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Sample records for asian maritime continent

  1. Assessing Climatic Impacts due to Land Use Change over Southeast Asian Maritime Continent base on Mesoscale Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, N.; Christopher, S. A.; Nair, U. S.

    2014-12-01

    Due to increasing urbanization, deforestation, and agriculture, land use change over Southeast Asia has dramatically risen during the last decades. Large areas of peat swamp forests over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent region (10°S~20°N and 90°E~135°E) have been cleared for agricultural purposes. The Center for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived land cover classification data show that changes in land use are dominated by conversion of peat swamp forests to oil palm plantation, open lowland or lowland mosaic categories. Nested grid simulations based on Weather Research Forecasting Version 3.6 modelling system (WRFV3.6) over the central region of the Sarawak coast are used to investigate the climatic impacts of land use change over Maritime Continent. Numerical simulations were conducted for August of 2009 for satellite derived land cover scenarios for years 2000 and 2010. The variations in cloud formation, precipitation, and regional radiative and non-radiative parameters on climate results from land use change have been assessed based on numerical simulation results. Modelling studies demonstrate that land use change such as extensive deforestation processes can produce a negative radiative forcing due to the surface albedo increase and evapotranspiration decrease, while also largely caused reduced rainfall and cloud formation, and enhanced shortwave radiative forcing and temperature over the study area. Land use and land cover changes, similar to the domain in this study, has also occurred over other regions in Southeast Asia including Indonesia and could also impact cloud and precipitation formation in these regions.

  2. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: coupling of smoke direct radiative effect below and above the low-level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Reid, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the direct and semi-direct radiative impacts of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent (MC, 10 S-10 N, 90-150 E) during October 2006 when a significant El Nio event caused the highest biomass burning activity since 1997. With the use of an OC (organic carbon) / BC (black carbon) ratio of 10 in the smoke emission inventory, the baseline simulation shows that the clouds can reverse the negative smoke forcing in cloud-free conditions to a positive value. The net absorption of the atmosphere is largely enhanced when smoke resides above a cloud. This led to a warming effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) with a domain and monthly average forcing value of ~ 20 W m-2 over the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Smoke-induced monthly average daytime heating (0.3 K) is largely confined above the low-level clouds, and results in a local convergence over the smoke source region. This heating-induced convergence transports more smoke particles above the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), hence rendering a positive effect. This positive effect contrasts with a decrease in the cloud fraction resulting from the combined effects of smoke heating within the cloud layer and the more stable boundary layer; the latter can be considered as a negative effect in which a decrease of the cloud fraction weakens the heating by smoke particles above the clouds. During the nighttime, the elevated smoke layer lying above the clouds in the daytime is decoupled from the boundary layer, and the enhanced downdraft and shallower boundary layer lead to the accumulation of smoke particles near the surface. Because of monthly smoke radiative extinction, the amount of solar input at the surface is reduced by as much as 60 W m-2, which leads to a decrease in sensible heat, latent heat, 2 m air temperature, and PBLH by a maximum of 20 W m-2, 20 W m-2, 1 K, and 120 m, respectively. During daytime, the cloud changes over continents mostly occur over the islands of Sumatra and Borneo where the low-level cloud fraction decreases more than 10%. However, the change of local wind, including sea breeze, induced by the smoke direct radiative effect leads to more convergence over the Karimata Strait and the south coastal area of Kalimantan during both daytime and nighttime; consequently, the cloud fraction there is increased up to 20%. The sensitivities with different OC / BC ratios show the importance of the smoke single-scattering albedo for the smoke semi-direct effects. Lastly, a conceptual model is used to summarize the responses of clouds, smoke, temperature, and water vapor fields to the coupling of smoke direct effect below and above clouds over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent.

  3. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Coupling of smoke direct radiative feedbacks below and above the low-level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Reid, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the direct and semi-direct radiative impacts of smoke particles over the southeast Asian Marine Continents (MC, 10°S - 10°N, 90°E-150°E) during October 2006 when a significant El Nino event caused the highest biomass burning activity since 1997. With the use of OC (Organic Carbon) /BC (Black Carbon) ratio of 10 in the smoke emission inventory, the baseline simulation shows that the low-level clouds amplifying effect on smoke absorption led to a warming effect at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) with a domain/monthly average forcing value of ~20 Wm-2 over the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. The smoke-induced monthly average daytime heating (0.3K) that is largely confined above the low-level clouds results in the local convergence over the smoke source region. This heating-induced convergence coupled with daytime planetary boundary layer turbulent mixing, transports more smoke particles above the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), hence rendering a positive feedback. This positive feedback contrasts with the decrease of cloud fraction resulted from the combined effects of smoke heating within the cloud layer and the more stability in the boundary layer; the latter can be considered as a negative feedback in which decrease of cloud fraction weakens the heating by smoke particles above the clouds. During nighttime, the elevated smoke layer (above clouds in daytime) is decoupled from boundary layer, and the reduction of PBLH due to the residual surface cooling from the daytime lead to the accumulation of smoke particles near the surface. Because of smoke radiative extinction, on monthly basis, the amount of the solar input at the surface is reduced as large as 60 Wm-2, which lead to the decrease of sensible heat, latent heat, 2-m air temperature, and PBLH by a maximum of 20 Wm-2, 20 Wm-2, 1K, 120 m, respectively. The cloud changes over continents are mostly occurred over the islands of Sumatra and Borneo during the daytime, where the low-level cloud fraction decreases more than 10%. However, the change of local wind (include sea breeze) induced by the smoke radiative feedback leads to more convergence over Karimata Strait and south coastal area of Kalimantan during both daytime and night time; consequently, cloud fraction is increased there up to 20%. The sensitivities with different OC/BC ratio show the importance of the smoke single scattering albedo for the smoke semi-direct effects. A case study on 31 October 2006 further demonstrated a much larger (more than twice of the monthly average) feedback induced by smoke aerosols. The decreased sea breeze during big events can lead to prominent increase (40%) of low-level cloud over coastal water. Lastly, the direct and semi-direct radiative impact of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Marine Continents is summarized as a conceptual model.

  4. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: coupling of smoke direct radiative feedbacks below and above the low-level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Reid, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the direct and semi-direct radiative impacts of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Marine Continents (MC, 10 S-10 N, 90 E-150 E) during October 2006 when a significant El Nino event caused the highest biomass burning activity since 1997. With the use of OC (Organic Carbon)/BC (Black Carbon) ratio of 10 in the smoke emission inventory, the baseline simulation shows that the low-level clouds amplifying effect on smoke absorption led to a warming effect at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) with a domain/monthly average forcing value of ~20 W m-2 over the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. The smoke-induced monthly average daytime heating (0.3 K) that is largely confined above the low-level clouds results in the local convergence over the smoke source region. This heating-induced convergence coupled with daytime planetary boundary layer turbulent mixing, transports more smoke particles above the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), hence rendering a positive feedback. This positive feedback contrasts with the decrease of cloud fraction resulted from the combined effects of smoke heating within the cloud layer and the more stability in the boundary layer; the latter can be considered as a negative feedback in which decrease of cloud fraction weakens the heating by smoke particles above the clouds. During nighttime, the elevated smoke layer (above clouds in daytime) is decoupled from boundary layer, and the reduction of PBLH due to the residual surface cooling from the daytime lead to the accumulation of smoke particles near the surface. Because of smoke radiative extinction, on monthly basis, the amount of the solar input at the surface is reduced as large as 60 W m-2, which lead to the decrease of sensible heat, latent heat, 2 m air temperature, and PBLH by a maximum of 20 W m-2, 20 W m-2, 1 K, 120 m, respectively. The decrease of boundary layer mixing and the generation of convergence above the PBL also results in a reduction of precipitable water 1-2 km above the PBLH and more precipitable water near the surface and in upper part of the middle troposphere with changes around 0.1 mm. Overall, there is less of a change of column water vapor over the land, and an increase of water vapor amount over the Karimata Strait. The cloud changes over continents are mostly occurred over the islands of Sumatra and Borneo during the daytime, where the low-level cloud fraction decreases more than 10%. However, the change of local wind (include sea breeze) induced by the smoke radiative feedback leads to more convergence over Karimata Strait and south coastal area of Kalimantan during both daytime and night time; consequently, cloud fraction is increased there up to 20%. The sensitivities with different OC/BC ratio show the importance of the smoke single scattering albedo for the smoke semi-direct effects. A case study on 31 October 2006 further demonstrated a much larger (more than twice of the monthly average) feedback induced by smoke aerosols. The decreased sea breeze during big events can lead to prominent increase (40%) of low-level cloud over coastal water. Lastly, the direct and semi-direct radiative impact of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Marine Continents is summarized as a conceptual model.

  5. A satellite-based perspective of convective systems over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, A.; Houze, R.; Virts, K.; Zuluaga, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Data from TRMM, the A-Train satellites, and the Worldwide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) have been used to study extreme weather throughout low latitudes, from deep convection over the Himalayas to oceanic mesoscale systems associated with the MJO. This study presents a more in-depth examination of convection over the Maritime Continent (Indonesia and Malaysia). During November to February, this area is the rainiest regional climate on Earth, thus constituting one of the atmosphere's primary heat sources. On multiple temporal and spatial scales, it is a complex region with clouds and precipitation having both oceanic and orographic influence. The November-February season encompasses both the eastward propagation of the MJO through this region and rainfall associated with the Asian-Australian monsoon. More specifically, the precipitation in this region is strongly modulated by MJO phases, pulsations of the monsoon, and the powerful diurnal effects of the islands and ocean. Through a feature-based analysis of convective and stratiform components of storms, the evolution of precipitating clouds in this region will be described using data from the November-February time period over multiple years. This analysis leads to an increased understanding of the characteristics of convection associated with the intraseasonal and diurnal variability during these months over the Maritime Continent. Previous work using A-Train data noted the prevalence of smaller separated MCSs over the region during the locally active phase of the MJO, and WWLLN data have shown a peak in lightning density as convection becomes deeper and more numerous leading up to this active period. By applying the analysis of the TRMM data in addition to the A-Train and WWLLN datasets, the relative roles of convective and stratiform components of MCSs to the behavior of convection can be determined during the MJO and monsoonal maxima of rainfall over the Maritime Continent.

  6. Dynamics of Clouds and Mesoscale Circulations over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Wang, S.; Xian, P.; Reid, J. S.; Nachamkin, J.

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades Southeast Asia (SEA) has seen rapid economic growth as well as increased biomass burning, resulting in high air pollution levels and reduced air qual-ity. At the same time clouds often prevent accurate air-quality monitoring and analysis using satellite observations. The Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7SEAS) field campaign currently underway over SEA provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the com-plex interplay between aerosol and clouds. 7SEAS is a comprehensive interdisciplinary atmospheric sciences program through international partnership of NASA, NRL, ONR and seven local institutions including those from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. While the original goal of 7SEAS is to iso-late the impacts of aerosol particles on weather and the environment, it is recognized that better understanding of SEA meteorological conditions, especially those associated with cloud formation and evolution, is critical to the success of the campaign. In this study we attempt to gain more insight into the dynamic and physical processes associated with low level clouds and atmospheric circulation at the regional scale over SEA, using the Navy’s Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS® ), a regional forecast model in operation at FNMOC since 1998. This effort comprises two main components. First, multiple-years of COAMPS operational forecasts over SEA are analyzed for basic climatology of atmospheric fea-tures. Second, mesoscale circulation and cloud properties are simulated at relatively higher resolution (15-km) for selected periods in the Gulf of Tonkin and adjacent coastal areas. Simulation results are compared to MODIS cloud observations and local sound-ings obtained during 7SEAS for model verifications. Atmospheric boundary layer proc-esses are examined in relation to spatial and temporal variations of cloud fields. The cur-rent work serves as an important step toward improving our understanding of the effects of aerosol particles on maritime clouds. The detailed analysis will be presented at the conference.

  7. Fire hotspot activity and smoke optical depth in the Maritime Continent: Relationships to deep convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Xian, P.; Turk, F. J.; Di Girolamo, L.; Flatau, M.; Fukada, E.; Holz, R. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Maloney, E. D.; Mahamod, M.; Sampson, C. R.; Wang, J.; Zhang, C.

    2011-12-01

    Much research and speculation exists about the meteorological and climatological impacts of biomass burning in the Maritime Continent (MC) of Indonesia and Malaysia. However, the MC hosts some of the world's most complicated meteorology. We wish to understand how tropical phenomena at a range of scales are related to observed burning activity and transport. As part of the 7 Southeast Asian Studies project (7SEAS), team scientists studied the meteorological context of observed fire prevalence and smoke optical depth in the MC. Relationships of burning and smoke transport to such meteorological and climatic factors as the interannual El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), El Nino Modoki, Indian Ocean Dipole (IOP), the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, the 30-90 day Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), tropical waves, tropical cyclones, and diurnal convection were investigated. A conceptual model of how all of these meteorological features affect fire activity and smoke transport is presented. Focus is on the meteorological context of when and where smoke is most likely to interact. Complex relationships are clearly present which pose significant challenges for atmospheric models. For example, while interannual phenomena correlate to total seasonal burning, the Madden Julian Oscillation largely controls when visible burning occurs. However, MJO formation and propagation is very difficult to replicate in models; particularly in the Maritime Continent where smoke-convection interaction is likely to occur. High frequency phenomena which are poorly constrained in models such as diurnal convection and tropical cyclone activity also have impacts which cannot be ignored. Finally, we emphasize that these phenomena not only influence burning, but also the observability of burning, further complicating our ability to assign reasonable relationships.

  8. Wet and Dry Season Precipitation over the Maritime Continent: Variations and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Zhang, T.; Jiang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The authors analyze the seasonal-interannual variations of precipitation over the Maritime Continent (MC) and their relationships with large-scale climate anomalies. They also investigate the predictability of MC precipitation variations. The hindcast of the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) and several other NOAA data sets are mainly analyzed. The seasonal evolution of MC precipitation does not exhibit features for four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter) apparently as the precipitation variations over many places of the world do. Instead, it is clearly characterized by a wet season (from December to March) and a dry season (from July to October). Both the wet-season precipitation and the dry-season precipitation over MC are significantly related to ENSO and Asian-Australian monsoon features. When ENSO signal is removed, the MC precipitation is more strongly related to climate features over East Asia in the wet season and tropical Australia in the dry season. The NCEP CFSv2 shows a high skill in predicting the main features of MC precipitation variations and their relationships with larger-scale climate anomalies. It can predict the total amount and the most dominant mode of MC precipitation skillfully by several months in advance, especially for the dry season.

  9. Intraseasonal Variability of δ18O of Precipitation in The Indonesia Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgaman, H. A.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Tanoue, M.; Suwarman, R.; Yoshimura, K.; Mori, S.; Yamanaka, M. D.; Kurita, N.; Syamsudin, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Indonesian maritime continent (IMC) consists of many islands in a warm pool of sea water and is located between two great oceans—the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean, and two major continents—the Asian and Australian continents. This tropical region also influenced by many regional and local climate and weather phenomenon which causes high spatial and temporal rainfall variability. These factors may produce unique variability of isotopic precipitation. The isotopic content (d18O and dD) in precipitation have been known to have important role for reconstructing the atmospheric circulation, hydrological cycle, and paleoclimate. Using daily data from six observation station across the IMC (Bukit tinggi, Jambi, Denpasar, Makasar, Manado, and Palau Island), the variability of δ18O was explored. Observation times for each station were different. Bukit Tinggi (GAW) was from Jan. 2001 - Mar. 2010, Jambi (JMB) was from Apr. 2001 - Dec. 2005, Denpasar (DPS), Makassar (MKS), Manado (MND) were from Nov. 2002 - Mar. 2010, and Palau Island (PLL) was from Dec. 2001 - May 2007. Daily average value of δ18O were -7.57‰, -5.41‰, -3.15‰, -6.12‰, -5.49‰ and -4.26‰ for GAW, JMB, DPS, MKS, MND and PLL respectively. Daily value of δ18O in GAW has the lowest value compare with the other station was because the location of GAW station located at high altitude. High correlation of variability of δ18O and Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) was observed at western part of the IMC (GAW and JMB), and northern part of the IMC (MKS, MND, and PLL), meanwhile δ18O variability at DPS was less correlated with MJO compare with other stations. Preliminary result from Color Moisture Analysis (CMA) model revealed that precipitable water at GAW and JMB stations was mostly occupied by water vapor evaporated from the Indian Ocean. However, precipitable water at other stations was mostly composed of water vapor evaporated from the Java Sea and the Pacific Ocean. These findings indicate that water vapor evaporated from the Indian Ocean related to the MJO can only reach the Island of Sumatra in the western part of the IMC. Then, Indian Ocean origin was replaced by the water vapor evaporated from the Java Sea and the Pacific Ocean.

  10. The Diurnal Cycle over the Maritime Continent and its Interaction with the MJO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, A. J.; Peatman, S.; Baranowski, D. B.; Stevens, D. P.; Heywood, K. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Schmidtko, S.

    2014-12-01

    The complex land-sea distribution and topography of the maritime continent acts to disrupt or even completely block the eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific. This leads to changes in tropical latent heat release and subsequent impacts on global circulation. Convection over the maritime continent is dominated by the diurnal cycle. Where the mean diurnal cycle is strong (over the islands and surrounding seas), 80% of the MJO precipitation signal in the maritime continent is accounted for by changes in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle. The canonical view of the MJO as the smooth eastward propagation of a large-scale precipitation envelope also breaks down over the islands of the Maritime Continent. Instead, a vanguard of precipitation jumps ahead of the main body by approximately 6 days or 2000 km. Hence, there can be enhanced precipitation over Sumatra, Borneo or New Guinea when the large-scale MJO envelope over the surrounding ocean is one of suppressed precipitation. This behaviour is discussed in terms of an interaction between the diurnal cycle and the MJO circulation. The diurnal cycle is also strong in the ocean. Seaglider measurements taken during the CINDY/DYNAMO campaign show the existence of a diurnal warm layer in the upper few metres of the ocean. This has a significant effect on the surface fluxes, of an order of Watts per square metre. The diurnal warm layer is favoured during the inactive phase of the MJO and may act to help precondition the atmosphere to convection. The activities of the MJO Task Force and Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction project will be discussed in this context.

  11. Transport and scavenging of biomass burning aerosols in the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. H.; Wang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning frequently occurs in summertime over the maritime continent, especially in Malaysia peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. Under certain weather conditions, particulate matters emitted from such fires cause degrade of air quality and thus occurrence of often weekly long haze in downwind locations such as Singapore. It is possible that these biomass burning aerosols may have influenced convective clouds in the maritime continent though such cases have not been well simulated and understood. In order to improve understanding of the spatiotemporal coverage and influence of biomass burning aerosols in the maritime continent, we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the transport of biomass burning aerosols from Malaysia peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, using biomass burning emissions from the Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) version 1.0. We choose to use emissions from the month of August because the annual emissions peak often occurs within this month. Based on a multi-year ensemble simulation, we have examined the influences of various meteorological regimes on the aerosol transport and wet removal.

  12. Does the Maritime Continent region affect sea level change of the eastern Indian Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, W.; Lee, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Maritime Continent region, in particular, the Indonesian Sea, regulates the oceanic communication between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Previous studies suggest that the freshwater transported from the South China Sea to the Indonesian Sea affects the magnitude and structure of the Indonesian throughflow, and the strong tidal mixing in the Indonesian Sea alters the time mean vertical structure of the water mass carried from the Pacific to the Indian Oceans. Sea level changes in the eastern Indian Ocean is known to be affected by those in the northwestern Pacific via coastal Kelvin wave propagation through the Indonesian Sea. However, whether the Maritime Continent region influences sea level changes in the eastern Indian Ocean has not been investigated. In this study, we used Argo floats and satellite altimeter data to study the near decadal change of sea level during the 2005-2013 period. We found that the steric sea level change in eastern Indian Ocean cannot be fully explained by either local forcing or the transmission of steric signal from the western Pacific. This implicates the potential role of the Maritime Continent region in regulating sea level changes in the eastern Indian Ocean.

  13. Seasonal Variability of Rainfall Over Indonesia Maritime Continent Based on Trmm pr Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulihastin, Erma; Kodama, Yasu-Masa

    Temporal and spatial distribution of near surface rain and three types of rainfall namely shallow rain, convective rain, and stratiform rain over Indonesia Maritime Continent (90E-150E, 15S-15N) was investigated using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar in a 10-years dataset (1998-2007). This research also using least square method to confirm distribution of annual and semiannual oscillation of rainfall over Indonesia Maritime Continent (IMC). Climatology rainfall of shallow, stratiform, and convective have agreement to seasonal variability of rainfall over IMC that influenced by monsoon which was rainfall became increased from November to April and reached peak value in January. Conversely, rainfall decreased from May to October and reached lowest value in July. The distribution of shallow rain showed the unique seasonal rainfall for local region namely Sulawesi, Maluku, and closely region. Seasonal of shallow rain in those regions approve to local type of rainfall which was reach peak value in July and August. This rainfall type was opposite to equator rainfall and monsoon rainfall in the most of IMC regions which are dry season occured in the same period. Shallow rain may contributed to local rainfall type over IMC. It might be drived by increasing low level moisture and strongly of subsidence flow in boundary layer which is also influenced by enhancement of Sea Surface Temperature in Malacca Strait at the same period. Keyword: Indonesia Maritime Continent, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, Seasonal Vari-ability

  14. Two years long field campaign YMC - A challenge to the complicated Maritime Continent weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Kunio; Zhang, Chidong; Hayati, Noer; Katsumata, Masaki

    2015-04-01

    The Maritime Continent (MC), which spans from the eastern Indian Ocean to the western Pacific via the complicated land topography, hosts various weather and climate phenomena and plays a role of the heat engine for the global atmospheric circulation. However, most of our knowledge on them are qualitative and result in unrealistic simulation by numerical models. For example, most climate models are suffering from the systematic errors of precipitation with overestimate/underestimate over the land/ocean. Interaction between the local circulation due to the heating diurnal cycle and large-scale phenomena might be a key to understand them quantitatively. To cover the entire monsoon cycle, two-year long field campaign, Years of the Maritime Continent or YMC, is proposed. While long-term atmospheric and oceanic monitoring is done by or through the collaboration with the MC countries, several coordinated intensive observations using ship, aircraft, mooring, float, land-based are planned. Their main targets include convective diurnal cycle, aerosol-cloud interaction, the Madden-Julian oscillation, equatorially trapped waves, troposphere-stratosphere interaction, Indonesian through flow, coastal upwelling, and so on. In this presentation, current status will be reviewed.

  15. Evaluating mid-Holocene precipitation over Australasia and the Maritime Continent in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerley, Duncan; Reeves, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    The Australasian INTIMATE (INTegration of Ice-core, Marine and Terrestrial records) initiative (INQUA project #0809) was undertaken to develop a consistent chronological assessment of the climate of the past 30000 years over Australia, New Zealand and the Maritime Continent. Work has continued as part of SHAPE initiative (INQUA project #1302), but there has currently been little use of this comprehensive resource for evaluating the available climate model data. Therefore, this work presents the initial assessment of model simulations of the mid-Holocene over the Australasian and Maritime Continents (taken from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project, PMIP) in relation to those available data. The mid-Holocene (6 ka) encompasses a period after sea level stabilisation (around 8-7.5 ka) and before the onset of strong ENSO-related variability (post 4 ka). There is some evidence of possibly drier conditions over northern Australia with increased coastal dune activity, along with slightly wetter conditions over Borneo and Papua New Guinea. Weakening of the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude westerlies (relative to the early Holocene) is also likely to have occurred, as evidenced by drier conditions in Western Tasmania and Victoria. The modelled results from the mid-Holocene simulations indicate that conditions were approximately 1-6% drier over much of continental Australia than at present. There is also evidence of slightly wetter conditions (1-3%) over the northern tip of Australia and parts of Papua New Guinea and Borneo. The Southern Hemisphere westerlies in the mid-latitudes (around 50S) are also weaker by 1-2 m s-1 in the model simulations. There are also differences in the seasonal cycle of precipitation and circulation in these models in response to the changes in the orbital parameters in the mid-Holocene relative to present day. The precipitation in the early half of the monsoon season (October, November and December-OND) is typically 10% higher in the mid-Holocene simulations with anomalous onshore flow onto the continent. Conversely, the precipitation is typically more than 10% lower in the late half of the monsoon period (January, February and March-JFM) with anomalous anticyclonic flow over the Australian continent. These anticyclonic anomalies are likely to be caused by reduced convection from the weaker insolation during JFM at 6 ka relative to 0 ka. The increase in OND precipitation and decrease in JFM implies that the monsoon onset and retreat may have been earlier than at present (in response to the insolation forcing), and therefore it is important to assess the changes over the whole monsoon period (October to March) instead of just the summer months (December, January and February).

  16. A complex empirical orthogonal function for combining two different variables over Indonesian maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryanto, Danang Eko

    2016-02-01

    The spatiotemporal patterns of Indonesian Maritime Continent (IMC) convective activity was documented by using two different variables i.e. cloud and wind datasets. In this study, a Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function (CEOF) was used to combining that variables. This method was applied to representing the land-sea-atmosphere interaction of diurnal convective activity in IMC. This study used pseudo-vector to define complex signals from convective index (cloud) as complex part and convergence (wind) as real part. The results showed that the phase patterns of CEOF were more consistent than those of pseudo-vector. Both CEOF1 and CEOF2 have shown semi-annual and annual cycles, respectively. Spatially, CEOF1 represents common patterns, whereas CEOF2 was more toward local patterns and tends to be in random.

  17. Contribution of the maritime continent convection during the preconditioning stage of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, H.; Yoneyama, K.; Nasuno, T.; Hamada, J.

    2013-12-01

    During the international field experiment 'Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011)', the preconditioning process of the MJO was observed. In this study, the contribution of the maritime continent convection was focused on the preconditioning process of the third MJO. During the preconditioning stage of the MJO, westward propagating disturbances were observed from Sumatera Island to the central Indian Ocean and moistened the atmosphere. Convections over the Sumatera Island were activated around December 15th when the moist air mass reached from South China Sea. The origin of the moist air mass was tropical cyclone which was formed in South China Sea in December 10th. The high moisture associated with tropical cyclone activated the convection over Sumatera Island, promoted westward propagating disturbances, and acted a favorable environment for the preconditioning of the MJO. This preconditioning stage of the MJO is simulated by Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) and investigated the moistening process.

  18. Study of Atmospheric Processes over the Maritime Continent with Radio Occultation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Y. H.; Schreiner, W. S.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The atmospheric limb sounding technique making use of radio signals transmitted by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites has emerged as a powerful and relatively inexpensive all weather global observing system. As demonstrated by the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology (GPS/MET) experiment in 1995 and more recently by the CHAMP and SAC-C missions, the GPS radio occultation (RO) sounding data are shown to be of high accuracy and high vertical resolution. The GPS RO data provided by the joint U.S.-Taiwan COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 mission, a constellation of six microsatellites launched in 2006, have been shown to be extremely valuable for global numerical weather prediction, and the study of weather and climate processes. In particular, the temperature and moisture profiles derived from the GPS RO soundings have been found to be useful in revealing the salient vertical structure of the MJO. Stimulated by the success of the COSMIC mission, U.S. and Taiwan are developing a follow-on mission, known as COSMIC-2, which consists of a constellation of 12 satellites. The first tropical constellation of six satellites will be launched in May 2016 and the second polar constellation of another six satellites will be launched in 2019. COSMIC-2 will make use of an advanced receiver, and will track the Russian GLONASS system in addition to GPS. With the production of ~10,000 high quality radio occultation soundings per day, COSMIC-2 will be extremely valuable for the study of atmospheric processes over the maritime continent. In this presentation, we will discuss the applications of COSMIC-2 RO data to the study of MJO, and the support for the field campaign of the Year of Maritime Continent.

  19. Convective Cloud and Rainfall Processes Over the Maritime Continent: Simulation and Analysis of the Diurnal Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Rebecca L.

    The Maritime Continent experiences strong moist convection, which produces significant rainfall and drives large fluxes of heat and moisture to the upper troposphere. Despite the importance of these processes to global circulations, current predictions of climate change over this region are still highly uncertain, largely due to inadequate representation of the diurnally-varying processes related to convection. In this work, a coupled numerical model of the land-atmosphere system (RegCM3-IBIS) is used to investigate how more physically-realistic representations of these processes can be incorporated into large-scale climate models. In particular, this work improves simulations of convective-radiative feedbacks and the role of cumulus clouds in mediating the diurnal cycle of rainfall. Three key contributions are made to the development of RegCM3-IBIS. Two pieces of work relate directly to the formation and dissipation of convective clouds: a new representation of convective cloud cover, and a new parameterization of convective rainfall production. These formulations only contain parameters that can be directly quantified from observational data, are independent of model user choices such as domain size or resolution, and explicitly account for subgrid variability in cloud water content and nonlinearities in rainfall production. The third key piece of work introduces a new method for representation of cloud formation within the boundary layer. A comprehensive evaluation of the improved model was undertaken using a range of satellite-derived and ground-based datasets, including a new dataset from Singapore's Changi airport that documents diurnal variation of the local boundary layer height. The performance of RegCM3-IBIS with the new formulations is greatly improved across all evaluation metrics, including cloud cover, cloud liquid water, radiative fluxes and rainfall, indicating consistent improvement in physical realism throughout the simulation. This work demonstrates that: (1) moist convection strongly influences the near surface environment by mediating the incoming solar radiation and net radiation at the surface; (2) dissipation of convective cloud via rainfall plays an equally important role in the convectiveradiative feedback as the formation of that cloud; and (3) over parts of the Maritime Continent, rainfall is a product of diurnally-varying convective processes that operate at small spatial scales, on the order of 1 km. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs@mit.edu)

  20. Rainfall features over the Indonesian Maritime Continent under the different MJO phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Kunio; Hayati, Noer

    2015-04-01

    Modulation of convective activity associated with the MJO over the Indonesian Maritime Continent is still mystery, and it results in the difficulty of precise simulation of precipitation over this region. In this study, we analyzed satellite data and Radiosonde sounding data to examine the relationship between convective activity and the MJO phase. When the convective peak of the MJO arrives over the MC (phase 4), precipitation area bifurcates into north/south and results in the weak of precipitation over the MC in general. Rather strong convection is found when their peak is located in the eastern Indian Ocean (phase 3). However, strong local precipitation area is found around Pontianak, south-west of Kalimantan Island in phase 4, but it becomes weak in phases 6-7 (when the MJO convective peaks move to the central Pacific). Similar feature is found around Makassar, south-west of Sulawesi Island, but it is interesting because its phase is lagged in quadrature to Pontianak case. The former may relate to the enhanced wind field resembling s-called Borneo vortex. Further relationship is discussed sing sounding data.

  1. Sensitivity of the Maritime Continent precipitation to horizontal resolution in a coupled regional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Jourdain, Nicolas; Taschetto, Andréa; Gupta, Alex Sen; Masson, Sébastien; Cai, Wenju

    2015-04-01

    The Maritime Continent (MC) is centred at one of the major monsoon systems in the world. Characterized by massive tropical heating and precipitation, it is strongly influencing both the Hadley and Walker circulations. However, there are significant challenges in correctly represent climate of this region because of the complex topography and the arrangement of lands and seas. It is often argued that improved representation of the diurnal cycle over islands and the complex mesoscale circulation associated with land-sea contrast is important to energy and hydrological cycles of this region. To investigate the sensitivity of precipitation over the MC to model horizontal resolution, we perform three regional numerical experiments using the coupled NEMO-OASIS-WRF model at different horizontal resolutions of 3/4°, 1/4° and 1/12° in both atmosphere and ocean components. The 3/4° and 1/4° experiments are run on a large MC domain for 21 years (1989 to 2009), and the 1/12° experiment is nested within the 1/4° domain using two-way interactive nesting over 5 years. Increasing the resolution reduces biases in mean SST and mean precipitation. The precipitation distribution is also improved at higher resolution, particularly in coastal areas. A part of these improvements are related to different behaviours of the model physical schemes across the three resolutions. Other changes are interpreted in terms of land-sea breeze, that we describe through a new comprehensive method.

  2. Lightning NOx from Island Convection over the Maritime Continent - Local and Regional Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, K. E.; Allen, D. J.; Huntemann, T. L.; Barth, M.; Skamarock, W.; Ott, L.; Schlager, H.; Hoeller, H.; Betz, H.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Schumann, U.; Vaughan, G.; Rodriguez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Maritime Continent is one of the major areas of lightning occurrence in the tropics. On the local scale, cloud-resolving chemistry simulations have been performed using the WRF-AqChem model for a 'Hector' storm observed on 16 November 2005 over the Tiwi Islands during the SCOUT-O3/ACTIVE campaigns based in Darwin, Australia. Observations from research aircraft in undisturbed air were used to construct composite initial condition chemical profiles. Observed lightning flashes were input to the model and a lightning placement scheme was used to inject the resulting NO into the simulated cloud. Various scenarios of NO production per flash were used for cloud-to-ground and intracloud flashes. NOx mixing ratios from each simulation were compared with upper tropospheric anvil observations to determine the best fit with observed NOx, leading to a best estimate of NO production per flash. The model output illustrates the local impact of lightning in one storm anvil. Flash rate and anvil NOx observations from other Hector storms during the SCOUT-O3 and ACTIVE campaigns were also analyzed. On the broader scale we also examine the role of lightning in the upper tropospheric NOx and O3 budgets over this region with NASA's Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model during the pre-monsoon and monsoon conditions of the November 2005 to February 2006 period. Lightning flash rates in this model are tied to the magnitudes of upward convective mass fluxes from the GEOS-4 data assimilation system and scaled to the monthly OTD/LIS climatology. The GMI O3, NO2, and HNO3 fields will be evaluated with Aura satellite data.

  3. Improving simulation of the feedback between radiation, convective clouds and rainfall over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Rebecca; Eltahir, Elfatih

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents work that improves regional climate simulations over the Maritime Continent using the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3) coupled to the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS). A comprehensive evaluation of the RegCM3-IBIS model system was undertaken using observations from multiple sources, including the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Surface Radiation Budget project (SRB) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). This assessment identified significant model errors associated with processes that occur on diurnal timescales, especially convective-radiative feedbacks and the role of cumulus clouds in mediating the diurnal cycle of rainfall. Significant improvements to the performance of RegCM3-IBIS have been achieved by focusing our efforts on these diurnal-scale processes. In particular, we present two new pieces of work: 1) a new formulation for the fractional coverage of convective cloud within a model grid cell, and 2) a new parameterization for the production of convective rainfall from convective cloud liquid water. These new formulations only contain parameters that can be directly quantified from observational data, are independent of model user choices such as domain size or resolution, and explicitly account for subgrid variability in cloud water content and non-linearities in rainfall production. The new formulations are more physically-meaningful than the existing methods within RegCM3 and can be quickly and easily implemented across convection schemes with no increase in computational burden. With the new formulations, the performance of RegCM3-IBIS is greatly improved across multiple evaluation metrics, especially surface radiative and turbulent heat fluxes, cloud cover and rainfall. These results therefore indicate a consistent improvement in physical realism throughout the simulation. The results of this work illustrate the complex feedback mechanisms that exist between surface fluxes, radiation, cloud cover and rainfall, and emphasize the need to appropriately capture these feedbacks within large-scale climate models.

  4. Improving simulation of the feedback between radiation, convective clouds and rainfall over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, R. L.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents work that improves simulations of climate over the Maritime Continent region using the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3) coupled to the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS). Performance of the RegCM3-IBIS model system was evaluated against observations from multiple sources, including the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Surface Radiation Budget project (SRB), the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and NASA's CloudSat. This assessment identified significant model errors associated with processes that occur on diurnal timescales, especially radiative heating, cumulus cloud formation and convective rainfall. Significant improvements to the performance of RegCM3-IBIS have been achieved by focusing our efforts on these diurnal processes. In particular, we present two new pieces of work: 1) a more physically-based representation of convective cloud cover, and 2) a new parameterization of the convective cloud water-to-rainfall conversion process. The new formulations are derived from observed climatologies of cloud water content and rainfall intensity, and explicitly account for sub-grid variability in cloud water content and cloud cover. The new formulations only contain parameters that can be directly quantified from observational data and they are independent of model user choices such as domain size or resolution. With the new formulations, the performance of RegCM3-IBIS is greatly improved across multiple metrics - radiation, cloud water content, cloud cover, land surface turbulent heat fluxes and rainfall. The results of this work illustrate the complex feedback mechanisms that exist between surface fluxes, radiation, cloud cover and rainfall, and emphasize the need to appropriately capture these feedbacks within large-scale climate models.

  5. Relating Precipitation Phenomena with MODIS Detected Hot Spots in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, E. M.; Reid, J. S.; Xian, P.; Hyer, E.; Turk, J.; Flatau, M.; Zhang, C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies of land use practices in SE Asia’s Maritime Continent (MC) have raised questions over potential meteorological implications including smoke-cloud interaction and changes in the regional radiation budget. Land management practices on Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula include biomass burning to clear primary forest as well as to maintain oil palm plantations. Burning is also employed for clearing unwanted remains from previous crops, rice stubble for example. However, burning activity is often dictated by weather, in particular precipitation. We studied 5 years of MODIS active fire hot spot and satellite precipitation data to investigate how observed burning activity correlated with precipitation features at four major scales: 1) Intraseasonal El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOP); 2) Seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ); 3) the 30-90 day Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO); and 4) regional convection from localized weather phenomenon (e.g., orographic, isolated thermal convection, sea breeze, etc…). It was found that observed burn patterns from each of the islands of the MC had differing responses to these four forcings. Observed burning activity on the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi correlated strongly with the ENSO and ITCZ indicies, whereas Sumatra was more influenced by the phase and strength of the MJO. Java, showing a mix of influence, exhibited strong fire activity in the morning rather than afternoon which is unusual for most burning regions. We hypothesize that these observed relationships reflect both physical land use differences and contextual bias/observability issues associated with the region’s heavy cloud cover. For further studies on smoke-meteorology interaction, our findings point to the need for a clear understanding of the meteorological context of satellite observations.

  6. Precipitation over urban areas in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Evans, Jason P.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of urban areas on precipitation in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting regional atmospheric model. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the atmosphere at a range of spatial resolutions using a multiple nesting approach. Two experiments (with and without urban areas) were completed over a 5-year period (2008-2012) each to estimate the contribution of cities to changes in local circulation. At first, the model is evaluated against two satellite-derived precipitation products and the benefit of using a very high-resolution model (2-km grid spacing) over a region where rainfall is dominated by convective processes is demonstrated, particularly in terms of its diurnal cycle phase and amplitude. The influence of cities on precipitation characteristics is quantified for two major urban nuclei in the region (Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur) and results indicate that their presence locally enhances precipitation by over 30 %. This increase is mainly due to an intensification of the diurnal cycle. We analyse the impact on temperature, humidity and wind to put forward physical mechanisms that explain such changes. Cities increase near surface temperature, generating instability. They also make land-sea temperature contrasts stronger, which enhances sea breeze circulations. Together, they increase near-surface moisture flux convergence and favour convective processes leading to an overall increase of precipitation over urban areas. The diurnal cycle of these effects is reflected in the atmospheric footprint of cities on variables such as humidity and cloud mixing ratio and accompanies changes in precipitation.

