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1

Accelerator System Model (ASM) user manual with physics and engineering model documentation. ASM version 1.0  

SciTech Connect

The Accelerator System Model (ASM) is a computer program developed to model proton radiofrequency accelerators and to carry out system level trade studies. The ASM FORTRAN subroutines are incorporated into an intuitive graphical user interface which provides for the {open_quotes}construction{close_quotes} of the accelerator in a window on the computer screen. The interface is based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC) software technology written for the Macintosh operating system in the C programming language. This User Manual describes the operation and use of the ASM application within the SPARC interface. The Appendix provides a detailed description of the physics and engineering models used in ASM. ASM Version 1.0 is joint project of G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc. and the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Neither the ASM Version 1.0 software nor this ASM Documentation may be reproduced without the expressed written consent of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc.

NONE

1993-07-01

2

77 FR 3073 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...addenda to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, and the ASME...section: The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division...Copies of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, the ASME Code for...

2012-01-23

3

Microprocessors in fluid power engineering  

SciTech Connect

Microprocessors and digital electronics may well take over most control functions in engineering and will also open up many new possibilities. This IMechE conference provided a forum of engineers to discuss the state of the technology. Subjects covered include: analogue valves and hydraulic controls; transducers; use of microprocessors in off-line processing activities; and the use of microprocessors in closed loop processing. Papers include a review of the application of microprocessors to electrohydraulic control systems; test rig control; a low cost microprocessor to fluid power interface valve; micro-electronics in flowmeters and other transducers; on-line monitoring of mining hydraulic systems; and computer controlled pneumatic servo drives.

Not Available

1984-01-01

4

Review and Application of ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent of the workshop is to review the application of the ASME Nuclear Crane Standards ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1-2000. The ASME Nuclear Crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities.

Lytle, Bradford P.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

5

Fluid mechanics phenomena in microgravity; ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Nov. 8-13, 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is the first in a series of symposia presenting research activity in microgravity fluid mechanics. General topics addressed include two-phase flow and transport phenomena, thermo-capillary flow, and interfacial stability. Papers present mathmatical models of fluid dynamics in the microgravity environment. Applications suggested include space manufacturing and storage of liquids in low gravity.

Siginer, Dennis A. (editor); Weislogel, Mark M. (editor)

1992-01-01

6

Fluid mechanics phenomena in microgravity; ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Nov. 8-13, 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first in a series of symposia presenting research activity in microgravity fluid mechanics. General topics addressed include two-phase flow and transport phenomena, thermo-capillary flow, and interfacial stability. Papers present mathmatical models of fluid dynamics in the microgravity environment. Applications suggested include space manufacturing and storage of liquids in low gravity. For individual titles, see A95-95212 through

Dennis A. Siginer; Mark M. Weislogel

1992-01-01

7

An Introduction to Thermal-Fluid Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text is the first to provide an integrated introduction to basic engineering topics and the social implications of engineering practice. Aimed at beginning engineering students, the book presents the basic ideas of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and combustion through a real-world engineering situation. It relates the engine to the atmosphere in which it moves and exhausts its waste

Zellman Warhaft

1998-01-01

8

An Introduction to Thermal-Fluid Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This text is the first to provide an integrated introduction to basic engineering topics and the social implications of engineering practice. Aimed at beginning engineering students, the book presents the basic ideas of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and combustion through a real-world engineering situation. It relates the engine to the atmosphere in which it moves and exhausts its waste products. The book also discusses the greenhouse effect and atmospheric inversions, and the social implications of engineering in a crowded world with increasing energy demands. Students in mechanical, civil, agricultural, environmental, aerospace, and chemical engineering will welcome this engaging, well-illustrated introduction to thermal-fluid engineering.

Warhaft, Zellman

1998-01-01

9

Engineering fluid flow using sequenced microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling the shape of fluid streams is important across scales: from industrial processing to control of biomolecular interactions. Previous approaches to control fluid streams have focused mainly on creating chaotic flows to enhance mixing. Here we develop an approach to apply order using sequences of fluid transformations rather than enhancing chaos. We investigate the inertial flow deformations around a library of single cylindrical pillars within a microfluidic channel and assemble these net fluid transformations to engineer fluid streams. As these transformations provide a deterministic mapping of fluid elements from upstream to downstream of a pillar, we can sequentially arrange pillars to apply the associated nested maps and, therefore, create complex fluid structures without additional numerical simulation. To show the range of capabilities, we present sequences that sculpt the cross-sectional shape of a stream into complex geometries, move and split a fluid stream, perform solution exchange and achieve particle separation. A general strategy to engineer fluid streams into a broad class of defined configurations in which the complexity of the nonlinear equations of fluid motion are abstracted from the user is a first step to programming streams of any desired shape, which would be useful for biological, chemical and materials automation.

Amini, Hamed; Sollier, Elodie; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Xie, Yu; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Stone, Howard A.; di Carlo, Dino

2013-05-01

10

Closeout of IE Bulletin 79-03: Longitudinal weld defects in ASME SA-312 Type 304 stainless steel pipe spools manufactured by Youngstown Welding and Engineering Co  

SciTech Connect

Documentation is provided in this report for the closeout of IE Bulletin 79-03, on the subject of fusion welded austenitic stainless steel pipe (without filler metal) manufactured by the Youngstown Welding and Engineering Company. Only pipe used or planned for use in safety-related systems is considered. The bulletin is closed out on the basis of definite criteria for all of the 121 facilities for which actions were required. This bulletin was issued by the NRC on March 12, 1979, to require certain actions by all holders of operating licenses and construction permits for power reactors. The NRC's concern was based on the discoveries of faulty longitudinal welds at Palo Verde and San Onofre. The investigations for Bulletin 79-03 led to the finding that volumetric examination of the fusion welds per the ASME Code requirements did not assure detection of centerline lack of penetration (CLP). Therefore, the problem of faulty welds applied to all manufacturers of SA-312/A-312 Type 300 Series welded steel pipe. Bulletin 79-03A was issued on April 4, 1980, to supersede the required actions of Bulletin 79-03, and to collect information on all of the subject pipe and fittings in safety-related systems. Refer to NUREG/CR-5284 for the companion closeout report on IE Bulletin 79-03A, ''Longitudinal weld defects in ASME SA-312 Type 304 stainless steel pipe.'' Background information is provided in the introduction and Appendix A of this report as well as NUREG/CR-5284.

Foley, W.J.; Dean, R.S.; Hennick, A.

1989-04-01

11

Globalization of ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards  

SciTech Connect

With the globalization of the nuclear industry, it is clear that the reactor suppliers are based in many countries around the world (such as United States, France, Japan, Canada, South Korea, South Africa) and they will be marketing their reactors to many countries around the world (such as US, China, South Korea, France, Canada, Finland, Taiwan). They will also be fabricating their components in many different countries around the world. With this situation, it is clear that the requirements of ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards need to be adjusted to accommodate the regulations, fabricating processes, and technology of various countries around the world. It is also very important for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to be able to assure that products meeting the applicable ASME Code requirements will provide the same level of safety and quality assurance as those products currently fabricated under the ASME accreditation process. To do this, many countries are in the process of establishing or changing their regulations, and it is important for ASME to interface with the appropriate organizations in those countries, in order to ensure there is effective use of ASME Codes and standards around the world. (authors)

Swayne, Rick [Reedy Engineering, 3425 South Bascom Ave. Suite E, Campbell, CA 95008 (United States); Erler, Bryan A. [Erler Engineering, Ltd., North Vernon, Indiana (United States)

2006-07-01

12

ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics )CFD) models to address environmental engineering challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant source emissions, atmospheric dispersion and resulting human exposure. CFD simulations ...

13

Fluidic multiplexer for fluid servomotors in a gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a gas turbine engine. The improvement comprises: fluidic motors; fluid lines connecting the fluidic motors with a fluid multiplex r, the fluid multiplexer including; a drum; a housing having apertures and within which the drum is continuously unidirectionally rotatable; a conduit within the drum which sequentially connects each of the opening with a common fluid pressure source during rotation, the conduit comprising a bore and branches; and a servo valve means adapted to selectively connect the conduit to the common fluid pressure source.

Richards, J.C.; Smith, J.P. Jr.

1992-02-25

14

Index to place of publication of ASME Papers, 1978-1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This index is a list of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Papers that are reprinted in the ASME Transactions series of journals. ASME Papers are often cited only by their paper number, making it difficult to determine if the article has ever...

G. K. Youngen

1990-01-01

15

CalTech Chemical Engineering: Fluid Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website describes a research project focused on fluid mechanics and transport processes, with an emphasis on "problems at the interface between continuum mechanics and statistical mechanics." The John F. Brady research group uses its own computational method known as Stokesian Dynamics to study complex fluids, and develop and solve macroscopic equations to describe transport in heterogeneous media. Most of the abstracts from the more recent publications are available online. Videos produced as part of the group's research include, Diffusion in Simple Shear Flow, Stokesian Dynamics: Pressure Driven Flow of Suspensions, Stokesian Dynamics Simulation of an Electroreological Fluid, Statistical Mechanics of Bubbly Liquids, Simulation of Colloidal, and Brownian Dynamics. There are also a few presentations that are available online in the pdf format.

16

76 FR 11191 - Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Engineers' (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XII (2010 Edition...National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors' National Board Inspection...80765). The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XII is now...

2011-03-01

17

46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 52...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

2013-10-01

18

46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 53...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

2013-10-01

19

Liquid rocket engine fluid-cooled combustion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monograph on the design and development of fluid cooled combustion chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines is presented. The subjects discussed are (1) regenerative cooling, (2) transpiration cooling, (3) film cooling, (4) structural analysis, (5) chamber reinforcement, and (6) operational problems.

1972-01-01

20

Computational fluid dynamics; Giving a boost to engine design  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is allowing automakers to compress development cycles and cut costs because the computer programs are allowing them to make fewer prototypes leading up to a finished engine design. Also with the help of the software, engines with better performance and reduced rates of fuel consumption and emissions are being designed. The CFD programs are being used mostly in parallel with test-bench analyses to judge the many prototypes that lead to the final design of an engine. The computer programs simulate processes such as combustion, cooling, and air intake by calculating parameters such as the temperatures, turbulence, and pressures associated with heat transfer and fluid flow in various engines. Without CFD, designers would have to first modify each new prototype and then evaluate it with instrumentation on a test-bench. According to engine designers, it is far easier and less expensive to first analyze the prototype by making changes to a CFD model. If the CFD simulation shows the new design is acceptable, then it is usually verified with physical tests. If it is unacceptable, however, the model can be easily manipulated until designers are satisfied that a new prototype should be built and verified with hardware tests.

O'Connor, L.

1992-05-01

21

46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54...section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure...

2009-10-01

22

46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54...section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure...

2010-10-01

23

Conjugate heat transfer in oscillating fluid flow in Stirling engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the wall thickness effects on the heat transfer (conjugate heat transfer) and of the abrupt cross-sectional area variation in oscillating fluid flows in view of applications to Stirling engine modeling is presented. The numerical analysis of the oscillating fluid flow has been carried out with a scheme that simulates a tube bundle heater. The effects of the viscosity and of thermal irreversibility are taken into account by the differential form of the entropy generation. The difference between the velocity and temperature profiles caused from pressure gradient oscillation or from piston motion, under the hypothesis of incompressible flow, are also shown. The formulation of the motion equations and energy equation for the solid walls are written in an axisymmetric reference frame. The computational analysis has been carried out by a multiple-purpose finite element program.

Devalba, M.; Rispoli, F.

24

Supercritical fluids in biomedical and tissue engineering applications: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, the definition of a scaffold for tissue\\u000d\\u000a engineering has changed dramatically, from a material that acts only as\\u000d\\u000a an inert structural support for cell attachment to serving as a more\\u000d\\u000a complex and dynamic environment for tissue development. This paper is a\\u000d\\u000a review on the existing and on the new emerging techniques based on\\u000d\\u000a supercritical fluid

A. R. C. Duarte; J. F. Mano; R. L. Reis

2009-01-01

25

Performance characteristics of prototype MR engine mounts containing LORD glycol MR fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

LORD Corporation has recently developed glycol-based MR fluids for use in applications such as engine mounts and bushing, in which the MR fluid will contact rubber and other oil-sensitive elastomers. To demonstrate the performance characteristics of these fluids, prototype MR engine mounts were designed and their dynamic stiffness and damping were tested. In one configuration, the MR mount contained a

Daniel E Barber; J David Carlson

2009-01-01

26

Performance Characteristics of Prototype MR Engine Mounts Containing Glycol MR Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lord Corporation has developed glycol-based magnetorheological (MR) fluids for use in applications such as engine mounts and bushings, in which the MR fluid will contact rubber or other oil-sensitive elastomers. Prototype MR fluid engine mounts were designed with either a simple MR valve or an MR valve in combination with an inertia track. The mounts were filled with glycol MR

Daniel E. Barber; J. David Carlson

2010-01-01

27

Variability of computational fluid dynamics solutions for pressure and flow in a giant aneurysm: the ASME 2012 Summer Bioengineering Conference CFD Challenge.  

PubMed

Stimulated by a recent controversy regarding pressure drops predicted in a giant aneurysm with a proximal stenosis, the present study sought to assess variability in the prediction of pressures and flow by a wide variety of research groups. In phase I, lumen geometry, flow rates, and fluid properties were specified, leaving each research group to choose their solver, discretization, and solution strategies. Variability was assessed by having each group interpolate their results onto a standardized mesh and centerline. For phase II, a physical model of the geometry was constructed, from which pressure and flow rates were measured. Groups repeated their simulations using a geometry reconstructed from a micro-computed tomography (CT) scan of the physical model with the measured flow rates and fluid properties. Phase I results from 25 groups demonstrated remarkable consistency in the pressure patterns, with the majority predicting peak systolic pressure drops within 8% of each other. Aneurysm sac flow patterns were more variable with only a few groups reporting peak systolic flow instabilities owing to their use of high temporal resolutions. Variability for phase II was comparable, and the median predicted pressure drops were within a few millimeters of mercury of the measured values but only after accounting for submillimeter errors in the reconstruction of the life-sized flow model from micro-CT. In summary, pressure can be predicted with consistency by CFD across a wide range of solvers and solution strategies, but this may not hold true for specific flow patterns or derived quantities. Future challenges are needed and should focus on hemodynamic quantities thought to be of clinical interest. PMID:23445061

Steinman, David A; Hoi, Yiemeng; Fahy, Paul; Morris, Liam; Walsh, Michael T; Aristokleous, Nicolas; Anayiotos, Andreas S; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C; Berg, Philipp; Janiga, Gbor; Bols, Joris; Segers, Patrick; Bressloff, Neil W; Cibis, Merih; Gijsen, Frank H; Cito, Salvatore; Pallars, Jordi; Browne, Leonard D; Costelloe, Jennifer A; Lynch, Adrian G; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; Fu, Wenyu; Qiao, Aike; Hodis, Simona; Kallmes, David F; Kalsi, Hardeep; Long, Quan; Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Finol, Ender A; Kono, Kenichi; Malek, Adel M; Lauric, Alexandra; Menon, Prahlad G; Pekkan, Kerem; Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Marsden, Alison L; Oshima, Marie; Katagiri, Kengo; Peiffer, Vronique; Mohamied, Yumnah; Sherwin, Spencer J; Schaller, Jens; Goubergrits, Leonid; Usera, Gabriel; Mendina, Mariana; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Habets, Damiaan F; Xiang, Jianping; Meng, Hui; Yu, Yue; Karniadakis, George E; Shaffer, Nicholas; Loth, Francis

2013-02-01

28

Overview of ASME V&V 20-2009 standard for verification and validation in computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this Standard is the specification of a verification and validation approach that quantifies the degree of accuracy inferred from the comparison of solution and data for a specified variable at a specified validation point. The approach uses the concepts from experimental uncertainty analysis to consider the errors and uncertainties in both the solution and the data. The scope of this Standard is the quantification of the degree of accuracy of simulation of specified validation variables at a specified validation point for cases in which the conditions of the actual experiment are simulated. Consideration of solution accuracy at points within a domain other than the validation points, for example interpolation/extrapolation in a domain of validation, is a matter of engineering judgment specific to each family of problems and is beyond the scope of this Standard.

