or two drops of ammonium hydroxide. Cultures for Blastomyces were negative from all 60 shrews and two deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and three southern red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi), which were trapped inadvertently. Histological examination of 36 of these specimens revealed no Blastomyces yeast forms. Northern Wisconsin shrews do not appear to be carriers of B. dermatitidis. PMID:16178369

  15. Detection of novel adenoviruses in fecal specimens from rodents and shrews in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Yan; Qiu, Min; Ke, Xue-Mei; Guan, Wei-Jie; Li, Jin-Ming; Huo, Shu-Ting; Chen, Shao-Wei; Zhong, Xue-Shan; Zhou, Wen; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ge, Jing; Chen, Qing

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of AdVs in rodents and shrews in China are still unknown. To explore the epidemiological characteristics of rodent and shrew AdVs in southern China, 255 fecal samples derived from four rodent species and 90 from shrews were collected in Xiamen and Guangzhou city of southern China. Amplification of a 314-324-bp fragment from the DNA polymerase gene of AdVs was attempted by using a nested PCR. Twenty-nine (11.4 %) specimens from rodents and one (1.1 %) specimen from shrews were tested positive for AdVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nine samples from Rattus norvegicus in Guangzhou city between 2012 and 2013 might be the genuine AdV of R. norvegicus. The same putative AdV sequences were derived from samples of different host species from different/same places. A novel adenovirus was detected in Suncus murinus Linnaeus (SML/14GDGZ72) for the first time. Our findings provide new data on the prevalence and diversity of AdVs in rodents and shrews. PMID:26980673

  16. Factors influencing the variation in capture rates of shrews in southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the temporal variation in capture rates of shrews Notiosorex crawfordi (Coues, 1877) and Sorex ornatus (Merriam, 1895) in 20 sites representing fragmented and continuous habitats in southern California, USA. In N. crawfordi, the temporal variation was significantly correlated with the mean capture rates. Of the 6 landscape variables analyzed (size of the landscape, size of the sample area, altitude, edge, longitude and latitude), sample area was positively correlated with variation in capture rates of N. crawfordi. In S. ornatus, longitude was negatively correlated with variation in capture rates. Analysis of the effect of precipitation on the short- and long-term capture rates at 2 of the sites showed no correlation between rainfall and capture rates of shrews even though peak number of shrews at both sites were reached during the year of highest amount of rainfall. A key problem confounding capture rates of shrews in southern California is the low overall abundance of both shrew species in all habitats and seasons.

  17. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions. PMID:24150169

  18. E-cadherin Surface Levels in Epithelial Growth Factor-stimulated Cells Depend on Adherens Junction Protein Shrew-1

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Julia Christina; Schreiner, Alexander; Engels, Knut

    2009-01-01

    Gain- and loss-of-function studies indicate that the adherens junction protein shrew-1 acts as a novel modulator of E-cadherin internalization induced by epithelial growth factor (EGF) or E-cadherin function-blocking antibody during epithelial cell dynamics. Knocking down shrew-1 in MCF-7 carcinoma cells preserves E-cadherin surface levels upon EGF stimulation. Overexpression of shrew-1 leads to preformation of an E-cadherin/EGF receptor (EGFR) HER2/src-kinase/shrew-1 signaling complex and accelerated E-cadherin internalization. Shrew-1 is not sufficient to stimulate E-cadherin internalization, but facilitates the actions of EGFR and thus may promote malignant progression in breast cancer cells with constitutive EGFR stimulation by reducing surface E-cadherin expression. PMID:19515834

  19. Experimental infection of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) with Coxsackie virus A16

    PubMed Central

    LI, Jian-Ping; LIAO, Yun; ZHANG, Ying; WANG, Jing-Jing; WANG, Li-Chun; FENG, Kai; LI, Qi-Han; LIU, Long-Ding

    2014-01-01

    Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) is commonly recognized as one of the main human pathogens of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). The clinical manifestations of HFMD include vesicles of hand, foot and mouth in young children and severe inflammatory CNS lesions. In this study, experimentally CA16 infected tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) were used to investigate CA16 pathogenesis. The results showed that both the body temperature and the percentages of blood neutrophilic granulocytes / monocytes of CA16 infected tree shrews increased at 4-7 days post infection. Dynamic distributions of CA16 in different tissues and stools were found at different infection stages. Moreover, the pathological changes in CNS and other organs were also observed. These findings indicate that tree shrews can be used as a viable animal model to study CA16 infection. PMID:25465084

  20. High shrew diversity on Alaska's Seward Peninsula: Community assembly and environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, 6 species of shrews (genus: Sorex) were collected at a single locality on the Seward Peninsula of Alaska. Such high sympatric diversity within a single mammalian genus is seldom realized. This phenomenon at high latitudes highlights complex Arctic community dynamics that reflect significant turnover through time as a consequence of environmental change. Each of these shrew species occupies a broad geographic distribution collectively spanning the entire Holarctic, although the study site lies within Eastern Beringia, near the periphery of all individual ranges. A review of published genetic evidence reflects a depauperate shrew community within ice-free Beringia through the last glaciation, and recent assembly of current diversity during the Holocene.

  1. The complete mitogenome of Hodgson's Red-Toothed Shrew, Episoriculus caudatus (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Changkun; Wei, Haixue; Zong, Hao; Chen, Guiying; Wang, Qiong; Yong, Bin; Chen, Shunde

    2016-05-01

    The Hodgson's Red-Toothed Shrew, Episoriculus caudatus belongs to the family Soricidae, and is widely distributed in northern South Asia, central and southern China and present in parts of northern Southeast Asia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Episoriculus caudatus was determined. The mitogenome was 17,129 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region, with a base composition of 33.1% A, 29.2% T, 24.7% C, and 13.0% G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage did not differ significantly from those of other shrews. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Hodgson's Red-Toothed Shrew, Episoriculus caudatus. PMID:25259449

  2. Early embryonic development and transplantation in tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    YAN, Lan-Zhen; SUN, Bin; LYU, Long-Bao; MA, Yu-Hua; CHEN, Jia-Qi; LIN, Qing; ZHENG, Ping; ZHAO, Xu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    As a novel experimental animal model, tree shrews have received increasing attention in recent years. Despite this, little is known in regards to the time phases of their embryonic development. In this study, surveillance systems were used to record the behavior and timing of copulations; embryos at different post-copulation stages were collected and cultured in vitro; and the developmental characteristics of both early-stage and in vitro cultured embryos were determined. A total of 163 females were collected following effective copulation, and 150 were used in either unilateral or bilateral oviduct embryo collections, with 307 embryos from 111 females obtained (conception rate=74%). Among them, 237 embryos were collected from 78 females, bilaterally, i.e., the average embryo number per female was 3.04; 172 fertilized eggs collected from 55 females, bilaterally, were cultured for 24-108 h in vitro for developmental observations; finally, 65 embryos from 23 bilateral cases and 70 embryos from 33 unilateral cases were used in embryo transplantation. PMID:27469257

  3. Asian rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Toriumi, Dean M; Pero, Colin D

    2010-04-01

    Asian rhinoplasty differs from traditional rhinoplasty approaches in preoperative analysis, patient expectations, nasal anatomy, and surgical techniques used. Platyrrhine nasal characteristics are common, with low dorsum, weak lower lateral cartilages, columellar retraction, and thick sebaceous skin often noted. Typically, patients seek augmentation of these existing structures rather than reductive procedures. Autologous cartilage, in particular use of costal cartilage, has been shown to be a reliable technique, which, when executed properly, produces excellent long-term results. An understanding of cultural perspectives, knowledge of the nasal anatomy unique to Asian patients, and proficiency with augmentation techniques are prerequisites in attaining the desired results for patient and surgeon. PMID:20206750

  4. Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2009-06-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  5. Ultrastructural localization of tyrosine hydroxylase in tree shrew nucleus accumbens core and shell

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, Lesley A.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2014-01-01

    Many behavioral, physiological, and anatomical studies utilize animal models to investigate human striatal pathologies. Although commonly used, rodent striatum may not present the optimal animal model for certain studies due to a lesser morphological complexity than that of non-human primates, which are increasingly restricted in research. As an alternative, the tree shrew could provide a beneficial animal model for studies of the striatum. The gross morphology of the tree shrew striatum resembles that of primates, with separation of the caudate and putamen by the internal capsule. The neurochemical anatomy of the ventral striatum, specifically the nucleus accumbens, has never been examined. This major region of the limbic system plays a role in normal physiological functioning and is also an area of interest for human striatal disorders. The current study uses immunohistochemistry of calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to determine the ultrastructural organization of the nucleus accumbens core and shell of the tree shrew (Tupaia glis belangeri). Stereology was used to quantify the ultrastructural localization of TH, which displays weaker immunoreactivity in the core and denser immunoreactivity in the shell. In both regions, synapses with TH-immunoreactive axon terminals were primarily symmetric and showed no preference for targeting dendrites versus dendritic spines. The results were compared to previous ultrastructural studies of TH and dopamine in rat and monkey nucleus accumbens. Tree shrew and monkey show no preference for the postsynaptic target in the shell, in contrast to rats which show a preference for synapsing with dendrites. Tree shrews have a ratio of asymmetric to symmetric synapses formed by TH-immunoreactive terminals that is intermediate between rats and monkey. The findings from this study support the tree shrew as an alternative model for studies of human striatal pathologies. PMID:24769226

  6. The complete mitogenome of Stripe-Backed Shrew, Sorex cylindricauda (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shunde; Tu, Feiyun; Zhang, Xiuyue; Li, Wei; Chen, Guiying; Zong, Hao; Wang, Qiong

    2015-06-01

    The Stripe-Backed Shrew, Sorex cylindricauda belongs to the family Soricidae, and distributes in northwestern Yunnan, central Sichuan, southern Gansu and Shaanxi. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of S. cylindricauda was determined. The mitogenome is 17,191 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region, with a base composition of 33.2% A, 30.2% T, 23.8% C and 12.8% G. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Stripe-Backed Shrew Sorex cylindricauda. PMID:24409903

  7. New records of Merriam’s Shrew (Sorex merriami) from western North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    M. J.Shaughnessy Jr.; Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Despite having a broad geographic distribution, Merriam's Shrew (Sorex merriami Dobson 1890) is known from a relatively few, widely-scattered localities. In North Dakota, the species was known from only a single poorly-preserved specimen collected in 1913 near Medora. We recently collected two new specimens of Merriam's Shrew from Billings and McKenzie counties in the western quarter of the state. These specimens confirm the presence of S. merriami in North Dakota and better define the northeastern edge of the species' distribution.

  8. [Cloning of full-length coding sequence of tree shrew CD4 and prediction of its molecular characteristics].

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei-Wei; Gao, Yue-Dong; Guo, Yan; Huang, Jing-Fei; Xiao, Chang; Li, Zuo-Sheng; Zhang, Hua-Tang

    2012-02-01

    The tree shrews, as an ideal animal model receiving extensive attentions to human disease research, demands essential research tools, in particular cellular markers and monoclonal antibodies for immunological studies. In this paper, a 1 365 bp of the full-length CD4 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from total RNA in peripheral blood of tree shrews, the sequence completes two unknown fragment gaps of tree shrews predicted CD4 cDNA in the GenBank database, and its molecular characteristics were analyzed compared with other mammals by using biology software such as Clustal W2.0 and so forth. The results showed that the extracellular and intracellular domains of tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence are conserved. The tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence showed a close genetic relationship with Homo sapiens and Macaca mulatta. Most regions of the tree shrews CD4 molecule surface showed positive charges as humans. However, compared with CD4 extracellular domain D1 of human, CD4 D1 surface of tree shrews showed more negative charges, and more two N-glycosylation sites, which may affect antibody binding. This study provides a theoretical basis for the preparation and functional studies of CD4 monoclonal antibody. PMID:22345010

  9. Short-lived mammals (shrew, mouse) have a less robust metal-responsive transcription factor than humans and bats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katharina; Steiner, Kurt; Petrov, Boyan; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Non-essential "heavy" metals such as cadmium tend to accumulate in an organism and thus are a particular threat for long-lived animals. Here we show that two unrelated, short-lived groups of mammals (rodents and shrews, separated by 100 Mio years of evolution) each have independently acquired mutations in their metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1) in a domain relevant for robust transcriptional induction by zinc and cadmium. While key amino acids are mutated in rodents, in shrews an entire exon is skipped. Rodents and especially shrews are unique regarding the alterations of this region. To investigate the biological relevance of these alterations, MTF-1s from the common shrew (Sorex araneus), the mouse, humans and a bat (Myotis blythii), were tested by cotransfection with a reporter gene into cells lacking MTF-1. Whereas shrews only live for 1.5-2.5 years, bats, although living on a very similar insect diet, have a lifespan of several decades. We find that bat MTF-1 is similarly metal-responsive as its human counterpart, while shrew MTF-1 is less responsive, similar to mouse MTF-1. We propose that in comparison to most other mammals, the short-lived shrews and rodents can afford a "lower-quality" system for heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification. PMID:27067444

  10. The Bicolored White-Toothed Shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) Is an Indigenous Host of Mammalian Borna Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV. PMID:24699636

  11. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, A.G.; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, V.B.; Goropashnaya, A.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, V.B.; Goropashnaya, A.V.; Talbot, Sandra; Cook, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes.

  13. Chronic clomipramine treatment reverses core symptom of depression in subordinate tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Chai, Anping; Zhou, Qixin; Lv, Longbao; Wang, Liping; Yang, Yuexiong; Xu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference), unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression. PMID:24312510

  14. Ultrastructure of the stomach of the small short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda c.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J; Keith, J C

    1985-07-01

    The normal gastric ultrastructure has been characterized for the small short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda c., which is a primitive eutherian and one of the smallest living mammals with extraordinarily high metabolic rate. In general the cell types present and cytologic character of gastric mucosal, submucosal, and muscularis cells were similar to that reported for other more advanced small mammalian species. Chief cells, endocrine cells, and lamina proprial elements were morphologically identical to their counterpart in rats, ferrets and other small carnivores. Distinctive cytologic features in this species of shrew included the scanty monolayer or small number of mucous granules in the simple columnar surface epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the thin elongated shape of their microvilli. Dense bodies were absent in the parietal cell mitochondria of the shrew, though usually abundant in other mammalian parietal cells. Our data indicate few morphologic specializations in the shrew stomach which can be correlated with their high rate of food assimilation and metabolic demands, though future studies of mucosal biochemistry and lower gut morphology may reveal such adaptations. PMID:4020920

  15. Olfactory mucosa ultrastructure in the short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda and Blarina carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Byrum, L J; Carson, K A; Rose, R K

    2001-12-01

    The olfactory mucosae of the northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda, and the southern short-tailed shrew, Blarina carolinensis, were examined by light and electron microscopy. A well-developed olfactory epithelium was observed that included all of the cells necessary to provide for a sensitive olfactory system, suggesting that olfaction plays a major role in the behavior of these animals. There were no significant differences between the olfactory mucosae of these two species. The general features of the olfactory epithelium in these shrews were similar to those reported for several other macrosmatic mammals. A new type of supporting cell, called the light supporting cell, was observed in these shrews. The light supporting cell cytoplasm exhibited very little staining by light microscopy and had low electron density by transmission electron microscopy compared to that of the more common dark supporting cell. The light supporting cell had a convex apical surface with microvilli and lacked the large amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) typical of the apical cytoplasm of the dark supporting cell. In the lamina propria of the mucosa, the Bowman's glands consisted of two cell types, one with electron-lucent, alcian blue-positive granules, and the other with electron-dense PAS-positive granules. The cell with electron-lucent granules contained large amounts of SER and small clumps of rough ER. The cells with electron-dense granules had large amounts of RER and little SER. PMID:12221510

  16. Phenotypic flexibility in the energetic strategy of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio G; Tapisso, Joaquim T; Monarca, Rita I; Cerveira, Ana M; Mathias, Maria L

    2016-02-01

    The balance between energetic acquisition and expenditure depends on the amount of energy allocated to biological functions such as thermoregulation, growth, reproduction and behavior. Ambient temperature has a profound effect on this balance, with species inhabiting colder climates often needing to invest more energy in thermoregulation to maintain body temperature. This leads to local behavioral and physiological adaptations that increase energetic efficiency. In this study, we investigated the role of activity, behavior and thermogenic capacity in the ability of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, to cope with seasonal changes. Individuals were captured in the Sintra-Cascais Natural Park, a Mediterranean region, and separated into three experimental groups: a control group, acclimated to a 12L:12D photoperiod and temperature of 18-20°C; a winter group, acclimatized to natural winter fluctuations of light and temperature; and a summer group, acclimatized to natural summer fluctuations of light and temperature. No differences were found in resting metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis between the three groups. However, winter shrews significantly reduced their activity, particularly at night, compared to the control and summer groups. Differences in torpor use were also found between groups, with winter shrews entering torpor more frequently and during shorter periods of time than summer and control shrews. Our results indicate C. russula from Sintra relies on the flexibility of energy saving mechanisms, namely daily activity level and torpor use, to cope with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean climate, rather than mechanisms involving body heat production. PMID:26857972

  17. The neurobiology and behavior of the American water shrew (Sorex palustris).

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-06-01

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that dive into streams and ponds to find prey at night. They do not use eyesight for capturing fish or for discriminating shapes. Instead they make use of vibrissae to detect and attack water movements generated by active prey and to detect the form of stationary prey. Tactile investigations are supplemented with underwater sniffing. This remarkable behavior consists of exhalation of air bubbles that spread onto objects and are then re-inhaled. Recordings for ultrasound both above and below water provide no evidence for echolocation or sonar, and presentation of electric fields and anatomical investigations provide no evidence for electroreception. Counts of myelinated fibers show by far the largest volume of sensory information comes from the trigeminal nerve compared to optic and cochlear nerves. This is in turn reflected in the organization of the water shrew's neocortex, which contains two large somatosensory areas and much smaller visual and auditory areas. The shrew's small brain with few cortical areas may allow exceptional speed in processing sensory information and producing motor output. Water shrews can accurately attack the source of a water disturbance in only 50 ms, perhaps outpacing any other mammalian predator. PMID:23397460

  18. Water balance and kidney function in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David L; Newland, Stacy

    2004-09-01

    We assessed renal function in least shrews (Cryptotis parva, body mass 4.7 g) within the context of overall water balance. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of shrews with unlimited food and water was 2.4 ml/h, about 60% of the rate predicted from body mass. Of this, about 3% (0.075 ml/h) was excreted as urine with an osmolality of 1944 mmol/kg, 5.5 times plasma osmolality. Shrews had a total water turnover (5 ml/day) two to three times higher than expected from allometry for a small mammal of this size. Water influx was partitioned among preformed water from food (65%), drinking (16%), and metabolic water (20%). Water efflux was divided among urine flow (35%), fecal water loss (estimated as 23%), and evaporation (by difference, 42%). Least shrews had a high water turnover rate and relatively high urine flow rate (UFR); this likely reflects a combination of factors, including high metabolism, active lifestyle, and wet diet. PMID:15471683

  19. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Hope, Andrew G; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, Vadim B; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Talbot, Sandra L; Cook, Joseph A

    2011-10-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes. PMID:21919986

  20. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Liu-lin; Chen, Zhi-wei; Wang, Ting-hua

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promote in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 μg/L) to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, fluorescence microscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews. PMID:27212919

  1. High activity of the stress promoter contributes to susceptibility to stress in the tree shrew.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Sun, Yun-Jun; Lv, Yan-Hong; Ni, Rong-Jun; Shu, Yu-Mian; Feng, Xiu-Yu; Wang, Yu; Shan, Qing-Hong; Zu, Ya-Nan; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Stress is increasingly present in everyday life in our fast-paced society and involved in the pathogenesis of many psychiatric diseases. Corticotrophin-releasing-hormone (CRH) plays a pivotal role in regulating the stress responses. The tree shrews are highly vulnerable to stress which makes them the promising animal models for studying stress responses. However, the mechanisms underlying their high stress-susceptibility remained unknown. Here we confirmed that cortisol was the dominate corticosteroid in tree shrew and was significantly increased after acute stress. Our study showed that the function of tree shrew CRH - hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was nearly identical to human that contributed little to their hyper-responsiveness to stress. Using CRH transcriptional regulation analysis we discovered a peculiar active glucocorticoid receptor response element (aGRE) site within the tree shrew CRH promoter, which continued to recruit co-activators including SRC-1 (steroid receptor co-activator-1) to promote CRH transcription under basal or forskolin/dexamethasone treatment conditions. Basal CRH mRNA increased when the aGRE was knocked into the CRH promoter in human HeLa cells using CAS9/CRISPR. The aGRE functioned critically to form the "Stress promoter" that contributed to the higher CRH expression and susceptibility to stress. These findings implicated novel molecular bases of the stress-related diseases in specific populations. PMID:27125313

  2. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  3. "The Taming of the Shrew." A Play Packet To Accompany "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engen, Barbara; Campbell, Joy

    Intended for use by elementary school teachers as a supplement to the book, "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare," or for use by itself to produce one Shakespeare play, this play packet contains ready-to-reproduce materials for the production of "The Taming of the Shrew." Materials include: staging suggestions for scenery, props, lighting, and…

  4. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Liu-Lin; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promote in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 μg/L) to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, fluorescence microscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews. PMID:27212919

  5. Multilocus phylogeography and systematic revision of North American water shrews (genus: Sorex)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Panter, Nicholas; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Nagorsen, David W.

    2014-01-01

    North American water shrews, which have traditionally included Sorex alaskanus, S. bendirii, and S. palustris, are widely distributed through Nearctic boreal forests and adapted for life in semiaquatic environments. Molecular mitochondrial signatures for these species have recorded an evolutionary history with variable levels of regional divergence, suggesting a strong role of Quaternary environmental change in speciation processes. We expanded molecular analyses, including more-comprehensive rangewide sampling of specimens representing North American water shrew taxa, except S. alaskanus, and sequencing of 4 independent loci from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We investigated relative divergence of insular populations along the North Pacific Coast, and newly recognized diversity from southwestern montane locations, potentially representing refugial isolates. Congruent independent genealogies, lack of definitive evidence for contemporary gene flow, and high support from coalescent species trees indicated differentiation of 4 major geographic lineages over multiple glacial cycles of the late Quaternary, similar to a growing number of boreal taxa. Limited divergence of insular populations suggested colonization following the last glacial. Characterization of southwestern montane diversity will require further sampling but divergence over multiple loci is indicative of a relictual sky-island fauna. We have reviewed and revised North American water shrew taxonomy including the recognition of 3 species within what was previously known as S. palustris. The possibility of gene flow between most distantly related North American water shrew lineages coupled with unresolved early diversification of this group and other sibling species reflects a complex but potentially productive system for investigating speciation processes.

  6. High activity of the stress promoter contributes to susceptibility to stress in the tree shrew

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Sun, Yun-Jun; Lv, Yan-Hong; Ni, Rong-Jun; Shu, Yu-Mian; Feng, Xiu-Yu; Wang, Yu; Shan, Qing-Hong; Zu, Ya-Nan; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Stress is increasingly present in everyday life in our fast-paced society and involved in the pathogenesis of many psychiatric diseases. Corticotrophin-releasing-hormone (CRH) plays a pivotal role in regulating the stress responses. The tree shrews are highly vulnerable to stress which makes them the promising animal models for studying stress responses. However, the mechanisms underlying their high stress-susceptibility remained unknown. Here we confirmed that cortisol was the dominate corticosteroid in tree shrew and was significantly increased after acute stress. Our study showed that the function of tree shrew CRH - hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was nearly identical to human that contributed little to their hyper-responsiveness to stress. Using CRH transcriptional regulation analysis we discovered a peculiar active glucocorticoid receptor response element (aGRE) site within the tree shrew CRH promoter, which continued to recruit co-activators including SRC-1 (steroid receptor co-activator-1) to promote CRH transcription under basal or forskolin/dexamethasone treatment conditions. Basal CRH mRNA increased when the aGRE was knocked into the CRH promoter in human HeLa cells using CAS9/CRISPR. The aGRE functioned critically to form the “Stress promoter” that contributed to the higher CRH expression and susceptibility to stress. These findings implicated novel molecular bases of the stress-related diseases in specific populations. PMID:27125313

  7. Generation and characterization of a breast carcinoma model by PyMT overexpression in mammary epithelial cells of tree shrew, an animal close to primates in evolution.

    PubMed

    Ge, Guang-Zhe; Xia, Hou-Jun; He, Bao-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Liu, Wen-Jing; Shao, Ming; Wang, Chun-Yan; Xiao, Ji; Ge, Fei; Li, Fu-Bing; Li, Yi; Chen, Ceshi

    2016-02-01

    The tree shrew is becoming an attractive experimental animal model for human breast cancer owing to a closer relationship to primates/humans than rodents. Tree shrews are superior to classical primates because tree shrew are easier to manipulate, maintain and propagate. It is required to establish a high-efficiency tree shrew breast cancer model for etiological research and drug assessment. Our previous studies suggest that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) induce breast tumors in tree shrews with a low frequency (<50%) and long latency (∼ 7-month), making these methods less than ideal. We induced mammary tumors in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) by injection of lentivirus expressing the PyMT oncogene into mammary ducts of 22 animals. Most tree shrews developed mammary tumors with a latency of about three weeks, and by 7 weeks all injected tree shrews had developed mammary tumors. Among these, papillary carcinoma is the predominant tumor type. One case showed lymph node and lung metastasis. Interestingly, the expression levels of phosphorylated AKT, ERK and STAT3 were elevated in 41-68% of PyMT-induced mammary tumors, but not all tumors. Finally, we observed that the growth of PyMT-induced tree shrew mammary tumors was significantly inhibited by Cisplatin and Epidoxorubicin. PyMT-induced tree shrew mammary tumor model may be suitable for further breast cancer research and drug development, due to its high efficiency and short latency. PMID:26296387

  8. Tree shrew as a new animal model for the study of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    YE, LIANHUA; HE, MENG; HUANG, YUNCHAO; ZHAO, GUANGQIANG; LEI, YUJIE; ZHOU, YONGCHUN; CHEN, XIAOBO

    2016-01-01

    Animal models play a key role in identifying treatments for various types of cancer, including lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to develop a new animal model for lung cancer induction using tree shrews from the Yunnan region in China. Tree shrews are suitable for a full simulation of human disease because their structure, function and metabolism are adequately close to human. This animal may offer a new experimental animal model to be used in the study of lung cancer. In the present study, 80 healthy tree shrews were distributed in experimental and control groups. Animals in the experimental group received different concentrations of iodized oil suspension of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN) while animals in the control groups received saline or lipiodol solvent via endotracheal instillation. In the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and 11th weeks the body weights of the animals were measured and chest X-ray examinations were conducted. Pathological studies on the lung tissues were also performed and the pathological changes occurring in bronchial epithelium in all the groups were examined. Animals in the experimental group gradually lost their body weight. For tree shrews in the blank control and solvent control groups the survival rates were 100 and 80%, respectively while the survival rate for the experimental group was 0%. Results from the chest X-ray conducted on animals in the blank control and solvent control groups revealed no obvious abnormalities while in the experimental group high-density shadow spots within the perfusion sites were observed. Pathological studies performed on these high-density areas confirmed changes in the bronchial epithelium. In the experimental groups we also detected bronchial epithelial atypical hyperplasia, and apparent changes in carcinoma in situ. In conclusion, lung cancer was successfully induced in tree shrews by a one-time endotracheal introduction of iodized oil suspension of 3-MC and DEN. PMID

  9. The crouching of the shrew: Mechanical consequences of limb posture in small mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Corinne J.; Hermanson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    An important trend in the early evolution of mammals was the shift from a sprawling stance, whereby the legs are held in a more abducted position, to a parasagittal one, in which the legs extend more downward. After that transition, many mammals shifted from a crouching stance to a more upright one. It is hypothesized that one consequence of these transitions was a decrease in the total mechanical power required for locomotion, because side-to-side accelerations of the body have become smaller, and thus less costly with changes in limb orientation. To test this hypothesis we compared the kinetics of locomotion in two mammals of body size close to those of early mammals (< 40 g), both with parasagittally oriented limbs: a crouching shrew (Blarina brevicauda; 5 animals, 17 trials) and a more upright vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus; 4 animals, 22 trials). As predicted, voles used less mechanical power per unit body mass to perform steady locomotion than shrews did (P = 0.03). However, while lateral forces were indeed smaller in voles (15.6 ± 2.0% body weight) than in shrews (26.4 ± 10.9%; P = 0.046), the power used to move the body from side-to-side was negligible, making up less than 5% of total power in both shrews and voles. The most power consumed for both species was that used to accelerate the body in the direction of travel, and this was much larger for shrews than for voles (P = 0.01). We conclude that side-to-side accelerations are negligible for small mammals–whether crouching or more upright–compared to their sprawling ancestors, and that a more upright posture further decreases the cost of locomotion compared to crouching by helping to maintain the body’s momentum in the direction of travel. PMID:27413633

  10. The crouching of the shrew: Mechanical consequences of limb posture in small mammals.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Daniel K; Kendall, Corinne J; Hermanson, John W

    2016-01-01

    An important trend in the early evolution of mammals was the shift from a sprawling stance, whereby the legs are held in a more abducted position, to a parasagittal one, in which the legs extend more downward. After that transition, many mammals shifted from a crouching stance to a more upright one. It is hypothesized that one consequence of these transitions was a decrease in the total mechanical power required for locomotion, because side-to-side accelerations of the body have become smaller, and thus less costly with changes in limb orientation. To test this hypothesis we compared the kinetics of locomotion in two mammals of body size close to those of early mammals (< 40 g), both with parasagittally oriented limbs: a crouching shrew (Blarina brevicauda; 5 animals, 17 trials) and a more upright vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus; 4 animals, 22 trials). As predicted, voles used less mechanical power per unit body mass to perform steady locomotion than shrews did (P = 0.03). However, while lateral forces were indeed smaller in voles (15.6 ± 2.0% body weight) than in shrews (26.4 ± 10.9%; P = 0.046), the power used to move the body from side-to-side was negligible, making up less than 5% of total power in both shrews and voles. The most power consumed for both species was that used to accelerate the body in the direction of travel, and this was much larger for shrews than for voles (P = 0.01). We conclude that side-to-side accelerations are negligible for small mammals-whether crouching or more upright-compared to their sprawling ancestors, and that a more upright posture further decreases the cost of locomotion compared to crouching by helping to maintain the body's momentum in the direction of travel. PMID:27413633

  11. Profile: Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... the visibility of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islander health issues. Overview (Demographics): This racial group ... White population. Selected Data by Disease/Condition Asian/Pacific Islanders and Asthma . Asian/Pacific Islanders and Cancer . ...

  12. Obesity and Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... related diseases see: Diabetes – See Diabetes and Asians/Pacific Islanders Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Asians/Pacific Islanders Stroke – See Stroke and Asians/Pacific Islanders ...