  7. Physical Climatology of Indonesian Maritime Continent: An Overview of Observational Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Indonesian maritime continent (IMC) is a miniature of our land-sea coexisting planet Earth. Firstly, without interior activity, the Earth becomes an even-surfaced "aqua-planet" with both atmosphere and ocean flowing almost zonally, and solar differential heating generates (global thermal tides and) Hadley's meridional circulations with ITCZ along the equator as observed actually over open (Indian and Pacific) oceans in the both sides of IMC. ITCZ involves intraseasonal variations or super cloud clusters moving eastward. Secondly, the lands and seas over the actual Earth have been keeping the area ratio of 3:7 (similar to that of islands and inland/surrounding seas in IMC), but their displacements have produced IMC near the equator, which turns equatorial Pacific easterly current northward (Kuroshio) and reflects equatorial oceanic waves inducing coupled ocean-atmosphere interannual variations such as ENSO and IOD, or displacements of Walker's zonal circulations. Thirdly, because IMC consists of many large/small islands with very long coastlines, many narrow straits become a dam for the global (Pacific to Indian) ocean circulation, and the land-sea heat capacity contrasts along the coastlines generate the world's largest rainfall with diurnal cycles (sea-land breeze circulations). The diurnal cycles are dominant in the rainy season (austral summer in Jawa and Bali), because rainfall-induced sprinkler-like land cooling reverses the trans-coastal temperature gradient before sunrise, and subsequent clear sky on land until around noon provides solar heating dependent on season. These processes lead to rapid land/hydrosphere-atmosphere water exchange, local air pollutant washout, and transequatorial boreal winter monsoon (cold surge). In El Niño years the cooler sea-surface temperature suppresses the morning coastal-sea rainfall, and induces often serious smog over IMC. Lastly, high-resolution observations/models covering both over islands and seas are necessary. A radar-profiler network (HARIMAU) has been constructed during FY2005-09, and capacity building on radar operations and buoy manufacturing has been promoted during FY2009-13 by Japan-Indonesia collaboration projects, which are taken over by an Indonesian national center (MCCOE) established in November 2013.

  8. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    PubMed

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today. PMID:22545265

  9. Observed and Modelled Rainfall Distributions on Daily and Sub-daily Timescales Over the Western Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahany, S.; Lim, S. Y.; Cheong, W. K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Simulating the distribution of rainfall on daily and sub-daily time-scales has been a daunting task faced by both global and regional climate models. Over the maritime continent this problem becomes all the more challenging due to the complex topography and local processes playing a major role in shaping the climate over the region. Using a 24-year (1981-2005) timeseries of hourly in-situ rainfall over Singapore, an island over the western maritime continent with a very dense network of rain-gauges, we first characterize the observed rainfall distribution and compare it with retrievals from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. We find remarkably good agreement between in-situ observations and TRMM retrievals in the entire range of rainfall intensities sampled, as seen from the cumulative distribution diagrams. From TRMM retrievals we also find that on daily timescales the rainfall distribution over the Singapore island is very similar to that over the adjoining oceans. Next, we validate the fidelity of the Met Office regional model RegUM in reproducing the observed rainfall statistics using dynamically downscaled model outputs at 12 km horizontal grid spacing for the same time period, and find a good agreement between the model and satellite retrievals over the neighbouring oceans, however over land the model fails to simulate the rainfall distribution with an over-estimation of low-intensity drizzle and significant underestimation of the higher intensities. Finally, we compare the rainfall statistics produced by the regional model with those from the driving global model (HadGEM2-ES), and find that although in general the regional model follows the driving model on larger spatial and temporal scales, at finer scales the rainfall distribution from the two models can be quite different. We find that on daily timescales, over both land and ocean points the regional model produces the most intense rainfall events on days when the driving global model produces very little rainfall.

  10. Time series analysis of Carbon Monoxide from MOPITT over the Asian Continent from 2000-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, P. S.; Roy, P.

    2005-12-01

    The human population continues to grow and large parts of the world industrialize rapidly, causing changes in the global atmospheric chemistry. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous gas in the troposphere when highly concentrated, and is produced by fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and through natural emissions from plants. It is also an important trace gas in the atmosphere and plays a major role in the atmospheric chemistry. We present a study of CO from the measurement of MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere-Level 3 gridded data) instrument on NASA Terra satellite over India and Eastern Asia for the period of 2000-2004. Day- and night-time total column CO measurements are considered over the selected regions in India, China, Thailand and Japan. The selected regions comprise of industrial cities in the Asian continent which form the source of high CO in the atmosphere. The time series data do not show an overall increasing or decreasing trend, but CO is affected by seasonal variations, wind, and precipitation patterns. East Asian regions have higher and wider seasonal fluctuations than the Indian region. CO total column values over the Bay of Bengal are also high and can be explained through wind patterns from the land towards the ocean. Although the sources of CO are mostly confined to the land, it is transported globally through the atmosphere, and has high concentrations over the ocean.

  11. Climate deterioration on the Asian continent after the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont-Nivet, G.; Bosboom, R. E.; Hemmo, A.; Hoorn, C.; van den Berg, B.; Guo, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Cenozoic global climate cooling leading from greenhouse to icehouse conditions, occurred mainly during a peculiar interval referred to as the 'doubthouse' from the early Eocene (~50 Ma) until permanent Antarctic ice-sheet formation at the ~34 Ma Eocene-Oligocene transitions (EOT). Understanding this critical interval characterized by periodic polar ice-sheet formations as well as short-lived warming events (hyperthermals), of which the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) is most noticeable, requires high resolution records that are being gathered in marine basins but are still lacking in the terrestrial realm. Here, we analyze the lithofacies and palynological changes within four lacustrine sedimentary sections from the central Asian continent (Xining Basin, NW China), precisely dated with magnetostratigraphy between ~43 and ~36 Ma. We show that a permanent regional aridification and a shift to obliquity-dominated cyclicity is, within uncertainty, concomitant with peak warming of the MECO records in the marine realm at ~39.3 Ma (basal part of chron C18n.2n). We interpret our results to indicate that incipient polar ice sheet formation in association with higher climate variability started directly following the MECO, marking the onset of a major cooling step leading to the EOT. The permanent - rather than transient - expression of the MECO in Asian terrestrial paleoenvironments suggests this warming event marks the crossing of a critical threshold for atmospheric conditions in their course from greenhouse to icehouse conditions.

  12. Multi-scale meteorological conceptual analysis of observed active fire hotspot activity and smoke optical depth in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Xian, P.; Hyer, E. J.; Flatau, M. K.; Ramirez, E. M.; Turk, F. J.; Sampson, C. R.; Zhang, C.; Fukada, E. M.; Maloney, E. D.

    2012-02-01

    Much research and speculation exists about the meteorological and climatological impacts of biomass burning in the Maritime Continent (MC) of Indonesia and Malaysia, particularly during El Nino events. However, the MC hosts some of the world's most complicated meteorology, and we wish to understand how tropical phenomena at a range of scales influence observed burning activity. Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived active fire hotspot patterns coupled with aerosol data assimilation products, satellite based precipitation, and meteorological indices, the meteorological context of observed fire prevalence and smoke optical depth in the MC are examined. Relationships of burning and smoke transport to such meteorological and climatic factors as the interannual El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), El Nino Modoki, Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, the 30-90 day Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), tropical waves, tropical cyclone activity, and diurnal convection were investigated. A conceptual model of how all of the differing meteorological scales affect fire activity is presented. Each island and its internal geography have different sensitivities to these factors which are likely relatable to precipitation patterns and land use practices. At the broadest scales as previously reported, we corroborate ENSO is indeed the largest factor. However, burning is also enhanced by periods of El Nino Modoki. Conversely, IOD influences are unclear. While interannual phenomena correlate to total seasonal burning, the MJO largely controls when visible burning occurs. High frequency phenomena which are poorly constrained in models such as diurnal convection and tropical cyclone activity also have an impact which cannot be ignored. Finally, we emphasize that these phenomena not only influence burning, but also the observability of burning, further complicating our ability to assign reasonable emissions.

  13. Multi-scale meteorological conceptual model of observed active fire hotspot activity and smoke optical depth in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Xian, P.; Hyer, E. J.; Flatau, M. K.; Ramirez, E. M.; Turk, F. J.; Sampson, C. R.; Zhang, C.; Fukada, E. M.; Maloney, E. D.

    2011-07-01

    Much research and speculation exists about the meteorological and climatological impacts of biomass burning in the Maritime Continent (MC) of Indonesia and Malaysia, particularly during El Niño events. However, the MC hosts some of the world's most complicated meteorology, and we wish to understand how tropical phenomena at a range of scales influence observed burning activity. Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived active fire hotspot patterns coupled with aerosol data assimilation products, satellite based precipitation, and meteorological indices, the meteorological context of observed fire prevalence and smoke optical depth in the MC are examined. Relationships of burning and smoke transport to such meteorological and climatic factors as the interannual El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), El Niño Modoki, Indian Ocean Dipole (IOP), the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, the 30-90 day Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), tropical waves, tropical cyclone activity, and diurnal convection were investigated. A conceptual model of how all of the differing meteorological scales affect fire activity is presented. Each island and its internal geography have different sensitivities to these factors which are likely relatable to precipitation patterns and land use practices. At the broadest scales as previously reported, we confirm ENSO is indeed the largest factor. However, burning is also enhanced by periods of El Niño Modoki. Conversely IOD influences are unclear. While interannual phenomena correlate to total seasonal burning, the MJO largely controls when visible burning occurs. High frequency phenomena which are poorly constrained in models such as diurnal convection and tropical cyclone activity also have an impact which cannot be ignored. Finally, we emphasize that these phenomena not only influence burning, but also the observability of burning, further complicating our ability to assign reasonable emissions.

  14. Coupling of a regional atmospheric model (RegCM3) and a regional oceanic model (FVCOM) over the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Xue, Pengfei; Xu, Danya

    2014-09-01

    Climatological high resolution coupled climate model simulations for the maritime continent have been carried out using the regional climate model (RegCM) version 3 and the finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) specifically designed to resolve regions characterized by complex geometry and bathymetry. The RegCM3 boundary forcing is provided by the EMCWF-ERA40 re-analysis. FVCOM is embedded in the Global MITgcm which provides boundary forcing. The domain of the coupled regional model covers the entire South China Sea with its through-flow, the entire Indonesian archipelago with the Indonesian through-flow (ITF) and includes a large region in the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans. The coupled model is able to provide stable and realistic climatological simulations for a specific decade of atmospheric-oceanic variables without flux correction. The major focus of this work is on oceanic properties. First, the coupled simulation is assessed against ocean-only simulations carried out under two different sets of air-sea heat fluxes. The first set, provided by the MITgcm, is proved to be grossly deficient as the heat fluxes are evaluated by a two-dimensional, zonally averaged atmosphere and the simulated SST have anomalous cold biases. Hence the MITgcm fluxes are discarded. The second set, the NCEP re-analysis heat fluxes, produces a climatological evolution of the SST with an average cold bias of ~-0.8 °C. The coupling eliminates the cold bias and the coupled SST evolution is in excellent agreement with the analogous evolution in the SODA re-analysis data. The detailed comparison of oceanic circulation properties with the International Nusantara Stratification and Transport observations shows that the coupled simulation produces the best estimate of the total ITF transport through the Makassar strait while the transports of three ocean-only simulations are all underestimated. The annual cycle of the transport is also very well reproduced. The coupling also considerably improves the vertical thermal structure of the Makassar cross section in the upper layer affected by the heat fluxes. On the other hand, the coupling is relatively ineffective in improving the precipitation fields even though the coupled simulation captures reasonably well the precipitation annual cycle at three land stations in different latitudes.

  15. Measurement of electromagnetic waves in ELF and VLF bands to monitor lightning activity in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kozo; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Ohya, Hiroyo; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Sato, Mitsuteru; Matsumoto, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Data of lightning discharge has been focused on as an effective way for monitoring and nowcasting of thunderstorm activity which causes extreme weather. Spatial distribution of lightning discharge has been used as a proxy of the presence or absence of deep convection. Latest observation shows that there is extremely huge lightning whose scale is more than hundreds times bigger than that of averaged event. This result indicates that lightning observation should be carried out to estimate not only existence but also scale for quantitative evaluation of atmospheric convection. In this study, lightning observation network in the Maritime Continent is introduced. This network is consisted of the sensors which make possible to measure electromagnetic wave radiated from lightning discharges. Observation frequency is 0.1 - 40 kHz for the measurement of magnetic field and 1 - 40 kHz for that of electric field. Sampling frequency is 100 kHz. Waveform of electromagnetic wave is recorded by personal computer. We have already constructed observation stations at Tainan in Taiwan (23.1N, 121.1E), Saraburi in Thailand (14.5N, 101.0E), and Pontianak in Indonesia (0.0N, 109.4E). Furthermore, we plan to install the monitoring system at Los Banos in Philippines (14.18, 121.25E) and Hanoi in Viet Nam. Data obtained by multipoint observation is synchronized by GPS receiver installed at each station. By using data obtained by this network, location and scale of lightning discharge can be estimated. Location of lightning is determined based on time of arrival method. Accuracy of geolocation could be less than 10km. Furthermore, charge moment is evaluated as a scale of each lightning discharge. It is calculated from electromagnetic waveform in ELF range (3-30 kHz). At the presentation, we will show the initial result about geolocation for source of electromagnetic wave and derivation of charge moment value based on the measurement of ELF and VLF sferics.

  16. Effects of the Cold Tongue in the South China Sea on the Monsoon, Diurnal Cycle and Rainfall in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseki, Shunya; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Kiat Teo, Chee

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the effects of the Cold Tongue in the South China Sea (SCS) on the winter monsoon, rainfall and diurnal cycle in the Maritime Continent using a numerical model verified with satellite rainfall and reanalysis data. Composite analysis of the observation and reanalysis data based on Cold Tongue Index indicates that the penetration of the monsoon to Java Sea is enhanced when the cold tongue is strong. A sensitivity experiment without the cold tongue shows that the winter monsoon is diminished over SCS and around coastal regions because of anomalous low-level cyclonic circulation associated with enhanced convection over SCS due to the warmer SST. The diurnal cycle, in particular, the night-morning rainfall over the ocean in coastal regions is modified. The effect on daytime rainfall over the land is weaker. Along the northern coast of Java far from SCS, the night-morning rainfall is much reduced over Java Sea when the cold tongue is suppressed because of the weakened land breeze front due to the weakened northerly monsoon. In contrast, the afternoon-evening rainfall on Java Island is enhanced showing that the local impacts are not simply the result of large-scale subsidence from the convective anomaly in SCS. Along the northwestern coast of Borneo adjacent to SCS, the weakened winter monsoon tends to reduce the rainfall at the land breeze front near the coastline. On the other hand, the warmer SST forces a stronger land breeze and the weakened monsoon encourages further and faster offshore propagation of the land breeze front. Consequently, the rainfall peak shifts further offshore in the sensitivity experiment. We conclude that the cold tongue has two effects, the sustenance of a strong monsoon (indirect effect) and the cooling of local SST (direct effect), which have opposite influences on the diurnal cycle in the Maritime Continent. Reference: Koseki, S., T. Y. Koh and C. K. Teo (2012), "Effects of the Cold Tongue in the South China Sea on the Monsoon, Diurnal Cycle and Rainfall in the Maritime Continent", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, DOI: 10.1002/qj.2052, accepted (early online release).

  17. Large-scale Distribution of CH4 in the Western North Pacific: Sources and Transport from the Asian Continent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Karen B.; Sachse, Glen W.; Slate, Thomas; Harward, Charles; Blake, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    Methane (CH4) mixing ratios in the northern Pacific Basin were sampled from two aircraft during the TRACE-P mission (Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) from late February through early April 2001 using a tunable diode laser system. Described in more detail by Jacob et al., the mission was designed to characterize Asian outflow to the Pacific, determine its chemical evolution, and assess changes to the atmosphere resulting from the rapid industrialization and increased energy usage on the Asian continent. The high-resolution, high-precision data set of roughly 13,800 CH4 measurements ranged between 1602 ppbv in stratospherically influenced air and 2149 ppbv in highly polluted air. Overall, CH4 mixing ratios were highly correlated with a variety of other trace gases characteristic of a mix of anthropogenic industrial and combustion sources and were strikingly correlated with ethane (C2H6) in particular. Averages with latitude in the near-surface (0-2 km) show that CH4 was elevated well above background levels north of 15 deg N close to the Asian continent. In the central and eastern Pacific, levels of CH4 were lower as continental inputs were mixed horizontally and vertically during transport. Overall, the correlation between CH4 and other hydrocarbons such as ethane (C2H6), ethyne (C2H2), and propane (C3H8) as well as the urban/industrial tracer perchloroethene (C2Cl4), suggests that for CH4 colocated sources such as landfills, wastewater treatment, and fossil fuel use associated with urban areas dominate regional inputs at this time. Comparisons between measurements made during TRACE-P and those of PEM-West B, flown during roughly the same time of year and under a similar meteorological setting 7 years earlier, suggest that although the TRACE-P CH4 observations are higher, the changes are not significantly greater than the increases seen in background air over this time interval.

  18. Observation of sprites over the Asian continent and over oceans around Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Chen, Alfred Bing-Chih; Lee, Yi-Jen; Lee, Lou-Chuang

    2002-02-01

    Sprites were observed over thunderstorms in the southern China and in oceans around Taiwan. The observation sites were on the Ali Mountain of Taiwan's Central Ridge area with an altitude of 2413 m and in the campus of National Cheng Kung University with an altitude of 50 m. For the observed land sprites, 90% of them were either carrots or columniforms and 64% of the sprites occurred in groups. Among the observed oceanic sprites, 89% of them were carrots but only 22% of the sprites occurred in groups. We define a sprite active system as a thunderstorm that continuously produces at least one sprite in a 10-minute interval. The active sprites generating periods for the observed thunderstorms were typically shorter than 30 minutes. The sprite production rates for these Asian thunderstorms are estimated to be between I ~ 2 × 10-4 events/km2/hr and I ~ 1 × 10-3 events/km2/hr.

  19. Possible Factors affecting the Thermal Contrast between Middle-Latitude Asian Continent and Adjacent Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huaqiong; Wu, Tongwen; Dong, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    A middle-latitude Land-Sea thermal contrast Index was used in this study which has close connection to the East Asian summer precipitation. The index has two parts which are land thermal index defined as JJA 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies at a land area (75°-90° E, 40° -55°N ) and ocean thermal index defined as that at an oceanic area (140° -150°E, 35° -42.5°N). The impact of the surface heat flux and atmospheric diabatic heating over the land and the ocean on the index was studied. The results show that the surface heat flux over Eurasian inner land has little influence to the land thermal index, while the variation of the surface latent heat flux and long-wave radiation over the Pacific adjacent to Japan has highly correlation with the ocean thermal index. The changes with height of the atmospheric diabatic heating rates over the Eurasian inner land and the Pacific adjacent to Japan have different features. The variations of the middle troposphere atmospheric long-wave and short-wave radiation heating have significantly influences on land thermal index, and that of the low troposphere atmospheric long-wave radiation, short-wave radiation and deep convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the land thermal index. For the ocean thermal index, the variations of the surface layer atmospheric vertical diffuse heating, large-scale latent heating and long-wave radiation heating are more important, low and middle troposphere atmospheric large-scale latent heating and shallow convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the ocean thermal index. And then the ocean thermal index has closely connection with the low troposphere atmospheric temperature, while the land thermal index has closely connection with the middle troposphere atmospheric temperature. The Effect of the preceding global SST anomalies on the index also was analyzed. The relations of land thermal index and ocean thermal index and the global SST anomalies in the preceding autumn, winter, spring and same summer are observed, the results show that the preceding SST anomalies in North Indian Ocean (50o-130oE,10oS-20oN) has closely relationship with the land thermal index, and the preceding SST anomalies in Northwest Pacific (140oE-180o,10oN-20oN) are highly positively correlated with ocean thermal index. Utilizing EOF analysis, we have discussed the spatial distribution of SSTA in preceding winter over North Pacific, and it is found that the variation of SSTA in the area located in Northwest Pacific could reflect the variation of SSTA in North Pacific. The spacial distribution of preceding SSTA in the high and low index year confirmed the important effect of these two areas. The relationship of the preceding winter and spring SSTA in the area located in Northwest Pacific and the ocean thermal index, and that of the preceding winter and spring SSTA in the area located in North Indian Ocean and the land thermal index, reveal that the preceding winter and spring SSTA in these two areas could be used as forecasting factors of the index. The effect of the preceding winter SSTA in these two areas on the summer circulation in East Asian was also observed. The results show that, when the preceding winter SSTA in Northwest Pacific is warmer (colder), the anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomalies appears in summer over Japan and adjacent ocean; when the preceding winter SSTA in North Indian Ocean is warmer (colder), the anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomalies appears in summer over Kazakhstan area in Eurasian inner land.

  20. Characterizing the Vertical Profile of Aerosol Particle Extinction and Linear Depolarization over Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent: The 2007-2009 View from CALIOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong; Tackett, Jason L.; Chew, Boon Ning; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Aoki, Kazuma; Winker, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of 0.532 µm aerosol particle extinction coefficient and linear volume depolarization ratio are described for Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent. Quality-screened and cloud-cleared Version 3.01 Level 2 NASA Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 5-km Aerosol Profile datasets are analyzed from 2007 to 2009. Numerical simulations from the U.S. Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System (NAAPS), featuring two-dimensional variational assimilation of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging Spectro- Radiometer quality-assured datasets, combined with regional ground-based lidar measurements, are considered for assessing CALIOP retrieval performance, identifying bias, and evaluating regional representativeness. CALIOP retrievals of aerosol particle extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are high over land and low over open waters relative to NAAPS (0.412/0.312 over land for all data points inclusive, 0.310/0.235 when the per bin average is used and each is treated as single data points; 0.102/0.151 and 0.086/0.124, respectively, over ocean). Regional means, however, are very similar (0.180/0.193 for all data points and 0.155/0.159 when averaged per normalized bin), as the two factors offset one another. The land/ocean offset is investigated, and discrepancies attributed to interpretation of particle composition and a-priori assignment of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio ("lidar ratio") necessary for retrieving the extinction coefficient from CALIOP signals. Over land, NAAPS indicates more dust present than CALIOP algorithms are identifying, indicating a likely assignment of a higher lidar ratio representative of more absorptive particles. NAAPS resolvesmore smoke overwater than identified with CALIOP, indicating likely usage of a lidar ratio characteristic of less absorptive particles to be applied that biases low AOD there. Over open waters except within the Bay of Bengal, aerosol particle scattering is largely capped below 1.5 km MSL, though ground-based lidar measurements at Singapore differ slightly from this finding. Significant aerosol particle presence over land is similarly capped near 3.0 km MSL over most regions. Particle presence at low levels regionally, except over India, is dominated by relatively non-depolarizing particles. Industrial haze, sea salt droplets and fresh smoke are thus most likely present.

  1. Cell concentration of bacteria in the Asian continent outflow under different weather conditions observed at southwestern Japan between 2010 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Murata, K.

    2013-12-01

    Widespread dispersal of microorganisms in the air is considered to be particularly important for ice cloud formation in elevated levels. However, very few quantitative data on their concentration are available. The purpose of the study is to figure out the manner by which bacteria are transported and gain the bacteria's concentration and viability in the Northern Hemisphere westerly winds at the downstream areas of the Asian continent. Viable and non-viable airborne bacteria were measured with fluorescence microscopy coupled with LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kits under various weather conditions at Kumamoto, a coastal city in southwestern Japan. The concentration in thermodynamically different air parcels was in the similar order, hundreds of thousand cells per cubic meter, but different ranges. No correlation was found between the concentration and coarse aerosol particles (diameter>1.0 μm) in prefrontal air and anticyclone air. In contrast, the concentration correlated closely with coarse particles in the postfrontal air and the concentration increased proportionally to coarse particle concentrations by 1 ~ 2 orders in the presence of Asian dust. Bacterial viability was around 70% on average in the different kinds of air parcels. However, the viability in fast-moving postfrontal air was smaller. In summary, air parcels following strong cold fronts in the westerly wind flow constantly and efficiently convey airborne bacteria, characterized by coarse particle-correlated high concentration and low viability, from the Asian continent while the bacteria in slowly-moving anticyclone and prefrontal air, characterized by low concentration and high viability, are more likely a mixture of bacteria from the Asian continent and the local areas.

  2. A Comparison of Food Supply from 1984 to 2009 and Degree of Dietary Westernization in Taiwan with Asian Countries and World Continents

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheau-Jane; Lin, Cheng-Yao; Guo, How-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare quality, quantity, and trends of food supply from 1984 to 2009 and degree of food westernization in Taiwan with Asian countries and world continents by using food balance data. Methods. We compiled data from food balance sheets of Taiwan and Food and Agriculture Organization, including five continents and three most populated countries each in Eastern, Southern, and Southeastern Asia over the period 1984–2009. Quantity of food supply per capita was referenced to Taiwan food guides. The population-weighted means of food supply from Europe, North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand continents in terms of energy and nutrient distributions, animal/plant sources, and sugar/alcohol contribution were used as indicators of westernization. Trends of food supply per capita of six food groups were plotted, and linear regression was applied to evaluate food changes. Findings. Taiwan's food supply provided sufficient quantity in food energy, with the lowest cereals/roots supply and rice to wheat ratio, but the highest meat and oil supplies per capita among the 10 studied Asian countries. Taiwan food supply showed the most westernization among these countries. Conclusion. Food supply of Taiwan, although currently sufficient, indicated some security problems and high tendency of diet westernization. PMID:26295045

  3. Early Eocene (c. 50 Ma) collision of the Indian and Asian continents: Constraints from the North Himalayan metamorphic rocks, southeastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Huixia; Zhang, Zeming; Dong, Xin; Tian, Zuolin; Xiang, Hua; Mu, Hongchen; Gou, Zhengbin; Shui, Xinfang; Li, Wangchao; Mao, Lingjuan

    2016-02-01

    Despite several decades of investigations, the nature and timing of the India-Asia collision remain debated. In the western Himalaya, the leading edge of the Indian continent was deeply subducted to mantle depths and experienced ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the Eocene at c. 50 Ma. In this paper, however, we demonstrate that the North Himalayan metamorphic rocks in the eastern Himalaya underwent Early Eocene (48-45 Ma) medium-pressure (MP) metamorphism due to shallow subduction of the Indian continent beneath southeastern Tibet. The studied garnet-kyanite-staurolite schists occur in the core of the Yardoi gneiss dome, the easternmost North Himalayan Gneiss Dome, and represent the upper structural level of the Higher Himalayan Crystallines (HHC). Petrology and phase equilibria modeling show that these rocks have mineral assemblages of Grt + Pl + Bt + Qz ± Ky ± St ± Ms that were formed under conditions of 7-8 kbar and 630-660 °C. Zircon U-Pb chronology shows that these rocks have peak-metamorphic ages of 48-45 Ma and protracted zircon growth, indicating that the collision between Indian and Asian continents must have occurred at c. 50 Ma in southeastern Tibet. Combining with available data, we suggest that the HHC represents a crustal section of the subducted and subsequently exhumed Indian continent. Due to shallow subduction of the continent during the Eocene, the middle to lower crust of the continent was subducted into depths of 40-60 km and underwent high-pressure (HP) and high-temperature (HT) granulite-facies metamorphism and intense anatexis, whereas the upper crust was buried to shallower depths of 20-30 km and witnessed MP metamorphism and intrusion of leucogranites derived from the lower structural level of the HHC.

  4. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    In addition to facilitating peaceful trade and economic development, sovereign territory, territorial waters and international waters are being used by various criminal groups that pose threats to governments, businesses and civilian population in Southeast Asia. Nonstate criminal maritime activities were not receiving appropriate attention as they were overshadowed by traditional military security challenges. Yet more and more frequently, the non-traditional actors challenge lines of communication, jeopardize access to strategic resources, complicate traditional defence tasks, and harm the environment. Understanding the nature of non-traditional threats, and the ways to combat them, requires international legal, historical and political science analysis within a united problem-oriented approach. A fair critique to pure interest, power and knowledge -based theories of regime formation was developed by E.K. Leonard's1, who explained the evolution of the international system from the global governance perspective. The present study is based on the premise that pure nation-state approaches are incapable of providing a theoretical ground for addressing the growing influence of international criminal networks in South East Asia. From an international relations theory perspective, the author of this study agrees with D.Snidal2 that the hegemonic stability theory has "limits" and is insufficient in describing modern challenges to sustainable international security regime, including non-traditional threats, where collective action is more efficient from an interest and capability standpoint. At the same time the author of this study does not share the viewpoint on "marginalization"3 of international law in current international order due to its fragmentation and regionalization4 and "global power shifts"5 . The United Nations, as a global institution at the top of the vertical hierarchy of international legal order, and the EU as an example of "self-contained" regime along with other subsystems like South East Asia may have different approaches to global governance, international constitutional order, or particular cases such as the measure of infringement of human rights when targeting individuals suspected of terrorist links. Yet international law remains the key part of the Asian and global security regime. The hypothesis of this study is that the "void of governance" regime in territorial and international waters provides lucrative environment for developing terrorism, piracy, environmental degradation, and other criminal activities that pose untraditional threats to the regional security. This "void of governance" regime can be caused by either, or both, de jure or de facto insufficient control over particular marine territories.

  5. Transport of black carbon and CO from the Asian continent to the western Pacific and estimate of CO emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Y.; Verma, R.; Oshima, N.; Matsui, H.; Kita, K.; Kajii, Y. J.; Kato, S.; Miyakawa, T.; Takami, A.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous in situ measurements of the mass concentration of black carbon (BC) aerosols and mixing ratio of carbon monoxide (CO) were made at Cape Hedo on Okinawa Island, Japan, a remote site located in the East China Sea, from March 2008 to May 2009. For the first time, we show detailed temporal variations of BC with an accuracy of about 10% in Asian outflows throughout the year. The origins of the observed air masses are determined by using 5-day back trajectories. Annual average concentrations of BC and CO were 0.29 ug m-3 and 150 ppbv, respectively. About 51% of the air masses arriving at Hedo were from the Chinese region during spring and winter, while about 78% of air masses were of maritime origin during summer. Air masses from North China made the largest contributions to elevating the BC levels at Hedo due to the high BC emission rate and frequency of transport. The observed dBC/dCO ratio systematically decreased with the decrease in model-calculated transport efficiency (TEBC cal). Based on this result, we derive region-specific dBC/dCO ratios by selecting data with TEBC cal > 80%. The annual dBC/dCO ratios for air originated from North and South China were 7.0±3.3 and 7.5±4.6 ng m-3/ppbv, respectively, about half the annual BC/CO emission ratio derived from the emission inventory of Zhang et al. [2009]. The comparison of model calculated CO with those observed at Hedo and by aircraft observations indicates that the estimation of CO flux from the Chinese region is underestimated by about a factor of two in the inventory of Zhang et al. [2009].

  6. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the age-unknown quartzites in southwest Korea: Implications for paleotectonic configuration during the assembling of the East Asian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Taejin; Lee, Yong Il; Orihashi, Yuji

    2015-04-01

    Detrital zircon geochronology is a powerful tool to infer depositional age and provenance of quartzites, because they are barren but generally contain zircons in spite of their mature composition. The Korean Peninsula comprises three major Precambrian massifs. In the southern Korean Peninsula there are twelve quartzite strata with depositional ages traditionally known to be ranging from Precambrian to Mesozoic. However, their stratigraphic significance is yet clear, partly due to lack of depositional age data and vague stratigraphic relationships with other strata. Among them two quartzite strata, the Hongdo and Yongamsan Formations distributed in the Yeongnam massif, were chosen for this study, largely because the depostional ages of these two formations may provide information related to the paleotectonic affinity of the Korean Peninsula during assembling of the East Asian continent. The Hongdo Formation is barren distributed in Hongdo Island, southwest Korea, and mainly comprises of quartzose sandstones. Its depositional environment is interpreted as a braided plain setting in a large alluvial fan system. Depositional age of the Hongdo Formation is still questionable although it is commonly regarded as of Mesozoic in age based on its lithology and depositional environment. The Yongamsan Formation is metaquartzite located in the southwesternmost part of the Korean Peninsula. It overlies Precambrian granite gneiss and is conformably overlain by upper Paleozoic strata. However, the depositional age of the Yongamsan Formation is still unknown. To infer the depositional age and provenance of the Hongdo and Yongamsan Formations, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of detrital zircon grains were analyzed. Among 300 Hongdo zircons analyzed, 184 grains yielded concordant or slightly discordant (<15%) ages ranging from Archean to Early Neoproterozoic (2752-879 Ma). The Hongdo zircons have major peak ages at ca. 1650, 1850, 2100, 2400, and 2650 Ma. Most zircon grains are older than 1600 Ma except for three grains and the Late Paleoproterozoic zircon grains increase at the expense of Archean to Paleoproterozoic zircons up sequence. The Yongamsan zircons yielded 21 concordant or slightly discordant ages out of 100 analyzed grains, showing major peak ages at ca. 1877 and 2539 Ma. Paleoproterozoic zircons occupy 80% of the detrital zircons of the Yongamsan Formation. Dominance of Archean and Proterozoic zircons in both the Hongdo and Yongamsan Formations indicates that their source region might have comprised of Archean to Paleoproterozoic rocks exclusively. The absence of Phanerozoic zircons in two formations suggests that the depositional ages of the Hongdo and Yongamsan Formations are probably prior to the Mesozoic, considering occurrence of relatively continuous magmatism in the East Asian continental margin throughout the Mesozoic era. Based on these data the paleotectonic affinity of the studied part of the Korean Peninsula will be discussed.

  7. Seasonal variations of the transport of black carbon and carbon monoxide from the Asian continent to the western Pacific in the boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, R. L.; Kondo, Y.; Oshima, N.; Matsui, H.; Kita, K.; Sahu, L. K.; Kato, S.; Kajii, Y.; Takami, A.; Miyakawa, T.

    2011-11-01

    Continuous in situ measurements of the mass concentration of black carbon (BC) aerosols and mixing ratio of carbon monoxide (CO) were made at Cape Hedo on Okinawa Island, Japan, a remote site located in the East China Sea, from March 2008 to May 2009. For the first time, we show temporal variations of BC and CO at Hedo in Asian outflows throughout the year. Annual average concentrations of BC and CO were 0.29 μg m-3 and 150 ppbv, respectively. The origins of the observed air masses were determined by using 5-day back trajectories, suggesting that about 51% of the air masses arriving at Hedo were from the Chinese region during spring and winter, while about 78% of air masses were of maritime origin during summer. Because of the more frequent transport of Chinese air to Hedo in spring and winter, the average and background concentrations of BC and CO in these seasons were higher by about a factor of 2 than those in summer and fall. Air masses from north China made the largest contributions to elevating the BC levels at Hedo because of the high BC emission rate and frequency of transport. The observed ΔBC/ΔCO ratio systematically decreased with the decrease in model-calculated transport efficiency (TEBCcal). On the basis of this result, we derive region-specific ΔBC/ΔCO ratios by selecting data with TEBCcal > 80%. The annually averaged ΔBC/ΔCO ratios for air originated from north and south China were 7.0 ± 3.3 and 7.5 ± 4.6 ng m-3 ppbv-1, respectively, about half the annual BC/CO emission ratio derived from the emission inventory of Zhang et al. (2009). We evaluate the CO emission inventory of Zhang et al. (2009) for China by comparing observed (ground-based and aircraft) and model-calculated CO values. The comparison indicates that the CO emissions from China were underestimated by about a factor of 2.

  8. Maritime Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravennes, Jean

    1922-01-01

    This report presents some studies of maritime aviation which cover the following principal points: employment of landplanes on maritime aerial warfare; their adaption to peculiar requirements of the Navy; and the establishment of a method of aerial pursuit and bombardment, likewise adapted to military aviation over land.

  9. The resolution sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon and Indo-Pacific in a global 0.35° AGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Stephanie J.; Levine, Richard C.; Turner, Andrew G.; Martin, Gill M.; Woolnough, Steven J.; Schiemann, Reinhard; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Strachan, Jane

    2016-02-01

    The South Asian monsoon is one of the most significant manifestations of the seasonal cycle. It directly impacts nearly one third of the world's population and also has substantial global influence. Using 27-year integrations of a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (Met Office Unified Model), we study changes in South Asian monsoon precipitation and circulation when horizontal resolution is increased from approximately 200-40 km at the equator (N96-N512, 1.9°-0.35°). The high resolution, integration length and ensemble size of the dataset make this the most extensive dataset used to evaluate the resolution sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon to date. We find a consistent pattern of JJAS precipitation and circulation changes as resolution increases, which include a slight increase in precipitation over peninsular India, changes in Indian and Indochinese orographic rain bands, increasing wind speeds in the Somali Jet, increasing precipitation over the Maritime Continent islands and decreasing precipitation over the northern Maritime Continent seas. To diagnose which resolution-related processes cause these changes, we compare them to published sensitivity experiments that change regional orography and coastlines. Our analysis indicates that improved resolution of the East African Highlands results in the improved representation of the Somali Jet and further suggests that improved resolution of orography over Indochina and the Maritime Continent results in more precipitation over the Maritime Continent islands at the expense of reduced precipitation further north. We also evaluate the resolution sensitivity of monsoon depressions and lows, which contribute more precipitation over northeast India at higher resolution. We conclude that while increasing resolution at these scales does not solve the many monsoon biases that exist in GCMs, it has a number of small, beneficial impacts.

  10. Maritime Cultural Landscapes, Maritimity and Quasi Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuddenham, David Berg

    2010-10-01

    Does the concept of maritime cultural landscapes bridge a division between land and sea, or does it maintain a gap that perhaps doesn’t even exist? This paper discusses maritime and maritime cultural landscapes as phenomena in the light of Actor Network Theory, where maritimity is given attention as a derivation of the modern metaphysics as described by Bruno Latour. The paper makes use of a case study from Norwegian Cultural Heritage Management (CHM), where land and sea archaeologists meet each other in a joint venture project at the island of Smøla, Møre & Romsdal County.

  11. Maritime Intelligent Transport Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew

    The concept of intelligent transport systems, developed since 1980s, includes all modes of transport. Relevant developments in road transport are the most advanced. Recently water transport, particularly maritime transport, has gained more attention in this respect, in connection with building and further developments of maritime intelligent transport systems. The present state and directions of development of telematic systems in maritime transport will be discussed, with a focus on marine navigation.

  12. Maritime satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, Leonid I.; Morozov, Igor'd.; Solov'ev, Vladimir I.

    Principles underlying the design and operation of maritime satellite communications systems are reviewed, with reference to Inmarsat and Sarsat. Particular attention is given to the design of search and rescue systems, the development of the onboard equipment, and the characteristics of coastal and shipboard earth stations. Finally, the organization of maritime satellite communications systems is discussed, and questions of system efficiency are examined.

  13. Abbreviations in Maritime English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Zhirong

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the phenomena that more and more abbreviations occur in maritime English correspondences, the composing laws of the abbreviations in maritime English correspondence are analyzed, and the correct methods to answer the abbreviations are pointed out, and the translation method of abbreviations are summarized in this article, and the…

  14. Netherlands Maritime Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoefsmit, R. G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Account of the aims and activities of the Netherlands Maritime Institute provided by the Secretary to the Institute's Board of Directors, The Institute's intent is "to promote maritime activities, including the shipbuilding-shipping relationship, in the broadest sense of the word." (Editor/RK)

  15. OxyContin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Information Drug Guide A Focus on Heroin & Opioids Breaking Points: Teens & Stress Parent Toolkit The Teen ... is the brand name for oxycodone hydrochloride, an opioid (narcotic) analgesic ( pain reliever ). OxyContin is a controlled- ...

  16. Interannual Variability, Global Teleconnection, and Potential Predictability Associated with the Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, K. M.; Li, J. Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this Chapter, aspects of global teleconnections associated with the interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) are discussed. The basic differences in the basic dynamics of the South Asian Monsoon and the East Asian monsoon, and their implications on global linkages are discussed. Two teleconnection modes linking ASM variability to summertime precipitation over the continental North America were identified. These modes link regional circulation and precipitation anomalies over East Asia and continental North America, via coupled atmosphere-ocean variations over the North Pacific. The first mode has a large zonally symmetrical component and appears to be associated with subtropical jetstream variability and the second mode with Rossby wave dispersion. Both modes possess strong sea surface temperature (SST) expressions in the North Pacific. Results show that the two teleconnection modes may have its origin in intrinsic modes of sea surface temperature variability in the extratropical oceans, which are forced in part by atmospheric variability and in part by air-sea interaction. The potential predictability of the ASM associated with SST variability in different ocean basins is explored using a new canonical ensemble correlation prediction scheme. It is found that SST anomalies in tropical Pacific, i.e., El Nino, is the most dominant forcing for the ASM, especially over the maritime continent and eastern Australia. SST anomalies in the India Ocean may trump the influence from El Nino in western Australia and western maritime continent. Both El Nino, and North Pacific SSTs contribute to monsoon precipitation anomalies over Japan, southern Korea, northern and central China. By optimizing SST variability signals from the world ocean basins using CEC, the overall predictability of ASM can be substantially improved.