Dowding, Kevin J.; Blackwell, Bennie Francis; Hills, Richard Guy

2010-03-01

29

Teaching Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to Design Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can provide detailed thermal flow information, such as temperature field, pressure field and velocity field, in equipment and process in various industries. Due to the recent rapid growth of powerful computer resources and the development of commercial CFD software packages, CFD has been proven a useful tool for mechanical design engineers. CFD has also gained broad acceptance in the engineering education. It has been adopted in both undergraduate and graduate level courses in many universities. The teaching of CFD in current engineering education can be classified into two types, one is to focus on the numerical methods with little emphasis on using the software and the other is to introduce a CFD software as a virtual reality laboratory in Fluid Mechanics class without emphasis on teaching software. In the first type, students need strong mathematical background to succeed in the class and also need further training to effectively use modern commercial software for real industrial application. While in the second type, students only learned an abstract form of CFD processes, thus they will not be able to use CFD commercial software without further training in this area. This paper is about the use of CFD in teaching graduate students at this university who were in a two year design track program. Many of these students did not have a good background in mathematics, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and programming, however, most of them were good at computer aided design in ProE and were very interested in learning CFD as a design tool in industries. STAR-CCM+ was chosen as the CFD software to teach students the entire CFD process in a single integrated software environment. After building a geometry model in ProE, students learned to import the CAD model, set up mesh model, physical model and solver, and postprocess the results in STAR-CCM+. Based on projects, CFD numerical methods and fundamentals of heat transfer and fluid flow were introduced to help students understand the CFD process, interpret, and validate simulation results.

Hu, Junling; Xiong, Xingguo; Zhang, Linfeng

2009-09-02

30

Noise produced by fluid inhomogeneities. [in gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an actual engine system, one mechanism for production of hot spots is the burning of various fluid elements at various different mixture ratios. Variable mixture ratio means variable temperature, and this is the effect that has been studied insofar as a noise source is concerned. However, variable mixture ratio also implies variable molecular weight and heat capacity. The paper investigates whether either of these last two variations may be responsible for a significant noise source. The analysis is made within the context of one-dimensional unsteady flow as in the work of Candel (1972). A mixture of thermally perfect gases is assumed as the working fluid, and the fluid composition consists of species 1 and a small and variable mole fraction of species 2 which has different molecular weight and specific heats as compared with species 1. In the absence of changes in the ratio of specific heat (gamma), the entropy variations due to temperature and molecular weight variations are equivalent as a sound source. The portion of sound called 'gamma prime' noise is discussed.

Strahle, W. C.

1976-01-01

31

ASME Nuclear Crane Standards for Enhanced Crane Safety and Increased Profit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ASME NOG-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes', covers top running cranes for nuclear facilities; with the ASME NUM-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Cranes, Monorails, and Hoists', covering the single girder, underhung, wall and jib cranes, as well as the monorails and hoists. These two ASME nuclear crane standards provide criteria for designing, inspecting and testing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety to meet the 'defense-in-depth' approach of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents NUREG 0554 and NUREG 0612. In addition to providing designs for enhanced safety, the ASME nuclear crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with standard safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities. The ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1 standards not only provide enhanced safety for handling a critical load, but also increase profit by minimizing the possibility of load drops, by reducing cumbersome operating restrictions, and by providing the foundation for a sound licensing position. The ASME nuclear crane standards can also increase profit by providing the designs and information to help ensure that the right standard equipment is purchased. Additionally, the ASME nuclear crane standards can increase profit by providing designs and information to help address current issues, such as the qualification of nuclear plant cranes for making 'planned engineered lifts' for steam generator replacement and decommissioning.

Parkhurst, Stephen N.

2000-01-01

32

Symposium on ASME codes and recent advances in PVP and valve technology including a survey of operations research methods in engineering  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the design and engineering of reactor pressure vessels, pipes and valves. Topics considered at the symposium included computer-aided fatigue design methods for weldments, the propagation of defects under PWR loading conditions, the fatigue of welded joints in elevated-temperature nuclear components, the design of a bolted flange subjected to severe nuclear system thermal transients, and operations research methods.

Fong, J.T.; Hollinger, G.L.; Gowda, B.; Ezekoye, L.I.; Levary, R.R.

1986-01-01

33

Computational fluid dynamic design of rocket engine pump components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for design and analysis of turbomachinery components is needed as the requirements of pump performance and reliability become more stringent for the new generation of rocket engine. A fast grid generator, designed specially for centrifugal pump impeller, which allows a turbomachinery designer to use CFD to optimize the component design will be presented. The CFD grid is directly generated from the impeller blade G-H blade coordinates. The grid points are first generated on the meridional plane with the desired clustering near the end walls. This is followed by the marching of grid points from the pressure side of one blade to the suction side of a neighboring blade. This fast grid generator has been used to optimize the consortium pump impeller design. A grid dependency study has been conducted for the consortium pump impeller. Two different grid sizes, one with 10,000 grid points and one with 80,000 grid points were used for the grid dependency study. The effects of grid resolution on the turnaround time, including the grid generation and completion of the CFD analysis, is discussed. The impeller overall mass average performance is compared for different designs. Optimum design is achieved through systematic change of the design parameters. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that CFD can be effectively used not only for flow analysis but also for design and optimization of turbomachinery components.

Chen, Wei-Chung; Prueger, George H.; Chan, Daniel C.; Eastland, Anthony H.

1992-01-01

34

Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offerings on the physics of fluids. By an educational Web site called School for Champions, the first site is the Fluids lesson plan (1). Here, students or anyone interested can read about the basics of fluids and then take a short interactive quiz on the topic. The second site is maintained by Steve Lower of the Department of Chemistry at Simon Fraser University called Liquids and their Vapors (2). This Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file contains an eighteen-page document that covers topics such as properties of liquids and changes of state. The next site contains an interactive multimedia activity presented by explorescience.com called Floating Log (3). The site allows users to explore how a fluid can affect buoyancy by letting them change the mass of the log and the fluid's density. The next site from Purdue University's Chemical Education Web site is called Liquids (4). This page describes the structure of liquids, what kinds of materials form liquids, vapor pressure, and more. The fifth site, offered by Professor M.S. Cramer at the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, is entitled Gallery of Fluid Dynamics (5). It contains movies, animations, photographs, and descriptions of various fluid mechanics topics such as condensation, shock waves, and supersonic cars. Next comes the Innovative Technology Solutions Corporation's Fundamental Fluid Mechanics Movies Web site (6). Over thirty short films show how fluids move in various conditions including gravity waves, fire, material transport, and hydraulics. From the University of Waterloo's Department of Mechanical Engineering-Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory comes the next site, called the Fluid Properties Calculator (7). This online tool allows users to select a fluid and enter a temperature to calculate various parameters such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. The last site is the online journal Physics of Fluids (8), which is published monthly by the American Institute of Physics with the cooperation of The American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics. The journal is "devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex or multiphase fluids" and provides free full-text articles for online viewing.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

35

Testing of the Multi-Fluid Evaporator Engineering Development Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hamilton Sundstrand is under contract with the NASA Johnson Space Center to develop a scalable, evaporative heat rejection system called the Multi-Fluid Evaporator (MFE). It is being designed to support the Orion Crew Module and to support future Constellation missions. The MFE would be used from Earth sea level conditions to the vacuum of space. The current Shuttle configuration utilizes an ammonia boiler and flash evaporator system to achieve cooling at all altitudes. The MFE system combines both functions into a single compact package with significant weight reduction and improved freeze-up protection. The heat exchanger core is designed so that radial flow of the evaporant provides increasing surface area to keep the back pressure low. The multiple layer construction of the core allows for efficient scale up to the desired heat rejection rate. The full scale MFE prototype will be constructed with four core sections that, combined with a novel control scheme, manage the risk of freezing the heat exchanger cores. A sub-scale MFE engineering development unit (EDU) has been built, and is identical to one of the four sections of a full scale prototype. The EDU has completed testing at Hamilton Sundstrand. The overall test objective was to determine the thermal performance of the EDU. The first set of tests simulated how each of the four sections of the prototype would perform by varying the chamber pressure, evaporant flow rate, coolant flow rate and coolant temperature. A second set of tests was conducted with an outlet steam header in place to verify that the outlet steam orifices prevent freeze-up in the core while also allowing the desired thermal turn-down ratio. This paper discusses the EDU tests and results.

Quinn, Gregory; O'Connor, Ed; Riga, Ken; Anderson, Molly; Westheimer, David

2007-01-01

36

Regulatory Endorsement Activities for ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards  

SciTech Connect

The ASME Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards (BNCS) has formed a Task Group on Regulatory Endorsement (TG-RE) that is currently in discussions with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to look at suggestions and recommendations that can be used to help with the endorsement of new and revised ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards (NC and S). With the coming of new reactors in the USA in the very near future we need to look at both the regulations and all the ASME NC and S to determine where we need to make changes to support these new plants. At the same time it is important that we maintain our operating plants while addressing ageing management needs of our existing reactors. This is going to take new thinking, time, resources, and money. For all this to take place the regulations and requirements that we use must be clear concise and necessary for safety and to that end both the NRC and ASME are working together to make this happen. Because of the influence that the USA has in the world in dealing with these issues, this paper is written to inform the international nuclear engineering community about the issues and what actions are being addressed under this effort. (author)

West, Raymond A. [Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc. - Dominion Generation (United States)

2006-07-01

37

An Innovative Improvement of Engineering Learning System Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An innovative concept of an electronic learning system has been established in an attempt to achieve a technology that provides engineering students with an instructive and affordable framework for learning engineering-related courses. This system utilizes an existing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package, Active Server Pages programming,

Hung, T. C.; Wang, S. K.; Tai, S. W.; Hung, C. T.

2007-01-01

38

Combustion Chamber Fluid Dynamics and Hypergolic Gel Propellant Chemistry Simulations for Selectable Thrust Rocket Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenge Project C2N is dedicated to developing and applying high performance computing capabilities to accelerate the development of hypergolic and hybrid rocket engine concepts. Computational fluid dynamics is employed to model chemically reacting flows within engine combustion chambers and computational chemistry is employed to characterize propellant physical and reactive properties. Accomplishments are presented and discussed.

Chiung-Chu Chen; Michael J. Nusca; Anthony J. Kotlar; Michael J. McQuaid

2009-01-01

39

Simulation of a traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine using computational fluid dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation study of a traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine is presented. The computations show an increase of the dynamic pressure when a linear temperature difference is applied across the regenerator. An amplification of the acoustic power through the engine is also illustrated. A satisfactory agreement between the calculated and expected gains of the traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine

J. A. Lycklama Nijeholt; M. E. H. Tijani; S. Spoelstra

2005-01-01

40

Risk based ASME Code requirements  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this ASME Research Task Force is to develop and to apply a methodology for incorporating quantitative risk analysis techniques into the definition of in-service inspection (ISI) programs for a wide range of industrial applications. An additional objective, directed towards the field of nuclear power generation, is ultimately to develop a recommendation for comprehensive revisions to the ISI requirements of Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will require development of a firm technical basis for such requirements, which does not presently exist. Several years of additional research will be required before this can be accomplished. A general methodology suitable for application to any industry has been defined and published. It has recently been refined and further developed during application to the field of nuclear power generation. In the nuclear application probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques and information have been incorporated. With additional analysis, PRA information is used to determine the consequence of a component rupture (increased reactor core damage probability). A procedure has also been recommended for using the resulting quantified risk estimates to determine target component rupture probability values to be maintained by inspection activities. Structural risk and reliability analysis (SRRA) calculations are then used to determine characteristics which an inspection strategy must posess in order to maintain component rupture probabilities below target values. The methodology, results of example applications, and plans for future work are discussed.

Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Balkey, K.R.

1992-09-01

41

ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS  

EPA Science Inventory

In the field of environmental engineering, modeling tools are playing an ever larger role in addressing air quality issues, including source pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and human exposure risks. More detailed modeling of environmental flows requires tools for c...

42

Computational fluid dynamics: A virtual prototyping tool for materials engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software in many materials processing industries has grown tremendously in recent years. Computational fluid dynamics has been widely utilized for conducting virtual experiments, prototype testing, and parametric studies. Analysis using CFD complements and reduces physical testing, and it can result in a significant time and cost savings. In this article, the application of CFD to a variety of materials-processing problems is presented, with examples taken from the steel, aluminum, glass, semiconductor, and polymer processing fields.

Mukhopadhyay, A.; Devulapalli, B.; Dutta, A.; Grald, E. W.

2004-03-01

43

Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics in building services engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to building services design is illustrated and reviewed. Principal areas of application are designs requiring an understanding of the air flow pattern, such as design of smoke control systems and air distribution in a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system. In such an approach, the indoor air motion is described by a set of partial differential

W. K. Chow

1996-01-01

44

Advances in numerical simulation of turbulent flows; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME and JSME Joint Fluids Engineering Conference, 1st, Portland, OR, June 23-27, 1991  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present conference discusses the modeling of swirling flows with advanced turbulence closures, algebraic expressions for Reynolds stresses, numerical simulation of 3D developing turbulent flows in a square duct with the anisotropic k-epsilon model, the prediction of normal Reynolds stresses with the nonlinear k-epsilon model, combustor flowfield turbulence modeling with the nonlinear k-epsilon model, and the large-eddy simulation of the unsteady turbulent wake of a circular cylinder using FEM. Also discussed are the direct simulation of transient turbulent flows using the generalized method of lines, simulation of 3D shear flows around a nozzle-afterbody, the interface oscillation phenomenon over a cavity in airflow, combustion-wave instabilities in turbulent flows, and modeling the buoyancy-production of dissipation in a plane turbulent plume.

Celik, I.; Kobayashi, T.; Ghia, K. N.; Kurokawa, J.

45

Fluid flow and fuel-air mixing in a motored two-dimensional Wankel rotary engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implicit-factored method of Beam and Warming was employed to obtain numerical solutions to the conservation equations of mass, species, momentum, and energy to study the unsteady, multidimensional flow and mixing of fuel and air inside the combustion chambers of a two-dimensional Wankel rotary engine under motored conditions. The effects of the following engine design and operating parameters on fluid flow and fuel-air mixing during the intake and compression cycles were studied: engine speed, angle of gaseous fuel injection during compression cycle, and speed of the fuel leaving fuel injector.

Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Stegeman, J.

1986-01-01

46

The ARL/FEU (Fluids Engineering Unit) Semi-Anechoic Chamber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memorandum documents the design and acoustic characteristics of the ARL/Fluids Engineering Unit semi-anechoic chamber. It is located on the first floor of the Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel and has internal dimensions of 11 x 12 x 8 feet. The sound abs...

G. C. Lauchle E. Wong

1975-01-01

47

Modelling of a hydraulic engine mount with fluidstructure interaction finite element analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic engine mount (HEM) is now widely used as a highly effective vibration isolator in automotive powertrain. A lumped parameter (LP) model is a traditional model for modelling the dynamic characteristics of HEM, in which the system parameters are usually obtained by experiments. In this paper, a fluidstructure interaction (FSI) finite element analysis (FEA) method and a non-linear FEA technology

Wen-Bin Shangguan; Zhen-Hua Lu

2004-01-01

48

Hydraulic Fluids and Jet Engine Oil: Pyrolysis and Aircraft Air Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incidents of smoke in aircraft cabins often result from jet engine oil and\\/or hydraulic fluid that leaks into ventilation air, which can be subjected to temperatures that exceed 500 C. Exposed flight-crew members have reported symptoms, including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision, and tingling in the legs and arms. In this study, the authors investigated pyrolysis products of one jet

C. Van Netten; V. Leung

2001-01-01

49

High-Pressure Rocket Engine Turnaround Duct Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current and projected high-pressure, staged-combustion rocket engine designs, such as the XLR129 and SSME, have introduced a type of turnaround duct flowpath wherein the turnaround is accompanied by an increase in mean radius and a decrease in fluid veloc...