  13. Molecular Detection and Phylogenetic Characteristics of Herpesviruses in Rectal Swab Samples from Rodents and Shrews in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Yan; Qiu, Min; Ke, Xue-Mei; Zhou, Wen; Guan, Wei-Jie; Chen, Shao-Wei; Li, Jin-Ming; Huo, Shu-Ting; Chen, Hui-Fang; Jiang, Li-Na; Zhong, Xue-Shan; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ma, Shu-Juan; Ge, Jing; Chen, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Herpesviruses (HVs) can cause asymptomatic, benign, or fatal infections in a variety of animal species. However, the prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of HVs in rodents and shrews in China are poorly understood. We thus performed a molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of rat and shrew HVs in southern China between 2012 and 2014. Seventeen (6.7%) of 255 rectal swab specimens from rats and six (6.7%) of 90 rectal swab specimens from shrews tested positive for HVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that rodent and shrew HVs detected in this study were species specific, clustering in the Betaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae clade. Novel Macavirus was detected in Rattus norvegicus (RN/13YX52/24 and RN/14HC50) and gammaherpesviruses in Suncus murinus (SM/14BY7/16/20/97/99/106).These findings have contributed to our understanding of the taxonomy, phylogeny, and biology of HVs. PMID:27171015

  14. Isolation and identification of symbiotic bacteria from the skin, mouth, and rectum of wild and captive tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    LI, Gui; LAI, Ren; DUAN, Gang; LIU, Long-Bao; ZHANG, Zhi-Ye; LIU, Huang; XIANG, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Endosymbionts influence many aspects of their hosts’ health conditions, including physiology, development, immunity, metabolism, etc. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses due to their close relationship with primates. To clarify the situation of symbiotic bacteria from their body surface, oral cavity, and anus, 12 wild and 12 the third generation of captive tree shrews were examined. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as the 16S rDNA full sequence analysis, 12 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from the wild tree shrews: body surface: Bacillus subtilis (detection rate 42%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Staphlococcus aureus (33%), S. Epidermidis (75%), Micrococcus luteus (25%), Kurthia gibsonii (17%); oral cavity: Neisseria mucosa (58%), Streptococcus pneumonia (17%); anus: Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Lactococus lactis (33%), Escherichia coli (92%), Salmonella typhosa (17%); whereas, four were indentified from the third generation captive tree shrews: body surface: S. epidermidis (75%); oral cavity: N.mucosa (67%); anus: L. lactis (33%), E. coli (100%). These results indicate that S. epidermidis, N. mucosa, L. lactis and E. coli were major bacteria in tree shrews, whereas, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. gibsonii, E. faecalis and S. typhosa were species-specific flora. This study facilitates the future use of tree shrews as a standard experimental animal and improves our understanding of the relationship between endosymbionts and their hosts. PMID:25465085

  15. Isolation and identification of symbiotic bacteria from the skin, mouth, and rectum of wild and captive tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui; Lai, Ren; Duan, Gang; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Ye; Liu, Huang; Xiang, Xun

    2014-11-18

    Endosymbionts influence many aspects of their hosts' health conditions, including physiology, development, immunity, metabolism, etc. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses due to their close relationship with primates. To clarify the situation of symbiotic bacteria from their body surface, oral cavity, and anus, 12 wild and 12 the third generation of captive tree shrews were examined. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as the 16S rDNA full sequence analysis, 12 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from the wild tree shrews: body surface: Bacillus subtilis (detection rate 42%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Staphlococcus aureus (33%), S. Epidermidis (75%), Micrococcus luteus (25%), Kurthia gibsonii (17%); oral cavity: Neisseria mucosa (58%), Streptococcus pneumonia (17%); anus: Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Lactococus lactis (33%), Escherichia coli (92%), Salmonella typhosa (17%); whereas, four were indentified from the third generation captive tree shrews: body surface: S. epidermidis (75%); oral cavity: N.mucosa (67%); anus: L. lactis (33%), E. coli (100%). These results indicate that S. epidermidis, N. mucosa, L. lactis and E. coli were major bacteria in tree shrews, whereas, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. gibsonii, E. faecalis and S. typhosa were species-specific flora. This study facilitates the future use of tree shrews as a standard experimental animal and improves our understanding of the relationship between endosymbionts and their hosts. PMID:25465085

  16. Vocal development during postnatal growth and ear morphology in a shrew that generates seismic vibrations, Diplomesodon pulchellum.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Alexandra S; Volodin, Ilya A; Mason, Matthew J; Frey, Roland; Fritsch, Guido; Ilchenko, Olga G; Volodina, Elena V

    2015-09-01

    The ability of adult and subadult piebald shrews (Diplomesodon pulchellum) to produce 160Hz seismic waves is potentially reflected in their vocal ontogeny and ear morphology. In this study, the ontogeny of call variables and body traits was examined in 11 litters of piebald shrews, in two-day intervals from birth to 22 days (subadult), and ear structure was investigated in two specimens using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Across ages, the call fundamental frequency (f0) was stable in squeaks and clicks and increased steadily in screeches, representing an unusual, non-descending ontogenetic pathway of f0. The rate of the deep sinusoidal modulation (pulse rate) of screeches increased from 75Hz at 3-4 days to 138Hz at 21-22 days, probably relating to ontogenetic changes in contraction rates of the same muscles which are responsible for generating seismic vibrations. The ear reconstructions revealed that the morphologies of the middle and inner ears of the piebald shrew are very similar to those of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens), which are not known to produce seismic signals. These results suggest that piebald shrews use a mechanism other than hearing for perceiving seismic vibrations. PMID:26112702

  17. Binding sites of atrial natriuretic peptide in tree shrew adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, E.; Shigematsu, K.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Adrenal gland binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126) (ANP) were quantitated in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) by incubation of adrenal sections with (3-(/sup 125/I)-iodotyrosyl28) atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126), followed by autoradiography with computerized microdensitometry. In the adrenal glands, there are three types of ANP binding sites. One is located in the zona glomerulosa (BMax 84 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein; Kd 122 +/- 9 pM); the second in the zona fasciculata and reticularis (BMax 29 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein; Kd 153 +/- 6 pM) and the third in the adrenal medulla (BMax 179 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein; Kd 70 +/- 2 pM). Besides the influence of ANP on the regulation of adrenocortical mineralcorticoid and glucocorticoid secretion our findings raise the possibility for a local site of action of atrial natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adrenomedullary catecholamines in the tree shrew, primates and man.

  18. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis) from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunzhu; Zhao, Shuai; Wu, Hualin; Wu, Shengyang; Zhang, Zhongwen; Wang, Bo; Dou, Huashan

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis) was determined using long PCR. The genome was 17,444 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 23 transfer RNA genes, 1 origin of L strand replication and 1 control region. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A (32.9%), C (24.8%), T (29.0%), and G (13.3%). The base compositions present clearly the A-T skew, which is most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of tundra shrew. Mitochondrial genome analyses based on MP, ML, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees. The three Sorex species formed a monophyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100 %) in all examinations. PMID:25812054

  19. High density lipoproteins and prevention of experimental atherosclerosis with special reference to tree shrews.

    PubMed

    She, M P; Xia, R Y; Ran, B F; Wong, Z L

    1990-01-01

    According to data obtained from epidemiological and experimental survey, serum HDL level is known to be correlated conversely with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Experimental data collected in this article explained part of its mechanism, which is described in four parts as follows: 1. The result of 3 successive experiments on experimental atherosclerosis in tree shrews (total of 96 animals available including 40 as the controls) showed that the serum HDL level had been kept persistantly to 69-88% of the total serum lipoproteins even after a high cholesterol intake for 32 weeks. The incidence of atheromatous lesions developed was only 0-9%, but the incidence of gall stone was very high, 48-84% by gross examination by the end of these experiments. 2. HDL are also capable of (1) promotion of monocyte migration activity; (2) enhancement of cholesterol clearance rate of aortic smooth muscle cells originally isolated from either rabbits or tree shrews; (3) inhibition of 20% of LDL degradation but with no inhibitory effect obtained on Ac-LDL degradation in the endothelial cells; (4) presence of specific binding sites for apo E free HDL on the surface of aortic smooth muscle cells from either rabbits or tree shrews which recognizes apo A1 as a ligand. 3. Data from 2 successive experiments in rabbits showed that HDL lipoproteins (mainly apo A1) possess an inhibitory effect on the development of atheromatous plaques, but not a very strong one. 4. The colesterol clearance effect of smooth muscle cells was markedly enhanced by apo A1/phospholipid liposomes (the apo A1 used was isolated from either rabbit's or tree shrew's serum) in vitro. PMID:2123379

  20. Housing supply and residential segregation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Vang, Zoua M

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the role of housing supply in ethnic diversity and the residential segregation of Asian, African and eastern European immigrants from Irish nationals in Ireland. Housing supply is defined as the proportions of new housing, private rental accommodation and social housing among all housing units in an electoral district. Multivariate regressions reveal that, among all three housing supply variables, the proportion of private rentals had the largest effect on ethnic diversity and immigrant— Irish segregation. Areas with higher proportions of private rental units were more ethnically diverse, had greater presences of Africans, Asians and eastern Europeans (as opposed to high concentrations of Irish nationals) and exhibited greater integration between each of the three immigrant groups and Irish nationals. The article concludes with a discussion of immigrant assimilation and questions whether the patterns of residential integration observed would further facilitate other forms of social inclusion for immigrants in Irish society. PMID:21114091

  1. Two bacterial infection models in tree shrew for evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-An; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2012-02-01

    Animal models are essential for the development of new anti-infectious drugs. Although some bacterial infection models have been established in rodents, small primate models are rare. Here, we report on two bacterial infection models established in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). A burnt skin infection model was induced by dropping 5×10(6) CFU of Staphylococcus aureus on the surface of a wound after a third degree burn. This dose of S. aureus caused persistent infection for 7 days and obvious inflammatory response was observed 4 days after inoculation. A Dacron graft infection model, 2×10(6) CFU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa also caused persistent infection for 6 days, with large amounts of pus observed 3 days after inoculation. These models were used to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin (LEV) and cefoperazone (CPZ), which reduced the viable bacteria in skin to 4log10 and 5log10 CFU/100 mg tissue, respectively. The number of bacteria in graft was significantly reduced by 4log10 CFU/mL treatment compared to the untreated group (P<0.05). These results suggest that two bacterial infection models were successfully established in tree shrew using P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. In addition, tree shrew was susceptible to P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, thus making it an ideal bacterial infection animal model for the evaluation of new antimicrobials. PMID:22345001

  2. How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Gündüz, Islam; Fredga, Karl; Searle, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to how Ireland attained its present fauna; we help to inform this debate with a molecular study of one species. A 1110 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in 74 specimens of the pygmy shrew, Sorex minutus, collected from throughout its western Palaearctic range. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed several well-supported lineages. Most of the 65 haplotypes belonged to a northern lineage, which ranged from Britain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. The other lineages were largely limited to Iberia, Italy and the Balkans. One exception, however, was a lineage found in both Ireland and Andorra. This affinity, and the large difference between the mitochondrial sequences of Irish and British individuals, suggest that pygmy shrews did not colonize Ireland via a land connection from Britain, as has been previously supposed, but instead were introduced by boat from southwest continental Europe. All the Irish pygmy shrews analysed were identical or very similar in cytochrome b sequence, suggesting an extreme founding event. PMID:12908980

  3. Cardiac ultrastructure and electrocardiogram of the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J; Keith, J C

    1993-10-01

    The smaller species of shrews have been of considerable interest to scientists because of their high rate of metabolism, structure-functional and behavioral adaptations to support their energy demands. The present data are the first detailed cardiac ultrastructural findings and electrocardiographic (ECG) data of adult and immature small short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda. The heart is morphologically elongated and heart rates in excess of 900 b/min were observed, but ECG components and pattern are non-distinctive for this species. Ultrastructurally, the sarcomeres, tubular and sarcotubular systems and Purkinje cells resemble closely those observed in larger, less active mammals. Several distinctive features resembling those seen in some other shrews or hummingbirds exist, including reduced quantities of myocyte glycogen, irregularly shaped and tightly packed mitochondria, increased neural and vascular elements in the myocardium, and small size and unusual dispersion of atrial specific granules. These morphologic findings suggest that the remarkable physiologic performance of the heart of Blarina brevicauda is supported by a combination of macroscopic, histologic and cellular adaptations. PMID:8269404

  4. Pulmonary appendix of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina): a unique immunologic organ.

    PubMed

    Parke, Wesley Wilkin

    2002-03-01

    The right bronchus of the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda, terminates in a nonrespiratory pulmonary appendix (PA) containing two bronchial extensions. The experimentally demonstrated ability of these structures to collect and peristaltically expel aspirated material was initially assumed to be a sufficient reason for their developmental persistence, but as bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) became a subject of immunologic interest in other species, a possible immunologic role for the concentrations of BALT observed in the shrew PA were investigated. As the BALT of the PA contained many well-differentiated plasma cells and numerous particle-containing macrophages, 6-mu paraffin sections were treated with an immunoperoxidase avidin-biotin preparation that chromogenically identified alpha chains of IgA in many of the PA plasma cells and their associated luminal secretions. Also, vascular injections revealed that the PA had a complex relationship with anastomotic sinusoids connecting the bronchial and pulmonary circulation systems, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the luminal epithelial surfaces of the PA were virtually identical to the scattered BALT aggregates in the bronchi of other animals. It thus appeared that these unique structures in the shrew are morphologically and topographically suited to receive aspirated antigens that induce secretory IgA production, while possibly providing other humoral and cellular immunologic products to the general circulation. PMID:11870601

  5. Evidence for gene flow in parasitic nematodes between two host species of shrews.

    PubMed

    Brant, Sara V; Ortí, Guillermo

    2003-10-01

    We describe the genetic structure of populations of the intestinal nematode Longistriata caudabullata (Trichostrongyloidea: Heligmosomidae), a common parasite of short-tailed shrews (genus Blarina, Insectivora: Soricidae). Parasites and hosts were collected from a transect across a contact zone between two species of hosts, Blarina brevicauda and B. hylophaga, in central North America. An 800-base pairs (bp) fragment of the ND4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene was sequenced for 28 worms and a 783-bp fragment of the mtDNA control region was analysed for 16 shrews. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences revealed reciprocal monophyly for the shrew species, concordant with morphological diagnosis, and supported the idea that the transect cuts through a secondary contact zone between well-differentiated B. brevicauda and B. hylophaga. In contrast to this pattern, the parasitic nematode mtDNA phylogeny was not subdivided according to host affiliation. Genealogical discordance between parasite and host phylogenies suggests extensive gene flow among parasites across the host species boundary. PMID:12969487

  6. Tree shrew lavatories: a novel nitrogen sequestration strategy in a tropical pitcher plant.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Charles M; Bauer, Ulrike; Lee, Ch'ien C; Tuen, Andrew A; Rembold, Katja; Moran, Jonathan A

    2009-10-23

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are typically carnivorous, producing pitchers with varying combinations of epicuticular wax crystals, viscoelastic fluids and slippery peristomes to trap arthropod prey, especially ants. However, ant densities are low in tropical montane habitats, thereby limiting the potential benefits of the carnivorous syndrome. Nepenthes lowii, a montane species from Borneo, produces two types of pitchers that differ greatly in form and function. Pitchers produced by immature plants conform to the 'typical' Nepenthes pattern, catching arthropod prey. However, pitchers produced by mature N. lowii plants lack the features associated with carnivory and are instead visited by tree shrews, which defaecate into them after feeding on exudates that accumulate on the pitcher lid. We tested the hypothesis that tree shrew faeces represent a significant nitrogen (N) source for N. lowii, finding that it accounts for between 57 and 100 per cent of foliar N in mature N. lowii plants. Thus, N. lowii employs a diversified N sequestration strategy, gaining access to a N source that is not available to sympatric congeners. The interaction between N. lowii and tree shrews appears to be a mutualism based on the exchange of food sources that are scarce in their montane habitat. PMID:19515656

  7. Tree shrew lavatories: a novel nitrogen sequestration strategy in a tropical pitcher plant

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Charles M.; Bauer, Ulrike; Lee, Ch'ien C.; Tuen, Andrew A.; Rembold, Katja; Moran, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are typically carnivorous, producing pitchers with varying combinations of epicuticular wax crystals, viscoelastic fluids and slippery peristomes to trap arthropod prey, especially ants. However, ant densities are low in tropical montane habitats, thereby limiting the potential benefits of the carnivorous syndrome. Nepenthes lowii, a montane species from Borneo, produces two types of pitchers that differ greatly in form and function. Pitchers produced by immature plants conform to the ‘typical’ Nepenthes pattern, catching arthropod prey. However, pitchers produced by mature N. lowii plants lack the features associated with carnivory and are instead visited by tree shrews, which defaecate into them after feeding on exudates that accumulate on the pitcher lid. We tested the hypothesis that tree shrew faeces represent a significant nitrogen (N) source for N. lowii, finding that it accounts for between 57 and 100 per cent of foliar N in mature N. lowii plants. Thus, N. lowii employs a diversified N sequestration strategy, gaining access to a N source that is not available to sympatric congeners. The interaction between N. lowii and tree shrews appears to be a mutualism based on the exchange of food sources that are scarce in their montane habitat. PMID:19515656

  8. Acoustic features to arousal and identity in disturbance calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Schehka, Simone; Zimmermann, Elke

    2009-11-01

    Across mammalian species, comparable morphological and physiological constraints in the production of airborne vocalisations are suggested to lead to commonalities in the vocal conveyance of acoustic features to specific attributes of callers, such as arousal and individual identity. To explore this hypothesis we examined intra- and interindividual acoustic variation in chatter calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). The calls were induced experimentally by a disturbance paradigm and related to two defined arousal states of a subject. The arousal state of an animal was primarily operationalised by the habituation of the subject to a new environment and additionally determined by behavioural indicators of stress in tree shrews (tail-position and piloerection). We investigated whether the arousal state and indexical features of the caller, namely individual identity and sex, are conveyed acoustically. Frame-by-frame videographic and multiparametric sound analyses revealed that arousal and identity, but not sex of a caller reliably predicted spectral-temporal variation in sound structure. Furthermore, there was no effect of age or body weight on individual-specific acoustic features. Similar results in another call type of tree shrews and comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence that comparable physiological and morphological constraints in the production of airborne vocalisations across mammals lead to commonalities in acoustic features conveying arousal and identity, respectively. PMID:19445967

  9. Daily metabolic patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic, continuous-flow gas analysis system was used to determine daily metabolic patterns of individual short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes in eastern Tennessee. Average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) were lowest in the summer (0.426 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/), approximately doubled under winter conditions (0.810 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) but were the highest under fall conditions (1.110 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) possibly due to incomplete acclimatization of the shrews. The shape of the daily metabolic pattern for Blarina does not change seasonally; however, summer metabolic rates are the least variable and are lower than most values previously reported in the literature. Polynomial multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of body mass, ambient temperature, and time of day on metabolic rates; only ambient temperature was significant in predicting metabolic rates of this shrew. Average daily metabolic rates of Blarina observed under summer and winter conditions further substantiate the general predictive equations of metabolic rates formulated for small mammals by French et al. (1976). Comparisons of metabolic patterns of Blarina with those of Peromyscus leucopus observed under nearly identical conditions indicate similar rates with strong seasonal influences.

  10. [Some physiological and biochemical indicators of underyearling Laxman's shrews (Sorex cecutiens Laxmann) and even-toothed shrews (Sorex isodon Turov) under conditions of different population densities].

    PubMed

    Kiselev, S V; Lazutkin, A N; Yamborko, A V

    2013-01-01

    Based on the results of a study conducted in 2006-2010 in the Buyunda River basin (a feeder of the Kolyma River), the influence of the population density of common shrews (Sorex) on some of the physiological and biochemical parameters (glycogen and lipids in the liver, the relative weight of the spleen, the white and brown adipose tissue cellularity of bone and brain tissue) was investigated. The content of energy reserve substances was correlated with the number of animals (fat deposits had a negative correlation; the glycogen content in the liver had a direct correlation). For the rest of the physiological-biochemical parameters, no significant correlation with the population density was detected, although for the content of brown fat and cellularity of bone marrow tissue in Sorex isodon, as well as the relative weight of the spleen in both species of shrews, a trend was observed. We suggest that the identified physiological changes indicate irregular feeding of animals in years with higher population densities. PMID:24459854

  11. Asians, Asian-Americans and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R C; Nagoshi, C T

    1990-01-01

    The association of flushing (vasodilation, reddening of the skin) with the alcohol use of Asians and Asian-Americans is examined. Historical changes in alcohol use, recent secular changes in alcohol use, and marked differences in consumption among Asian populations and among Asian-Americans of the same national origins, as well as the lack of reduction of sex differences among flushers, indicate that flushing has little influence on alcohol consumption. Social, psychological, and cultural influences seem to be more adequate explanatory devices with regard to Oriental alcohol use. PMID:2182805

  12. Development and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew, Sorex ugyunak (Mammalia: Sorcidae), through next-generation sequencing, and cross-species amplification in the masked shrew, S. cinereus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Sage, G.K.; Fowler, M.; Hope, A.G.; Cook, J.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    We used next generation shotgun sequencing to develop 21 novel microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew (Sorex ugyunak), which were polymorphic among individuals from northern Alaska. The loci displayed moderate allelic diversity (averaging 6.81 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 70 %). Two loci deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) due to heterozygote deficiency. While the population did not deviate from HWE overall, it showed significant linkage disequilibrium suggesting this population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. Nineteen of 21 loci were polymorphic in masked shrews (S. cinereus) from interior Alaska and exhibited linkage equilibrium and HWE overall. All loci yielded sufficient variability for use in population studies.

  13. Establishment of the Tree Shrew as an Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver Model for the Study of Alcoholic Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Huijie; Jia, Kun; He, Jun; Shi, Changzheng; Fang, Meixia; Song, Linliang; Zhang, Pu; Zhao, Yue; Fu, Jiangnan; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs) is not clear. As a result, there is no effective treatment for ALDs. One limitation is the lack of a suitable animal model for use in studying ALDs. The tree shrew is a lower primate animal, characterized by a high-alcohol diet. This work aimed to establish a fatty liver model using tree shrews and to assess the animals’ suitability for the study of ALDs. Tree shrews were treated with alcohol solutions (10% and 20%) for two weeks. Hemophysiology, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolic enzymes and hepatic pathology were checked and assayed with an automatic biochemical analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and oil red O staining, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the normal group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly enhanced in alcohol-treated tree shrews. However, the activity of reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined. Notable changes in alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH1), aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH2), CYP2E1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were observed. HE and oil red O staining showed that hepatocyte swelling, hydropic degeneration, and adipohepatic syndrome occurred in the tree shrews. Alcohol can induce fatty liver-like pathological changes and result in alterations in liver function, oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolism enzymes and Nrf2. Therefore, the established fatty liver model of tree shrews induced by alcohol should be a promising tool for the study of ALDs. PMID:26030870

  14. Localization of dopamine receptors in the tree shrew brain using [3H]-SCH23390 and [125I]-epidepride.

    PubMed

    Mijnster, M J; Isovich, E; Flügge, G; Fuchs, E

    1999-09-11

    The tree shrew is a mammalian species, which is phylogenetically related to insectivores and primates. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of dopamine receptor D1- and D2-like binding sites in the brain of this non-rodent, non-primate mammal. Using in vitro autoradiography and employing the radioligands [3H]-SCH23390 and [125I]-epidepride, dopamine receptors were mapped and quantified. Significant findings with regard to the D1-like binding pattern include the presence of a "patchy" binding in the striatum. In the cortex, D1-like binding sites were observed in both the superficial and the deep layers. In the hippocampal formation, D1-like binding sites were seen primarily in the CAI region and not in the dentate gyrus. These characteristics of the D1 pattern in the tree shrew brain are shared by cat and monkey and human brain, but not by rodent brain. Significant findings with regard to the D2-like binding pattern include the presence of D2-like binding in the claustrum. In addition, the striatum demonstrated "patchy" D2-like binding. These characteristics of the D2 pattern in the tree shrew brain are shared by cat and monkey and human brain, but not by rodent brain. On the other hand, the significant densities of D2-like binding sites in the glomerular layer of the tree shrew olfactory bulb is a finding that discriminates tree shrews from higher evolutionary species who lack such binding. Overall, the evidence coincides with the view that tree shrews are phylogenetically related to primates. PMID:10546993

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection of Tree Shrews Differs from That of Mice in the Severity of Acute Infection and Viral Transcription in the Peripheral Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihong; Li, Zhuoran; Wang, Erlin; Yang, Rui; Xiao, Yu; Han, Hongbo; Lang, Fengchao; Li, Xin; Xia, Yujie; Gao, Feng; Li, Qihan; Fraser, Nigel W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of humans are limited by the use of rodent models such as mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) are small mammals indigenous to southwest Asia. At behavioral, anatomical, genomic, and evolutionary levels, tree shrews are much closer to primates than rodents are, and tree shrews are susceptible to HSV infection. Thus, we have studied herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection in the tree shrew trigeminal ganglion (TG) following ocular inoculation. In situ hybridization, PCR, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses confirm that HSV-1 latently infects neurons of the TG. When explant cocultivation of trigeminal ganglia was performed, the virus was recovered after 5 days of cocultivation with high efficiency. Swabbing the corneas of latently infected tree shrews revealed that tree shrews shed virus spontaneously at low frequencies. However, tree shrews differ significantly from mice in the expression of key HSV-1 genes, including ICP0, ICP4, and latency-associated transcript (LAT). In acutely infected tree shrew TGs, no level of ICP4 was observed, suggesting the absence of infection or a very weak, acute infection compared to that of the mouse. Immunofluorescence staining with ICP4 monoclonal antibody, and immunohistochemistry detection by HSV-1 polyclonal antibodies, showed a lack of viral proteins in tree shrew TGs during both acute and latent phases of infection. Cultivation of supernatant from homogenized, acutely infected TGs with RS1 cells also exhibited an absence of infectious HSV-1 from tree shrew TGs. We conclude that the tree shrew has an undetectable, or a much weaker, acute infection in the TGs. Interestingly, compared to mice, tree shrew TGs express high levels of ICP0 transcript in addition to LAT during latency. However, the ICP0 transcript remained nuclear, and no ICP0 protein could be seen during the course of mouse and tree shrew TG

  16. Asian American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.

    The sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of all Asian American communities since 1950 have been greatly influenced by federal immigration legislation, and it is not possible to consider the field of Asian American studies without an understanding of the history of immigration legislation. Asian American research may be divided into…

  17. A new species of small-eared shrew from Colombia and Venezuela (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Genus Cryptotis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of small-eared shrews inhabiting the northern Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and adjoining Venezuelan highlands in the vicinity of Paramo de Tama have been referred alternatively to Cryptotis thomssi or Cryptotis meridensis. Morphological and morphometrical study of this population indicates that it belongs to neither taxon, but represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species. I describe this new species as Cryptotis tamensis and redescribe C. meridensis. Recognition of the population at Paramo de Tama as a separate taxon calls into question the identities of populations of shrews currently represented only by single specimens from Cerro Pintado in the Sierra de Perija, Colombia, and near El Junquito in the coastal highlands of Venezuela.

  18. Demographic responses of shrews to removal of coarse woody debris in a managed pine forest.

    SciTech Connect

    McCay, Timothy, S.; Komoroski, Mark, J.

    2004-01-01

    McCay, T.S., and M.J. Komoroski. 2004. Demographic responses of shrews to removal of coarse woody debris in a managed pine forest. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 189:387-395. We trapped shrews at six 9.3 ha plots from which logs ý 10 cm diameter (coarse woody debris; CWD) had been manually removed and six control plots inmanaged loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests of the southeastern coastal plain, USA. Trapping was conducted seasonally between autumn 1997 and summer 2001. Capture rates of Cryptotis parva were lower at plots from which CWD was removed than at control plots (P ¡ 0ý011) and declined at all plots over the study period (P ¡ 0ý001). Capture rates of Blarina carolinensis (P ¡ 0ý129) and Sorex longirostris (P ¡ 0ý432) did not differ between removal and control plots, but declined over the study period (P ¡ 0ý001). Age distributions of B. carolinensis differed between removal and control plots (P ¡ 0ý048) with a smaller proportion of individuals in young age categories at removal plots. Sensitivity of Cryptotis to the removal of CWD may have been due to its sociality or low population density at the study area. A reduction in the abundance of young B. carolinensis after removal of CWD may reflect reduced reproduction and immigration of older individuals from outside the plot. Effect of removal of CWD on populations of these shrews was relatively weak compared to strong seasonal and multi-year variation in abundance. However, weak treatment effects may have been partly due to low ambient levels of CWD at control plots.

  19. Effect of PAHs on MFO induction in common shrews (Crocidura russula)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosveld, A.T.C.; Bie, P. de; Weggemans, J.; Murk, A.

    1995-12-31

    PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants. Despite the relatively high turnover rates for enzymatic breakdown, PAHs have been detected in tissues from species at various trophic levels. As a consequence they have the potential to be passed on to the higher levels of the foodchain. As a model for the primary carnivores in the terrestrial foodchain the common shrew (Crocidura russula) is studied in the laboratories. The authors investigated the effect of exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in relation to the effect of a known strong inducer of the MFO system i.e. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The compounds were dissolved in oil and mixed with food. Shrews were exposed for a period of one week to BaP at concentrations equivalent to 10 or 100 mg/kg bodyweight per day (n = 3 for each dose group) and to TCDD at a concentration equivalent to 10 {micro}g/kg per day (n = 5). Controls received a diet with only the carier (oil) added. At termination of the experiment, hepatic CYP1A1 associated EROD activity was induced 20% in both the low and high dosed BaP group. In the TCDD exposed shrews EROD was induced up to 776% compared to the controls. Related MFO activities, including PROD, BROD, MROD and site specific testosterone hydroxylation are under investigation and the results will be presented. The relevance of MFO induction by PAHs and the use of these parameters as biomarkers for PAH exposure will be discussed.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Gracile shrew mole, Uropsilus gracilis (Soricomorpha: Talpidae).

    PubMed

    Tu, Feiyun; Fan, Zhenxin; Chen, Shunde; Yin, Yonghua; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xiuyue; Liu, Shaoying; Yue, Bisong

    2012-10-01

    The Gracile shrew mole (Uropsilus gracilis) belongs to the family Talpidae, which distributes in southwestern China, extending to northern Myanmar. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of U. gracilis was sequenced. It was determined to be of 16,533 bases. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of U. gracilis and other 12 insectivores were used for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, which showed that U. gracilis was clustered together with U. soricipes, and Urotrichus should be prior to Galemys. PMID:22920311

  1. [Contribution to the cytotaxonomy of shrews (Mammalia, Insectivora) from West Africa].

    PubMed

    Meylan, A; Vogel, P

    1982-01-01

    Chromosomes analysis of 28 shrews belonging to the genus Crocidura from West Africa allowed the detection of five new karyotypes: C. wimmeri (2n = 50, NF = 84), C. cf. gracilipes (56/86), C. cf. nimbae (46/68), and C. cf. planiceps (44/72). Among the individuals identified morphologically as C. poensis (52/70) a distinct species was recognized on the basis of its chromosome complement, C. nigeriae (50/76). The karyotype of C. occidentalis was confirmed with the study of another subspecies, C. occidentalis manni (50/66). An identical chromosome set characterizes C. odorata giffardi and provides evidence for its relationship with C. occidentalis. PMID:7151493

  2. Body temperature and behavior of tree shrews and flying squirrels in a thermal gradient.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, R

    1998-02-15

    The daily rhythms of body temperature, temperature selection, and locomotor activity of tree shrews and flying squirrels were studied in a thermal gradient. In accordance with previous observations in other mammalian species, the rhythm of temperature selection was found to be 180 degrees out of phase with the body temperature rhythm in both species. Comparison of the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm in the presence and absence of the ambient temperature gradient indicated that behavioral temperature selection reduces the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm. This provides support for the hypothesis that the homeostatic control of body temperature opposes-rather than facilitates-the circadian oscillation in body temperature. PMID:9523893

  3. Historic Houses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret historic houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)

  4. Inference Based on Transitive Relation in Tree Shrews ("Tupaia belangeri") and Rats ("Rattus norvegicus") on a Spatial Discrimination Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ushitani, Tomokazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Six tree shrews and 8 rats were tested for their ability to infer transitively in a spatial discrimination task. The apparatus was a semicircular radial-arm maze with 8 arms labeled A through H. In Experiment 1, the animals were first trained in sequence on 4 discriminations to enter 1 of the paired adjacent arms, AB, BC, CD, and DE, with right…

  5. Trap geometry in three giant montane pitcher plant species from Borneo is a function of tree shrew body size.

    PubMed

    Chin, Lijin; Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles

    2010-04-01

    *Three Bornean pitcher plant species, Nepenthes lowii, N. rajah and N. macrophylla, produce modified pitchers that 'capture' tree shrew faeces for nutritional benefit. Tree shrews (Tupaia montana) feed on exudates produced by glands on the inner surfaces of the pitcher lids and defecate into the pitchers. *Here, we tested the hypothesis that pitcher geometry in these species is related to tree shrew body size by comparing the pitcher characteristics with those of five other 'typical' (arthropod-trapping) Nepenthes species. *We found that only pitchers with large orifices and lids that are concave, elongated and oriented approximately at right angles to the orifice capture faeces. The distance from the tree shrews' food source (that is, the lid nectar glands) to the front of the pitcher orifice precisely matches the head plus body length of T. montana in the faeces-trapping species, and is a function of orifice size and the angle of lid reflexion. *Substantial changes to nutrient acquisition strategies in carnivorous plants may occur through simple modifications to trap geometry. This extraordinary plant-animal interaction adds to a growing body of evidence that Nepenthes represents a candidate model for adaptive radiation with regard to nitrogen sequestration strategies. PMID:20100203

  6. Identification and characterization of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Yu, Dandan; Wu, Yong; Xu, Ling; Fan, Yu; Peng, Li; Xu, Min; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-07-01

    In mammals, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. Comparison of the TLRs in different mammals may help in understanding the TLR-mediated responses and developing of animal models and efficient therapeutic measures for infectious diseases. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small mammal with a close relationship to primates, is a viable experimental animal for studying viral and bacterial infections. In this study, we characterized the TLRs genes (tTLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew and identified 13 putative TLRs, which are orthologs of mammalian TLR1-TLR9 and TLR11-TLR13, and TLR10 was a pseudogene in tree shrew. Positive selection analyses using the Maximum likelihood (ML) method showed that tTLR8 and tTLR9 were under positive selection, which might be associated with the adaptation to the pathogen challenge. The mRNA expression levels of tTLRs presented an overall low and tissue-specific pattern, and were significantly upregulated upon Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. tTLR4 and tTLR9 underwent alternative splicing, which leads to different transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis and TLR structure prediction indicated that tTLRs were evolutionarily conserved, which might reflect an ancient mechanism and structure in the innate immune response system. Taken together, TLRs had both conserved and unique features in the Chinese tree shrew. PMID:26923770

  7. Plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue and brain distribution of cisplatin in musk shrews

    PubMed Central

    Eiseman, Julie L.; Beumer, Jan H.; Rigatti, Lora H.; Strychor, Sandra; Meyers, Kelly; Dienel, Samuel; Horn, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cisplatin induces nausea and emesis, even with antiemetic supportive care. To assess platinum exposure, which could activate nausea and emesis, we quantitated platinum in the brain and various organs, and hindbrain and spinal cord substance P, a key neuropeptide for the neuronal signaling of nausea and emesis. Methods Musk shrews, a model species for nausea and emesis research, were dosed intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg cisplatin and euthanized at up to 72 h after injection. Concentrations of platinum were quantitated in plasma ultrafiltrate, plasma, lung, kidney, combined forebrain and midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Hindbrains and spinal cords were analyzed for substance P by immunohistochemistry after injection of 20 or 30 mg/kg. Results Plasma ultrafilterable platinum concentrations decreased rapidly till 60 min after dosing and then more slowly by 24 h. The concentrations of total platinum in both the fore- and midbrain and the hindbrain were similar at all time points and were at least 20-fold lower than plasma total platinum concentrations. There were no significant changes in substance P immunoreactivity after cisplatin dosing. Histology revealed damage to the renal cortex by 72 h after injection of cisplatin. Conclusions This is the first study to examine platinum concentrations in musk shrews after administration of cisplatin, and delineate substance P immunohistochemical staining in the hindbrain and spinal cord of this species. The platinum concentrations detected in the brain could potentially contribute to the neurological side effects of cisplatin, such as nausea and emesis. PMID:25398697