  17. Elsevier's maritime dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Bakr, M.

    1987-01-01

    This is a dictionary for terms relating to maritime activities, and provides the terminology in three international languages. It also provides maritime terminology in Arabic. The dictionary covers the most recent terms used in satellite navigation and telecommunication. Its other topics include: acoustics, insurance, containers, cargo, bulk chemicals, carriage of dangerous goods, chemistry, radiocommunication, economics, electricity, environment, finance, fire protection, fishing vessels, hydrography, legal matters, meteorology, navigation, optics, pollution, radars, satellites, shipbuilding, stability, mechanics, and life-saving appliances.

  18. East Asian winter monsoon: results from eight AMIP models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Sperber, K. R.; Boyle, J. S.; Dix, M.; Ferranti, L.; Kitoh, A.; Lau, K. M.; Miyakoda, K.; Randall, D.; Takacs, L.; Wetherald, R.

    This study evaluates simulations of the East Asian winter monsoon in eight GCMs that participated in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). In addition to validating the mean state of the winter monsoon, the cold surge and its transient properties, which includes the frequency, intensity, preferred propagation tracks, and the evolution patterns of the surges, are examined. GCM simulated temporal distribution of the Siberian high and cold surges is also discussed. Finally, the forcing of the cold surges on the tropical surface wind and convection, along with their interannual variation is analyzed. The mean state of the winter monsoon is generally portrayed well in most of the models. These include the climatological position of the Siberian high, the 200 hPa divergent center, and the large-scale wind patterns at the surface and the 200 hPa. Models display a wide range of skill in simulating the cold surge and its transient properties. In some of the models, the simulated cold surge trajectory, intensity, frequency, propagation patterns and source regions are in general agreement with those from the observed. While in others, the models cannot adequately capture these observed characteristics. The temporal distribution of the Siberian high and cold surges were realistically reproduced in most GCMs. Most models were able to simulate the effect of the cold surges on the tropical surface wind, although a few models unrealistically generated subtropical southerly wind in the mid-winter. The relationship between cold surges and the tropical convection was not satisfactorily simulated in most models. The common discrepancies in the winter monsoon simulation can be attributed to many factors. In some models, the reason is directly related to the improper location of the large-scale convective center near the western Pacific. The satisfactory simulations of the monsoon circulation and the cold surges are partly due to the topographical characteristics of the East Asian continent, i.e., the Tibetan Plateau to the west and the oceans to the east. The correct simulation of the interannual variation of the surface wind near the South China Sea (SCS) and the maritime continent is a demanding task for most of the models. This will require adequate simulations of many aspects, including tropical convection, the Siberian cold dome, the extratropical-tropical linkage, and the air-sea interaction. The discrepancies noted here furnish a guide for the continuing improvement of the winter monsoon simulations. Improved simulations will lead to an adequate delineation of the surface wind and convection near the maritime continent, which is essential for portraying the winter monsoon forcing in a coupled model.

  19. Simulation of surface temperature in Southeast Asia during the Southeast Asian southwest monsoon using RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jing Xiang; Ngai, Sheau Tieh; Tay, Tze Wei; Liew, Ju Neng; Tangang, Fredolin

    2015-09-01

    The performance of RegCM4 in simulating the surface temperature in Southeast Asia (SEA) during the Southeast Asian southwest monsoon using six different cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs) was assessed in this study using the model output from the Southeast Asia Regional Climate Downscaling/ Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment Southeast Asia (SEACLID/CORDEX-SEA) project. The simulated surface temperatures were evaluated against the surface temperature from the CRU observation dataset from year 1990 to 2008. The assessment shows that all the simulations produced an overall cold bias in SEA. The cold bias is the strongest in the mountain region of west Papua, followed by that over the north-eastern region of Thailand. Generally, the cold bias over the maritime continent is found to be much weaker compared to that of Indo-China mainland. As the bias is not unique to any simulations, the bias simulated is not very much CPSs dependence. It is also noticed that the model has the tendency to underestimate the maximum surface temperature (Tmax) explaining the systematic cold bias produced by the model. Also, the model tends to overestimate the minimum surface temperature (Tmin). The overestimation of Tmin is slightly higher over the maritime continent, explaining the weaker cold bias in surface temperature observed over that area. Through assessing the simulations bias and the simulated spatial pattern agreement, we noticed that the reasonable choice of CPS to be used has to have Emanuel set on land when the simulation of southwest monsoon surface temperature is concerned. Nevertheless, the ensemble standard deviation calculated across all the simulations reveals that th e surface temperature over SEA is less sensitive to the choice of CPS used, especially at the maritime continent. Comparatively, the surface temperature over Indo-China mainland is more sensitive to the choice of CPS used.

  20. Maritime security laboratory for maritime security research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunin, Barry J.; Sutin, Alexander; Bruno, Michael S.

    2007-04-01

    Stevens Institute of Technology has established a new Maritime Security Laboratory (MSL) to facilitate advances in methods and technologies relevant to maritime security. MSL is designed to enable system-level experiments and data-driven modeling in the complex environment of an urban tidal estuary. The initial focus of the laboratory is on the threats posed by divers and small craft with hostile intent. The laboratory is, however, evolvable to future threats as yet unidentified. Initially, the laboratory utilizes acoustic, environmental, and video sensors deployed in and around the Hudson River estuary. Experimental data associated with boats and SCUBA divers are collected on a computer deployed on board a boat specifically designed and equipped for these experiments and are remotely transferred to a Visualization Center on campus. Early experiments utilizing this laboratory have gathered data to characterize the relevant parameters of the estuary, acoustic signals produced by divers, and water and air traffic. Hydrophones were deployed to collect data to enable the development of passive acoustic methodologies for maximizing SCUBA diver detection distance. Initial results involving characteristics of the estuary, acoustic signatures of divers, ambient acoustic noise in an urban estuary, and transmission loss of acoustic signals in a wide frequency band are presented. These results can also be used for the characterization of abnormal traffic and improvement of underwater communication in a shallow water estuary.

  1. Marine and maritime uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Activities related to: (1) understanding, controlling, and using the ocean's biological and physical processes for food and energy production and ship design purposes, and (2) providing navigation, communication, and data transmission technological aids which improve efficiency and enhance safety in maritime operations are disclosed.

  2. Maritime distress alerting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschmidt, U.; Galligan, K. P.

    1981-09-01

    The future development of a global maritime distress alerting system is discussed with particular emphasis on the possible role of satellite relays. The present maritime distress system, which is based on a complicated interlinking of several elements by means of telephone, morse code telegraphy or emergency position-indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs), is considered, and disadvantages related to the unreliability of radio propagation at the various frequencies employed are pointed out. The requirements established by the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization for its Future Global Maritime Distress and Safety System, to be implemented around 1990, are then presented in relation to distress alerting methods and ranges, the identification of the unit in distress, the positioning of the unit in distress, search and rescue coordinating communications, on-scene communications, locating the unit in distress or its survivors, and preventive actions. The capabilities of geostationary and low polar orbiting communications satellites in meeting these requirements are discussed, with consideration also given to the use of satellite EPIRBs and a combined geostationary-polar orbiting satellite system.

  3. Effects of Asian air pollution transport and photochemistry on carbon monoxide variability and ozone production in subtropical coastal south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. Y.; Chan, L. Y.; Lam, K. S.; Li, Y. S.; Harris, J. M.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    Surface ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) measured from a relatively remote coastal station in Hong Kong are analyzed to study the effects of pollutant transport and associated ozone production on CO and ozone variations in the subtropical south China region. CO and ozone concentrations show a common minimum in summer and in the maritime air masses from the South China Sea and Pacific Ocean. They have higher values in other seasons and in the continental air masses that have passed over mainland Asia and the East Asian coast. CO shows the maximum monthly median of 457-552 ppbv in winter while ozone shows a maximum of 40-50 ppbv in autumn and a distinct peak of 41-43 ppbv in spring. The CO concentrations especially in the continental air masses (median of 277 to 428 ppbv) are very high when compared with measurements in most parts of the world. This suggests that the south China region is under the strong influence of pollutant transport from the Asian continent and East Asian coast. Ozone and CO show strong positive correlations in the polluted maritime air masses and from late spring to early autumn (May-September) with the linear regression slopes of the ozone-CO plot from 0.08 to 0.22 (with respective standard errors from 0.01 to 0.03). The strong correlations and slopes plus the high CO levels indicate that there is substantial ozone production from pollution in the polluted maritime air masses and in the late spring to early autumn period.

  4. Asians and Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of Asians and Asian-Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within the following subject…

  5. Maritime boundaries and ocean resources

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, G.

    1987-01-01

    International maritime boundaries have become a major issue in international politics with the increasing exploitation of maritime resources, including mineral extraction from the sea bed, and the associated exstention of territorial waters and zones of exclusive economic activity. This book examines this important international problem. It considers the growth in the exploration of marine resources. It examines particular boundary disputes in different parts of the world and discusses the implications for international law, international politics and maritime activity and management. Contents. Antarctic maritime boundary problems; the law of the sea and the mediterranean; historical geography and the world court line of delimitation across the Gulf of Maine; maritime boundary delimitation worldwide: the current state of play; technical delimitation problems in the Mediterranean Sea; offshore boundaries and mineral resources; maritime boundaries and the emerging regional bases of world ocean management; recent delimitation decisions and trends in international law; maritime boundary problems in the Barents Sea; local government boundaries in U.K. coastal areas.

  6. Maritime English for Communication and Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Teresa A.

    Because most maritime accidents are caused by human error, notably breakdowns in communication or cooperation, and because English is the international maritime language, instruction in maritime English for communication and cooperation is an important element in maritime education. The International Maritime Organization, a specialized agency of…

  7. Satellites for maritime applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that communication satellites can provide significant economic benefits to shipping company operations and alleviate the problems of distress alerting, search and rescue, and losses due to collisions, groundings, and heavy weather damage. Emphasis is placed upon both the application of space technology to minimize present service deficiencies and the costs and benefits of this new application. It is concluded that while maritime service satellites appear to be viable technically and economically, there is a substantial amount of analysis, definition, and development work yet to be accomplished.

  8. Characterization of maritime scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Tom B.; Hudak, D. R.

    1992-09-01

    Meteorological modules were developed to describe characteristic maritime scenarios in various oceanic areas for DREV complimentarity studies of shipboard defense. The best means of depicting the maritime atmospheric environment was found to be on the basis of air mass analysis. A methodology was developed whereby, through a mixture of man-machine objective analysis of upper air radiosonde measurements at the 850, 700, and 500 mb levels, typical airmasses could be identified. Characteristic scenarios were then defined based on physical considerations of air mass theory. Utilizing an extensive 10-year set of worldwide radiosonde, ozondesonde, and surface observations collected from a combination of land-based stations, oceanographic buoys, and weather ships, frequency and correlation statistics of various global and derived meteorological and oceanographic parameters were established for the CANLANT, NORLANT, WESTLANT, EASTLANT, IBERLANT, MARPAC regions, the ARCTIC OCEAN to 85 degree(s)N, the BALTIC SEA, MEDITERRANEAN SEA, PERSIAN GULF, RED SEA, GULF OF OMAN, and the INDIAN OCEAN. These descriptions included atmospheric profiles of pressure, temperature, dewpoint and relative humidity, wind speeds and direction, refractivity index, and ozone concentration from the surface to approximately 20 km., as well as associated surface visibility, clouds and weather, sea state, and duct height conditions. Many of the derived parameters were found to be a strong function of the defining airmass scenarios. The spatial distribution of these scenarios was also determined.

  9. Recent intensification of the South and East Asian monsoon contrast associated with an increase in the zonal tropical SST gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kyung-Sook; Lee, June-Yi; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2014-07-01

    Observed analysis of the 35 years of 1979-2013 reveals considerable interdecadal change and significant recent intensification in the difference of convective precipitation between the South Asian monsoon (SAM) and East Asian monsoon (EAM) systems during the major summer monsoon season (June-July). We propose that the recent strengthening of the zonal gradient of sea surface temperature (SST) between the Indian Ocean, western Pacific, and eastern Pacific is a possible cause for the intensification of the convective precipitation contrast. It is noted that the strengthening of the zonal SST gradient associated with the recent mega-La Niña trend tends to reinforce the negative connection between SAM and EAM systems by inducing enhanced convection over the maritime continent and then facilitating the northwestward emanation of Rossby waves. Consequently, a cyclonic circulation anomaly that effectively changes the local Hadley circulation has been formed over the SAM region, resulting in the noticeable difference between the SAM and EAM. The years 2013 and 1983 are further investigated as the strongest extreme years for positive and negative phases of submonsoon contrast, respectively. The result confirms that the meridional dipole height pattern along the Asian Jet stream, which is caused by the strong zonal gradient of tropical SST, serves as a key trigger in strengthening the submonsoon contrast.

  10. Continents and Earth's rotational stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, I.; Buffett, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Continents strongly constrain the planform of the mantle convection/plate tectonic system. They impose long wavelength structure on surface velocities and tend to collect subduction zones around their margins . Additionally, they may affect the ability of the underlying mantle to effectively cool, which would create persistent temperature gradients between subcontinental and suboceanic mantle. These effects will change the moment of inertia of the planet and may control its rotational dynamics. Configurations of the continents have been implicated for both Earth's apparent Cenozoic rotational stability as well as its potential for large scale true polar wander deeper in its past. Here we present investigations into how continents can affect Earth's long term rotational stability. We have developed a version of the mantle convection code Aspect with a free outer surface, allowing for isostatically compensated continents and dynamic topography due to plumes and slabs. This allows us to self-consistently calculate moment of inertia anomalies in mantle convection models with surface continents and lateral viscosity variations. We explore different surface fractions of continental material as well as different mantle viscosity structures to identify when continents have a controlling influence. Finally, we discuss implications for Earth history, during which both continental mass and mantle viscosity may have changed significantly.

  11. Seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall using a multi-model ensemble system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Lee, Doo-Young; Yoo, Jin‑Ho

    2015-04-01

    Using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers, the prediction skills of climate models in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP Indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index or each MPI. Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by hybrid dynamical-statistical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using a hybrid dynamical-statistical approach compared to the dynamical forecast alone. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.

  12. Mountain building processes during continent continent collision in the Uralides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Juhlin, C.; Ayala, C.; Tryggvason, A.; Bea, F.; Alvarez-Marron, J.; Carbonell, R.; Seward, D.; Glasmacher, U.; Puchkov, V.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early 1990's the Paleozoic Uralide Orogen of Russia has been the target of a significant research initiative as part of EUROPROBE and GEODE, both European Science Foundation programmes. One of the main objectives of these research programmes was the determination of the tectonic processes that went into the formation of the orogen. In this review paper we focus on the Late Paleozoic continent-continent collision that took place between Laurussia and Kazakhstania. Research in the Uralides was concentrated around two deep seismic profiles crossing the orogen. These were accompanied by geological, geophysical, geochronological, geochemical, and low-temperature thermochronological studies. The seismic profiles demonstrate that the Uralides has an overall bivergent structural architecture, but with significantly different reflectivity characteristics from one tectonic zone to another. The integration of other types of data sets with the seismic data allows us to interpret what tectonic processes where responsible for the formation of the structural architecture, and when they were active. On the basis of these data, we suggest that the changes in the crustal-scale structural architecture indicate that there was significant partitioning of tectonothermal conditions and deformation from zone to zone across major fault systems, and between the lower and upper crust. Also, a number of the structural features revealed in the bivergent architecture of the orogen formed either in the Neoproterozoic or in the Paleozoic, prior to continent-continent collision. From the end of continent-continent collision to the present, low-temperature thermochronology suggests that the evolution of the Uralides has been dominated by erosion and slow exhumation. Despite some evidence for more recent topographic uplift, it has so far proven difficult to quantify it.

  13. Madagascar: Heads It's a Continent, Tails It's an Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Maarten J.

    Neither geologists nor biologists have a definition that is capable of classifying Madagascar unambiguously as an island or a continent; nor can they incorporate Malagasy natural history into a single model rooted in Africa or Asia. Madagascar is a microcosm of the larger continents, with a rock record that spans more than 3000 million years (Ma), during which it has been united episodically with, and divorced from, Asian and African connections. This is reflected in its Precambrian history of deep crustal tectonics and a Phanerozoic history of biodiversity that fluctuated between cosmopolitanism and parochialism. Both vicariance and dispersal events over the past 90 Ma have blended a unique endemism on Madagascar, now in decline following rapid extinctions that started about 2000 years ago.

  14. Developing a Model on Improving Maritime English Training for Maritime Transportation Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yercan, Funda; Fricke, Donna; Stone, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Maritime services form an integral part of what regulatory agencies requires for the safe navigation and operation of vessels. Therefore, the maritime industry's compliance with governmental regulations and international protocols has been essential for maritime safety management. As a basis to this aspect, the preparation of maritime students as…

  15. Documenting Maritime Folklife: An Introductory Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David A.

    This booklet has two main purposes: (1) to promote understanding of maritime cultural heritage; and (2) to provide an introduction to the methods for identifying and documenting common maritime traditions. The guide is intended for non-professional researchers and community groups who wish to explore their own maritime cultural heritage. It also…

  16. 75 FR 10692 - Maritime Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Communications Commission published in the Federal Register of February 2, 2010 (75 FR 5241), a document in the..., 2010 (75 FR 5241) to ensure that its rules governing the Maritime Radio Services continue to promote... (75 FR 5241). In rule FR Doc. 2010-2095 published on February 2, 2010 (75 FR 5241), make the...

  17. 33 CFR 103.300 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.300 Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) The AMS Committee is established under...

  18. 33 CFR 103.300 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.300 Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) The AMS Committee is established under...

  19. 33 CFR 103.300 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.300 Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) The AMS Committee is established under...

  20. 33 CFR 103.300 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.300 Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) The AMS Committee is established under...

  1. 33 CFR 103.300 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.300 Section 103.300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.300 Area Maritime Security...

  2. Bromoform in the tropical boundary layer of the Maritime Continent during OP3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, J. A.; Ashfold, M. J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Robinson, A. D.; Warwick, N. J.; Carver, G. D.; Gostlow, B.; O'Brien, L. M.; Manning, A. J.; Phang, S. M.; Yong, S. E.; Leong, K. P.; Ung, E. H.; Ong, S.

    2011-01-01

    We report measurements of bromoform made by gas chromatography during the OP3 campaign in 2008. Measurements were made simultaneously for a few days at the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) site in the Danum Valley, a rainforest location in Sabah, Borneo, and at a nearby coastal site at Kunak. Background values at Kunak were higher than those measured in the rainforest (2-5 ppt compared with 1 ppt) and excursions away from the background were very much higher, reaching 10 s of ppt. Measurements of C2Cl4, an industrial tracer, showed no significant difference in background at the two sites. Modelling using two different models can reproduce a number of the observed features. The data are consistent with a strong, local coastal source of bromoform in eastern Sabah and can be used to infer the strength of the source of bromoform in South East Asia. However, they provide only a very weak constraint on global emissions. The global model results highlight the difficulty for short-lived species of extrapolating limited duration, local measurements to a global source.

  3. Characteristics of aerosols in east Asian outflow at Cheju in spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, L. K.; Kondo, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; Koike, M.; Takegawa, N.; Tanimoto, H.; Matsueda, H.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosols and traces gases were conducted at Gosan site (33o17'N, 126o10'E) on Cheju Island, South Korea from 17 March to 6 April 2005. In the spring season, outflows of pollutants from east Asian continents are associated with high pressure system centered over northern region of China and Mongolia. Measurements were continuous for carbonaceous aerosols (BC, OC and WSOC), PM2.5 inorganic aerosols, and trace gases. To investigate dominate source region and transport pathway of air parcels 5-day isentropic back trajectories at 950 hPa were calculated. Based on these trajectories air masses were classified in five contrastingly different categories as (1) Maritime (11%), (2) Free tropospheric (34%), (3) Yellow Sea (16%), (4) Korean (8%), and (5) Chinese (31%). Temporal variations of aerosols and trace gases track each other, in particular for species primarily emitted by anthropogenic activities. All species were observed to show large variability due to alteration in the episodes of air masses from different categories. Mean (× SD) mass concentrations of BC, OC, WSOC and SO42- were 1.18×0.83, 4.2×1.6, 1.26×1.01 and 4.0×3.4' m-3, respectively. Concentrations of carbonaceous and PM2.5 aerosols, which are emitted by anthropogenic activities, show lowest in maritime and highest in Chinese plume. The mean concentrations of BC, OC, WSOC and SO42- in Chinese plume were 1.9×0.92, 5.5×1.3, 2.0×1.1 and 6.7×4.1' m-3, respectively. The observed slope E×BC/E×CO =9.2 (n' m-3/ppbv) will be compared with emission inventory data over China. K+ shows good correlations with SO42- and NO3- signifying role of combustion related process like biomass burning.

  4. Active / break cycles: diagnosis of the intraseasonal variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annamalai, H.; Slingo, J. M.

    In this study, various diagnostics have been applied to daily observed outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and ECMWF ReAnalysis (ERA) products to provide a comprehensive description of the active/break cycles associated with the Asian Summer Monsoon and to address the differing behaviour of the two dominant time scales of intraseasonal variability, 10-20 days and 30-60 days. Composite analysis of OLR based on filtered daily All-India rainfall (AIR) for the 40 day (30-60 days) intraseasonal mode indicates that during active phases, convection is significantly enhanced over the Indian continent, extending over the Bay of Bengal, Maritime continent and equatorial west Pacific, while convection is suppressed over the equatorial Indian Ocean and northwest tropical Pacific, resulting in a `quadrapole' structure over the Asian monsoon domain. In response to this heating pattern, the large-scale Hadley (lateral) and the two east-west (transverse) tropical circulations are enhanced. There is also a significant impact on the extra-tropical circulation through excitation and propagation of Rossby waves. In contrast, the 15-day mode is more regional to the monsoon domain and has a prominent east-west orientation in convection. Only the local Hadley circulation over the monsoon region is modulated by this mode. The evolution of these two modes as revealed by POP (principal oscillation pattern) analysis, shows that the 40-day mode originates over the equatorial Indian Ocean. Once formed it has poleward propagation on either side of the equator, and eastward propagation into the equatorial west Pacific. From the equatorial west Pacific, northward propagation over the west Pacific and westward propagation into the Indian longitudes are prominent. The propagative features are complex and interactive and are responsible for the `quadrapole' structure in convection seen from the composites. The interannual variability, assessed from the POP coefficient time series, indicates that the 40-day mode is strong during the onset phase of the monsoon in all the years but systematic propagation over the entire season depends crucially on the activity of the oceanic TCZ (tropical convergence zone). The POP analysis of the 15-day mode indicates that this event originates over the equatorial west Pacific, associated with westward propagating Rossby waves, amplifies over the northwest tropical Pacific and modulates both the continental and oceanic TCZs over Indian longitudes simultaneously. This mode is pronounced during the established phase of the monsoon. Due to the complexity in the propagational features of both the intraseasonal modes, it is concluded that understanding the subseasonal variability of one regional component of the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM), requires understanding the entire ASM system.

  5. The mechanism of continence after posterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Herman S.; Angermeier, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care after a pelvic fracture urethral injury is a repair via a one-stage anastomotic posterior urethroplasty using a step-wise perineal approach. The initial injury, immediate postoperative management, and surgical repair can all affect urinary continence in these patients. Proximal continence mechanisms, particularly the bladder neck, are particularly important in maintaining urinary continence in these patients. Patients with bladder neck dysfunction should be counselled about the greater risk of urinary incontinence. PMID:26019981

  6. Operational Merits of Maritime Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R.; Bosklopper, J. J.; van der Meij, K. H.

    The perspective of superconductivity to transfer currents without loss is very appealing in high power applications. In the maritime sector many machines and systems exist in the roughly 1-100 MW range and the losses are well over 50%, which calls for dramatic efficiency improvements. This paper reports on three studies that aimed at the perspectives of superconductivity in the maritime sector. It is important to realize that the introduction of superconductivity comprises two technology transitions namely firstly electrification i.e. the transition from mechanical drives to electric drives and secondly the transition from normal to superconductive electrical machinery. It is concluded that superconductivity does reduce losses, but its impact on the total energy chain is of little significance compared to the investments and the risk of introducing a very promising but as yet not proven technology in the harsh maritime environment. The main reason of the little impact is that the largest losses are imposed on the system by the fossil fueled generators as prime movers that generate the electricity through mechanical torque. Unless electric power is supplied by an efficient and reliable technology that does not involve mechanical torque with the present losses both normal as well as superconductive electrification of the propulsion will hardly improve energy efficiency or may even reduce it. One exception may be the application of degaussing coils. Still appealing merits of superconductivity do exist, but they are rather related to the behavior of superconductive machines and strong magnetic fields and consequently reduction in volume and mass of machinery or (sometimes radically) better performance. The merits are rather convenience, design flexibility as well as novel applications and capabilities which together yield more adequate systems. These may yield lower operational costs in the long run, but at present the added value of superconductivity rather seems more adequate than cheaper systems.

  7. 75 FR 71721 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee to submit their application for membership, to the...-7324. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority Section 102 of the Maritime Transportation Security...

  8. Potential Impact of South Asian Anthropogenic Aerosols on Northern Hemisphere Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollasina, M. A.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2014-12-01

    South Asia has one of the world's highest aerosol loading due to the dramatic increase of anthropogenic emissions from the 1950s associated with rapid urbanization and population growth. The possible large-scale impact of the late 20th century increase of South Asian aerosol emissions on climate away from the source regions was studied by means of historical ensemble experiments with a state-of-the-art coupled climate model with fully interactive aerosols and a representation of both direct and indirect aerosol effects. The key characteristics of the northern hemisphere responses are examined separately for winter and summer, and show that regional aerosols induce significant planetary-scale teleconnection patterns. In both seasons, the large-scale aerosol imprint originates from substantial changes in the regional precipitation distribution. During the winter, in response to anomalous surface cooling in the northern Indian Ocean, aerosols cause a westward shift of convection over the eastern Indian Ocean and compensating subsidence to the west and over the Maritime continent. During the summer, aerosols are collocated with rainfall, and cause a widespread drying over South Asia mostly by indirect effects. In both cases, the impact of the regional diabatic heating anomaly propagates remotely by exciting a northern hemisphere wave-train which, enhanced by regional feedbacks, leads to remarkable changes in near-surface climate, including circulation and temperature, over Eurasia, the northern Pacific and North America. Depending on the region, the induced anomalies may have opposite signs between the two seasons, and may thus contribute to reinforcing or dampening those due greenhouse gases. These results underscore the potential influence of Asian aerosols on global climate, which is a compelling problem as regional aerosol loading will continue to be large in the coming decades.

  9. Some Features of Maritime Telex Service Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Barry

    1995-01-01

    This article analyzes four categories of English-language maritime telex service communication: (1) standard, system- generated messages; (2) standard procedures for transmitting messages; (3) nonstandard messages related to maritime mobile radio service (MMRS); and (4) nonstandard messages related to the organization, procedures, or equipment of…

  10. On English Teaching in Maritime Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jiang; Wang, Honggui

    2011-01-01

    According to English level of Chinese ocean sailors at present, we analyze the characteristics and instruction needs of navigation English and point out current English teaching in maritime specialty has many problems. Traditional teaching modes are not suitable for modern maritime needs any longer. So we propose feasible methods and…

  11. The National Maritime College of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greville, Eamonn

    2005-01-01

    The new National Maritime College of Ireland is regarded as the country's most exciting and innovative development in maritime training and education and is the first tertiary institution to be built and operated under the government's Public Private Partnership (PPP) model of procurement. The project is the outcome of a partnership between Cork…

  12. The National Maritime College of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greville, Eamonn

    2005-01-01

    The new National Maritime College of Ireland is regarded as the country's most exciting and innovative development in maritime training and education and is the first tertiary institution to be built and operated under the government's Public Private Partnership (PPP) model of procurement. The project is the outcome of a partnership between Cork

  13. 77 FR 31479 - National Maritime Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13005 Filed 5-24-12; 11:15 am... May 25, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8828--National Maritime Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8828 of May 22, 2012 National Maritime...

  14. 78 FR 31809 - National Maritime Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-12649 Filed 5-23-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... May 24, 2013 Part VI The President Proclamation 8985--National Maritime Day, 2013 Executive Order... President ] Proclamation 8985 of May 21, 2013 National Maritime Day, 2013 By the President of the...

  15. 76 FR 29989 - National Maritime Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8678 of May 18, 2011 National Maritime Day... Maritime Day, we honor their invaluable contributions to America's economic strength and security. On...

  16. Enhancement of seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall related to the western tropical Pacific convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. Y.; Ahn, J. B.; Yoo, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The prediction skills of climate model simulations in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers (June-August) during the period 1983-2005, along with corresponding observed and reanalyzed data. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index (EASMI) or each MP index (MPI). Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by statistical-empirical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using the statistical-empirical method compared to the dynamical models. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953, Republic of Korea.

  17. Continent elevation, mountains, and erosion: Freeboard implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, J. A.; Clift, Peter D.

    2009-05-01

    To the simplest approximation, Earth's continental crust is a floating aggregate on the planet's surface that is first attracted to subduction zones and, upon arrival, thickened by mountain building (then producing some extension). Thickened regions are thinned again by erosion. A comparison between 65 Ma and the present shows that the modern state is significantly more mountainous. An estimated average continental elevation increase relative to average ocean floor depth of about 54 m and sea level decrease relative to the ocean floor of about 102 m add up to a 156-m increase of continent elevation over sea level since 65 Ma. Both are affected most strongly by the roughly 1.7% continent surface area decrease caused by Cenozoic mountain building. This includes contributions from erosion. Volumes of sediments in deltas and submarine fans indicate an average thickness of 371 m deposited globally in the ocean basins since 65 Ma. This relatively large change of continent area over a short span of Earth history has significant consequences. Extrapolating, if continent area change exceeded 5% in the past, either severe erosion or flooded continents occurred. If continent elevation (freeboard) remains at the present value of a few hundred meters, the past continent-ocean area ratio might have been quite different, depending on earlier volumes of continental crust and water. We conclude that, along with the ages of ocean basins, continental crustal thickening exerts a first-order control on the global sea level over hundreds of million years.

  18. Continent Elevation, Mountains, Erosion and Freeboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, J. A.; Clift, P. D.

    2008-12-01

    To the simplest approximation, continental crust is aggregated floating surface material that is attracted to subduction zones and then thickened by mountain building upon arrival. The thickened regions are thinned again by divergence by erosion and to a lesser extent by the viscous/plastic divergence of young mountain belts. A laboratory model with two fluid layers shows this. A comparison between the present and 65 Ma shows that an estimated average continent elevation increase of about 168 m and average sea level decrease relative to the ocean floor about 109 m are both affected most strongly by a roughly 2 percent continent surface area decrease from mountain building (crustal thickening). Sea level is also affected by contributions from erosion. Volumes of sediments in deltas and submarine fans indicate an average erosion depth of 630 m globally from the continents to the ocean basins since 65 Ma. If continent area change exceeds 5 percent in the past there would have been periods of either severe erosion or flooded continents. If continent elevation has always been held to the present value of a few hundred meters (freeboard), the relative areas of continents and oceans might have been quite different in the past, depending on the past volumes of crust and water. Therefore, crustal thickening is now recognized together with the effects of the ages of ocean basins as a first order control on global sea level over hundreds of million years.

  19. Diagnosis of the Asian summer monsoon variability and the climate prediction of monsoon precipitation via physical decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon

    This study investigates the space-time evolution of the dominant modes that constitute the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), and, as an ultimate goal, the climate prediction of the ASM rainfall. Precipitation and other synoptic variables during the prominent life cycle of the ASM (May 21 to September 17) are used to show the detailed features of dominant modes, which are identified as the seasonal cycle, the ISO defined by the 40--50 day intraseasonal oscillation including the Madden-Julian oscillation, and the El Nino mode. The present study reveals that the ISO is the second largest component of the ASM rainfall variation. Correlation analysis indicates that ISO explains a larger fraction of the variance of the observed precipitation (without climatology) than the ENSO mode. The dominant ISO signal faithfully explains the northward propagation of the ISO toward the Asian continent causing intraseasonal active/break periods. The interannual variation of the ISO strength suggests that the ENSO exerts some influence on the ISO. The composite convective ISO anomaly and Kelvin-Rossby wave response over the Indian Ocean shows that the ISO tends to be stronger during the early stage of the ASM than normal in El Nino (La Nina) years, indicating greater (smaller) possibility of ISO-related extreme rainfall over India, Bangladesh, and the Bay of Bengal. The ENSO mode reveals that the following factors affect the evolution of the ASM system in El Nino (La Nina) years. (1) The anomalous sea surface temperature and sea level pressure over the Indian Ocean during the early stage of the ASM weaken (enhance) the meridional pressure gradient. (2) As a result, the westerly jet and the ensuing moisture transport toward India and the Bay of Bengal become weak (strong) and delayed (expedited), providing a less (more) favorable condition for regional monsoon onsets. (3) The Walker circulation anomaly results in an enhanced subsidence (ascent) and drought (flood) over the Maritime continent. (4) The Hadley circulation anomaly over the western Pacific drives the wetter (drier) south China monsoon, the weaker (stronger) East Asian monsoon, and the wetter (drier) late July and early August over India, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indochina peninsula. (5) The ASM system appears to exert positive feedback on the El Nino (La Nina) by accelerating the westerly (easterly) anomaly toward the equatorial western Pacific in August. (6) ENSO effects tend to last until the early stage of the ASM in the following year. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries PMID:25687951

  1. 33 CFR 105.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 105.145 Section 105.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.145 Maritime Security...

  2. 33 CFR 104.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 104.145 Section 104.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.145 Maritime Security...

  3. 33 CFR 104.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 104.145 Section 104.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.145 Maritime Security...

  4. 33 CFR 104.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 104.145 Section 104.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.145 Maritime Security...

  5. 33 CFR 105.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 105.145 Section 105.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.145 Maritime Security...

  6. 33 CFR 105.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 105.145 Section 105.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.145 Maritime Security...

  7. 33 CFR 104.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 104.145 Section 104.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.145 Maritime Security...

  8. 33 CFR 105.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 105.145 Section 105.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.145 Maritime Security...

  9. 33 CFR 104.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 104.145 Section 104.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.145 Maritime Security...

  10. 33 CFR 105.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 105.145 Section 105.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.145 Maritime Security...

  11. Information Services of Maritime Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stefanov, Asen

    2015-04-01

    The ultimate goal of modern oceanography is an end user oriented product. Beneficiaries are the governmental services, coast-based enterprises and research institutions that make use of the products generated by operational oceanography. Direct potential users and customers are coastal managers, shipping, offshore industry, ports and harbours, fishing, tourism and recreation industry, and scientific community. Indirect beneficiaries, through climate forecasting based on ocean observations, are food, energy, water and medical suppliers. Five general classes of users for data and information are specified: (1) operational users that analyze the collected data and produce different forecasts serving to impose regulation measures; (2) authorities and managers of large-scale projects needing timely oceanographic information, including statistics and climatic trends; (3) industrial enterprises, safety of structures and avoiding of pollution; (4) tourism and recreation related users aiming protection of human health; (5) scientists, engineers, and economists carrying out special researches, strategic design studies, and other investigations to advance the application of marine data. The analysis of information received during the extensive inquiry among all potential end users reveals variety of data and information needs encompassing physical, chemical, biological and hydrometeorological observation. Nevertheless, the common requirement concerns development of observing and forecasting systems providing accurate real-time or near-real time data and information supporting decision making and environmental management. Availability of updated information on the actual state as well as forecast for the future changes of marine environment are essential for the success and safety of maritime operations in the offshore industry. For this purpose different systems have been developed to collect data and to produce forecasts on the state of the marine environment and to provide them in real-time to the users in applying the latest advances in instrument-building, information and communication technologies. In the Bulgarian sector of the Black Sea have been developed and putted in operation several systems for the collection and presentation of marine data for the needs of different users. The systems are located both along the coast and in the open sea and the information they provide is used by both the maritime industry and the widest range of users. Combining them into a national operational marine observational system is a task that has to be solved, and that will allow to get a more complete and comprehensive picture of the state of the marine environment in the Bulgarian sector of the Black Sea. Such a system will help to support the activities of the offshore industry.

  12. Remote Viewer for Maritime Robotics Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Wolf, Michael; Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Howard, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    This software is a viewer program for maritime robotics software that provides a 3D visualization of the boat pose, its position history, ENC (Electrical Nautical Chart) information, camera images, map overlay, and detected tracks.

  13. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  14. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  15. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  16. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  17. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  18. Aerosol spectral optical depths of the South Asian winter haze at a tropical coastal site in India under background state of the stratospheric aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balla, M.

    2012-12-01

    Every year during the South Asian winter and pre-monsoon periods most of the Indian subcontinent, the Bay of Bengal and the adjoining tropical Indian Ocean are affected by a synoptic transport of polluted aerosol from the continent in the northern hemisphere, known as the South Asian Winter Haze (SAWH). Visakhapatnam (17.7 deg N, 83.3 deg E), a tropical coastal station in India, is also affected by this anthropogenic regional haze. In spite of the usual clear blue skies and clean maritime airmasses hazy skies associated with public health effects, and higher values of spectral optical depths and near-surface aerosol mass concentrations have become a regular scenario at Visakhapatnam and its environs during wintertime. For an accurate assessment of the possible direct and indirect effects aerosol spectral optical depth of this lower atmospheric haze must be obtained. The problem of retrieving spectral optical depths of the SAWH from atmospheric optical depths by ground-based solar radiometry and inter-channel correlations was discussed in our recent article [Rao, B.M. and Niranjan, K., 2012. Optical properties of the South Asian winter haze at a tropical coastal site in India, Atmos. Environ. 54, 449-455]. The present work is concerned with the retrieval of SAWH AOD at Visakhapatnam under background state of the stratospheric aerosol. The SAWH AODs (spectral values) obtained for two successive winter seasons during the years 2002, 2003 and 2004 are compared with their columnar counterparts (obtained by a conventional method) and the results are discussed.

  19. Genomic selection in maritime pine.

    PubMed

    Isik, Fikret; Bartholomé, Jérôme; Farjat, Alfredo; Chancerel, Emilie; Raffin, Annie; Sanchez, Leopoldo; Plomion, Christophe; Bouffier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    A two-generation maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) breeding population (n=661) was genotyped using 2500 SNP markers. The extent of linkage disequilibrium and utility of genomic selection for growth and stem straightness improvement were investigated. The overall intra-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium was r(2)=0.01. Linkage disequilibrium corrected for genomic relationships derived from markers was smaller (rV(2)=0.006). Genomic BLUP, Bayesian ridge regression and Bayesian LASSO regression statistical models were used to obtain genomic estimated breeding values. Two validation methods (random sampling 50% of the population and 10% of the progeny generation as validation sets) were used with 100 replications. The average predictive ability across statistical models and validation methods was about 0.49 for stem sweep, and 0.47 and 0.43 for total height and tree diameter, respectively. The sensitivity analysis suggested that prior densities (variance explained by markers) had little or no discernible effect on posterior means (residual variance) in Bayesian prediction models. Sampling from the progeny generation for model validation increased the predictive ability of markers for tree diameter and stem sweep but not for total height. The results are promising despite low linkage disequilibrium and low marker coverage of the genome (∼1.39 markers/cM). PMID:26566829

  20. Alternative fuels for maritime use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to review the potential fuels which may be available to the marine industry from the present to the year 2000 and to define the economic, technical, and environmental/social impacts of these alternative fuels on marine power plants. Thus, this study is aimed at the fuels/prime mover combination. This study should help to guide the industry in choosing the proper power plant for the future - recognizing that a new power plant installed in 1980 will still be in service in the 21st century. The importance of the marine transportation industry and the need to consider alternate fuels are examined. An overview of potential alternate fuels for marine applications is presented, and power plant/fuel interaction is discussed. An in-depth discussion is presented on the impact of the most likely alternate fuels from the viewpoint of maintenance, retrofit capability, safety, and air-quality impacts. Two nonfossil-fuel alternatives sailing ships and nuclear-powered vessels, are discussed. It is concluded that: there is a high probability of using synfuels from tar sands shale, or coal liquids in both existing and future ships; coal and coal/oil slurries have a high probability of use in future ships and medium probability in existing ships; nuclear and sail-power future ships have a medium probability of commercial development; and is a low probability of commercial maritime use of alcohol fuels, methane, or coal/methanol combinations. (LCL)

  1. Brain death: the Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Chua, Hoe Chin; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Morihara, Hirofumi; Gao, Daiquan

    2015-04-01

    Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world with people from many diverse ethnic groups, religions and government systems. The authors surveyed 14 countries accounting for the majority of Asia's population and found that, although the concept of brain death is widely accepted, there is wide variability in the criteria for certification. Although most Asian countries have adopted the "whole-brain" concept of brain death, most countries with past colonial links to the United Kingdom follow the UK "brainstem" concept of brain death. Despite this difference, most countries require only neurologic testing of irreversible coma and absent brainstem reflexes as criteria for certification of brain death. Variability exists in the number of personnel required, qualifications of certifying doctors, need for repeat examination, minimum time interval between examinations, and requirement for and choice of confirmatory tests. PMID:25839724

  2. Principal Modes of Rainfall-SST Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon: A Reassessment of the Monsoon-ENSO Relationship.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K.-M.; Wu, H. T.