G. B. Cox

1984-01-01

50

ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Development  

SciTech Connect

Support was provided by DOE for the 2nd ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Development. The final conference program and abstracts book is attached. The conference presentations are organized around topics that are central to the current research areas in prokaryotic development. The program starts with topics that involve relatively simple models systems and ends with systems that are more complex. The topics are: i) the cell cycle, ii) the cytoskeleton, iii) morphogenesis, iv) developmental transcription, v) signaling, vi) multicellularity, and vii) developmental diversity and symbiosis. The best-studied prokaryotic development model systems will be highlighted at the conference through research presentations by leaders in the field. Many of these systems are also model systems of relevance to the DOE mission including carbon sequestration (Bradyrizobium, Synechococcus), energy production (Anabaena, Rhodobacter) and bioremediation (Caulobacter, Mesorhizobium). In addition, many of the highlighted organisms have important practical applications; the actinomycetes and myxobacteria produce antimicrobials that are of commercial interest. It is certain that the cutting-edge science presented at the conference will be applicable to the large group of bacteria relevant to the DOE mission.

Kaplan, H. B.

2005-07-13

51

ASME Subsection ISTD recommendations based upon NPAR snubber aging research results  

SciTech Connect

As a result of information obtained during the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research(NPAR) Program, Snubber Task research, recommendations are made in the three following areas for the next revision of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Operations and Maintenance (OM) Code, Subsection ISTD: Service-Life Monitoring; Visual Examination Attributes; and Failure Grouping and Corrective Action.

Blahnik, D.E.; Brown, D.P.

1991-12-01

52

Control device for diesel engine intake air heater and priming fluid injection system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a diesel engine having an intake manifold provided with an electrical heater for heating incoming air through the intake manifold and a primer injector for injecting a priming fluid in the intake manifold. The engine has an oil pressure lubrication system and a coolant circulation system, control means comprising oil pressure sensor means and means inhibiting operation of the heater unless the oil pressure sensor means detects a predetermined oil pressure indicating circulation of lubricant in the oil pressure lubrication system.

Gluckman, D.

1987-05-26

53

An engineering model for adsorption of gases onto flat surfaces and clustering in supercritical fluids  

SciTech Connect

Physical adsorption is used in gas purification processes such as the removal of volatile organic compounds from stack gases, as a means of fractionating fluids that are difficult to separate by other methods, and in adsorbent regenerations using supercritical fluids. Physical adsorption is also of interest in transportation and storage of radioactive gases, in separation and purification of lower hydrocarbons, in supercritical extractions and chromatography, and in critical point drying. The authors present an engineering model to describe physical adsorption from sub- to supercritical conditions on flat walls and clustering in supercritical fluids using a single temperature-independent parameter for fluid-solid interactions. The fluid-solid potential is superimposed on the Peng-Robinson equation of state, and the configurational energy integral in the inhomogeneous fluid phase is simplified with a local density approximation. This model is capable of quantitative fits over wide pressure and temperature ranges. Model predictions for physical adsorption of pure gases on flat walls are compared with experimental surface excess data, and model predictions for describing the clustering phenomenon are compared with experimental fluorescence spectra.

Subramanian, R.; Pyada, H.; Lira, C.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-11-01

54

Simulation of a traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine using computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation study of a traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine is presented. The computations show an increase of the dynamic pressure when a linear temperature difference is applied across the regenerator. An amplification of the acoustic power through the engine is also illustrated. A satisfactory agreement between the calculated and expected gains of the traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine is obtained. The expected gain is defined as the ratio of the absolute temperatures at the ends of the regenerator. Nonlinear phenomena that cannot be captured by existing linear theory, like streaming mass flows and vortices formation, are also visualized. It is concluded that CFD codes could be used in the future to predict and optimize thermoacoustic systems. This is an important step towards the development of nonlinear simulation tools for the high-amplitude thermoacoustic systems that are needed for practical use.

Lycklama Nijeholt, J. A.; Tijani, M. E. H.; Spoelstra, S.

2005-10-01

55

Thermal/Fluid Analysis of a Composite Heat Exchanger for Use on the RLV Rocket Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of efforts to design a regeneratively cooled composite nozzle ramp for use on the reusable vehicle (RLV) rocket engine, an C-SiC composites heat exchanger concept was proposed for thermal performance evaluation. To test the feasibility of the concept, sample heat exchanger panels were made to fit the Glenn Research Center's cell 22 for testing. Operation of the heat exchanger was demonstrated in a combustion environment with high heat fluxes similar to the RLV Aerospike Ramp. Test measurements were reviewed and found to be valuable for the on going fluid and thermal analysis of the actual RLV composite ramp. Since the cooling fluid for the heat exchanger is water while the RLV Ramp cooling fluid is LH2, fluid and thermal models were constructed to correlate to the specific test set-up. The knowledge gained from this work will be helpful for analyzing the thermal response of the actual RLV Composite Ramp. The coolant thermal properties for the models are taken from test data. The heat exchanger's cooling performance was analyzed using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). Temperatures of the heat exchanger's structure were predicted in finite element models using Patran and Sinda. Results from the analytical models and the tests show that RSC's heat exchanger satisfied the combustion environments in a series of 16 tests.

Nguyen, Dalton

2002-01-01

56

Thermal/Fluid Analysis of a Composite Heat Exchanger for Use on the RLV Rocket Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of efforts to design a regeneratively cooled composite nozzle ramp for use on the reusable vehicle (RLV) rocket engine, a C-SiC composite heat exchanger concept was proposed for thermal performance evaluation. To test the feasibility of the concept, sample heat exchanger panels were made to fit the Glenn Research Center's cell 22 for testing. Operation of the heat exchanger was demonstrated in a combustion environment with high heat fluxes similar to the RLV Aerospike Ramp. Test measurements were reviewed and found to be valuable for the on-going fluid and thermal analysis of the actual RLV composite ramp. Since the cooling fluid for the heat exchanger is water while the RLV Ramp cooling fluid is LH2, fluid and therma models were constructed to correlate to the specific test set-up. The knowledge gained from this work will be helpful for analyzing the thermal response of the actual RLV Composite Ramp. The coolant thermal properties for the models are taken from test data. The heat exchanger's cooling performance was analyzed using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). Temperatures of the heat exchanger's structure were predicted in finite element models using Patran and Sinda. Results from the analytical models and the tests show that RSC's heat exchanger satisfied the combustion environments in a series of 16 tests.

Nguyen, Dalton; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

57

Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Method Developed for Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine Inlet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renewed interest in hypersonic propulsion systems has led to research programs investigating combined cycle engines that are designed to operate efficiently across the flight regime. The Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine is a propulsion system under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This engine integrates a high specific impulse, low thrust-to-weight, airbreathing engine with a low-impulse, high thrust-to-weight rocket. From takeoff to Mach 2.5, the engine operates as an air-augmented rocket. At Mach 2.5, the engine becomes a dual-mode ramjet; and beyond Mach 8, the rocket is turned back on. One Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine variation known as the "Strut-Jet" concept is being investigated jointly by NASA Lewis, the U.S. Air Force, Gencorp Aerojet, General Applied Science Labs (GASL), and Lockheed Martin Corporation. Work thus far has included wind tunnel experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigations with the NPARC code. The CFD method was initiated by modeling the geometry of the Strut-Jet with the GRIDGEN structured grid generator. Grids representing a subscale inlet model and the full-scale demonstrator geometry were constructed. These grids modeled one-half of the symmetric inlet flow path, including the precompression plate, diverter, center duct, side duct, and combustor. After the grid generation, full Navier-Stokes flow simulations were conducted with the NPARC Navier-Stokes code. The Chien low-Reynolds-number k-e turbulence model was employed to simulate the high-speed turbulent flow. Finally, the CFD solutions were postprocessed with a Fortran code. This code provided wall static pressure distributions, pitot pressure distributions, mass flow rates, and internal drag. These results were compared with experimental data from a subscale inlet test for code validation; then they were used to help evaluate the demonstrator engine net thrust.

1997-01-01

58

14 CFR 25.1182 - Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod...Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1182 Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod...containing flammable fluid lines. (a) Each nacelle area immediately behind the...

2009-01-01

59

14 CFR 25.1182 - Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod...Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1182 Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod...containing flammable fluid lines. (a) Each nacelle area immediately behind the...

2010-01-01

60

Fluid dynamics in a Rotating-Detonation-Engine with micro-injectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotating detonation engines (RDE's) represent a natural extension of the extensively studied pulse detonation engines (PDE's) for obtaining propulsion from the high efficiency detonation cycle. RDE's require fuel and oxidizer under high pressure to be injected through micro-nozzles from one or two plenums (for premixed and non-premixed). This injection process is critically important to the stability and performance of the RDE. This paper studies the effect of this injection process on the detonation wave within the combustion chamber, with an emphasis on how the fluid dynamics are affected. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations are done using well proven numerical methods for both the combustion chamber and mixture plenums of an idealized RDE.

Schwer, Douglas

2011-11-01

61

Ongoing Analysis of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco engine analysis is a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

Ruf, Joseph; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

1999-01-01

62

New Developments of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Their Applications to Practical Engineering Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been considerable advances in Lattice Boltzmann (LB) based methods in the last decade. By now, the fundamental concept of using the approach as an alternative tool for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been substantially appreciated and validated in mainstream scientific research and in industrial engineering communities. Lattice Boltzmann based methods possess several major advantages: a) less numerical dissipation due to the linear Lagrange type advection operator in the Boltzmann equation; b) local dynamic interactions suitable for highly parallel processing; c) physical handling of boundary conditions for complicated geometries and accurate control of fluxes; d) microscopically consistent modeling of thermodynamics and of interface properties in complex multiphase flows. It provides a great opportunity to apply the method to practical engineering problems encountered in a wide range of industries from automotive, aerospace to chemical, biomedical, petroleum, nuclear, and others. One of the key challenges is to extend the applicability of this alternative approach to regimes of highly turbulent flows commonly encountered in practical engineering situations involving high Reynolds numbers. Over the past ten years, significant efforts have been made on this front at Exa Corporation in developing a lattice Boltzmann based commercial CFD software, PowerFLOW. It has become a useful computational tool for the simulation of turbulent aerodynamics in practical engineering problems involving extremely complex geometries and flow situations, such as in new automotive vehicle designs world wide. In this talk, we present an overall LB based algorithm concept along with certain key extensions in order to accurately handle turbulent flows involving extremely complex geometries. To demonstrate the accuracy of turbulent flow simulations, we provide a set of validation results for some well known academic benchmarks. These include straight channels, backward-facing steps, flows over a curved hill and typical NACA airfoils at various angles of attack including prediction of stall angle. We further provide numerous engineering cases, ranging from external aerodynamics around various car bodies to internal flows involved in various industrial devices. We conclude with a discussion of certain future extensions for complex fluids.

Chen, Hudong

2001-06-01

63

Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

2001-01-01

64

ASME Subsection ISTD recommendations based upon NPAR snubber aging research results  

SciTech Connect

As a result of information obtained during the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research(NPAR) Program, Snubber Task research, recommendations are made in the three following areas for the next revision of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Operations and Maintenance (OM) Code, Subsection ISTD: Service-Life Monitoring; Visual Examination Attributes; and Failure Grouping and Corrective Action.

Blahnik, D.E.; Brown, D.P.

1991-12-01

65

AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 31st, Long Beach, CA, Apr. 2-4, 1990, Technical Papers. Part 1 - Materials, engineering optimization and design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume treats materials, engineering optimization, and design. Particular attention is given to materials behavior and characterization, aircraft design optimization, integrated control/structure optimization, optimization methods, component and subsystem design, and space structures design. Twenty-one additional papers from this conference are published in NASA-CP-3064.

66

Proceedings of the NRC/ASME (Nuclear Regulatory Commission/American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Symposium on Valves, Pumps and Inservice Testing (9th). Held in Washington, DC. on July 17-19, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2006 Symposium on Valves, Pumps and Inservice Testing, jointly sponsored by the Board of Nuclear Codes and Standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, provides a forum for exchanging informa...

T. G. Scarbrough

2007-01-01

67

First results of a scientific validation of Swarm ASM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) is an optically pumped helium-4 magnetometer providing scalar measurements of the Earth's magnetic field onboard each of the three Swarm satellites. Its performance (accuracy, noise level, data cleanliness) is expected to be unprecedented among satellite scalar magnetometers. The main function of the ASMs during the Swarm mission will be to calibrate the vector field magnetometers. As part of the commissioning of the ASM instrument, we will compare preliminary ASM data with predictions from various recent geomagnetic models. Special focus will be placed on the DMSP-MAG-1 model, which relies on geomagnetic data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) until 2013.

Chulliat, Arnaud; Alken, Patrick; Hulot, Gauthier

2014-05-01

68

ASME code and ratcheting in piping components. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this research is to develop an analysis program which can accurately simulate ratcheting in piping components subjected to seismic or other cyclic loads. Ratcheting is defined as the accumulation of deformation in structures and materials with cycles. This phenomenon has been demonstrated to cause failure to piping components (known as ratcheting-fatigue failure) and is yet to be understood clearly. The design and analysis methods in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for ratcheting of piping components are not well accepted by the practicing engineering community. This research project attempts to understand the ratcheting-fatigue failure mechanisms and improve analysis methods for ratcheting predictions. In the first step a state-of-the-art testing facility is developed for quasi-static cyclic and seismic testing of straight and elbow piping components. A systematic testing program to study ratcheting is developed. Some tests have already been performed an d the rest will be completed by summer'99. Significant progress has been made in the area of constitutive modeling. A number of sophisticated constitutive models have been evaluated in terms of their simulations for a broad class of ratcheting responses. From the knowledge gained from this evaluation study two improved models are developed. These models are demonstrated to have promise in simulating ratcheting responses in piping components. Hence, implementation of these improved models in widely used finite element programs, ANSYS and/or ABAQUS, is in progress. Upon achieving improved finite element programs for simulation of ratcheting, the ASME Code provisions for ratcheting of piping components will be reviewed and more rational methods will be suggested. Also, simplified analysis methods will be developed for operability studies of piping components and systems. Some of the future works will be performed under the auspices of the Center for Nuclear Power Plant Structures, Equipment and Piping. Proposals for future funding also will be submitted to different organizations and industries to speed up the progress of the research.

Hassan, T.; Matzen, V.C.

1999-05-14

69

Study of nonlinear processes of a large experimental thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine by using computational fluid dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to study several important nonlinear phenomenon and processes of a large experimental thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine. First, the simulated physical model was introduced, and the suitable numerical scheme and algorithm for the time-dependent compressible thermoacoustic system was determined through extensive numerical tests. Then, the simulation results of the entire evolution process

G. Y. Yu; E. C. Luo; W. Dai; J. Y. Hu

2007-01-01

70

Thermomechanical analysis of freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions in engineered tissues  

PubMed Central

Successful cryopreservation of functional engineered tissues (ETs) is significant to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, but it is extremely challenging to develop a successful protocol because the effects of cryopreservation parameters on the post-thaw functionality of ETs are not well understood. Particularly, the effects on the microstructure of their extracellular matrix (ECM) have not been well studied, which determines many functional properties of the ETs. In this study, we investigated the effects of two key cryopreservation parameters i) freezing temperature and corresponding cooling rate; and ii) the concentration of cryoprotective agent (CPA) on the ECM microstructure as well as the cellular viability. Using dermal equivalent as a model ET and DMSO as a model CPA, freezing-induced spatiotemporal deformation and post-thaw ECM microstructure of ETs was characterized while varying the freezing temperature and DMSO concentrations. The spatial distribution of cellular viability and the cellular actin cytoskeleton was also examined. The results showed that the tissue dilatation increased significantly with reduced freezing temperature (i.e., rapid freezing). A maximum limit of tissue deformation was observed for preservation of ECM microstructure, cell viability and cell-matrix adhesion. The dilatation decreased with the use of DMSO, and a freezing temperature dependent threshold concentration of DMSO was observed. The threshold DMSO concentration increased with lowering freezing temperature. In addition, an analysis was performed to delineate thermodynamic and mechanical components of freezing-induced tissue deformation. The results are discussed to establish a mechanistic understanding of freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interaction and phase change behavior within ETs in order to improve cryopreservation of ETs.