  8. Angioarchitecture of the coeliac sympathetic ganglion complex in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis)

    PubMed Central

    PROMWIKORN, WARAPORN; THONGPILA, SAKPORN; PRADIDARCHEEP, WISUIT; MINGSAKUL, THAWORN; CHUNHABUNDIT, PANJIT; SOMANA, REON

    1998-01-01

    The angioarchitecture of the coeliac sympathetic ganglion complex (CGC) of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was studied by the vascular corrosion cast technique in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy. The CGC of the tree shrew was found to be a highly vascularised organ. It normally received arterial blood supply from branches of the inferior phrenic, superior suprarenal and inferior suprarenal arteries and of the abdominal aorta. In some animals, its blood supply was also derived from branches of the middle suprarenal arteries, coeliac artery, superior mesenteric artery and lumbar arteries. These arteries penetrated the ganglion at variable points and in slightly different patterns. They gave off peripheral branches to form a subcapsular capillary plexus while their main trunks traversed deeply into the inner part before branching into the densely packed intraganglionic capillary networks. The capillaries merged to form venules before draining into collecting veins at the peripheral region of the ganglion complex. Finally, the veins coursed to the dorsal aspect of the ganglion to drain into the renal and inferior phrenic veins and the inferior vena cava. The capillaries on the coeliac ganglion complex do not possess fenestrations. PMID:9877296

  9. Vampire bat, shrew, and bear: comparative physiology and chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michael A

    2002-06-01

    In the typical mammal, energy flux, protein metabolism, and renal excretory processes constitute a set of closely linked and quantitatively matched functions. However, this matching has limits, and these limits become apparent when animals adapt to unusual circumstances. The vampire bat and shrew have an extremely high protein intake, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is not commensurate with the large urea load to be excreted. The vampire bat is chronically azotemic (blood urea concentration 27-57 mmol/l); yet there is no information as to how this animal has adjusted to such an azotemic internal environment. A high protein intake should also lead to chronic glomerular hyperfiltration; yet neither animal appears to develop progressive renal failure. The American black bear, on the other hand, has adapted to a prolonged period without intake or urine output. Despite continued amino acid catabolism with urea production, this mammal is able to completely salvage and reutilize urea nitrogen for protein synthesis, although the signals that initiate this metabolic adaptation are not known. The vampire bat, shrew, and bear are natural models adapted to circumstances analogous to chronic renal failure. Unraveling these adaptations could lead to new interventions for the prevention/treatment of chronic renal failure. PMID:12010738

  10. Demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Rudy; Bowman, Lanna

    2003-06-01

    In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River (MA, USA) on soils contaminated with a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (1.5-38.3 ppm). The objective of the study was to assess whether PCBs adversely affect the population demography of these small mammals living in their natural environment. Blarina were selected for study because they would be expected to readily bioaccumulate PCBs from the soil. Populations were intensively live trapped on 1-ha grids from spring to autumn 2001. There was no relationship between any demographic parameter and PCB soil concentrations. Densities were high (usually exceeding 20/ha, and on two grids exceeded 60/ha in summer); survival was good (typically 60-75% per 30 d); and sex ratio, reproduction rates, growth rates, and body mass were within the ranges reported in the literature. Thus, these shrew populations showed no detectable impact on their population demography from living on PCB-contaminated sites. PMID:12785599

  11. Ultrastructure of geniculocortical synaptic connections in the tree shrew striate cortex.

    PubMed

    Familtsev, Dmitry; Quiggins, Ranida; Masterson, Sean P; Dang, Wenhao; Slusarczyk, Arkadiusz S; Petry, Heywood M; Bickford, Martha E

    2016-04-15

    To determine whether thalamocortical synaptic circuits differ across cortical areas, we examined the ultrastructure of geniculocortical terminals in the tree shrew striate cortex to compare directly the characteristics of these terminals with those of pulvinocortical terminals (examined previously in the temporal cortex of the same species; Chomsung et al. [] Cereb Cortex 20:997-1011). Tree shrews are considered to represent a prototype of early prosimian primates but are unique in that sublaminae of striate cortex layer IV respond preferentially to light onset (IVa) or offset (IVb). We examined geniculocortical inputs to these two sublayers labeled by tracer or virus injections or an antibody against the type 2 vesicular glutamate antibody (vGLUT2). We found that layer IV geniculocortical terminals, as well as their postsynaptic targets, were significantly larger than pulvinocortical terminals and their postsynaptic targets. In addition, we found that 9-10% of geniculocortical terminals in each sublamina contacted GABAergic interneurons, whereas pulvinocortical terminals were not found to contact any interneurons. Moreover, we found that the majority of geniculocortical terminals in both IVa and IVb contained dendritic protrusions, whereas pulvinocortical terminals do not contain these structures. Finally, we found that synaptopodin, a protein uniquely associated with the spine apparatus, and telencephalin (TLCN, or intercellular adhesion molecule type 5), a protein associated with maturation of dendritic spines, are largely excluded from geniculocortical recipient layers of the striate cortex. Together our results suggest major differences in the synaptic organization of thalamocortical pathways in striate and extrastriate areas. PMID:26399201

  12. Size evolution in Goodwin?s small-eared shrew, Cryptotis goodwini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2005-01-01

    Fossils of Cryptotis goodwini from Honduras indicate that body sizes of modern individuals average at least 18% larger than among members of the late Pleistocene population of this species. Palynological and other paleoenvironmental studies provide evidence that the Neotropical montane environments that these shrews inhabit were cooler and drier in the late Pleistocene than at present and supported communities of plants without modern analog. Therefore, the most likely cause of this change in size ultimately was related to climatic change at the end of the Pleistocene?but to what specific factors did the species respond? I examined the possibilities that this species changed in size: to accommodate a change in temperature regime; to escape from predators; as a response to a change in intensity of interspecific competition; to take advantage of a newly abundant food resource. Based on evidence from studies of modern communities of shrews and niche partitioning, I hypothesized that size evolution in C. goodwini was directly related to changes in the community of soil and soil-surface invertebrates upon which the species depends, specifically an increase in the availability of earthworms (Annelida).

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Elkrief, Laurent; Casanova, Christian; Bouchard, Jean-François; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is widely expressed in various parts of the central nervous system, including the retina. The localization of the key eCB receptors, particularly CB1R and CB2R, has been recently reported in rodent and primate retinas with striking interspecies differences. Little is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well-preserved among these species. However, expression of NAPE-PLD is circumscribed to the photoreceptor layer only in monkeys. In contrast, CB2R expression is variable across these species; in mice, CB2R is found in retinal neurons but not in glial cells; in tree shrews, CB2R is expressed in Müller cell processes of the outer retina and in retinal neurons of the inner retina; in monkeys, CB2R is restricted to Müller cells. Finally, the expression patterns of MAGL and DAGLα are differently expressed across species. Overall, these results provide evidence that the eCB system is differently expressed in the retina of these mammals and suggest a distinctive role of eCBs in visual processing. PMID:26977322

  14. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Elkrief, Laurent; Casanova, Christian; Bouchard, Jean-François; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is widely expressed in various parts of the central nervous system, including the retina. The localization of the key eCB receptors, particularly CB1R and CB2R, has been recently reported in rodent and primate retinas with striking interspecies differences. Little is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well-preserved among these species. However, expression of NAPE-PLD is circumscribed to the photoreceptor layer only in monkeys. In contrast, CB2R expression is variable across these species; in mice, CB2R is found in retinal neurons but not in glial cells; in tree shrews, CB2R is expressed in Müller cell processes of the outer retina and in retinal neurons of the inner retina; in monkeys, CB2R is restricted to Müller cells. Finally, the expression patterns of MAGL and DAGLα are differently expressed across species. Overall, these results provide evidence that the eCB system is differently expressed in the retina of these mammals and suggest a distinctive role of eCBs in visual processing. PMID:26977322

  15. [Cellular aspects of aging in the pineal gland of the shrew, Crocidura russula].

    PubMed

    Dekar-Madoui, Aicha; Besseau, Laurence; Magnanou, Elodie; Fons, Roger; Ouali, Saliha; Bendjelloul, Mounira; Falcon, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The Greater White-toothed shrew Crocidura russula is short-lived species and the phase of senescence is greatly elongated in captivity. The loss of rhythmicity of biological functions that accompanies its aging is also well documented. C. russula is thus an excellent model to test the effects of aging on biological clocks. Melatonin is a key hormone in the synchronization of behaviors, metabolisms and physiological regulations with environmental factors. In the present work we want to know if the loss of rhythmicity and the reduced melatonin levels registered by the second year of life in this species could be associated to modified ultrastructural features of the pineal parenchyma, site of melatonin synthesis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of young (1-4 months) and old (25-28 months) shrew's pineals show that in older individuals, the parenchyma undergoes alterations affecting mainly nucleus, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, with increased numbers of dense bodies and the formation of many concretions as well as a depletion of secretory products. These changes suggest a process of slowing pinealocytes metabolism which could explain the gradual reduction of melatonin levels registered during aging in C. russula. PMID:22226159

  16. Colonization of Ireland: revisiting ‘the pygmy shrew syndrome' using mitochondrial, Y chromosomal and microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, A D; Vega, R; Rambau, R V; Yannic, G; Herman, J S; Hayden, T J; Searle, J B

    2011-01-01

    There is great uncertainty about how Ireland attained its current fauna and flora. Long-distance human-mediated colonization from southwestern Europe has been seen as a possible way that Ireland obtained many of its species; however, Britain has (surprisingly) been neglected as a source area for Ireland. The pygmy shrew has long been considered an illustrative model species, such that the uncertainty of the Irish colonization process has been dubbed ‘the pygmy shrew syndrome'. Here, we used new genetic data consisting of 218 cytochrome (cyt) b sequences, 153 control region sequences, 17 Y-intron sequences and 335 microsatellite multilocus genotypes to distinguish between four possible hypotheses for the colonization of the British Isles, formulated in the context of previously published data. Cyt b sequences from western Europe were basal to those found in Ireland, but also to those found in the periphery of Britain and several offshore islands. Although the central cyt b haplotype in Ireland was found in northern Spain, we argue that it most likely occurred in Britain also, from where the pygmy shrew colonized Ireland as a human introduction during the Holocene. Y-intron and microsatellite data are consistent with this hypothesis, and the biological traits and distributional data of pygmy shrews argue against long-distance colonization from Spain. The compact starburst of the Irish cyt b expansion and the low genetic diversity across all markers strongly suggests a recent colonization. This detailed molecular study of the pygmy shrew provides a new perspective on an old colonization question. PMID:21673740

  17. Whole-brain mapping of afferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rong-Jun; Luo, Peng-Hao; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. The cytoarchitecture of the BST in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. However, the inputs to the BST have not been described in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the BST throughout the brain of tree shrews using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). The present results provide the first detailed whole-brain mapping of BST-projecting neurons in the tree shrew brain. The BST was densely innervated by the prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, ventral subiculum, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and parabrachial nucleus. Moreover, moderate projections to the BST originated from the medial preoptic area, supramammillary nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Afferent projections to the BST are identified in the ventral pallidum, nucleus of the diagonal band, ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior complex of the thalamus, interfascicular nucleus, retrorubral field, rhabdoid nucleus, intermediate reticular nucleus, and parvicellular reticular nucleus. In addition, the different densities of BST-projecting neurons in various regions were analyzed in the tree shrew brains. In summary, whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to the BST is delineated in tree shrews. These brain circuits are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes including stress, reward, food intake, and arousal. PMID:27436534

  18. Modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in Rhine-delta floodplains.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A J; Ma, W C; Brouns, J J; de Ruiter-Dijkman, E M; Gast, R

    1995-07-01

    In the Rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. To investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (Crocidura russula, Sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. Chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil organic matter, whereas ratios for other organochlorines varied between 0.87 and 8.8. These ratios are one order of magnitude lower than expected from laboratory experiments with earthworms, and laboratory and field studies on aquatic invertebrates. Bioconcentration ratios for heavy metals are in accordance with literature values for other locations, confirming the high potential for cadmium accumulation in Lumbricidae. Concentrations of organochlorines in shrew liver lipids were 1.0 to 13 times the residues in earthworm fat. These values are higher than lipid-corrected biomagnification ratios for laboratory rodents, but equal to those measured for benthivorous birds in the Rhine-delta. On a dry weight basis, kidney-earthworm ratios for cadmium were about one order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for insectivores. Soil concentrations of many compounds in both floodplains did not meet Dutch quality standards. Yet, hexachlorobenzene, chlorobiphenyl 153 (PCB153), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, sigma DDT, and dieldrin residues in earthworms and shrews did not exceed diet levels expected to be safe for endothermic species. An exception was noted for cadmium in worms and shrew kidneys. Heavy metal pollution in soil was close to levels that are critical to earthworms in laboratory studies. Cadmium concentrations in shrew kidneys were below levels suggested to be safe for Sorex araneus, but above those that were critical to the rat. PMID:7794009

  19. [Involvement of the common shrew, Sorex araneus (Insectivora, Soricidae), in circulation of the tick-borne encephalitis virus in south-western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Bakhvalova, V N; Morozova, O V; Dobrotvorskiĭ, A K; Panov, V V; Matveeva, V A; Popova, R V; Korobova, S A

    2001-01-01

    We presented the data on the abundance of immature instars of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus Schuize on the common shrews Sorex araneus L. in natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis in the south of Western Siberia. Basing on the results of virological and serological studies we demonstrated a low effectiveness of this host species as a donor of disease agent strains, which are predominant in the territory under study, for ticks feeding on shrews. The analysis of samples taken from the young shrews in winter and spring using reverse RNA transcription with polymerase chain reaction and ELISA revealed occurRence of subvirion components of the tick-borne encephalitis (RNA and capsid protein E) ether in brain, liver or spleen in 90 percent of shrews (n = 42). Neither hemagglutination antigen nor infectious virus have been detected. We discussed a possible epizootic role of the maintenance of non-infectious tick-borne encephalitis virus in overwintering animals. PMID:11871252

  20. Asian American Women: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yung, Judy, Comp.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Listed in this bibliography are materials available on Asian American women at the Asian Community Library (Oakland Public Library) and the Asian American Studies Library (University of California, Berkeley). (Author/EB)

  1. Battery housing

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, N. G.

    1985-03-19

    The present invention comprises a battery housing suitable for holding a battery which may generate a dangerously high level of internal pressure. The housing includes a receptacle having a vent passage covered by a rupture disc, the rupture disc in turn covered by a diffuser head having a longitudinal bore therein extending from the rupture disc to a blind end, the bore being traversed by at least one lateral passage leading to the exterior of the housing. Upon reaching a predetermined internal pressure level, the rupture disc ruptures and vents the interior of the housing safely to the exterior through the lateral passage.

  2. Cortical connections of striate and extrastriate visual areas in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Lyon, D C; Jain, N; Kaas, J H

    1998-11-01

    The ipsilateral and contralateral cortical connections of visual cortex of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) were investigated by placing restricted injections of fluorochrome tracers, wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase, or biotinylated dextran amine into area 17 (V1), area 18 (V2), or the adjoining temporal dorsal area (TD). As previously reported, V1 was characterized by a widespread, patchy pattern of intrinsic connections; ipsilateral connections with V2, TD, and to a lesser extent, other areas of the temporal cortex; and contralateral connections with V1, V2, and TD. A surface-view of the myelin pattern in V1 revealed a patchwork of light and dark module-like regions. The ipsilateral connections with V2 and TD were roughly topographic, whereas heterotopic locations in V1 were callosally connected. Injections in V2 labeled as much as one third of V2 in a patchy pattern, and portions of ipsilateral V1 and TD in roughly topographic patterns. In addition, connections with several other visual areas in the temporal lobe were revealed. Contralaterally, most of the label was in V2, with some in V1 and TD. Injections in TD demonstrated connections within the region, and with adjoining portions of the temporal cortex, V2, and V1. There were sparse connections with an oval of densely myelinated cortex, which we have termed the temporal inferior area (TI). Callosal connections were concentrated in TD, but also included V2. The results provide further evidence for modular organizations within V1 and V2, and reveal for the first time the complete patterns of cortical connections of V2 and TD. The results are consistent with the proposal that at least three visual areas, the temporal anterior area, TA, the temporal dorsal area, TD, and the temporal posterior area, TP, exist along the rostrolateral border of V2 in tree shrews; suggest visual involvement of at least three other areas, the temporal inferior area, TI, the temporal anterior lateral area, and the temporal

  3. Emerging Asian Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  4. Asian Resources for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, C. Bobbie

    1992-01-01

    Cites a number of resources available to teachers to use in teaching about Asian Pacific Rim cultures. Includes addresses, titles, and general information about materials available from the listed sources. Describes some multicultural resources that have been included because of their treatment of Asian Pacific Rim cultures. (DK)

  5. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  6. Asian Open Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of open universities in Asia is of interest to Australian educators, particularly since the Asian institutions differ in some respects from the British model which combined open entry to all and extensively employed the electronic media. The Asian Open Universities have provided access to higher education for many. (SSH)

  7. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  8. Effect of land cover, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    1. Because effects of habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbance on native animals have been relatively little studied in arid areas and in insectivores, we investigated the roles of different land covers, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, in southern California. 2. Notiosorex crawfordi was the numerically dominant species (trap-success rate 0.52) occurring in 21 of the 22 study sites in 85% of the 286 pitfall arrays used in this study. Sorex ornatus was captured in 14 of the sites, in 52% of the arrays with a total trap-success rate of 0.2. Neither of the species was found in one of the sites. 3. The population dynamics of the two shrew species were relatively synchronous during the 4-5-year study; the peak densities usually occurred during the spring. Precipitation had a significant positive effect, and maximum temperature a significant negative effect on the trap-success rate of S. ornatus. 4. Occurrence and abundance of shrews varied significantly between sites and years but the size of the landscape or the study site had no effect on the abundance of shrews. The amount of urban edge had no significant effect on the captures of shrews but increased edge allows invasion of the Argentine ants, which had a highly significant negative impact on the abundance of N. crawfordi. 5. At the trap array level, the percentage of coastal sage scrub flora had a significant positive, and the percentage of other flora had a significant negative effect on the abundance of N. crawfordi. The mean canopy height and the abundance of N. crawfordi had a significant positive effect on the occurrence of S. ornatus. 6. Our study suggests that the loss of native coastal sage scrub flora and increasing presence of Argentine ant colonies may significantly effect the distribution and abundance of N. crawfordi. The very low overall population densities of both shrew species in most study sites

  9. Rental Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC. Consumer Housing Information Service for Seniors.

    This is one of a series of booklets prepared as a resource for trained Housing Information Volunteers to provide impartial information to older people who have questions of concern about how to find safe, comfortable, affordable housing; how to cut household expenses or use their homes to earn extra income; home maintenance and home improvement;…

  10. Clay Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  11. The taming of the shrew: batterers' constructions of their wives' narratives.

    PubMed

    Borochowitz, Dalit Yassour

    2008-10-01

    Constructing a life story is a need shared by all humans to give their lives meaning and coherence. This article explores some of the narrative devices that batterers use to achieve a sense of coherence when telling their stories and justifying their violent behavior. A central theme that emerged from these stories centered on the men's perception of their wives as the embodiment of their own emotions and inner world. Two narrative strategies were identified in this context: (a) The construction of a "couple narrative" that focused on an idealized marital relationship rather than "allowing" the wife her story and (b) constructing a story around the theme of "she's not the same woman I married," which portrays the wife as "a shrew" and the violence as an attempt to discipline her. The stories of 18 batterers were used for this analysis, and two narratives were used to illustrate these strategies. PMID:18802212

  12. Domestication of the Watase's shrew, Crocidura horsfieldi watasei, for a laboratory animal.

    PubMed

    Hattori, S; Noboru, Y; Yamanouchi, K

    1986-04-01

    The Watase's shrew (Crocidura horsfieldi watasei), which is the native in the Nansei Islands in Japan, was entrapped, kept and mated in laboratory with the object of domestication. For the trapping of the animals hand-made traps were utilized, whereas pit-fall and Sherman trap were unsuitable. Keeping was easy in any types of cages which have no hole; through the holes the animals being able to escape. The animals were fed live insect or dry pelleted diet. Breeding was made by monogamous pair-mating, hand-mating or harem-mating method in the wooden cage. A total of 19 litters including 47 young were obtained from 5 monogamous pairs thus far. The litter size was 2.5 and the gestation period was estimated about 30 days. PMID:3735728

  13. Mammals of South America, Volume 1, Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2007-01-01

    The vast terrain between Panama and Tierra del Fuego contains some of the world?s richest mammalian fauna, but until now it has lacked a comprehensive systematic reference to the identification, distribution, and taxonomy of its mammals. The first such book of its kind and the inaugural volume in a three-part series, Mammals of South America both summarizes existing information and encourages further research of the mammals indigenous to the region. Containing identification keys and brief descriptions of each order, family, and genus, the first volume of Mammals of South America covers marsupials, shrews, armadillos, sloths, anteaters, and bats. Species accounts include taxonomic descriptions, synonymies, keys to identification, distributions with maps and a gazetteer of marginal localities, lists of recognized subspecies, brief summaries of natural history information, and discussions of issues related to taxonomic interpretations. Highly anticipated and much needed, this book will be a landmark contribution to mammalogy, zoology, tropical biology, and conservation biology.

  14. AMERICAN HOUSING SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The American Housing Survey (AHS) collects data on the Nation's housing, including apartments, single-family homes, mobile homes, vacant housing units, household characteristics, income, housing and neighborhood quality, housing costs, equipment and fuels, size of housing unit, a...

  15. Characterization of the Complete Genome of the Tupaia (Tree Shrew) Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Schöndorf, Eva; Bahr, Udo; Handermann, Michaela; Darai, Gholamreza

    2003-01-01

    The members of the family Adenoviridae are widely spread among vertebrate host species and normally cause acute but innocuous infections. Special attention is focused on adenoviruses because of their ability to transform host cells, their possible application in vector technology, and their phylogeny. The primary structure of the genome of Tupaia adenovirus (TAV), which infects Tupaia spp. (tree shrew) was determined. Tree shrews are taxonomically assumed to be at the base of the phylogenetic tree of mammals and are frequently used as laboratory animals in neurological and behavior research. The TAV genome is 33,501 bp in length with a G+C content of 49.96% and has 166-bp inverted terminal repeats. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence resulted in the identification of 109 open reading frames (ORFs) with a coding capacity of at least 40 amino acid residues. Thirty-eight of them are predicted to encode viral proteins based on the presence of transcription and translation signals and sequence and positional conservation. Thirty viral ORFs were found to show significant similarities to known adenoviral genes, arranged into discrete early and late genome regions as they are known from mastadenoviruses. Analysis of the nucleotide content of the TAV genome revealed a significant CG dinucleotide depletion at the genome ends that suggests methylation of these genomic regions during the viral life cycle. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral gene products, including penton and hexon proteins, viral protease, terminal protein, protein VIII, DNA polymerase, protein IVa2, and 100,000-molecular-weight protein, revealed that the evolutionary lineage of TAV forms a separate branch within the phylogenetic tree of the Mastadenovirus genus. PMID:12634391

  16. Gene expression analysis in the hippocampal formation of tree shrews chronically treated with cortisol.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Julieta; Agüero, Fernán; Sanchez, Daniel O; Flugge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard; Frasch, Alberto C C; Pollevick, Guido D

    2004-12-01

    Adrenal corticosteroids influence the function of the hippocampus, the brain structure in which the highest expression of glucocorticoid receptors is found. Chronic high levels of cortisol elicited by stress or through exogenous administration can cause irreversible damage and cognitive deficits. In this study, we searched for genes expressed in the hippocampal formation after chronic cortisol treatment in male tree shrews. Animals were treated orally with cortisol for 28 days. At the end of the experiments, we generated two subtractive hippocampal hybridization libraries from which we sequenced 2,246 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) potentially regulated by cortisol. To validate this approach further, we selected some of the candidate clones to measure mRNA expression levels in hippocampus using real-time PCR. We found that 66% of the sequences tested (10 of 15) were differentially represented between cortisol-treated and control animals. The complete set of clones was subjected to a bioinformatic analysis, which allowed classification of the ESTs into four different main categories: 1) known proteins or genes (approximately 28%), 2) ESTs previously published in the database (approximately 16%), 3) novel ESTs matching only the reference human or mouse genome (approximately 5%), and 4) sequences that do not match any public database (50%). Interestingly, the last category was the most abundant. Hybridization assays revealed that several of these clones are indeed expressed in hippocampal tissue from tree shrew, human, and/or rat. Therefore, we discovered an extensive inventory of new molecular targets in the hippocampus that serves as a reference for hippocampal transcriptional responses under various conditions. Finally, a detailed analysis of the genomic localization in human and mouse genomes revealed a survey of putative novel splicing variants for several genes of the nervous system. PMID:15505804

  17. Blood supply to the cranial venae cavae and the heart in the laboratory shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed Central

    Isomura, G

    1993-01-01

    The blood supply to the cranial venae cavae on both sides and to the heart was studied macroscopically in 40 adult laboratory shrews (Suncus murinus) of both sexes injected either with Neoprene latex into the abdominal aorta (25 animals) or with Mercox into the left ventricle (15 animals). The 1st branch of the left subclavian artery in 23 animals of the 1st group ramified caudal to the aortic arch and descended between the aorta and the trachea to supply mainly the large left cranial vena cava that lay on the dorsal surface of the left atrium, while a branch that arose between the 1st and 2nd intercostal arteries on the right in 25 animals supplied the right cranial vena cava caudally after giving rise to a branch to the oesophagus. In 2 animals the artery to the left vena cava arose directly from the thoracic aorta at the level of the 4th intercostal artery and then followed the course described above. From these considerations, these vessels in the laboratory shrew would correspond to the accessory coronary arteries of Halpern (1957) in the rat. In the 15 animals of the 2nd group, the left coronary artery was distributed to the atrium and the ventricle on left side and to the upper half of the interventricular septum, the artery on the right supplied the atrium and the ventricle on right side, the interatrial septum and lower half of the interventricular septum. Images Figs 1,2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8300430

  18. Changing Material Properties of the Tree Shrew Sclera During Minus Lens Compensation and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Grytz, Rafael; Siegwart, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate two collagen-specific material properties (crimp angle and elastic modulus of collagen fibrils) of the remodeling tree shrew sclera during monocular −5 diopter (D) lens wear and recovery. Methods. Tensile tests were performed on scleral strips obtained from juvenile tree shrews exposed to three different visual conditions: normal, monocular −5 D lens wear to induce myopia, and recovery. Collagen fibrils are crimped in the unloaded sclera and uncrimp as the tissue stiffens under load. Inverse numerical analyses were performed to estimate the (unloaded) crimp angle and elastic modulus of collagen fibrils using a microstructure-based constitutive model. Results. Compared with the control eye, the crimp angle was significantly higher in the treated eye after 2 days and remained significantly higher until 21 days of lens wear (P < 0.05). The difference between the crimp angle of the treated and control eye rapidly vanished during recovery in concert with the changes in axial elongation rate. A rapid and extensive increase in the elastic modulus was seen in both eyes after starting and stopping the lens wear. Conclusions. The estimated change in the crimp of scleral collagen fibrils is temporally associated with the change in axial elongation rate during myopia development and recovery. This finding suggests that axial elongation may be controlled by a remodeling mechanism that modulates the collagen fibril crimp. The observed binocular changes in scleral stiffness are not temporally associated with the axial elongation rate, indicating that scleral stiffening may not be causally related to myopia. PMID:25736788

  19. Media Catalog: South Asian Studies. 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. South Asia Media Center.

    The bibliography lists and annotates 111 multimedia teaching aids for instruction in South Asian Studies at the elementary, secondary, and collegiate levels. The collection listed is housed in the South Asia Media Center at Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kansas. Topics covered include the culture, economics, daily life, politics, religion,…

  20. [Structure and seasonal dynamics of an ectoparasite community on the common shrew (Sorex araneus) in the Il'men'-Volkhov lowland].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S; Bochkov, A V; Vashchenok, V S; Tret'iakov, K A

    2003-01-01

    Species composition, seasonal dynamics, and a load of ectoparasites per individual and population of the common shrew Sorex araneus have been examined in coniferous and mixed forests of the Ilmen'-Volkhov lowland (a neighbourhood of Oskuy village, Chudovo district, Novgorod Province) during the period 1999-2003. Trapping of mammals was carried monthly, with exception of few accidental gaps. The Gero traps were used for catching micromammalian hosts. The lines of trap were checked 2 times a day, places of lines changed each 3-5 day. Total number of micromammalians collected during the period of study is 3215, including 1115 specimens of the common shrew S. araneus and 246 ones of the pigmy shrew S. minutus. Parasite fauna on the common shrew included 23 ectoparasite species: fleas--12, ixodid ticks--2, gamasid mites--7, and myobiid mites--2 species. Among recorded species, 9 fleas species and some gamasid species are accidental parasites. These accidental ectoparasite species are common to the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus in the territory investigated. Species composition, occurrence and abundance indices of parasites changed during the year. In total, about 55% shrew specimens are infected with ectoparasites. The infracommunity of ectoparasites on the common shrew usually consists of 6 species or less. Mean number of all ectoparasite individuals per one host specimens varies from 4 to 83. The greatest number of parasites (50 and 83) was recorded on the shrews, which carried 5 and 4 parasites species, respectively. Biodiversity of parasite species in the ectoparasite community on the common shrew and the load of parasites per one host specimen are lower than those in the bank vole. In forest biotopes explored, the most part of temporary ectoparasite species found on the common shrew was also recorded on other small mammals, which could have contacts with this host. It is possible to conclude that among the parasite supracommunity in the explored ecosystem, the

  1. Tech House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The members of the Swain family- Dr. Charles "Bill" Swain, wife Elaine, daughter Carol, 17, son "Chuck", 12, and dog Susie have an interesting assignment. They are active participants in an important NASA research program involving the application of space-age technology to home construction. b' Transplanted Floridians, the Swains now reside in NASA's Tech House, loatedat Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Their job is to use and help evaluate the variety of advanced technology systems in Tech House. A contemporary three-bedroom home, Tech House incorporates NASA technology, the latest commercial building techniques and other innovations, all designed to reduce energy and water consumption and to provide new levels of comfort, convenience, security and fire safety. Tech House equipment performed well in initial tests, but a house is not a home until it has people. That's where the Swains come in. NASA wants to see how the various systems work under actual living conditions, to confirm the effectiveness of the innovations or to determine necessary modifications for improvement. The Swains are occupying the house for a year, during which NASA engineers are computer monitoring the equipment and assembling a record of day-to-day performance. . Tech House is a laboratory rather than a mass production prototype, but its many benefits may influence home design and construction. In a period of sharply rising utility costs, widespread adoption of Tech House features could provide large-scale savings to homeowners and potentially enormous national benefit in resources conservation. Most innovations are aerospace spinoffs: Some of the equipment is now commercially available; other systems are expected to be in production within a few years. Around 1980, a Tech House-type of home could be built for $45-50,000 (1 976 dollars). It is estimated that the homeowner would save well over $20,000 (again 1976 dollars) in utility costs over the average mortgage span of 20 years.

  2. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... by sex, race and Hispanic Origin, 2013 Asian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Asian/Pacific Islander /Non-Hispanic White Ratio Male 9.1 ... Rates for Suicide: Ages 15 - 19, 2014 Asian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Asian/Pacific Islander /Non- ...

  3. Asian Bilingual Education Teacher Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John; Lum, John

    A guide to bilingual education for Asians contains chapters on bilingual and multicultural education characteristics; the learner; Asian and Asian American learners; bilingual program designs, methodology, and classroom activities; instructional materials and resources for Asian bilingual education programs; and teacher competencies, staff…

  4. A new small-eared shrew of the Cryptotis nigrescens-group from Colombia (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2003-01-01

    Cryptotis colombiana Woodman & Timm, 1993 previously was known from few specimens from two isolated regions in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Recent collecting in the northern Cordillera Central and review of older collections from the central Cordillera Oriental in the vicinity of Bogota yielded additional specimens that permit reevaluation of the two geographic populations of these small-eared shrews. Morphological and morphometrical studies indicate that the population inhabiting the Cordillera Oriental represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species that I describe herein as Cryptotis brachyonyx. Study of 54 specimens of shrews from the Cordillera Oriental in systematic collections in North America, South America, and Europe yielded only four specimens of the new species, all collected before 1926. The paucity of modern specimens suggests that C. brachyonyx may be extremely restricted in distribution, or possibly extinct.