    2001-07-01

    Using global rainfall and sea surface temperature (SST) data for the past two decades (1979-98), the covariability of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) and El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was investigated. The findings suggest three recurring rainfall-SST coupled modes. Characterized by a pronounced biennial variability, the first mode is associated with generally depressed rainfall over the western Pacific and the `Maritime Continent,' stemming from the eastward shift of the Walker circulation during the growth phase of El Nio. The associated SST pattern consists of an east-west SST seesaw across the Pacific and another seesaw with opposite polarity over the Indian Ocean. The second mode is associated with a growing La Nia, comprising mixed, regional, and basin-scale rainfall and SST variability with abnormally warm water in the vicinity of the Maritime Continent and western Pacific. It possesses a pronounced low-level west Pacific anticyclone (WPA) near the Philippines and exhibits large subseasonal-scale variability. The third mode is associated with regional coupled ocean-atmosphere processes in the ASM region, having spatial and temporal variabilities that suggest extratropical linkages and interhemispheric interactions occurring on decadal timescales.Results indicate the importance of regional processes in affecting ASM rainfall variability. On the average, and over the ASM region as a whole, ENSO-related basin-scale SSTs can account for about 30% of the variability, and regional processes can account for an additional 20%. In individual years and over subregions, the percentages can be much higher or lower. In addition to the shift in the Walker circulation, it is found that the regional excitation of the WPA is important in determining the rainfall variability over south Asia and east Asia. Based on the results, a hypothesis is proposed that anomalous wind forcings derived from the WPA may be instrumental in inducing a biennial modulation to natural ENSO cycles. The causes of the 1997 and 1998 rainfall anomalies over the ASM subregions are discussed in the context of these results and in light of recent observations of long-term changes in the monsoon-ENSO relationship.

  3. Maritime-continental contrasts of cloud condensation nuclei in the west coast of the Korean peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K.; Hudson, J. G.; Yum, S. S.; Choi, B.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were made at the Korea Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Observatory (KGAWO) (36.32 \\deg N, 126.19 \\deg E) on the west coast of the Korean Peninsula, south of Seoul, from April 30 to May 22, 2004. This location - 500 km distance from China across the Yellow Sea - provides a unique opportunity to monitor the influence of east China's rapidly growing industrial and human activities as well as the local Korean pollution. CCN were measured with the two Desert Research Institute (DRI) instantaneous CCN spectrometers. Condensation Nuclei (CN) were also measured with a TSI 3010 counter. On some foggy days fog droplets (2 - 50 micrometer diameter) were measured with an FSSP-100. For the whole period air masses were divided into 10 maritime and 12 continental regimes according to Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT4) results. Preliminary analyses showed that the average CCN concentration at 1% supersaturation of the continental air masses was 6573 cm-3, which almost doubled the maritime average concentration of 2758 cm-3. Average total particle (i.e., CN) concentration was higher and showed similar contrast between the continental and maritime air masses (8594 cm-3 vs. 4872 cm-3). These concentrations were significantly higher than those measured in some other parts of the earth atmosphere. For example, CCN measurements in marine environment but with continental influences showed 1411 cm-3 in Florida and 1023 cm-3 in northeast Atlantic. These are even lower than the maritime CCN concentrations in this study. Therefore, maritime in this study is only in a relative sense. An Asian Dust (AD) event occurred on May 4. CN and CCN concentrations on this day, 10880 and 8835 cm-3, respectably, were higher than the average continental concentrations. However, one non-AD day also showed as high concentrations. Much more detailed analyses and comparisons will be made and presented at the conference.

  4. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents

    PubMed Central

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T.; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Snchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Cline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsne; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y. M.; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 19992008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.012.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.19.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.98.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.57.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 6080% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 26 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.110.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.040.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations. PMID:26125189

  5. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents.

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y M; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999-2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0-12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1-9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9-8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5-7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60-80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2-6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11-0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04-0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations. PMID:26125189

  6. Promoting urinary continence in older women.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Alison

    2014-10-28

    Continence promotion involves informing and educating the public and healthcare professionals that urinary incontinence is not an inevitable part of ageing, and can be treated or at least made more manageable. While awareness of urinary continence is improving slowly, the taboo around discussing incontinence remains. Women are at increased risk of developing urinary incontinence as they grow older because of physiological, functional and cognitive changes. Healthcare professionals can identify women with bladder symptoms by routinely asking trigger questions and can promote continence through education about lifestyle choices that aggravate or ameliorate urinary incontinence. This article discusses the main risk factors associated with urinary incontinence in older women and the ways in which healthcare professionals can help to identify those with symptoms of urinary incontinence. PMID:25335630

  7. The Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir.

    PubMed

    Bihrle, R

    1997-11-01

    The right colon reservoir using a stapled plicated ileal efferent limb (Indiana continent urinary reservoir) has been demonstrated to be a reproducible durable form of continent diversion. The overall day and nocturnal continence rate of 94% compares favorably with all other forms of continent cutaneous diversion. Carefully following the technique of stapling and plicating the ileal efferent limb and ileocecal valve as described in this article nearly ensures adequate competence of the outlet valve. In the rare case in which incontinence occurs, it is almost always on the basis of high-pressure unit contractions of the reservoir. On occasion, patients who develop incontinence are observed to have high pressures within the reservoir despite complete detubularization of the right colon segment. When this problem is encountered it can be corrected successfully by adding an ileal patch augmentation to the previously detubularized reservoir. The issue of ureteral implantation in continent urinary diversions is as yet unsettled. Many authors have not used ureteral tenial tunnels and have reported a reflux rate of < 13%. Furthermore, these patients have not developed any long-term sequelae of their reflux. Although favorable results have been obtained without creating tunneled tenial reimplantation, we believe that continent cutaneous reservoirs are almost always colonized with bacteria, and an antireflux mechanism may offer protection against subsequent pyelonephritis. Closure of the reservoir traditionally has been conducted by hand at our institution; however, the development of smaller absorbable gastrointestinal anastomosis stapling devices offers the theoretic advantage of shortening the operative time. We anxiously await follow-up, including larger patient numbers and longer term follow-up of the absorbable staple technique. The use of continent cutaneous urinary diversion clearly has decreased as bladder replacement has become a more viable procedure over the past decade. Despite this, the urologic reconstructive surgeon must maintain the ability to perform continent cutaneous diversion in patients who are unwilling to accept the potential for nocturnal incontinence observed in all forms of bladder replacement as well as the patients who have ineffective sphincter mechanism or who need a urethrectomy due to their primary disease. PMID:9391530

  8. Data Quality Assessment for Maritime Situation Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iphar, C.; Napoli, A.; Ray, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) initially designed to ensure maritime security through continuous position reports has been progressively used for many extended objectives. In particular it supports a global monitoring of the maritime domain for various purposes like safety and security but also traffic management, logistics or protection of strategic areas, etc. In this monitoring, data errors, misuse, irregular behaviours at sea, malfeasance mechanisms and bad navigation practices have inevitably emerged either by inattentiveness or voluntary actions in order to circumvent, alter or exploit such a system in the interests of offenders. This paper introduces the AIS system and presents vulnerabilities and data quality assessment for decision making in maritime situational awareness cases. The principles of a novel methodological approach for modelling, analysing and detecting these data errors and falsification are introduced.

  9. The Influence of the East Asian Winter Monsoon on Indonesian Rainfall During the Past 60,000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konecky, B. L.; Russell, J. M.; Vogel, H.; Bijaksana, S.; Huang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) invigorates the oceanic-atmospheric circulation in the tropics, with far-reaching climate impacts that extend into the high latitudes. A growing number of deglacial proxy reconstructions from the Maritime Continent and its surrounding seas have revealed the importance of both high- and low-latitude climate processes to IPWP rainfall during the deglaciation and the Holocene. However, few records extend beyond the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), making it difficult to assess regional rainfall characteristics and monsoon interactions under the glacial/interglacial boundary conditions of the Pleistocene. Proxy reconstructions of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of rainfall (δ18O/δDprecip) have proven useful in understanding millennial to orbital scale changes in the climate of the Maritime Continent, but the tendency for δ18O/δDprecip in this region to reflect regional and/or remote climate processes has highlighted the need to reconstruct δ18O/δDprecip alongside independent proxies for continental rainfall amount. Here we present a reconstruction of δDprecip using leaf wax compounds preserved in the sediments of Lake Towuti, Central Sulawesi, from 60,000 years before present (kyr BP) to today. Our δDprecip reconstruction provides a precipitation isotopic counterpart to multi-proxy geochemical reconstructions of surface hydrology and vegetation characteristics from the same sediment cores, enabling for the first time an independent assessment of both continental rainfall intensity and δDprecip from this region on glacial/interglacial timescales. We find that orbital-scale variations in δDprecip and rainfall intensity are strongly tied to the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM), which is an important contributor to the band of convection over the Maritime Continent during austral summer. Unlike today, however, severely dry conditions in Central Sulawesi during the Last Glacial Maximum were accompanied by a strengthened EAWM and D-depleted precipitation. In contrast, wet conditions in Central Sulawesi during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) and during the early Holocene occurred when the EAWM was weakened. These findings support previous inferences based on Australian data that glacial boundary conditions modified the relationship between the EAWM and the Australian-Indonesian Summer Monsoon (AISM). However, previously proposed mechanisms for this modified EAWM/AISM relationship are not sufficient to explain our observations in Indonesia, and must be expanded. We propose revisions to these mechanisms in order to explain observations of Indonesian rainfall and δDprecip. Our findings provide important context for the circulation patterns that drove rainfall variations in Central Sulawesi during the past 60 kyr, and help to reconcile some of the disagreements among late Pleistocene records of surface runoff and δ18O/δDprecip from the IPWP region.

  10. African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

  11. African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the

  12. Understanding Barriers to Continence Care in Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Labrecque, Danielle; Lepage, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    This work seeks to identify factors that facilitate or diminish care-providers' propensity to improve continence care in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using focus group methodology in four long-term care institutions in Montreal, QC. Forty-two nurses, nursing assistants, and orderlies caring for…

  13. OCCIMA: Optical Channel Characterization in Maritime Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Steve; Tsintikidis, Dimitri; deGrassie, John; Reinhardt, Colin; McBryde, Kevin; Hallenborg, Eric; Wayne, David; Gibson, Kristofor; Cauble, Galen; Ascencio, Ana; Rudiger, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    The Navy is actively developing diverse optical application areas, including high-energy laser weapons and free- space optical communications, which depend on an accurate and timely knowledge of the state of the atmospheric channel. The Optical Channel Characterization in Maritime Atmospheres (OCCIMA) project is a comprehensive program to coalesce and extend the current capability to characterize the maritime atmosphere for all optical and infrared wavelengths. The program goal is the development of a unified and validated analysis toolbox. The foundational design for this program coordinates the development of sensors, measurement protocols, analytical models, and basic physics necessary to fulfill this goal.

  14. Asians, Asian-Americans and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R C; Nagoshi, C T

    1990-01-01

    The association of flushing (vasodilation, reddening of the skin) with the alcohol use of Asians and Asian-Americans is examined. Historical changes in alcohol use, recent secular changes in alcohol use, and marked differences in consumption among Asian populations and among Asian-Americans of the same national origins, as well as the lack of reduction of sex differences among flushers, indicate that flushing has little influence on alcohol consumption. Social, psychological, and cultural influences seem to be more adequate explanatory devices with regard to Oriental alcohol use. PMID:2182805

  15. 78 FR 55089 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: Any background information or presentations available prior to the... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security...

  16. 77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...-1933, email TSA-OSCCommunications@tsa.dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 5, 2003 (68 FR... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of removal of TSA's maritime vulnerability...

  17. An optimal index for measuring the effect of East Asian winter monsoon on China winter temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chundi; Yang, Song; Wu, Qigang

    2015-11-01

    Extreme cold events occur frequently in China. The authors define a representative yet simple index to reveal the monthly changes in China winter temperature associated with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), which is represented by both the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode and the country-mean temperature index of Chinese 160 gauge stations. A combined technique of correlation and multivariate EOF (Corr-MVEOF) analyses is applied to capture the dominant coupled patterns of EAWM circulation system. Based on the atmospheric circulation features captured by the leading Corr-MVEOF mode, a new EAWM index referred to as CNWMI is derived by using a stepwise regression analysis. The CNWMI highlights the importance of (1) the Mongolia-Siberian High (MSH) and its southward expansion and (2) the Asia-wide meridional dipole anomaly of 500 hPa geopotential height. Compared with the 27 existing EAWM indices, the CNWMI not only best represents the leading modes of both EAWM circulation system and China winter temperature, but also reasonably tracks the intraseasonal-to-interdecadal variations of EAWM so that the monthly intensity of EAWM can be monitored conveniently. In particular, the Aleutian low (AL) is not strongly related to the MSH and may not be responsible for the variability of EAWM/MSH. Moreover, the indices that are highly correlated with the temperature over southern East Asia do not show significant relationships with the AL, which is different from the conventional concept that a strong EAWM/MSH is linked to a deepened AL. In contrast, the anomalous Australia-Maritime Continent low is in good agreement with the variation of EAWM/MSH.

  18. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to ... lower than in their Asian counterparts. Normal Tension Glaucoma affects Japanese Japanese populations, however, have a substantially ...

  19. Obesity and Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic Whites are 60% ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  20. Asian summer monsoon seasonal prediction skill in the Met Office GloSea5 model and its dependence on mean state biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Stephanie; Turner, Andrew; Martin, Gill; Woolnough, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Predicting the circulation and precipitation features of the Asian monsoon on time scales of weeks to the season ahead remains a challenge for prediction centres. Current state-of-the-art models retain large biases, particularly dryness over India, which evolve rapidly from initialization and persist into centennial length climate integrations, illustrating the seamless nature of the monsoon problem. We present initial results from our Ministry of Earth Sciences Indian Monsoon Mission collaboration project to assess and improve weekly-to-seasonal forecasts in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) coupled initialized Global Seasonal Prediction System (GloSea5). Using a 14-year hindcast ensemble of integrations in which atmosphere, ocean and sea-ice components are initialized from May start dates, we assess the monsoon seasonal prediction skill and global mean state biases of GloSea5. Initial May and June biases include a lack of precipitation over the Indian peninsula, and a weakened monsoon flow, and these give way to a more robust pattern of excess precipitation in the western north Pacific, lack of precipitation over the Maritime Continent, excess westerlies across the Indian peninsula and Indochina, and cool SSTs in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean and western north Pacific in July and August. Despite these mean state biases, the interannual correlation of predicted JJA all India rainfall from 1998 to 2009 with TRMM is fairly high at 0.68. Future work will focus on the prospects for further improving this skill with bias correction techniques.

  1. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.140 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. All OCS facility owners or operators subject to this part must...

  2. 75 FR 38536 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) will meet in Washington, DC to discuss various issues relating to national maritime security. This meeting...

  3. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.140 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. All OCS facility owners or operators subject to this part must...

  4. 49 CFR 1.67 - Delegations to Maritime Subsidy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegations to Maritime Subsidy Board. 1.67 Section 1.67 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Delegations § 1.67 Delegations to Maritime Subsidy Board. (a) The Maritime...

  5. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  6. 75 FR 22151 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC). This Committee advises and makes recommendations on national maritime security matters to the Secretary of Homeland Security via the Commandant of the...

  7. 75 FR 82039 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) will meet in Washington, DC to discuss various issues relating to national maritime security. This meeting...

  8. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  9. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  10. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  11. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  12. Opportunities in Marine and Maritime Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Wm. Ray

    This book describes careers related to the sea. The following chapters are included: (1) "The World of Water"; (2) "Cruise Ship Careers"; (3) "Oceanography and the Marine Sciences"; (4) "Fishing"; (5) "Commerical Diving"; (6) "Maritime Transportation"; (7) "Shipbuilding"; (8) "Military Careers Afloat"; (9) "Miscellaneous Marine and Maritime…

  13. Life and Poverty in the Maritimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Pierre-Yves

    Five areas in the Maritime Provinces of Canada were subjected to intensive geographical, economic, and sociological surveys in an attempt to determine and define poverty illustratively rather than statistically. Information was obtained by in-residence researchers on bio-physical setting, settlement, population, labor and economic activity,…

  14. 33 CFR 103.510 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan... HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.510 Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval. Each AMS Plan will be......

  15. 33 CFR 103.510 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan... HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.510 Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval. Each AMS Plan will be......

  16. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An AMS... agencies; (4) Law enforcement and security organizations; (5) Maritime industry, including labor; (6)......

  17. 33 CFR 103.510 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan... HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.510 Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval. Each AMS Plan will be......

  18. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An AMS... agencies; (4) Law enforcement and security organizations; (5) Maritime industry, including labor; (6)......

  19. 33 CFR 103.510 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan... HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.510 Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval. Each AMS Plan will be......

  20. 33 CFR 103.510 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan... HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.510 Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval. Each AMS Plan will be......

  1. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An AMS... agencies; (4) Law enforcement and security organizations; (5) Maritime industry, including labor; (6)......

  2. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An AMS... agencies; (4) Law enforcement and security organizations; (5) Maritime industry, including labor; (6)......

  3. 33 CFR 103.310 - Responsibilities of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.310 Section 103.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.310 Responsibilities of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a)...

  4. 33 CFR 103.310 - Responsibilities of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.310 Section 103.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.310 Responsibilities of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a)...

  5. 33 CFR 103.310 - Responsibilities of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.310 Section 103.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.310 Responsibilities of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  7. Chronic cough: an Asian perspective. Part 1: Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung; Faruqi, Shoaib; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Lee, Seung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Asia is one of the most diverse and dynamic continents. Due to recent rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, morbidity patterns are likely to be diverse in Asian populations. Chronic cough is a disease condition resulting from host-environmental interactions, and is associated with a high global epidemiological burden. However, the underlying epidemiology remains unclear, particularly in Asia. We performed a literature search to identify peer-reviewed articles on chronic cough in community-based adult Asian populations that have been published between January 2000 and June 2015. In this review, we aim to examine the epidemiological characteristics and determinants of chronic cough in several geographical areas of Asia. PMID:26240790

  8. Chronic cough: an Asian perspective. Part 1: Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Song, Woo-Jung; Faruqi, Shoaib; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-07-01

    Asia is one of the most diverse and dynamic continents. Due to recent rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, morbidity patterns are likely to be diverse in Asian populations. Chronic cough is a disease condition resulting from host-environmental interactions, and is associated with a high global epidemiological burden. However, the underlying epidemiology remains unclear, particularly in Asia. We performed a literature search to identify peer-reviewed articles on chronic cough in community-based adult Asian populations that have been published between January 2000 and June 2015. In this review, we aim to examine the epidemiological characteristics and determinants of chronic cough in several geographical areas of Asia. PMID:26240790

  9. Scavenging of pollutant acid substances by Asian mineral dust particles - article no. L07816

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, J.; Takahashi, K.; Matsumi, Y.; Yabushita, A.; Shimizu, A.; Matsui, I.; Sugimoto, N.

    2006-04-13

    Uptakes of sulfate and nitrate onto Asian dust particles during transport from the Asian continent to the Pacific Ocean were analyzed by using a single-particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Observation was conducted at Tsukuba in Japan in the springtime of 2004. Sulfate-rich dust particles made their largest contribution during the 'dust event' in the middle of April 2004. As a result of detailed analysis including backward trajectory calculations, it was confirmed that sulfate components originating from coal combustion in the continent were internally mixed with dust particles. Even in the downstream of the outflow far from the continental coastline, significant contribution of Asian dust to sulfate was observed. Asian dust plays critical roles as the carrier of sulfate over the Pacific Ocean.

  10. Deep Structure of the Indian Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Satish; Montagner, Jean-paul; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Prakash; Burgos, Gael

    2014-05-01

    The Indian sub-continent experienced remarkable tectonic and geological events. Breakup of Indian subcontinent from the Gondwana supercontinent possibly due to a large plume, about 130 Myr ago. Paleomagnetic data demonstrates that the Indian continent moved northwards from 65Myr at exceptionally high speeds (18-20cm/year) and subsequently slowed down to 4-5cm/year after its collision with Asia approx 40Myr ago. This super mobility has been explained by an unusually thin Indian lithosphere (~100 km; Kumar et al., 2007) in contradiction with the thick lithosphere that commonly underlies old cratonic nuclei. It is pertinent to note that the thermobarometric estimates on the ultramafic xenoliths from a 65Myr kimberlites of the Central India (Babu et al. 2009) suggest an approximately 175 km thick lithosphere. Also, analysis of heat flow data and P-T estimates on mantle xenoliths from the Dharwar craton reveal low mantle heat flow, 14-20 mW m-2, that indicate a thick lithosphere beneath south India (Roy and Mareschal, 2011). Upper mantle heterogeneities and depth localization of anisotropy structures beneath India are poorly known. In order to solve these issues, we have to follow a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the lithospheric and asthenospheric structure underneath the Indian cratons and the Indian plate. Seismological studies (receiver functions, SKS splitting, anisotropic and surface waves studies of the Indian continent) in conjunction with heat flow, petrological and paleomagnetic data planning to be utilized to image and interpret the 3D-tomographic velocity and anisotropic structure of the whole continent and trace its evolution through time. In this work, we present the high resolution phase velocity maps with azimuthal anisotropy of fundamental and higher mode surface waves propagating across India.

  11. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining. PMID:25230662

  12. Hydration of the lithospheric mantle by the descending plate in a continent-continent collisional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    When continents collide, can the orogenic crust be thickened by the process of wholesale underthrusting of the descending plate (Zhou & Murphy, 2005)? Actually, thick lithospheric plates collide after complete subduction of the oceanic plate in between. Thus, the role of the lithospheric mantle below the upper plate must be considered to answer this question. As the descending plate, especially its former near-surface region, significantly dehydrates, the hydration of this mantle portion was studied. For this reason, pressure (P) - temperature (T) and T- H2O pseudosections were calculated for an average mantle composition using the computer software PERPLEX (Connolly, 2005). These pseudosections were contoured by isopleths for volumes of amphibole, chlorite, and serpentine. It can be easily recognized from the produced graphs that considerable amounts of amphibole and chlorite can result from addition of some water to the dry ultrabasite. In the P-range 8 to 15 kbar, a maximum of nearly 20 vol.% amphibole and 10 vol.% chlorite forms when only 1.5 wt.% H2O is added at temperatures up to 700C. This amount of chlorite continuously disappears with rising temperatures up to 800C and somewhat more. In the given P-range, serpentine forms only below 600C and H2O contents >2 wt.% added. For example, at 550C and 5 wt.% H2O hydrous phases amount to about 35 vol.% serpentine, 10 vol.% of each chlorite and amphibole and very little biotite in the studied ultrabasite. As the hydration of the lithospheric mantle below the upper plate would change its rheological properties, the following geodynamic scenario is conceivable: The tip of the descending continental plate hydrates this mantle portion and weakens it. This allows the buoyant tip of this plate to penetrate the lithospheric mantle close to the interface of mantle and overlying crust. As the dehydration of the penetrating continental crust continues by heating, the hydration and weakening of the mantle is also ongoing to cause a significant penetration and, thus, a wholesale thrusting of the descending plate under the other continental plate, eventually with a thin hydrated mantle region in between. For example, pelitic rocks, common in the upper portion of continental crust, can release about 2.5 wt.% H2O between 450 to 650C at 10-15 kbar (e.g. Massonne et al., 2013). A pile of 3 km of such rocks extending over 300 km perpendicular to the initial orogenic front could supply so much water to produce a 500 m thick weak zone in the mantle with about 20 vol.% amphibole and 10 vol.% chlorite over 3000 km. The termination of the underthrust process can be caused by heating of the frontal portion of the underthrust plate to 650C and more, which is then not anymore capable to hydrate the lithospheric mantle. Connolly, J.A.D., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 236, 524-541. Massonne, H.-J. et al., 2013. Lithos 156-159, 171-185. Zhou, H.-W. & Murphy, M.A., 2005. J. Asian Earth Sci. 25, 445-457

  13. Finding Community Structure in Spatial Maritime Shipping Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhuo; Zheng, Jianfeng; Hu, Hongtao

    2012-06-01

    This study explores the community structure in spatial maritime shipping networks. As compared with air transportation networks and urban road networks, ports in spatial maritime shipping networks have smaller connections due to the physical confinement. A new divisive algorithm is proposed for detecting community structure in spatial maritime shipping networks. At each iteration for modularity optimization, the length of each edge is successively updated, instead of edge removal used in the conventional divisive method. Finally, numerical experiments based on the global maritime shipping network are carried out to account for the properties of community structure in spatial maritime shipping networks.

  14. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  19. Shaping Bladder and Bowel Continence in Developmentally Retarded Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Glenn

    1983-01-01

    A program to improve bowel and bladder continence with four developmentally retarded preschoolers used a regular schedule and social and liquid reinforcement, verbal reprimand, and correction for accidents. Ss showed improvement in bowel and bladder continence. (Author/CL)

  20. Asian cosmetic facial surgery.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Edward S

    2010-05-01

    Within the past decade, Asian economies have grown exponentially, resulting in increased personal wealth and subsequent consumption of cosmetic procedures. Asian cosmetic surgery procedures in Western countries have also seen a growth pattern parallel to Asia. As this growth continues, facial plastic surgeons in Western nations will inevitably witness increased Asians in their patient population base. To meet this demand, the surgeon must incorporate a set of different aesthetic norms from the traditional Western philosophies. In addition, the plastic surgeon must also understand the unique cultural motivations for surgery. The Asian face has distinguishing features that are unique. As such, surgical techniques and aesthetic goals for a particular cosmetic procedure will be different than those for other ethnic groups. This article will review three of the most common cosmetic procedures unique to the Asian face: Asian blepharoplasty, lower facial contouring, and Asian rhinoplasty. PMID:20446204

  1. Lithospheric properties on a continent-continent collisional scenario: the Pyrenean range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledo, Juanjo; Campanyà, Joan; Fullea, Javier; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Liesa, Montse; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2013-04-01

    Continent-continent collision is a fundamental tectonic process that plays a primary role in the development and evolution of continents. The Pyrenees resulted from the continental collision between the Iberian and European plates during the Alpine orogeny. This mountain range offers an unique opportunity to study orogenic processes due to the well constrained geological evolution and the significant amount of geophysical data available. In this paper present a joint quantitative interpretation of the available geophysical and geochemical data along two transects across the Pyrenean orogeny. These new results confirm the previous hypothesis of partial melting of the subducted Iberian lower crust and constrain the depth of the lithosphere-astenosphere boundary (LAB). The bulk mantle electrical conductivity and seismic velocities have been modelled using the software package LitMod, which allows for coupled petrological and geophysical modeling of the lithosphere and sublithospheric upper mantle within an internally consistent thermodynamic-geophysical framework.

  2. Bromoform in the tropical boundary layer of the Maritime Continent during OP3: the contrast between coast and rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Robinson, A. D.; Gostlow, B.; O'Brien, L. M.; Ashfold, M. J.; Carver, G. D.; Warwick, N. J.; Manning, A. J.; Yong, S. E.; Peng, L. K.; Ung, H. E.; Ong, S.

    2010-06-01

    We report measurements of bromoform made by gas chromatography during the OP3 campaign in 2008. Measurements were made simultaneously for a few days at the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) site in the Danum Valley, a rainforest location in Sabah, Borneo, and at a nearby coastal site at Kunak. Background values at Kunak were higher than those measured in the rainforest (2-5 ppt compared with 1 ppt) and excursions away from the background were very much higher, reaching 10s of ppt. Measurements of C2Cl4, an industrial tracer, showed no significant difference in background at the two sites. The data are consistent with a strong, local coastal source of bromoform in eastern Sabah. Modelling using two different models can reproduce many of the observed features. The bromoform data are consistent with a lower global source (190 Gg Br yr-1) than indicated by our recent measurements on Cape Verde (O'Brien et al., 2009) and point to the difficulty for short-lived species of extrapolating local measurements to a global source.

  3. Maritime Archaeology and Maritime Heritage Protection in the Disputed Territory of Northern Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpster, Matthew

    2008-06-01

    Between 1967 and 1974, the island of Cyprus was a centre of maritime archaeology in the eastern Mediterranean. Individuals such as Michael and Susan Katzev, George Bass, Jeremy Green and Richard Steffy were living on and visiting the island, and testing and developing methods still common in the discipline. The hostilities on Cyprus in the summer of 1974 and the implementation of international regulations limiting archaeological work in the northern portion of the island, however, had repercussions still evident today. This article summarizes past maritime archaeological work along the northern coastline, addresses the regulations limiting archaeological activity in the region and discusses a new training program licensed by the Nautical Archaeology Society aiding in the protection of the island’s maritime heritage representing approximately 10,000 years of activity.

  4. Maritime Archaeology and Trans-Oceanic Trade: A Case Study of the Oranjemund Shipwreck Cargo, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirikure, Shadreck; Sinamai, Ashton; Goagoses, Esther; Mubusisi, Marina; Ndoro, W.

    2010-10-01

    Routine sand dredging for alluvial diamonds at Oranjemund on the southern coast of Namibia exposed remnants of a long forgotten Portuguese merchant ship believed to have wrecked in the 1530s. The rescue excavations yielded over 40 tons of cargo consisting of thousands of gold and silver coins, tons of copper and lead ingots, and large quantities of ivory together with food refuse, part of personal possessions and the superstructure of the ship. This paper discusses the cargo from the shipwreck. The varying provenances show that overland inter-and intra-regional networks fed into the maritime trade between Europe and the Indian sub-continent. As such, the wreck is a lens through which we can view what was happening on the seas as well as on land. Finally we consider wider issues raised by this discovery relating to the protection and management of such material wherever it may be found in future.

  5. Promoting continence: simple strategies with major impact.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Dorothy B

    2003-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem, especially among women, yet it remains underreported and undertreated. This is partly due to patients' beliefs that little can be done and partly due to healthcare professionals' perception that treatment is limited to surgery, advanced behavioral strategies requiring specialized equipment, or containment devices. Nurses are in a strategic position to reduce the incidence of incontinence by teaching bladder health strategies (ie, fluid management, appropriate voiding intervals, constipation prevention, weight control, smoking cessation, and pelvic muscle exercises), actively assessing patients for incontinence, and initiating appropriate referrals and primary interventions. Patients with significant neurologic deficits, structural abnormalities such as pelvic organ prolapse, or urinary retention should be referred for further workup. However, most patients can be treated with primary continence restoration strategies, which include identifying and correcting reversible factors such as urinary tract infection or atrophic urethritis; instruction in pelvic floor muscle exercises; and instruction regarding urge inhibition strategies. Implementing these simple strategies can significantly improve bladder function and continence in the majority of patients. PMID:14712010

  6. Burn resuscitation on the African continent.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Rogers, A D; Cox, S G; Allorto, N L; Stefani, F; Bosco, A; Greenhalgh, D G

    2014-11-01

    A survey of members of the International Society of Burn Injuries (ISBI) and the American Burn Association (ABA) indicated that although there was difference in burn resuscitation protocols, they all fulfilled their functions. This study presents the findings of the same survey replicated in Africa, the only continent not included in the original survey. One hundred and eight responses were received. The mean annual number of admissions per unit was ninety-eight. Fluid resuscitation was usually initiated with total body surface area burns of either more than ten or more than fifteen percent. Twenty-six respondents made use of enteral resuscitation. The preferred resuscitation formula was the Parkland formula, and Ringer's Lactate was the favoured intravenous fluid. Despite satisfaction with the formula, many respondents believed that patients received volumes that differed from that predicted. Urine output was the principle guide to adequate resuscitation, with only twenty-one using the evolving clinical picture and thirty using invasive monitoring methods. Only fifty-one respondents replied to the question relating to the method of adjusting resuscitation. While colloids are not available in many parts of the African continent on account of cost, one might infer than African burn surgeons make better use of enteral resuscitation. PMID:24560434

  7. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  8. Resiliency and Recovery: Lessons from the Asian Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, Delini M.; Hebert, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    Separated by continents and cultures, survivors of the Asian tsunami and Hurricane Katrina share a common bond in their extreme trauma and ensuing struggles. The authors discuss and illustrate core ideas based on the commonalities derived from the experiences of women survivors of these two disasters.

  9. 33 CFR 103.200 - Designation of the Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC). 103.200 Section 103.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC) Designation and Authorities § 103.200 Designation of the Federal......

  10. 33 CFR 103.205 - Authority of the COTP as the Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC). 103.205 Section 103.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC) Designation and Authorities § 103.205 Authority of the...

  11. 33 CFR 103.205 - Authority of the COTP as the Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC). 103.205 Section 103.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC) Designation and Authorities § 103.205 Authority of the...

  12. 33 CFR 103.205 - Authority of the COTP as the Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC). 103.205 Section 103.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC) Designation and Authorities § 103.205 Authority of the...

  13. 33 CFR 103.200 - Designation of the Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC). 103.200 Section 103.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC) Designation and Authorities § 103.200 Designation of the Federal......

  14. 33 CFR 103.200 - Designation of the Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC). 103.200 Section 103.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC) Designation and Authorities § 103.200 Designation of the Federal......

  15. 33 CFR 103.200 - Designation of the Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC). 103.200 Section 103.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC) Designation and Authorities § 103.200 Designation of the Federal......

  16. 33 CFR 103.205 - Authority of the COTP as the Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC). 103.205 Section 103.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC) Designation and Authorities § 103.205 Authority of the...

  17. 33 CFR 103.505 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.505 Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan. The AMS Plan should address the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Elements of the Area...

  18. 33 CFR 103.200 - Designation of the Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC). 103.200 Section 103.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC) Designation and Authorities § 103.200 Designation of the Federal......

  19. 33 CFR 103.205 - Authority of the COTP as the Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC). 103.205 Section 103.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Federal Maritime Security Coordinator (FMSC) Designation and Authorities § 103.205 Authority of the...

  20. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410...

  1. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410...

  2. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.305 Section 103.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition...

  3. When Did the Swahili Become Maritime?

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, Jeffrey; Lane, Paul; LaViolette, Adria; Horton, Mark; Pollard, Edward; Quintana Morales, Eréndira; Vernet, Thomas; Christie, Annalisa; Wynne-Jones, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine an assumption about the historic Swahili of the eastern African coast: that they were a maritime society from their beginnings in the first millennium C.E. Based on historical and archaeological data, we suggest that, despite their proximity to and use of the sea, the level of maritimity of Swahili society increased greatly over time and was only fully realized in the early second millennium C.E. Drawing on recent theorizing from other areas of the world about maritimity as well as research on the Swahili, we discuss three arenas that distinguish first- and second-millennium coastal society in terms of their maritime orientation. These are variability and discontinuity in settlement location and permanence; evidence of increased engagement with the sea through fishing and sailing technology; and specialized architectural developments involving port facilities, mosques, and houses. The implications of this study are that we must move beyond coastal location in determining maritimity; consider how the sea and its products were part of social life; and assess whether the marine environment actively influences and is influenced by broader patterns of sociocultural organization, practice, and belief within Swahili and other societies. [maritime, fishing and sailing, long-distance trade, Swahili, eastern Africa] RESUMEN En este artículo, evaluamos la hipótesis de que los pueblos Swahili de la costa oriental africana fueron una sociedad marítima a partir del primer milenio E.C. Basados en información histórica y arqueológica, proponemos que la asociación de la sociedad Swahili con el mar incrementó considerablemente con el tiempo y se manifestó de una forma significativa particularmente desde principios del segundo milenio E.C. Utilizando teorías recientes sobre maritimidad en otras áreas del mundo, así como investigaciones sobre los Swahili, discutimos tres temas que marcan las diferencias del nivel de orientación marítima de esta sociedad costera entre el primer y segundo milenio. Éstas son la variabilidad y discontinuidad en la localización y permanencia de los asentamientos; evidencia de una conexión mayor con el mar a través de la tecnología de pesca y navegación; y desarrollos arquitectónicos especializados que incluyen instalaciones portuarias, mezquitas, y casas. Las implicaciones de este estudio indican que debemos considerar otros aspectos de una sociedad aparte de su localización costera para determinar su maritimidad. Hay que considerar cómo el mar y sus productos son parte de la vida social y evaluar si existe una influencia recíproca entre el ambiente marítimo y los patrones de organización sociocultural, las prácticas, y las creencias de los Swahili y otras sociedades. [marítimo, pesca y navegación, comercio a larga distancia, Swahili, África Oriental] PMID:25821235

  4. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  5. Maritime target identification in gated viewing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Marcus; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The growing interest in unmanned surface vehicles, accident avoidance for naval vessels and automated maritime surveillance leads to a growing need for automatic detection, classification and pose estimation of maritime objects in medium and long ranges. Laser radar imagery is a well proven tool for near to medium range, but up to now for higher distances neither the sensor range nor the sensor resolution was satisfying. As a result of the mentioned limitations of laser radar imagery the potential of laser illuminated gated viewing for automated classification and pose estimation was investigated. The paper presents new techniques for segmentation, pose estimation and model-based identification of naval vessels in gated viewing imagery in comparison with the corresponding results of long range data acquired with a focal plane array laser radar system. The pose estimation in the gated viewing data is directly connected with the model-based identification which makes use of the outline of the object. By setting a sufficient narrow gate, the distance gap between the upper part of the ship and the background leads to an automatic segmentation. By setting the gate the distance to the object is roughly known. With this distance and the imaging properties of the camera, the width of the object perpendicular to the line of sight can be calculated. For each ship in the model library a set of possible 2D appearances in the known distance is calculated and the resulting contours are compared with the measured 2D outline. The result is a match error for each reasonable orientation of each model of the library. The result gained from the gated viewing data is compared with the results of target identification by laser radar imagery of the same maritime objects.

  6. Anomaly detection in the maritime domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Jean

    2008-04-01

    Defence R&D Canada is developing a Collaborative Knowledge Exploitation Framework (CKEF) to support the analysts in efficiently managing and exploiting relevant knowledge assets to achieve maritime domain awareness in joint operations centres of the Canadian Forces. While developing the CKEF, anomaly detection has been clearly recognized as an important aspect requiring R&D. An activity has thus been undertaken to implement, within the CKEF, a proof-of-concept prototype of a rule-based expert system to support the analysts regarding this aspect. This expert system has to perform automated reasoning and output recommendations (or alerts) about maritime anomalies, thereby supporting the identification of vessels of interest and threat analysis. The system must contribute to a lower false alarm rate and a better probability of detection in drawing operator's attention to vessels worthy of their attention. It must provide explanations as to why the vessels may be of interest, with links to resources that help the operators dig deeper. Mechanisms are necessary for the analysts to fine tune the system, and for the knowledge engineer to maintain the knowledge base as the expertise of the operators evolves. This paper portrays the anomaly detection prototype, and describes the knowledge acquisition and elicitation session conducted to capture the know-how of the experts, the formal knowledge representation enablers and the ontology required for aspects of the maritime domain that are relevant to anomaly detection, vessels of interest, and threat analysis, the prototype high-level design and implementation on the service-oriented architecture of the CKEF, and other findings and results of this ongoing activity.