Han, Bumsoo; Teo, Ka Yaw; Ghosh, Soham; Dutton, J. Craig; Grinnell, Frederick

2012-01-01

71

Evaluation of space shuttle main engine fluid dynamic frequency response characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to determine the POGO stability characteristics of the space shuttle main engine liquid oxygen (LOX) system, the fluid dynamic frequency response functions between elements in the SSME LOX system was evaluated, both analytically and experimentally. For the experimental data evaluation, a software package was written for the Hewlett-Packard 5451C Fourier analyzer. The POGO analysis software is documented and consists of five separate segments. Each segment is stored on the 5451C disc as an individual program and performs its own unique function. Two separate data reduction methods, a signal calibration, coherence or pulser signal based frequency response function blanking, and automatic plotting features are included in the program. The 5451C allows variable parameter transfer from program to program. This feature is used to advantage and requires only minimal user interface during the data reduction process. Experimental results are included and compared with the analytical predictions in order to adjust the general model and arrive at a realistic simulation of the POGO characteristics.

Gardner, T. G.

1980-01-01

72

Actuation fluid adapter for hydraulically-actuated electronically-controlled fuel injector and engine using same  

DOEpatents

A fuel injector adapter consists of a block defining a pressure communication passage therethrough and an actuation fluid passage. The actuation fluid passage includes three separate branches that open through an outer surface of the block at three separate locations.

Keyster, Eric S. (Peoria, IL); Merchant, Jack A. (Peoria, IL)

2002-01-01

73

The First ASME Code Stamped Cryomodule at SNS  

SciTech Connect

The first spare cryomodule for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been designed, fabricated, and tested by SNS personnel. The approach to design for this cryomodule was to hold critical design features identical to the original design such as bayonet positions, coupler positions, cold mass assembly, and overall footprint. However, this is the first SNS cryomodule that meets the pressure requirements put forth in the 10 CFR 851: Worker Safety and Health Program. The most significant difference is that Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code was applied to the vacuum vessel of this cryomodule. Applying the pressure code to the helium vessels within the cryomodule was considered. However, it was determined to be schedule prohibitive because it required a code case for materials that are not currently covered by the code. Good engineering practice was applied to the internal components to verify the quality and integrity of the entire cryomodule. The design of the cryomodule, fabrication effort, and cryogenic test results will be reported in this paper.

Howell, M P; Crofford, M T; Douglas, D L; Kim, S -H; Steward, S T; Strong, W H; Afanador, R; Hannah, B S; Saunders, J

2012-07-01

74

Modelling of a hydraulic engine mount with fluid-structure interaction finite element analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic engine mount (HEM) is now widely used as a highly effective vibration isolator in automotive powertrain. A lumped parameter (LP) model is a traditional model for modelling the dynamic characteristics of HEM, in which the system parameters are usually obtained by experiments. In this paper, a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) finite element analysis (FEA) method and a non-linear FEA technology are used to determine the system parameters, and a fully coupled FSI model is developed for modelling the static and lower-frequency performance of an HEM. A FSI FEA technique is used to estimate the parameters of volumetric compliances, equivalent piston area, inertia and resistance of the fluid in the inertia track and the decoupler of an HEM. A non-linear FEA method is applied to determine the dynamic stiffness of rubber spring of the HEM. The system parameters predicated by FEA are compared favorably with experimental data and/or analytical solutions. A numerical simulation for an HEM with an inertia track and a free decoupler is performed based on the FSI model and the LP model along with the estimated system parameters, and again the simulation results are compared with experimental data. The calculated time histories of some variables in the model, such as the pressure in the upper chamber, the displacement of the free decoupler and the volume flow through the inertia track and the decoupler, under different excitations, elucidate the working mechanism of the HEM. The pressure distribution calculated with the FSI model in the chambers of the HEM validates the assumption that the pressure distribution in the upper and lower chamber is uniform in the LP model. The work conducted in the paper demonstrates that the methods for estimating the system parameters in the LP model and the FSI model for modelling HEM are effective, with which the dynamic characteristic analysis and design optimization of an HEM can be performed before its prototype development, and this can ensure its low cost and high quality for development.

Shangguan, Wen-Bin; Lu, Zhen-Hua

2004-08-01

75

Computational fluid dynamics simulation of the air\\/suppressant flow in an uncluttered F18 engine nacelle  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purposes of designing improved Halon-alternative fire suppression strategies for aircraft applications, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the air flow, suppressant transport, and air-suppressant mixing within an uncluttered F18 engine nacelle were performed. The release of inert gases from a Solid Propellant Gas Generator (SPGG) was analyzed at two different injection locations in order to understand the effect

A. R. Lopez; L. A. Gritzo; B. Hassan

1997-01-01

76

Evaluation of a new computational fluid dynamics model for internal combustion engines using hydrogen under motoring conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work conducts a preliminary evaluation of a new CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model, which is under development at the authors' laboratory. Using this model, it is feasible to understand how the intake manifold and in-cylinder geometry affect the in-cylinder flow field and the mixing processes taking place in an Otto (spark-ignition) engine. The model is applied on a

C. D. Rakopoulos; G. M. Kosmadakis; E. G. Pariotis

2009-01-01

77

Testing of the Engineering Model Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluids and Combustion Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (GRC) in Cleveland, OH and the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL have designed and developed an Engineering Model (EM) Electrical Power Control Unit (EPCU) for the Fluids Combustion Facility, (FCF) experiments to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS power distribution system for the FCF's space experiments'test and telemetry hardware. Furthermore. it is proposed to be the common power interface for all experiments. The EPCU is a three kilowatt 12OVdc-to-28Vdc converter utilizing three independent Power Converter Units (PCUs), each rated at 1kWe (36Adc @ 28Vdc) which are paralleled and synchronized. Each converter may be fed from one of two ISS power channels. The 28Vdc loads are connected to the EPCU output via 48 solid-state and current-limiting switches, rated at 4Adc each. These switches may be paralleled to supply any given load up to the 108Adc normal operational limit of the paralleled converters. The EPCU was designed in this manner to maximize allocated-power utilization. to shed loads autonomously, to provide fault tolerance. and to provide a flexible power converter and control module to meet various ISS load demands. Tests of the EPCU in the Power Systems Facility testbed at GRC reveal that the overall converted-power efficiency, is approximately 89% with a nominal-input voltage of 12OVdc and a total load in the range of 4O% to 110% rated 28Vdc load. (The PCUs alone have an efficiency of approximately 94.5%). Furthermore, the EM unit passed all flight-qualification level (and beyond) vibration tests, passed ISS EMI (conducted, radiated. and susceptibility) requirements. successfully operated for extended periods in a thermal/vacuum chamber, was integrated with a proto-flight experiment and passed all stability and functional requirements.

Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.; Fox, David A.

1999-01-01

78

Performance of Army Arctic Engine Oils in Hydraulic and Power Transmission Fluid Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of the Army's new Arctic Engine Oil (OEA) Specification MIL-L-46167 required numerous laboratory and field engine evaluations as well as large scale laboratory and field testing of these new lubricants in military hydraulic and power transmiss...

S. J. Lestz P. D. Hopler T. C. Bowen

1975-01-01

79

Application of the ASME code in the design of the GA-4 and GA-9 casks  

SciTech Connect

General Atomics (GA) is developing two spent fuel shipping casks for transport by legal weight truck (LWT). The casks are designed to the loading, environmental conditions and safety requirements defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71). To ensure that all components of the cask meet the 10CFR71 rules, GA established structural design criteria for each component based on NRC Regulatory Guides and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code). This paper discusses the criteria used for different cask components, how they were applied and the conservatism and safety margins built into the criteria and assumption.

Mings, W.J. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Koploy, M.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1992-08-01

80

Dynamic fracture toughness of ASME SA508 Class 2a ASME SA533 grade A Class 2 base and heat affected zone material and applicable weld metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Article G-2000, requires that dynamic fracture toughness data be developed for materials with specified minimum yield strengths greater than 50 ksi to provide verification and utilization of the ASME specified minimum reference toughness K\\/sub IR\\/ curve. In order to qualify ASME SA508 Class 2a and ASME SA533 Grade A Class 2

W. A. Logsdon; J. A. Begley; C. L. Gottshall

1978-01-01

81

Combustion Chamber Fluid Dynamics and Hypergolic Gel Propellant Chemistry Simulations for Selectable Thrust Rocket Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the application of high performance computing to accelerate the development of hypergolic propulsion systems for tactical missiles. Computational fluid dynamics is employed to model the chemically reacting flow within a system's combu...

C. Chen M. J. McQuaid M. J. Nusca

2007-01-01

82

Experimental Techniques for the Determination of Tip Vortex Cavitation on Ship Propellers. Presented at the ASME- JSME (3rd) Joint Fluids Engineering Conference, San Francisco, California on July 18-23, 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The accuracy of tip vortex inception measurements on propellers is investigated using visual observations, acoustic measurements and measurements of the cavitating vortex diameter. The conclusion is that visual observation is at least as accurate as the o...

G. Kuiper

1999-01-01

83

Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamics Measurements in the Expansion Space of a Stirling Cycle Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heater (or acceptor) of a Stirling engine, where most of the thermal energy is accepted into the engine by heat transfer, is the hottest part of the engine. Almost as hot is the adjacent expansion space of the engine. In the expansion space, the flow is oscillatory, impinging on a two-dimensional concavely-curved surface. Knowing the heat transfer on the inside surface of the engine head is critical to the engine design for efficiency and reliability. However, the flow in this region is not well understood and support is required to develop the CFD codes needed to design modern Stirling engines of high efficiency and power output. The present project is to experimentally investigate the flow and heat transfer in the heater head region. Flow fields and heat transfer coefficients are measured to characterize the oscillatory flow as well as to supply experimental validation for the CFD Stirling engine design codes. Presented also is a discussion of how these results might be used for heater head and acceptor region design calculations.

Jiang, Nan; Simon, Terrence W.

2006-01-01

84

Penetration of ASM 981 in canine skin: a comparative study.  

PubMed

ASM 981 has been developed for topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. It specifically inhibits the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We measured the skin penetration of ASM 981 in canine skin and compared penetration in living and frozen skin. To make penetration of ASM 981 visible in dog skin, tritium labelled ASM 981 was applied to a living dog and to defrosted skin of the same dog. Using qualitative autoradiography the radioactive molecules were detected in the lumen of the hair follicles until the infundibulum, around the superficial parts of the hair follicles and into a depth of the dermis of 200 to 500 microm. Activity could not be found in deeper parts of the hair follicles, the dermis or in the sebaceous glands. Penetration of ASM 981 is low in canine skin and is only equally spread in the upper third of the dermis 24 hours after application. Penetration in frozen skin takes even longer than in living canine skin but shows the same distribution. PMID:16898071

Gutzwiller, Meret E Ricklin; Reist, Martin; Persohn, Elke; Peel, John E; Roosje, Petra J

2006-01-01

85

Investigation of the in vitro culture process for skeletal-tissue-engineered constructs using computational fluid dynamics and experimental methods.  

PubMed

The in vitro culture process via bioreactors is critical to create tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) to repair or replace the damaged tissues/organs in various engineered applications. In the past, the TEC culture process was typically treated as a black box and performed on the basis of trial and error. Recently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has demonstrated its potential to analyze the fluid flow inside and around the TECs, therefore, being able to provide insight into the culture process, such as information on the velocity field and shear stress distribution that can significantly affect such cellular activities as cell viability and proliferation during the culture process. This paper briefly reviews the CFD and experimental methods used to investigate the in vitro culture process of skeletal-type TECs in bioreactors, where mechanical deformation of the TEC can be ignored. Specifically, this paper presents CFD modeling approaches for the analysis of the velocity and shear stress fields, mass transfer, and cell growth during the culture process and also describes various particle image velocimetry (PIV) based experimental methods to measure the velocity and shear stress in the in vitro culture process. Some key issues and challenges are also identified and discussed along with recommendations for future research. PMID:23363205

Hossain, Md Shakhawath; Chen, X B; Bergstrom, D J

2012-12-01

86

RXTE/ASM observations of new SGR 1627-41  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the ASM did not observe any of the BATSE-detected events from SGR 1627-41, during the interval from Jun 15 to Jun 19, three short (<~1 s) burst events were detected in SSC 3 at May 17.943917, 17.954243, and 18.010803 (UTC). During the first event, the original BATSE location (ATEL #29) was outside the FOV of the ASM. The full width of the FOV of SSC 3 during the first event restricts the range of declination values along the IPN annulus (GCN #115) between -44.4 and -56.4 degrees.

Smith, D. A.; Levine, A. M.

1998-06-01

87

Adoption of ASME Code Section XI for ISI to Research Reactors  

SciTech Connect

ETRR-2 (Second Egyptian thermal research reactor) is a multi-purpose, pool- type reactor with an open water surface and variable core arrangement. The core power is 22 MWth, cooled and moderated by light water and with beryllium reflectors. It contains plate- type fuel elements (MTR type, 19.7% enriched uranium) with aluminum clad. The ETRR-2 reactor consist of 57 systems and around 200 subsystems. These systems contain many mechanical components such as tanks, pipes, valves, pumps, heat exchangers, cooling tower, air compressors, and supports. In this present work, a trial was made to adopt the general requirements of ASME code, section XI to ETRR-2 research reactor. ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) boiler and pressure vessel Code, section XI, provides requirements for in-service inspection (ISI) and in-service testing (IST) of components and systems, and repair/replacement activities in a nuclear power plant. Also, IAEA (International Atomic Energy Authority) has published some recommendations for ISI for research reactors similar to that rules and requirements specified in ASME. The complete ISI program requires several steps that have to be performed in sequence. These steps are described in many logic flow charts (LFC's). These logic flow charts include; the general LFC's for all steps required to complete ISI program, the LFC's for examination requirements, the LFC's for flaw evaluation modules, and the LFC's for acceptability of welds for class 1 components. This program includes, also, the inspection program for welded parts of the reactor components during its lifetime. This inspection program is applied for each system and subsystem of ETRR-2 reactor. It includes the examination area type, the component type, the part to be examined, the weld type, the examination method, the inspection program schedule, and the detailed figures of the welded components. (authors)

Tawfik, Y.E.; El-sesy, I.A. [Cairo University, 5th Ahmed Zewail st. (Tharwat st.) - Dokki - Giza (Egypt); Shaban, H.I. [Atomic Energy Authority - AEA (Egypt); Ibrahim, M.M

2002-07-01

88

Combustion Chamber Fluid Dynamics and Hypergolic Gel Propellant Chemistry Simulations for Selectable Thrust Rocket Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of high performance computing to accelerate the development of hypergolic propulsion systems for tactical missiles. Computational fluid dynamics is employed to model the chemically reacting flow within a systempsilas combustion chamber, and computational chemistry is employed to characterize propellant physical and reactive properties. Accomplishments from the past year are presented and discussed.

Michael J. Nusca; Chiung-Chu Chen; Michael J. McQuaid

2008-01-01

89

Combustion Chamber Fluid Dynamics and Hypergolic Gel Propellant Chemistry Simulations for Selectable Thrust Rocket Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of high performance computing to accelerate the development of hypergolic propulsion systems for tactical missiles. Computational fluid dynamics is employed to model the chemically reacting flow within a system's combustion chamber, and computational chemistry is employed to characterize propellant physical and reactive properties. Accomplishments from the past year are presented and discussed.

Michael J. Nusca; Chiung-Chu Chen; Michael J. McQuaid

2007-01-01

90

Combustion Chamber Fluid Dynamics and Hypergolic Gel Propellant Chemistry Simulations for Selectable Thrust Rocket Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and application of high performance computing for the acceleration of tactical missile hypergolic propulsion system development. Computational fluid dynamics is employed to model the chemically reacting flow within a system's combustion chamber, and computational chemistry is employed to characterize propellant physical and reactive properties. Accomplishments from the past year are presented and discussed

Michael J. Nusca; Michael J. McQuaid

2006-01-01

91

Combustion Chamber Fluid Dynamics and Hypergolic Gel Propellant Chemistry Simulations for Selectable Thrust Rocket Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and application of high performance computing for the acceleration of tactical missile hypergolic propulsion system development. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is employed to model the chemically reacting flow within a system?s combustion chamber, and computational chemistry is employed to characterize propellant physical and reactive properties. Accomplishments from the past year are presented and discussed.

Michael J. Nusca; Michael J. McQuaid

2005-01-01

92

Application of the continuous wavelet transform to science and engineering problems: Fluid dynamics case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous wavelet transform is demonstrated to be a versatile tool for the analysis of fluctuation phenomena which exhibit transient or intermittent\\/random frequency content. In particular, the capabilities of the continuous wavelet transform for obtaining quantitative measures of fluctuation characteristics are demonstrated through its application to three fluid dynamics problems which are representative of general problems involving transient dynamic response,

Donald Alfred Jordan Jr.