  5. This shrew is a jumping mouse (Mammalia, Dipodidae): Sorex dichrurus Rafinesque 1833 is a synonym of Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann 1780)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Constantine S. Rafinesque described Sorex dichrurus as a shrew in 1833, based on a specimen he found in a proprietary museum near Niagara Falls on the New York/Ontario border. The name subsequently has been ignored by the scientific community. By describing this specimen as a shrew and ascribing it to the genus Sorex, Rafinesque clearly indicated that his species should be considered a member of the taxonomic family now recognized as the Soricidae (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla). Yet, the description of the animal, and its comparison to ‘‘Gerbillus,’’ clearly identify it as a dipodid rodent, specifically Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780); S. dichrurus should be treated as a junior subjective synonym of that taxon. Based on its type locality of Goat Island, New York, this name is also a junior synonym of the subspecies Z. hudsonius canadensis (Davies, 1798).

  6. Differential activity of drugs to induce emesis and pica behavior in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew) and rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kouichi; Ngan, Man P; Takeda, Noriaki; Yamatodani, Atsushi; Rudd, John A

    2004-10-30

    We have previously reported that emetic stimuli induce kaolin ingestion behavior (pica behavior) in rats and mice (i.e., species that do not have the emetic reflex) and that the behavior may be analogous to gastrointestinal discomfort, such as nausea and emesis. We hypothesized that pica behavior may also occur in species capable of vomiting and that it may serve as an additional index of discomfort relevant to antiemetic drug development. The present experiments were conduced using Suncus murinus and rats and kaolin consumption was measured at 24 h after the administration of nicotine (1.25-5 mg/kg, s.c.), copper sulfate (10-120 mg/kg, p.o.), lithium chloride (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.) and cisplatin (1-30 mg/kg, i.p.). In S. murinus, all treatments, excepting lithium chloride, were emetic but none induce kaolin consumption. Conversely, all treatments induced kaolin consumption in rats without inducing emesis. The results indicate that pica behavior is not likely to be useful to assess gastrointestinal discomfort in S. murinus. PMID:15501502

  7. Delineation of vagal emetic pathways: intragastric copper sulfate-induced emesis and viral tract tracing in musk shrews.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; Meyers, Kelly; Lim, Audrey; Dye, Matthew; Pak, Diana; Rinaman, Linda; Yates, Bill J

    2014-03-01

    Signals from the vestibular system, area postrema, and forebrain elicit nausea and vomiting, but gastrointestinal (GI) vagal afferent input arguably plays the most prominent role in defense against food poisoning. It is difficult to determine the contribution of GI vagal afferent input on emesis because various agents (e.g., chemotherapy) often act on multiple sensory pathways. Intragastric copper sulfate (CuSO4) potentially provides a specific vagal emetic stimulus, but its actions are not well defined in musk shrews (Suncus murinus), a primary small animal model used to study emesis. The aims of the current study were 1) to investigate the effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on CuSO4-induced emesis and 2) to conduct preliminary transneuronal tracing of the GI-brain pathways in musk shrews. Vagotomy failed to inhibit the number of emetic episodes produced by optimal emetic doses of CuSO4 (60 and 120 mg/kg ig), but the effects of lower doses were dependent on an intact vagus (20 and 40 mg/kg). Vagotomy also failed to affect emesis produced by motion (1 Hz, 10 min) or nicotine administration (5 mg/kg sc). Anterograde transport of the H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1 from the ventral stomach wall identified the following brain regions as receiving inputs from vagal afferents: the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, and lateral parabrachial nucleus. These data indicate that the contribution of vagal pathways to intragastric CuSO4-induced emesis is dose dependent in musk shrews. Furthermore, the current neural tracing data suggest brain stem anatomical circuits that are activated by GI signaling in the musk shrew. PMID:24430885

  8. Expression of muscarinic receptor subtypes in tree shrew ocular tissues and their regulation during the development of myopia

    PubMed Central

    Jobling, A.I.; Truong, H.T.; Cottriall, C.L.; Gentle, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Muscarinic receptors are known to regulate several important physiologic processes in the eye. Antagonists to these receptors such as atropine and pirenzepine are effective at stopping the excessive ocular growth that results in myopia. However, their site of action is unknown. This study details ocular muscarinic subtype expression within a well documented model of eye growth and investigates their expression during early stages of myopia induction. Methods Total RNA was isolated from tree shrew corneal, iris/ciliary body, retinal, choroidal, and scleral tissue samples and was reverse transcribed. Using tree shrew-specific primers to the five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes (CHRM1-CHRM5), products were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and their identity confirmed using automated sequencing. The expression of the receptor proteins (M1-M5) were also explored in the retina, choroid, and sclera using immunohistochemistry. Myopia was induced in the tree shrew for one or five days using monocular deprivation of pattern vision, and the expression of the receptor subtypes was assessed in the retina, choroid, and sclera using real-time PCR. Results All five muscarinic receptor subtypes were expressed in the iris/ciliary body, retina, choroid, and sclera while gene products corresponding to CHRM1, CHRM3, CHRM4, and CHRM5 were present in the corneal samples. The gene expression data were confirmed by immunohistochemistry with the M1-M5 proteins detected in the retina, choroid, and sclera. After one or five days of myopia development, muscarinic receptor gene expression remained unaltered in the retinal, choroidal, and scleral tissue samples. Conclusions This study provides a comprehensive profile of muscarinic receptor gene and protein expression in tree shrew ocular tissues with all receptor subtypes found in tissues implicated in the control of eye growth. Despite the efficacy of muscarinic antagonists at inhibiting myopia development, the

  9. White House

    MedlinePlus

    ... Check out the most popular infographics and videos Photos View the photo of the day and other galleries Video Gallery ... your questions or your story with President Obama. Photo of the Day Explore the White House Photo ...

  10. House Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Bette

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the "house" concept architectural design at Albert Lea High School (Minnesota) and how the design addresses the community's 21st Century educational goals. Photos and a floor plan are included. (GR)

  11. A new species of small-eared shrew (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guevara, Lázaro; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; León-Paniagua, Livia; Woodman, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and distribution of mammals in the American tropics remain incompletely known. We describe a new species of small-eared shrew (Soricidae, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Chiapas, southern Mexico. The new species is distinguished from other species of Cryptotis on the basis of a unique combination of pelage coloration, size, dental, cranial, postcranial, and external characters, and genetic distances. It appears most closely related to species in the Cryptotis nigrescens species group, which occurs from southern Mexico to montane regions of Colombia. This discovery is particularly remarkable because the new species is from a low-elevation habitat (approximately 90 m), whereas most shrews in the region are restricted to higher elevations, typically > 1,000 m. The only known locality for the new shrew is in one of the last areas in southern Mexico where relatively undisturbed tropical vegetation is still found. The type locality is protected by the Mexican government as part of the Yaxchilán Archaeological Site on the border between Mexico and Guatemala.

  12. Energy metabolism, thermogenesis and body mass regulation in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) during subsequent cold and warm acclimation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Wanlong; Li, Xingsheng; Wang, Zhengkun

    2012-08-01

    Environmental cues play important roles in the regulation of an animal's physiology and behavior. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature is a cue to induce adjustments in body mass, energy intake and thermogenic capacity, associated with changes in serum leptin levels in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). We found that tree shrews increased basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy intake and subsequently showed a significant decrease in body mass after being returned to warm ambient temperature. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) content in brown adipose tissue (BAT) increased during cold acclimation and reversed after rewarming. The trend of energy intake increased during cold acclimation and decreased after rewarming; the trend of energy intake during cold acclimation was contrary to the trend of energy intake during rewarming. Further, serum leptin levels were negatively correlated with body mass. Together, these data supported our hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce changes in body mass and metabolic capacity. Serum leptin, as a starvation signal in the cold and satiety signal in rewarming, was involved in the processes of thermogenesis and body mass regulation in tree shrews. PMID:22580291

  13. Skeletal morphology of the forefoot in shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae) of the genus Cryptotis, as revealed by digital x-rays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Morgan, J.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Variation in the forefoot skeleton of small-eared shrews (family Soricidae, genus Cryptotis) has been previously documented, but the paucity of available skeletons for most taxa makes assessment of the degrees of intraspecific and interspecific variation difficult. We used a digital X-ray system to extract images of the forefoot skeleton from 101 dried skins of eight taxa (seven species, including two subspecies of one species) of these shrews. Lengths and widths of each of the four bones of digit III were measured directly from the digital images, and we used these data to quantify variation within and among taxa. Analysis of the images and measurements showed that interspecific variation exceeds intraspecific variation. In fact, most taxa could be distinguished in multivariate and some bivariate plots. Our quantitative data helped us define a number of specific forefoot characters that we subsequently used to hypothesize evolutionary relationships among the taxa using the exhaustive search option in PAUP, a computer program for phylogenetic analysis. The resulting trees generally concur with previously published evolutionary hypotheses for small-eared shrews. Cryptotis meridensis, a taxon not previously examined in recent phylogenies, is rooted at the base of the branch leading to the C. mexicana group of species. The position of this species suggests that the mostly South American C. thomasi group shares an early ancestor with the C. mexicana group.

  14. Depression-like behaviors in tree shrews and comparison of the effects of treatment with fluoxetine and carbetocin.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaolu; Shen, Fang; Li, Chunlu; Li, Yonghui; Wang, Xuewei

    2016-06-01

    Tree shrews, a species phylogenetically close to primates, are regarded as a suitable and naturalistic animal model for depression studies. However, psychological symptoms that are essential for depression diagnosis and treatment, such as helplessness and social withdrawal, have not been studied in this model. Therefore, in this study, we first investigated learned helplessness, social interaction and sucrose preference induced by two chronic stress paradigms: uncontrollable foot shocks (1-week foot shocks) and multiple unpredictable stimuli (1-week foot shocks and 3-week unpredictable stressors) in tree shrews. Our results showed that uncontrollable foot shocks could only induce learned helplessness in animals; whereas animals treated with multiple unpredictable stimuli exhibited more depression-like behaviors including social withdrawal, anhedonia and learned helplessness. These findings suggested that multiple unpredictable stimuli could effectively induce various depression-like behaviors in tree shrews. More importantly, we compared the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine and carbetocin, a long-acting oxytocin analog, on specific depression-like behaviors. Our present data displayed that, compared with fluoxetine, carbetocin was also effective in reversing learned helplessness, elevating sucrose preference and improving social interaction behaviors in depression-like animals. Therefore, carbetocin might be a potential antidepressant with applications in humans. PMID:26987370

  15. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  16. The South Asian Genome

    PubMed Central

    Scott, William R.; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Afzal, Uzma; Afaq, Saima; Loh, Marie; Lehne, Benjamin; O'Reilly, Paul; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Pearson, Richard D.; Li, Xinzhong; Lavery, Anita; Vandrovcova, Jana; Wass, Mark N.; Miller, Kathryn; Sehmi, Joban; Oozageer, Laticia; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Al-Hussaini, Abtehale; Mills, Rebecca; Grewal, Jagvir; Panoulas, Vasileios; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Northwood, Korrinne; Wander, Gurpreet S.; Geoghegan, Frank; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Aitman, Timothy J.; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians. PMID:25115870

  17. The Asian methanol market

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, Hideki

    1995-12-31

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future.

  18. The use of an In House Scoring System Scale versus Glasgow Coma Scale in non-traumatic altered states of consciousness patients: can it be used for triaging patients in Southeast Asian developing countries?

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, M; Adnan, W A W; Ahmad, R; Ab Rahman, N H N; Naing, N N; Abdullah, J

    2007-11-01

    Non-traumatic Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) are a non-specific consequence of various etiologies, and are normally monitored by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The GCS gives varriable results among untrained emergency medicine personel in developing countries where English is not the first language. An In House Scoring System (IHSS) scale was made by the first author for the purpose of triaging so as to quickly asses patients when seen by medical personel. This IHSS scale was compared to the GCS to determine it's specificity and sensitivity in the accident and emergency department (ED) of Hospital University Sains Malaysia (HUSM). All patients with non-traumatic ASC were selected by purposive sampling according to pre-determined criteria. Patients were evaluated by the two systems, IHSS and GCS, by emergency physicians who were on call. Patient demographics, clinical features, investigations, treatment given and outcomes were collected and followed for a period of 14 days. A total of 221 patients with non-traumatic ASC were studied, 54.3% were males. The mean age of the patients was 56 years old. The mean overall GCS score on presentation to the ED was 10.3. The mean duration of ASC was 11.6 hours. One hundred thirty patients (58.8%) experienced ASC secondary to general or focal cerebral disorders. The mortality rate was 40.3% 2 weeks after the ED visit. Fifty-four point three percent of the patients were awake and considered to have good outcomes while 45.7% of the patients had poor outcomes (comatose or dead) 2 weeks after the ED visit. The mean overall GCS score, verbal and motor subscores as well as the IHSS had significantly decreased (worsened) after treatment in the ED. A poor IHSS scale, hypertension, current smoking, abnormal pupillary reflexes and acidosis were associated with a worse 2-week outcome. The mean age and WBC count was lower and the mean overall GCS score and eye, verbal and motor subscores were higher as well as those having a lower IHSS

  19. 3 CFR 8806 - Proclamation 8806 of May 1, 2012. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... leaders in every aspect of American life—in government and industry, science and medicine, the arts and... currently underserved. To learn more about the Initiative, visit www.WhiteHouse.gov/AAPI. As we also take... all Americans to visit www.AsianPacificHeritage.gov to learn more about the history of Asian...

  20. 78 FR 24401 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders; Notice of an Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... CONTACT: Shelly W. Coles, White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, 400 Maryland... Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders shall R.S.V.P. to Shelly Coles via email at shelly.coles@ed.gov no... alternative format) should notify Shelly Coles at (202) 453-7277, no later than Monday, April 22, 2013....

  1. Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Diabetes Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian Americans are 20 percent less likely ... Diagnosed with Diabetes Ratio vs. General Population Asians/Pacific Islanders 7.8 1.1 U.S. General Public ...

  2. Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Cancer Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans generally have lower cancer rates ... At a glance - Top Cancer Sites for Asian/Pacific Islander (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  3. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American adults are less likely ... Disease Death Rates per 100,000 (2013) Asians/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asians/Pacific Islanders /Non- ...

  4. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander adults are 10% less likely to ever ... to non-Hispanic white adults. In 2014, Asian/Pacific Islander adults aged 65 years and older were ...

  5. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  6. Housing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1985-01-01

    Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…

  7. Sticky snack for sengis: The Cape rock elephant-shrew, Elephantulus edwardii (Macroscelidea), as a pollinator of the Pagoda lily, Whiteheadia bifolia (Hyacinthaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wester, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Following the recent discovery of rodent pollination in the Pagoda lily, Whiteheadia bifolia (Hyacinthaceae) in South Africa, now the Cape rock elephant-shrew, Elephantulus edwardii (Macroscelidea, Afrotheria) is reported as an additional pollinator. Elephant-shrews, live-trapped near W. bifolia plants, were released in two terraria, containing the plants. The animals licked nectar with their long and slender tongues while being dusted with pollen and touching the stigmas of the flowers with their long and flexible noses. The captured elephant-shrews had W. bifolia pollen in their faeces, likely as a result of grooming their fur as they visited the flowers without eating or destroying them. The animals mostly preferred nectar over other food. This is the first record of pollination and nectar consumption in the primarily insectivorous E. edwardii, contributing to the very sparse knowledge about the behaviour of this unique clade of African mammals, as well as pollination by small mammals.

  8. The Challenges of Resolving a Rapid, Recent Radiation: Empirical and Simulated Phylogenomics of Philippine Shrews.

    PubMed

    Giarla, Thomas C; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2015-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in recent, rapid radiations can be difficult to resolve due to incomplete lineage sorting and reliance on genetic markers that evolve slowly relative to the rate of speciation. By incorporating hundreds to thousands of unlinked loci, phylogenomic analyses have the potential to mitigate these difficulties. Here, we attempt to resolve phylogenetic relationships among eight shrew species (genus Crocidura) from the Philippines, a phylogenetic problem that has proven intractable with small (< 10 loci) data sets. We sequenced hundreds of ultraconserved elements and whole mitochondrial genomes in these species and estimated phylogenies using concatenation, summary coalescent, and hierarchical coalescent methods. The concatenated approach recovered a maximally supported and fully resolved tree. In contrast, the coalescent-based approaches produced similar topologies, but each had several poorly supported nodes. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the concatenated tree could be positively misleading. Our simulations also show that the tree shape we tend to infer, which involves a series of short internal branches, is difficult to resolve, even if substitution models are known and multiple individuals per species are sampled. As such, the low support we obtained for backbone relationships in our coalescent-based inferences reflects a real and appropriate lack of certainty. Our results illuminate the challenges of estimating a bifurcating tree in a rapid and recent radiation, providing a rare empirical example of a nearly simultaneous series of speciation events in a terrestrial animal lineage as it spreads across an oceanic archipelago. PMID:25979143

  9. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described. PMID:21878767

  10. Affinities of `hyopsodontids' to elephant shrews and a Holarctic origin of Afrotheria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, Shawn P.; Penkrot, Tonya A.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Rose, Kenneth D.

    2005-03-01

    Macroscelideans (elephant shrews or sengis) are small-bodied (25-540g), cursorial (running) and saltatorial (jumping), insectivorous and omnivorous placental mammals represented by at least 15 extant African species classified in four genera. Macroscelidea is one of several morphologically diverse but predominantly African placental orders classified in the superorder Afrotheria by molecular phylogeneticists. The distribution of modern afrotheres, in combination with a basal position for Afrotheria within Placentalia and molecular divergence-time estimates, has been used to link placental diversification with the mid-Cretaceous separation of South America and Africa. Morphological phylogenetic analyses do not support Afrotheria and the fossil record favours a northern origin of Placentalia. Here we describe fossil postcrania that provide evidence for a close relationship between North American Palaeocene-Eocene apheliscine `hyopsodontid' `condylarths' (early ungulates or hoofed mammals) and extant Macroscelidea. Apheliscine postcranial morphology is consistent with a relationship to other ungulate-like afrotheres (Hyracoidea, Proboscidea) but does not provide support for a monophyletic Afrotheria. As the oldest record of an afrothere clade, identification of macroscelidean relatives in the North American Palaeocene argues against an African origin for Afrotheria, weakening support for linking placental diversification to the break-up of Gondwana.

  11. A climate for speciation: rapid spatial diversification within the Sorex cinereus complex of shrews

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Speer, Kelly A.; Demboski, John R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic climate regime of the late Quaternary caused dramatic environmental change at high latitudes. Although these events may have been brief in periodicity from an evolutionary standpoint, multiple episodes of allopatry and divergence have been implicated in rapid radiations of a number of organisms. Shrews of the Sorex cinereus complex have long challenged taxonomists due to similar morphology and parapatric geographic ranges. Here, multi-locus phylogenetic and demographic assessments using a coalescent framework were combined to investigate spatiotemporal evolution of 13 nominal species with a widespread distribution throughout North America and across Beringia into Siberia. For these species, we first test a hypothesis of recent differentiation in response to Pleistocene climate versus more ancient divergence that would coincide with pre-Pleistocene perturbations. We then investigate the processes driving diversification over multiple continents. Our genetic analyses highlight novel diversity within these morphologically conserved mammals and clarify relationships between geographic distribution and evolutionary history. Demography within and among species indicates both regional stability and rapid expansion. Ancestral ecological differentiation coincident with early cladogenesis within the complex enabled alternating and repeated episodes of allopatry and expansion where successive glacial and interglacial phases each promoted divergence. The Sorex cinereus complex constitutes a valuable model for future comparative assessments of evolution in response to cyclic environmental change.

  12. Convergent evolution of novel protein function in shrew and lizard venom.

    PubMed

    Aminetzach, Yael T; Srouji, John R; Kong, Chung Yin; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2009-12-01

    How do proteins evolve novel functions? To address this question, we are studying the evolution of a mammalian toxin, the serine protease BLTX [1], from the salivary glands of the North American shrew Blarina brevicauda. Here, we examine the molecular changes responsible for promoting BLTX toxicity. First, we show that regulatory loops surrounding the BLTX active site have evolved adaptively via acquisition of small insertions and subsequent accelerated sequence evolution. Second, these mutations introduce a novel chemical environment into the catalytic cleft of BLTX. Third, molecular-dynamic simulations show that the observed changes create a novel chemical and physical topology consistent with increased enzyme catalysis. Finally, we show that a toxic serine protease from the Mexican beaded lizard (GTX) [2] has evolved convergently through almost identical functional changes. Together, these results suggest that the evolution of toxicity might be predictable-arising via adaptive structural modification of analogous labile regulatory loops of an ancestral serine protease-and thus might aid in the identification of other toxic proteins. PMID:19879144

  13. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  14. Affinities of 'hyopsodontids' to elephant shrews and a Holarctic origin of Afrotheria.

    PubMed

    Zack, Shawn P; Penkrot, Tonya A; Bloch, Jonathan I; Rose, Kenneth D

    2005-03-24

    Macroscelideans (elephant shrews or sengis) are small-bodied (25-540 g), cursorial (running) and saltatorial (jumping), insectivorous and omnivorous placental mammals represented by at least 15 extant African species classified in four genera. Macroscelidea is one of several morphologically diverse but predominantly African placental orders classified in the superorder Afrotheria by molecular phylogeneticists. The distribution of modern afrotheres, in combination with a basal position for Afrotheria within Placentalia and molecular divergence-time estimates, has been used to link placental diversification with the mid-Cretaceous separation of South America and Africa. Morphological phylogenetic analyses do not support Afrotheria and the fossil record favours a northern origin of Placentalia. Here we describe fossil postcrania that provide evidence for a close relationship between North American Palaeocene-Eocene apheliscine 'hyopsodontid' 'condylarths' (early ungulates or hoofed mammals) and extant Macroscelidea. Apheliscine postcranial morphology is consistent with a relationship to other ungulate-like afrotheres (Hyracoidea, Proboscidea) but does not provide support for a monophyletic Afrotheria. As the oldest record of an afrothere clade, identification of macroscelidean relatives in the North American Palaeocene argues against an African origin for Afrotheria, weakening support for linking placental diversification to the break-up of Gondwana. PMID:15791254

  15. Shrews, rats, and a polecat in "the pardoner’s tale": Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, Sandy; Woodman, Neal

    2012-01-01

    While historically existing animals and literary animal characters inform allegorical and metaphorical characterization in The Canterbury Tales, figurative usage does not erase recognition of the material animal. "The Pardoner's Tale," for one, challenges the terms of conventional animal metaphors by refocusing attention on common animals as common animals and common human creatures as something worse than vermin. Most attention has been paid to the larger animals-goat, hare, and horse-that constitute the physical portrait of Chaucer's Pardoner in the "General Prologue" and in the prologue to his tale.! Like these animals, rats and a polecat, together with rhetorical shrews, appear in this tale as well as in other literature, including bestiaries and natural histories. Equally to the purpose, these animals could be physically observed as constituents of both urban and rural landscapes in fourteenth-century England.2 In the Middle Ages, animals were part of the environment as well as part of the culture: they lived inside as well as outside the city gates, priory walls, and even domestic spaces; a rat in the street or the garden might not be any less welcome or uncommon than encountering someone's horses and goats nibbling vegetation or blocking a passage. Not being out of the ordinary, though, such animals could (and can) be overlooked or dismissed as com­mon, too familiar to register. This chapter reveals why readers and listeners should pay close attention to the things they think they know and what they hear about what they think they know.

  16. Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

    2008-08-01

    Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:18576829

  17. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  18. Invading and Expanding: Range Dynamics and Ecological Consequences of the Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Invasion in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Allan D.; Montgomery, W. Ian; Tosh, David G.; Lusby, John; Reid, Neil; White, Thomas A.; McDevitt, C. Damien; O'Halloran, John; Searle, Jeremy B.; Yearsley, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus), previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013) to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008–2013), and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012–2013 showing rates of 2.4–14.1 km/yr, 0.5–7.1 km/yr and 0–5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island. PMID:24955824

  19. Structure of the ovaries of the Nimba otter shrew, Micropotamogale lamottei, and the Madagascar hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M; Künzle, H; Vogel, P

    2005-01-01

    The otter shrews are members of the subfamily Potamogalinae within the family Tenrecidae. No description of the ovaries of any member of this subfamily has been published previously. The lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, is a member of the subfamily Tenrecinae of the same family and, although its ovaries have not been described, other members of this subfamily have been shown to have ovaries with non-antral follicles. Examination of these two species illustrated that non-antral follicles were characteristic of the ovaries of both species, as was clefting and lobulation of the ovaries. Juvenile otter shrews range from those with only small follicles in the cortex to those with 300- to 400-microm follicles similar to those seen in non-pregnant and pregnant adults. As in other species, most of the growth of the oocyte occurred when follicles had one to two layers of granulosa cells. When larger follicles became atretic in the Nimba otter shrew, hypertrophy of the theca interna produced nodules of glandular interstitial tissue. In the tenrec, the hypertrophying theca interna cells in most large follicles appeared to undergo degeneration. Both species had some follicular fluid in the intercellular spaces between the more peripheral granulosa cells. It is suggested that this fluid could aid in separation of the cumulus from the remaining granulosa at ovulation. The protruding follicles in lobules and absence of a tunica albuginea might also facilitate ovulation of non-antral follicles. Ovaries with a thin-absent tunica albuginea and follicles with small-absent antra are widespread within both the Eulipotyphla and in the Afrosoricida, suggesting that such features may represent a primitive condition in ovarian development. Lobulated and deeply crypted ovaries are found in both groups but are not as common in the Eulipotyphla making inclusion of this feature as primitive more speculative. PMID:16046864

  20. Smart Houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  1. Asian-American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.

    Although Asian Americans enjoy the image of a "successful minority," they also have endured hardships and prejudices. This report traces the history of the Japanese and Chinese experience in the United States. Some similarities are discernible in the immigration patterns of the two ethnic populations. The first wave of immigrants provided cheap…

  2. Asian Americans in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy

    This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…

  3. Miscellany South Asian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Carlo, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This volume contains articles about South Asian literature and poetry by G.M. Muktibodh, P. Naik, S. Chattopadhyay, M. Kureishi, and P.S. Rege. The articles and authors are: "The Hindi 'Riti' Tradition and the "Rasakapriya' of Keshavadasa: An Introductory Review" by K.C. Bahl; "Tradition and Modernity in Literature" by M.R. Anand; "The Novelist as…

  4. Diabetes in Asians.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun Jung

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in Asia. According to the 2013 Diabetes Atlas, an estimated 366 million people are affected by diabetes worldwide; 36% of those affected live in the Western Pacific region, with a significant proportion in East Asia. The reasons for this marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be extrapolated from several distinct features of the Asian region. First, the two most populated countries, China and India, are located in Asia. Second, Asians have experienced extremely rapid economic growth, including rapid changes in dietary patterns, during the past decades. As a result, Asians tend to have more visceral fat within the same body mass index range compared with Westerners. In addition, increased insulin resistance relative to reduced insulin secretory function is another important feature of Asian individuals with diabetes. Young age of disease onset is also a distinctive characteristic of these patients. Moreover, changing dietary patterns, such as increased consumption of white rice and processed red meat, contributes to the deteriorated lifestyle of this region. Recent studies suggest a distinctive responsiveness to novel anti-diabetic agents in Asia; however, further research and efforts to reverse the increasing prevalence of diabetes are needed worldwide. PMID:26435131

  5. Gifted Asian American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of personal, socialization, and structural factors affecting the lifespan achievement of 15 Asian American women identified as gifted. Their families' intense focus on educational achievement and hard work are described, and the need for better preparation to overcome obstacles in the workplace is discussed. (Author/CR)

  6. Asian Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Naval Research, London (England).

    The Asian Institute of Technology is a notable success for that part of the world where success is not too common. It is an excellent example of not only the initiative and organization of a technical university, but also of the success of a foreign aid program. This report gives details of this organization and accomplishments. (Author)

  7. Purkinje-like cells in the cochlear nucleus of the Common Tree Shrew (Tupaia glis) identified by calbindin immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Spatz, W B

    2003-09-01

    The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) of Tree Shrews (Tupaia glis; n=2) was examined by calbindin (CB) immunohistochemistry for the presence of Purkinje-like cells (PLCs), detected previously in only four different mammals. We found up to eight CB-immunoreactive PLCs in the left and right DCN, and a few axons, likely of PLC origin, that appeared to leave the DCN. These findings suggest that PLCs may have a wider distribution through mammalian species, and may represent more than just misrouted cells. PMID:12914985

  8. Fine structure of the submandibular salivary gland of the venomous short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda Say (Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Carson, K A; Rose, R K

    1993-01-01

    Adult male short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda, (Insectivora: Soricidae) were trapped in Virginia and Pennsylvania, anesthetized, and perfused via the left ventricle of the heart with fixative. The submandibular glands were dissected free and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. The lobular, compound tubuloacinar glands had secretory endpieces consisting of seromucous acini and serous tubules connected to intercalated ducts, granular ducts, striated ducts, and excretory ducts. The general cytology of the submandibular gland of Blarina shared morphological characters with individuals in several other mammalian orders and yet differed in many ways from another Insectivore, the European hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus. PMID:8398545

  9. Immunolocalization of spetex-1 at the connecting piece in spermatozoa of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takane; Iwamoto, Shizuka; Murayama, Emi; Kurio, Hitoshi; Inai, Tetsuichiro; Oda, Senichi; Iida, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Spetex-1, which has been isolated by differential display and rat cDNA library screening as a haploid spermatid-specific gene, encodes a protein with two coiled-coil motifs that locates at both the segmented column in the connecting piece and outer dense fibers-affiliated satellite fibrils in rat sperm flagella. Orthologs of Spetex-1 are identified in many animal species, including human, chimpanzee, macaque, cow, dog, African clawed frog, green spotted puffer, and zebrafish. In this study, we used RT-PCR in combination with 5' and 3' RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA End) technique to isolate Spetex-1 ortholog of the musk shrew (Suneus murinus), which yielded a full-length Suncus Spetex-1 gene containing an open reading frame of 1,908 base pairs encoding a protein of 636 amino acids with the predicted molecular mass of 72,348 Da. Suncus Spetex-1 has two coiled-coil motifs at 118-184 and 242-276 amino acid residues, which is a characteristic shared by mammalian Spetex-1 proteins. To examine the subcellular localization of Spetex-1 in Suncus spermatozoa, we produced the anti-Suncus Spetex-1 antibody and carried out immunocytochemistry. In spite of that the primary structure of Suncus Spetex-1 is basically similar to that of rat and mouse Spetex-1, confocal laser scanning microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that Spetex-1 was restricted to the segmented column and capitulum in the connecting piece of Suncus spermatozoa and was not detected in other parts of flagella, suggesting a diversity of Spetex-1 localization in mammalian spermatozoa. PMID:21627455

  10. Prevalence of rabies virus and Hantaan virus infections in commensal rodents and shrews trapped in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Kantakamalakul, Wannee; Siritantikorn, Sontana; Thongcharoen, Prasert; Singchai, Chantra; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2003-11-01

    Five hundred rodents and shrews (Rattus norvegicus: 458, Rattus rattus: 28, Rattus exulans: 5, Mus musculus: 4 and Suncus murine: 5) trapped from the fresh food markets around Bangkok area were investigated for rabies virus and Hantaan virus infections. No rabies viral antigens in the animals' brains were detected by direct immunofluorescence. On the other hand, antibodies to Hantaan virus were demonstrated in the sera of 7 (1.53%) R. norvegicus caught in various markets using a particle agglutination technique. Further determination of the viral genome in rat lung tissue was performed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR, 3 (0.66%) out of 7 were positive. HindIII and HifI restriction enzyme analyses showed the pattern of the Hantaan virus genome in 2 samples and that of the Seoul virus genome in the other. The results of the present study suggest that rodents from Bangkok's fresh food markets did not carry rabies. Thus, getting rid of rabies in dogs or cats in the Bangkok area may be easier than anticipated because there are no sources of asymptomatic reservoirs. This may result in the low incidence of rabies patients observed in Bangkok. On the contrary, the presence of antibodies and the Hantaan virus genome and Seoul virus genome in R. norvegicus will definitely provide evidence for physicians to be aware of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and other clinical settings of Hantaan/Seoul virus disease in patients with a history of having contact with rats or their excreta. PMID:14696782

  11. Comparative morphology and morphometry of the nasal fossae of four species of North American shrews (Soricinae).

    PubMed

    Larochelle, R; Baron, G

    1989-11-01

    The present study compares the morphology of the nasal conchae and the relative development (i.e., surface area and neurosensory cell number) of the olfactory epithelium between four species of shrews occupying different ecotopes (Blarina brevicauda, Sorex cinereus, S. fumeus, S. palustris). The number of olfactory cells was corrected for split cell error. Data were analyzed by using size indices based on the allometric method. The convoluted shape of the maxilloturbinal in Blarina, with large respiratory epithelial surface area, could not be related with certainty to the subterranean ecotope. From the comparison between Soricinae and Crocidurinae, one major difference concerned the shape and attachment of ectoturbinal 3. Differences in the relative development of the olfactory organ are discussed with regard to differences in the use of chemical signals. The semi-fossorial B. brevicauda, with the more developed olfactory organ, is reported to possess more scent-glands and to manifest active scent-marking behaviors and fecal deposits associated with territoriality. The two terrestrial species, S. cinereus and S. fumeus, have olfactory epithelia showing an intermediate development. Published accounts of fewer scent-glands and a lack of active scent-marking behavior indicate a lesser use of olfactory communication in these two species where mutual avoidance seems the rule. Indication of an even more reduced use of olfactory signals in social interactions by the semiaquatic S. palustris is suggested by its least-developed olfactory epithelium. The comparison between Soricinae and Crocidurinae supports a relationship between the development of the olfactory organ and the relative use of olfactory communication known to occur in social interactions. PMID:2618929

  12. Phenotypic Variation across Chromosomal Hybrid Zones of the Common Shrew (Sorex araneus) Indicates Reduced Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Polly, P. David; Polyakov, Andrei V.; Ilyashenko, Vadim B.; Onischenko, Sergei S.; White, Thomas A.; Shchipanov, Nikolay A.; Bulatova, Nina S.; Pavlova, Svetlana V.; Borodin, Pavel M.; Searle, Jeremy B.