  7. Maritime Tsunami Hazard Assessment in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynett, P. J.; Borrero, J. C.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The California tsunami program in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase awareness of tsunami generated hazards to the maritime community (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education and outreach program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. An important step in this process is to understand the causative mechanism for damage in ports and harbors, and then ensure that the models used to generate hazard maps are able to accurately simulate these processes. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. Basin resonance and geometric amplification are two reasonably well understood mechanisms for local magnification of tsunami impact in harbors, and are generally the mechanisms investigated when estimating the tsunami hazard potential in a port or harbor. On the other hand, our understanding of and predictive ability for currents is lacking. When a free surface flow is forced through a geometric constriction, it is readily expected that the enhanced potential gradient will drive strong, possibly unstable currents and the associated turbulent coherent structures such as "jets" and "whirlpools"; a simple example would be tidal flow through an inlet channel. However, these fundamentals have not been quantitatively connected with respect to understanding tsunami hazards in ports and harbors. A plausible explanation for this oversight is the observation that these features are turbulent phenomena with spatial and temporal scales much smaller than that of a typical tsunami. The ability to model and then validate these currentsdissect them has only recently become available through the evaluation of dozens of eyewitness accounts and hundreds of videos.developed. In this presentation, we will present ongoing work related to the application of such models to quantify the maritime tsunami hazard in select ports and harbors in California. The development of current-based tsunami hazard maps and safe-offshore-depth delineations will be discussed. We will also present an overview of the challenges in modeling tsunami currents, including capture of turbulent dynamics, coupling with tides, and issues with long-duration simulations. This work in California will form the basis for tsunami hazard reduction for all U.S. maritime communities through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  8. Emerging Asian Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  9. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  10. Asian Open Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of open universities in Asia is of interest to Australian educators, particularly since the Asian institutions differ in some respects from the British model which combined open entry to all and extensively employed the electronic media. The Asian Open Universities have provided access to higher education for many. (SSH)

  11. Two separate introductions of Asian citrus psyllid populations found in the American continents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A phylogeographic analysis inferred from the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (433 bp) was performed with 22 populations (n=132) of Diaphorina citri collected in the Americas and one in the Pacific. Eight populations (n=46) from four countries in South America, 14 (n=76) from...

  12. Slab Rollback Instability and Super-Continent Dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, D.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Super-continents coalesce over subduction zone complexes and their subsequent dispersal is usually attributed to heating and upwelling of continent-insulated mantle. This dispersal mechanism, however, requires considerable mantle internal heating. Alternatively, the super-continent configuration may be mechanically unstable and disperse regardless of heating mode. In particular, increased drag on plates or subducting slabs (e.g., by accumulating continents) causes them to slow down and trenches to rollback. Once subcontinental slabs are slightly separated, resistance to their descent increases, inducing further trench migration. Slabs thus undergo a rollback instability, which disperses super-continents. A simple theoretical model illustrates this instability and shows there are two equilibrium states, one unstable super-continent state where slabs are conjoined, and one stable state where slabs are widely separated. Slab rollback from the unstable to stable states occurs at typical slow tectonic speeds, and over a period commensurate with the age of ocean basins and the Wilson cycle.

  13. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  14. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  15. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  16. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  17. US maritime strategy: sound and safe

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, R.W.

    1987-09-01

    The one remaining area where the US has superiority over the Soviet bloc is at sea. Over the past several years the US Navy rallied around what is called its maritime strategy. But reviews of the strategy were mixed. Some of the criticism was well reasoned and on target, but some critics demonstrated a deep misunderstanding not only of the strategy and what it attempts to accomplish, but also of the fundamental differences between sea and land warfare. The paramount requirement to keep the peace, and the unprecedented Soviet military buildup over the past two decades, sent a clear message to US military planners: you must think even more deeply and carefully about how to use US and allied military capabilities in the most effective way to secure the objectives set by the political leadership. The foremost strategic objective, of course, has always been deterring war. But strategic thought must not cease at the leading edge of war. The navy's maritime strategy sought to take account of the altered strategic environment, strengthen deterrence, and provide a framework for dealing with a powerful Soviet military should deterrence fail.

  18. Under-reporting of maritime accidents.

    PubMed

    Psarros, George; Skjong, Rolf; Eide, Magnus Strandmyr

    2010-03-01

    The majority of current maritime regulations has been developed following a reactive approach, often as ad-hoc response to serious accidents, and are characterised as being prescriptive leaving limited space for adapting equivalent solutions rather those described in the regulations. On the premise of providing a more proactive approach for the proposal or the evaluation of regulations, the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) has been introduced. In the context of FSA, the analysis of accident data is considered to be very important for providing potential input on developing more balanced, proactive and cost-effective regulations. However, it has been argued that the validity of historical data may be undermined by uncertainties. This paper is aimed at showing evidence on serious under-reporting in accident databases, which can be considered as the main contributor to questioning the direct and uncritical use of historical data. By analysing the 10-year tanker accident data from the Lloyd's Register FairPlay (LRFP) and the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD) for vessels registered in Norway, it is found that the reporting performance has an upper bound of 41% for NMD and 30% for LRFP. Furthermore, based on comparison between LRFP data and self-assessment by Flag States, it is seen that accidents reported by the Flag States are also incomplete. PMID:20159087

  19. Greenhouse gas scenario in Indian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, T. N.

    1999-12-01

    Global climate change depicts energy exchange balance between the earth and atmosphere and the space. The balance is affected by human activities -- burning of fuel -- fossil or biological generating carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide or trace gases. Accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere may follow intensification of green house effect and cause global sea warming. Warming may affect agriculture, forestry, water resources and rising or falling of levels. The burning of fuel is for the generation of commercial energy -- electricity, household energy -- cooking, heating or burning of bushes, waste product and biomass. The world population distribution reveals heavy tilt in terms of growth rate and the cumulative figure. Nearly 80% of the world population is in the developing economy with only 20% resource available to them. The energy demand in five major Asian developing economy for the year 1990 is summarized.

  20. Wintertime East Asian Jet Stream and Its Association with the Asian-Pacific Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    2000-01-01

    Interannual variability of the wintertime East Asian westerly jet stream and the linkage between this variability and the Asian-Pacific climate are investigated. The study emphasizes on the variability of the jet core and its association with the Asian winter monsoon, tropical convection, upper tropospheric wave patterns, and the teleconnection of the jet with other climate systems. The relationship between the jet and North Pacific sea surface temperature pattern (SST) is also explored. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, NASA GISS surface temperature, NASA GEOS reanalysis, NOAA reconstructed SST, GPCP precipitation, and NOAA snow cover data sets are analyzed in this study. An index of the East Asian jet has been defined by the December-February means of the 200 mb zonal winds that are averaged within a box enclosing the jet maximum, which shifts only moderately from one year to another especially in the south-north direction. The jet links to a teleconnection pattern whose major climate anomalies appear over the Asian continent and western Pacific (west of the dateline). This pattern differs distinctly from the teleconnection pattern associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which causes the Pacific/North American pattern to the east of the dateline. A strong jet is accompanied clearly by an increase in the intensity of the atmospheric circulation over Asia and the Pacific. In particular, the winter monsoon strengthens over East Asia, leading to cold climate in the region, and convection intensifies over the tropical Asia-Australia sector. Changes in the jet are associated with broad-scale modification in the upper tropospheric wave patterns that leads to downstream climate anomalies over the eastern Pacific. Through this downstream influence, the East Asian jet causes climate signals in North America as well. A strong jet gives rise to warming and less snow cover in the western United States but reverse climate anomalies in the eastern part of the country, although these signals are relatively weaker than the jet-related anomalies in East Asia. There is a strong association between the East Asian jet and the North Pacific SST (NPSST). A strong jet is accompanied by a cooling in the extratropical Pacific and a warming in the tropical-subtropical Pacific. Evidence also indicates that the extratropical NPSST pattern plays a role in modulating the intensity of the jet stream. ENSO, the jet, and the NPSST are mutually interactive on certain time scales and such an interaction links closely to the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American regions.

  1. 78 FR 16699 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316) Docket: Any... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security...

  2. 75 FR 24400 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... in the April 17, 1996 issue of the Federal Register (70 FR 23938). A regulated area is established on... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA on May 8,...

  3. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... otherwise expressed in terms of 1,000 hours of service to be applied to employees in the maritime industry... maritime industry may nevertheless credit service to such employees on the basis of hours of service, as... in any other industry. (d) Year of service. To the extent that a plan covers employees engaged in...

  4. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... otherwise expressed in terms of 1,000 hours of service to be applied to employees in the maritime industry... maritime industry may nevertheless credit service to such employees on the basis of hours of service, as... in any other industry. (d) Year of service. To the extent that a plan covers employees engaged in...

  5. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... otherwise expressed in terms of 1,000 hours of service to be applied to employees in the maritime industry... maritime industry may nevertheless credit service to such employees on the basis of hours of service, as... in any other industry. (d) Year of service. To the extent that a plan covers employees engaged in...

  6. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... otherwise expressed in terms of 1,000 hours of service to be applied to employees in the maritime industry... maritime industry may nevertheless credit service to such employees on the basis of hours of service, as... in any other industry. (d) Year of service. To the extent that a plan covers employees engaged in...

  7. 78 FR 27032 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... regulation can be found in the April 27, 1996, issue of the Federal Register (61 FR 16710). A regulated area... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12...

  8. 76 FR 22033 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... regulation can be found in the April 27, 1996 issue of the Federal Register (61 FR 16710). A regulated area... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12...

  9. 78 FR 42101 - Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... appropriate security background check prior to appointment to the committee. Members' terms of office will be... SECURITY Coast Guard Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Boston Area Maritime Security Committee to submit their applications for membership, to...

  10. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... technology to insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial...

  11. 46 CFR 5.71 - Maritime labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maritime labor disputes. 5.71 Section 5.71 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.71 Maritime labor disputes. Under no... labor controversy. However, if the situation affecting the safety of the vessel or persons on board...

  12. 32 CFR 536.117 - Statutory authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Statutory authority for maritime claims. 536.117 Section 536.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND.... The Army Maritime Claims Settlement Act (AMCSA) (10 U.S.C. 4801-04, 4806, as amended) authorizes...

  13. 32 CFR 536.117 - Statutory authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Statutory authority for maritime claims. 536.117 Section 536.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND.... The Army Maritime Claims Settlement Act (AMCSA) (10 U.S.C. 4801-04, 4806, as amended) authorizes...

  14. 32 CFR 536.117 - Statutory authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Statutory authority for maritime claims. 536.117 Section 536.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND.... The Army Maritime Claims Settlement Act (AMCSA) (10 U.S.C. 4801-04, 4806, as amended) authorizes...

  15. 32 CFR 536.117 - Statutory authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Statutory authority for maritime claims. 536.117 Section 536.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND.... The Army Maritime Claims Settlement Act (AMCSA) (10 U.S.C. 4801-04, 4806, as amended) authorizes...

  16. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  17. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  18. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  19. 77 FR 26024 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... published in the Federal Register of May 1, 2012, a notice announcing a National Maritime Security Advisory... Federal Register Web site 13 calendar days prior to the meeting. Additionally, all known...

  20. 78 FR 19277 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: Any background information or presentations... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: United States Coast... published a notice of meeting for the National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) in the...

  1. 77 FR 1710 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... published in the Federal Register of January 9, 2012, a notice announcing a National Maritime Security... Web site 13 calendar days prior to the meeting. Additionally, all known interested parties were...

  2. 77 FR 51817 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: Any background information or... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security...

  3. 77 FR 1076 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security...

  4. 46 CFR 5.71 - Maritime labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maritime labor disputes. 5.71 Section 5.71 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation 5.71 Maritime labor disputes. Under no circumstances will the Coast Guard exercise its authority for the purpose of favoring any party to a...

  5. 46 CFR 5.71 - Maritime labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maritime labor disputes. 5.71 Section 5.71 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation 5.71 Maritime labor disputes. Under no circumstances will the Coast Guard exercise its authority for the purpose of favoring any party to a...

  6. 46 CFR 5.71 - Maritime labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maritime labor disputes. 5.71 Section 5.71 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation 5.71 Maritime labor disputes. Under no circumstances will the Coast Guard exercise its authority for the purpose of favoring any party to a...

  7. 46 CFR 5.71 - Maritime labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maritime labor disputes. 5.71 Section 5.71 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation 5.71 Maritime labor disputes. Under no circumstances will the Coast Guard exercise its authority for the purpose of favoring any party to a...

  8. Advanced maritime communications technology ship-to-shore satellite link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissel, R. J.; Miller, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the Satellite Link activities of the Advanced Maritime Communications Technology (AMCT) Joint Research and Development Project. The activities are sponsored by the U.S. Maritime Administration and the Military Sealift Command as part of the Fleet Management Technology Program. The successful design, implementation, and testing of a satellite data link are described in detail.

  9. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... technology to insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  15. Asian Bilingual Education Teacher Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John; Lum, John

    A guide to bilingual education for Asians contains chapters on bilingual and multicultural education characteristics; the learner; Asian and Asian American learners; bilingual program designs, methodology, and classroom activities; instructional materials and resources for Asian bilingual education programs; and teacher competencies, staff…

  16. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  17. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  18. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  19. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  20. The East Asian summer monsoon: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yihui, Ding; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2005-06-01

    The present paper provides an overview of major problems of the East Asian summer monsoon. The summer monsoon system over East Asia (including the South China Sea (SCS)) cannot be just thought of as the eastward and northward extension of the Indian monsoon. Numerous studies have well documented that the huge Asian summer monsoon system can be divided into two subsystems: the Indian and the East Asian monsoon system which are to a greater extent independent of each other and, at the same time, interact with each other. In this context, the major findings made in recent two decades are summarized below: (1) The earliest onset of the Asian summer monsoon occurs in most of cases in the central and southern Indochina Peninsula. The onset is preceded by development of a BOB (Bay of Bengal) cyclone, the rapid acceleration of low-level westerlies and significant increase of convective activity in both areal extent and intensity in the tropical East Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. (2) The seasonal march of the East Asian summer monsoon displays a distinct stepwise northward and northeastward advance, with two abrupt northward jumps and three stationary periods. The monsoon rain commences over the region from the Indochina Peninsula-the SCS-Philippines during the period from early May to mid-May, then it extends abruptly to the Yangtze River Basin, and western and southern Japan, and the southwestern Philippine Sea in early to mid-June and finally penetrates to North China, Korea and part of Japan, and the topical western West Pacific. (3) After the onset of the Asian summer monsoon, the moisture transport coming from Indochina Peninsula and the South China Sea plays a crucial “switch” role in moisture supply for precipitation in East Asia, thus leading to a dramatic change in climate regime in East Asia and even more remote areas through teleconnection. (4) The East Asian summer monsoon and related seasonal rain belts assumes significant variability at intraseasonal, interannual and interdecadal time scales. Their interaction, i.e., phase locking and in-phase or out-phase superimposing, can to a greater extent control the behaviors of the East Asian summer monsoon and produce unique rythem and singularities. (5) Two external forcing i.e., Pacific and Indian Ocean SSTs and the snow cover in the Eurasia and the Tibetan Plateau, are believed to be primary contributing factors to the activity of the East Asian summer monsoon. However, the internal variability of the atmospheric circulation is also very important. In particular, the blocking highs in mid-and high latitudes of Eurasian continents and the subtropical high over the western North Pacific play a more important role which is quite different from the condition for the South Asian monsoon. The later is of tropical monsoon nature while the former is of hybrid nature of tropical and subtropical monsoon with intense impact from mid-and high latitudes.

  1. Dynamic topography over the Antarctic continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L.; Ferraccioli, F.; Eagles, G.; Steinberger, B. M.; Ritsema, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Our knowledge of dynamic topography in Antarctica remains in an infancy stage compared to other continents. We assess the space-time variability in dynamic topography in Antarctica by analysing grids of global dynamic topography from present-day to 80 Ma based on the tomographic model S40RTS. Our model reveals that the Gamburtsev Province and Dronning Maud Land, two of the major nucleation sites for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) were ~500 m higher 60 Ma ago. The increased elevation may have facilitated ephemeral ice cap development in the early Cenozoic. Between ca 25 and 50 Ma the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin was ca 200 m higher than today and a major increase in regional elevation (>600 m) occurred over the last 20-15 Ma over the northern and southern Victoria Land in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The most prominent signal is observed over the Ross Sea Rift (RSR) where predicted Neogene dynamic topography exceeds 1,000 m. The flow of warm mantle from the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) may have driven these dynamic topography effects over the TAM and RSR. However, we found that these effects are comparatively less significant over the Marie Byrd Land Dome and the interior of the WARS. If these contrasting dynamic topography effects are included, then the predicted elevations of the Ross Sea Embayment ca 20 Ma ago are more similar to the interior of the WARS, with significant implications for the early development of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

  2. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., peripheral electrical continence device is a device that consists of an electrode that is connected by an electrical cable to a battery-powered pulse source. The electrode is placed onto or inserted into the body at... maintain urinary continence. When necessary, the electrode may be removed by the user. (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., peripheral electrical continence device is a device that consists of an electrode that is connected by an electrical cable to a battery-powered pulse source. The electrode is placed onto or inserted into the body at... maintain urinary continence. When necessary, the electrode may be removed by the user. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., peripheral electrical continence device is a device that consists of an electrode that is connected by an electrical cable to a battery-powered pulse source. The electrode is placed onto or inserted into the body at... maintain urinary continence. When necessary, the electrode may be removed by the user. (b)...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., peripheral electrical continence device is a device that consists of an electrode that is connected by an electrical cable to a battery-powered pulse source. The electrode is placed onto or inserted into the body at... maintain urinary continence. When necessary, the electrode may be removed by the user. (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., peripheral electrical continence device is a device that consists of an electrode that is connected by an electrical cable to a battery-powered pulse source. The electrode is placed onto or inserted into the body at... maintain urinary continence. When necessary, the electrode may be removed by the user. (b)...

  10. OxyContin: Prescription Drug Abuse. CSAT Advisory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in…

  11. Profile: Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Groups News Affordable Care Act HHS Disparities Action Plan National Partnership for Action Campaigns and Initiatives Performance Improvement ... for Linguistic and Cultural Competency in Health Care National CLAS Standards Think Cultural Health Website ... Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic ...

  12. Asian Americans and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Joslin Research Advocacy & Gov't Affairs History Managing Diabetes Childhood Diabetes Nutrition Exercise Online Diabetes Classes Discussion ... Support Our Donors Development Team Diabetes Information & Resources » Managing Diabetes » Asian Americans & Diabetes FOLLOW US Newly Diagnosed Managing ...

  13. Maritime Situational Awareness: The MARISS Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarit, G.; Tabasco, A.; Gomez, C.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the operational solution developed by GMV to provide support to maritime situational awareness via Earth Observation (EO) technologies. The concept falls on integrating the information retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and transponder-based polls (AIS and similar) in an advanced GeoPortal web. The service has been designed in the framework of the MARISS project, a project conceived to help improving ship monitoring with the support of a large user segment. In this context, the interaction with official agencies has provided good feedback about system performance and its usefulness in supporting monitoring and surveillance tasks. Some representative samples are analyzed along the paper in order to validate key kernel utilities, such as ship and coastline detection, and ship classification. They justify the promotion of extended R&D activities to increase monitoring performance and to include advanced added- value tools, such as decision making and route tracking.

  14. Maritime route of colonization of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C.; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe. PMID:24927591

  15. Quebrada jaguay: early south american maritime adaptations

    PubMed

    Sandweiss; McInnis; Burger; Cano; Ojeda; Paredes; Sandweiss; Glascock

    1998-09-18

    Excavations at Quebrada Jaguay 280 (QJ-280) (16 degrees30'S) in south coastal Peru demonstrated that Paleoindian-age people of the Terminal Pleistocene (about 11,100 to 10,000 carbon-14 years before the present or about 13,000 to 11,000 calibrated years before the present) in South America relied on marine resources while resident on the coast, which extends the South American record of maritime exploitation by a millennium. This site supports recent evidence that Paleoindian-age people had diverse subsistence systems. The presence of obsidian at QJ-280 shows that the inhabitants had contact with the adjacent Andean highlands during the Terminal Pleistocene. PMID:9743490

  16. Maritime Archaeology in Uruguay: Towards a Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Jorge Manuel; Buffa, Valerio; Cordero, Alejo; Francia, Gabriel; Adams, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    We report a collaborative maritime archaeological project in Uruguay, one of several Latin American countries where the subject is undergoing review in terms of the ways it is practised and managed. Uruguay is typical of many states where there has been a tension between a heritage-based approach in which the results of investigations are viewed as publicly owned, as opposed to the profit motive in which commercial and personal gain is the underlying ethic. This project was conceived both as a way of assisting the Uruguayan Heritage Commission in promoting the former approach as well as advancing a programme of research into the age of global exploration. This paper sets out the rationale of the initial field season and reflects on subsequent developments.

  17. A maritime roadmap in the cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoelstra, George

    2013-04-01

    Web mapping has morphed from sharing maps and geospatial information to a geospatial content management system that supports collaboration. The new iteration allows for the publication and sharing with others, as well as the access to rich global base data through cloud services. The European EMODnet initiative provides an excellent showcase to the world what can be achieved today. This presentation will highlight the latest developments on portal and geospatial cloud services as the basis for sharing in a Marine SDI, and how the maritime community can benefit from this right away. Various examples of maritime cloud services (Emodnet, Eye on Earth) will be discussed to illustrate the capabilities provided by these developments. New technologies and especially those dealing with the latest web-trends are easily consumed and applied. This introduces a risk of a series of new services and start-ups all competing for our attention causing the reverse effect of what we try achieve: easier access to collaborative information and better tools to analyze and understand it. Instead we end up looking for a road map. Esri long supports data interoperability and sharing, and understands these challenges. In this presentation we will give an insider's view on Esri's vision for a road map that allows data managers and data users to collaborate effectively using a platform approach, optimizing cloud computing and GIS to allow access from many devices and for many applications. The presentation will conclude by highlighting how this platform can be implemented and utilized, supported by the ocean content initiative, to facilitate collaborative knowledge building, decision making and knowledge management in general in oceanography and ocean sciences.

  18. Littoral and Coastal Management in Supporting Maritime Security for Realizing Indonesia as World Maritime Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotosusilo, Agus; Wayan Agus Apriana, I.; Agung Satria, Afrizal; Jokopitoyo, Trisasono

    2016-02-01

    The Indonesian under President Joko Widodo has new goal to make Indonesia as the world maritime axis. This is supported by the geographic of Indonesia as the largest archipelagic country where the sea is two-thirds wide among the whole spacious. Indonesia is the world largest archipelagic state. More than two-third of its territory consist of seas. The ecosystem of littoral and coastal has correlative relationship with country development. There is no doubt of physically facts that Indonesian littoral and coastal with total wide of 5.8 million km2 is rich with various natural resources. Therefore, the condition of Indonesia with its world second longest coastline has several comparative advantages. Not only the country has an abundant natural resources, but it also blessed by demographic bonus advantage. The population of Indonesian is the fifth largest in the world which approximately 220 million people and approximately 60 percent among them live at coastal areas. The people in coastal area relies their live from its surrounding natural resource. Hence, most of their life and daily activity is related with the presence of natural resources. The dealing of conflict potential and attention to maritime security are important to be studied as a reference in preparing and facing the government policies that will lead to the development of maritime.

  19. Doug Nelson's Contributions to our Understanding of Young Continent-Continent Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemperer, S. L.; Brown, L. D.; Jones, A. G.

    2002-12-01

    K. Douglas Nelson, Department Chair and Jessie Page Heroy Professor of Earth Sciences at Syracuse University, died suddenly of heart failure on August 17th, 2002, age 49. At the time of his death he was at the heights of an increasingly distinguished career, and had, just prior to his death, agreed to be an invited speaker in this session of the 2002 Fall AGU meeting. Doug began his professional career as a field structural geologist, writing his PhD on the Newfoundland Appalachians, and as a post-doc in South Island, New Zealand. From there he went to Cornell University to join COCORP; he learned to interpret deep seismic reflection data and became hooked on the value of geophysics to the study of large-scale processes in mountain belts. He became one of the proponents of taking the COCORP methodology overseas, to the world's type example of young, continent-continent collisions, the Himalaya. For 10 years from 1992, by now a faculty member at Syracuse, Doug provided operational and intellectual leadership to the INDEPTH program (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya). His talk in this session would undoubtedly have focused on our new understanding of Tibet that resulted in large part from the work that he led and supervised. From the initial conception of INDEPTH as a single reflection profile across Earth's highest mountain range and largest plateau, the program grew through three major stages to encompass a full range of geophysical and geological surveys in a transect that now reaches from the High Himalaya across Tibet. Doug more than anyone was the enthusiastic integrator in the large multi-national group of investigators (from the U.S., China, Canada and Germany), not bound by a single technique, and best able to synthesize the seemingly disparate observations from all the techniques. In recent years he was particularly interested in the combination of magneto-telluric with seismic results to better constrain interpretation of deep geology. Although Doug cannot now write the synthesis of the INDEPTH-3 results from central Tibet, nor lead the final INDEPTH-4 campaign across the northern margin of Tibet that he was already planning, our picture of Tibet, and hence of all continent-continent collisions, has changed and grown far richer as a result of his efforts. Among other things, INDEPTH has traced the top of the Indian plate descending beneath the Himalaya, located the likely limit of penetration of Indian mantle beneath central Tibet, and amassed considerable evidence for widespread melt within the Tibetan crust. The first observation, identification of the suture in an active collision, was a natural outgrowth of Doug's earlier contributions to the geometry of the Applachians and Ouachitas. The second observation directly relates to Doug's interest in the evolution of the deep crust/uppermost mantle in old orogens through delamination. The last observation, that melt is widespread in Tibet, was perhaps the most surprising result of the INDEPTH surveys, and the one that Doug used to greatest effect in his synthesis of deformation and crustal evolution around the Tertiary Indus-Tsangpo suture. Doug's articulate and enthusiastic arguments on the inferred role of low viscosity of the middle crust of the Tibetan plateau have been widely echoed in the latest generation of models by many authors that appeal to the flow of crustal material outwards from the central plateau to its southern and eastern margins. This emphasis on crustal mobility in young continent-continent collisions is already influencing our interpretations of ancient orogens.

  20. The Asian methanol market

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, Hideki

    1995-12-31

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future.

  1. Methane over the North American Continent - INTEX-NA, Summer 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karen, B.; Blake, D.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, N.; Sachse, G.; Slate, T.

    2005-12-01

    During July and August of 2004, the INTEX-NA mission was flown over the North American continent as a part of the integrated ICARTT campaign. Its primary focus was to examine the intercontinental transport and transformation of chemically and radiatively important trace gases and aerosols across the region. As a part of the mission, methane (CH4) was sampled using both canisters and a fast response tunable diode laser, the DACOM instrument. Agreement between the two techniques was excellent. Sources of methane are both natural (wetlands, wildfires) and anthropogenically controlled (landfills, ruminants, petroleum production and use, coal mining). Although natural biogenic emissions would be expected to be near seasonal maximums, the majority of North American wetlands are located in Canada and Alaska, and were difficult to isolate during the mission. Overall distributions were well correlated with C2Cl4, a tracer of industrial and urban activity, and reflect the widespread impact of anthropogenic emissions. As expected for a gas with surface continental sources, variability was greatest in the near-surface atmosphere and decreased with increasing altitude and distance from the continent. Summer convective activity over the region resulted in elevated concentrations measured at altitudes above 6 km. Enhanced levels with distinctive trace gas signatures were observed for a variety of sources, including petroleum mining and distribution, coal mining, Canadian wildfires, and aged Asian plumes advected across the Pacific. Several flights during the mission were flown along the U.S. east coast to sample air masses transported off the continent to the Atlantic. In the near-surface over the ocean, clean boundary layer air with mixing ratios comparable to background CMDL levels at this time were encountered. At altitudes above about 4 km, CH4 was enhanced by roughly 20-50 ppb.

  2. Comprehensive maritime awareness (CMA) joint capabilities technology demonstration (JCTD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Chris

    2007-04-01

    Serious gaps exist in identifying and prioritizing world-wide maritime threats. Maritime security and defense forces lack the capabilities and capacities to provide timely and accurate maritime situational awareness. They lack automatic tools to identify and prioritize relevant and actionable information to avoid information overload. The inability to acquire, fuse and manage disparate information limits timely cueing and focus. Information sharing is inhibited by technical, cultural and policy barriers. The Comprehensive Maritime Awareness Joint Capabilities Technology Demonstration attempts to address these problems by developing a "culture of sharing" between international partners and the U.S. and between U.S. agencies. It is our vision that we will be able to automatically; 1) 100% of the maritime movements within an area of responsibility, 2) automatically identify threats, and 3) prioritize them for action. The over all objective is to improve maritime security by acquiring, integrating, and exchanging relevant maritime activity information, identifying possible threats using available information, and then focusing limited interdiction and inspection assets on the most probable threats.

  3. Bayesian networks for maritime traffic accident prevention: benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hnninen, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Bayesian networks are quantitative modeling tools whose applications to the maritime traffic safety context are becoming more popular. This paper discusses the utilization of Bayesian networks in maritime safety modeling. Based on literature and the author's own experiences, the paper studies what Bayesian networks can offer to maritime accident prevention and safety modeling and discusses a few challenges in their application to this context. It is argued that the capability of representing rather complex, not necessarily causal but uncertain relationships makes Bayesian networks an attractive modeling tool for the maritime safety and accidents. Furthermore, as the maritime accident and safety data is still rather scarce and has some quality problems, the possibility to combine data with expert knowledge and the easy way of updating the model after acquiring more evidence further enhance their feasibility. However, eliciting the probabilities from the maritime experts might be challenging and the model validation can be tricky. It is concluded that with the utilization of several data sources, Bayesian updating, dynamic modeling, and hidden nodes for latent variables, Bayesian networks are rather well-suited tools for the maritime safety management and decision-making. PMID:25269098

  4. Near Real Time Applications for Maritime Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, E.; Krause, D.; Berg, M.; Daedelow, H.; Maass, H.

    2015-04-01

    Applications to derive maritime value added products like oil spill and ship detection based on remote sensing SAR image data are being developed and integrated at the Ground Station Neustrelitz, part of the German Remote Sensing Data Center. Products of meteo-marine parameters like wind and wave will complement the product portfolio. Research and development aim at the implementation of highly automated services for operational use. SAR images are being used because of the possibility to provide maritime products with high spatial resolution over wide swaths and under all weather conditions. In combination with other information like Automatic Identification System (AIS) data fusion products are available to support the Maritime Situational Awareness.

  5. Equatorial Electrojet Observations in the African Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Damtie, B.; Pfaff, R.; Zesta, E.

    2008-12-01

    Although Satellite observations in the African sector show unique equatorial ionospheric structures that can severely impact navigation and communication systems, the study of ionospheric disturbances in this region is difficult due to the lack of ground-based instruments. This has created a gap in global understanding of the physics behind the evolution and formation of plasma irregularities in the equatorial region, which imposes limitations on ionospheric density modeling efforts. Therefore, in order to have a more complete global understanding of equatorial ionosphere motion, the international space science community has begun to develop an observational infrastructure in the African sector. This includes the deployment of a number of arrays of small instruments, including the AMBER magnetometer array, through the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) cooperative program with the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) program. Two AMBER magnetometers have been deployed successfully at Adigrat (~6°N magnetic) in Ethiopia and at Medea in Algeria (28°N magnetic), and became fully operational on 03 August 2008. The remaining two AMBER magnetometers will be deployed soon in Cameroon and Namibia. One of the prime scientific objectives of AMBER is to understand the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude, local time, magnetic activity, and season in the African region. The most credible driving mechanism of ionospheric plasma (E × B drift) can be estimated using two magnetometers, one right at the equator and the other about 6 off the equator. Therefore, using the AMBER magnetometer at Adigrat and the INTERMAGNET magnetometer located at Addis Ababa (0.9°N magnetic) in Ethiopia, the equatorial electrojet (E × B drift) activities in that longitudinal sector of the African continent is estimated. The paper also presents the comparison between the estimated vertical drift and the drift values obtained from the vector electric field instrument observation onboard the C/NOFS satellite. The evolution of equatorial ionospheric irregularities will also be presented using data from the growing number of ground- and space-based (on Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) satellites) GPS receivers in the African region.

  6. 33 CFR 104.240 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.240 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The vessel owner...

  7. 33 CFR 104.240 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.240 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The vessel owner...

  8. 33 CFR 105.230 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.230 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The facility...

  9. 33 CFR 104.240 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.240 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The vessel owner...

  10. 33 CFR 105.230 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.230 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The facility...

  11. 33 CFR 104.240 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.240 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The vessel owner...

  12. 33 CFR 105.230 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.230 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The facility...

  13. 33 CFR 105.230 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.230 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The facility...

  14. 33 CFR 104.240 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.240 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The vessel owner...

  15. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501—Federal Maritime...

  16. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501—Federal Maritime...

  17. 33 CFR 103.505 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ensure effective security of infrastructure, special events, vessels, passengers, cargo, and cargo... Security (AMS) Plan. 103.505 Section 103.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security...

  18. 33 CFR 103.505 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ensure effective security of infrastructure, special events, vessels, passengers, cargo, and cargo... Security (AMS) Plan. 103.505 Section 103.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security...

  19. 33 CFR 103.505 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ensure effective security of infrastructure, special events, vessels, passengers, cargo, and cargo... Security (AMS) Plan. 103.505 Section 103.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security...

  20. 47 CFR 80.469 - Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. 80... Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. (a) Maritime mobile repeater stations are authorized to extend...) On a secondary basis, maritime mobile repeater stations may be authorized to extend the range of...

  1. 47 CFR 80.469 - Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. 80... Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. (a) Maritime mobile repeater stations are authorized to extend...) On a secondary basis, maritime mobile repeater stations may be authorized to extend the range of...

  2. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501Federal Maritime...

  3. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501Federal Maritime...

  4. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501Federal Maritime...

  5. Maritime Interdiction Operations Small Craft Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A D; Trombino, D; Dunlop, W; Bordetsky, A

    2010-01-26

    The Naval Postgraduate School has been conducting Tactical Network Topology (TNT) Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO) experiments with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since early in 2005. In this work, we are investigating cutting edge technology to evaluate use of networks, advanced sensors and collaborative technology for globally-supported maritime interdiction operations. Some examples of our research include communications in harsh environments, between moving ships at sea; small boat drive-by radiation detection; network-centric collaboration with global partners; situational awareness; prototype sensors & biometric instruments. Since 2006, we have studied the concept of using a small vessel with fixed radiation sensors to do initial searches for illicit radioactive materials. In our work, we continue to evaluate concepts of operation for small boat monitoring. For example, in San Francisco Bay we established a simulated choke point using two RHIBs. Each RHIB had a large sodium iodide radiation sensor on board, mounted on the side nearest to the passing potential target boats. Once detections were made, notification over the network prompted a chase RHIB also equipped with a radiation sensor to further investigate the potential target. We have also used an unmanned surface vessel (USV) carrying a radiation sensor to perform the initial discovery. The USV was controlled remotely and to drive by boats in different configurations. The potential target vessels were arranged in a line, as a choke point and randomly spaced in the water. Search plans were problematic when weather, waves and drift complicated the ability to stay in one place. A further challenge is to both detect and identify the radioactive materials during the drive-by. Our radiation detection system, ARAM, Adaptable Radiation Area Monitor, is able to detect, alarm and quickly identify plausible radionuclides in real time. We have performed a number of experiments to better understand parameters of vessel speed, time, shielding, and distance in this complex three-dimensional space. At the NMIOTC in September 2009, we employed a dual detector portal followed by a chase. In this event, the challenge was to maintain communications after a lapse. When the chase went past the line-of sight reach of the Tactical Operational Center's (TOC) antenna, with interference from a fortress island in Suda Bay, Wave Relay extended the network for continued observation. Sodium iodide radiation detectors were mounted on two Hellenic Navy SEAL fast boats. After making the detection one of the portal boats maintained line-of sight while the other pursued the target vessel. Network access via Wave Relay antennas was maintained until the conclusion of the chase scenario. Progress has been made in the detection of radioactive materials in the maritime environment. The progression of the TNT MIO experiments has demonstrated the potential of the hardware to solve the problems encountered in this physically challenging environment. There continue to be interesting opportunities for research and development. These experiments provide a variety of platforms and motivated participants to perform real-world testing as solutions are made available.

  6. Little Ice Age wetting of interior Asian deserts and the rise of the Mongol Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Aaron E.; Putnam, David E.; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Cook, Edward R.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Clark, Elizabeth H.; Wang, Chunzeng; Chen, Feng; Denton, George H.; Boyle, Douglas P.; Bassett, Scott D.; Birkel, Sean D.; Martin-Fernandez, Javier; Hajdas, Irka; Southon, John; Garner, Christopher B.; Cheng, Hai; Broecker, Wallace S.

    2016-01-01

    The degree to which warming of the planet will alter Asia's water resources is an important question for food, energy, and economic security. Here we present geological evidence, underpinned by radiometric dating and dendrochronology, and bolstered by hydrological modeling, indicating that wetter-than-present conditions characterized the core of the inner Asian desert belt during the Little Ice Age, the last major Northern Hemispheric cold spell of the Holocene. These wetter conditions accompanied northern mid-latitude cooling, glacier expansion, a strengthened/southward-shifted boreal jet, and weakened south Asian monsoons. We suggest that southward migration of grasslands in response to these wetter conditions aided the spread of Mongol Empire steppe pastoralists across Asian drylands. Conversely, net drying over the 20th century has led to drought that is unprecedented for the past ∼830 years, and that could intensify with further heating of the Asian continent.

  7. The role of land-sea distribution in the formation of the Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong

    2005-02-01

    The role of land-sea distribution in the formation of the Asian summer monsoon is examined through a series of idealized numerical experiments. Results show that the existence and geometric shape of land-sea distribution crucially affect the Asian summer monsoon. In an aqua-planet case, no monsoon is observed. In an experiment in which only the subtropical Eurasian landmass exists, there is a weak summer monsoon over its southeastern corner, but there is no tropical summer monsoon. The existence of tropical lands induces cross-equatorial flows and strong low-level southwesterlies over the tropical regions, leading to the formation of the Asian summer monsoon over India, the Bay of Bengal (BOB), and the South China Sea (SCS). The extension of the subtropical continent into the tropics greatly enhances the ``East Asian monsoon''.

  8. Oligocene primates from China reveal divergence between African and Asian primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xijun; Li, Qiang; Li, Lüzhou; Beard, K Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Profound environmental and faunal changes are associated with climatic deterioration during the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) roughly 34 million years ago. Reconstructing how Asian primates responded to the EOT has been hindered by a sparse record of Oligocene primates on that continent. Here, we report the discovery of a diverse primate fauna from the early Oligocene of southern China. In marked contrast to Afro-Arabian Oligocene primate faunas, this Asian fauna is dominated by strepsirhines. There appears to be a strong break between Paleogene and Neogene Asian anthropoid assemblages. Asian and Afro-Arabian primate faunas responded differently to EOT climatic deterioration, indicating that the EOT functioned as a critical evolutionary filter constraining the subsequent course of primate evolution across the Old World. PMID:27151861

  9. Present Demands and Educating a New Generation of Maritime Archaeologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maarleveld, Thijs; Auer, Jens

    2008-12-01

    Archaeology in Europe has changed a great deal over the last 25 years and these changes have certainly affected maritime archaeology. As such they also define the practical skills that are needed. On the one hand of course, unlike other branches of European archaeology, maritime archaeology still has a major preoccupation with a well-funded ‘treasure-hunting’ industry and no lack of ill-defined and ill-considered project initiatives. High ethical standards are therefore necessary and the public debate should continue. But within the structure of archaeology and its management at large, maritime archaeology should also show what its major contributions can be. It can only do so if sufficiently trained personnel are available. It is against this background that the Maritime Archaeology Programme at SDU in Esbjerg is being shaped. This paper reviews developments in the field and outlines the approach to education developed at SDU in response.

  10. [Mass maritime casualty incidents in German waters: structures and resources].