1998-01-01

93

Relaxation Methods Applied to Engineering Problems. XII. Fluid Motions Characterized by 'Free' Stream-Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with problems which are like the percolation problems of Part VII (Shaw & Southwell 1941) in that a double condition, imposed at a boundary initially unknown, replaces the more usual single condition at a specified boundary. They relate to 'free' stream-lines in the hydrodynamical theory of inviscid fluids. For plane two-dimensional (steady) motions, the device of conformal

R. V. Southwell; Gillian Vaisey

1946-01-01

94

CVEN 489-501 Group Project: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Research and Comparison to Engineering Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this project, teams of two students each will work together to research a topic in environmental fluid mechanics, write a report in a format con sistent with this project description, and prepare a short in-class presentation. Students are fre e to choose their own topics, or they may choose from a list of suggestions. The report may be in

Scott A. Socolofsky; Kuang-An Chang

95

Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

Gosman, A. D.; And Others

1979-01-01

96

14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs...REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.31 What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or...

2014-01-01

97

Computational fluid dynamics simulation of the air/suppressant flow in an uncluttered F18 engine nacelle  

SciTech Connect

For the purposes of designing improved Halon-alternative fire suppression strategies for aircraft applications, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the air flow, suppressant transport, and air-suppressant mixing within an uncluttered F18 engine nacelle were performed. The release of inert gases from a Solid Propellant Gas Generator (SPGG) was analyzed at two different injection locations in order to understand the effect of injection position on the flow patterns and the mixing of air and suppression agent. An uncluttered engine nacelle was simulated to provide insight into the global flow features as well as to promote comparisons with previous nacelle fire tests and recent water tunnel tests which included little or no clutter. Oxygen concentration levels, fuel/air residence times that would exist if a small fuel leak were present, velocity contours, and streamline patterns are presented inside the engine nacelle. The numerical results show the influence of the gent release location on regions of potential flame extinction due to oxygen inerting and high flame strain. The occurrence of inflow through the exhaust ducts on the aft end of the nacelle is also predicted. As expected, the predicted oxygen concentration levels were consistently higher than the measured levels since a fire was not modeled in this analysis. Despite differences in the conditions of these simulations and the experiments, good agreement was obtained between the CFD predictions and the experimental measurements.

Lopez, A.R.; Gritzo, L.A.; Hassan, B.

1997-06-01

98

Human amniotic fluid stem cells culture onto titanium screws: a new perspective for bone engineering.  

PubMed

The use of titanium plates and screws for osteosynthesis is considered to be an effective treatment for different kinds of fractures in orthopedic surgery. The aim of the present study is to test the ability of titanium screws to promote the growth of osteoblasts obtained from human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFS). Osteoblastic differentiation was assessed by RT-PCR of specific markers such as COL1, ONC, OPN, OCN, OPG, BMP-4 and Runx2. Mineralization was demonstrated by the presence of red depositions. Adherent cells were found to cover the whole surface of titanium screw by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result indicates the excellent growth of osteoblasts obtained from amniotic fluid on a titanium surface and could represent an important point in view of a possible therapeutic application of AFS cells. PMID:20003768

Antonucci, I; Pantalone, A; De Amicis, D; D'Onofrio, S; Stuppia, L; Palka, G; Salini, V

2009-01-01

99

Precipitation-hardening stainless steel bars, shapes, and forgings (ASME SA-564 with additional requirements)  

SciTech Connect

This standard covers precipitation-hardening stainless steel bars, shapes, and forgings for nuclear and associated applications. Material shall conform to the requirements of ASME SA-564; to requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code), Section III, Article NB-2000; and to the additional requirements of this standard.

Not Available

1982-09-01

100

Precipitation-hardening stainless steel bars, shapes, and forgings (ASME SA564 with additional requirements)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This standard covers precipitation-hardening stainless steel bars, shapes, and forgings for nuclear and associated applications. Material shall conform to the requirements of ASME SA-564; to requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code), Section III, Article NB-2000; and to the additional requirements of this standard.

Fuller

1979-01-01

101

Description and Simulation of Microprocessor Instruction Sets Using ASMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe how cycle-accurate processor behavior may be efficiently described using Abstract State Machines (ASMs), formerly known as dynamic or evolving algebras. Given a register transfer description of the target processor, an extraction mechanism is described following the approach in [26] that extracts so called guarded register transfer patterns from the processor description. It will be shown

Jrgen Teich; Philipp W. Kutter; Ralph Weper

2000-01-01

102

WERITAS: weighted ensemble of regional image textures for ASM segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present WERITAS, which is based in part on the traditional Active Shape Model (ASM) segmentation system. WERITAS generates multiple statistical texture features, and finds the optimal weighted average of those texture features by maximizing the correlation between the Euclidean distance to the ground truth and the Mahalanobis distance to the training data. The weighted average is

Robert Toth; Scott Doyle; Mark Rosen; Arjun Kalyanpur; Sona Pungavkar; B. Nicolas Bloch; Elizabeth Genega; Neil Rofsky; Robert Lenkinski; Anant Madabhushi

2009-01-01

103

Fluid dynamic analysis of the space shuttle main engine high pressure oxidizer turbopump slinger seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The details of the flow on the bladed side of a centrifugal type dynamic shaft seal utilized to contain liquid oxygen in the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure oxidizer turbopump were clarified. The governing equations are solved to predict the pressure and temperature gradients and to aid in investigating the nature of the liquid-vapor interface. Recommendations for design improvements are discussed.

Voss, J. S.

1980-01-01

104

Coupled FEMDEM\\/Fluids for coastal engineers with special reference to armour stability and breakage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-level rise and increased storminess present huge challenges to coastal engineers worldwide. The seaward slope of many breakwaters and shoreline defence structures consists of thousands of interlocking units of concrete or rock making up a massive granular defence against wave attack. The units are placed freely to form an armour layer which is intended to both dissipate wave energy and

John-Paul Latham; Julian Mindel; Jiansheng Xiang; Romain Guises; Xavier Garcia; Chris Pain; Gerard Gorman; Matthew Piggott; Antonio Munjiza

2009-01-01

105

Enhancing Student Learning in Food Engineering Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current generation of students coming into food science and engineering programs is very visually oriented from their early experiences. To increase their interest in learning, new and visually appealing teaching materials need to be developed. Two diverse groups of students may be identified based on their math skills. Food science students

Wong, Shin Y.; Connelly, Robin K.; Hartel, Richard W.

2010-01-01

106

NOVEL VISUALIZATION AND INTERACTION TECHNIQUES FOR GAINING INSIGHT INTO FLUID DYNAMICS IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Future emission regulations and increased customer demands require the utilization of all available tools in developing engines of the next generation. 3D CFD simulation is one of these tools (1). Due to well-advanced and well- developed simulation technology and improved computing power, the generated pack of data becomes complex and difficult to evaluate. In principle, technical problems can be

Stephan Schmidt; Oliver Schgl; Roland Kirchberger; Helmut Doleisch; Philipp Muigg; Helwig Hauser; Markus Grabner; Alexander Bornik; Dieter Schmalstieg

107

A new cascade-less engine operated from subsonic to hypersonic conditions: designed by computational fluid dynamics of compressible turbulence with chemical reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using our computational fluid dynamic models, a new type of single engine capable of operating over a wide range of Mach numbers from subsonic to hypersonic regimes is proposed for airplanes, whereas traditional piston engines, turbojet engines, and scram engines work only under a narrower range of operating conditions. The new engine has no compressors or turbines such as those used in conventional turbojet engines. An important point is its system of super multijets that collide to compress gas for the transonic regime. Computational fluid dynamics is applied to clarify the potential of this engine. The peak pressure at the combustion center is over 2.5 MPa, while that just before ignition is over 1.0 MPa. The maximum power of this engine will be sufficient for actual use. Under the conditions of higher Mach numbers, the main intake passage located in front of the super multijet nozzles, takes in air more. That results in a ram or scramjet engine for supersonic and hypersonic conditions.

Naitoh, Ken; Nakamura, Kazushi; Emoto, Takehiro

2010-12-01

108

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Image of Hyper-X Research Vehicle at Mach 7 with Engine Operating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) image shows the Hyper-X vehicle at a Mach 7 test condition with the engine operating. The solution includes both internal (scramjet engine) and external flow fields, including the interaction between the engine exhaust and vehicle aerodynamics. The image illustrates surface heat transfer on the vehicle surface (red is highest heating) and flowfield contours at local Mach number. The last contour illustrates the engine exhaust plume shape. This solution approach is one method of predicting the vehicle performance, and the best method for determination of vehicle structural, pressure and thermal design loads. The Hyper-X program is an ambitious series of experimental flights to expand the boundaries of high-speed aeronautics and develop new technologies for space access. When the first of three aircraft flies, it will be the first time a non-rocket engine has powered a vehicle in flight at hypersonic speeds--speeds above Mach 5, equivalent to about one mile per second or approximately 3,600 miles per hour at sea level. Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

1997-01-01

109

Radiation-induced temperature shift of thhe ASME K/sub Ic/ curve  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the temperature shift and shape of the K/sub Ic/ curve described in Sect. XI of the ASME Boiler and pressure Vessel Code. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 215-mm-thick plate. Charpy impact, tensile, dropweight, and compact specimens up to 203.2 mm thick were fabricated and tested to provide a large data for unirradiated material. Similar specimens with compacts up to 101.6 mm thick, irradiated at about 288/degree/C to a mean fluence of about 1.6 /times/ 10/sup 19/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor, were tested to provide a similarly large data base with which to evaluate the temperature shift and shape of the ASME K/sub Ic/ curves. Testing was performed by both Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Materials Engineering Associates. Both linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze test results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Nanstad, R.K.; Haggag, F.M.; Iskander, S.K.

1989-01-01

110

WERITAS: weighted ensemble of regional image textures for ASM segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present WERITAS, which is based in part on the traditional Active Shape Model (ASM) segmentation system. WERITAS generates multiple statistical texture features, and finds the optimal weighted average of those texture features by maximizing the correlation between the Euclidean distance to the ground truth and the Mahalanobis distance to the training data. The weighted average is used a multi-resolution segmentation system to more accurately detect the object border. A rigorous evaluation was performed on over 200 clinical images comprising of prostate images and breast images from 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla MRI machines via 6 distinct metrics. WERITAS was tested against a traditional multi-resolution ASM in addition to an ASM system which uses a plethora of random features to determine if the selection of features is improving the results rather than simply the use of multiple features. The results indicate that WERITAS outperforms all other methods to a high degree of statistical significance. For 1.5T prostate MRI images, the overlap from WERITAS is 83%, the overlap from the random features is 81%, and the overlap from the traditional ASM is only 66%. In addition, using 3T prostate MRI images, the overlap from WERITAS is 77%, the overlap from the random features is 54%, and the overlap from the traditional ASM is 59%, suggesting the usefulness of WERITAS. The only metrics in which WERITAS was outperformed did not hold any degree of statistical significance. WERITAS is a robust, efficient, and accurate segmentation system with a wide range of applications.

Toth, Robert; Doyle, Scott; Rosen, Mark; Kalyanpur, Arjun; Pungavkar, Sona; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Genega, Elizabeth; Rofsky, Neil; Lenkinski, Robert; Madabhushi, Anant

2009-02-01

111

Simulations for Complex Fluid Flow Problems from Berkeley Lab's Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE)  

DOE Data Explorer

The Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) develops and applies advanced computational methodologies to solve large-scale scientific and engineering problems arising in the Department of Energy (DOE) mission areas involving energy, environmental, and industrial technology. The primary focus is in the application of structured-grid finite difference methods on adaptive grid hierarchies for compressible, incompressible, and low Mach number flows. The diverse range of scientific applications that drive the research typically involve a large range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g. turbulent reacting flows) and require the use of extremely large computing hardware, such as the 153,000-core computer, Hopper, at NERSC. The CCSE approach to these problems centers on the development and application of advanced algorithms that exploit known separations in scale; for many of the application areas this results in algorithms are several orders of magnitude more efficient than traditional simulation approaches.

112

Quantitative, single shot, two-dimensional spontaneous Raman measurements for fluid mechanics and engine applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous Raman Scattering was used for quantitative, two-dimensional, single-shot measurements of species concentration in optically accessible confinements and in an experimental single-cylinder internal combustion engine. The study comprised three parts. In the first part, the technique was used for methane concentration measurements in a laminar jet issuing into compressed nitrogen (10 bar, 293 K). The injection Reynolds number was 550.

Dimitrios Constantinou Kyritsis

1998-01-01

113

Effects of Initial Seeding Density and Fluid Perfusion Rate on Formation of Tissue-Engineered Bone  

PubMed Central

We describe a novel bioreactor system for tissue engineering of bone that enables cultivation of up to six tissue constructs simultaneously, with direct perfusion and imaging capability. The bioreactor was used to investigate the relative effects of initial seeding density and medium perfusion rate on the growth and osteogenic differentiation patterns of bone marrowderived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on three-dimensional scaffolds. Fully decellularized bovine trabecular bone was used as a scaffold because it provided suitable biomimetic topography, biochemical composition, and mechanical properties for osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Trabecular bone plugs were completely denuded of cellular material using a serial treatment with hypotonic buffers and detergents, seeded with hMSCs, and cultured for 5 weeks. Increasing seeding density from 30106 cells/mL to 60106 cells/mL did not measurably influence the characteristics of tissue-engineered bone, in contrast to an increase in the perfusion rate from 100 ?ms?1 to 400 ?ms?1, which radically improved final cell numbers, cell distributions throughout the constructs, and the amounts of bone proteins and minerals. Taken together, these findings suggest that the rate of medium perfusion during cultivation has a significant effect on the characteristics of engineered bone.

GRAYSON, WARREN L.; BHUMIRATANA, SARINDR; CANNIZZARO, CHRISTOPHER; CHAO, P.-H. GRACE; LENNON, DONALD P.; CAPLAN, ARNOLD I.; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

2009-01-01

114

Effects of initial seeding density and fluid perfusion rate on formation of tissue-engineered bone.  

PubMed

We describe a novel bioreactor system for tissue engineering of bone that enables cultivation of up to six tissue constructs simultaneously, with direct perfusion and imaging capability. The bioreactor was used to investigate the relative effects of initial seeding density and medium perfusion rate on the growth and osteogenic differentiation patterns of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on three-dimensional scaffolds. Fully decellularized bovine trabecular bone was used as a scaffold because it provided suitable "biomimetic" topography, biochemical composition, and mechanical properties for osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Trabecular bone plugs were completely denuded of cellular material using a serial treatment with hypotonic buffers and detergents, seeded with hMSCs, and cultured for 5 weeks. Increasing seeding density from 30 x 10(6) cells/mL to 60 x 10(6) cells/mL did not measurably influence the characteristics of tissue-engineered bone, in contrast to an increase in the perfusion rate from 100 microms(-1) to 400 microms(-1), which radically improved final cell numbers, cell distributions throughout the constructs, and the amounts of bone proteins and minerals. Taken together, these findings suggest that the rate of medium perfusion during cultivation has a significant effect on the characteristics of engineered bone. PMID:18620487

Grayson, Warren L; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Chao, P-H Grace; Lennon, Donald P; Caplan, Arnold I; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2008-11-01

115

Sructure and dynamics of fluids in micropous and mesoporous earth and engineered materials  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of liquids in confined geometries (pores, fractures) typically differs, due to the effects of large internal surfaces and geometri-cal confinement, from their bulk behavior in many ways. Phase transitions (i.e., freezing and capillary condensation), sorption and wetting, and dy-namical properties, including diffusion and relaxation, may be modified, with the strongest changes observed for pores ranging in size from <2 nm to 50 nm the micro- and mesoporous regimes. Important factors influ-encing the structure and dynamics of confined liquids include the average pore size and pore size distribution, the degree of pore interconnection, and the character of the liquid-surface interaction. While confinement of liq-uids in hydrophobic matrices, such as carbon nanotubes, or near the sur-faces of mixed character, such as many proteins, has also been an area of rapidly growing interest, the confining matrices of interest to earth and ma-terials sciences usually contain oxide structural units and thus are hydro-philic. The pore size distribution and the degree of porosity and inter-connection vary greatly amongst porous matrices. Vycor, xerogels, aerogels, and rocks possess irregular porous structures, whereas mesopor-ous silicas (e.g., SBA-15, MCM-41, MCM-48), zeolites, and layered sys-tems, for instance clays, have high degrees of internal order. The pore type and size may be tailored by means of adjusting the synthesis regimen. In clays, the interlayer distance may depend on the level of hydration. Al-though studied less frequently, matrices such as artificial opals and chry-sotile asbestos represent other interesting examples of ordered porous structures. The properties of neutrons make them an ideal probe for com-paring the properties of bulk fluids with those in confined geometries. In this chapter, we provide a brief review of research performed on liquids confined in materials of interest to the earth and material sciences (silicas, aluminas, zeolites, clays, rocks, etc.), emphasizing those neutron scattering techniques which assess both structural modification and dynamical behav-ior. Quantitative understanding of the complex solid-fluid interactions under different thermodynamic situations will impact both the design of bet-ter substrates for technological applications (e.g., chromatography, fluid capture, storage and release, and heterogeneous catalysis) as well as our fundamental understanding of processes encountered in the environment (i.e., fluid and waste mitigation, carbon sequestration, etc.).