    2013-01-01

    Sorex araneus, the Common shrew, is a species with more than 70 karyotypic races, many of which form parapatric hybrid zones, making it a model for studying chromosomal speciation. Hybrids between races have reduced fitness, but microsatellite markers have demonstrated considerable gene flow between them, calling into question whether the chromosomal barriers actually do contribute to genetic divergence. We studied phenotypic clines across two hybrid zones with especially complex heterozygotes. Hybrids between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races produce chains of nine and three chromosomes at meiosis, and hybrids between the Moscow and Seliger races produce chains of eleven. Our goal was to determine whether phenotypes show evidence of reduced gene flow at hybrid zones. We used maximum likelihood to fit tanh cline models to geometric shape data and found that phenotypic clines in skulls and mandibles across these zones had similar centers and widths as chromosomal clines. The amount of phenotypic differentiation across the zones is greater than expected if it were dissipating due to unrestricted gene flow given the amount of time since contact, but it is less than expected to have accumulated from drift during allopatric separation in glacial refugia. Only if heritability is very low, Ne very high, and the time spent in allopatry very short, will the differences we observe be large enough to match the expectation of drift. Our results therefore suggest that phenotypic differentiation has been lost through gene flow since post-glacial secondary contact, but not as quickly as would be expected if there was free gene flow across the hybrid zones. The chromosomal tension zones are confirmed to be partial barriers that prevent differentiated races from becoming phenotypically homogenous. PMID:23874420

  13. Behavioral Patterns Associated with Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis: A Potential Signature for Nausea in Musk Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charles C.; Henry, Séverine; Meyers, Kelly; Magnusson, Magnus S.

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with many diseases, including cancer and its treatments. Although the neurological basis of vomiting is reasonably well known, an understanding of the physiology of nausea is lacking. The primary barrier to mechanistic research on the nausea system is the lack of an animal model. Indeed investigating the effects of anti-nausea drugs in pre-clinical models is difficult because the primary readout is often emesis. It is known that animals show a behavioral profile of sickness, associated with reduced feeding and movement, and possibly these general measures are signs of nausea. Studies attempting to relate the occurrence of additional behaviors to emesis have produced mixed results. Here we applied a statistical method, temporal pattern (t-pattern) analysis, to determine patterns of behavior associated with emesis. Musk shrews were injected with the chemotherapy agent cisplatin (a gold standard in emesis research) to induce acute (<24 h) and delayed (>24 h) emesis. Emesis and other behaviors were coded and tracked from video files. T-pattern analysis revealed hundreds of non-random patterns of behavior associated with emesis, including sniffing, changes in body contraction, and locomotion. There was little evidence that locomotion was inhibited by the occurrence of emesis. Eating, drinking, and other larger body movements including rearing, grooming, and body rotation, were significantly less common in emesis-related behavioral patterns in real versus randomized data. These results lend preliminary evidence for the expression of emesis-related behavioral patterns, including reduced ingestive behavior, grooming, and exploratory behaviors. In summary, this statistical approach to behavioral analysis in a pre-clinical emesis research model could be used to assess the more global effects and limitations of drugs used to control nausea and its potential correlates, including reduced feeding and activity levels. PMID

  14. Overview of the Cestode fauna of European shrews of the genus Sorex with an exploration of historical processes in post-glacial Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cestode fauna in shrews of the genus Sorex from the European region consists of seventeen species. Twelve cestode species have broad Palearctic distributions, three belong to the Western-Asian–European faunistic complex, and only two are endemic to the European zone. Postglacial expansion into ...

  15. Molecular Phylogeny Supports Repeated Adaptation to Burrowing within Small-Eared Shrews Genus of Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Kai; Woodman, Neal; Boaglio, Sean; Roberts, Mariel; Supekar, Sunjana; Maldonado, Jesús E.

    2015-01-01

    Small-eared shrews of the New World genus Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) comprise at least 42 species that traditionally have been partitioned among four or more species groups based on morphological characters. The Cryptotis mexicana species group is of particular interest, because its member species inhibit a subtly graded series of forelimb adaptations that appear to correspond to locomotory behaviors that range from more ambulatory to more fossorial. Unfortunately, the evolutionary relationships both among species in the C. mexicana group and among the species groups remain unclear. To better understand the phylogeny of this group of shrews, we sequenced two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. To help interpret the pattern and direction of morphological changes, we also generated a matrix of morphological characters focused on the evolutionarily plastic humerus. We found significant discordant between the resulting molecular and morphological trees, suggesting considerable convergence in the evolution of the humerus. Our results indicate that adaptations for increased burrowing ability evolved repeatedly within the genus Cryptotis. PMID:26489020

  16. [Genetic Structure of the Common Shrew Sorex araneus L. 1758 (Mammalia, Lipotyphla) in Continuous and Fragmented Areas].

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, O O; Borisova, Yu M; Stakheev, V V; Balakirev, A E; Krivonogov, D M; Orlov, V N

    2015-06-01

    In this work the genetic variability of the common shrew populations Sorex araneus L. in Eastern Europe was studied via sequencing of the mitochondrial gene cyt b. A total of 82 sequences of the mitochondrial gene cyt b with a length of 953 basepairs were analyzed, including five chromosome races in a continuous area of the species in forest zone and two races in fragmented area in the steppe zone. Phylogeographic subdivision of the common shrew was not expressed, and there was no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances in continuous areas. We did not acquire convincing evidence of the influence of narrow hybrid zones between chromosome races on the flow of neutral alleles. A significant p-distance (0.69 ± 0.27%) of geographically close populations of the chromosome race Neroosa indicates the formation of the karyotype of this race in the Pliocene or Pleistocene. In our work, the phylogeographic structure was determined more by species area fragmentation than by its karyotypic features. PMID:26310034

  17. Molecular Phylogeny Supports Repeated Adaptation to Burrowing within Small-Eared Shrews Genus of Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae).

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Woodman, Neal; Boaglio, Sean; Roberts, Mariel; Supekar, Sunjana; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2015-01-01

    Small-eared shrews of the New World genus Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) comprise at least 42 species that traditionally have been partitioned among four or more species groups based on morphological characters. The Cryptotis mexicana species group is of particular interest, because its member species inhibit a subtly graded series of forelimb adaptations that appear to correspond to locomotory behaviors that range from more ambulatory to more fossorial. Unfortunately, the evolutionary relationships both among species in the C. mexicana group and among the species groups remain unclear. To better understand the phylogeny of this group of shrews, we sequenced two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. To help interpret the pattern and direction of morphological changes, we also generated a matrix of morphological characters focused on the evolutionarily plastic humerus. We found significant discordant between the resulting molecular and morphological trees, suggesting considerable convergence in the evolution of the humerus. Our results indicate that adaptations for increased burrowing ability evolved repeatedly within the genus Cryptotis. PMID:26489020

  18. Genomic Characterization of Yogue, Kasokero, Issyk-Kul, Keterah, Gossas, and Thiafora Viruses: Nairoviruses Naturally Infecting Bats, Shrews, and Ticks.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Widen, Steven G; Firth, Cadhla; Blasdell, Kim R; Wood, Thomas G; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2015-11-01

    The genus Nairovirus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses includes the important emerging human pathogen, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), as well as Nairobi sheep disease virus and many other poorly described viruses isolated from mammals, birds, and ticks. Here, we report genome sequence analysis of six nairoviruses: Thiafora virus (TFAV) that was isolated from a shrew in Senegal; Yogue (YOGV), Kasokero (KKOV), and Gossas (GOSV) viruses isolated from bats in Senegal and Uganda; Issyk-Kul virus (IKV) isolated from bats in Kyrgyzstan; and Keterah virus (KTRV) isolated from ticks infesting a bat in Malaysia. The S, M, and L genome segments of each virus were found to encode proteins corresponding to the nucleoprotein, polyglycoprotein, and polymerase protein of CCHFV. However, as observed in Leopards Hill virus (LPHV) and Erve virus (ERVV), polyglycoproteins encoded in the M segment lack sequences encoding the double-membrane-spanning CCHFV NSm protein. Amino acid sequence identities, complement-fixation tests, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses cluster into three groups comprising KKOV, YOGV, and LPHV from bats of the suborder Yingochiroptera; KTRV, IKV, and GOSV from bats of the suborder Yangochiroptera; and TFAV and ERVV from shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae). This reflects clade-specific host and vector associations that extend across the genus. PMID:26324724

  19. Functional skeletal morphology and its implications for locomotory behavior among three genera of myosoricine shrews (Mammalia: Eulipotyphla: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Woodman, Neal; Stabile, Frank A

    2015-05-01

    Myosoricinae is a small clade of shrews (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) that is currently restricted to the African continent. Individual species have limited distributions that are often associated with higher elevations. Although the majority of species in the subfamily are considered ambulatory in their locomotory behavior, species of the myosoricine genus Surdisorex are known to be semifossorial. To better characterize variation in locomotory behaviors among myosoricines, we calculated 32 morphological indices from skeletal measurements from nine species representing all three genera that comprise the subfamily (i.e., Congosorex, Myosorex, Surdisorex) and compared them to indices calculated for two species with well-documented locomotory behaviors: the ambulatory talpid Uropsilus soricipes and the semifossorial talpid Neurotrichus gibbsii. We summarized the 22 most complete morphological variables by 1) calculating a mean percentile rank for each species and 2) using the first principal component from principal component analysis of the indices. The two methods yielded similar results and indicate grades of adaptations reflecting a range of potential locomotory behaviors from ambulatory to semifossorial that exceeds the range represented by the two talpids. Morphological variation reflecting grades of increased semifossoriality among myosoricine shrews is similar in many respects to that seen for soricines, but some features are unique to the Myosoricinae. PMID:25678028

  20. Cholesterol induces lipoprotein lipase expression in a tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linqiang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Yunhai; Liao, Shasha; Wu, Xiaoyun; Chang, Qing; Liang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are indispensible to investigate the pathogenesis and treatments of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Altered cholesterol metabolism has been implicated into the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Here, using high fat, cholesterol and cholate diet (HFHC), we generated a novel tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of NAFLD, which displayed dyslipidemia with increased levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), but decreased level of triglycerides (TG). Liver histopathology and genes expression indicated that HFHC diet successfully induced liver steatosis to inflammation and fibrosis progressively within 10 weeks. Moreover, HFHC induced the transcriptional expression of lipoprotein lipase (lpl) in the liver, but repressed the expression of LDL receptor, and the endogenous synthesis pathway and excretion of cholesterol. Notably, Poloxamer 407 (P-407) inhibition of LPL improved the severity of steatosis and reduced inflammation. These results illustrated that LPL plays an important role in cholesterol metabolism in NAFLD, and the tree shrew may be a valuable animal model for further research into NAFLD. PMID:26522240

  1. Functional skeletal morphology and its implications for locomotory behavior among three genera of myosoricine shrews (Mammalia: Eulipotyphla: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Stabile, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Myosoricinae is a small clade of shrews (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) that is currently restricted to the African continent. Individual species have limited distributions that are often associated with higher elevations. Although the majority of species in the subfamily are considered ambulatory in their locomotory behavior, species of the myosoricine genus Surdisorex are known to be semifossorial. To better characterize variation in locomotory behaviors among myosoricines, we calculated 32 morphological indices from skeletal measurements from nine species representing all three genera that comprise the subfamily (i.e., Congosorex, Myosorex, Surdisorex) and compared them to indices calculated for two species with well-documented locomotory behaviors: the ambulatory talpid Uropsilus soricipes and the semifossorial talpid Neurotrichus gibbsii. We summarized the 22 most complete morphological variables by 1) calculating a mean percentile rank for each species and 2) using the first principal component from principal component analysis of the indices. The two methods yielded similar results and indicate grades of adaptations reflecting a range of potential locomotory behaviors from ambulatory to semifossorial that exceeds the range represented by the two talpids. Morphological variation reflecting grades of increased semifossoriality among myosoricine shrews is similar in many respects to that seen for soricines, but some features are unique to the Myosoricinae.

  2. Fossil shrews from Honduras and their significance for late glacial evolution in body size (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Croft, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Our study of mammalian remains excavated in the 1940s from McGrew Cave, north of Copan, Honduras, yielded an assemblage of 29 taxa that probably accumulated predominantly as the result of predation by owls. Among the taxa present are three species of small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis. One species, Cryptotis merriami, is relatively rare among the fossil remains. The other two shrews, Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis orophila, are abundant and exhibit morpho metrical variation distinguishing them from modern populations. Fossils of C. goodwini are distinctly and consistently smaller than modern members of the species. To quantify the size differences, we derived common measures of body size for fossil C. goodwini using regression models based on modern samples of shrews in the Cryptotis mexicana-group. Estimated mean length of head and body for the fossil sample is 72-79 mm, and estimated mean mass is 7.6-9.6 g. These numbers indicate that the fossil sample averaged 6-14% smaller in head and body length and 39-52% less in mass than the modern sample and that increases of 6-17% in head and body length and 65-108% in mass occurred to achieve the mean body size of the modern sample. Conservative estimates of fresh (wet) food intake based on mass indicate that such a size increase would require a 37-58% increase in daily food consumption. In contrast to C. goodwini, fossil C. orophila from the cave is not different in mean body size from modern samples. The fossil sample does, however, show slightly greater variation in size than is currently present throughout the modern geographical distribution of the taxon. Moreover, variation in some other dental and mandibular characters is more constrained, exhibiting a more direct relationship to overall size. Our study of these species indicates that North American shrews have not all been static in size through time, as suggested by some previous work with fossil soricids. Lack of stratigraphic control within the site and our

  3. Milestones of Asian Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Fakhro, Abdulla; Wagner, Ryan D; Kim, Yong Kyu; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    The field of plastic surgery originally developed out of the necessity to reconstruct the human body after the destruction of war. However, injured soldiers were not the only people who desired a change in appearance. After World War II, many people in Asian countries sought to attain a more Western look through surgery. Along with eyes, the nose was the main focus for these cosmetic procedures. In this article, the authors examine the evolution of Asian rhinoplasty from its original description in 1964 to the present. The characteristic anatomical differences between the Western and Asian nose are identified in relation to the technical challenges for rhinoplasty surgeons. Then the benefits and risks of the two major surgical approaches, autograft versus alloplast, are detailed. Finally, the coevolution of techniques and implant usage is traced from a dorsum-only implant, to an L-shaped implant, a cartilaginous cap graft with a one-piece rhinoplasty, an I-shaped implant, and a two-piece augmentation rhinoplasty. Outlining these changes demonstrates the advancement of the field of plastic surgery and the growing expectations of the patient. These advancements have provided the tools necessary to better align a patient's aesthetic goals and their unique anatomical presentation with a specific surgical approach. PMID:26648800

  4. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  5. A Mitochondrial Phylogeny and Biogeographical Scenario for Asiatic Water Shrews of the Genus Chimarrogale: Implications for Taxonomy and Low-Latitude Migration Routes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shou-Li; Jiang, Xue-Long; Li, Zhen-Ji; He, Kai; Harada, Masashi; Oshida, Tatsuo; Lin, Liang-Kong

    2013-01-01

    The six species and three subspecies in the genus Chimarrogale (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) are commonly referred to as Asiatic water shrews. The Chimarrogale are the most widely distributed group of Nectogaline shrews, extending throughout the Oriental region and Japan. Because of the limited numbers of specimens available for study, the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical history of this genus have not been comprehensively discussed. We used mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences to estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among four Chimarrogale species, including all three subspecies of Chimarrogale himalayica. We also conducted a species delimitation analysis and tested two alternative migration scenarios in Asia through species distribution modeling and a reconstruction of the ancestral distribution. Here, we present the first proposed hypothesis regarding the Asiatic water shrew phylogeny and reveal ten putative species within the four recognized species. Distinct phylogenetic statuses of Chimarrogale phaeura, Chimarrogale platycephala, and Chimarrogale styani were confirmed. Chimarrogale himalayica was strongly supported as paraphyletic. We suggest that three subspecies of Chimarrogale himalayica should be reconsidered as distinct species. However, these suggestions must be considered with caution because only a single locus of a mtDNA gene was used. Four additional putative species, possibly distributed in central southwestern China and Taiwan, are currently undescribed; therefore, comprehensive morphological analyses are warranted to test their taxonomic statuses. The estimated molecular divergence times indicated that rapid speciation occurred during the early Pliocene, and current distribution patterns may have been affected by global cooling during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Reconstruction of the ancestral distribution and species distribution modeling for Asiatic water shrews revealed a low-latitude migration route

  6. An Overview of Asian Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; An, Yang; Yang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    East Asian rhinoplasty is an expanding topic in the field of rhinoplasty. Although the main principles of various rhinoplasty techniques apply equally to the East Asian nose, East Asian rhinoplasty is unique owing to its different anatomy and ethnicity. In recent years, there have been some noteworthy developments in East Asian rhinoplasty. Traditional techniques using alloplastic implants with endonasal approach are changing due to the advent of new beauty concept, introduction of new techniques, and development of newly improved materials expended polytetrafluoroethylene as an alloplastic material has gained popularity in Asian augmentation rhinoplasty. Soft expended polytetrafluoroethylene sheets as augmentation material provide promise in the future. In this review, we will highlight some of the recent advances of Asian rhinoplasty with emphasis on dorsal augmentation, advances in implant material, and tip surgery using autologous cartilage. PMID:27404467

  7. Recent advances in Asian rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Ryul; Won, Tae-Bin

    2011-04-01

    Asian rhinoplasty is an expanding topic in the field of rhinoplasty. Although the main principles of various rhinoplasty techniques apply equally to the Asian nose, Asian rhinoplasty is unique owing to its different anatomy and ethnicity. In recent years there have been some noteworthy developments in Asian rhinoplasty. Traditional techniques using alloplastic implants with endonasal approach are changing due to the advent of new beauty concept, introduction of new techniques, and development of newly improved materials. In this review, we will highlight some of the recent advances of Asian rhinoplasty with emphasis on dorsal augmentation, advances in implant material and tip surgery using autologous cartilage. Finally with increase of revision cases, issues relevant to revision rhinoplasty in Asians will be addressed. PMID:20728295

  8. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother. PMID:8109248

  9. Rhinoplasty in the Asian Patient.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong Ryul; Won, Tae-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous goal of rhinoplasty is to make a natural-looking and attractive nose that blends harmoniously with the face. Rhinoplasty among Asians includes characteristics that distinguish the procedure from its white counterpart. Anatomic differences of the Asian nose coupled with differences in aesthetic standards demand they be approached in a unique way. In this article, peculiar aspects of Asian rhinoplasty are addressed with emphasis on surgical techniques used to obtain reliable results. PMID:26616713

  10. The Asian Eyelid: Relevant Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Suhk, Jeong Hoon; Nguyen, Anh H.

    2015-01-01

    The eyelid of Asians has its own unique characteristics. If the surgeon does not acknowledge this, aesthetically pleasing results will seldom be achieved. Here the authors review and summarize important up-to-date anatomical and relevant clinical studies of the Asian upper eyelid, aiming to help surgeons thoroughly understand its unique features, including Asian eyelid morphology, anatomical details, and the mechanisms of upper eyelid crease formation. Hopefully, an in-depth understanding of the Asian eyelid will aid surgeons to accomplish their work and lead to novel new techniques in this field. PMID:26306082

  11. Faculty Housing Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    1982-01-01

    Some of the creative financing programs currently used to provide faculty housing assistance in California and elsewhere in the United States are described. Generally, the programs fall into one of four categories: rental housing, owner housing, mortgage assistance, and housing stipends. Institutions with a comprehensive housing program often have…

  12. Housing the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Innovative housing designs are needed for the growing number of elderly Americans who suffer because of the limited living options provided by inflexible housing. Creative alternatives include double houses, shared living, intergenerational housing, and adaptable houses. Long-term planning is needed to construct an attractive environment that does…

  13. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  14. Empirical demonstration of hybrid chromosomal races in house mice.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Mabel D; Panithanarak, Thadsin; Hauffe, Heidi C; Searle, Jeremy B

    2016-07-01

    Western house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and common shrews (Sorex araneus) are important models for study of chromosomal speciation. Both had ancestral karyotypes consisting of telocentric chromosomes, and each is subdivided into numerous chromosomal races many of which have resulted from fixation of new mutations (Robertsonian fusions and whole-arm reciprocal translocations). However, some chromosomal races in both species may alternatively have originated through hybridization, with particular homozygous recombinant products reaching fixation. Here, we demonstrate the process of generation of hybrid chromosomal races for the first time in either species using molecular markers. Analysis of centromeric microsatellite markers show that the Mid Valtellina (IMVA) and Upper Valtellina (IUVA) chromosomal races of the house mouse are recombinant products of hybridization of the Lower Valtellina (ILVA) and Poschiavo (CHPO) chromosomal races, supporting earlier theoretical analysis. IMVA and IUVA occupy a small area of the Italian Alps where ILVA makes contact with CHPO. IUVA and CHPO have previously been shown to be reproductively isolated in one village, emphasizing that hybrid chromosomal races in small mammals, as in plants, have the potential to be part of the speciation process. PMID:27287407

  15. Southeast Asian tropical medicine and parasitology network.

    PubMed

    Waikagul, Jitra

    2006-01-01

    The SEAMEO TROPMED Network is a regional cooperative network established in 1967 for education, training and research in tropical medicine and public health under the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education Organization. The Network operates through four Regional Centers with respective areas of specialization and host institutions: Community Nutrition/Tropmed Indonesia; Microbiology, Parasitology and Entomology/Tropmed Malaysia; Public Health/Tropmed Philippines; and Tropical Medicine/Tropmed Thailand. To train health workers, to support research on endemic and newly emerging diseases, and to advocate relevant health policies are the main functions of these centers. SEAMEO TROPMED Network in collaboration with the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University and other institutions has regularly organized the Seminar on Food-borne Parasitic Zoonoses every 3-5 years over the past 15 years. The Faculty of Tropical Medicine has organized the annual Joint International Tropical Medicine Meeting since 1996. Full papers of the presentations at these two meetings have been published as supplementary issues to the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, an in-house journal of SEAMEO TROPMED Network. Recently, the Parasitology Association of ASEAN Countries has rotated the hosting of the ASEAN Congress of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine. These institutional and conference networks will enable closer links, to promote the health of people in the Southeast Asian region. PMID:16326132

  16. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  17. The Asian Woman in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Gloria L.

    Asian women have been in the United States for over one hundred and twenty years. They are, however, still victims of both sexual and racial stereotyping, the "cheap labor" syndrome, and are denied the opportunity to learn about their own history, heritage, and culture. Traditional female roles among Asian immigrants and a legacy of discriminatory…

  18. Handbook of Asian American Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lee C., Ed.; Zane, Nolan W. S., Ed.

    This handbook integrates descriptions and evaluations of current psychological research on all ethnic subgroups of Asian Americans, providing insights into the diverse and varied nature of Asian American cultures. Following a Foreword by Dick Suinn, the chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Lee C. Lee); (2) "Research Methods: The Construct Validity of…

  19. Asian Americans in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Various articles include the following concerns: a year-long study shows that 66 books about Asian Americans are elitist, racist, and sexist; practical guidelines for selection of nonracist, nonsexist books are provided; a noted playwright looks at the image of Asian Americans in children's books and finds it racist science fiction; the…

  20. East Asian observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. R.

    East Asian observations are of established importance in Applied Historical Astronomy. The earliest astronomical records from this part of the world (China, Japan and Korea) originate from China. These observations, mainly of lunar eclipses, are recorded on oracle bones from the period ca. 1300 - 1050 BC. Virtually all later Chinese and other East Asian astronomical records now exist only in printed copies. The earliest surviving series of solar eclipse observations from any part of the world is contained in the Chunqiu (722 - 481 BC), a chronicle of the Chinese state of Lu. However, not until after 200 BC, with the establishment of a stable empire in China, do detailed astronomical records survive. These are mainly contained in specially compiled astrological treatises in the official dynastic histories. Such records, following the traditional style, extend down to the start of the present century. All classes of phenomena visible to the unaided eye are represented: solar and lunar eclipses, lunar and planetary movements among the constellations, comets, novae and supernovae, meteors, sunspots and the aurora borealis. Parallel, but independent series of observations are recorded in Japanese and Korean history, especially after about AD 800. Sources of Japanese records tend to be more diverse than their Chinese and Korean counterparts, but fortunately Kanda Shigeru (1935) and Ohsaki Shyoji (1994) have made extensive compilations of Japanese astronomical observations down to the 1860s. Throughout East Asia, dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar.

  1. Interglacial refugia preserved high genetic diversity of the Chinese mole shrew in the mountains of southwest China.

    PubMed

    He, K; Hu, N-Q; Chen, X; Li, J-T; Jiang, X-L

    2016-01-01

    The mountains of southwest China (MSC) harbor extremely high species diversity; however, the mechanism behind this diversity is unknown. We investigated to what degree the topography and climate change shaped the genetic diversity and diversification in these mountains, and we also sought to identify the locations of microrefugia areas in these mountains. For these purposes, we sampled extensively to estimate the intraspecific phylogenetic pattern of the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) in southwest China throughout its range of distribution. Two mitochondrial genes, namely, cytochrome b (CYT B) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), from 383 archived specimens from 43 localities were determined for phylogeographic and demographic analyses. We used the continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot species distribution modeling (SDM) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to explore the changes in population size and distribution through time of the species. Two phylogenetic clades were identified, and significantly higher genetic diversity was preserved in the southern subregion of the mountains. The results of the SDM, continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot and ABC analyses were congruent and supported that the Last Interglacial Maximum (LIG) was an unfavorable period for the mole shrews because of a high degree of seasonality; A. squamipes survived in isolated interglacial refugia mainly located in the southern subregion during the LIG and rapidly expanded during the last glacial period. These results furnished the first evidence for major Pleistocene interglacial refugia and a latitudinal effect in southwest China, and the results shedding light on the higher level of species richness in the southern subregion. PMID:26286667

  2. Anandamide transport inhibition by ARN272 attenuates nausea-induced behaviour in rats, and vomiting in shrews (Suncus murinus)

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, L D; Limebeer, C L; Rock, E M; Bottegoni, G; Piomelli, D; Parker, L A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose To understand how anandamide transport inhibition impacts the regulation of nausea and vomiting and the receptor level mechanism of action involved. In light of recent characterization of an anandamide transporter, fatty acid amide hydrolase-1-like anandamide transporter, to provide behavioural support for anandamide cellular reuptake as a facilitated transport process. Experimental Approach The systemic administration of the anandamide transport inhibitor ARN272 ([(4-(5-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-3,4-diaza-bicyclo[4.4.0]deca-1(6),2,4,7,9-pentaen-2-ylamino)-phenyl)-phenylamino-methanone]) was used to evaluate the prevention of LiCl-induced nausea-induced behaviour (conditioned gaping) in rats, and LiCl-induced emesis in shrews (Suncus murinus). The mechanism of how prolonging anandamide availability acts to regulate nausea in rats was explored by the antagonism of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors with the systemic co-administration of SR141716. Key Results The systemic administration of ARN272 produced a dose-dependent suppression of nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats, and produced a dose-dependent reduction of vomiting in shrews. The systemic co-administration of SR141716 with ARN272 (at 3.0 mg·kg−1) in rats produced a complete reversal of ARN272-suppressed gaping at 1.0 mg·kg−1. SR141716 alone did not differ from the vehicle solution. Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that anandamide transport inhibition by the compound ARN272 tonically activates CB1 receptors and as such produces a type of indirect agonism to regulate toxin-induced nausea and vomiting. The results also provide behavioural evidence in support of a facilitated transport mechanism used in the cellular reuptake of anandamide. PMID:23991698

  3. Distributional records of shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) from Northern Central America with the first record of Sorex from Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Matson, John O.; McCarthy, Timothy J.; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Bulmer, Walter; Ordonez-Garza, Nicte

    2012-01-01

    Short term surveys for small mammals in Guatemala and Honduras during 1992–2009 provided important new records for 12 taxa of shrews from 24 localities. These locality records expand the known geographic distributions for five species and for the genus Sorex Linnaeus, 1758: the geographic range of Cryptotis goodwini Jackson, 1933, now includes the Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala, and several isolated highlands in western Honduras; the known distribution of Cryptotis mayensis (Merriam, 1901) is increased with the first definite modern record for this shrew from Guatemala; Cryptotis merriami Choate, 1970, is now known to occur in the Sierra de las Minas and the Sierra del Merendon, Guatemala, as well as the isolated Sierra de Omoa and Montana de La Muralla in Honduras, and its documented elevational range (600–1720 m) is expanded; records of Sorex veraepacis Alston, 1877, expand the known distribution of this species to include the Sierra de Yalijux, Guatemala; and discovery of Sorex salvini Merriam, 1897, at Celaque, Honduras (1825–3110 m), represents a considerable extension of the geographic range of the species, and it is the first record of the genus Sorex from Honduras. In addition, the first record of potential syntopy among C. goodwini, C merriami, and Cryptotis orophilus (J.A. Allen, 1895), is reported at an elevation of 1430 m in the Sierra de Celaque, Honduras. Information associated with these records contributes substantially to knowledge of habitat use, elevational distributions, reproductive patterns, diet, and parasites of the species encountered. General patterns include the first evidence that Neotropical species of soricids have smaller litters than their temperate congeners.

  4. A Part, Yet Apart: South Asians in Asian America. Asian American History and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Lavina Dhingra, Ed.; Srikanth, Rajini, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the extent to which South Asian Americans are included within "Asian America" as the term is applied to academic programs and admissions policies, grassroots community organizing and politics, and critical analyses of cultural products. The essays are: (1) "Within Kaleidoscope Eyes: The Potential (Dangers) of…

  5. 76 FR 61348 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... entrance to the meeting location should e-mail their request to Kate.Moraras@ed.gov by October 7, 2011... INFORMATION CONTACT: Kate Moraras, White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, 400... services, assistive listening devices, or material in alternative format) should notify Kate Moraras...

  6. 76 FR 11227 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...: Shelly W. Coles, White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW...) should notify Shelly Coles at (202) 453-7277, no later than Friday, March 4, 2011. We will attempt to... WHI or the Commission may contact Shelly Coles via e-mail at shelly.coles@ed.gov . Please include...

  7. 77 FR 54572 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...., Washington, DC 20202. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shelly W. Coles, White House Initiative on Asian... Coles via email at shelly.coles@ed.gov no later than, September 24, 2012 at 3:00 p.m. EDT. Individuals... services, assistive listening devices, or material in alternative format) should notify Shelly Coles...

  8. 77 FR 22771 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Street NW., Washington, DC 20036. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shelly W. Coles, White House... Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders shall R.S.V.P. to Shelly Coles via email at shelly.coles@ed.gov no later than, May 4, 2012 at 3 p.m. EDT. Individuals who will need...