    PubMed

    Castan, J; Paschen, H-R; Wirtz, S; Dörges, V; Wenderoth, S; Peters, J; Blunk, Y; Bielstein, A; Kerner, T

    2012-07-01

    The Central Command for Maritime Emergencies was founded in Germany in 2003 triggered by the fire on board of the cargo ship "Pallas" in 1998. Its mission is to coordinate and direct measures at or above state level in maritime emergency situations in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. A special task in this case is to provide firefighting and medical care. To face these challenges at sea emergency doctors and firemen have been specially trained. This form of organization provides a concept to counter mass casualty incidents and peril situations at sea. Since the foundation of the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies there have been 5 operations for firefighting units and 4 for medical response teams. Assignments and structure of the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies are unique in Europe. PMID:22699223

  11. 17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER (SEE ALSO HABS No. CA-2718), WITH RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3. S. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. Maritime transport in the Gulf of Bothnia 2030.

    PubMed

    Pekkarinen, Annukka; Repka, Sari

    2014-10-01

    Scenarios for shipping traffic in the Gulf of Bothnia (GoB) by 2030 are described in order to identify the main factors that should be taken into account when preparing a Maritime Spatial Plan (MSP) for the area. The application of future research methodology to planning of marine areas was also assessed. The methods include applying existing large scale quantitative scenarios for maritime traffic in the GoB and using real-time Delphi in which an expert group discussed different factors contributing to future maritime traffic in the GoB to find out the probability and significance of the factors having an impact on maritime traffic. MSP was tested on transnational scale in the Bothnian sea area as a pilot project. PMID:24477617

  13. The Advocate's Devil: The Maritime Public Historian as Expert Witness.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jay C

    2015-02-01

    The maritime historian working as litigation support and expert witness faces many challenges, including identifying and analyzing case law associated with admiralty subjects, cultural resource management law, and general historical topics. The importance of the unique knowledge of the historian in the maritime context is demonstrated by a case study of attempts to salvage the shipwreck Atlantic, the remains of a merchant vessel built and enrolled in the United States and lost in the Canadian waters of Lake Erie in 1852. PMID:26281238

  14. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  15. Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Indices for Mid-continent US Great Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a set of great river macroinvertebrate indices of condition (GRMICs) for the mid-continent great rivers. We used a multiscale (site, reach, landscape) multimetric abiotic stressor gradient to select macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics sensitive to human disturbance ...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice of..., 1976. Any other implanted electrical urinary continence device shall have an approved PMA or a...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice of..., 1976. Any other implanted electrical urinary continence device shall have an approved PMA or a...

  18. An optical tracker for the maritime environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachoo, Asheer K.; le Roux, Francois; Nicolls, Fred

    2011-06-01

    Optical (visual) tracking is an important research area in computer vision with a wide range of useful and critical applications in defence and industry. The tracking of targets that pose a threat or potential threat to a country's assets and resources is a critical component in defence and security. In order to complement radar sensing applications, an optical tracker provides additional functions such as target detection, target identification and intent detection at the visual level. A tracker for the maritime environment is an optical system that performs the automatic tracking of an above water target. Ideally, a track of the target is required for as long as is possible. Some examples of targets include boats, yachts, ships, jet-skis and aircraft. A number of factors mitigate the performance of such a system - change in target appearance, target occlusions, platform vibration and scintillation in the atmosphere are some common examples. We present the implementation of a firstgeneration system that is robust to platform vibration, target appearance changes and short-term occlusions. The optical tracker is developed using a particle filter and an appearance model that is updated online. The system achieves real-time tracking through the use of non-specialized computer hardware. Promising results are presented for a number of real-world videos captured during field trials.

  19. A baseline maritime satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, S. H.; Mcgregor, D. N.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a baseline system for maritime communications via satellite during the 1980s. The system model employs three geostationary satellites with global coverage antennas. Access to the system is controlled by a master station; user access is based on time-ordered polling or random access. Each Thor-Delta launched satellite has an RF power of 100 W (spinner) or 250 W (three-axis stabilized), and provides 10 equivalent duplex voice channels for up to 1500 ships with average waiting times of approximately 2.5 minutes. The satellite capacity is bounded by the available bandwidth to 50 such channels, which can serve up to 10,000 ships with an average waiting time of 5 minutes. The ships must have peak antenna gains of approximately 15.5 dB or 22.5 dB for the two cases (10 or 50 voice channels) when a spinner satellite is used; the required gains are 4 dB lower if a three-axis stabilized satellite is used. The ship antenna requirements can be reduced by 8 to 10 dB by employing a high-gain multi-beam phased array antenna on the satellite.

  20. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework.

    PubMed

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer's role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this "poor compliance" trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue. PMID:26840326

  1. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer’s role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this “poor compliance” trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue. PMID:26840326

  2. Digital Photogrammetry for Documentation of Maritime Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorelli, Massimo; Pensa, Claudio; Speranza, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    Documentation of maritime heritage is essential for its protection, and for reference in restoration and renovation processes. These functions become problematic in the case of historical ships and boats that lack lines drawings. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure for creation of lines drawings based on the shape analysis of surviving historical boats or their small-scale models with the help of reverse engineering (RE) techniques. The paper describes how digital photogrammetry and the iterative method were used to analyze the shape of three historical boats: Tomahawk, Refola and Nada. The application of the proposed procedure produced the lines drawings of the boats as its result. The accuracy of the 3D CAD model obtained with the photogrammetric technique was verified by comparing it against a more accurate 3D model produced with the help of a RE laser scanner. The examination of the resulting lines drawings proves that the digital photogrammetry process and the proposed iterative method are adequate tools for developing lines plans of boat models. The research offers the methodological basis for the creation of an archive of lines drawings of historical boats. Such an archive would provide reference for philologically correct restorations, and permit definition and classification of distinctive elements of various types of historical boats, particularly those produced in the Campania Region.

  3. Suicide Among Asian-Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cart JOIN APA About APA Topics Publications & Databases Psychology Help Center News & Events Science Education Careers Membership ... behaviors in Asian Americans. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 3 , 17-28. 6 Cheng, J.K.Y., ...

  4. Abrupt Climate Events Recorded in Chinese and Central Asian Loess Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalett, B.; Oches, E. A.; Haam, E. K.; Lai, Z.; Endlicher, W.

    2013-12-01

    Past climate dynamics associated with the Eurasian continent have been extensively studied. However, the impact of intra-hemispheric-scale climate variability on the entire Eurasian landmass, as well as the self-generated effects of the continent on the global climate system, is still a matter of investigation . While western Atlantic polar and tropical air masses penetrate into the continent and are transformed as they cross Eurasia, the interior regions of Eurasia strongly influence Earth's climate system. Significant cooling and heating of Central and High Asia drive interactions between atmospheric and oceanic processes and regulate teleconnection patterns across the Northern Hemisphere. This paper utilizes high resolution particle size data from the Central Asian loess sequence at Remisowka, Kazakhstan, and the long studied, monsoon-influenced Chinese loess sequence at Xifeng, to reconstruct past atmospheric circulation and aeolian dust dynamics within interior Eurasia since the last interglacial period. The observed dynamics in aeolian dust transport closely mirror d18O and fine dust variations measured in Greenland ice cores, suggesting a correlation with short-term climate oscillations (DO events) recorded therein. An Asian origin of fine aeolian dust preserved in Greenland ice cores has been discussed previously, and recent papers reveal a close link between Asian aeolian dust dynamics and DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores. In this context, data presented here represent the first Central and East Asian aeolian dust records in which DO events are recorded, providing a means to test hypothesized links between short-term climate variability recorded in Greenland and associated climate dynamics at Asian dust source areas. Ultimately, the data extend existing hypotheses, suggesting that the Central and High Asian mountains are a crucial element within the sensitive glacier-desert-dust response system in interior Eurasia and may be considered a pacemaker of suborbital global climate changes and an initiator of abrupt climate oscillations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  5. Abrupt Climate Events Recorded in Chinese and Central Asian Loess Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalett, Bjoern; Oches, Eric A.; Haam, Eddie; Lai, Zhongping; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    Past climate dynamics associated with the Eurasian continent have been extensively studied. However, the impact of intra-hemispheric-scale climate variability on the entire Eurasian landmass, as well as the self-generated effects of the continent on the global climate system, is still a matter of investigation . While western Atlantic polar and tropical air masses penetrate into the continent and are transformed as they cross Eurasia, the interior regions of Eurasia strongly influence Earth's climate system. Significant cooling and heating of Central and High Asia drive interactions between atmospheric and oceanic processes and regulate teleconnection patterns across the Northern Hemisphere. This paper utilizes high resolution particle size data from the Central Asian loess sequence at Remisowka, Kazakhstan, and the long studied, monsoon-influenced Chinese loess sequence at Xifeng, to reconstruct past atmospheric circulation and aeolian dust dynamics within interior Eurasia since the last interglacial period. The observed dynamics in aeolian dust transport closely mirror d18O and fine dust variations measured in Greenland ice cores, suggesting a correlation with short-term climate oscillations (DO events) recorded therein. An Asian origin of fine aeolian dust preserved in Greenland ice cores has been discussed previously, and recent papers reveal a close link between Asian aeolian dust dynamics and DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores. In this context, data presented here represent the first Central and East Asian aeolian dust records in which DO events are recorded, providing a means to test hypothesized links between short-term climate variability recorded in Greenland and associated climate dynamics at Asian dust source areas. Ultimately, the data extend existing hypotheses, suggesting that the Central and High Asian mountains are a crucial element within the sensitive glacier-desert-dust response system in interior Eurasia and may be considered a pacemaker of suborbital global climate changes and an initiator of abrupt climate oscillations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  6. The controversy surrounding OxyContin abuse: issues and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Jayawant, Sujata S; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    This paper overviews the controversies surrounding the abuse of prescription analgesic OxyContin® (oxycodone hydrochloride; Purdue Pharma, Stamford, CT, USA). It discusses solutions to this medication-related issue, which has been touted as reaching epidemic proportions. Relevant literature from 1990 to 2004 was identified through a MEDLINE search, and a thorough internet-based search was conducted to obtain the latest updates and government reports. OxyContin became popular as a street drug through its ability to induce a quick heroin-like euphoria. The media hype surrounding OxyContin abuse and the “black box” warning on its label may have added to the abuse and diversion. The US Food and Drug Administration took steps by writing letters to Purdue Pharma, the manufacturers of OxyContin. Purdue Pharma developed a database to identify OxyContin abusers throughout the nation and also launched campaigns to educate patients through the internet. Further suggestions to managing the abuse of OxyContin include: community pharmacists’ assessment of behavioral risk factors that could lead to patient medication abuse; medication abuse risk management courses for physicians; development of a national database linking all pharmacies specifically designed to identify abusers; and tamper-resistant prescription pads for controlled substances, which seems the most plausible and immediate solution to this problem. PMID:18360547

  7. Asian Americans: diverse and growing.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M

    1998-06-01

    This bulletin analyzes the demographic, socioeconomic, and political characteristics of the Asian population in the US. During 1980-90, the Asian population doubled in size to 4% of total population. The Asian population is expected to double again in 20 years. The number and diversity of Asian ethnic groups has increased due to immigration. The proportion of Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino persons declined from 96% of Asians in 1970 to over 50% in 1997. Indians, Vietnamese, and Koreans outnumber Japanese ethnic groups in the US. Intermarriage is higher among US-born Asian Americans than foreign-born Asian Americans. Intermarriage is greater among female US-born Asian Americans than male US-born Asian Americans. The future size of the Asian population will depend upon how the children of these intermarriages identify themselves ethnically. Asians have advanced themselves educationally. In 1997, 42% of Asian Americans aged 25 years and older had a college or professional degree, compared to 26% of non-Hispanic Whites, 13% of Blacks, and 10% of Hispanics aged 25 years and older. Families with income below the poverty level, in 1996, amounted to 12.7% of Asians, compared to 26.4% of Hispanics, 26.1% of Blacks, and 6.5% of Whites. In 1990, over 43% of foreign born Asian Americans aged over 18 years were naturalized citizens, compared to 33% of all foreign-born residents. Asians have low rates of voter participation, but high rates of naturalization suggest greater political participation in the future. In Presidential 1996 elections, Asians tended to register as Republican, but voted Democratic. PMID:12321628

  8. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian

  9. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  10. Rehabilitation practice patterns for patients with heart failure: the Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xing-Guo

    2015-01-01

    More countries around world have begun to use cardiac rehabilitation in patients diagnosed with chronic heart failure (HF). Asia is the largest continent in the world and, depending on its economy, culture, and beliefs, a given Asian country differs from Western countries as well as others in Asia. The cardiac rehabilitation practice patterns for patients with HF are somewhat different in Asia. In addition to the formal pattern of Western practice, it also includes special techniques and skills, such as Taiji, Qigong, and Yoga. This article describes cardiac rehabilitation patterns for patients with HF in most Asian countries and areas. PMID:25432478

  11. Asian American Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.

    This comprehensive Asian American curriculum and resource guide for elementary school teachers consists of lessons developed as part of an in-service teacher education workshop. The guide is divided into three topic areas: stereotyping; similarities; and differences. The format for lessons in all sections contains a title, key concepts,…

  12. Asian-American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.

    Although Asian Americans enjoy the image of a "successful minority," they also have endured hardships and prejudices. This report traces the history of the Japanese and Chinese experience in the United States. Some similarities are discernible in the immigration patterns of the two ethnic populations. The first wave of immigrants provided cheap…

  13. Britain's South Asian Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobbs, Michael

    This book focuses on the languages spoken by people of South Asian origin living in Britain and is intended to assist individuals in Britain whose work involves them with speakers of these languages. The approach taken is descriptive and practical, offering linguistic, geographic, and historical background information leading to appreciation of…

  14. Miscellany South Asian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Carlo, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This volume contains articles about South Asian literature and poetry by G.M. Muktibodh, P. Naik, S. Chattopadhyay, M. Kureishi, and P.S. Rege. The articles and authors are: "The Hindi 'Riti' Tradition and the "Rasakapriya' of Keshavadasa: An Introductory Review" by K.C. Bahl; "Tradition and Modernity in Literature" by M.R. Anand; "The Novelist as…

  15. Asian Americans in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy

    This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…

  16. Diabetes in Asians

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in Asia. According to the 2013 Diabetes Atlas, an estimated 366 million people are affected by diabetes worldwide; 36% of those affected live in the Western Pacific region, with a significant proportion in East Asia. The reasons for this marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be extrapolated from several distinct features of the Asian region. First, the two most populated countries, China and India, are located in Asia. Second, Asians have experienced extremely rapid economic growth, including rapid changes in dietary patterns, during the past decades. As a result, Asians tend to have more visceral fat within the same body mass index range compared with Westerners. In addition, increased insulin resistance relative to reduced insulin secretory function is another important feature of Asian individuals with diabetes. Young age of disease onset is also a distinctive characteristic of these patients. Moreover, changing dietary patterns, such as increased consumption of white rice and processed red meat, contributes to the deteriorated lifestyle of this region. Recent studies suggest a distinctive responsiveness to novel anti-diabetic agents in Asia; however, further research and efforts to reverse the increasing prevalence of diabetes are needed worldwide. PMID:26435131

  17. Asian Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Naval Research, London (England).

    The Asian Institute of Technology is a notable success for that part of the world where success is not too common. It is an excellent example of not only the initiative and organization of a technical university, but also of the success of a foreign aid program. This report gives details of this organization and accomplishments. (Author)

  18. Machine Learning of Maritime Fog Forecast Rules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tag, Paul M.; Peak, James E.

    1996-05-01

    In recent years, the field of artificial intelligence has contributed significantly to the science of meteorology, most notably in the now familiar form of expert systems. Expert systems have focused on rules or heuristics by establishing, in computer code, the reasoning process of a weather forecaster predicting, for example, thunderstorms or fog. In addition to the years of effort that goes into developing such a knowledge base is the time-consuming task of extracting such knowledge and experience from experts. In this paper, the induction of rules directly from meteorological data is explored-a process called machine learning. A commercial machine learning program called C4.5, is applied to a meteorological problem, forecasting maritime fog, for which a reliable expert system has been previously developed. Two detasets are used: 1) weather ship observations originally used for testing and evaluating the expert system, and 2) buoy measurements taken off the coast of California. For both datasets, the rules produced by C4.5 are reasonable and make physical sense, thus demonstrating that an objective induction approach can reveal physical processes directly from data. For the ship database, the machine-generated rules are not as accurate as those from the expert system but are still significantly better than persistence forecasts. For the buoy data, the forecast accuracies are very high, but only slightly superior to persistence. The results indicate that the machine learning approach is a viable tool for developing meteorological expertise, but only when applied to reliable data with sufficient cases of known outcome. In those instances when such databases are available, the use of machine learning can provide useful insight that otherwise might take considerable human analysis to produce.

  19. Wrench faulting initiated by continent-continent collision between the Eratosthenes Seamount and Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.; Huebscher, C. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM), located in the Eastern Mediterranean south of Cyprus, is considered to represent a continental fragment originating from the former African-Arabian continental margin. In the late Miocene the subduction of the African-Arabian Plate below the Anatolian Plate turned to continent-continent collision when the ESM collided with the island of Cyprus. This altered the tectonic pattern of the entire Eastern Mediterranean. Since the ESM blocks the northward drift of the African Plate south of Cyprus, the northward motion of the African-Arabian Plate (around 1cm/year) has to be compensated along wrench faults. The Baltim Hecateus Line (BHL) separates the ESM on its eastern side from the deep Levantine Basin. The BHL formed as an extensional fault system during the Triassic formation of the Levatine Basin. During the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene so called Syrian Arc inversion the BHL was reactivated. A set of recent multichannel seismic 2D lines (MCS), acquired with the R/V Maria S. Merian (MSM14-2) in 2010, will be presented here. The NW-SE trending lines show a transformal to transpressional nature of the Baltim Hecateus Line. We propose that the BHL converted to a transform fault during the incipient collision of the ESM with the island of Cyprus in order to compensate the northward motion of the African-Arabian Plate. At the eastern rim of the ESM the BHL continues beneath a prominent bathymetric escarpment. Whereas the escarpment matches the trace of the BHL it is covered below the thick Messinian Evaporites south and north of the ESM. Owing to the ductile properties of salt the Messinian evaporites decouple the sub salt sediments from the supra salt sediments. As a result no direct observations of the BHL are possible. However, seismic imaging reveals thrust folds at the western side of the Levantine Basin pointing to a transpressional nature of the BHL. The overlying sediments are thinned as a reaction to the transform motion. Due to a dense spacing of MCS lines perpendicular to the strike of the Baltim Hecateus Line it was possible to trace the line also in the salt covered parts south and north of the ESM.

  20. Predictors of early continence following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lavigueur-Blouin, Hugo; Noriega, Alina Camacho; Valdivieso, Roger; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Bienz, Marc; Alhathal, Naif; Latour, Mathieu; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; El-Hakim, Assaad; Zorn, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) greatly influence patient quality of life. Data regarding predictors of early continence, especially 1 month following RARP, are limited. Previous reports mainly address immediate or 3-month postoperative continence rates. We examine preoperative predictors of pad-free continence recovery at the first follow-up visit 1 month after RARP. Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2013, preoperative and follow-up data were prospectively collected for 327 RARP patients operated on by 2 fellowship-trained surgeons (AEH and KCZ). Patient and operative characteristics included age, body mass index (BMI), staging, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate weight, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score and type of nerve-sparing performed. Continence was defined by 0-pad usage at 1 month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess for predictors of early continence. Results: Overall, 44% of patients were pad-free 1 month post-RARP. In multivariate regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 0.946, confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.91, 0.98) and IPSS (OR: 0.953, CI 95%: 0.92, 0.99) were independent predictors of urinary continence 1 month following RARP. Other variables (BMI, staging, preoperative PSA, SHIM score, prostate weight and type of nerve-sparing) were not statistically significant predictors of early continence. Limitations of this study include missing data for comorbidities, patient use of pelvic floor exercises and patient maximal activity. Moreover, patient-reported continence using a 0-pad usage definition represents a semiquantitative and subjective measurement. Conclusion: In a broad population of patients who underwent RARP at our institution, 44% of patients were pad-free at 1 month. Age and IPSS were independent predictors of early continence after surgery. Men of advanced age and those with significant lower urinary tract symptoms prior to RARP should be counselled on the increased risk of urinary incontinence in the early stages. PMID:25737770

  1. Insolation and Abrupt Climate Change Effects on the Western Pacific Maritime Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Cardenas, M.; Siringan, F. P.; Hori, M.; Okumura, Y.; Banner, J. L.; Lin, K.; Jiang, X.; Taylor, F. W.

    2013-12-01

    Many monsoon-sensitive paleoclimate archives capture the response of the Asian-Australian monsoon system to changes in summer insolation, as well as abrupt climate changes such as the Younger Dryas (YD). The response is commonly a direct one in Holocene and YD archives. In the case of insolation, increased summer insolation leads to increased monsoon rainfall over land, as captured in stalagmite ?18O records from Oman and China. We evaluate this direct response using maritime stalagmite records from the island of Palawan, Philippines (10 N, 119 E). The wet season in Palawan occurs over the same months (June-October) as in Oman, India and China. Therefore, we expected the Palawan stalagmite ?18O record, a proxy of rainfall, to have a similar response to changing insolation and hence, a trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in two partially replicated stalagmite ?18O records is opposite to that expected: rainfall increases over the Holocene, despite the decrease of summer insolation over the Holocene. We interpret the Holocene trend observed at Palawan to be the result of an increase in the maritime monsoon that balances the reduction in the land monsoon; an interpretation that is consistent with previously published results from coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model runs. Seawater ?18O reconstructions from marine sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific contain a freshening trend over the Holocene, also supporting the hypothesis of increase maritime monsoon rainfall. The direct relationship between monsoon rainfall over land as recorded in the YD interval in Chinese stalagmite records is also observed in maritime monsoon rainfall during the YD at Palawan: both records get drier during the YD cold interval. This agreement between YD stalagmite records from China and Palawan contrasts sharply with the inverse relationship between these records over the Holocene. We further investigate the nature of the changes in maritime monsoon rainfall in several ways. Output from global climate models in the PMIP2 compilation at 6ka provides a snapshot of conditions in the western Pacific during the mid-Holocene. Also, two global climate models run under transient conditions, LOVECLIM and NCAR CCSM3, are used to investigate the timing and spatial structure of the YD. We test the regional coherency of the Holocene trend in the Palawan stalagmite ?18O record by generating an additional Philippine stalagmite ?18O record from Negros, an island ~450 km east of Palawan. Preliminary data from Negros suggest a complex precipitation response in the Philippines over the Holocene, such that both the monsoon and the western Pacific warm pool influence the regional hydroclimate. Global climate model results from the isotope-enabled NASA GISS ModelE-R model provide further assistance in the interpretation of the multiple stalagmite ?18O records from the Philippines.

  2. Use of fuzzy evidential reasoning in maritime security assessment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z L; Wang, J; Bonsall, S; Fang, Q G

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a growing international recognition that the security performance of the maritime industry needs to be reviewed on an urgent basis. A large number of optional maritime security control measures have been proposed through various regulations and publications in the post-9/11 era. There is a strong need for a sound and generic methodology, which is capable of taking into account multiple selection criteria such as the cost effectiveness of the measures based on reasonable security assessment. The use of traditional risk assessment and decision-making approaches to deal with potential terrorism threats in a maritime security area reveals two major challenges. They are lack of capability of analyzing security in situations of high-level uncertainty and lack of capability of processing diverse data in a utility form suitable as input to a risk inference mechanism. To deal with such difficulties, this article proposes a subjective security-based assessment and management framework using fuzzy evidential reasoning (ER) approaches. Consequently, the framework can be used to assemble and process subjective risk assessment information on different aspects of a maritime transport system from multiple experts in a systematic way. Outputs of this model can also provide decisionmakers with a transparent tool to evaluate maritime security policy options for a specific scenario in a cost-effective manner. PMID:19141152

  3. Medical issues in the ILO's draft consolidated maritime labour convention.

    PubMed

    Appave, Dani

    2005-01-01

    Following a recommendation of the shipowners and seafarers representatives within the ILO's Joint Maritime Commission (JMC) in what is called the "Geneva Accord", the ILO decided to consolidate the entire body of its international maritime labour standards in a single instrument. A high level tripartite working group was established and met several times betwen 2001 and 2004 to prepare a draft text. A Preparatory Technical Maritime Conference was held in September 2004 and a Maritime Sesssion of the International Labour Conference is due to be held in February 2006 for the adoption of the consolidated instrument. The contents and structure of this instrument, which consolidates sixty maritime labour Conventions and Recommendations, with particular stress on its medical issues are briefly presented. Among the medical issues covered are the following: medical care on board and ashore, medical examinations of seafarers, their health protection, ship's medical chests and medical advice at sea, welfare of seafarers, safety of work at sea and prevention of accidents; and social security including sickness and injury coverage. PMID:16532593

  4. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale. PMID:27184471

  5. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale. PMID:27184471

  6. Anatomic basis for the continence-preserving radical retropubic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Steiner, M S

    2000-02-01

    The technique of continence-preserving anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy focuses on the preservation of the following anatomic components of the external striated urethral sphincteric complex: (1) the entire circumference of the rhabdosphincter musculature, (2) the periurethral fascial investments (the pubourethral ligaments anterolaterally and median fibrous raphe posteriorly), and (3) the innervation of both the rhabdosphincter by way of the intrapelvic branch of the pudendal nerve (somatic) and the mucosal and smooth muscle components by way of the urethral branch of the inferior hypogastric plexus (autonomic). The clinical impact of preserving the external striated urethral sphincter and its innervation by performing a continence preserving anatomic retropubic prostatectomy is a shorter time to achieve urinary continence. PMID:10719925

  7. A connection between the tropical Pacific Ocean and the winter climate in the Asian-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, XiaoJing; Wang, Su; Lin, Hai; Bao, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly on the winter mean surface air temperature (SAT) in the Asian-Pacific region is investigated during the period from 1948 to 2008 using both observations and a linear baroclinic model (LBM). A singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis is conducted between the 500 hPa geopotential height (Z500) over the Northern Hemisphere and the SST over the tropical Pacific Ocean to obtain the large-scale atmospheric patterns related to tropical Pacific SST. Focus is given to the second pair of SVD mode (SVD2) which bears some similarities in the Z500 field to the Arctic Oscillation over the North Atlantic sector and can impact the SAT over a larger area of Asian-Pacific. In the winter of a positive SVD2 the SAT over the midlatitude to high-latitude Asian continent, the Arctic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the western subtropical Pacific Ocean tends to be warmer than normal, while the North Pacific Ocean around the Bering Strait is abnormally cold, and vice versa. Examination of the associated surface general circulation shows that a positive SVD2 tends to shift the Siberian High southward and the Aleutian Low eastward resulting in anomalous weak pressure gradient between the Asian continent the North Pacific. Anomalous positive sea level pressure anomalies around Japan and southerly wind along the east coast of the Asian continent are observed. At the same time, the East Asian trough at midtroposphere becomes weaker than normal and the East Asian westerly jet stream is increased in magnitudes and shifted northward. The analysis of the wave activity flux and result of idealized numerical experiments show a possible influence of the western tropical Pacific SST forcing on the SVD2.

  8. A connection between the tropical Pacific Ocean and the winter climate in the Asian-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, xiaojing; lin, hai; bao, qing

    2015-04-01

    The impact of the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly on the winter mean surface air temperature (SAT) in the Asian-Pacific region is investigated during the period from 1948 to 2008 using both observations and a linear baroclinic model (LBM). A singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis is conducted between the 500-hPa geopotential height (Z500) over the Northern Hemisphere and the SST over the tropical Pacific Ocean to obtain the tropical Pacific SST-forced large scale atmospheric patterns. Focus is given to the second pair of SVD mode (SVD2) which bear many similarities in the Z500 field to the Arctic Oscillation (AO) but can impact the SAT over a larger area of Asian-Pacific than the AO. In the winter of a positive SVD2 the SAT over the mid-to high-latitude Asian continent, the Arctic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the western subtropical Pacific Ocean tend to be warmer-than-normal while the North Pacific Ocean around the Bering Strait is abnormally cold, and vice versa. Examination of the associated surface general circulation shows that corresponding to a positive SVD2 the Siberian High is weaker-than-normal and the Aleutian low shifted eastward resulting in abnormalous weak pressure gradient between the Asian continent the North Pacific and abnormalous southerly wind along the east coast of the Asian continent. At the same time, the East Asian trough at mid-troposphere becomes weaker-than-normal and the East Asian westerly jet stream is shifted northward. The analysis of the wave activity flux and the precipitation associated with the SVD2 show a possible influence of the western tropical Pacific SST forcing on the SVD2.

  9. Mean Elevation of Continents and Survival of Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Continental mean elevation is controlled by tectonic uplift (including all solid earth processes and volcanic activities) and erosion, so is the mean thickness of continents. Assuming that a continent is large enough so that various tectonic processes can be averaged to behave similarly, the balance between uplift and erosion results in a steady state mean elevation that increases with the area of a continent (Zhang, 2005). The model fits the mean elevation of continents well, but many islands depart from the curve of mean elevation versus land area. Here I explore the elevation and survival of the islands. An island is small so that one cannot assume it would display average character in terms of tectonic processes. Oceanic islands are there largely because of recent volcanic activities leading to an uplift rate much higher than the average uplift rate. On the other hand, once such special conditions fade away, islands are eroded rapidly. Based on the modeling of Zhang (2005), the half-erosion time to erode an island is roughly proportional to the square root of the land area of the island. Hence, scaling from the half-erosion time of the largest continent (about 100 Myr, Harrison, 1994), the half-erosion time for islands once tectonic activity stops can be estimated. For example, the half-erosion time for Hawaii Island is estimated to be 1.3 Myr, roughly consistent with the rate of disappearing of older Hawaiian Islands. The half-erosion time is 0.16 Myr for the present-day Easter Island, and 10 Myr for Madagascar once uplift stops. In view of the short erosion time scale, the islands are present and survive because of special tectonics, such as volcanic activities, recent separation from continents, etc. References: C.G.A. Harrison (1994) Geol. Rundsch. 83, 431-447. Y. Zhang (2005) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 237, 524-531.

  10. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Wen-Chung

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  11. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces. PMID:21594022

  12. Monuments in the Desert: A Maritime Landscape in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lynn; Jones, Jennifer; Schnitzer, Kate

    2012-10-01

    Eduard Bohlen II, wrecked in 1909 on the coast of Namibia in Africa, has an illustrious history, which is part of a larger maritime cultural landscape linked to the diamond mining industry. The ship, like many artifacts and sites, served many different purposes over time and the historical and archaeological record incorporates different levels of meaning, some of which may be nationally divisive or reconciliatory. The role of historical archaeologists is not only to document, interpret, preserve and manage grandiose elements of heritage that evoke stakeholder nationalism, but also to explore the mundane, unsavory aspects of the historical narrative. In 2010, a team from the Program in Maritime Studies of East Carolina University supported by the Maritime Archaeology Division of the Windhoek Underwater Club investigated a surf boat, diamond mining settlement and some of the remaining structure of Eduard Bohlen II, while posing mitigation and management questions about legacy of historical memory within Skeleton Coast Park.

  13. An overview of maritime waterway quantitative risk assessment models.

    PubMed

    Li, Suyi; Meng, Qiang; Qu, Xiaobo

    2012-03-01

    The safe navigation of ships, especially in narrow shipping waterways, is of the utmost concern to researchers as well as maritime authorities. Many researchers and practitioners have conducted studies on risk assessment for maritime transportation and have proposed risk reduction/control measures accordingly. This article provides a detailed review and assessment of various quantitative risk assessment models for maritime waterways. Eighty-seven academic papers and/or project reports are summarized and discussed. The review then proceeds to analyze the frequency and consequence estimation models separately. It should be pointed out that we further summarize the advantages and disadvantages of frequency estimation models and provide recommendations for their application. From the overview, we find that the quantification of the impact of human error is of great importance and should be considered in future studies. Possible solutions are also proposed in the discussions. PMID:22035095

  14. Maritime shipping as a high reliability industry: A qualitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarelli, T.; Roberts, K.; Bea, R.

    1994-10-01

    The maritime oil shipping industry has great public demands for safe and reliable organizational performance. Researchers have identified a set of organizations and industries that operate at extremely high levels of reliability, and have labelled them High Reliability Organizations (HRO). Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill disaster of 1989, public demands for HRO-level operations were placed on the oil industry. It will be demonstrated that, despite enormous improvements in safety and reliability, maritime shipping is not operating as an HRO industry. An analysis of the organizational, environmental, and cultural history of the oil industry will help to provide justification and explanation. The oil industry will be contrasted with other HRO industries and the differences will inform the shortfalls maritime shipping experiences with regard to maximizing reliability. Finally, possible solutions for the achievement of HRO status will be offered.

  15. The impact of artificial intelligence on airborne maritime reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, J.; Scott-Wilson, R. J.

    1985-08-01

    Some of the problems arising out of the introduction of VHPIC to the sensor and data processing systems of Maritime Reconnaissance aircraft are susceptible to solution by conventional computing techniques within mission time constraints. Some may be more susceptible to the use of artificial intelligence techniques. This paper identifies those aspects of artificial intelligence relevant to the Airborne Maritime Reconnaissance task and the areas of the current task where artificial intelligence can be usefully applied. It reviews the current state of the art in the relevant aspects of artificial intelligence and indicates how they might be employed in the near, medium and long term. It indicates some future applications and concludes that, artificial intelligence will play an important role in the future Maritime Reconnaissance aircraft.

  16. Milestones of Asian Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Fakhro, Abdulla; Wagner, Ryan D; Kim, Yong Kyu; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    The field of plastic surgery originally developed out of the necessity to reconstruct the human body after the destruction of war. However, injured soldiers were not the only people who desired a change in appearance. After World War II, many people in Asian countries sought to attain a more Western look through surgery. Along with eyes, the nose was the main focus for these cosmetic procedures. In this article, the authors examine the evolution of Asian rhinoplasty from its original description in 1964 to the present. The characteristic anatomical differences between the Western and Asian nose are identified in relation to the technical challenges for rhinoplasty surgeons. Then the benefits and risks of the two major surgical approaches, autograft versus alloplast, are detailed. Finally, the coevolution of techniques and implant usage is traced from a dorsum-only implant, to an L-shaped implant, a cartilaginous cap graft with a one-piece rhinoplasty, an I-shaped implant, and a two-piece augmentation rhinoplasty. Outlining these changes demonstrates the advancement of the field of plastic surgery and the growing expectations of the patient. These advancements have provided the tools necessary to better align a patient's aesthetic goals and their unique anatomical presentation with a specific surgical approach. PMID:26648800

  17. Review of maritime transportation air emission pollution and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Dahai; Dai, Guilin

    2009-09-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the ‘bottom up’ approach, the ‘top down’ approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  18. The Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone: Reactivation of an Ancient Continent-Continent Suture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ) may represent reactivation of an ancient shear zone that accommodated left-lateral, transpressive motion of the Amazon craton during the Grenville orogeny. Several different lines of evidence support this concept including velocity models for the crust, earthquake hypocenter alignments, focal mechanism solutions, potential field anomalies, paleomagnetic pole positions, and isotopic geochemical studies. The ETSZ trends NE-SW for about 300 km and displays remarkable correlation with the prominent New York - Alabama (NY-AL) aeromagnetic lineament. Vp and Vs models for the crust derived from a local ETSZ earthquake tomography study reveal the presence of a narrow, NE-SW trending, steeply dipping zone of low velocities that extends to a depth of at least 24 km and is associated with the vertical projection of the NY-AL aeromagnetic lineament. The low velocity zone is interpreted as a major basement fault. The recent Mw 4.2 Perry County eastern Kentucky earthquake occurred north of the ETSZ but has a focal depth and mechanism that are similar to those for ETSZ earthquakes. We investigate the possibility that the proposed ancient shear zone extends into eastern Kentucky using Bouguer and aeromagnetic maps. The southern end of the ETSZ is characterized by hypocenters that align along planes dipping at roughly 45 degrees and focal mechanisms that contain large normal faulting components. The NY-AL aeromagnetic lineament also changes trend in the southern end of the ETSZ and the exact location of the lineament is ambiguous. We suggest that the southern portion of the ETSZ involves reactivation of reverse faults (now as normal faults) that mark the ancient transition between a collisional to a more transpressive boundary between Amazonia and Laurentia during the formation of the super continent Rodinia.

  19. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of

  20. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  1. What maritime ISAR designers should know about ship dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, A. W.

    2012-06-01

    ISAR has enjoyed some success in imaging maritime targets, particularly ships. In fact, a number of maritime ISAR systems have been operational for a number of years. With ISAR, the ship's own motion is critical to forming well-resolved ISAR images. Seemingly important to accounting for ship motion is to first understand the nature of the ship motion that we are likely to encounter. Designing ships for specific motion characteristics is the domain of naval architecture. This paper presents some preliminary analysis of naval architecture principles, and typical ship designs' impact on the ISAR problem.

  2. Study of ground handling characteristics of a maritime patrol airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mooring concepts appropriate for maritime patrol airship (MPA) vehicles are investigated. The evolution of ground handling systems and procedures for all airship types is reviewed to ensure that appropriate consideration is given to past experiences. A tri-rotor maritime patrol airship is identified and described. Wind loads on a moored airship and the effects of these loads on vehicle design are analyzed. Several mooring concepts are assessed with respect to the airship design, wind loads, and mooring site considerations. Basing requirements and applicability of expeditionary mooring also are addressed.

  3. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother. PMID:8109248

  4. Rhinoplasty in the Asian Patient.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong Ryul; Won, Tae-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous goal of rhinoplasty is to make a natural-looking and attractive nose that blends harmoniously with the face. Rhinoplasty among Asians includes characteristics that distinguish the procedure from its white counterpart. Anatomic differences of the Asian nose coupled with differences in aesthetic standards demand they be approached in a unique way. In this article, peculiar aspects of Asian rhinoplasty are addressed with emphasis on surgical techniques used to obtain reliable results. PMID:26616713

  5. 78 FR 11670 - Eastern Great Lakes Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Eastern Great Lakes Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard... the Area Maritime Security Committee, Eastern Great Lakes, and its five regional subcommittees: Northeast Ohio Region, Northwestern Pennsylvania Region, Western New York Region, Lake Ontario Region,...

  6. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  7. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  8. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  9. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  10. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  11. 77 FR 46126 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for nomination of members to serve on the Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health.......

  12. Petroleum Technology Transfer Council boosts North Mid-continent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1995-10-01

    The Kansas Tertiary Oil Recovery Project served as one of the primary models for the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council, so it`s fitting this series on regional applications should start with the North Mid-Continent organization. The technology transfer program is described.

  13. Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Morton, Douglas M.; Little, Mark G.; Kistler, Ronald; Horodyskyj, Ulyana N.; Leeman, William P.; Agranier, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. PMID:18362343

  14. Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, C.-T.A.; Morton, D.M.; Little, M.G.; Kistler, R.; Horodyskyj, U.N.; Leeman, W.P.; Agranier, A.

    2008-01-01

    Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  15. Evolution of the Asian monsoon from the Cretaceous to the modern - a modelling study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, Dan; Farnsworth, Alex; Loptson, Claire; Markwick, Paul

    2014-05-01

    It has long been suggested that palaeogeography could have an important role in the modulation of the Asian monsoon. In particular, orogenesis associated with the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau has been associated with the intensification of the Asian monsoon through the Neogene, a paradigm which has some support from both data and modelling studies. Here we go further by considering the evolution of the Asian monsoon over a much longer time period than ususally considered, namely, the early Cretaceous right through to the modern day. Through a series of more than 30 climate model simulations spanning 150 million years, we investigate how changing palaeogeography (continental distribution, mountain height, and bathymetry) has affected monsoon evolution. The palaeogeographies are provided by Getech Plc, and we use the HadCM3L climate model, developed by the UK Met Office. All simulations are run for more than 500 years from an identical initial state. We show that a monsoon system has existed in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean since the early Cretaceous, but that intense precipitation only began to penetrate onto the east Asian continent in the late Paleogene and early Eocene. As well as focussing on the Asian (or proto-Asian for the earliest Cretaceous) monsoon, we present the results in a global context.

  16. Asian Dust particles impacts on air quality and radiative forcing over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Noh, Y. M.; Song, C. H.; Yoon, S. C.; Han, J. S.