Cole, David R [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL

2009-01-01

116

Quantitative, single shot, two-dimensional spontaneous Raman measurements for fluid mechanics and engine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous Raman Scattering was used for quantitative, two-dimensional, single-shot measurements of species concentration in optically accessible confinements and in an experimental single-cylinder internal combustion engine. The study comprised three parts. In the first part, the technique was used for methane concentration measurements in a laminar jet issuing into compressed nitrogen (10 bar, 293 K). The injection Reynolds number was 550. Initial results showed unexpected structures in the acquired concentration profiles. Thus, the steadiness of the laminar flow was confirmed with high speed shadowgraph movies and laser induced fluorescence measurements. Eventually, it was proven that the structures were due to characteristics of the camera system. A technique was then devised for the proper acquisition and processing of data and spatial resolution of 500 mum was achieved. Methane number density equal to 12% of the number density of pure methane (0.247E+26 molecules/msp3) was then measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 3. The measurements were compared with the results of direct numerical simulation of the flow field. In the second part, measurements in a laminar hydrogen jet were taken. Because of the reduced Raman signal of hydrogen, the incident laser power was increased by installing the pressurized chamber within the laser cavity. This yielded an increase in power by a factor of 2.5. For the measurement of the laser sheet intensity in the laser cavity, insertion of a fluorescent dye cell and Rayleigh scattering were used and evaluated comparatively. The precise location of the waist of the laser sheet was determined by trial and error. The spatial resolution of the measurements was 650 mum and a number density of 0.371E+26 hydrogen molecules/msp3 was measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The measurements were again compared with results of direct numerical simulation. In the third part, the feasibility of two-dimensional single-shot Spontaneous Raman measurements in an engine cylinder was established. Measurements of methane concentration after direct injection in the cylinder of an experimental single-cylinder engine were taken. The engine was not fired to avoid laser induced incandescence interference. The spatial resolution was limited to 800 mum by the thickness of the laser sheet. Fast mixing of the methane jet was documented but a precise evaluation of the equivalence ratio was beyond the resolution of this first attempt. Finally, existing hardware for data acquisition and algorithms for two dimensional data reduction were reviewed and recommendations were made for the extraction of quantitative information from two-dimensional, single-shot Spontaneous Raman signals which are weak and noisy.

Kyritsis, Dimitrios Constantinou

117

A Design-Oriented Approach to the Integration of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer in the Undergraduate Mechanical Engineering Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes two parallel efforts that attempt to implement a new approach to the teaching of thermal fluids engineering. In one setting, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the subject matter is integrated into a single year-long subject at the introductory level. In the second setting, at Victoria (British Columbia,

Whale, MacMurray D.; Cravalho, Ernest G.

118

Fault simulation in fluid system components for engine health monitoring applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure to simulate the effects of different kinds of fault on engine performance parameters is described. Fouling and erosion of axial flow compressors are used as examples of fault simulation. Fault simulation based on subcomponent parameters is found to be effective since it takes into account interdependency among subcomponents and allows for controlled fault simulation. Results from axial compressor fault simulation indicate that control of front stage performance is more important than control of rear stage performance. Peak line compressor mapping is shown to be useful in determining fault threshold levels. Fault matrix simulation results using compressor-turbine matching calculation are found to agree with available field data. A pump-turbine matching procedure for use in liquid rocket motors is described.

Lakshminarasimha, A. N.

119

Application of computational fluid dynamics to the design of the Space Transportation Main Engine subscale nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CFD analyses of the Space Transportation Main Engine film/dump cooled subscale nozzle are presented, with an emphasis on the timely impact of CFD in the design of the subscale nozzle secondary coolant system. Calculations were performed with the Generalized Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), using a Baldwin-Lomas Turbulence model, and finite rate hydrogen-oxygen chemistry. Design iterations for both the secondary coolant cavity passage and the secondary coolant lip are presented. In addition, validation of the GASP chemistry and turbulence models by comparison with data and other CFD codes are presented for a hypersonic laminar separation corner, a backward facing step, and a 2D scramjet nozzle with hydrogen-oxygen kinetics.

Garrett, J. L.; Syed, S. A.

1992-01-01

120

Seals/Secondary Fluid Flows Workshop 1997; Volume II: HSR Engine Special Session  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) will be the largest engine ever built and operated at maximum conditions for long periods of time. It is being developed collaboratively with NASA, FAA, Boeing-McDonnell Douglas, Pratt & Whitney, and General Electric. This document provides an initial step toward defining high speed research (HSR) sealing needs. The overview for HSR seals includes defining objectives, summarizing sealing and material requirements, presenting relevant seal cross-sections, and identifying technology needs. Overview presentations are given for the inlet, turbomachinery, combustor and nozzle. The HSCT and HSR seal issues center on durability and efficiency of rotating equipment seals, structural seals and high speed bearing and sump seals. Tighter clearances, propulsion system size and thermal requirements challenge component designers.

Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

2006-01-01

121

Proceedings of the 1994 ASME/IEEE joint railroad conference  

SciTech Connect

The proceedings contains 22 papers from the IEEE/ASME Joint Railroad Conference. Topics discussed include flange bearing crossing frogs; rapid transit; vehicle on-board computer systems; total transport system control functions; automated train dispatching system; wheel thermal damage limits; AC propulsion; AC traction drives; electric power supplies; failure detection and identification; cargo transportation; and critical speed for railroad vehicles. Papers within the scope of the data base have been processed separately.

Hawthorne, K.L. [ed.; Hill, J.R. [ed.

1994-12-31

122

Viscous Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the similarities and differences in the behaviors of elastic solids and viscous fluids. Several types of fluid behaviors are describedBingham plastic, Newtonian, shear thinning and shear thickeningalong with their respective shear stress vs. rate of shearing strain diagrams. In addition, fluid material properties such as viscosity are introduced, along with the methods that engineers use to determine those physical properties.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

123

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of Space Shuttle main engine multiple plume flows at high-altitude flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is providing verification of Space Shuttle flight performance details and is being applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine Multiple plume interaction flow field definition. Advancements in real-gas CFD methodology that are described have allowed definition of exhaust plume flow details at Mach 3.5 and 107,000 ft. The specific objective includes the estimate of flow properties at oblique shocks between plumes and plume recirculation into the Space Shuttle Orbiter base so that base heating and base pressure can be modeled accurately. The approach utilizes the Rockwell USA Real Gas 3-D Navier-Stokes (USARG3D) Code for the analysis. The code has multi-zonal capability to detail the geometry of the plumes based region and utilizes finite-rate chemistry to compute the plume expansion angle and relevant flow properties at altitude correctly. Through an improved definition of the base recirculation flow properties, heating, and aerodynamic design environments of the Space Shuttle Vehicle can be further updated.

Dougherty, N. S.; Holt, J. B.; Liu, B. L.; Johnson, S. L.

1992-01-01

124

SOME FEATURES OF THE GAME BETWEEN THE SUPERSONIC ASM AND THE COUNTERATTACK AMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced RF surface-to-air missile (SAM) system is accompanied by ground radars, missiles, and launchers, which are very vulnerable to air-to-surface missiles (ASMs). This paper studies the threat of ASMs and an IR homing anti-missile-missile (AMM) system which defends the SAM site. A supersonic highly maneuverable ASM is assumed and the performance required for this counterattack AMM is briefly studied.

FUMIAKI IMADO

2005-01-01

125

[Ca(2+) ]i oscillations in ASM: Relationship with persistent airflow obstruction in asthma.  

PubMed

The cause of airway smooth muscle (ASM) hypercontractility in asthma is not fully understood. The relationship of spontaneous intracellular calcium oscillation frequency in ASM to asthma severity was investigated. Oscillations were increased in subjects with impaired lung function abolished by extracellular calcium removal, attenuated by caffeine and unaffected by verapamil or nitrendipine. Whether modulation of increased spontaneous intracellular calcium oscillations in ASM from patients with impaired lung function represents a therapeutic target warrants further investigation. PMID:24850215

Sweeney, David; Hollins, Fay; Gomez, Edith; Saunders, Ruth; Challiss, R A John; Brightling, Christopher E

2014-07-01

126

Improved Silicone Fluids as Candidate Gas Turbine Engine Oils for-40 F to 465F to 465F Temperature Range.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A physical and chemical laboratory study of several silicone fluids that represent some of the latest technology in the area has been conducted. These fluids were an alkyl methyl silicone, a trifluoropropyl methyl silicone and a methyl silicone improved b...

G. J. Morris

1973-01-01

127

ASME reports on combustion excursions from rotary kiln incinerators  

SciTech Connect

According to a study by the ASME Research Committee in Industrial and Municipal Waste, rotary kilns are a proven technology for thermal treatment of a wide variety of combustible waste materials ranging from consumer products to organic chemicals. Because products to organic chemicals. Because discrete units of waste of irregular size are charged to rotary kilns, occasional combustion excursions can occur when combustible material volatilize too rapidly and creates an organic vapor cloud which cannot be thoroughly mixed with oxygen in the combustions changer, and under extreme conditions creates oxygen demand which exceeds the supply.

Not Available

1989-07-01

128

ASME code safety valve rules -- A review and discussion  

SciTech Connect

Safety valve rules, i.e., rules for overpressure protection by the use of various pressure-relieving devices, vary somewhat among the five book sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code which require such protection. This paper reviews those rules by discussing the following topics: pressure relief device terminology and function; the problem of overpressure protection; code rules for overpressure protection; the various pressure relief devices permitted by the code; design of pressure relief valves; how relieving capacities are established and certified; the qualification of pressure relief device manufacturers; installation guidelines; and concluding remarks.

Bernstein, M.D. [Foster Wheeler Energy Corp., Clinton, NJ (United States); Friend, R.G. [Crosby Valve and Gage Co., Wrentham, MA (United States)

1995-05-01

129

Start Up Research Effort in Fluid Mechanics. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.

White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

1997-01-01

130

Field Observations of Fluid Transport in a Complex Heterogeneous Vadose Zone at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting fluid and contaminant transport in the vadose zone near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INEEL has been problematic due to the complex geology underlying the site. In an attempt to better understand the controlling mechanism of subsurface fluid transport, a system of monitoring instruments were installed in boreholes around the perimeter of newly constructed percolation ponds, consisting of 2 cells each approximately 160,000 ft2 in area. The instrumented region surrounding the ponds has been designated as the Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP). Continuous discharge to the south cell began in October 2002 at an average flux rate of 1.5 million gallons per day and continued until July 2003 at which time the discharge was switched to the north cell. Hydraulic data were collected nearly continuously, monitoring hydraulic responses to discharge events to both cells. Discharge to the south cell resulted in rapid vertical percolation until reaching the surficial gravel/basalt interface (at about 60 ft below ground surface) at which time rapid lateral transport was observed in a southern direction. A near steady state of water levels was reached during this 10-month period. Switching discharge location only 100 feet to the north cell drastically altered hydrological conditions and flow paths within the subsurface. Recharge was observed in several new locations, while some locations ceased receiving water from the ponds entirely. Other locations temporarily drained, then received "new water" from alternate flow paths a few days later. Prior to switching discharge locations, 3 wells were installed in the north cell at depths of 7 ft, 12 ft, and 19 ft below ground surface. The wells were instrumented with electrical conductivity probes to monitor discharge from the INTEC facility, which receives a high conductivity spike every 12 hours from water softener regeneration. Field observations show that water reached the 7 ft well within a couple hours after the switch, while the other 2 wells remain dry even after one month. Based on these data, it appears that discharge to the north cell percolates vertically to a depth of approximately 10 ft before reaching a low permeability zone, which diverts flow laterally in a northern direction. Field observations of hydrological data indicate that initial water arrival times and locations appear to be controlled by low permeability zones and fast pathways. Arrival progression was neither vertically nor laterally sequential. Importantly, field observations indicate that minor transients in discharge flux and/or location resulted in extreme changes in fluid transport behavior. Based on these observations, it is apparent that our original steady-state conceptual model needs to be modified to incorporate not only lithologic complexities, but also temporal changes in discharge location and flux. Continued field monitoring combined with ongoing tracer testing at the VZRP is aimed at providing the information needed to improve predictive models designed specifically for complex heterogeneous subsurface environments.

Baker, K.; Hull, L.; Mattson, E.; McLing, T.

2003-12-01

131

Proceedings of seismic engineering 1991  

SciTech Connect

This book contains proceedings of the Seismic Engineering Technical Subcommittee of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division. Topics covered include: seismic damping and energy absorption, advanced seismic analysis methods, new analysis techniques and applications of advanced methods, seismic supports and test results, margins inherent in the current design methods, and risk assessment, and component and equipment qualification.

Ware, A.G. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, ID (United States))

1991-01-01

132

Integrin and GPCR Crosstalk in the Regulation of ASM Contraction Signaling in Asthma  

PubMed Central

Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is one of the cardinal features of asthma. Contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells that line the airway wall is thought to influence aspects of AHR, resulting in excessive narrowing or occlusion of the airway. ASM contraction is primarily controlled by agonists that bind G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which are expressed on ASM. Integrins also play a role in regulating ASM contraction signaling. As therapies for asthma are based on symptom relief, better understanding of the crosstalk between GPCRs and integrins holds good promise for the design of more effective therapies that target the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism that governs AHR. In this paper, we will review current knowledge about integrins and GPCRs in their regulation of ASM contraction signaling and discuss the emerging concept of crosstalk between the two and the implication of this crosstalk on the development of agents that target AHR.

Teoh, Chun Ming; Tam, John Kit Chung; Tran, Thai

2012-01-01

133

Flow-loss, efficiency, and change-of-state calculations for fluid-flow engines and heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis of the energy losses in devices transfused by fluids is presented, with a focus on the phase-change processes affecting the fluid medium inside the device. Flow losses are shown to be equivalent to the dissipative work due to friction stresses, using their relationship to heat transfer or mechanical work in order to derive equations of flow efficiency

W. Bitterlich; D. Kestner; M. D. Patil

1983-01-01

134

Tensioned metastable fluids and nanoscale interactions with external stimuliTheoretical-cum-experimental assessments and nuclear engineering applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of tensioned (sub-zero pressure) metastability of organic and inorganic fluids and their responses to external stimuli is under study at Purdue University. Unique properties related to energy storage and sub-nano scale response to external stimuli have been found that give rise to the capability for causing localized supercritical states leading to fluid boiling by visible light photons and

Rusi Taleyarkhan; J. Lapinskas; Y. Xu

2008-01-01

135

46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and...APPURTENANCES General § 56.01-5 Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and...Limitations and Modifications in the Adoption of ASME B31.1 for Pressure and...

2013-10-01

136

Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof. O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled 'Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines' held on September 15-1...

C. DellaCorte O. Pinkus

2002-01-01

137

A study on vortex flow control of inlet distortion in the re-engined 727-100 center inlet duct using computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational fluid dynamics was used to investigate the management of inlet distortion by the introduction of discrete vorticity sources at selected locations in the inlet for the purpose of controlling secondary flow. These sources of vorticity were introduced by means of vortex generators. A series of design observations were made concerning the importance of various vortex generator design parameters in minimizing engine face circumferential distortion. The study showed that vortex strength, generator scale, and secondary flow field structure have a complicated and interrelated influence on the engine face distortion, over and above the initial geometry and arrangement of the generators. The installed vortex generator performance was found to be a function of three categories of variables: the inflow conditions, the aerodynamic characteristics associated with the inlet duct, and the design parameters related to the geometry, arrangement, and placement of the vortex generators within the outlet duct itself.