  9. Diflucortolone valerate. Asian experience.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, G

    1988-01-01

    More than 10 years ago, diflucortolone valerate (Nerisone, Nerisona) was introduced in Germany and soon after in Asian countries in a concentration of 0.1% in cream, ointment and fatty ointment bases. 897 patients were included in the first Southeast Asian multicentre trial with these 3 formulations, and good efficacy and tolerability combined with a rapid onset of effect were shown. These results were confirmed later in Indonesia in an extended follow-up trial which included 1295 patients. A combination of 0.1% diflucortolone valerate with 1.0% chlorquinaldol was introduced after a multicentre Southeast Asian trial involving 8668 patients with inflammatory or allergic skin conditions for which a supplementary anti-infective treatment, for prophylaxis or therapy, was considered to be indicated. Excellent results were obtained in terms of efficacy, tolerability and cosmetic properties. A randomised double-blind trial comparing this preparation with a so-called 'shotgun' combination containing 0.05% betamethasone 17-valerate, 0.1% gentamicin, 1.0% tolnaftate and 1.0% clioquinol in 288 patients in the Philippines resulted in a better efficacy for the diflucortolone preparation in the 80 patients with bacterially or mycotically infected skin diseases. A 0.3% concentration of diflucortolone valerate was developed and introduced as a high potency topical corticosteroid. A trial in the Philippines which involved 143 patients with mostly severe chronic recurrent and resistant corticosteroid-responsive skin disease confirmed a pronounced clinical efficacy with a low incidence of side effects. For the treatment of inflammatory or eczematised dermatomycosis. 0.1% diflucortolone was combined with 1.0% isoconazole nitrate (Travocort). In a randomised double-blind study of 294 patients in Thailand, this preparation was compared with a plain 1.0% clotrimazole formulation. The results were significantly better for the diflucortolone plus isoconazole nitrate combination in terms of

  10. The effect of intravitreal injection of vehicle solutions on form deprivation myopia in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alexander H; Siegwart, John T; Frost, Michael R; Norton, Thomas T

    2016-04-01

    lntravitreal injection of substances dissolved in a vehicle solution is a common tool used to assess retinal function. We examined the effect of injection procedures (three groups) and vehicle solutions (four groups) on the development of form deprivation myopia (FDM) in juvenile tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates, starting at 24 days of visual experience (about 45 days of age). In seven groups (n = 7 per group), the myopia produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) was measured daily for 12 days during an 11-day treatment period. The FD eye was randomly selected; the contralateral eye served as an untreated control. The refractive state of both eyes was measured daily, starting just before FD began (day 1); axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 and after eleven days of treatment (day 12). Procedure groups: the myopia (treated eye - control eye refraction) in the FD group was the reference. The sham group only underwent brief daily anesthesia and opening of the conjunctiva to expose the sclera. The puncture group, in addition, had a pipette inserted daily into the vitreous. In four vehicle groups, 5 μL of vehicle was injected daily. The NaCl group received 0.85% NaCl. In the NaCl + ascorbic acid group, 1 mg/mL of ascorbic acid was added. The water group received sterile water. The water + ascorbic acid group received water with ascorbic acid (1 mg/mL). We found that the procedures associated with intravitreal injections (anesthesia, opening of the conjunctiva, and puncture of the sclera) did not significantly affect the development of FDM. However, injecting 5 μL of any of the four vehicle solutions slowed the development of FDM. NaCl had a small effect; myopia development in the last 6 days (-0.15 ± 0.08 D/day) was significantly less than in the FD group (-0.55 ± 0.06 D/day). NaCl + Ascorbic acid further slowed the development of FDM on several treatment days. H2O (-0.09 ± 0.05 D/day) and H2O + ascorbic acid

  11. Review of the fur-mite genus Soricilichus Fain, 1970 (Acariformes: Chirodiscidae)-symbionts of the African shrews of the subfamily Crocidurinae (Soricomorpha: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Mbalitini, Sylvestre G; Verheyen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The fur-mite genus Soricilichus Fain, 1970 (3 species) (Acariformes: Chirodiscidae) represented by permanent symbionts of the African shrews of the subfamily Crocidurinae (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) is revised. The external morphology of these species was investigated with light and scanning electron microscopy. Based on the type specimens and newly obtained samples, 2 recognized species, S. scutisorex Fain, 1970 from Scutisorex somereni Thomas and S. kivuensis Fain, 1981 from Crocidura sp.-both are from DR of Congo-are redescribed. A new species S. sylvisorex sp. nov. found on shrews of the genera Sylvisorex (S. granti Thomas (type host), S. lunaris Thomas, S. vulcanorum Hutterer and Verheyen) and Crocidura (C. denti Dollman, C. cf. niobe, Crocidura sp.), collected in the DR Congo is also described. An amended generic diagnosis, including description of female immature stages, and a key to species are provided. PMID:27395921

  12. Housing, Design, and Furnishings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a six-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on housing, design, and furnishings. The units cover: (1) the societal aspects of housing (including the relationship between housing and the economy, population trends, and culture-related housing characteristics); (2) family housing…

  13. A Catholic Response to the Asian Presence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Suzanne E., Ed.; And Others

    This report, the result in part of a series of hearings with Asian parents, educators, ministers, and many non-Asian Church leaders ministering to Asian communities within the United States, treats many aspects of educating and welcoming Asian groups into the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. The text includes a report on those hearings,…

  14. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  15. Working with Asian Parents: Some Communication Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Maryon

    1989-01-01

    Communication guidelines are offered to enhance the effectiveness of conferences between speech-language pathologists and parents of Asian minority children with communication disorders. Identified are relevant aspects of Asian culture, cultural factors which influence Asian parents' reactions to disabilities, and interpersonal styles of Asians.…

  16. The East Asian Jet Stream and Asian-Pacific Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the NASA GEOS and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses and GPCP rainfall data have been used to study the variability of the East Asian westerly jet stream and its impact on the Asian-Pacific climate, with a focus on interannual time scales. Results indicate that external forcings such as sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface processes also play an important role in the variability of the jet although this variability is strongly governed by internal dynamics. There is a close link between the jet and Asian-Pacific climate including the Asian winter monsoon and tropical convection. The atmospheric teleconnection pattern associated with the jet is different from the ENSO-related pattern. The influence of the jet on eastern Pacific and North American climate is also discussed.

  17. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Ahn, Sang Tae; Kim, Nakyung

    2013-01-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is the most common plastic surgery procedure in Asia and has consistently maintained its position as cultural acceptance and techniques have evolved. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty is a complex procedure that requires comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and precise surgical technique. The creation of the supratarsal crease has gone through many evolutions in technique but the principles and goals remain the same: a functional, natural-appearing eyelid crease that brings out the beauty of the Asian eye. Recent advances have improved functional and aesthetic outcomes of Asian upper lid blepharoplasty. PMID:23186767

  18. Brevinema andersonii gen. nov., sp. nov., an infectious spirochete isolated from the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Defosse, D L; Johnson, R C; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Fraser, G J

    1995-01-01

    A spirochete which infects short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) has been shown previously to be ultrastructurally and serologically distinct from other spirochetes. Two of the original isolates from Connecticut and Minnesota and 16 new isolates obtained from shrews captured in Minnesota were characterized phenotypically and genetically in this study. A comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of two shrew isolates and one mouse isolate and the 16S rRNA sequences of 16 other spirochetes and Escherichia coli revealed that these organisms exhibited low levels of similarity (range of similarity values, 73.9 to 77.8%; average level of similarity, 74.7%). The shrew and mouse isolates which we examined formed a deeply branching subgroup that was clearly distinct from the other genera of spirochetes examined. These and other results indicated that the new spirochetes represent a unique taxon in the order Spirochaetales. Accordingly, we propose that they should be classified as members of a new genus, Brevinema. The three strains of Brevinema which we examined had 16S rRNA sequences that were nearly identical. We also compared these isolates by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fatty acid and enzyme analyses, restriction endonuclease analysis, and Southern hybridization and found that the levels of genetic and phenotypic homogeneity among the strains were very high. We concluded that the isolates which we examined were members of a single species, for which we propose the name Brevinema andersonii. The type strain of Brevinema andersonii is CT11616 (= ATCC 43811).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7857811

  19. Transcriptome Profiles Using Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Liver Changes in the Early Stage of Diabetes in Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haibo; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chang, Qing; Liao, Shasha; Zhang, Linqiang; Li, Yunhai; Wu, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    Determining the liver changes during the early stages of diabetes is critical to understand the nature of the disease and development of novel treatments for it. Advances in the use of animal models and next-generation sequencing technologies offer a powerful tool in connection between liver changes and the diabetes. Here, we created a tree shrew diabetes model akin to type 1 diabetes by using streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Using RNA-seq, we compiled liver transcriptome profiles to determine the differentially expressed genes and to explore the role of hyperglycemia in liver changes. Our results, respectively, identified 14,060 and 14,335 genes in healthy tree shrews and those with diabetes, with 70 genes differentially expressed between the two groups. Gene orthology and KEGG annotation revealed that several of the main biological processes of these genes were related to translational processes, steroid metabolic processes, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hypertension, all of which are highly associated with diabetes and its complications. These results collectively suggest that STZ induces hyperglycemia in tree shrew and that hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress led to high expression of aldose reductase, inflammation, and even cell death in liver tissues during the early stage of diabetes. PMID:27069931

  20. Identification and distribution of the Olympic Shrew (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), Sorex rohweriRausch et al., 2007 in Oregon and Washington, based on USNM specimens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Fisher, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Review of specimens of long-tailed shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae, Sorex) from the northwestern United States in the National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Washington, DC, has revealed the presence of the Olympic Shrew, Sorex rohweri Rausch et al., 2007, in the Coastal Range west of the Willamette Valley in Oregon. This determination nearly doubles the documented distribution for this species and increases the species diversity of soricids in Oregon to eleven. Sorex rohweri is relatively uncommon, but it occurs in a variety of forest successional stages and even clear cuts, as long as there is nearby forest and trees are allowed to regenerate. All USNM specimens from Washington formerly identified as S. cinereus streatori Merriam, 1895 are instead referable to the Olympic Shrew. The distribution of S. c. streatori is thereby restricted to the Pacific coasts of British Columbia north of the lower Frasier River and south central Alaska. Our study highlights the importance of taking and preserving high-quality voucher specimens in a collection where they are readily available for re-study.

  1. Comparative Morphology of the Papillae Linguales and their Connective Tissue Cores in the Tongue of the Greater Japanese Shrew-mole, Urotrichus talpoides

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, K; Shindo, J; Kageyama, I

    2013-01-01

    The external morphology of the papillae linguales (papillae filiformes, papillae fungiformes and papillae vallatae) and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the greater Japanese shrew-mole (Urotrichus talpoides) were analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Papillae filiformes were distributed over the dorsal surface of the apex linguae, and on the rostral and caudal regions of the corpus linguae but were less numerous in the mid-region. They were absent from the radix linguae. A pair of oval papillae vallatae was situated at the border between the corpus linguae and the radix linguae. Papillae foliatae were absent. The epithelial surface of each papilla filiformis consisted of a circular concavity, a ring-like wall and either a single thumb-like process or 2–3 slender pointed processes, depending on their location. The morphology of the CTCs of the papillae filiformes also varied regionally. The papillae linguales of the Japanese shrew-mole were morphologically similar to those of other Talpidae and Soricidae, including the common shrew, particularly with respect to the papillae filiformes in the mid- and caudal regions of the corpus linguae. PMID:22571539

  2. Transcriptome Profiles Using Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Liver Changes in the Early Stage of Diabetes in Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyun; Xu, Haibo; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chang, Qing; Liao, Shasha; Zhang, Linqiang; Li, Yunhai; Wu, Dongdong; Liang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Determining the liver changes during the early stages of diabetes is critical to understand the nature of the disease and development of novel treatments for it. Advances in the use of animal models and next-generation sequencing technologies offer a powerful tool in connection between liver changes and the diabetes. Here, we created a tree shrew diabetes model akin to type 1 diabetes by using streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Using RNA-seq, we compiled liver transcriptome profiles to determine the differentially expressed genes and to explore the role of hyperglycemia in liver changes. Our results, respectively, identified 14,060 and 14,335 genes in healthy tree shrews and those with diabetes, with 70 genes differentially expressed between the two groups. Gene orthology and KEGG annotation revealed that several of the main biological processes of these genes were related to translational processes, steroid metabolic processes, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hypertension, all of which are highly associated with diabetes and its complications. These results collectively suggest that STZ induces hyperglycemia in tree shrew and that hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress led to high expression of aldose reductase, inflammation, and even cell death in liver tissues during the early stage of diabetes. PMID:27069931

  3. Bounds for Asian basket options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  4. 24 CFR 982.609 - Congregate housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. 982.609 Section 982.609 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION...

  5. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8...

  6. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8...

  7. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION...

  8. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8...

  9. Definition of squatter housing.

    PubMed

    Gedik, A

    1993-01-01

    One of the most critical urban problems of developing countries is squatter housing. Squatter housing was defined as housing illegally established and roughly constructed. The initial structure was small in size, made of low-quality materials, and built with nominal labor costs on squatter land with a nominal rent. The basic housing unit may be expanded over time. Squatter housing arises out of a variety of circumstances, including an inadequate supply of old depleted formal housing near the central business district. Squatter housing is attractive to migrants and others in low-income and insecure employment. Improvements in squatter housing locations are possible when spatial location problems are not a concern. Policies concerning squatter housing have changed over time. Most government policies accept the inevitability of squatter housing and seek to improve and upgrade housing and public service conditions. The literature on squatter housing spans a variety of forms of housing. The variety of forms was due to the variety of levels of development within countries, changes over time, and changes toward a more permanent population in the labor force rather then temporary migrants. The forms of housing were identified as legal-formal residential housing which excluded slums, residential slums, squatter housing, and other residential housing. Set theory was used to clarify, with explicitness and a minimum of redundancies, 14 different sets. The 14 sets revolved around socioeconomic levels, housing and environmental conditions, construction process, land ownership, zoning regulations, subdivision regulations, and building construction regulations. Legal-formal housing meant legal land ownership and conformity to legal zoning, subdivision, and building construction regulations. Usually housing was of higher quality and construction was according to a time schedule. Slum housing also conformed to legal status and a regular time span for construction, but the

  10. Impacts of East Asian aerosols on the Asian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Rachel; Bollasina, Massimo; Booth, Ben; Dunstone, Nick; Marenco, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Over recent decades, aerosol emissions from Asia have increased rapidly. Aerosols are able to alter radiative forcing and regional hydroclimate through direct and indirect effects. Large emissions within the geographical region of the Asian monsoon have been found to impact upon this vital system and have been linked to observed drying trends. The interconnected nature of smaller regional monsoon components (e.g. the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon) presents the possibility that aerosol sources could have far-reaching impacts. Future aerosol emissions are uncertain and may continue to dominate regional impacts on the Asian monsoon. Standard IPCC future emissions scenarios do not take a broad sample of possible aerosol pathways. We investigate the sensitivity of the Asian monsoon to East Asian aerosol emissions. Experiments carried out with HadGEM2-ES use three time-evolving future anthropogenic aerosol emissions scenarios with similar time-evolving greenhouse gases. We find a wetter summer over southern China and the Indochina Peninsula associated with increased sulfate aerosol over China. The southern-flood-northern-drought pattern seen in observations is reflected in these results. India is found to be drier in the summer overall, although wetter in June. These precipitation changes are linked to the increase in sulfate through the alteration of large scale dynamics. Sub-seasonal changes are also seen, with an earlier withdrawal of the monsoon over East Asia.

  11. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  12. ICI Showcase House Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-16

    Building Science Corporation collaborated with ICI Homes in Daytona Beach, FL on a 2008 prototype Showcase House that demonstrates the energy efficiency and durability upgrades that ICI currently promotes through its in-house efficiency program called EFactor.

  13. Student-Initiated Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild, Robert M.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes a report that describes housing where student groups lease, purchase, or even develop their own living quarters. Considers the birth of the movement, federal student housing programs, and a view to future programs. (Author/DN)

  14. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, David B.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.

  15. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, D.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member. 3 figs.

  16. The Hispanic Housing Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbeare, Cushing N.; Canales, Judith A.

    This report examines the housing characteristics and needs of Hispanic households in the United States, drawing on information from the 1980 Census and the 1983 Annual Housing Survey. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) housing quality is a major problem for more than one in six Hispanic families; (2) among Hispanic subgroups, Puerto…

  17. Equal Opportunity in Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This overview of developments in housing opportunities for minorities and women includes an historical review of housing discrimination, its nature, and its effects. Federal legislation and Federal actions which were taken to assure equal housing opportunities for women and minorities are described. Other topic areas addressed include minority…

  18. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  19. Housing: Topic Paper F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This paper, one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, addresses the issue of housing. Major federal responsibilities are to develop additional housing opportunities for persons with disabilities and to assure that currently available housing is equally open to individuals with…

  20. The Tarascan Indian House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Joyce

    1989-01-01

    This lesson plan introduces K-grade three students to Mexican Indian architecture. Students will become familiar with the cultural context of the Indian treasure house; discuss the use of wood as the sole building material; compare the treasure house with present day structures; and create miniature treasure houses using wood materials. (GEA)

  1. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of the Round-Eared Sengis or Elephant-Shrews, Genus Macroscelides (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Macroscelidea)

    PubMed Central

    Dumbacher, John P.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Smit, Hanneline A.; Eiseb, Seth J.

    2012-01-01

    The round-eared sengis or elephant-shrews (genus Macroscelides) exhibit striking pelage variation throughout their ranges. Over ten taxonomic names have been proposed to describe this variation, but currently only two taxa are recognized (M. proboscideus proboscideus and M. p. flavicaudatus). Here, we review the taxonomic history of Macroscelides, and we use data on the geographic distribution, morphology, and mitochondrial DNA sequence to evaluate the current taxonomy. Our data support only two taxa that correspond to the currently recognized subspecies M. p. proboscideus and M. p. flavicaudatus. Mitochondrial haplotypes of these two taxa are reciprocally monophyletic with over 13% uncorrected sequence divergence between them. PCA analysis of 14 morphological characters (mostly cranial) grouped the two taxa into non-overlapping clusters, and body mass alone is a relatively reliable distinguishing character throughout much of Macroscelides range. Although fieldworkers were unable to find sympatric populations, the two taxa were found within 50 km of each other, and genetic analysis showed no evidence of gene flow. Based upon corroborating genetic data, morphological data, near sympatry with no evidence of gene flow, and differences in habitat use, we elevate these two forms to full species. PMID:22479325

  2. Blarina toxin, a mammalian lethal venom from the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda: Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masaki; Nakamura, Yasuo; Okumura, Yuushi; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Oba, Yuichi; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu; Kido, Hiroshi; Uemura, Daisuke

    2004-05-18

    Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been characterized. We have purified and characterized the blarina toxin (BLTX), a lethal mammalian venom with a tissue kallikrein-like activity from the submaxillary and sublingual glands of the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda. Mice administered BLTX i.p. developed irregular respiration, paralysis, and convulsions before dying. Based on the amino acid sequence of purified protein, we cloned the BLTX cDNA. It consists of a prosequence and an active form of 253 aa with a typical catalytic triad of serine proteases, with a high identity with tissue kallikreins. BLTX is an N-linked microheterogeneous glycoprotein with a unique insertion of 10 residues, L(106)TFFYKTFLG(115). BLTX converted kininogens to kinins, which may be one of the toxic pathogens, and had dilatory effects on the blood vessel walls. The acute toxicity and proteolytic activity of BLTX were strongly inhibited by aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor, suggesting that its toxicity is due to a kallikrein-like activity of the venom. PMID:15136743

  3. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

  4. Lethal disease in infant and juvenile Syrian hamsters experimentally infected with Imjin virus, a newfound crocidurine shrew-borne hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Luck Ju; Kurata, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-12-01

    To gain insights into the pathogenicity of Imjin virus (MJNV), a newfound hantavirus isolated from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), groups of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of varying ages (<1, 5, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 56 days) were inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with 1000 pfu of MJNV strains 04-55 and 05-11. MJNV-infected Syrian hamsters, aged 21 days or less, exhibited reduced activity, weight loss, respiratory distress, hind-limb paralysis and seizures. Death ensued 1 to 6 days after onset of clinical disease. MJNV RNA was detected in brain and other major organs by RT-PCR and real time-PCR. Histopathological examination showed alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonia and severe pulmonary congestion; focal hepatic necrosis and portal inflammation; and acute meningoencephalitis. By immunohistochemistry, MJNV antigen was detected in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells. Older hamsters (35 and 56 days of age) developed subclinical infection without histopathological changes. Future studies are warranted to determine the pathophysiologic bases for the differential age susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to lethal MJNV disease. PMID:26371066

  5. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews.

    PubMed

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies. PMID:27375516

  6. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies. PMID:27375516

  7. Culturally Speaking: Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    The celebration of the Asian Pacific American heritage month is to be held in May 2004. The librarians are advised to include authentic literature by and about Asian Americans for cross-cultural understanding.

  8. Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mengge; Zhao, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common autosomal disorder characterized by an elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and a high risk of premature cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize information on FH studies in Asian countries, focusing on mean cholesterol level, FH frequency, diagnostic criteria, genotypes, and clinical care of FH patients in Asian populations. Compared with Western countries, most Asian countries had lower mean cholesterol levels, with a significant variation between different countries. In the limited studies reported, a frequency of 1/900 was reported in Hokuriku district, Japan in 1977 and a frequency of 1/85 among Christian Lebanese in 1979. Recently, a population study in China reported frequencies of 0.47% and 0.28%. However, the different FH frequencies reported were based on different diagnostic criteria. Of 28 publications from 16 Asian countries or regions, 14 used self-defined FH criteria. Only one specific guideline for FH was available, which was developed by Japanese scientists. Six Asian countries joined the Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Deaths program in the late 1990s, and the estimated diagnosis rates of FH ranged from 3% to 10% in these countries. A more recent study explored the awareness, knowledge, and perception of FH among practitioners in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The study found that the correct rates of these FH-related questions were low and concluded that lack of country-specific criteria and guidelines may contribute to the lack of FH knowledge in the present survey. More attention and resources should be focused on raising awareness, improving care, and increasing FH research in Asian populations. PMID:27075771

  9. Asians on the Rim: Transnational Capital and Local Community in the Making of Contemporary Asian America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirlik, Arif

    1996-01-01

    Explores suggested contradictions to grasping contemporary Asian America as a socio-ideological formation. It is suggested that the emergence of Pacific Asian economies in the global economy has had a transformative effect on the Asian American self-image, causing Asian Americans to see themselves as either grounded in local communities or as…

  10. Asian and Non-Asian Attitudes toward Rape, Sexual Harassment, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, M. Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Explored potential differences between Asian and non-Asian Canadian university students regarding their attitudes toward coercive and noncoercive sexual behavior. Student surveys indicated that Asian students' attitudes were significantly more conservative. Asian students were more tolerant of rape myths and sexual harassment. They demonstrated…

  11. Asian Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Hayes, PhD

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 In the Asian Energy Security (AES) Project, Nautilus Institute works together with a network of collaborating groups from the countries of Northeast Asia to evaluate the energy security implications of different national and regional energy ''paths''. The goal of the Asia Energy Security project is to illuminate energy paths--and the energy policy choices that might help to bring them about--that result in a higher degree of energy security for the region and for the world as a whole, that is, to identify energy paths that are ''robust'' in meeting many different energy security and development objectives, while also offering flexibility in the face of uncertainty. In work to date, Nautilus has carefully assembled a network of colleagues from the countries of the region, trained them together as a group in the use of a common, flexible, and transparent energy and environmental analysis planning software tool (LEAP, the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system), and worked with them to prepare base-year energy sector models for each country. To date, complete data sets and models for ''Business as Usual'' (BAU) energy paths have been compiled for China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea. A partial data set and BAU path has been compiled for the Russian Far East, and a data set is being started in Mongolia, where a team of researchers has just joined the AES project. In several countries, ''Alternative'' energy paths have been developed as well, or partially elaborated. National energy sector developments, progress on national LEAP modeling, additional LEAP training, and planning for the next phase of the AES project were the topics of a recent (early November) workshop held in Vancouver, British Columbia. With funding from the Department of Energy, Nautilus is poised to build upon the successes of the project to date with a coordinated international effort to research the energy security ramifications of

  12. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Boxiang; Yu, Yang; Wang, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options. PMID:26266271

  13. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Boxiang; Yu, Yang; Wang, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options. PMID:26266271

  14. 16 Extraordinary Asian Americans. Student Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    Asian Americans have made many contributions to American life. The 1990 U.S. Census showed that Asian Americans represented about 3% of the total U.S. population. This textbook presents the stories of 16 Asian Americans and their significant accomplishments. Brief biographies are presented of: (1) Daniel K. Inouye, U.S. Senator from Hawaii; (2)…

  15. The Asian American: The Historical Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundley, Norris, Jr., Ed.

    The essays in this volume look at Asian Americans, their ideas and ways of life, on their own terms, relating them to both Asian and United States history. Roger Daniels presents an overview of East Asian immigrants through a review of the literature by American historians. An essay by Stanford M. Lyman, which follows, analyzes San Francisco's…

  16. Stereotypes of Asian American Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Angela; Yeh, Christine J.

    This digest discusses various negative and positive Asian American stereotypes and explores how school practices and individual educators, consciously or unconsciously, may reinforce them. This has important negative social, political, and economic ramifications for Asian Americans. While Asian Americans are often characterized as the "model…

  17. The Health Risks of Asian Americans. Editorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Elena S. H.

    1991-01-01

    Although Asian Americans are the fastest growing ethnic minority group in the United States, relatively little is known about the health risks and morbidity of different Asian-American groups. A national survey (National Health Interview Survey) is needed to clarify the health risks of major Asian-American subgroups. (SLD)

  18. Asian Pacific American Women's Health Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pian, Canta

    This paper discusses the adjustment and acculturation problems of Asian Pacific American women and how these problems relate to their health concerns. Information presented in the article is based on the observations of health service providers to the Asian community. The paper suggests that the diversity of Asian Americans (age, ethnic group, and…

  19. Washington's Asian American Studies: Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashima, Tetsuden

    An overview of Asian American studies in the State of Washington is provided in this report. Statistics on the number of Asian students in Washington's schools are used to illustrate the need for Asian American courses at all educational levels. The results of three questionnaires which were distributed to obtain information about respondents'…

  20. Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. III. Seven new species in shrews (Soricidae: Soricinae) from Canada, Japan, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Hertel, L A; Duszynski, D W

    1987-02-01

    Since May 1979, 458 shrews (Blarina sp. and Sorex spp.) representing 20 species collected in Canada, Japan, and the United States were examined for coccidia; 110 (24%) had oocysts in their feces, including 8 of 21 (38%) B. brevicauda from Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Vermont; 2 of 7 (29%) S. caecutiens from Hokkaido and Honshu; 14 of 63 (22%) S. cinereus from Colorado, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Manitoba, and Ontario; 3 of 7 (43%) S. fontinalis from Pennsylvania; 11 of 16 (69%) S. fumeus from Massachusetts, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Ontario; 1 of 4 (25%) S. haydeni from Minnesota; 6 of 8 (75%) S. longirostris from Florida and Virginia; 1 of 2 (50%) S. ornatus from California; 5 of 12 (42%) S. pacificus from California and Oregon; 13 of 41 (32%) S. palustris from California, Colorado, and New Mexico; 1 of 2 (50%) S. tenellus from California; 11 of 105 (10%) S. trowbridgii from California, Oregon, and Washington; 10 of 48 (21%) S. unguiculatus from Hokkaido; and 24 of 112 (21%) S. vagrans from Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Oregon, and Washington. The following coccidians were identified from infected shrews: Eimeria brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; Eimeria fumeus n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. pacificus, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans; Eimeria inyoni n. sp. from S. tenellus; Eimeria palustris n. sp. from S. cinereus, S. fontinalis, S. fumeus, S. haydeni, S. longirostris, S. ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. tenellus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Eimeria vagrantis n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Isospora brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; and Isospora palustris n. sp. from S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. trowbridgii, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans. The world literature on coccidian parasites of shrews (16 eimerians and 3 isosporans exclusive of the 7 new species described here) is reviewed. PMID:3572649

  1. [The role of hybrid zones in speciation: a case study on chromosome races of the house mouse Mus domesticus and common shrew Sorex araneus].

    PubMed

    Lavrenchenko, L A; Bulatova, N Sh

    2015-01-01

    Although diverse complexes of chromosome races are of rather rare occurrence in mammals, that does not reduce its importance to insignificant phenomenon not worthy of studying as some unique case without direct analogy. Moreover, these complexes present virtually ideal models for estimation of the impact of hybridization on the process of microevolution. The chromosome races are characterized by almost zero level of genetic differentiation and well-defined distinctions, usually induced by chromosome rearrangements only. The presented review shows the valuable contribution of the studies on Sorex araneus and Mus domesticus chromosome Robertsonian systems into our understanding of varied impacts of hybridization on the speciation process. Particularly, it promotes better understanding of such evolutionary phenomena as "reinforcement" of reproductive isolation in secondary contact zones between divergent populations, speciation without geographic separation ("divergence with gene flow"), and "zonal raciation". PMID:26353396

  2. All Kids Count! Assessing the Well-Being of African-American, American Indian, Asian, and Latino Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kids Count Minnesota, Minneapolis.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Minnesota's African-American, American Indian, Asian, and Latino children. The statistical portrait is based on 22 indicators of child well-being: (1) attitudes about race; (2) housing patterns; (3) future plans; (4) social involvement; (5) park usage; (6) negative treatment; (7) bias…

  3. Asian Neighborhood Design: A Case Study of a Sectoral Employment Development Approach. Sectoral Employment Development Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Maureen; Bear, Marshall

    Asian Neighborhood Design (AND) was established by a group of student architects in 1973 to rehabilitate houses and revitalize community spaces in the crowded neighborhoods of San Francisco's Chinatown. Despite its growth and development in response to changes in economic conditions, the policy environment, and its own clientele, AND has retained…

  4. Nomenclatural notes and identification of small-eared shrews (Mammalia: genus Cryptotis) from Cobán, Guatemala, in The Natural History Museum, London

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    A small series of shrews collected in Guatemala and registered in the British Museum between 1843 and 1907 includes parts of type series for three species: Corsira tropicalis Gray (1843), Sorex micrurus Tomes (1862), and Blarina tropicalis Merriam (1895). These three names are now considered equivalent, but my recent review of the specimens comprising the series indicates that they include three distinct species: Cryptotis merriami Choate (1970), Cryptotis oreoryctes Woodman (2011), and Cryptotis tropicalis (Merriam 1895). I review the taxonomic history of these specimens, provide current identifications tied directly to museum register numbers, describe how to distinguish the three species, and provide revised synonymies for these species.

  5. Asian Values, Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that many issues and questions concerning the relationship between Asian values and education have never been addressed in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Outlines four broad areas of inquiry: origins of culture, savings/investment effect, quality effect, and stability effect. Includes statistical information on education and…

  6. Asian citrus psyllid viral pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly discovered viral pathogen of Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama (Psyllidae: Hemiptera) was classified as a Reoviridae. This virus may serve as a biological control agent for AsCP. The AsCP is an efficient vector of the plant-infecting bacterium (Candidatus Liberibacter as...

  7. Entertainment Education in Asian Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett; Singhal, Arvind

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes the main lessons learned from various entertainment-education projects (the process of purposely designing and implementing a media message to both entertain and educate) conducted in Asian nations in recent years. Seeks to draw understandings about the basic process of social change and development that result from the…

  8. South Asians in College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  9. Asian-Americans: Psychological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Stanley, Ed.; Wagner, Nathaniel N., Ed.

    The contents of this book, the purpose of which is the integration of research findings with impressionistic material to provide a better understanding of Asian-Americans, are organized into five parts. Among the five articles included in Part 1, "Introductory Section," are: "The Jap Image," D. Ogawa; "The Evacuation: Impact on the Family," James…

  10. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... forms to describe their intent for marketing to ensure that they meet the Fair Housing...

  11. Improved poultry house

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of energy and poultry production was explored in three areas: methane production from litter, broiler house insulation, and broiler house HVAC systems. The findings show that while a methane plant would not be popular with individual American poultry producers; the pay back in fuel and fertilizer, if the plant was located in close proximinity to the processing plant, would be favorable. Broiler house insulation has been dramatically improved since the outset of this study. Presently, all new installations in the survey area are the Environmental houses which are fully insulated. HVAC systems have had to keep pace with the introduction of better insulation. The new Environmental houses HVAC systems are fully automated and operating on a positive atmosphere principal. Ammonia and other problems have been kept in check while reducing air changes per house from a high of 7 per hour to as little as 3 per hour.

  12. NASA Tech House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Technology Utilization House, called Tech House, was designed and constructed at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, to demonstrate new technology that is available or will be available in the next several years and how the application of aerospace technology could help advance the homebuilding industry. Solar energy use, energy and water conservation, safety, security, and cost were major considerations in adapting the aerospace technology to the construction of Tech House.