    2009-03-01

    Asian Dust particles originated from the deserts and loess areas of the Asian continent are often transported over Korea, Japan, and the North Pacific Ocean during spring season. Major air mass pathway of Asian dust storm to Korea is from either north-western Chinese desert regions or north-eastern Chinese sandy areas. The local atmospheric environment condition in Korea is greatly impacted by Asian dust particles transported by prevailing westerly wind. Since these Asian dust particles pass through heavily populated urban and industrial areas in China before it reach Korean peninsular, their physical, chemical and optical properties vary depending on the atmospheric conditions and air mass pathway characteristics. An integrated system approach has been adopted at the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosols utilizing various in-situ and optical remote sensing methods, which include a multi-channel Raman LIDAR system, sunphotometer, satellite, and in-situ instruments. Results from recent studies on impacts of Asian dust particles on local air quality and radiative forcing over Korea are summarized here.

  17. Teleconnection Linking Asian/Pacific Monsoon Variability and Summertime Droughts and Floods Over the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Weng, Hengyi

    2000-01-01

    Major droughts and floods over the U.S. continent may be related to a far field energy source in the Asian Pacific. This is illustrated by two climate patterns associated with summertime rainfall over the U.S. and large-scale circulation on interannual timescale. The first shows an opposite variation between the drought/flood over the Midwest and that over eastern and southeastern U.S., coupled to a coherent wave pattern spanning the entire East Asia-North Pacific-North America region related to the East Asian jetstream. The second shows a continental-scale drought/flood in the central U.S., coupled to a wavetrain linking Asian/Pacific monsoon region to North America.

  18. Miocene sedimentation and subsidence during continent-continent collision, Bengal basin, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Ashraf; Lundberg, Neil

    2004-02-01

    The Bengal basin, a complex foreland basin south of the eastern Himalayas, exhibits dramatic variability in Neogene sediment thickness that reflects a complicated depositional and tectonic history. This basin originally formed as a trailing margin SE of the Indian continental crust, complicated by convergence with Asia to the north and oblique convergence with Burma to the east. Newly compiled isopach data and previously reported seismic data show evidence of thickening of basin fill toward the south, opposite of the pattern typically seen in foreland basins. This is presumably due to sedimentary loading of voluminous deltaic sediments near the continent-ocean boundary and basinward downfaulting analogous to that in the Gulf of Mexico. Isopach data show that there is considerable vertical relief along the base of the Miocene stratigraphic sequence, probably due to down-to-the-basin faulting caused by focused deltaic sedimentation and associated crustal flexure. In contrast, when viewed in east-west profile, basin shape is more typical of a foreland basin, with strata thickening eastward toward the Indo-Burman ranges, which reflects east-west convergence with Southeast Asia. Comparison of the lateral and vertical extent of the Bhuban and Boka Bil Formations with the Bouguer anomaly map of Bangladesh suggests that considerable subsidence of the Sylhet trough (in the northeastern part of the Bengal basin), which has the lowest gravity value of the region, had not taken place by the end of the Miocene. This post-Miocene subsidence is attributed to tectonic loading from southward thrusting of the Shillong Plateau along the Dauki fault. Relatively uniform Miocene isopachs across the Sylhet trough confirm that this began in the Pliocene, consistent with results of recent research on sediment provenance. In the northwest, in the region south of the Siwalik foreland basin, continental crust has not as yet been loaded, allowing relatively little accommodation space for sediment accumulation. The Miocene here is very thin. Deltaic progradation across most of Bangladesh during the Miocene followed earlier, more proximal progradation across Assam, immediately northeast of the Bengal basin, and has been followed by continued progradation into the southern Bangladesh coastal and offshore region.

  19. Tectonic-geodynamic settings of OIB-magmatism on the eastern Asian continental margin during the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatova, N. I.

    2015-11-01

    At the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition, the convergent boundary between the Asian and Pacific plates was replaced by a transform boundary to determine destruction of the continental margin including the Okhotsk-Chukotka Cretaceous subduction-related belt along left-lateral strike-slip and downdip-strikeslip faults. The newly formed East Asian rift system (EARS) continues in the easterly direction the Mongol-Okhotsk zone of left-lateral strike-slip faults, a former transform boundary of the Asian continent. Basaltoids of the East Asian rift system that erupted through fractures onto the former active margin are similar intraplate OIB volcanics related to the lower mantle source. The specific feature of OIB-type magmatism in the system consists in its continental marginal position near the transform boundary.

  20. Risk Reduction of an Invasive Insect by Targeting Surveillance Efforts with the Assistance of a Phenology Model and International Maritime Shipping Routes and Schedules.

    PubMed

    Gray, David R

    2016-05-01

    Reducing the risk of introduction to North America of the invasive Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and L. d. japonica [Motschulsky]) on international maritime vessels involves two tactics: (1) vessels that wish to arrive in Canada or the United States and have visited any Asian port that is subject to regulation during designated times must obtain a predeparture inspection certificate from an approved entity; and (2) vessels with a certificate may be subjected to an additional inspection upon arrival. A decision support tool is described here with which the allocation of inspection resources at North American ports can be partitioned among multiple vessels according to estimates of the potential onboard Asian gypsy moth population and estimates of the onboard larval emergence pattern. The decision support tool assumes that port inspection is uniformly imperfect at the Asian ports and that each visit to a regulated port has potential for the vessel to be contaminated with gypsy moth egg masses. The decision support tool uses a multigenerational phenology model to estimate the potential onboard population of egg masses by calculating the temporal intersection between the dates of port visits to regulated ports and the simulated oviposition pattern in each port. The phenological development of the onboard population is simulated each day of the vessel log until the vessel arrives at the port being protected from introduction. Multiple independent simulations are used to create a probability distribution of the size and timing of larval emergence. PMID:26299789

  1. Oceanic plateaus, the fragmentation of continents, and mountain building

    SciTech Connect

    Nur, A.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

    1982-05-10

    Many anomalous rises in today's oceans may be submerged continental fragments detached from previous continents, ancient island arcs, or basaltic piles formed by hot spots and spreading centers. These rises are embedded in their respective moving oceanic plates and are fated to be consumed at active margins. Where such rises are being consumed at present, e.g., the Nazca Ridge, they cause cessation of volcanism, disruption of the downgoing slab, and possible shifts in plate boundary configuration. Many past rises, including numerous continental fragments have been recognized within mountain belts as allochthonous terranes. They constitute a large portion of the orogenic belts in the North Pacific from Mexico through western North America, Alaska, east Siberia, Japan and in New Zealand. The orogenic deformation in these belts is possibly the result of the accretion of the allochtronous terranes. Many terranes have been accreted with substantial deformation also in the Alpine chain, well before major continent-continent collisions. It is suggested, therefore, that the accretion of fragments may be the common process of the deformation phase of mountain building. Subduction of normal oceanic crust may be insufficient for deformation, whereas full continent-continent collision may be necessary. The general validity of this conclusion depends critically on whether allochthonous terranes caused orogenic deformation in the Andes or not. Most of the accreted fragments with continental affinites in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts of the world can be traced back to the breakup of Gondwana, beginning with a Pacifica domain in the Permian through a larger India domain in the early Mesozoic and continuing through the separation of the Somalia plate in the near future. The reasons for this 250 million year breakup process are not known, but some kind of thermal process, possible of mantle-wide scale, is implied.

  2. The impact of the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols on the subseasonal march of the East Asian subtropical summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongdong; Zhu, Bin; Jiang, Zhihong; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Zhu, Tong

    2016-03-01

    Aerosol emissions have rapidly increased in East Asia since the late 1970s. During the same period, the East Asian summer monsoon has shown a weakening trend. In this work, the direct effects (DE) of sulfate and black carbon (BC) aerosols on the subseasonal (pentad mean) march of the East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) are investigated using an interactive global climate-chemistry model. The simulation results suggest that the DE of sulfate aerosols have a notable effect on the cooling of the low troposphere across the continent in spring and autumn, hence, changing the time of the seasonal transition of the zonal land-sea thermal contrast (ZTC). The DE of BC result in cooling of the low troposphere and heating of the middle troposphere, leading to a different impact than that caused by sulfates. The cooling of the surface and troposphere by sulfates leads to a delay in the warming of East Asian continent in spring and the EASSM onset time; it also accelerates the process of the continent turning colder and advances the retreat of the EASSM. The deeper heating in the middle-upper troposphere than the cooling in the low troposphere due to the DE of BC or the combination of both lead to an advance in the onset time of the monsoon caused by the continent turning warmer earlier in spring. In autumn, the same cooling effect by sulfates leads to the continent turning colder earlier, resulting in an advance in the retreat time.

  3. 75 FR 10300 - South Texas Area Maritime Security (STAMS) Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard South Texas Area Maritime Security (STAMS) Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard... serving on the South Texas Area Maritime Security (STAMS) Committee to submit their application for... exempting these Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committees from the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  4. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200b-7 Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  5. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200b-7 Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  6. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200b-7 Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  7. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200b-7 Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  8. On the Applications of Modern Educational Technology in Maritime English Teaching from the Perspective of Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Zhongliang

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays maritime transportation has become a major modern logistics because of its large capacity and low cost. English plays a leading role in the industry of maritime transportation. It is the most important medium and an indispensable communication tool in international business and global marine industry. Maritime English teaching has made…

  9. 78 FR 9709 - Draft Guidance Regarding Voluntary Inspection of Vessels for Compliance With the Maritime Labour...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose The 94th (Maritime) session of... Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for.... vessels for voluntary compliance with the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (Convention), which enters...

  10. 46 CFR 308.408 - Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... premium. 308.408 Section 308.408 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.408 Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium. The Maritime Administrator, acting for the Secretary of Transportation,...

  11. 76 FR 58769 - Ports and Maritime Technology Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration Ports and Maritime Technology Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International... (CS), is organizing an executive-led Ports and Maritime Technology Trade Mission to India from... port and maritime technology market and to assist U.S. companies pursue export opportunities in...

  12. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal...: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce a series of public listening sessions and... are being held to provide a forum for maritime industry stakeholders and the general public to...

  13. Health promotion in the maritime work environment--training of leaders.

    PubMed

    Jezewska, Maria; Jaremin, Bogdan; Leszczy?ska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    The essence of the project of pro-health attitudes promotion is the assumption that they contribute to a successful occupational career and reduce health and life hazards in the maritime work environment. The method chosen was to train students of the Maritime Academy in Gdynia, the future officers and potential health leaders among maritime employees. PMID:18350982

  14. 47 CFR 80.469 - Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. 80... Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. (a) Maritime mobile repeater stations are authorized to extend the range of communication between a VHF public coast station located in Alaska and ship stations....

  15. 47 CFR 80.469 - Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. 80... Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. (a) Maritime mobile repeater stations are authorized to extend the range of communication between a VHF public coast station located in Alaska and ship stations....

  16. 47 CFR 80.469 - Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. 80... Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. (a) Maritime mobile repeater stations are authorized to extend the range of communication between a VHF public coast station located in Alaska and ship stations....

  17. 46 CFR 308.408 - Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium. 308.408 Section 308.408 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance 308.408 Right of Maritime Administrator...

  18. 46 CFR 308.408 - Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium. 308.408 Section 308.408 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance 308.408 Right of Maritime Administrator...

  19. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 390 - Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement IV Appendix IV to Part 390 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 390Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement This...

  20. 46 CFR 308.408 - Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium. 308.408 Section 308.408 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance 308.408 Right of Maritime Administrator...

  1. 46 CFR 308.408 - Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium. 308.408 Section 308.408 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance 308.408 Right of Maritime Administrator...

  2. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 390 - Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement IV Appendix IV to Part 390 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 390Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement This...

  3. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 390 - Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement IV Appendix IV to Part 390 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 390Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement This...

  4. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 390 - Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement IV Appendix IV to Part 390 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 390Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement This...

  5. 33 CFR 101.405 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section shall be marked as sensitive security information (SSI) in accordance with 49 CFR part... of and access to sensitive security information, and that under 49 CFR 1520.5(b), they have a need to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime Security...

  6. 33 CFR 101.405 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this section shall be marked as sensitive security information (SSI) in accordance with 49 CFR part... of and access to sensitive security information, and that under 49 CFR 1520.5(b), they have a need to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime Security...

  7. 33 CFR 101.405 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this section shall be marked as sensitive security information (SSI) in accordance with 49 CFR part... of and access to sensitive security information, and that under 49 CFR 1520.5(b), they have a need to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime Security...

  8. 33 CFR 101.405 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section shall be marked as sensitive security information (SSI) in accordance with 49 CFR part... of and access to sensitive security information, and that under 49 CFR 1520.5(b), they have a need to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maritime Security...

  9. 33 CFR 101.405 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section shall be marked as sensitive security information (SSI) in accordance with 49 CFR part... of and access to sensitive security information, and that under 49 CFR 1520.5(b), they have a need to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security...

  10. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  11. MANAGEMENT OF MARITIME COMMUNITIES FOR THREATENED AND ENDANGERED SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maritime ecosystems along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts support the military mission of the United States Department of Defense (DoD). Since the DoD mission has not required large-scale urbanization of the coast, these ecosystems also provide high quality habitat for several feder...

  12. 32 CFR 537.16 - Scope for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... claims for damage to: (1) DA-accountable properties of a kind that are within the federal maritime jurisdiction. (2) Property under the DA's jurisdiction or DA property damaged by a vessel or floating object... services (including contract salvage and towage) performed by the DA. Claims for salvage services are...

  13. 32 CFR 537.16 - Scope for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claims for damage to: (1) DA-accountable properties of a kind that are within the federal maritime jurisdiction. (2) Property under the DA's jurisdiction or DA property damaged by a vessel or floating object... services (including contract salvage and towage) performed by the DA. Claims for salvage services are...

  14. Indians of Quebec and the Maritime Provinces (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Giving the history of the Indians of Quebec and the maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the Prince Edward Island), this document covers the period from the arrival of European explorers in the New World to 1967. Reviewing the history of these Indians, sections are devoted to (1) colonization of Acadia, (2) colonization of Quebec, (3)…

  15. Fusion of AIS, RADAR, and SAR data for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carthel, Craig; Coraluppi, Stefano; Grasso, Raffaele; Grignan, Patrick

    2007-10-01

    Multi-sensor fusion of data from maritime surveillance assets provides a consolidated surveillance picture that provides a basis for downstream semi-automated anomaly-detection algorithms. The fusion approach that we pursue in this paper leverages technology previously developed at NURC for undersea surveillance. We provide illustrations of the potential of these techniques with data from recent at-sea experimentation.

  16. Rule-based expert system for maritime anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Jean

    2010-04-01

    Maritime domain operators/analysts have a mandate to be aware of all that is happening within their areas of responsibility. This mandate derives from the needs to defend sovereignty, protect infrastructures, counter terrorism, detect illegal activities, etc., and it has become more challenging in the past decade, as commercial shipping turned into a potential threat. In particular, a huge portion of the data and information made available to the operators/analysts is mundane, from maritime platforms going about normal, legitimate activities, and it is very challenging for them to detect and identify the non-mundane. To achieve such anomaly detection, they must establish numerous relevant situational facts from a variety of sensor data streams. Unfortunately, many of the facts of interest just cannot be observed; the operators/analysts thus use their knowledge of the maritime domain and their reasoning faculties to infer these facts. As they are often overwhelmed by the large amount of data and information, automated reasoning tools could be used to support them by inferring the necessary facts, ultimately providing indications and warning on a small number of anomalous events worthy of their attention. Along this line of thought, this paper describes a proof-of-concept prototype of a rule-based expert system implementing automated rule-based reasoning in support of maritime anomaly detection.

  17. 46 CFR 67.47 - Requirement for Maritime Administration approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approval of the Maritime Administration in accordance with 46 CFR part 221: (1) Placement of the vessel... the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. app. 802), to a person not a citizen within the meaning of section 2... by paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to a vessel identified in § 67.11(b)....

  18. 46 CFR 67.47 - Requirement for Maritime Administration approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approval of the Maritime Administration in accordance with 46 CFR part 221: (1) Placement of the vessel... the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. app. 802), to a person not a citizen within the meaning of section 2... by paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to a vessel identified in § 67.11(b)....

  19. 46 CFR 67.47 - Requirement for Maritime Administration approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approval of the Maritime Administration in accordance with 46 CFR part 221: (1) Placement of the vessel... the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. app. 802), to a person not a citizen within the meaning of section 2... by paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to a vessel identified in § 67.11(b)....

  20. Understanding Attrition in UK Maritime Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gekara, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The shipping industry worldwide is experiencing a shortage of trained and qualified officers to operate a rapidly expanding global merchant fleet. High cadet wastage in Maritime Education and Training (MET) institutions is an obstacle to skills replenishment in the UK. This paper examines the specificity of MET programmes with regard to the

  1. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjrnslett, Bjrn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. PMID:21819835

  2. 46 CFR 67.47 - Requirement for Maritime Administration approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approval of the Maritime Administration in accordance with 46 CFR part 221: (1) Placement of the vessel... the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. app. 802), to a person not a citizen within the meaning of section 2... by paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to a vessel identified in § 67.11(b)....

  3. 46 CFR 67.47 - Requirement for Maritime Administration approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approval of the Maritime Administration in accordance with 46 CFR part 221: (1) Placement of the vessel... the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. app. 802), to a person not a citizen within the meaning of section 2... by paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to a vessel identified in § 67.11(b)....

  4. Understanding Attrition in UK Maritime Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gekara, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The shipping industry worldwide is experiencing a shortage of trained and qualified officers to operate a rapidly expanding global merchant fleet. High cadet wastage in Maritime Education and Training (MET) institutions is an obstacle to skills replenishment in the UK. This paper examines the specificity of MET programmes with regard to the…

  5. El Niño phases embedded in Asian and North American drought reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinbao; Xie, Shang-Ping; Cook, Edward R.

    2014-02-01

    The amplitude of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) varies substantially at each phase of its evolution, affecting the timing and patterns of atmospheric teleconnections around the globe. Instrumental records are too short to capture the full behavior of ENSO variability. Here we use the well-validated Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA) and North America Drought Atlas (NADA) for the past 700 years, and show that tree-ring records from different regions represent tropical sea surface temperature (SST) conditions at various phases of ENSO. Three modes of tree-ring based summer drought variability are found to be correlated with ENSO: summer droughts over the Maritime Continent and Southwest North America (NA), and a dipole mode between Central and South Asia. A lagged correlation analysis is performed to determine the time when precipitation and temperature anomaly imprints on summer droughts as recorded in tree-rings. Drought anomalies in the Maritime Continent and Southwest NA represent ENSO at the developing and peak phases respectively, while those over Central/South Asia are associated with tropical-wide SST anomalies (including the Indian Ocean) at the decay phase of ENSO. Thus proxy records from different regions can provide valuable information on long-term behavior of ENSO at different phases.

  6. The Asian Woman in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Gloria L.

    Asian women have been in the United States for over one hundred and twenty years. They are, however, still victims of both sexual and racial stereotyping, the "cheap labor" syndrome, and are denied the opportunity to learn about their own history, heritage, and culture. Traditional female roles among Asian immigrants and a legacy of discriminatory…

  7. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  8. Asian Americans in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Various articles include the following concerns: a year-long study shows that 66 books about Asian Americans are elitist, racist, and sexist; practical guidelines for selection of nonracist, nonsexist books are provided; a noted playwright looks at the image of Asian Americans in children's books and finds it racist science fiction; the…

  9. Asiacentrism and Asian American Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Paul; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Asiacentrism and its place in Asian American Studies, what can be learned from Afrocentrism as a paradigm, and the political and philosophical implications of Asiacentrism. The authors propose the development of an Asiacentric paradigm as a critique of the dominant Eurocentrism in theory-building in Asian American Studies. (GR)

  10. Handbook of Asian American Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lee C., Ed.; Zane, Nolan W. S., Ed.

    This handbook integrates descriptions and evaluations of current psychological research on all ethnic subgroups of Asian Americans, providing insights into the diverse and varied nature of Asian American cultures. Following a Foreword by Dick Suinn, the chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Lee C. Lee); (2) "Research Methods: The Construct Validity of

  11. Handbook of Asian American Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lee C., Ed.; Zane, Nolan W. S., Ed.

    This handbook integrates descriptions and evaluations of current psychological research on all ethnic subgroups of Asian Americans, providing insights into the diverse and varied nature of Asian American cultures. Following a Foreword by Dick Suinn, the chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Lee C. Lee); (2) "Research Methods: The Construct Validity of…

  12. Mantle temperature under drifting deformable continents during the supercontinent cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    The thermal heterogeneity of the Earth's mantle under the drifting continents during a supercontinent cycle is a controversial issue in earth science. Here, a series of numerical simulations of mantle convection are performed in 3D spherical-shell geometry, incorporating drifting deformable continents and self-consistent plate tectonics, to evaluate the subcontinental mantle temperature during a supercontinent cycle. Results show that the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the subcontinental mantle remains within several tens of degrees (±50 °C) throughout the simulation time. Even after the formation of the supercontinent and the development of subcontinental plumes due to the subduction of the oceanic plates, the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the deep mantle under the continent is within +10 °C. This implies that there is no substantial temperature difference between the subcontinental and suboceanic mantles during a supercontinent cycle. The temperature anomaly immediately beneath the supercontinent is generally positive owing to the thermal insulation effect and the active upwelling plumes from the core-mantle boundary. In the present simulation, the formation of a supercontinent causes the laterally averaged subcontinental temperature to increase by a maximum of 50 °C, which would produce sufficient tensional force to break up the supercontinent. The periodic assembly and dispersal of continental fragments, referred to as the supercontinent cycle, bear close relation to the evolution of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Supercontinent formation involves complex processes of introversion, extroversion or a combination of these in uniting dispersed continental fragments, as against the simple opening and closing of individual oceans envisaged in Wilson cycle. In the present study, I evaluate supercontinent processes in a realistic mantle convection regime. Results show that the assembly of supercontinents is accompanied by a combination of introversion and extroversion processes. The regular periodicity of the supercontinent cycles observed in previous 2D and 3D simulation models with rigid nondeformable continents is not confirmed. The small-scale thermal heterogeneity is dominated in deep mantle convection during the supercontinent cycle, although the large-scale, active upwelling plumes intermittently originate under drifting continents and/or the supercontinent. Results suggest that active subducting cold plates along continental margins generate thermal heterogeneity with short-wavelength structures, which is consistent with the thermal heterogeneity in the present-day mantle convection inferred from seismic tomography models. References: [1] Yoshida, M. Mantle temperature under drifting deformable continents during the supercontinent cycle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2013, in press. [2] Yoshida, M. and M. Santosh, Mantle convection modeling of supercontinent cycle: Introversion, extroversion, or combination?, 2013, submitted.

  13. East Asian observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. R.

    East Asian observations are of established importance in Applied Historical Astronomy. The earliest astronomical records from this part of the world (China, Japan and Korea) originate from China. These observations, mainly of lunar eclipses, are recorded on oracle bones from the period ca. 1300 - 1050 BC. Virtually all later Chinese and other East Asian astronomical records now exist only in printed copies. The earliest surviving series of solar eclipse observations from any part of the world is contained in the Chunqiu (722 - 481 BC), a chronicle of the Chinese state of Lu. However, not until after 200 BC, with the establishment of a stable empire in China, do detailed astronomical records survive. These are mainly contained in specially compiled astrological treatises in the official dynastic histories. Such records, following the traditional style, extend down to the start of the present century. All classes of phenomena visible to the unaided eye are represented: solar and lunar eclipses, lunar and planetary movements among the constellations, comets, novae and supernovae, meteors, sunspots and the aurora borealis. Parallel, but independent series of observations are recorded in Japanese and Korean history, especially after about AD 800. Sources of Japanese records tend to be more diverse than their Chinese and Korean counterparts, but fortunately Kanda Shigeru (1935) and Ohsaki Shyoji (1994) have made extensive compilations of Japanese astronomical observations down to the 1860s. Throughout East Asia, dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar.

  14. Priority pharmacogenetics for the African continent: focus on CYP450.

    PubMed

    Alessandrini, Marco; Pepper, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    Countries in Africa have a high burden of communicable disease, and are experiencing an increase in noncommunicable diseases due to the effects of globalization, industrialization and urbanization. The costs incurred through adverse drug reactions and nonresponsiveness to therapy further aggravates the situation, and the application of pharmacogenetic principles is likely to provide some relief. Having undertaken an extensive evaluation of CYP450 reports in Africa, our objective was to map out areas of need based on regional disease burdens. The data confirms a paucity of CYP450 reports and illustrates large regions for which no population information exists. There is a dire need to address the health problems of Africa, and wide-scale pharmacogenetic profiling of these populations will add significantly to improving patient care on the continent. Priority pharmacogenetics for the African continent gives precedence to the profiling of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers, and defines the immediate need in the context of disease burden. PMID:24533717

  15. The Continent-Ocean Boundary of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Ling; Yao, Bochu; Zhang, Huodai; Han, Bin

    2014-05-01

    The Continent-Ocean Boundary of the South China Sea Ling Wan Bochu Yao Huodai Zhang Bin Han (Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, Guangzhou, China, 510760) The determination of the Continent-Ocean Boundary (COB) of the South China Sea (SCS) is a key issue related to fully understanding the rifted continental margins and evolutionof the SCS. But the COB of the SCS is highly variable in different ways by different researcher. In this paper, we investigate the boundary between the continental and oceanic crust of this basin mainly relied on the multiple-channel seismic profiles constrained by free air gravity anomaly and magnetic anomaly. Based on the synthesied gephysical interpretation the COB of the SCS is relocated. Furthermore, the COB patterns of the SCS are presented.

  16. An Introduction to Asian and Asian American Fiction. Asian Studies Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelides, Mary

    This curriculum outline illustrates the components of a course which introduces students to an understanding of short stories and novels and emphasizes the broadening of their world view through the use of Asian and Asian-American stories. First, the goals, student objectives, and methodology of the course are presented. Next, a syllabus of the…

  17. A Part, Yet Apart: South Asians in Asian America. Asian American History and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Lavina Dhingra, Ed.; Srikanth, Rajini, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the extent to which South Asian Americans are included within "Asian America" as the term is applied to academic programs and admissions policies, grassroots community organizing and politics, and critical analyses of cultural products. The essays are: (1) "Within Kaleidoscope Eyes: The Potential (Dangers) of

  18. Mid-Continent rift system - a frontier hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Geophysical evidence in the Mid-Continent has led to delineation of a rift system active during the Proterozoic Y Era. The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent gravity high and corresponding aeromagnetic anomaly signature from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. The aeromagnetic anomaly signature of the rift trend discloses where these sediments have been preserved. Thick accumulations of upper Proterozoic sediments are indicated by both upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and gravity models which incorporate: 1) a deep mafic body to create the narrow gravity high, 2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low, and 3) sedimentary accumulations on the Precambrian surface to explain the small-scale notches which occur within the narrow gravity high. Reflection seismic data are virtually unknown in the rift area; however, data recently acquired by COCORP across the southern end of the feature in Kansas provide evidence of thick stratified sequences in the rift valley. Studies of the East African rift have revealed that the tropical rift valley is an exceptionally fertile environment for deposition and preservation of kerogenous material. The Sirte, Suez, Viking, Dnieper-Donetz, and Tsaidam basins are just a few of the rift basins currently classed as giant producers. The existence of a rift basin trend with thick accumulations of preserved sediments, demonstrably organic rich, introduces the northern Mid-Continent US as a new frontier for hydrocarbon exploration.

  19. Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zscheischler, J.; Reichstein, M.; Harmeling, S.; Rammig, A.; Tomelleri, E.; Mahecha, M. D.

    2014-06-01

    Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented and in the focus of this paper. Specifically, we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP) as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive extremes (i.e., statistically unusual increases in carbon uptake rates) and negative extremes (i.e., statistically unusual decreases in carbon uptake rates) on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power-law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role for the overall impact of GPP extremes compared to the durations or maximal GPP. An analysis of possible causes across continents indicates that most negative extremes in GPP can be attributed clearly to water scarcity, whereas extreme temperatures play a secondary role. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we also identify fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

  20. Mid-continent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The Mid-continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial fans, deep organic-rich basins, and prograding fluvial plains. Sedimentary basins where these early rift sediments are preserved can be located by upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and by gravity models. Studies of analog continental rifts and aulacogens show that these gravity models should incorporate (1) a deep mafic rift pillow body to create the narrow gravity high of the MGA, and (2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low. Preserved accumulations of rift clastics in central rift positions can then be modeled to explain the small scale notches which are found within the narrow gravity high. Indigenous oil in Keweenawan sediments in the outcrop area and coaly partings in the subsurface penetrations of the Keweenawan clastics support the analogy between these rift sediments and the exceptionally organic-rich sediments of the East African rift. COCORP data across the rift trend in Kansas show layered deep reflectors and large structures. There is demonstrable source, reservoir, and trap potential within the Keweenawan trend, making the Mid-Continent rift system a frontier hydrocarbon province.

  1. Mid-Continent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial fans, deep organic-rich basins, and prograding fluvial plains. Sedimentary basins where these early rift sediments are preserved can be located by upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and by gravity models. Studies of analog continental rifts and aulacogens show that these gravity models should incorporate (1) a deep mafic rift pillow body to create the narrow gravity high of the MGA, and (2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low. Preserved accumulations of rift clastics in central rift positions can then be modeled to explain the small scale notches which are found within the narrow gravity high. Indigenous oil in Keweenawan sediments in the outcrop area and coaly partings in the subsurface penetrations of the Keweenawan clastics support the analogy between these rift sediments and the exceptionally organic-rich sediments of the East African rift. COCORP data across the rift trend in Kansas show layered deep reflectors and large structures. There is demonstrable source, reservoir, and trap potential within the Keweenawan trend, making the Mid-Continent rift system a frontier hydrocarbon province.

  2. Comparative estimate of volcanism intensity on continents and in oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Ronov, A.B.; Khain, V.E.; Balukhovskii, A.N.

    1980-12-01

    A quantitative estimate of the volume of volcanogenic rocks and the volcanism intensity during different stages in the Earth's development indicates that the total volume of the tholeiitic basalts of Layer II of the oceans exceeds by 20 times that of the synchronous late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanics of the continents and is almost 5 times greater than the volume of the volcanogenic rocks of the entire Phanerozoic sequence of the continents. The absolute maxima of volcanism, determined on the basis of the area and volume of the corresponding volcanics, belong to the Late Cretaceous and Miocene intervals. Changes in the volcanic eruption areas took place synchronously in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. The volcanism intensity, expressed in the volume of its products in km/sup 3/ per m.y., increases in the oceans from Late Jurassic to Pliocene time. During the Riphean and Vendian intervals, the volcanism intensity on the continents remained at an extremely low level, then increased during early Paleozoic time, and underwent a marked jump, beginning in the Devonian Period. Since Late Jurassic time, the intensity of global volcanism increased unusually sharply and reached its culmination during Neogene time.

  3. Continents on the Move or "Where in the World Did Antarctica Come From?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students trace the movement of the continents over the past 600 million years to help them understand how the continents' size and position have changed over time. Includes map puzzle pieces. (MKR)

  4. Promoting urinary continence in women after delivery: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Pauline; Cockburn, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the effectiveness of a physiotherapist delivered intervention designed to prevent urinary incontinence among women three months after giving birth. Design Prospective randomised controlled trial with women randomised to receive the intervention (which entailed training in pelvic floor exercises and incorporated strategies to improve adherence) or usual postpartum care. Setting Postpartum wards of three tertiary teaching hospitals in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or whose babies had a high birth weight (⩾4000 g), or both—676 (348 in the intervention group and 328 in the usual care group) provided endpoint data at three months. Main outcome measures Urinary incontinence at three months measured as a dichotomous variable. The severity of incontinence was also measured. Self report of the frequency of performance of pelvic floor exercises was recorded. Results At three months after delivery, the prevalence of incontinence in the intervention group was 31.0% (108 women) and in the usual care group 38.4% (125 women); difference 7.4% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 14.6%, P=0.044). At follow up significantly fewer women with incontinence were classified as severe in the intervention group (10.1%) v (17.0%), difference 7.0%, 1.6% to 11.8%). The proportions of women reporting doing pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels was 84% (80% to 88%) for the intervention group and 58% (52% to 63%) for the usual care group (P=0.001). Conclusions The intervention promoting urinary continence reduced the prevalence of urinary incontinence after giving birth, particularly its severity, and promoted the performance of pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels; both continence and adherence to the programme were measured at three months after delivery in women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or babies weighing 4000 g or more. What is already known on this topicIntensive pelvic floor exercise programmes can reduce urinary incontinence in selected groups of female patientsThe effectiveness of interventions promoting continence in reducing urinary incontinence in the female population overall has not been investigatedPelvic floor exercises are widely held to be an important component of continence promotion programmesWhat this study addsContinence promotion programmes delivered to a selected population are able to prevent urinary incontinence in that populationFew studies have examined the efficacy of compliance aiding strategies in helping women adhere to prescribed pelvic floor exercise programmes PMID:12028976

  5. A Catholic Response to the Asian Presence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Suzanne E., Ed.; And Others

    This report, the result in part of a series of hearings with Asian parents, educators, ministers, and many non-Asian Church leaders ministering to Asian communities within the United States, treats many aspects of educating and welcoming Asian groups into the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. The text includes a report on those hearings,…

  6. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  7. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American

  8. Systems and technologies for enhanced coastal maritime security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, Edward M.; Bucklin, Ann

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes a design for an innovative command and control system for an intelligent coastal maritime security system. The architecture for this intelligent coastal maritime security system is derived from the forth generation real-time control (RCS) system architecture1 developed by the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) over the past twenty years. This command and control system is a decision support system for real-time monitoring, response and training for security scenarios that can be hosted at various locations along the coast of the United States where homeland security surveillance and response activities are required. Additionally, this paper describes the design for a derivative real-time simulation based environment that can be used as a state-of-art test bed for developing new hardware and software components to be integrated into previous versions of deployed real-time control systems.

  9. URANIUM DETECTION USING SMALL SCINTILLATORS IN A MARITIME ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K

    2006-05-12

    The performance of several commercially available portable radiation spectrometers containing small NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors has been studied at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These hand-held radioisotope identifiers are used by field personnel to detect and identify the illegal transport of uranium as a deterrent to undeclared nuclear proliferation or nuclear terrorism. The detection of uranium in a variety of chemical forms and isotopic enrichments presents some unique challenges in the maritime environment. This study was conducted using a variety of shielded and unshielded uranium sources in a simulated maritime environment. The results include estimates of the detection sensitivity for various isotopic enrichments and configurations using the manufacturer's spectral analysis firmware. More sophisticated methods for analyzing the spectra off-line are also evaluated to determine the detection limits and enrichment sensitivities from the field measurements.

  10. Maritime target identification in flash-ladar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, Walter; Hammer, Marcus

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents new techniques and processing results for automatic segmentation, shape classification, generic pose estimation, and model-based identification of naval vessels in laser radar imagery. The special characteristics of focal plane array laser radar systems such as multiple reflections and intensity-dependent range measurements are incorporated into the algorithms. The proposed 3D model matching technique is probabilistic, based on the range error distribution, correspondence errors, the detection probability of potentially visible model points and false alarm errors. The match algorithm is robust against incomplete and inaccurate models, each model having been generated semi-automatically from a single range image. A classification accuracy of about 96% was attained, using a maritime database with over 8000 flash laser radar images of 146 ships at various ranges and orientations together with a model library of 46 vessels. Applications include military maritime reconnaissance, coastal surveillance, harbor security and anti-piracy operations.

  11. A maritime wireless communication primitive power-supplied by GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Youling; Liu, Angli; Du, Wencai; Zhang, Yonghui

    2014-10-01

    As global positioning systems (GPS) are becoming ubiquitous, GPS signals are populating the space. While such signals have exclusively been used in localization services in the first place, we take the first step in turning them to energy sources for maritime communication. Specifically, we leverage antennas deployed on ships to harvest energy from such ambient GPS signals, which are also fed into encoders to carry information bits. This way, maritime communication can be built completely battery-free all day long. Also, it it because the communication takes place on the ocean, where no interference is introduced, except for the original GPS signals to the backscattered GPS signals, the design of the transceiver under certain energy budget is simplified. In this paper, we show the theoretical promise that the system would work using electromagnetic theories, and introduce our prototype which proves the concept in real world settings.

  12. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  13. The East Asian Jet Stream and Asian-Pacific Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the NASA GEOS and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses and GPCP rainfall data have been used to study the variability of the East Asian westerly jet stream and its impact on the Asian-Pacific climate, with a focus on interannual time scales. Results indicate that external forcings such as sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface processes also play an important role in the variability of the jet although this variability is strongly governed by internal dynamics. There is a close link between the jet and Asian-Pacific climate including the Asian winter monsoon and tropical convection. The atmospheric teleconnection pattern associated with the jet is different from the ENSO-related pattern. The influence of the jet on eastern Pacific and North American climate is also discussed.

  14. Asian American health care attitudes.

    PubMed

    Perttula, W; Lowe, D; Quon, N S

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a survey of health care attitudes of a sample of respondents primarily of Asian American background. The importance of bilingualism, Asian background, age, and other attributes of a physician are discussed with relation to subgroups in the sample. The relative importance of the influence of doctors, family, and friends on the choice of physician and health care facility are also presented. The findings may help with the development of effective market segmentation and improved health care service to the Asian American community. PMID:10538733

  15. Considerations in Asian cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, John A

    2007-08-01

    From the point of view of the facial plastic surgeon, certain facial features necessitate formulation of unique surgical approaches for aesthetic modification and justify specialized study of surgical techniques that are consistent and reliable in producing good aesthetic results in the Asian face. Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face is a challenging and fascinating endeavor. In large part, the challenge relates to understanding cultural and psychologic differences that often translate into behavior that may be unfamiliar to the surgeon. Continuing efforts to understand the Asian psyche are mandatory if communication is to be effective. PMID:17658435

  16. [Surgical therapy of chronic anal fissure--do additional proctologic operations impair continence?].

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, J; Berger, A; Uranüs, S

    1994-07-01

    78 patients with chronic anal fissures have been mainly operated on by lateral internal sphincterotomy (LATS). Continence have been evaluated by questionnaire at least 9 months postoperatively. Patient without any additional proctological operation had minor disturbances of continence in 17%. Patient with additional operations had disturbances of continence in 30%. Especially the subgroup of patients with LATS and haemorrhoidectomy had bad results. In this group only 45% were fully continent. PMID:7924599

  17. Asian migration to Australia: food and health consequences.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage for 'eco-diseases'. In a population probably genetically programmed (but modifiably) in utero to abdominal obesity, diabetes (type II and gestational) and cardiovascular disease, these conditions may be rapidly acquired on migration, along with certain cancers (breast, colo-rectal and prostate). Thus, whilst Asian migration to Australia has provided health opportunities for host citizens, there have been threats to migrant citizens in regard to nutrition-related health. PMID:12492648

  18. U. S. maritime industries: Down for the third time

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, R.; Pettavino, P.J.; Ullman, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    As a result of market forces, the rise of overseas competition, and U.S. government policies, the U.S. maritime industries have undergone a steady decline for several decades. This book assesses the decline in terms of its impact on U.S. national security and economic well-being and contents that a program of well-coordinated initiatives costing /12 billion annually will be required.

  19. Performance of infrared systems in swimmer detection for maritime security.

    PubMed

    Krapels, Keith; Driggers, Ronald G; Garcia Iii, Jose F

    2007-09-17

    The detection of swimmer activity in harbor areas around piers and ships is an important aspect of Anti-Terrorism/Force Protection (AT/FP) sensing efforts in the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard. A series of data collections and perception experiments were conducted to validate the use of thermal target acquisition models against swimmer targets. The results were analyzed to derive the discrimination criteria necessary for sensor design for maritime force protection. PMID:19547598

  20. Inference of vessel intent and behaviour for maritime security operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Bert; Smith, Arthur; den Breejen, Eric; van de Voorde, Imelda

    2014-10-01

    Coastguard and Navy assets are increasingly involved in Maritime Security Operations (MSO) for countering piracy, weapons and drugs smuggling, terrorism and illegal trafficking. Persistent tracking of vessels in interrupted time series over long distances and the modelling of intent and behaviour from multiple data sources are key enablers for Situation Assessment in MSO. Results of situation assessment are presented for AIS/VTS observations in the Dutch North Sea and for simulated scenarios in the Gulf of Oman.