Anderson, Bernhard H.; Huang, Pao S.; Paschal, William A.; Cavatorta, Enrico

1992-01-01

138

A study on vortex flow control on inlet distortion in the re-engined 727-100 center inlet duct using computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational fluid dynamics was used to investigate the management of inlet distortion by the introduction of discrete vorticity sources at selected locations in the inlet for the purpose of controlling secondary flow. These sources of vorticity were introduced by means of vortex generators. A series of design observations were made concerning the importance of various vortex generator design parameters in minimizing engine face circumferential distortion. The study showed that vortex strength, generator scale, and secondary flow field structure have a complicated and interrelated influence on the engine face distortion, over and above the initial geometry and arrangement of the generators. The installed vortex generator performance was found to be a function of three categories of variables: the inflow conditions, the aerodynamic characteristics associated with the inlet duct, and the design parameters related to the geometry, arrangement, and placement of the vortex generators within the outlet duct itself.

Anderson, Bernhard H.; Huang, Pao S.; Paschal, William A.; Cavatorta, Enrico

1992-01-01

139

D0 Silicon Upgrade: ASME Code and Pressure Calculations for Liquid Nitrogen Subcooler  

SciTech Connect

Included in this engineering note are three separate calculation divisions. The first calculations are the determination of the required thickness of the LN{sub 2} subcooler flat head according to ASME code. This section includes Appendix A-C. The minimum plate thickness determined was 0.563 in. The actual thickness chosen in fabrication was a 3/4-inch plate milled to 0.594-inch at the bolt circle. Along with the plate thickness, this section calculates the required reinforcement area at the top plate penetrations. It was found that a 1/4-inch fillet weld at each penetration was adequate. The next set of calculations were done to prove that the subcooler internal pressure will always be less than 15 psig and therefore will not be classified as a pressure vessel. The subcooler is always open to a vent pipe. Appendix D calculations show that the vent pipe has a capacity of 1042 lbs/hr if 15 psig is present at the subcooler. It goes on to show that the inlet piping would at that flow rate, see a pressure drop of 104 psig. The maximum supply pressure of the LN{sub 2} storage dewar is 50 psig. Appendix E addresses required flow rates for steady state, loss of vacuum, or fire conditions. Page E9 shows a summary which states the maximum pressure would be 1.50 psig at fire conditions and internal pressure.

Kuwazaki, Andrew; Leicht, Todd; /Fermilab

1995-10-04

140

Numerical methods for fluid transient analysis; Proceedings of the Applied Mechanics, Bioengineering, and Fluids Engineering Conference, Houston, TX, June 20-22, 1983  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the topics discussed are implicit methods for the solution of the one-dimensional wave equation, second-order explicit methods for transient flow analysis, a generalized implicit finite difference method for transient analysis of compressible and incompressible fluid flows, the modeling of transient two-component flow with a four-point implicit method, one-dimensional transient gas flow with internal heating, transient pressure wave radial and axial variations, and vaporous and gaseous cavitation simulation. Also discussed are variable celerity modeling by the method of characteristics, a numerical model for transients in petroleum product pipelines, solid-liquid-gas mixture one-dimensional transient flows, hydraulic transients in tunnels with concurrent open channel and pressurized flow, and waterhammer transient control with dynamic programming of valve stoking. For individual items see A84-13235 to A84-13238

Martin, C. S.; Chaudhry, M. H.

141

Fluid Power Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.

Moore, Pam

2008-01-01

142

Formulation and evaluation of C-Ether fluids as lubricants useful to 260 C. [air breathing engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three base stocks were evaluated in bench and bearing tests to determine their suitability for use at bulk oil temperatures (BOT) from -40 C to +260 C. A polyol ester gave good bearing tests at a bulk temperature of 218 C, but only a partially successful run at 274 C. These results bracket the fluid's maximum operating temperature between these values. An extensive screening program selected lubrication additives for a C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) base stock. One formulation lubricated a bearing for 111 hours at 274 C (BOT), but this fluid gave many deposit related problems. Other C-ether blends produced cage wear or fatigue failures. Studies of a third fluid, a C-ether/disiloxane blend, consisted of bench oxidation and lubrication tests. These showed that some additives react differently in the blend than in pure C-ethers.

Clark, F. S.; Miller, D. R.

1980-01-01

143

An extension of ASM2d including pH calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an extension of the Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) including a chemical model able to calculate the pH value in biological processes. The developed chemical model incorporates the complete set of chemical species affecting the pH value to ASM2d describing non-equilibrium biochemical processes. It considers the system formed by one aqueous phase, in which biochemical processes

J. Serralta; J. Ferrer; L. Borrs; A. Seco

2004-01-01

144

A minimal path searching approach for active shape model (ASM)-based segmentation of the lung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a minimal path searching method for active shape model (ASM)-based segmentation for detection of lung boundaries on digital radiographs. With the conventional ASM method, the position and shape parameters of the model points are iteratively refined and the target points are updated by the least Mahalanobis distance criterion. We propose an improved searching strategy that extends the searching points in a fan-shape region instead of along the normal direction. A minimal path (MP) deformable model is applied to drive the searching procedure. A statistical shape prior model is incorporated into the segmentation. In order to keep the smoothness of the shape, a smooth constraint is employed to the deformable model. To quantitatively assess the ASM-MP segmentation, we compare the automatic segmentation with manual segmentation for 72 lung digitized radiographs. The distance error between the ASM-MP and manual segmentation is 1.75 +/- 0.33 pixels, while the error is 1.99 +/- 0.45 pixels for the ASM. Our results demonstrate that our ASM-MP method can accurately segment the lung on digital radiographs.

Guo, Shengwen; Fei, Baowei

2009-02-01

145

Magnetic Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this fun, engaging activity, students are introduced to a unique type of fluidferrofluidswhose shape can be influenced by magnetic fields! Students act as materials engineers and create their own ferrofluids. They are challenged to make magnetic ink out of ferrofluids and test their creations to see if they work. Concurrently, they learn more about magnetism, surfactants and nanotechnology. As they observe fluid properties as a standalone-fluid and under an imposed magnetic field, they come to understand the components of ferrofluids and their functionality.

University Of Houston

146

GC-ASM: Synergistic Integration of Graph-Cut and Active Shape Model Strategies for Medical Image Segmentation  

PubMed Central

Image segmentation methods may be classified into two categories: purely image based and model based. Each of these two classes has its own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we propose a novel synergistic combination of the image based graph-cut (GC) method with the model based ASM method to arrive at the GC-ASM method for medical image segmentation. A multi-object GC cost function is proposed which effectively integrates the ASM shape information into the GC framework. The proposed method consists of two phases: model building and segmentation. In the model building phase, the ASM model is built and the parameters of the GC are estimated. The segmentation phase consists of two main steps: initialization (recognition) and delineation. For initialization, an automatic method is proposed which estimates the pose (translation, orientation, and scale) of the model, and obtains a rough segmentation result which also provides the shape information for the GC method. For delineation, an iterative GC-ASM algorithm is proposed which performs finer delineation based on the initialization results. The proposed methods are implemented to operate on 2D images and evaluated on clinical chest CT, abdominal CT, and foot MRI data sets. The results show the following: (a) An overall delineation accuracy of TPVF > 96%, FPVF < 0.6% can be achieved via GC-ASM for different objects, modalities, and body regions. (b) GC-ASM improves over ASM in its accuracy and precision to search region. (c) GC-ASM requires far fewer landmarks (about 1/3 of ASM) than ASM. (d) GC-ASM achieves full automation in the segmentation step compared to GC which requires seed specification and improves on the accuracy of GC. (e) One disadvantage of GC-ASM is its increased computational expense owing to the iterative nature of the algorithm.

Chen, Xinjian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Alavi, Abass; Torigian, Drew A.

2013-01-01

147

Shape Optimization of Vehicle Radiator Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (cfd)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive manufacturers need to improve the efficiency and lifetime of all engine components. In the case of radiators, performance depends significantly on coolant flow homogeneity across the tubes and overall pressure drop between the inlet and outlet. Design improvements are especially needed in tube-flow uniformity to prevent premature fouling and failure of heat exchangers. Rather than relying on ad-hoc geometry changes, the current study combines Computational Fluid Dynamics with shape optimization methods to improve radiator performance. The goal is to develop an automated suite of virtual tools to assist in radiator design. Two objective functions are considered: a flow non-uniformity coefficient,Cf, and the overall pressure drop, dP*. The methodology used to automate the CFD and shape optimization procedures is discussed. In the first phase, single and multi-variable optimization methods, coupled with CFD, are applied to simplified 2-D radiator models to investigate effects of inlet and outlet positions on the above functions. The second phase concentrates on CFD simulations of a simplified 3-D radiator model. The results, which show possible improvements in both pressure and flow uniformity, validate the optimization criteria that were developed, as well as the potential of shape optimization methods with CFD to improve heat exchanger design. * Improving Radiator Design Through Shape Optimization, L. Guessous and S. Maddipatla, Paper # IMECE2002-33888, Proceedings of the 2002 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 2002

Maddipatla, Sridhar; Guessous, Laila

2002-11-01

148

Operational planning of an engine generator using a high pressure working fluid composed of CO2 hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

► An actuator designed to realize the continuous dissociation and recombination of CO2 hydrate. ► A working fluid using CO2 and H2O that is passed at 1150g\\/s, 5kW of electric power can be obtained. ► The difference in the temperature of recombination greatly influences the power generation. ► The capacity of the recombination equipment is calculated from the recombination speed.

Takanobu Yamada; Kazuhiro Matsumura; Shiro Takahashi; Masahito Kawai; Balaji Rengarajan

2011-01-01

149

Progress in railroad freight car engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the result of an annual survey, conducted by the author on behalf of the Rail Transportation Division (RTD), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to document progress in the design, construction and use of freight cars and components. Typically, the design must be at a prototype stage or beyond in order for it to be included here.

S. K. Punwani

1997-01-01

150

Requirements for design of Class 1 elevated temperature nuclear system components (supplement to ASME Code Case N-47)  

SciTech Connect

This standard provides rules for the design of Class 1 nuclear components for use at elevated temperatures. It constitutes a complete set of requirements only when used in conjunction with Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) and addenda, and ASME Code Case N-47. Unmodified portions of Code Case N-47 are not repeated in this standard but are considered requirements of this standard.

Not Available

1986-06-01

151

Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modelling of a Six-Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine with a Secondary Air Injection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the modelling of one-dimensional (1D) unsteady flows in the complete exhaust system of spark-ignited (SI) engines with secondary air injection, to reduce the catalyst light-off time and to speed up the after-treatment system warm-up. In particular, the numerical code GASDYN, developed by the authors, has been extended to model the injection of air in the exhaust

G DErrico; A Onorati

2006-01-01

152

Report on task assignment No. 3 for the Waste Package Project; Parts A & B, ASME pressure vessel codes review for waste package application; Part C, Library search for reliability\\/failure rates data on low temperature low pressure piping, containers, and casks with long design lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Package Project Research Team, at UNLV, has four general required tasks. Task one is the management, quality assurance, and overview of the research that is performed under the cooperative agreement. Task two is the structural analysis of spent fuel and high level waste. Task three is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code review for

M. B. Trabia; M. Kiley; J. Cardle; M. Joseph

1991-01-01

153

A face recognition algorithm based on ASM and Gabor features of key points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an algorithm of face recognition based on the active shape model (ASM) and Gabor features of key points was proposed. Firstly AdaBoost algorithm was used to detect the face region in an image. Then the ASM was used to localize the key feature points in the detected facial region. The Gabor features of these points were extracted. Finally the features were classified using support vector machines (SVM). Preliminary experiments on ORL database show promising results of the proposed algorithm. This algorithm can reduce the computational cost efficiently and obtain the features that contribute to classification of faces.

Wu, Ju; Mei, Lin

2013-03-01

154

Enhanced osteogenesis of human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells for tooth tissue engineering using fluid shear stress in a rocking culture method.  

PubMed

This study instituted a simple approach to stimulate alveolar bone regeneration for tooth tissue engineering by controlling effects of low fluid dynamic shear stress (LFDSS) on growth and differentiation in vitro. Human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hABMSCs) harvested from human mandibular alveolar bone were cultured with LFDSS to generate cultures containing bone-like formations. To distinguish between osteodifferentiation and bone-like formation, cells were cultured either with or without fluid shear stress. The calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of hABMSCs were used as indicators of osteogenesis. Cell viability and proliferation after stimulating with LFDSS for 10-60?min/day were higher than with longer stimulations. Mineralized nodules formed when osteoblasts were cultured with an induction medium, a marker of osteogenic differentiation. ALP activity tended to increase after 10 and 60?min/day of stimulation. In addition, LFDSS conditions also increased gene expression of IBSP, RUNX2, COL-I, ALP, OCN, and OPN, as shown by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. From the results of a proteomics array, LFDSS groups were intensely expressed with several factors (EGF, HGF, IGF, TGF, and PDGF). Furthermore, CD146 and Stro-1 expression increased in cells treated with 30?min/day and decreased in cells treated with 120?min/day, as determined by cell surface antigen analysis by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis. These results strongly showed that LFDSS at the proper intensity and time enhanced the differentiation and maturation of hABMSCs. In conclusion, an appropriate level of LFDSS can potently and positively modulate proliferation and differentiation in hABMSCs. PMID:23088630

Lim, Ki-Taek; Kim, Jangho; Seonwoo, Hoon; Chang, Jung Uk; Choi, Hwajung; Hexiu, Jin; Cho, Woo Jae; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

2013-02-01

155

Roles of the Outer Membrane Protein AsmA of Salmonella enterica in the Control of marRAB Expression and Invasion of Epithelial Cells?  

PubMed Central

A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S. enterica, suggesting that lack of AsmA activates expression of the marRAB operon. Hence, asmA mutations may enhance bile resistance by inducing gene expression changes in the marRAB-controlled Mar regulon. In silico analysis of AsmA structure predicted the existence of one transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the asmA gene of S. enterica encodes a protein of ?70 kDa located in the outer membrane. Because AsmA is unrelated to known transport and/or efflux systems, we propose that activation of marRAB in asmA mutants may be a consequence of envelope reorganization. Competitive infection of BALB/c mice with asmA+ and asmA isogenic strains indicated that lack of AsmA attenuates Salmonella virulence by the oral route but not by the intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, asmA mutants showed a reduced ability to invade epithelial cells in vitro.

Prieto, Ana I.; Hernandez, Sara B.; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M. Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; Garcia-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesus, Josep

2009-01-01

156

46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2...division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a...accordance with section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code...

2013-10-01

157

Materials and Design Bases Issues in ASME Code Case N-47.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary evaluation of the design bases (principally ASME Code Case N-47) was conducted for design and operation of reactors at elevated temperatures where the time-dependent effects of creep, creep-fatigue, and creep ratcheting are significant. Area...

R. L. Huddleston R. W. Swindeman

1993-01-01

158

Application of ASME Code Case N-47 Concepts to CRBRP Primary Piping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section III of the ASME Code provides rules in Subsection NB-3600 which greatly simplify the structural evaluation of piping. The key to this simplification is in the use of stress analysis formulas based upon stress indices. These formulas are applicable...

R. H. Mallett

1979-01-01

159

Wall thinning in nuclear piping. Status and ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Section XI activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wall thinning due to wet steam is a well-known phenomenon in both fossil and nuclear power plants; however, the widely reported wall thinning and failure of a feedwater line in the Surry Power Plant was quite unexpected because it occurred in single-phase...

S. H. Bush

1989-01-01

160

Cascade thermoacoustic engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, Los Alamos has successfully fabricated and tested traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engines having efficiencies much greater than those of traditional standing wave thermoacoustic engines. Unfortunately, Gedeon streaming effects present in these traveling wave engines has required using fluid flow ``diodes'' having greater complexity than desired. The cascade thermoacoustic engine recently fabricated and tested at Los

D. L. Gardner; G. W. Swift

2003-01-01

161

Applied Fluid Mechanics. Lecture Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of lecture notes is used as a supplemental text for the teaching of fluid dynamics, as one component of a thermodynamics course for engineering technologists. The major text for the course covered basic fluids concepts such as pressure, mass flow, and specific weight. The objective of this document was to present additional fluids

Gregg, Newton D.