  13. House-Dust Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    House-dust allergy is a common cause of perennial allergic rhinitis and extrinsic asthma. Symptoms tend to be worse when the patient is in bed. A positive skin test properly performed and interpreted confirms the diagnosis. The house-dust mite is the most important antigenic component of house-dust. Treatment consists of environmental control directed at reducing the mite content of bedroom dust, plus control of symptoms with drugs. Immunotherapy is controversial. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21286201

  14. Thalamic Burst Firing Propensity: a Comparison of the Dorsal Lateral Geniculate and Pulvinar Nuclei in the Tree Shrew

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Haiyang; Bonjean, Maxime; Petry, Heywood M.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Bickford, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    Relay neurons in dorsal thalamic nuclei can fire high frequency bursts of action potentials that ride the crest of voltage-dependent transient (T-type) calcium currents (low threshold spike; LTS). To explore potential nucleus-specific burst features, we compared the membrane properties of dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and pulvinar nucleus relay neurons using in vitro whole cell recording in juvenile and adult tree shrew (Tupaia) tissue slices. We injected current ramps of variable slope into neurons that were sufficiently hyperpolarized to de-inactivate T-type calcium channels. In a small percentage of juvenile pulvinar and dLGN neurons, an LTS could not be evoked. In the remaining juvenile neurons, and in all adult dLGN neurons, a single LTS could be evoked by current ramps. However, in the adult pulvinar, current ramps evoked multiple LTSs in over 70% of recorded neurons. Using immunohistochemistry, western blot techniques, unbiased stereology, confocal and electron microscopy, we found that pulvinar neurons expressed more T-type calcium channels (Cav 3.2) and more small conductance potassium channels (SK2) than dLGN neurons and that the pulvinar nucleus contained a higher glia-to-neuron ratio than the dLGN. Hodgkin-Huxley type compartmental models revealed that the distinct firing modes could be replicated by manipulating T-type calcium and SK2 channel density, distribution, and kinetics. The intrinsic properties of pulvinar neurons that promote burst firing in the adult may be relevant to the treatment of conditions that involve the adult onset of aberrant thalamocortical interactions. PMID:22114295

  15. Ecological risk assessment for mink and short-tailed shrew exposed to PCBs, dioxins, and furans in the Housatonic River area.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Breton, Roger L; DeLong, Tod R; Ferson, Scott; Lortie, John P; MacDonald, Drew B; McGrath, Richard; Pawlisz, Andrzej; Svirsky, Susan C; Teed, R Scott; Thompson, Ryan P; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to characterize risks to a representative piscivorous mammal (mink, Mustela vison) and a representative carnivorous mammal (short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda) exposed to PCBs, dioxins, and furans in the Housatonic River area downstream of the General Electric (GE) facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Contaminant exposure was estimated using a probabilistic total daily intake model and parameterized using life history information of each species and concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and furans in prey collected in the Housatonic River study area. The effects assessment preferentially relied on dose-response curves but defaulted to benchmarks or other estimates of effect when there were insufficient toxicity data. The risk characterization used a weight of evidence approach. Up to 3 lines of evidence were used to estimate risks to the selected mammal species: 1) probabilistic exposure and effects modeling, 2) field surveys, and 3) species-specific feeding or field studies. The weight of evidence assessment indicated a high risk for mink and an intermediate risk for short-tailed shrew. PMID:25976918

  16. Maximal enzyme activities, and myoglobin and glutathione concentrations in heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda; Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Stewart, J M; Woods, A K; Blakely, J A

    2005-07-01

    We measured the enzymes of glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, beta-oxidation and electron transport in the heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda. Additionally, we measured the amount of myoglobin in skeletal and heart muscle as well as the concentration of glutathione in heart. The picture that emerges is of an aerobically well-endowed animal with constrained anaerobic capacity as indicated by small activities of glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase. Lipid metabolism and amino acid transamination, as well as gluconeogenesis, are predominant in processing carbon resources and probably reflect the large contribution lipid and protein make to the diet of this carnivore. The citrate synthase activity is the largest of any reported value for vertebrate heart (250 U/g). The additional, very active cytochrome c oxidase activity (220 U/g) and large myoglobin concentrations (8 mg/g) in heart are clearly the underpinnings of the rapid metabolic rates reported for small insectivores. The potential for generation of reactive oxygen species must be great since the total glutathione concentration (165 mumol/g) is 300-fold greater in shrew hearts than in hearts of rats. PMID:15914053

  17. Purification and characterisation of blarinasin, a new tissue kallikrein-like protease from the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda: comparative studies with blarina toxin.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masaki; Okumura, Yuushi; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Oba, Yuichi; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu; Nakamura, Yasuo; Kido, Hiroshi; Uemura, Daisuke

    2005-02-01

    A new tissue kallikrein-like protease, blarinasin, has been purified from the salivary glands of the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda. Blarinasin is a 32-kDa N-glycosylated protease with isoelectric values ranging between 5.3 and 5.7, and an optimum pH of 8.5 for enzyme activity. The cloned blarinasin cDNA coded for a pre-pro-sequence and a mature peptide of 252 amino acids with a catalytic triad typical for serine proteases and 43.7-54.0% identity to other mammalian tissue kallikreins. Blarinasin preferentially hydrolysed Pro-Phe-Arg-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (MCA) and N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-Val-Leu-Lys-MCA, and preferentially converted human high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) to bradykinin. The activity of blarinasin was prominently inhibited by aprotinin (K(i) =3.4 nM). A similar kallikrein-like protease, the lethal venom blarina toxin, has previously been purified from the salivary glands of the shrew Blarina and shows 67.9% identity to blarinasin. However, blarinasin was not toxic in mice. Blarinasin is a very abundant kallikrein-like protease and represents 70-75% of kallikrein-like enzymes in the salivary gland of B. brevicauda. PMID:15843162

  18. Genetic diversity of Imjin virus in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura) in the Republic of Korea, 2004-2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Imjin virus (MJNV), a genetically distinct hantavirus, was isolated from lung tissues of the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea. To clarify the genetic diversity of MJNV, partial M- and L-segment sequences were amplified from lung tissues of 12 of 37 (32.4%) anti-MJNV IgG antibody-positive Ussuri white-toothed shrews captured between 2004 and 2010. A 531-nucleotide region of the M segment (coordinates 2,255 to 2,785) revealed that the 12 MJNV strains differed by 0-12.2% and 0-2.3% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. A similar degree of nucleotide (0.2-11.9%) and amino acid (0-3.8%) difference was found in a 632-nucleotide length of the L segment (coordinates 962 to 1,593) of nine MJNV strains. Phylogenetic analyses, based on the partial M and L segments of MJNV strains generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed geographic-specific clustering, akin to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses. PMID:21303516

  19. Inference in a social context: A comparative study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Four species (capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters) performed an inference task situated in a social context. In Experiment 1, capuchin monkeys first explored food sites under 1 of 2 conditions: In 1 condition, food was refilled after it was eaten (replenished condition), whereas it was not refilled (depleted condition) in the other condition. Two food sites were presented for each condition. In the test phase, a subject watched a conspecific demonstrator visit 1 of the food sites in either the replenished or depleted condition. A screen placed in front of the sites prevented the subject from seeing the demonstrator actually eat the food. When the demonstrator was removed, the subject explored the cage. Three of 4 monkeys tended to go to the unvisited sites in the depleted condition, but tended to go to the visited site in the replenished condition. This suggests that they inferred that there was no food because the demonstrator had eaten it. In Experiment 2, using the same procedure, 2 nongroup-living species (tree shrews and hamsters) were indifferent to demonstrator behavior and visited sites only randomly, and group-living rats showed a strong tendency to follow demonstrators, irrespective of the type of food site. These tendencies were unchanged when olfactory information was added in Experiment 3 and when motivation to compete increased in Experiment 4. These results suggest that only capuchin monkeys have the ability to solve an inference task when cued by social information. PMID:26460855

  20. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  1. Housing for Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that housing administrators must develop close cooperation with their institution's graduate school, be sensitive to the needs of international graduate students, and engage in thoughtful deliberation about issues related to domestic partners, health care, spouses, and children. Profiles housing's mission and philosophy, organizational…

  2. Supportive housing and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jade; Cunningham, David; Anderson, Solanna; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible 'social problems' such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems - a gap addressed in this paper. Drawing upon qualitative ethnographic observational data we examine some of the measures of control and coercion that are encroaching into social housing primarily established for poor and marginalized people with addiction and mental health problems in the urban centre of Vancouver, Canada. We witnessed three modes of regulation and control, that vary widely, among the residencies observed: physical surveillance technologies; site-specific modes of coercion; police presence and staff surveillance, which all together impact the everyday lives of residents living in low-income and supportive housing. We argue that supportive housing has the potential to provide its intended commitment - safe and secure affordable housing. However, owing to an (over)emphasis on 'security', the supportive housing we observed were also sites of social control. PMID:27453148

  3. More Than a House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1996-01-01

    For 14 years, Mountain Outreach, a program at Cumberland College (Williamsburg, Kentucky), has enabled college students to participate in community service projects. Recently, 35 students traveled to New Mexico to build a house for a Navajo elder who was unable to obtain adequate housing. Participants discuss their learning experiences and their…

  4. Housing Assistance Efficiency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Peters, Scott H. [D-CA-52

    2013-07-23

    12/03/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Multiple pump housing

    DOEpatents

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  6. Boltless Seal for Electronic Housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawe, R. H.; Evans, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    Spring clips seal housings for electronic circuitry, preventing electromagnetic interference from entering or leaving housings. Clips also keep dust out of housing. Since no bolts are used, housing can be opened quickly; unlike bolts, clips can be used on thin-walled housing. Seal was developed for an X-band array amplifier.

  7. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms. PMID:16881750

  8. 1. HOUSE, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HOUSE, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE ARE IN THE BACKGROUND - Kiel Farmstead, House, East side State Route 4, one half mile south of U.S. Route 64, Mascoutah, St. Clair County, IL

  9. 4. Storage building, outhouse, oil house, keeper's house and light ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Storage building, outhouse, oil house, keeper's house and light tower, view southwest, northeast sides (southeast and northeast sides of keeper's house) - Petit Manan Light Station, 2.5 miles south of Petit Manan Point, Milbridge, Washington County, ME

  10. Corridor use by Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wenjing; Lin, Liu; Luo, Aidong; Zhang, Li

    2009-06-01

    There are 18 km of Kunming-Bangkok Highway passing through the Mengyang Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. From September 2005 to September 2006 the impact of this highway on movement of wild Asian elephants between the eastern and western part of the nature reserve was studied using track transecting, rural surveys and direct monitoring. Our results showed that the number of crossroad corridors used by Asian elephants diminished from 28 to 23 following the construction of the highway. In some areas, the elephant activity diminished or even disappeared, which indicated a change in their home ranges. The utilization rate of artificial corridors was 44%. We also found that elephants preferred artificial corridors that were placed along their original corridors. During the research, wild elephants revealed their adaptation to the highway. They were found walking across the highway road surface many times and for different reasons. We suggest that the highway management bureau should revise their management strategies to mitigate the potential risks caused by elephants on the road for the safety of the public and to protect this endangered species from harm. It is also very important to protect and maintain current Asian elephants corridors in this region. PMID:21392292

  11. Aesthetic facial surgery for the asian male.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2005-11-01

    Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration. PMID:16575710

  12. Housing And Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  13. Counseling Asians: psychotherapy in the context of racism and Asian-American history.

    PubMed

    Toupin, E S

    1980-01-01

    The historical experience of Asian immigrants to the United States is outlined, and implications for counseling and psychotherapy with Asian-Americans are considered. It is suggested that, in charting therapeutic goals for Asians, three major factors must be taken into account: 1) when and why Asians migrated to the United States, and where they settled; 2) the number of years, and the impact, of public education; and 3) conflicting cultural norms that complicate the acculturation process. PMID:7356003

  14. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  15. Characteristics of Androgenetic Alopecia in Asian

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or pattern hair loss, is a common disorder in Asian men and women, with a reported incidence of up to 73% among general population. There are several descriptions regarding the characteristics of AGA in patients of European descent. Asian patients with AGA have different types of hair loss and family histories from Europeans, which may affect treatment response. Therefore, in this review, prevalence, hair loss patterns, familial factors, androgen receptor gene polymorphisms of Asian AGA patients, and management based on algorithmic guidelines for AGA are discussed. This review may be useful for dermatologists in clinical practice for diagnosing and designing management approaches for Asian patients with AGA. PMID:22879706

  16. Retinal and choroidal TGF-beta in the tree shrew model of myopia: isoform expression, activation and effects on function.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Andrew Ian; Wan, Ran; Gentle, Alex; Bui, Bang Viet; McBrien, Neville Anthony

    2009-03-01

    A visually evoked signalling cascade, which begins in the retina, transverses the choroid, and mediates scleral remodelling, is considered to control eye growth. The ubiquitous cytokine TGF-beta has been associated with alterations in ocular growth, where alterations in scleral TGF-beta isoforms mediate the scleral remodelling that results in myopia. However, while the TGF-beta isoforms have been implicated in the scleral change during myopia development, it is unclear whether alterations in retinal and choroidal isoforms constitute part of the retinoscleral cascade. This study characterised the retinal and choroidal TGF-beta isoform profiles and TGF-beta2 activation during different stages of myopia development, as induced by form deprivation, in a mammalian model of eye growth. Using quantitative real-time PCR, the mRNA for all three mammalian isoforms of TGF-beta was detected in tree shrew retina and choroid. Distinct tissue-specific isoform profiles were observed for the retina (TGF-beta1:TGF-beta2:TGF-beta3=20:2085:1) and choroid (TGF-beta1:TGF-beta2:TGF-beta3=16:23:1), which remained constant over the development period under investigation. The active and latent pools of retinal TGF-beta2 were quantified using ELISA with the majority (>94%) of total TGF-beta2 found in the latent form. Unlike previous scleral data showing early and continuous decreases in TGF-beta isoform expression during myopia development, the levels of the three isoforms remained within normal ranges for retinal (TGF-beta1, -14 to +14%; TGF-beta2, -2 to +20%; TGF-beta3, -10 to +26%) and choroidal (TGF-beta1, -19 to +21%; TGF-beta2, -26 to +8%; TGF-beta3, -11 to +28%) tissues during myopia development (induction times of 3h, 7h, 11h, 24h, and 5 days). A 40% decrease in retinal TGF-beta2 activation was observed after 5 days of myopia development, however, there was no functional correlate of altered TGF-beta2 activity, as assessed by the retinal ERG response. Overall, these data highlight

  17. "How Asian Am I?": Asian American Youth Cultures, Drug Use, and Ethnic Identity Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…

  18. How Good Are the Asians? Refuting Four Myths about Asian-American Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yong; Qiu, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The "model minority" myth is multi-layered and need to be demystified on several levels. Authors Yong Zhao and Wei Qiu challenge four myths about Asian-American students: (1) Not all Asian American students achieve the level of academic excellence and thus efforts must be made to treat each student as an independent individual; (2) Asian American…

  19. Asian American Identities, Families, and Schooling. Research on the Education of Asian Pacific Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Clara C., Ed.; Goodwin, A. Lin, Ed.; Lee, Stacey J., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This anthology is the second volume in a series sponsored by the Special Interest Group-Research on the education of Asian and Pacific Americans (SIG-REAPA) of the American Educational Research Association and California Association for Asian and Pacific American Education. The series intends to be a national voice for the education of Asian and…

  20. Rural Asian Americans--An Assessment. A Report of the Yakima Valley Asian American Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascua, Reynaldo, Jr.

    Underlying this report on Asian Americans in Central Washington State is the concept that Asian Americans do have common problems, experiences and needs. An extension of this concept is that Asians should point out institutional racism when appropriate, and take their place as members of American society in the dual spirit of self-determination…

  1. Asian American Education: Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages. Research on the Education of Asian Pacific Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Xue Lan, Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Asian American Education--Asian American Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages presents groundbreaking research that critically challenges the invisibility, stereotyping, and common misunderstandings of Asian Americans by disrupting "customary" discourse and disputing "familiar" knowledge. The chapters in this anthology provide rich, detailed…

  2. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Among Asian Americans, chronic liver disease is ... women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for Asian/Pacific Islanders (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  3. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  4. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  5. Cinemicrographic specimen housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Housing used to observe gravitation effects on specimens embedded in support media, such as agar, supports microbial specimens vertically for time-lapsed cinemicrographic studies. Procedure cannot be performed with conventional microscopes which see specimens in horizontal plane only.

  6. Housing Characteristics, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-14

    This report on energy consumption in the residential sector covers the following topics: housing trends 1980--1990, new housing trends, availability and usage of natural gas by households, changes in appliance usage (refrigerators, entertainment appliances, cooking appliances, convenience appliances), age of major household appliances and equipment, household energy conservation activities, demand-side management programs, and a portrait of households using solar or wood as a source of energy.

  7. Signatures of tumour immunity distinguish Asian and non-Asian gastric adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Suling J; Gagnon-Bartsch, Johann A; Tan, Iain Beehuat; Earle, Sophie; Ruff, Louise; Pettinger, Katherine; Ylstra, Bauke; van Grieken, Nicole; Rha, Sun Young; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Ju-Seog; Cheong, Jae Ho; Noh, Sung Hoon; Aoyama, Toru; Miyagi, Yohei; Tsuburaya, Akira; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Ajani, Jaffer A; Boussioutas, Alex; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Yong, Wei Peng; So, Jimmy; Lee, Jeeyun; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Sung; Kameda, Yoichi; Arai, Tomio; zur Hausen, Axel; Speed, Terence P; Grabsch, Heike I; Tan, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective Differences in gastric cancer (GC) clinical outcomes between patients in Asian and non-Asian countries has been historically attributed to variability in clinical management. However, recent international Phase III trials suggest that even with standardised treatments, GC outcomes differ by geography. Here, we investigated gene expression differences between Asian and non-Asian GCs, and if these molecular differences might influence clinical outcome. Design We compared gene expression profiles of 1016 GCs from six Asian and three non-Asian GC cohorts, using a two-stage meta-analysis design and a novel biostatistical method (RUV-4) to adjust for technical variation between cohorts. We further validated our findings by computerised immunohistochemical analysis on two independent tissue microarray (TMA) cohorts from Asian and non-Asian localities (n=665). Results Gene signatures differentially expressed between Asians and non-Asian GCs were related to immune function and inflammation. Non-Asian GCs were significantly enriched in signatures related to T-cell biology, including CTLA-4 signalling. Similarly, in the TMA cohorts, non-Asian GCs showed significantly higher expression of T-cell markers (CD3, CD45R0, CD8) and lower expression of the immunosuppressive T-regulatory cell marker FOXP3 compared to Asian GCs (p<0.05). Inflammatory cell markers CD66b and CD68 also exhibited significant cohort differences (p<0.05). Exploratory analyses revealed a significant relationship between tumour immunity factors, geographic locality-specific prognosis, and postchemotherapy outcomes. Conclusions Analyses of >1600 GCs suggest that Asian and non-Asian GCs exhibit distinct tumour immunity signatures related to T-cell function. These differences may influence geographical differences in clinical outcome, and the design of future trials particularly in immuno-oncology. PMID:25385008

  8. Housing in Los Angeles: Affordable Housing for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Blue Ribbon Committee for Affordable Housing, CA.

    A 1988 mayoral committee assessed the seriousness of Los Angeles (California) housing problems and found that the city's housing efforts were sufficient in the 1960s, when the Federal Government took primary responsibility for housing and the average wage was adequate to support the cost of the average house or apartment. However, the following…

  9. 2. Keeper's house, light tower and oil house, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Keeper's house, light tower and oil house, view north, south and east sides of keeper's house, south side of tower and oil house - Owl's Head Light Station, Off State Highway 73 just east of Rockland on Owl's Head Bay, Owls Head, Knox County, ME

  10. 91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS 101 AND 72; BUILDING 101 IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED SCRAP METAL CLEANING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES; BUILDING 72 AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED MELTING FURNACES AND CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINERY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  11. 1. General view, twoandahalf story house at left. (The house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, two-and-a-half story house at left. (The house next door is George McCraig House, HABS No. PA-1593). Photocopied from December 1957 photograph on file at Philadelphia Historical Commission - Henry Elwell House, 812 South Front Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 12. Fuel house and fog signal house, view northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Fuel house and fog signal house, view northeast, southwest side of fuel house, west and south sides of fog signal house - Cape Elizabeth Light Station, Near Two Lights State Park at end of Two Lights Road, off State Highway 77, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, ME

  13. 7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view north northeast, west and south sides of keeper's house and tower, southwest and southeast sides of fog signal house - West Quoddy Head Light Station, At eastern tip of West Quaddy Head, Lubec, Washington County, ME

  14. 3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, southeast side and northeast front of bell house, southeast sides of tower and keeper's house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  15. Cerebral Palsy Among Asian Ethnic Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Tess C.; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Gilbert, William M.; Newman, Thomas B.; Xing, Guibo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Asians have a reduced risk for cerebral palsy (CP) compared with whites. We examined whether individual Asian subgroups have a reduced risk of CP and whether differences in sociodemographic factors explain disparities in CP prevalence. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort of 629 542 Asian and 2 109 550 white births in California from 1991 to 2001, we identified all children who qualified for services from the California Department of Health Services on the basis of CP. Asians were categorized as East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, Koreans), Filipino, Indian, Pacific Islander (Guamanians, Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders), Samoan, or Southeast Asian (Cambodian, Laotian, Thai, Vietnamese). RESULTS: Overall, CP prevalence was lower in Asians than whites (1.09 vs 1.36 per 1000; relative risk = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74–0.87) and ranged from 0.61/1000 in Thai children to 2.08/1000 in Samoan children. Several Asian subgroups had low risk profiles with respect to maternal age, educational attainment, and birth weight. However, after we adjusted for maternal age and education, infant gender, and birth weight, the adjusted risk of CP remained lower in East Asians (odds ratio [OR] = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.65–0.87), Filipinos (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.75–0.99), Indians (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44–0.80), Pacific Islanders (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.40–0.97), and Southeast Asians (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57–0.82) compared with whites. CONCLUSIONS: Most Asian national origin subgroups have a lower rate of CP than whites, and this disparity is unexplained. Additional studies that focus on the cause of ethnic disparities in CP may provide new insights into pathogenesis and prevention. PMID:22430449

  16. Cartilage repair: 2013 Asian update.

    PubMed

    Hui, James H P; Goyal, Deepak; Nakamura, Norimasa; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2013-12-01

    Despite financial and regulatory hurdles, Asian scientists and clinicians have made important contributions in the area of cartilage repair. Because it is impossible to include observations on all the published articles in one review, our attempt is to highlight Asian progress in this area during recent years (2005 to the present), reviewing research development and clinical studies. In the former, our discussion of in vitro studies focuses on (1) potential sources of stem cells--such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from marrow, cord blood, synovium, and mobilized peripheral blood--which are capable of enhancing cartilage repair and (2) the use of growth factors and scaffolds with and without cells. Our discussion of animal studies attempts to summarize activities in evaluating surgical procedures and determining the route of cell administration, as well as studies on matrices and scaffolds. It ranges from the use of small animals such as rats and rabbits to larger animals like pigs and dogs. The local adherent technique, enhancement of microfracture with poly(l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold, adenovirus-mediated bone morphogenic protein (BMP) genes, and MSCs--whether they are magnetically labeled, suspended in hyaluronic acid, or immobilized with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)--have all been able to engineer a repair of the osteochondral defect. Although published Asian reports of clinical studies on cartilage repair are few, the findings of relevant trials are summarized in our discussion of these investigations. There has been a long history of use of laboratory-derived MSCs for cartilage repair. Recent progress has suggested the potential utility of cord blood and mobilized peripheral blood in this area, as well as more injectable bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells. Finally, we make a few suggestions on the direction of research and development activities and the need for collaborative approaches by regulatory agencies. PMID:24286798

  17. Housing and child health.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Michael; Baten, Ahmareen; Rosenthal, David G; Hoshino, Risa; Tohn, Ellen; Jacobs, David E

    2013-09-01

    The connection between housing and health is well established. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the child's home, such as cleanliness, moisture, pests, noise, accessibility, injury risks, and other forms of housing environmental quality, all have the potential to influence multiple aspects of the health and development of children. Basic sanitation, reduced household crowding, other improvements in housing and expanded, and improved housing regulations have led to advances in children's health. For example, lead poisoning prevention policies have profoundly reduced childhood lead exposure in the United States. This and many other successes highlight the health benefits for families, particularly children, by targeting interventions that reduce or eliminate harmful exposures in the home. Additionally, parental mental health problems, food insecurity, domestic violence, and the presence of guns in children's homes all are largely experienced by children in their homes, which are not as yet considered part of the Healthy Homes agenda. There is a large movement and now a regulatory structure being put in place for healthy housing, which is becoming closely wedded with environmental health, public health, and the practice of pediatrics. The importance of homes in children's lives, history of healthy homes, asthma, and exposures to lead, carbon monoxide, secondhand/thirdhand smoke, radon, allergy triggers is discussed, as well as how changes in ambient temperature, increased humidity, poor ventilation, water quality, infectious diseases, housing structure, guns, electronic media, family structure, and domestic violence all affect children's health. PMID:23953987

  18. Reabsorption of returning workers from the Gulf: the Asian experience.

    PubMed

    Kazi, S

    1994-01-01

    This study examines trends in return labor migration from the Middle East to South Asia and Southeast Asia. Survey data were used to describe trends in outmigration and socioeconomic characteristics of return migrants and to examine the extent to which return migration is associated with skill level and use of savings and remittances on their return. General trends indicate a decline in outmigration during the late 1980s and early 1990s, after oil prices dropped in 1986. Migrants from Pakistan and Korea declined by half during 1981-85 and by 40% among Indian migrants. The demand for service workers and migrants willing to accept cuts in wages was unaffected. Outmigration from Southeast Asian countries grew in the recent past. These increases were due to the replacement of workers from Jordan and Yemen who were expelled from Saudi Arabia after the Gulf crisis. The shift in occupational demand to service and higher level workers is expected to weaken migration from Pakistan and Bangladesh and to strengthen migration from Sri Lanka and other Southeast Asian countries with a skilled migrant labor force. Outmigration from Southeast Asian countries increased to high-growth destination countries such as Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore. Socioeconomic characteristics of migrants varied by country of origin. For instance, Philippine migrants were better educated. Migrants from Thailand, Bangladesh, and Pakistan were from rural and impoverished areas. Sri Lanka and the Philippines had many women migrants. Return migrants encountered high unemployment. Return migrants to Korea had fewer reemployment problems. Reemployment was associated with local country conditions. Unskilled workers had the highest rates of unemployment. Savings tended to be invested in real estate and housing. Savings and investment from remittance income was high in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Thailand. PMID:12346198

  19. Acoustics of old Asian bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2001-05-01

    The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.

  20. Asian student migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12291796

  1. GUARD HOUSE AND SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, VICINITY MAP. (Shows the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD HOUSE AND SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, VICINITY MAP. (Shows the Guard House and Barracks, and South Fire House in relation to nearby roads, railroad tracks, and the piers). Navy Yard, Mare Island, California. P.W. Drawing No. C-1899, approved 1941; file no. 930-C-1. Scale one inch to forty feet. 72 cn x 97 cm. Ink on vellum - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Asian American Giving to US Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsunoda, Kozue

    2010-01-01

    Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

  3. Language Assessment of Asian Students: Problems & Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ovid K.

    The problems and implications of language assessment of Asian students are examined. The theories of Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner concerning the relationship between language and cognition are explored. Cognitive operations are assumed by many educators to be related to academic achievement. Culturally, Asians favor the Piagetian interpretation…

  4. Asian Cinema and the Social Imaginary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissanayake, Wimal

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest by schools and universities in understanding Asian societies and cultures. One way of deepening this interest productively is through the imaginative use of cinema. In this article, the author explores how cinema can be a window into the dynamics of contemporary Asian societies and cultures. Through "aesthetic…

  5. Asian Studies Unit One: Asian Man and His Environment, Pilot Program; [And] Asian Studies Unit Two: Cultural Patterns of Asian Man, Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    Two units of Asian materials for secondary students comprise this document. The first unit presents a brief history of Asian man and his environment, including geography, climate, ethnic groups, resources, food, and population. Following the historical narrative are community references and various learning experiences and activities which further…

  6. English and the Asian American College Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Elaine H.

    1978-01-01

    Both American born and foreign born Asian Americans are known to have problems with the English language. In this article it is asserted that some of these problems occur because of the negative self image Asian Americans have as a result of stereotyping and discriminatory attitudes that other Americans hold toward them. (GC)

  7. Asian Americans and Rehabilitation: Some Important Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Paul; Sakata, Robert

    1988-01-01

    This article describes Asian Americans, with the purpose of setting aside myths and stereotypes as well as providing information helpful to understanding the Asian Americans within the rehabilitation process. Discussed are their diversity, historical experience, discriminatory treatment received, generational status, attitudinal differences, and…

  8. Understanding and Counseling Asian American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandras, Kananur V.

    Asian American students who encounter personal problems may hesitate to utilize counseling and mental health facilities on campuses, being fearful that family, friends and/or relatives may consider them emotionally unstable. Counselors and mental health workers may lack understanding of language and cultural background of Asian-American students,…

  9. Beyond Bound Feet: Relocating Asian American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazumdar, Sucheta

    1996-01-01

    Attempts to correct the limited and stereotypical portrayal of Asian American women found in most histories. Reveals that women often played a more central and active role in the Asian American experience. Discusses little-known facets of this experience (e.g., many immigrants returned home after achieving financial security). (MJP)

  10. Asian American Literature: Questions of Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongo, Garrett

    1994-01-01

    Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)

  11. Binocular Lens Treatment in Tree Shrews: Effect of Age and Comparison of Plus Lens Wear with Recovery from Minus Lens-induced Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2010-01-01

    We examined normal emmetropization and the refractive responses to binocular plus or minus lenses in young (late infantile) and juvenile tree shrews. In addition, recovery from lens-induced myopia was compared with the response to a similar amount of myopia produced with plus lenses in age-matched juvenile animals. Normal emmetropization was examined with daily noncycloplegic autorefractor measures from 11 days after natural eye-opening (days of visual experience [VE]) when the eyes were in the infantile, rapid growth phase and their refractions were substantially hyperopic, to 35 days of VE when the eyes had entered the juvenile, slower growth phase and the refractions were near emmetropia. Starting at 11 days of VE, two groups of young tree shrews wore binocular +4 D lenses (n = 6) or −5 D lenses (n = 5). Starting at 24 days of VE, four groups of juvenile tree shrews (n = 5 each) wore binocular +3 D, +5 D, −3 D, or −5 D lenses. Non-cycloplegic measures of refractive state were made frequently while the animals wore the assigned lenses. The refractive response of the juvenile plus-lens wearing animals was compared with the refractive recovery of an age-matched group of animals (n=5) that were myopic after wearing a −5 D lens from 11 to 24 days of VE. In normal tree shrews, refractions (corrected for the small eye artifact) declined rapidly from (mean ± SEM) 6.6 ± 0.6 D of hyperopia at 11 VE to 1.4 ± 0.2 D at 24 VE and 0.8 ± 0.4 D at 35 VE. Plus 4 D lens treatment applied at 11 days of VE initially corrected or over-corrected the young animals’ hyperopia and produced a compensatory response in most animals; the eyes became nearly emmetropic while wearing the +4 D lenses. In contrast, plus-lens treatment starting at 24 days of VE initially made the juvenile eyes myopic (over-correction) and, on average, was less effective. The response ranged from no change in refractive state (eye continued to experience myopia) to full compensation (emmetropic with

  12. Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chee Wai; Wong, Tien Y.; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy

    2015-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) in Asians has been suggested to differ from their Western counterparts in terms of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment. In particular, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) appears to be the predominant subtype of exudative AMD in Asian populations, in contrast to choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD (CNV-AMD) in Western populations. Epidemiological data on PCV has been largely limited to hospital-based studies and there are currently no data on the incidence of PCV. Similarities and differences in risk factor profile between PCV and CNV-AMD point to some shared pathogenic mechanisms but also differential underlying mechanisms leading to the development of each phenotype. Serum biomarkers such as CRP, homocysteine and matrix metalloproteinases suggest underlying inflammation, atherosclerosis and deranged extracellular matrix metabolism as possible pathogenic mechanisms. In addition, recent advances in genome sequencing have revealed differences in genetic determinants of each subtype. While the standard of care for CNV-AMD is anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been the mainstay of treatment for PCV, although long-term visual prognosis remains unsatisfactory. The optimal treatment for PCV requires further clarification, particularly with different types of anti-VEGF agents and possible benefits of reduced fluence PDT. PMID:26239448

  13. Domotics Project Housing Block

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated. PMID:27223285

  14. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated. PMID:27223285

  15. Brain death: the Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Chua, Hoe Chin; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Morihara, Hirofumi; Gao, Daiquan

    2015-04-01

    Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world with people from many diverse ethnic groups, religions and government systems. The authors surveyed 14 countries accounting for the majority of Asia's population and found that, although the concept of brain death is widely accepted, there is wide variability in the criteria for certification. Although most Asian countries have adopted the "whole-brain" concept of brain death, most countries with past colonial links to the United Kingdom follow the UK "brainstem" concept of brain death. Despite this difference, most countries require only neurologic testing of irreversible coma and absent brainstem reflexes as criteria for certification of brain death. Variability exists in the number of personnel required, qualifications of certifying doctors, need for repeat examination, minimum time interval between examinations, and requirement for and choice of confirmatory tests. PMID:25839724

  16. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  17. Construction of Asian American Cultural Space in Elementary Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Carol

    Currently, culturally sensitive teaching of Asian Americans is basically confined for the most part to the college level. Asian American studies programs have become the site for Asian Americans to relearn, redefine, even regain their identity. This paper seeks to apply the knowledge and scholarship developed in Asian American studies in the past…

  18. Health Education: Addressing the Asian-American Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Annann; Hong, Luoluo

    This paper examines the health status of Asian Americans. In introductory sections, the paper looks at: patterns of Asian immigration, myths surrounding Asian Americans as a "model minority," such as the false notion that Asian Americans as a group are always academic and economic achievers despite their minority status; institutional, cultural,…

  19. Institutional Racism and Mental Health: An Asian-American Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Jean Lau

    Positive stereotypes of contemporary Asian Americans have negative consequences for this minority group. The belief that Asian Americans are successful and have overcome prejudice and discrimination obscures the historical fact that legislation has curtailed Asian American civil rights and sanctioned harassment of Asians by public authorities and…

  20. Dating and Sexual Attitudes in Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, May; Markham, Christine; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn; Chacko, Mariam R.

    2009-01-01

    Dating behaviors and sexual attitudes of Asian-American youth were examined in a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study in the context of adherence to Asian values, measured by the Asian Values Scale (AVS). In all, 31 Asian-American adolescents (age 14-18 years old) from a Houston community center were interviewed regarding dating behaviors and…

  1. ACE Minority Concerns Report: New Demographics Reveal the "Invisible" Asians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuyama, M. Yukie

    1989-01-01

    The dramatic shift in immigration patterns is discussed. By the end of the 1980s Asian refugees will account for 75.2 percent and Southeast Asians will total 60 percent of immigrants. The new Asians are too often excluded from special programs and scholarships and forced to compete with native-born Asians. (MLW)

  2. Gasoline demand in developing Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents econometric estimates of motor gasoline demand in eleven developing countries of Asia. The price and GDP per capita elasticities are estimated for each country separately, and for several pooled combinations of the countries. The estimated elasticities for the Asian countries are compared with those of the OECD countries. Generally, one finds that the OECD countries have GDP elasticities that are smaller, and price elasticities that are larger (in absolute value). The price elasticities for the low-income Asian countries are more inelastic than for the middle-income Asian countries, and the GDP elasticities are generally more elastic. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Pricing and hedging Asian basket spread options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Petkovic, Alexandre; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2010-04-01

    Asian options, basket options and spread options have been extensively studied in the literature. However, few papers deal with the problem of pricing general Asian basket spread options. This paper aims to fill this gap. In order to obtain prices and Greeks in a short computation time, we develop approximation formulae based on comonotonicity theory and moment matching methods. We compare their relative performances and explain how to choose the best approximation technique as a function of the Asian basket spread characteristics. We also give explicitly the Greeks for our proposed methods. In the last section we extend our results to options denominated in foreign currency.