  1. Development of an unmanned maritime system reference architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Christiane N.; Cramer, Megan A.; Stack, Jason R.

    2014-06-01

    The concept of operations (CONOPS) for unmanned maritime systems (UMS) continues to envision systems that are multi-mission, re-configurable and capable of acceptable performance over a wide range of environmental and contextual variability. Key enablers for these concepts of operation are an autonomy module which can execute different mission directives and a mission payload consisting of re-configurable sensor or effector suites. This level of modularity in mission payloads enables affordability, flexibility (i.e., more capability with future platforms) and scalability (i.e., force multiplication). The modularity in autonomy facilitates rapid technology integration, prototyping, testing and leveraging of state-of-the-art advances in autonomy research. Capability drivers imply a requirement to maintain an open architecture design for both research and acquisition programs. As the maritime platforms become more stable in their design (e.g. unmanned surface vehicles, unmanned underwater vehicles) future developments are able to focus on more capable sensors and more robust autonomy algorithms. To respond to Fleet needs, given an evolving threat, programs will want to interchange the latest sensor or a new and improved algorithm in a cost effective and efficient manner. In order to make this possible, the programs need a reference architecture that will define for technology providers where their piece fits and how to successfully integrate. With these concerns in mind, the US Navy established the Unmanned Maritime Systems Reference Architecture (UMS-RA) Working Group in August 2011. This group consists of Department of Defense and industry participants working the problem of defining reference architecture for autonomous operations of maritime systems. This paper summarizes its efforts to date.

  2. How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Stacie Salsbury

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored continence care

  3. How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Stacie Salsbury

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored continence care…

  4. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  5. Spatial, Temporal and Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Maritime Piracy

    PubMed Central

    Marchione, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine patterns in the timing and location of incidents of maritime piracy to see whether, like many urban crimes, attacks cluster in space and time. Methods: Data for all incidents of maritime piracy worldwide recorded by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency are analyzed using time-series models and methods originally developed to detect disease contagion. Results: At the macro level, analyses suggest that incidents of pirate attacks are concentrated in five subregions of the earth’s oceans and that the time series for these different subregions differ. At the micro level, analyses suggest that for the last 16 years (or more), pirate attacks appear to cluster in space and time suggesting that patterns are not static but are also not random. Conclusions: Much like other types of crime, pirate attacks cluster in space, and following an attack at one location the risk of others at the same location or nearby is temporarily elevated. The identification of such regularities has implications for the understanding of maritime piracy and for predicting the future locations of attacks. PMID:25076796

  6. Maritime traffic monitoring using a space-based AIS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Torkild; Høye, Gudrun; Narheim, Bjørn; Meland, Bente Jensløkken

    2006-05-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a maritime safety and vessel traffic system imposed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The system broadcasts position reports and short messages with information about the ship and the voyage. Using frequencies in the maritime VHF band, the coverage is similar to other VHF applications, and is essentially dependent on the altitude of the antenna. For ship-to-ship communications the range is typically 20 nautical miles and for ship-to-shore up to 40 nm. A space-based AIS receiver in low earth orbit will have a range to the horizon of more than 1000 nm, giving an excellent opportunity for large-area ocean surveillance. The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) has performed a feasibility study on reception of AIS messages from space. The results show that a ship detection probability of near 100% can be obtained for up to 1000 ships within the coverage area, and that for a standard AIS receiver a signal power margin of 10-20 dB can be achieved. On this background, swath-width analyses for European scenarios are done. It is argued that space-based reception of AIS messages is a promising way of achieving long-range identification and tracking services at marginal cost.

  7. Training and Maritime Archaeology in a University Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parham, David; Palma, Paola

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on experience gained by Bournemouth University to consider undergraduate education in maritime archaeology. At Bournemouth maritime archaeology is taught firmly in the context of a broader archaeological education. Archaeological programmes vary with the institutions within which they are taught, each programme thus having an individual character that separates it from that of other institutions and further enriches the subject through the breadth of this education. At Bournemouth the value of teaching archaeology with a high component of practical experience has been long understood. This does not mean that archaeology is taught as a purely practical subject but as one within which experience in the field is seen as a worthwhile focus. Bournemouth’s programme therefore recognises the value of field research projects as learning environments for undergraduates studying maritime archaeology. The programme is subject to a number of constraints, notably the size of the archaeological employment market, levels of pay within that market, questions of ongoing professional development after graduation, and the requirements of other employment markets into which archaeological graduates enter. This paper argues that research project-based learning, and in particular, involvement with amateur groups, provides a way to balance these constraints and supports development of both technical and transferable ‘soft’ skills.

  8. Gender, social norms, and survival in maritime disasters.

    PubMed

    Elinder, Mikael; Erixson, Oscar

    2012-08-14

    Since the sinking of the Titanic, there has been a widespread belief that the social norm of "women and children first" (WCF) gives women a survival advantage over men in maritime disasters, and that captains and crew members give priority to passengers. We analyze a database of 18 maritime disasters spanning three centuries, covering the fate of over 15,000 individuals of more than 30 nationalities. Our results provide a unique picture of maritime disasters. Women have a distinct survival disadvantage compared with men. Captains and crew survive at a significantly higher rate than passengers. We also find that: the captain has the power to enforce normative behavior; there seems to be no association between duration of a disaster and the impact of social norms; women fare no better when they constitute a small share of the ship's complement; the length of the voyage before the disaster appears to have no impact on women's relative survival rate; the sex gap in survival rates has declined since World War I; and women have a larger disadvantage in British shipwrecks. Taken together, our findings show that human behavior in life-and-death situations is best captured by the expression "every man for himself." PMID:22847426

  9. Anomalies of the Asian Monsoon Induced by Aerosol Forcings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, M. K.

    2004-01-01

    Impacts of aerosols on the Asian summer monsoon are studied using the NASA finite volume General Circulation Model (fvGCM), with radiative forcing derived from three-dimensional distributions of five aerosol species i.e., black carbon, organic carbon, soil dust, and sea salt from the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport Model (GOCART). Results show that absorbing aerosols, i.e., black carbon and dust, induce large-scale upper-level heating anomaly over the Tibetan Plateau in April and May, ushering in & early onset of the Indian summer monsoon. Absorbing aerosols also I i enhance lower-level heating and anomalous ascent over northern India, intensifying the Indian monsoon. Overall, the aerosol-induced large-scale surface' temperature cooling leads to a reduction of monsoon rainfall over the East Asia continent, and adjacent oceanic regions.

  10. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... 07/2012]. Percent of population with feelings of sadness, hopelessness, worthlessness, or that everything is an effort, ... Hispanic White Asian American/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio Sadness 1.9 2.8 0.7 Hopelessness 1. ...

  11. Application of infrared imaging systems to maritime security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Debing

    Enhancing maritime security through video based systems is a very challenging task, not only due to the different scales of vessels to be monitored, but also due to the constantly changing background and environmental conditions. Yet video systems operating in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum have established themselves as one of the most crucial tools in maritime security. However, certain inherent limitations such as requirements of proper scene illumination and failure under low visibility weather conditions like fog could be overcome utilizing different spectral regions. Thermal imaging systems present themselves as a good alternative in maritime security. They could overcome these problems and allow for additional detection of local variation of water temperature, yet have been rarely used efficiently in maritime environment evaluated. Here we present a first order study of the advantage of using long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging for diver detection. Within these tasks we study the reasons and effects of bubbles on water surface in laboratory IR imaging study and have determined the changes in infrared emissivity and reflectivity due to the corresponding surface manifestation. This was compared and used to analyze experiments in the Hudson Estuary to the real-world applicability of infrared technology in maritime security application. Utilizing a LWIR camera, we limit ourselves on the detection of the scuba diver as well as the determination of its depth---information normally not obtainable in very low visibility water like the Hudson River. For this purpose we observed the thermal surface signature of the diver and obtained and analyzed its temporal behavior with respect to area, perimeter and infrared brightness. Additional qualitative and quantitative analyses of the area and perimeter growth show different behaviors with more or less pronounced correlation to the diver's depth---yet clearly showing a trend allowing for estimation of the diver's depth based on the IR surface manifestation. To reduce the impact of measurement and data processing errors in this natural very noisy environment, a computer based analysis process was developed and optimized for this very specific application. Based on its assessment previous contradictions in the bubble growth could be resolved.

  12. Catchment sediment yield in Africa: a continent-wide analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean; Broeckx, Jente; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    While several studies compiled and analyzed measured contemporary catchment sediment yield (SY, [t/km²/y]) values for various regions of the world, Africa remains strongly underrepresented in these studies. We therefore conducted a review on published SY data for Africa, explored the spatial variability of these SY data and examined which environmental factors explain this variability. We collected SY measurements of at least one year for 682 African catchments across the continent (> 8340 catchment-years) from 84 publications and reports. Catchment areas range from 0.02 km² to > 3,800,000 km². Observed SY values range between 0.2 and 15,699 t/km²/y (median: 160 t/km²/y, average: 634 t/km²/y). Correlation and partial correlation analyses showed that spatial variation of SY in Africa is mainly explained by differences in seismic activity, topography, vegetation cover and annual runoff depth. Other factors such as lithology, catchment area or reservoir impacts showed less clear correlations. Based on these findings we propose a simple regression model that allows simulating the observed regional patterns of SY in Africa fairly well. This model predicts an average SY of 42 t/km²/y for the entire African continent, a value that corresponds closely to earlier estimates of the sediment output of the African continent to the oceans. The fact that SY shows the strongest correlation with seismic activity, while climatic variables explain little of the observed variation can be considered surprising as Africa is relatively inactive in terms of seismic activity and is characterized by a very large climatic variability. This suggests that processes such as tectonically related rock-fracturing and earthquake-triggered landslides may have a stronger influence on contemporary SY-values than previously assumed.

  13. Variations in Tectonic Styles of Arc-Continent Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Staal, C.; Zagorevski, A.; Castonguay, S.; Massonne, H.; McNicoll, V.; Willner, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    Ancient arc-continent collisions are commonly informally described as hard or soft, although the differences between these two are rarely defined. We define a hard collision where the overriding arc (including infant arcs preserved in obducted ophiolites) has been significantly thickened in proximity to the suture zone due to internal deformation. Upper plate deformation involved progressive underthrusting and thickening of parts of the arc-forearc terrane, presumably as a result of progressive widening of the subduction channel into the hangingwall. The Late Cretaceous Kohistan arc collision with Eurasia or India is an example of a hard collision. A more ancient example of a well-studied arc-continent collision is the Early-Middle Ordovician, (Taconic) collision between the Laurentian Humber margin and the Notre Dame arc in the Northern Appalachians. The collision was hard where the arc was built on continental crust (Dashwoods), because parts of both the ophiolitic forearc basement (Baie Verte oceanic tract) and the leading edge of the arc block were locally intensely deformed and metamorphosed with conditions ranging from high pressure greenschist to amphibolite and/or granulite facies conditions. However, where the Notre Dame arc transgresses from a continental to an oceanic substrate, the style of collision appears to change from hard to soft and more resembles the relatively soft Late Cretaceous collision between the infant arc preserved in the Semail ophiolite and the Arabian continental margin. Subsequent Ordovician-Silurian collisions involving arc blocks in the Appalachians are generally soft or show a more intermediate character between hard and soft such as the China-Luzon arc collision in central Taiwan. Here most of the forearc block appears to have been deformed and subducted, whereas the arc itself remained relatively undeformed. Other orogens (e.g. Canadian Cordillera) may show a similar variation in style of arc-continent collisions.

  14. Bounds for Asian basket options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  15. Liquid level control in an aerated continous-flow fermentor.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K W; Grulke, E; Gerhardt, P

    1985-06-01

    An electronic liquid level control system was developed to maintain constant working volume in a continuously fed and aerated fermentor from which spent medium was continously withdrawn by microfiltration in an external recycle loop. The level control system was comprised of an admittance sensor in the fermentor and an external transmitter and controller, which together regulated the speed of a recycle pump and thus the rate of liquid withdrawal from the fermentor. During test bacterial culture the liquid level was maintained usually within +/- 1% and always within +/- 5%. The control system could be applied to various other types and scales of continuous-flow fermentors. PMID:18553759

  16. Exploring the dark continent with fibre Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkwright, John W.; Wang, David Hsiao-Chuan; Maunder, Simon A.; Blenman, Neil G.; Underhill, Ian; Patton, Vicki; Dinning, Phil G.

    2014-05-01

    The lower gastrointestinal tract has been referred to as the `Dark Continent' of the human body because it is so hard to access without resorting to a surgeon's blade. In response to an unmet clinical need we have developed a fibre optic manometry catheter that is now in clinical use across Australia and New Zealand. The unparalleled detail of colonic activity that these devices provide is being hailed as ground breaking by global experts. In this paper we present the design and clinical application of the catheters, and also some of the (sometimes surprising) requirements of our clinical colleagues.

  17. 76 FR 30154 - Maritime Communications/Land Mobile, LLC, Licensee of Various Authorizations in the Wireless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...This document commences a hearing proceeding to determine ultimately whether Maritime Communications/Land Mobile, LLC (Maritime) is qualified to be and to remain a Commission licensee, and as a consequence whether any or all of its licenses should be revoked, and whether any or all of the applications to which Maritime is a party should be denied. The issues designated for hearing also include......

  18. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciuto, Daniel M; Gu, Lianhong

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ~ 16 C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  19. Continents as lithological icebergs: The importance of buoyant lithospheric roots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, D.H.; Drury, R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the formation of new continental crust provides an important guide to locating the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals. We evaluated the crustal thicknesses of the thinnest stable continental crust and of an unsubductable oceanic plateau and used the resulting data to estimate the amount of mantle melting which produces permanent continental crust. The lithospheric mantle is sufficiently depleted to produce permanent buoyancy (i.e., the crust is unsubductable) at crustal thicknesses greater than 25-27 km. These unsubductable oceanic plateaus and hotspot island chains are important sources of new continental crust. The newest continental crust (e.g., the Ontong Java plateau) has a basaltic composition, not a granitic one. The observed structure and geochemistry of continents are the result of convergent margin magmatism and metamorphism which modify the nascent basaltic crust into a lowermost basaltic layer overlain by a more silicic upper crust. The definition of a continent should imply only that the lithosphere is unsubductable over ??? 0.25 Ga time periods. Therefore, the search for the oldest crustal rocks should include rocks from lower to mid-crustal levels.

  20. Robotic Intracorporeal Continent Cutaneous Urinary Diversion: Primary Description.

    PubMed

    Goh, Alvin C; Aghazadeh, Monty A; Krasnow, Ross E; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Stewart, Julie N; Miles, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose is to present the first report and describe our novel technique for intracorporeal continent cutaneous diversion after robotic cystectomy. After completion of robot-assisted cystectomy using a standard six-port transperitoneal technique, three additional ports are placed, and the robot is redocked laterally over the patient's right side in the modified lateral position. Our technique replicates step-by-step the principles of the open approach. Ileocolonic anastomosis, ureteroenteral anastomoses, and construction of a hand-sewn right colonic pouch are all performed intracorporeally. Tapering of efferent ileal limb and reinforcement of the ileocecal valve are performed via the extraction site, while the stoma is matured through a prospective port site. Successful robotic intracorporeal creation of a modified Indiana pouch was achieved. Operative time for diversion was 3 hours, with negligible blood loss, and without any intraoperative complications. No major (Clavien III-V) 90-day complications were observed. At a follow-up of 1 year, the patient continues to catheterize without difficulty. We demonstrate the first description of robotic intracorporeal continent cutaneous urinary diversion after robot-assisted cystectomy. We present a systematic minimally invasive approach, replicating the principles of open surgery, which is technically feasible and safe with a good functional result. PMID:25556514

  1. Importance of continence advice for people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Gwen

    Bladder and bowel problems are a common feature in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This article demonstrates how patients benefit from specialist input relating to continence as part of a multidisciplinary neurological rehabilitation service (MNRS). The implementation of the MNRS has offered a 'one-stop' referral system for people with an acquired or progressive neurological condition. The patient's condition should be such that active and effective rehabilitation can take place. One of the key aims of the service is to enable people to function as independently as possible by improving/maintaining their physical, social, and psychological well-being through appropriate assessment and treatment regimes. The Multiple Sclerosis Society recommends the involvement of specialist nurses and specialist multidisciplinary teams in the management of patients. The recommended standards suggest that people with MS should be put in contact with a specialist multidisciplinary team in their area where appropriate treatment in relation to tone management, posture, fatigue management and continence can be provided. Without specialist advice, patients may develop more serious and intractable problems in the longer term. The author will describe how working in a specialized team has moved towards meeting these recommendations and in so doing has enhanced care for people with MS. PMID:12514469

  2. [Continent derivation of urine (a Modo) Mainz II].

    PubMed

    Panchev, P; Kumanov, Kh; Ianev, K; Georgiev, M; Slavov, Ch; Kirilov, S

    1999-01-01

    The improved intestinal dissection technique and antibiotic agents, and the development of new resorptive suture materials have led to renewed surge of interest in ureterosigmoidostomy as a practicable procedure for continent derivation. Based on data from urodynamic assessment of diverse forms of urinary derivation, M Fisch and R Hohenfellner in 1991 propose a modification of the classical technique of ureterosigmoidostomy, coined with the term Sigmarectum pouch or Mainz pouch (M Fisch, R. Wammack, R Hohenfellner 1991). Over the period 1992 through 1999, 46 operations type "Mainz II" are performed in the Department of Urology--University Hospital "Alexandrovska". The series includes 41 men and 5 women with age range 42 to 80 years. All patients present urinary bladder tumors. The usual surgical technique is used. The severest postoperative complications include: urinary fistulae--3 (6.52%), local relapse--4 (8.69%) and distant metastases--2 (4.35%). In six patients the outcome is fatal (0.7%). This type of continent derivation following cystectomy is recommended since it is convenient, practically atraumatic and well tolerated by the patients. Complications encountered seldom necessitate operative intervention. PMID:11484241

  3. Correlation of Mid-Continent Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) Brachiopods

    SciTech Connect

    Weibel, C.P.

    1986-05-01

    Biostratigraphic correlations of Pennsylvanian strata in the Illinois basin with those of the Western Interior basin have been restricted largely to comparison of ostracode faunules and a few fusulinid occurrences. Seventeen brachiopod species from the Bogota and Greenup Limestone Members of the upper Mattoon Formation in east-central Illinois resemble species from Late Pennsylvanian Mid-Continent localities. Five Bogota species have relatively restricted ranges and are useful for correlation. Neochonetes granulifer var. transversalis is rare in the Douglas Group but abundant in the Shawnee and Wabaunsee. Lissochonetes geinitzianus var. plattsmouthensis ranges from uppermost Missourian to upper Shawnee and L. geinitzianus var. geronticus ranges from upper Wabaunsee to Lower Permian. Derbyia texana occurs in the Thrifty Formation of north Texas (probably upper Shawnee or lower Wabaunsee). Antiquatonia jemezensis has not been reported in the Mid-Continent but occurs in the upper Madera formation (probable Shawnee or early Wabaunsee) of New Mexico. A compositid from the younger Greenup Limestone Member is morphologically intermediate between the Early Pennsylvanian Composita wasatchensis and the middle Permian C. affinis. Other species from the Bogota and Greenup members range throughout the Upper Pennsylvanian, except for one linoproductid of Missourian affinities. This study, along with a previous study of brachiopods (Shumway Limestone Member) and of fusulinids, indicates that the Bogota is of middle Shawnee age, the Greenup is of upper Shawnee or lower Wabaunsee age, and the Missourian-Virgilian boundary in the Illinois basin is stratigraphically near the Omega Limestone Member.

  4. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents.

    PubMed

    Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John

    2014-07-15

    The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

  5. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents

    PubMed Central

    Mole, David R.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F.; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Romano, Sandra S.; Doublier, Michael P.; Belousova, Elena A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Miller, John

    2014-01-01

    The generation and evolution of Earth’s continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50–30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean–Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

  6. Pressure injury prevention: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition management.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Kerri; Fulbrook, Paul; Nowicki, Tracy

    2010-08-10

    To prevent pressure injuries research indicates the importance of focusing on three key areas of practice: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition. These are a synergistic trio and many patients require considered management in all three areas. In addition to targeting specific aspects of nursing care in these areas, it is also crucial that there is organisational buy-in for strategic initiatives. Some of the ways that we achieved this are outlined below: Support from managerial level by presenting evidence and education to senior nurses and directors. Nurse unit managers completed individual ward action plans outlining their individual commitments to reducing pressure injuries. Providing support and education to staff to choose and use continence products effectively. Support from allied health colleagues in prevention of pressure injuries. After implementing the actions described above, pressure injury prevalence at the Prince Charles Hospital in Brisbane decreased from 13.78% in 2008 to 5.15% in 2010, representing a 62% reduction overall. Of these pressure injuries, 53% were stage one. PMID:20862898

  7. Petroleum geology and hydrocarbon exploration in the continent of China

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang Tong )

    1996-01-01

    The geological structure of the continent of China, which is formed by the amalgamation of three small-sized paleocratons and their peripheral orogenic belts, is very complex. Six big sedimentary basins developed on it: four of them are composite basins on the paleocratons; the other two basins are superimposed on the orogenic belts. In addition, there are a large number of small to middle-sized non-marine sedimentary basins. Up to now, the proved geological reserves in the continent of China are: oil, above 16 billion tons; natural gas, 1000 billion cubic meters. Last year, the annual oil output was more than 140 million tons; natural gas output reached 16 billion cubic meters. The six big basins are still the major exploration potential area. On the other hand, a lot of small to middle-sized reservoirs will be discovered in the small to middle-sized non-marine basins and coal-bearing basins in North China. Qiang Tang Basin and coalbed gas are two favorable frontiers.

  8. Petroleum geology and hydrocarbon exploration in the continent of China

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang Tong

    1996-12-31

    The geological structure of the continent of China, which is formed by the amalgamation of three small-sized paleocratons and their peripheral orogenic belts, is very complex. Six big sedimentary basins developed on it: four of them are composite basins on the paleocratons; the other two basins are superimposed on the orogenic belts. In addition, there are a large number of small to middle-sized non-marine sedimentary basins. Up to now, the proved geological reserves in the continent of China are: oil, above 16 billion tons; natural gas, 1000 billion cubic meters. Last year, the annual oil output was more than 140 million tons; natural gas output reached 16 billion cubic meters. The six big basins are still the major exploration potential area. On the other hand, a lot of small to middle-sized reservoirs will be discovered in the small to middle-sized non-marine basins and coal-bearing basins in North China. Qiang Tang Basin and coalbed gas are two favorable frontiers.

  9. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  10. Hydration of the lithospheric mantle by the descending plate in a continent-continent collisional setting and its geodynamic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2016-05-01

    At the beginning of continent-continent collision the descending plate dehydrates. The influence of this dehydration on the adjacent lithospheric mantle was studied. For this reason, pressure (P), temperature (T) and T-H2O pseudosections were calculated for an average mantle composition using the computer software PERPLE_X. These pseudosections were contoured by isopleths, for instance, for volumes of amphibole, chlorite, and serpentine. In addition, P-T pseudosections were considered for four psammopelitic rocks, common in the upper portion of the continental crust, in order to quantify the release of H2O in these rocks during prograde metamorphism. At pressures around 1 GPa, a maximum of slightly more than 10 vol.% chlorite, almost 20 vol.% amphibole, and some talc but no serpentine forms when only 1.8 wt.% H2O is added to the dry ultrabasite at temperatures of 600 °C. For example, hydrous phases amount to about 35 vol.% serpentine and 10 vol.% each of chlorite and amphibole at 1 GPa, 550 °C, and 5 wt.% H2O. The modelled psammopelitic rocks can release 0.8-2.5 wt.% H2O between 450 and 650 °C at 0.8-1.4 GPa. On the basis of the above calculations, different collisional scenarios are discussed highlighting the role of hydrated lithospheric mantle. In this context a minimum hydration potential of the front region of the descending continental plate is considered, which amounts to 4.6 × 1016 kg releasable H2O for a 1000 km wide collisional zone, due to a thick sedimentary pile at the continental margin. Further suggestions are that (1) the lower crustal plate in a continent-continent collisional setting penetrates the lithospheric mantle, which is hydrated during the advancement of this plate, (2) the maximum depths of the subduction of upper continental crust is below 70 km and (3) hydrated mantle above the descending crustal plate is thrust onto this continental crust.

  11. The place of science in a continent at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Koech, D K

    2001-01-01

    I have mentioned it before and I want to repeat it now, that we in Africa share a common history, heritage and basic problems of development. We, therefore, have an inescapable responsibility of pooling our talents and resources in shaping our common destiny. In fulfillment of its mission, AFHES, through its organized con notgresses and this Journal, is an invaluable vessel for enabling us to promote better health for the peoples of this continent. Africa is a continent endowed with great potential that, for one reason or an notother, has been ignored or misused, resulting in the current crisis now enveloping the continent. There is the escalating debt burden, falling agricultural productivity and the ever-increasing population. Efforts to improve the situation are hampered by adverse factors such as malnutrition, HTV/AIDS, malaria and other causes of ill health; wars, poor environmental management and the ever-worrisome problem of refugees. At the sunrise of the 21st Century, we must wake up and reverse the current trend by focusing our resources on priority areas of development. The fight for freedom from the yoke of colonialism and the traumatic experience of apartheid has been won. In some African countries, however, the winning of the fight for freedom has opened up a new fight, a fight that is more fierce and bloody than that which set us free. These include civil strife and internecine wars giving rise to a new black Diaspora, which is far greater than the one experienced during the period of slavery and slave trade. People supposed to build these nations have either been killed or forced into exile. Those intellectually endowed have sought refuge in safer and economically developed countries and, by the same process, also weaken the al notready weak economies of their mother countries. They have, therefore, helped to strengthen the already strong economies of the developed nations. This is indeed, a sad situation that poses a formidable challenge to the future well being of the conti notnent. Civil strife has resulted in the increased numbers of displaced persons and has caused a big setback in the fight against diseases and causes of ill health. In addition, there are new challenges created by emergence of new infections, re-emergence of diseases that had been put under control; and the changing epidemiological patterns and manifestations of existing diseases. Since disease and ill health know no bound notary, we must all be prepared to find solutions to diseases and causes of ill health that continuously haunt this continent. As health experts, we are concerned. We should not be responding to health emergencies occasioned by civil strife. We need peace as it will guarantee not only freedom and personal security, but it will also guarantee our future and the future of those to come after us. We are well aware that as is the case with developed nations, the development of our continent rests on the utilization of research findings, which must be useful, contextual and must stand the test of time. This is our mission and our hope. Africa is at the crossroads. We must not despair or quit, lest we become irrel notevant both to ourselves and to the rest of mankind. Let African governments give science a chance. As I have said several times before and I am still saying it now, quitters never win and winners never quit. We have no alternative but to be winners! PMID:17650041

  12. Self-consistent formation of continents on early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Breuer, Doris; Dehant, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    In our study we want to understand how Earth evolved with time and examine the initiation of plate tectonics and the possible formation of continents on Earth. Plate tectonics and continents seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life [1], and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of continents, atmospheric temperature), and may also depend on the biosphere. Earth is the only terrestrial planet (i.e. with a rocky mantle and iron core) in the solar system where long-term plate tectonics evolved. Knowing the factors that have a strong influence on the occurrence of plate tectonics allows for prognoses about plate tectonics on terrestrial exoplanets that have been detected in the past decade, and about the likelihood of these planets to harbour Earth-like life. For this purpose, planetary interior and surface processes are coupled via 'particles' as computational tracers in the 3D code GAIA [2,3]. These particles are dispersed in the mantle and crust of the modelled planet and can track the relevant rock properties (e.g. density or water content) over time. During the thermal evolution of the planet, the particles are advected due to mantle convection and along melt paths towards the surface and help to gain information about the thermo-chemical system. This way basaltic crust that is subducted into the silicate mantle is traced in our model. It is treated differently than mantle silicates when re-molten, such that granitic (felsic) crust is produced (similar to the evolution of continental crust on early Earth [4]), which is stored in the particle properties. We apply a pseudo-plastic rheology and use small friction coefficients (since an increased reference viscosity is used in our model). We obtain initiation of plate tectonics and self-consistent formation of pre-continents after a few Myr up to several Gyr - depending on the initial conditions and applied rheology. Furthermore, our first results indicate that continents can stabilize plate tectonics, analogous to the results obtained by [5]. The model will be further developed to treat hydration and dehydration of oceanic crust as well as subduction of carbonates to allow for a self-consistent 3D model of early Earth including a direct link between interior and atmosphere via both outgassing [6] and regassing. References [1] Ward, P.D. and Brownlee, D. (2000), Rare Earth, Springer. [2] Hüttig, C. and Stemmer, K. (2008), PEPI, 171(1-4):137-146. [3] Plesa, A.-C., Tosi, N. and Hüttig, C. (2013), in: Integrated Information and Computing Systems for Natural, Spatial, and Social Sciences, IGI Global, 302-323. [4] Arndt, N.T. and Nisbet, E.G. (2012), Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 40:521-549. [5] Rolf, T. and Tackley, P.J. (2011), GRL, 38:L18301. [6] Noack, L., Breuer, D. and Spohn, T. (2012), Icarus, 217(2):484-498.

  13. Advanced Ship Detection For Spaceborne Based Maritime Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radius, Andrea; Ferreira, Joao; Carmo, Paulo; Marques, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    In the last years the increase in marine traffic generated the necessity of global monitoring for marine environment management in terms of safety, security and fisheries. The increasing number of new satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems, and the intrinsic capability of the transmitted electromagnetic pulses to interact with the ships and to retrieve its cinematic characteristics, made this instrument particularly fit to improve global maritime awareness through the fusion with cooperative data (AIS, VMS, LRIT). The growing need of global maritime awareness gave a push to the realization of different projects in the European context, each one focused on a different particular objective. Particularly useful is the synergy between the operational and research aspects, being the goal of the last to improve the state of the art in the field of ship detection. Two European projects are the key to strive this synergy: the project MARitime Security Service (MARISS), which implements the operational capability, and the R&D Dolphin projects, which is focused on the deep exploitation of remote sensing data and on the technological development of advanced techniques for ship detection and classification purposes, and Seabilla project, which is also dedicated to improve the current ship detection capability and to fuse all the available information from different data sources for border surveillance optimization. This paper introduces the multipurpose Edisoft Vessel Detection software (EdiVDC) implemented by the EDISOFT company, which comes from the necessity to respect increasingly stringent requirements in terms of ship detection. The EdiVDC software is being operationally used in the framework of the MARISS project and it integrates advanced processing algorithms, developed in the scope of the Dolphin project with the cooperation of ISEL-IT (Instituto de Telecomunicações), and data simulators, developed in the context of the Seabilla project, improving the software capability and introducing new functionalities. In this work we present the functionalities of the software and the main results achieved with different types of SAR data.

  14. Mapping the knowledge base for maritime health: 1 historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been major developments in the understanding of disease and its treatment in the last 150 years. The development of the knowledge base on patterns of disease and injury in seafarers and on the effectiveness of intervention to prevent and treat them indicates the sorts of information that were collected and the settings in which it was possible to collect it. They also show how it has been used, as well as the reactions of those in the maritime sector to the collection and analysis of health information and to its use as a means of reducing harm. PMID:22544495

  15. Tunable Vibration Energy Harvester for Condition Monitoring of Maritime Gearboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on a new tuning concept, which enables the operation of a vibration generator for energy autonomous condition monitoring of maritime gearboxes. The tuning concept incorporates a circular tuning magnet, which interacts with a coupling magnet attached to the active transducer element. The tuning range can be tailored to the application by careful design of the gap between tuning magnet and coupling magnet. A total rotation angle of only 180° is required for the tuning magnet in order to obtain the full frequency bandwidth. The tuning concept is successfully demonstrated by charging a 0.6 F capacitor on the basis of physical vibration profiles taken from a gearbox.

  16. OxyContin® as Currency: OxyContin® Use and Increased Social Capital among Rural Appalachian Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Adam B.; Young, April M.; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Havens, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that position within networks of social relations can have direct implications on the health behaviors of individuals. The present study examines connections between drug use and individual social capital within social networks of drug users (n=503) from rural Appalachian Kentucky, U.S.A. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit individuals age 18 and older who had used one of the following drugs to get high: cocaine, crack, heroin, methamphetamine, or prescription opioids. Substance use was measured via self-report and social network analysis of participants’ drug use network was used to compute effective size, a measure of social capital. Drug network ties were based on sociometric data on recent (past 6 month) drug co-usage. Multivariate multi-level ordinal regression was used to model the independent effect of sociodemographic and drug use characteristics on social capital. Adjusting for gender, income, and education, daily OxyContin® use was found to be significantly associated with greater social capital, and daily marijuana use was associated with less social capital. These results suggest that in regions with marked economic disparities such as rural Appalachia, OxyContin® may serve as a form of currency that is associated with increased social capital among drug users. Interventions focusing on increasing alternate pathways to acquiring social capital may be one way in which to alleviate the burden of drug use in this high-risk population. PMID:22465379

  17. A Zn isotope perspective on the rise of continents.

    PubMed

    Pons, M-L; Fujii, T; Rosing, M; Quitté, G; Télouk, P; Albarède, F

    2013-05-01

    Zinc isotope abundances are fairly constant in igneous rocks and shales and are left unfractionated by hydrothermal processes at pH < 5.5. For that reason, Zn isotopes in sediments can be used to trace the changing chemistry of the hydrosphere. Here, we report Zn isotope compositions in Fe oxides from banded iron formations (BIFs) and iron formations of different ages. Zinc from early Archean samples is isotopically indistinguishable from the igneous average (δ(66) Zn ~0.3‰). At 2.9-2.7 Ga, δ(66) Zn becomes isotopically light (δ(66) Zn < 0‰) and then bounces back to values >1‰ during the ~2.35 Ga Great Oxygenation Event. By 1.8 Ga, BIF δ(66) Zn has settled to the modern value of FeMn nodules and encrustations (~0.9‰). The Zn cycle is largely controlled by two different mechanisms: Zn makes strong complexes with phosphates, and phosphates in turn are strongly adsorbed by Fe hydroxides. We therefore review the evidence that the surface geochemical cycles of Zn and P are closely related. The Zn isotope record echoes Sr isotope evidence, suggesting that erosion starts with the very large continental masses appearing at ~2.7 Ga. The lack of Zn fractionation in pre-2.9 Ga BIFs is argued to reflect the paucity of permanent subaerial continental exposure and consequently the insignificant phosphate input to the oceans and the small output of biochemical sediments. We link the early decline of δ(66) Zn between 3.0 and 2.7 Ga with the low solubility of phosphate in alkaline groundwater. The development of photosynthetic activity at the surface of the newly exposed continents increased the oxygen level in the atmosphere, which in turn triggered acid drainage and stepped up P dissolution and liberation of heavy Zn into the runoff. Zinc isotopes provide a new perspective on the rise of continents, the volume of carbonates on continents, changing weathering conditions, and compositions of the ocean through time. PMID:23421593

  18. Comparison of different evaporation estimates over the African continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trambauer, P.; Dutra, E.; Maskey, S.; Werner, M.; Pappenberger, F.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation is a key process in the water cycle with implications ranging, inter alia, from water management to weather forecast and climate change assessments. The estimation of continental evaporation fluxes is complex and typically relies on continental-scale hydrological models or land-surface models. However, it appears that most global or continental-scale hydrological models underestimate evaporative fluxes in some regions of Africa, and as a result overestimate stream flow. Other studies suggest that land-surface models may overestimate evaporative fluxes. In this study, we computed actual evaporation for the African continent using a continental version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, which is based on a water balance approach. Results are compared with other independently computed evaporation products: the evaporation results from the ECMWF reanalysis ERA-Interim and ERA-Land (both based on the energy balance approach), the MOD16 evaporation product, and the GLEAM product. Three other alternative versions of the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological model were also considered. This resulted in eight products of actual evaporation, which were compared in distinct regions of the African continent spanning different climatic regimes. Annual totals, spatial patterns and seasonality were studied and compared through visual inspection and statistical methods. The comparison shows that the representation of irrigation areas has an insignificant contribution to the actual evaporation at a continental scale with a 0.5° spatial resolution when averaged over the defined regions. The choice of meteorological forcing data has a larger effect on the evaporation results, especially in the case of the precipitation input as different precipitation input resulted in significantly different evaporation in some of the studied regions. ERA-Interim evaporation is generally the highest of the selected products followed by ERA-Land evaporation. In some regions, the satellite-based products (GLEAM and MOD16) show a different seasonal behaviour compared to the other products. The results from this study contribute to a better understanding of the suitability and the differences between products in each climatic region. Through an improved understanding of the causes of differences between these products and their uncertainty, this study provides information to improve the quality of evaporation products for the African continent and, consequently, leads to improved water resources assessments at regional scale.

  19. Asian Black Carbon Influence on East Asian Summer Monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, R.; Li, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since the black carbon (BC) emission in East and South Asia has increased significantly during the last decades of the 20th century, there is an ever growing concern about its impact on Asian monsoon. In this study we provide an in-depth analysis of the influence by performing several ensemble sensitive experiments with or without historical BC concentrations over East Asia, South Asia, and the combined East and South Asia in an atmospheric general circulation model, GFDL AM2.1. The results show that: (a) The East Asian summer climate is sensitive to the East Asian BC (EABC) concentrations in a sense that EABC contributes significantly to the frequently occurring north-drought and south-flood patterns in Eastern China. In detail, the large scale precipitation anomalies induced by EABC characterize more rainfalls over central/south China, East China Sea and southern Japan and less rainfall over northern China and the west Pacific region between 10N to 20N. These anomalous precipitation patterns are mainly attributed to the EABC induced large scale circulation changes including the weakened Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), anomalous ascent motions over central-southern China (centering over the Yangtze River valley (YRV)) and the subsequent descent motions over northern China and the South China Sea. These modeled results suggest that the EABC experiment reproduces the climate shift event of eastern China during the late 1970s, including intensified rainfall in the YRV and the weakened summer monsoonal circulation. (b) The anomalous results of South Asian BC (SABC) experiment signify a tri-polar precipitation response over East Asia, with a reduction from the YRV to East China Sea and southern Japan sandwiched with increases over a northern domain from northern China/ Korea to northern Japan and over southern China. As for southern China, particularly the YRV, the impact of SABC is to offset a fraction of intensified rainfall induced by local BC of East Asia. Mechanistically, the remote effect of SABC over East Asian climate is realized through a propagating wave train along the Asian upper jet that disperses the South Asian local atmospheric signals downstream and causes an intensified subtropical high over the western Pacific and thus less moisture supply from the Bay of Bengal to reach the Yangtze River basin. (c) The combined East and South Asian BC (ABC) also results in reduced precipitation anomalies over eastern China and the South China Sea extending to Japan while enhanced precipitation over central and northern China. This implies that ABC has a tendency to shift the meiyu rain belt northward consistent with the previous conclusions for absorbing aerosols. (d) Comparing the zonal mean precipitation of the three BC sensitive experiments suggests that the East and South Asian BC responses offset each other at certain locations and may induce nonlinear interaction. Based on above mentioned model results we argue that the East Asian summer climate is highly sensitive to the BC concentrations over the local or over South Asia, and the latter might have contributed to the weakening of East Asian monsoon during the last two decades of the 20th century.

  20. Dysfunction of the continent ileostomy: clinical features and bacteriology.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, D G; Phillips, S F; Kelly, K A; Weinstein, W M; Gilchrist, M J

    1983-01-01

    The pathogenesis and treatment of dysfunction of the continent ileostomy was investigated in 12 patients, five of whom had asymptomatic malabsorption and seven of whom had acute complaints. The number of anaerobic bacteria in jejunal aspirates was increased in patients with pouch malfunction (range 10(3) to 10(8)/g aspirate), but the microbiology of ileal effluent and the morphology of the ileal mucosa could not be correlated with dysfunction. Bile acid breath tests and lactose tolerance tests were not, however, reliable indicators of jejunal bacterial overgrowth. The symptoms, the malabsorption, and the number of jejunal and ileal anaerobic bacteria decreased in patients during treatment with metronidazole, implicating overgrowth of anaerobic bacterial flora in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. Images Fig. 4 PMID:6826102