  4. Haunted by Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  5. The Children's House

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  6. Student Housing Cost Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Univ. Residential Building System.

    Target costs for the University Residential Building System (URBS) Project of the University of California are presented. Findings depict the effectiveness of building design and material applications and should be useful in guiding future student housing design work, whether the design utilizes the URBS system or not. Ten recently constructed…

  7. Doll's House Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    2009-01-01

    School physics rarely stands still for long. Environmental physics is now an option in some post-16 courses in England. The physics of environments, and in particular the built environment, offers a recognizable context in which to see the applications of physics at work. This article considers how a model doll's house might be used to help…

  8. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  9. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  10. 1. Keeper's house, light tower and boat house, view southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, light tower and boat house, view southwest, northeast and northwest sides - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  11. 2. Oil house, fog signal house and light tower, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil house, fog signal house and light tower, view southwest, east and north sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  12. 1. Relationship of chicken house, claim house, residence, east tool ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Relationship of chicken house, claim house, residence, east tool shed, garage, and barn to overall farmstead site, looking north - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  13. 10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool shed, and east tool shed to each other and immediate surroundings, looking west - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  14. 5. Relationship of chicken house, privy, claim house, and residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Relationship of chicken house, privy, claim house, and residence to each other and immediate surroundings, looking northeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  15. Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west end of the complex near Highway 101. Detail of Holloshaft pump. View to the south. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  16. 1. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view northeast, northwest and southwest sides - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  17. 5. Shed, keeper's house, boathouse, light tower and oil house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Shed, keeper's house, boathouse, light tower and oil house, view southeast, northwest and southwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  18. 2. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view east, west and south sides - Bass Harbor Head Light Station, At southwest tip of Mount Desert Island off State Route 102, Bass Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  19. SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE AND HOUSE, VIEW TO WEST/ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE AND HOUSE, VIEW TO WEST/ SOUTHWEST - Kiel Farmstead, Summer Kitchen & Smokehouse, East side State Route 4, one half mile south of U.S. Route 64, Mascoutah, St. Clair County, IL

  20. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATING HOUSE SHOWING THE 'HOUSE GENERATOR' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATING HOUSE SHOWING THE 'HOUSE GENERATOR' AND GOVERNOR ASSEMBLY. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  1. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    PubMed Central

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.

    2009-01-01

    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar patterns are found for the construct loss of face (LOF). Asian American men with a high concern for LOF are less similar in their personality structure to European American men than Asian American men with low LOF concern. Mean differences are also found among Asian American and European American men, who differ significantly on Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Neuroticism. Results indicate that acculturation and LOF are significantly associated with these four personality dimensions for both Asian American and European American men. PMID:19169434

  2. These studies were conducted to assess the effects of lead toxicity on exploratory behavior and running. Effects of lead on exploratory behavior and running speed in the shrew, Blarina brevicauda (Insectivora).

    PubMed

    Punzo, F; Farmer, C

    2003-10-01

    These studies were conducted to assess the effects of lead toxicity on exploratory behavior and running speed in the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda. Shrews from the experimental group received 25 mg/kg/day of lead acetate in their drinking water for a period of 90 days. Control subjects received sodium acetate. Exploratory behavior was determined using a computerized activity chamber where movements of test subjects broke infrared beams projected onto the floor of the apparatus. Time spent (sec) in exploration was recorded over eight 6-min intervals. Running speed (km/hr) was measured in a microprocessor-controlled rectangular racetrack fitted with photocell timers. With respect to time spent in exploration, there were significant differences between lead-exposed (20.5-23.9 sec per 6-min testing session) and control subjects (6.8-8.1 sec) after the sixth testing interval in the activity chamber. With respect to maximal running speed, control subjects ran significantly faster (mean: 14.8 km/hr) than their lead-exposed counterparts (5.83 km/hr). Lead-exposed animals exhibited hyperactivity and increased random locomotor movements. They would frequently bump into the walls and their movements were more random. Controls typically ran along the racetrack in a straight line. These results represent the first data for the effects of lead exposure on exploratory behavior and running speed for shrews. PMID:15248655

  3. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK...

  4. 24 CFR 248.147 - Housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing standards. 248.147 Section 248.147 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  5. 24 CFR 1715.27 - Fair housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair housing. 1715.27 Section 1715.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  6. 24 CFR 248.147 - Housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing standards. 248.147 Section 248.147 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  7. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF CARRIAGE HOUSE SHOWING RELATIONSHIP TO MILK HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF CARRIAGE HOUSE SHOWING RELATIONSHIP TO MILK HOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. (The carriage house was built by William B. Engle at the end of the 19th century, with carriage storage on the ground floor and a workshop above. Later, his son, Ralph Engle, used the ground floor as a car garage.) - Engle Farm, Carriage House, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  8. THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a water tank on the second floor that gravity fed water to the Kineth house and farm buildings. The one-story addition to the west of the tower provided workshop space. The hog shed is seen on the left of the image and the concrete foundation of the upright silo is in the foreground on the right. - Kineth Farm, Tower House, 19162 State Route 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. Attitudes to and perceived use of health care services among Asian and non-Asian patients in Leicester.

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, A; Jagger, C

    1992-01-01

    A random sample of 449 Asian patients and 447 non-Asian patients were interviewed at home in their preferred language using a personally administered questionnaire comparing attitudes to and perceived use of health care services in Leicester. The overall response rate was 89.6%. There were differences in the responses of the Asian and non-Asian populations. With respect to communication, language as a barrier appears to be a diminishing problem among Asian patients in Leicester. However, Asian patients reported finding it more difficult to gain access to their general practitioners than non-Asian patients. More Asian than non-Asian patients would have preferred direct access to consultants and most respondents from both populations felt they should be able to request a hospital opinion from their general practitioner. More Asian patients disliked management of illness by telephone than non-Asian patients, the latter feeling that telephone advice could save them a trip to the surgery, or their general practitioner a home visit. However, both groups regarded home visiting as essential. Asian patients disliked deputizing services more than non-Asian patients, and there was some support for 24 hour surgeries, particularly among the Asian population, with doctors working in shifts. As Asian patients appear to differ from non-Asian patients with respect to attitudes and perceived need for health care services, this type of survey may form the basis for the more rational planning of health care delivery to ethnic minority patients in the future. PMID:1389431

  10. Evolution of Asian Interior Arid-Zone Biota: Evidence from the Diversification of Asian Zygophyllum (Zygophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Dan; Lin, Li; Li, Hong-Lei; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Lin-Jing; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Asian interior arid zone is the largest desert landform system in the Northern Hemisphere, and has high biodiversity. Little is currently known about the evolutionary history of its biota. In this study, we used Zygophyllum, an important and characteristic component of the Asian interior arid zone, to provide new insights into the evolution of this biota. By greatly enlarged taxon sampling, we present the phylogenetic analysis of Asian Zygophyllum based on two plastid and one nuclear markers. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that Asian Zygophyllum and Sarcozygium form a clade and Sarcozygium is further embedded within the shrub subclade. An integration of phylogenetic, biogeographic, and molecular dating methods indicates that Zygophyllum successfully colonized the Asian interior from Africa in the early Oligocene, and Asian Zygophyllum became differentiated in the early Miocene and underwent a burst of diversification in the late Miocene associated with the expansion of Asian interior arid lands due to orogenetic and climatic changes. Combining diversification patterns of other important components of the Asian interior arid zone, we propose a multi-stage evolution model for this biota: the late Eocene-early Oligocene origin, the early Miocene expansion, and the middle-late Miocene rapid expansion to the whole Asian interior arid zone. This study also demonstrates that, for Zygophyllum and perhaps other arid-adapted organisms, arid biomes are evolutionary cradles of diversity. PMID:26393796

  11. Evolution of Asian Interior Arid-Zone Biota: Evidence from the Diversification of Asian Zygophyllum (Zygophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Lei; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Lin-Jing; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Asian interior arid zone is the largest desert landform system in the Northern Hemisphere, and has high biodiversity. Little is currently known about the evolutionary history of its biota. In this study, we used Zygophyllum, an important and characteristic component of the Asian interior arid zone, to provide new insights into the evolution of this biota. By greatly enlarged taxon sampling, we present the phylogenetic analysis of Asian Zygophyllum based on two plastid and one nuclear markers. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that Asian Zygophyllum and Sarcozygium form a clade and Sarcozygium is further embedded within the shrub subclade. An integration of phylogenetic, biogeographic, and molecular dating methods indicates that Zygophyllum successfully colonized the Asian interior from Africa in the early Oligocene, and Asian Zygophyllum became differentiated in the early Miocene and underwent a burst of diversification in the late Miocene associated with the expansion of Asian interior arid lands due to orogenetic and climatic changes. Combining diversification patterns of other important components of the Asian interior arid zone, we propose a multi-stage evolution model for this biota: the late Eocene–early Oligocene origin, the early Miocene expansion, and the middle-late Miocene rapid expansion to the whole Asian interior arid zone. This study also demonstrates that, for Zygophyllum and perhaps other arid-adapted organisms, arid biomes are evolutionary cradles of diversity. PMID:26393796

  12. Interest-Based Curriculum for House Care Services: House Cares.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natchitoches Parish School Board, LA.

    The 11-unit curriculum guide for house care services, a Federally sponsored project, is designed to help students identify interests and develop skills associated with house care services. Two introductory units deal with the world of work and the total area of house care services. The following unit topics are: sanitation and safety; equipment;…

  13. Minority Women's Health: Asian-Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asian-Americans overall are at lower risk. Genes, culture, environment, and access to care play a role ... Mental health problems and suicide Osteoporosis Overweight and obesity Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Stomach cancer Tuberculosis (TB) ...

  14. The clinical application of linagliptin in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chu-qing; Xiang, Yu-fei; Zhou, Zhi-guang

    2015-01-01

    Asia has a growing diabetic population. Linagliptin, a member of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor class, is unique in its nonlinear pharmacokinetics with the characteristics of rapid attainment of steady state, little accumulation, predominantly nonrenal route of elimination, prolonged terminal half-life, and sustained inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme. No clinically relevant difference in pharmacokinetics was observed between Asians and non-Asians. The management of type 2 diabetes is increasingly challenging with the progression of disease, especially with the requirements of minimal hypoglycemia, weight gain, fluid retention, and other adverse effects. Linagliptin was efficacious and well-tolerated in Asian type 2 diabetes patients with or without renal or hepatic dysfunctions, comparable to that in Caucasians. This review will focus on the usage of linagliptin in clinical studies in Asians. PMID:26396526

  15. Sexual disorders in Asians: a review.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Tandon, Abhinav; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2014-02-01

    Sex is an integral part of the basic needs of an individual. However, Asian populations have had a conservative attitude towards discussing and expressing their sexual concerns to the clinician. Consequently, very limited research on sexuality-related issues has been done on these populations. Many of the biological and socio-cultural factors are different for Asians and Asian migrants to the West, when compared to the native Western population, and this requires dedicated research. The DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition) has made the classification of sexual dysfunctions gender-specific and has introduced the concepts of 'gender dysphoria' and 'paraphilic disorders' (distinct from paraphilias); it has removed subtypes based on sexual orientation. These changes will have a definite impact on our understanding of sexual dysfunctions and related disorders in the Asian populations. PMID:24524717

  16. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... death was 79.6 years; how- ever, blacks, American Indian/ Alaska Natives, and Asian/Pacific Islanders had younger ... 2011 show that among low-income preschool children, American Indians/Alaskan Natives have an obesity rate of 17. ...

  17. Asian-American Women in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on the immigration history, education, income, and occupation representation in the social sciences and cultural and language barriers of Asian American women educational researchers. Includes recommendations to facilitate their entry into the social sciences in general. (MJL)

  18. Lens window simplifies TDL housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Rowland, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Lens window seal in tunable-diode-laser housing replaces plan parallel window. Lens seals housing and acts as optical-output coupler, thus eliminating need for additional reimaging or collimating optics.

  19. Asian Consensus Report on Functional Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Hiroto; Ghoshal, Uday C; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Ang, Tiing-Leong; Chang, Full-Young; Fock, Kwong Ming; Hongo, Michio; Hou, Xiaohua; Kachintorn, Udom; Ke, Meiyun; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Lu, Ching-Liang; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Miura, Soichiro; Park, Hyojin; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sugano, Kentaro; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Wong, Benjamin CY

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Environmental factors such as food, lifestyle and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection are widely different in Asian countries compared to the West, and physiological functions and genetic factors of Asians may also be different from those of Westerners. Establishing an Asian consensus for functional dyspepsia is crucial in order to attract attention to such data from Asian countries, to articulate the experience and views of Asian experts, and to provide a relevant guide on management of functional dyspepsia for primary care physicians working in Asia. Methods Consensus team members were selected from Asian experts and consensus development was carried out using a modified Delphi method. Consensus teams collected published papers on functional dyspepsia especially from Asia and developed candidate consensus statements based on the generated clinical questions. At the first face-to-face meeting, each statement was reviewed and e-mail voting was done twice. At the second face-to-face meeting, final voting on each statement was done using keypad voting system. A grade of evidence and a strength of recommendation were applied to each statement according to the method of the GRADE Working Group. Results Twenty-nine consensus statements were finalized, including 7 for definition and diagnosis, 5 for epidemiology, 9 for pathophysiology and 8 for management. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia were added. Conclusions This consensus developed by Asian experts shows distinctive features of functional dyspepsia in Asia and will provide a guide to the diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia for Asian primary care physicians. PMID:22523724

  20. Quality of Life Among Asian American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fradkin, Chris; Wallander, Jan L.; Yamakawa, Yoshimi; Schwebel, David C.; Chienl, Alyna; Le, Yen-Chi L.; Li, Dennis H.; Elliott, Marc; Schuster, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine whether Asian American youth experience disparities in quality of life (QL) compared with Hispanic, African American, and white youth in the general population and to what extent socioeconomic status (SES) mediates any disparities among these racial/ethnic groups. Data were obtained from the Healthy Passages study, in which 4,972 Asian American (148; 3%), Hispanic (1,813; 36%), African American (1,755; 35%), and white (1,256; 25%) fifth-graders were enrolled in a population-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in three U.S. metropolitan areas. Youth reported their own QL using the PedsQL and supplemental scales. Parents reported youth’s overall health status as well as parent’s education and household income level. Asian American youth experienced worse status than white youth for three of 10 QL and well-being measures, better status than Hispanic youth on six measures, and better status than African American youth on three measures. However, the observed advantages for Asian American youth over Hispanic and African American youth disappeared when the marked SES differences that are also present among these racial/ethnic groups were taken into account. In contrast, the differences between Asian American and white youth remained after adjusting for SES. These findings suggest that the disparities in QL that favor white youth over Asian American youth exist independent of SES and warrant further examination. In contrast, the QL differences that favor Asian American over Hispanic and African American youth may be partly explained by SES. Interpretations are limited by the heterogeneity existing among Asian Americans. PMID:27087894

  1. Correlates of suicidal behaviors among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T; Hong, Seunghye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Analysis of weighted lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors revealed that U.S.-born Asian American women had higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide plan than U.S.-born Asian American men and immigrant Asian American men and women. In multivariate analyses controlling for socio-demographic differences such as ethnicity, marital status and income, differences in suicidal behaviors are found only between U.S.-born women and U.S.-born men. The findings demonstrate the need to disaggregate data by immigrant status as well as socio-demographic correlates. PMID:19591001

  2. Explaining Asian Americans’ academic advantage over whites

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans’ advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian–white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success. PMID:24799702

  3. Heterogeneity within the Asian American community

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ryujin, Lisa; Nguyen, Tammy; Oh, Gia; Paik, Grace; Kustin, Brenda

    2003-01-01

    Background Educational interventions are grounded on scientific data and assumptions about the community to be served. While the Pan Asian community is composed of multiple, ethnic subgroups, it is often treated as a single group for which one health promotion program will be applicable for all of its cultural subgroups. Compounding this stereotypical view of the Pan Asian community, there is sparse data about the cultural subgroups' similarities and dissimilarities. The Asian Grocery Store based cancer education program evaluation data provided an opportunity to compare data collected under identical circumstances from members of six Asian American cultural groups. Methods A convenience sample of 1,202 Asian American women evaluated the cultural alignment of a cancer education program, completing baseline and follow-up surveys that included questions about their breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors. Participants took part in a brief education program that facilitated adherence to recommended screening guidelines. Results Unique recruitment methods were needed to attract participants from each ethnic group. Impressions gained from the aggregate data revealed different insights than the disaggregate data. Statistically significant variations existed among the subgroups' breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors that could contribute to health disparities among the subgroups and within the aggregate Pan Asian community. Conclusion Health promotion efforts of providers, educators, and policy makers can be enhanced if cultural differences are identified and taken into account when developing strategies to reduce health disparities and promote health equity. PMID:14697098

  4. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  5. College and University Apartment Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey-Powell, Deborah, Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to update housing professionals on the current issues and future trends facing college and university apartment operations in the 21st century. Its chapters are: (1) "The History of Apartment Housing" (Rena Buchan); (2) "Research in Apartment Housing" (Donald Whalen); (3) "Community Services and Programming: A Search…

  6. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  7. Supportive housing in Brooklyn.

    PubMed

    Burke, Natasha

    2005-01-01

    Since 1977, Saint Vincent Catholic Medical Centers of New York City has been creating and maintaining supportive housing offerings for at-risk populations, such as individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with substance abuse challenges, and the mentally ill. By providing a continuum of medical and social services, the organization aims to help residents stabilize and rebuild their lives. Saint Vincent sees empowerment as a key step toward helping individuals maintain their health, re-enter the community, seek employment, and pursue other goals. Some of the supportive services Saint Vincent offers in its housing communities are care coordination, counseling, peer support networks, self-help groups, leisure activities, help with finances, and referrals to community agencies offering other resources. Recognizing the importance of job training and assistance, the system also offers a unique program in which mentally ill individuals are able to work in a recycling center or office cleaning business, both of which are owned by Saint Vincent. PMID:15807066

  8. Housing characteristics 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  9. House bat management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenhall, Arthur Merwin

    1982-01-01

    The soundest long-term solution for the management of bats that enter buildings and cause a nuisance problem or present a public health hazard is by batproofing the structure. Chemical toxicants do not solve house bat problems and may create worse ones. This manual describes batproofing techniques that will provide effective and acceptable alternatives for dealing with house bat problems and hazards. Recent declines in bat populations and greater appreciation of the ecological importance of bats have identified the need for sound management strategies that will encourage bat conservation while protecting human health and solving nuisance problems. One of the best deterrents against house bats is to improve the energy efficiency of the structure since bats may enter holes through which heat is lost. Heat conservation methods used for batproofing will also be eligible for Federal residential energy tax credits. The manual should be useful to homeowners, public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, conservationists, and others interested or concerned about bat interactions with humans.

  10. Ocean Origin of Asian Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Xie, X.; Tang, W.

    2012-12-01

    In examining annual variation of precipitation in the India Subcontinent and the tropical East Asia, we fall back to the basic definition of a monsoon as the seasonal reversal of moisture transport between ocean and land. The improvement of TRMM rainfall and our validated data set of space-based estimate of moisture transport integrated over the depth of atmosphere allow us to relate regional and seasonal variation of rainfall over the land to moisture transport across various coastlines. The slight phase difference of monsoon onsets between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal could be discerned. The dominant of East Asian rainfall from the Bay of Bengal and South China Sea over those from the Western Pacific is evident. During the past decade, there are several El Nino/Southern Oscillation episodes that dominate the inter-annual anomalies and our analysis reveals how the transport is related to rainfall anomalies. The rain and transport relation at short time scales, including the landfall of tropical cyclones, is being explored.

  11. Spatiotemporal Profile of Voltage-Sensitive Dye Responses in the Visual Cortex of Tree Shrews Evoked by Electric Microstimulation of the Dorsal Lateral Geniculate and Pulvinar Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sébastien; Petry, Heywood M.; Bickford, Martha E.; Casanova, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The primary visual cortex (V1) receives its main thalamic drive from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) through synaptic contacts terminating primarily in cortical layer IV. In contrast, the projections from the pulvinar nucleus to the cortex are less clearly defined. The pulvinar projects predominantly to layer I in V1, and layer IV in extrastriate areas. These projection patterns suggest that the pulvinar nucleus most strongly influences (drives) activity in cortical areas beyond V1. Should this hypothesis be true, one would expect the spatiotemporal responses evoked by pulvinar activation to be different in V1 and extrastriate areas, reflecting the different connectivity patterns. We investigated this issue by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical visual areas' activity following thalamic electrical microstimulation in tree shrews, using optical imaging and voltage-sensitive dyes. As expected, electrical stimulation of the dLGN induced fast and local responses in V1, as well as in extrastriate and contralateral cortical areas. In contrast, electrical stimulation of the pulvinar induced fast and local responses in extrastriate areas, followed by weak and diffuse activation in V1 and contralateral cortical areas. This study highlights spatiotemporal cortical activation characteristics induced by stimulation of first (dLGN) and high-order (pulvinar) thalamic nuclei. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The pulvinar nucleus represents the main extrageniculate thalamic visual structure in higher-order mammals, but its exact role remains enigmatic. The pulvinar receive prominent inputs from virtually all visual cortical areas. Cortico-thalamo-cortical pathways through the pulvinar nuclei may then provide a complementary route for corticocortical information flow. One step toward the understanding of the role of transthalamic corticocortical pathways is to determine the nature of the signals transmitted between the cortex and the thalamus. By performing, for

  12. Asian American Education: Acculturation, Literacy Development, and Learning. Research on the Education of Asian Pacific Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Clara C., Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.; Lee, Stacey J., Ed.; Rong, Xue Lan, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This research anthology is the fourth volume in a series sponsored by the Special Interest Group Research on the Education of Asian and Pacific Americans (SIG-REAPA) of the American Educational Research Association and National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education. This series explores and explains the lived experiences of Asian…

  13. Selected Bibliography on Asian and Pacific American Children and Families. Asian Pacific American Education Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This is an annotated bibliography of recent articles, books, and scholarly papers on Asian and Pacific American children and families. Works are divided by topical area, with a primary focus on literature related to the education of Asian/Pacific American children. There are four main topical divisions: (1) education; (2) family; (3) mental…

  14. Asian Students' Voices: An Empirical Study of Asian Students' Learning Experiences at a New Zealand University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jacqui; Li, Mingsheng

    2008-01-01

    More than 85% of the international students in New Zealand are Asian in origin. The level of satisfaction of Asian international students with their learning experiences in New Zealand has been of enormous concern for the New Zealand export education industry. The results of this current research, based on a qualitative research study conducted at…

  15. Policy Implications of Trends for Asian American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #2: Asian American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Asian American students, who comprise almost 5% of public school students in the U.S., are a very diverse group. In the aggregate, Asian Americans often have the highest achievement on state tests among major racial/ethnic subgroups. But this overall high performance can sometimes lead educators and policymakers to overlook the needs of…

  16. Invisible Asian Americans: The Intersection of Sexuality, Race, and Education among Gay Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…

  17. Reviewing Asian America: Locating Diversity. Association for Asian American Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wendy L., Ed.; Chin, Soo-Young, Ed.; Moy, James S., Ed.; Okihiro, Gary Y., Ed.

    The 18 essays in this collection explore views of Asian American diversity and race relations, and address issues of representation, providing perspectives of academics, writers, and activists. They explore many questions raised by the complex nature of race relations and the relationship of Asian Americans within U.S. society. Although many of…

  18. About Face: Recognizing Asian & Pacific American Vietnam Veterans in Asian American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Peter Nien-chu

    1991-01-01

    Reviews primary and secondary source material about Asian-American Vietnam veterans. Reveals the reality of marginality faced by Asian Americans and Pacific Americans in the war theater and in the larger society. Subjects' war time and postwar experiences show that the U.S. promise of democracy has not been realized. (SLD)

  19. South Asian and East Asian International Students' Perceived Prejudice, Acculturation, and Frequency of Help Resource Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Lisa L.; Roysircar, Gargi

    2006-01-01

    Relationships of perceived prejudice and acculturation with frequency of help resource utilization were examined for South Asian and East Asian international students (N = 110). All predictors, including interactions, were significant but showed different relationships for the 2 groups. The mean frequency of help resource utilization was…

  20. Family Violence: Psychological Consequences and Beliefs in Asian and Asian-American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maker, Azmaira; Heiple, Becky

    This study specifically explored the relationships among childhood trauma, long-term psychological consequences, beliefs about family violence, and gender role stereotypes in Asian and Asian American women. A prediction was made that childhood physical violence and witnessing family violence would create long-term negative symptoms; higher levels…

  1. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values, and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian…

  2. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  3. Brief daily exposures to Asian females reverses perceptual narrowing for Asian faces in Caucasian infants

    PubMed Central

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins in infancy. The present study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants’ visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate between novel and familiarized Asian faces at the beginning of testing were given brief daily experience with Asian female faces in the experimental condition and Caucasian female faces in the control condition. At the end of three weeks, only infants who received daily experience with Asian females showed above-chance recognition of novel Asian female and male faces. Further, infants in the experimental condition showed greater efficiency in learning novel Asian females compared to infants in the control condition. Thus, visual experience with a novel stimulus category can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing in infancy via improved stimulus recognition and encoding. PMID:22625845

  4. Atmospheric Pollution and Emission Sources in South Asian Urban Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, K. F.; Husain, Liaquat

    2009-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and lack of efficient monitoring and control of pollution, along with phenomena like Asian Brown Haze or prolonged episodes of winter fog, makes the South Asian atmospheric chemistry a very complex one. The anthropogenic aerosols released from this region are projected to become the dominant component of anthropogenic aerosols worldwide in the next 25 years (Nakicenovic and Swart, 2000). The region is one of the most densely populated in the world, with present population densities of 100-500 persons km-2. There are six big cities, namely, Delhi, Dhaka, Karachi, Kolkata, Lahore, and Mumbai, each housing a population around or above 10 million. There is now a real concern about the sustainability of the region's ability to support the population due to air pollution, loss of biodiversity and soil degradation. Therefore, we conducted several extensive campaigns over last 10 years in Lahore, Karachi, and Islamabad in Pakistan to (1) chemically characterize the aerosols (PM2.5 mass, concentrations of trace elements, ions, black and organic carbon), and gaseous pollutants (concentrations of NH3, SO2, HONO, HNO3, HCl and (COOH)2, and (2) identify the major emission sources in this region. Exceedingly high concentrations of all species, relative to major urban areas of US and Europe, were observed. Concentrations of PM2.5, BC, Pb, SO42-, NH4+, HONO, NH3 respectively, up to 476, 110, 12, 66, 60, 19.6 and 50 μgm-3 were observed in these cities, which were far in excess of WHO and US EPA air quality standard (Biswas et al., 2008). We use air parcel back trajectories, intercomponent relationships and meteorological observations to explain chemistry and emission sources of aerosol constituents. Carbonaceous aerosols contributed up to 69% of the PM2.5 mass (Husain et al., 2007). Source apportionment was conducted using positive matrix factorization. The analysis has classified six emission sources of aerosol components, namely, industrial activities, wood

  5. 12 CFR 1281.15 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.15 Housing plans. (a) Housing plan requirement. If the Director determines... feasible, the Director may require the Bank to submit a housing plan for approval by the Director. (b) Nature of plan. If the Director requires a housing plan, the housing plan shall: (1) Be feasible; (2)...

  6. 12 CFR 1281.15 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.15 Housing plans. (a) Housing plan requirement. If the Director determines... feasible, the Director may require the Bank to submit a housing plan for approval by the Director. (b) Nature of plan. If the Director requires a housing plan, the housing plan shall: (1) Be feasible; (2)...

  7. 12 CFR 1281.15 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.15 Housing plans. (a) Housing plan requirement. If the Director determines... feasible, the Director may require the Bank to submit a housing plan for approval by the Director. (b) Nature of plan. If the Director requires a housing plan, the housing plan shall: (1) Be feasible; (2)...

  8. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.210 Housing services. NHHBG funds... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  9. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.210 Housing services. NHHBG funds... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  10. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.210 Housing services. NHHBG funds... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  11. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.210 Housing services. NHHBG funds... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  12. 24 CFR 983.52 - Housing type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing type. 983.52 Section 983.52 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  13. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  14. 24 CFR 982.352 - Eligible housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible housing. 982.352 Section 982.352 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE:...

  15. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  16. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support, PMID:25996432

  17. Smoking cessation in Asians: focus on varenicline

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dan; Chu, Shuilian; Wang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a modifiable risk factor for morbidity and mortality caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and many other diseases. Given the large population size and high prevalence of smoking in Asia, successful smoking cessation could potentially prevent the large number of premature deaths in Asians. However, most dependent smokers cannot successfully quit smoking due to nicotine addiction, and they need professional help and smoking cessation therapies. Varenicline is a highly selective partial agonist for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4β2 subtype, which is believed to be responsible for mediating the reinforcing properties of nicotine. This article is a narrative review, which summarizes the smoking cessation efficacy, side effects, and cost utilities of varenicline in Asians. From this review, we conclude that varenicline is an effective medication that could assist smoking cessation in the Asian populations. The adverse events of varenicline are tolerable, and the most common events were nausea and abnormal dreams. Both the efficacy and tolerance of varenicline in Asians are similar to that in Western populations. Considering the cost utilities, varenicline should be recommended for use in smoking cessation and be covered by medical insurance in most Asian countries. PMID:25926724

  18. Housing quality, housing instability, and maternal mental health.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Duarte, Cristiane S; Sandel, Megan T

    2011-12-01

    Poor housing conditions and residential instability have been associated with distress among women; however, this association could be the result of other social factors related to housing, such as intimate partner violence (IPV) and economic hardship. We examined associations of housing conditions and instability with maternal depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) while accounting for IPV and economic hardship in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,104). In the third study wave, interviewers rated indoor housing quality, including housing deterioration (e.g., peeling paint and holes in floor) and housing disarray (e.g., dark, crowded, and noisy). Mothers reported whether they had moved more than twice in the past two years, an indicator of housing instability. A screening for depression and GAD was obtained from questions derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form in the second and third study waves. IPV and economic hardship were assessed through questionnaire. In this sample, 16% of women were classified as having probable depression and 5% as having probable GAD. In adjusted analyses, mothers experiencing housing disarray (odds ratio [OR], 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0, 1.7]) and instability (OR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.2, 2.3]) were more likely to screen positive for depression. In addition, those experiencing housing instability were more likely to screen positive for GAD (OR 1.9 [95% CI, 1.2, 3.0]) even after adjusting for other social factors. No associations were noted between housing deterioration and maternal mental health. Similar associations were noted when incident cases of probable depression and GAD were examined. Housing instability and disarray, but not deterioration, are associated with screening positive for depression and generalized anxiety among women regardless of other social stressors present in their lives. Housing could potentially present a point of intervention to prevent

  19. At the foot of the shrew: manus morphology distinguishes closely-related Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis griseoventris (Mammalia: Soricidae) in Central America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Stephens, Ryan B.

    2010-01-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae) of the New World genus Cryptotis are distributed from eastern North America to the northern Andes of South America. One well-defined clade in this genus is the Central American Cryptotis mexicana group, whose members are set off from other species in the genus by their variably broader fore feet and more elongate and broadened fore claws. Two species in the C. mexicana group, Cryptotis goodwini Jackson and Cryptotis griseoventris Jackson, inhabit highlands in Guatemala and southern Mexico and are presumed to be sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger body size of C. goodwini. To better characterize these species and confirm the identification of recently-collected specimens, we obtained digital X-ray images of the manus from large series of dried skins of both species. Measurements of the metacarpals and phalanges successfully separated most specimens of C. goodwini and C. griseoventris. These measurements also show that the fore feet of C. griseoventris from Chiapas, Mexico, are morphologically distinct from those of members of the species inhabiting Guatemala. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses indicate that fore foot characters are more conservative within species of the C. mexicana group than are cranio-mandibular characters. Patterns of evolution of fore foot characters that superficially appear to be linear gradations are actually more complex, illustrating individual evolutionary trajectories.

  20. The testis of greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula in Southern European populations: a case of adaptive lack of seasonal involution?

    PubMed

    Massoud, Diaa; Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Ortega, Esperanza; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    Males of all seasonal breeding mammals undergo circannual periods of testis involution resulting in almost complete ablation of the germinative epithelium. We performed a morphometric, histological, hormonal, and gene-expression study of the testes from winter and summer males of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, in populations of the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. Unexpectedly, we found no significant differences between the two study groups. Surprisingly, female data confirmed a non-breeding period in the summer, evidencing that males retain full testis function even when most females are not receptive. This situation, which has not been described before, does not occur in northern populations of the same species where, in addition, the reproductive cycle is inverted with respect to those in the south, as the non-breeding period occurs in winter instead in summer. Considering that the non-reproductive period shortens at lower latitude locations, we hypothesize that in southern populations the non-breeding period is short enough to make testis regression inefficient in terms of energy savings, because: (1) testes of C. russula are very small, a condition derived from their monogamy that implies low investment in spermatogenesis; and (2) the spermatogenic cycle of this species is slow and long. The inverted seasonal breeding cycle and the lack of seasonal testis regression described here are new adaptive processes that deserve further research, and provide evidence that the genetic and hormonal mechanisms controlling reproduction timing in mammals are more plastic and versatile than initially suspected. PMID:24895181