162

ASME 1995 Nadai Lecture -- Plasticity of porous and particulate materials  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the formulation of constitutive equation for those materials for which the irreversible changes of the volume is also to be taken into account. These are mainly geomaterials, cement, powders of various kinds, ceramics, etc. Experimental evidence is first presented showing that the time effects on irreversible volumetric changes and failure are very important. The concept of compressibility/dilatancy boundary is further introduced. The general constitutive equation able to describe instantaneous response, transient and stationary creep, dilatancy and/or compressibility during creep, failure, creep damage and creep failure, is presented. Examples formulated for various materials are given. Comparison between model prediction and experimental data shows a very good agreement. A few examples of applications of the model to mining engineering problems are mentioned.

Cristescu, N.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Mechanics and Engineering Science

1996-04-01

163

Harmonic engine  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2009-10-20

164

Viscosity of diesel engine fuel oil under pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the development of Diesel engine fuel injection systems it is necessary to have an approximate knowledge of the absolute viscosity of the fuel oil under high hydrostatic pressures. This report presents the results of experimental tests conducted by Mr. Jackson Newton Shore, utilizing the A.S.M.E. high pressure equipment.

Hersey, Mayo D

1929-01-01

165

Closed fluid loop solar thermodynamic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic unit comprised of a pair of vessels which alternately raise and lower pressure in thermodynamic fluid is connected in a closed system to an engine, which utilizes the fluid in its gas phase, with the vessel raising pressure having a gas outlet connected to the engine and with exhaust therefrom being connected to the vessel lowering the fluid pressure.

Adler

1982-01-01

166

Fluid Mechanics and Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present day Engineers need to understand water, its properties, its distribution as well as its movement. Certain engineering disciplines may require a course in Hydraulics and Hydrology. However, most other disciplines require courses in Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics. The author believes Hydrology is an essential knowledge that most engineers should possess, regardless of their discipline. Water is consumed or circulated in huge quantities in certain types of industries and location of water resources / supply may play a key role in the selection of a future factory site. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Industries, Chemical Industries, Heat Treatment Facilities are just a few that one can mention. A typical Engineering Fluid Mechanics Course normally covers the broad discipline of Engineering Mechanics that is concerned with the behavior of Liquids and gases at rest or in motion. Water, of course is one of the liquids discussed. Regardless, Engineers are totally ignorant of the subject matter of Hydrology or the Hydrologic Cycle and their importance in the twenty-first century Engineering Environment. In this short paper, the author outlines the methods of successfully incorporating Hydrology into an Engineering Fluid Mechanics Course.

Osterkamp, W. R.; Gray, J. R.; Narayanan, M.

2002-12-01

167

ITER's Tokamak Cooling Water System and the the Use of ASME Codes to Comply with French Regulations of Nuclear Pressure Equipment  

SciTech Connect

During inductive plasma operation of ITER, fusion power will reach 500 MW with an energy multiplication factor of 10. The heat will be transferred by the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) to the environment using the secondary cooling system. Plasma operations are inherently safe even under the most severe postulated accident condition a large, in-vessel break that results in a loss-of-coolant accident. A functioning cooling water system is not required to ensure safe shutdown. Even though ITER is inherently safe, TCWS equipment (e.g., heat exchangers, piping, pressurizers) are classified as safety important components. This is because the water is predicted to contain low-levels of radionuclides (e.g., activated corrosion products, tritium) with activity levels high enough to require the design of components to be in accordance with French regulations for nuclear pressure equipment, i.e., the French Order dated 12 December 2005 (ESPN). ESPN has extended the practical application of the methodology established by the Pressure Equipment Directive (97/23/EC) to nuclear pressure equipment, under French Decree 99-1046 dated 13 December 1999, and Order dated 21 December 1999 (ESP). ASME codes and supplementary analyses (e.g., Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) will be used to demonstrate that the TCWS equipment meets these essential safety requirements. TCWS is being designed to provide not only cooling, with a capacity of approximately 1 GW energy removal, but also elevated temperature baking of first-wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, and divertor. Additional TCWS functions include chemical control of water, draining and drying for maintenance, and facilitation of leak detection/localization. The TCWS interfaces with the majority of ITER systems, including the secondary cooling system. U.S. ITER is responsible for design, engineering, and procurement of the TCWS with industry support from an Engineering Services Organization (ESO) (AREVA Federal Services, with support from Northrop Grumman, and OneCIS). ITER International Organization (ITER-IO) is responsible for design oversight and equipment installation in Cadarache, France. TCWS equipment will be fabricated using ASME design codes with quality assurance and oversight by an Agreed Notified Body (approved by the French regulator) that will ensure regulatory compliance. This paper describes the TCWS design and how U.S. ITER and fabricators will use ASME codes to comply with EU Directives and French Orders and Decrees.

Berry, Jan [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL; Curd, Warren [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Dell Orco, Dr. Giovanni [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Barabash, Vladimir [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Kim, Seokho H [ORNL

2011-01-01

168

ASMCOD: Postprocessor for Piping-System Structure-Analysis Program to Perform ASME Class 1, 2 and 3 Stress Checks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The motive of developing a postprocessor to perform ASME BPVC SEC. III Piping stress check was described. Requirements of subsections NB, NC and ND were briefly stated. Organization of this postprocessor including flow chart, input instructions and update...

H. M. Pan

1981-01-01

169

Evaluation of the Integrity of Reactor Vessels Designed to ASME Code, Sections I and/or VIII.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A documented review of nuclear reactor pressure vessels designed to ASME Code, Sections I and/or VIII is made. The review is primarily concerned with the design specifications and quality assurance programs utilized for the reactor vessel construction and...

K. G. Hoge

1976-01-01

170

Fluid Power WWW Virtual Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Providing links to sites about hydraulic and pneumatic power transmission and control, The WWW Virtual Library for Fluid Power is run in association with Fluid PowerNet (an international network of fluid power R&D laboratories). Academic and industrial research sites, discussion groups, and personal Websites dealing with fluid power can be accessed, along with a regularly updated listing of conferences and events. Simulation, conditions monitoring, control engineering, failure modes, and effects analysis are a few of the topics covered.

171

Recording fluid currents by holography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convection in fluids can be studied with aid of holographic apparatus that reveals three-dimensional motion of liquid. Apparatus eliminates images of fixed particles such as dust on windows and lenses, which might mask behavior of moving fluid particles. Holographic apparatus was developed for experiments on fluid convection cells under zero gravity. Principle is adaptable to study of fluid processes-for example, electrochemical plating and combustion in automotive engines.

Heflinger, L. O.; Wuerker, R. F.

1980-01-01

172

ASME AG-1 Section FC Qualified HEPA Filters; a Particle Loading Comparison - 13435  

SciTech Connect

High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters used to protect personnel, the public and the environment from airborne radioactive materials are designed, manufactured and qualified in accordance with ASME AG-1 Code section FC (HEPA Filters) [1]. The qualification process requires that filters manufactured in accordance with this ASME AG-1 code section must meet several performance requirements. These requirements include performance specifications for resistance to airflow, aerosol penetration, resistance to rough handling, resistance to pressure (includes high humidity and water droplet exposure), resistance to heated air, spot flame resistance and a visual/dimensional inspection. None of these requirements evaluate the particle loading capacity of a HEPA filter design. Concerns, over the particle loading capacity, of the different designs included within the ASME AG-1 section FC code[1], have been voiced in the recent past. Additionally, the ability of a filter to maintain its integrity, if subjected to severe operating conditions such as elevated relative humidity, fog conditions or elevated temperature, after loading in use over long service intervals is also a major concern. Although currently qualified HEPA filter media are likely to have similar loading characteristics when evaluated independently, filter pleat geometry can have a significant impact on the in-situ particle loading capacity of filter packs. Aerosol particle characteristics, such as size and composition, may also have a significant impact on filter loading capacity. Test results comparing filter loading capacities for three different aerosol particles and three different filter pack configurations are reviewed. The information presented represents an empirical performance comparison among the filter designs tested. The results may serve as a basis for further discussion toward the possible development of a particle loading test to be included in the qualification requirements of ASME AG-1 Code sections FC and FK[1]. (authors)

Stillo, Andrew [Camfil Farr, 1 North Corporate Drive, Riverdale, NJ 07457 (United States)] [Camfil Farr, 1 North Corporate Drive, Riverdale, NJ 07457 (United States); Ricketts, Craig I. [New Mexico State University, Department of Engineering Technology and Surveying Engineering, P.O. Box 30001 MSC 3566, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States)] [New Mexico State University, Department of Engineering Technology and Surveying Engineering, P.O. Box 30001 MSC 3566, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States)

2013-07-01

173

An Automatic Approach for 3-D Facial Shape Change Analysis by Combination of ASM and Morphometric Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a new approach for automatic facial shape change analysis by combining a stereo-assisted active shape\\u000a model (ASM) with morphometric tools. We firstly describe how to extend the 2-D ASM to 3-D space by stereo correspondence search\\u000a and disparity map interpolation for automatic facial landmark extraction. Morphometric techniques such as generalized Procrustes\\u000a analysis, principal component analysis and thin

Z. Mao; A. J. Naftel

1999-01-01

174

An extension of ASM2d including pH calculation.  

PubMed

This paper presents an extension of the Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) including a chemical model able to calculate the pH value in biological processes. The developed chemical model incorporates the complete set of chemical species affecting the pH value to ASM2d describing non-equilibrium biochemical processes. It considers the system formed by one aqueous phase, in which biochemical processes take place, and one gaseous phase, and is based on the assumptions of instantaneous chemical equilibrium under liquid phase and kinetically governed mass transport between the liquid and gas phase. The ASM2d enlargement comprises the addition of every component affecting the pH value and an ion-balance for the calculation of the pH value and the dissociation species. The significant pH variations observed in a sequencing batch reactor operated for enhanced biological phosphorus removal were used to verify the capability of the extended model for predicting the dynamics of pH jointly with concentrations of acetic acid and phosphate. A pH inhibition function for polyphosphate accumulating bacteria has also been included in the model to simulate the behaviour observed. Experimental data obtained in four different experiments (with different sludge retention time and influent phosphorus concentrations) were accurately reproduced. PMID:15491650

Serralta, J; Ferrer, J; Borrs, L; Seco, A

2004-11-01

175

Heavy Components Control Reservoir Fluid Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The five reservoir fluids (black oils, volatile oils, retrograde gas-condensates, wet gases, and dry gases) are defined because production of each fluid requires different engineering techniques. The fluid type must be determined very early in the life of a reservoir (often before sampling or initial production) because fluid type is the critical factor in many of the decisions that must

William McCain Jr.; W. D. Jr

1994-01-01

176

Waves in Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

James Lighthill provides readers with a thorough analysis of sound waves, shock waves, waterwaves of all kinds, and the so called internal waves (inside atmospheres and oceans) due to intensity stratification. He emphasizes the most useful fundamental ideas of wave science, including the principles of how waves interact with flows. This work on one of the great subdivisions of fluid dynamics will be invaluable to engineers, physicists, geophysicists, applied mathematicians, and researchers concerned with wave motions or fluid flows.

Lighthill, James

2001-12-01

177

Fluid infusion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.

1974-01-01

178

Case study of the propagation of a small flaw under PWR loading conditions and comparison with the ASME code design life. Comparison of ASME Code Sections III and XI  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative study was performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the degree of conservatism and consistency in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III fatigue evaluation procedure and Section XI flaw acceptance standards. A single, realistic, sample problem was analyzed to determine the significance of certain points of criticism made of an earlier parametric study by staff members of the Division of Engineering Standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The problem was based on a semielliptical flaw located on the inside surface of the hot-leg piping at the reactor vessel safe-end weld for the Zion 1 pressurized-water reactor (PWR). Two main criteria were used in selecting the problem; first, it should be a straight pipe to minimize the computational expense; second, it should exhibit as high a cumulative usage factor as possible. Although the problem selected has one of the highest cumulative usage factors of any straight pipe in the primary system of PWRs, it is still very low. The Code Section III fatigue usage factor was only 0.00046, assuming it was in the as-welded condition, and fatigue crack-growth analyses predicted negligible crack growth during the 40-year design life. When the analyses were extended past the design life, the usage factor was less than 1.0 when the flaw had propagated to failure. The current study shows that the criticism of the earlier report should not detract from the conclusion that if a component experiences a high level of cyclic stress corresponding to a fatigue usage factor near 1.0, very small cracks can propagate to unacceptable sizes.

Yahr, G.T.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Richardson, A.K.; Server, W.L.

1986-01-01

179

Fluid Dynamic Verification Experiments on STS-70.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fluid dynamic experiments were flown on STS-70 as phase two of the engineering evaluation of the first bioreactor Engineering Development Unit (EDU NUMBER 1). The phase one experiments were comparative cell cultures in identical units on earth and onboard...

S. J. Kleis

1996-01-01

180

Intrinsically irreversible heat engine  

DOEpatents

A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1984-01-01

181

The Variety of Fluid Dynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three research topics which are concerned with eminently practical problems and deal at the same time with fundamental fluid dynamical problems. These research topics come from the general areas of chemical and biological engineering, geophysics, and pure mathematics. (HM)

Barnes, Francis; And Others

1980-01-01

182

Assessment of ASME code examinations on regenerative, letdown and residual heat removal heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Inservice inspection requirements for pressure retaining welds in the regenerative, letdown, and residual heat removal heat exchangers are prescribed in Section XI Articles IWB and IWC of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Accordingly, volumetric and/or surface examinations are performed on heat exchanger shell, head, nozzle-to-head, and nozzle-to-shell welds. Inspection difficulties associated with the implementation of these Code-required examinations have forced operating nuclear power plants to seek relief from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The nature of these relief requests are generally concerned with metallurgical, geometry, accessibility, and radiation burden. Over 60% of licensee requests to the NRC identify significant radiation exposure burden as the principle reason for relief from the ASME Code examinations on regenerative heat exchangers. For the residual heat removal heat exchangers, 90% of the relief requests are associated with geometry and accessibility concerns. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was funded by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to review current practice with regard to volumetric and/or surface examinations of shell welds of letdown heat exchangers regenerative heat exchangers and residual (decay) heat removal heat exchangers Design, operating, common preventative maintenance practices, and potential degradation mechanisms are reviewed. A detailed survey of domestic and international PWR-specific operating experience was performed to identify pressure boundary failures (or lack of failures) in each heat exchanger type and NSSS design. The service data survey was based on the PIPExp database and covers PWR plants worldwide for the period 1970-2004. Finally a risk assessment of the current ASME Code inspection requirements for residual heat removal, letdown, and regenerative heat exchangers is performed. The results are then reviewed to discuss the examinations relative to plant safety and occupational radiation exposures.

Gosselin, Stephen R.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.; Simonen, Fredric A.; Tinsley, G. A.; Lydell, B.; Doctor, Steven R.

2005-07-01

183

Materials and design bases issues in ASME Code Case N-47  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary evaluation of the design bases (principally ASME Code Case N-47) was conducted for design and operation of reactors at elevated temperatures where the time-dependent effects of creep, creep-fatigue, and creep ratcheting are significant. Areas where Code rules or regulatory guides may be lacking or inadequate to ensure the operation over the expected life cycles for the next-generation advanced high-temperature reactor systems, with designs to be certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have been identified as unresolved issues. Twenty-two unresolved issues were identified and brief scoping plans developed for resolving these issues.

Huddleston, R.L.; Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-04-01

184

Overview of the new ASME Performance Test Code for wind turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal technical features of the ASME Performance Test Code for wind turbines are presented and such issues as what sizes and types of wind turbines should be included, what the principal measure of performance should be, and how wind speed should be measured are discussed. It is concluded that the present test code is applicable to wind turbine systems of all sizes. The principal measure of performance as defined by this code is net energy output and the primary performance parameter is the 'test energy ratio' which is based on a comparison between the measured and predicted energy output for the test period.

Spera, David A.

1986-01-01

185

New methods of analysis of materials strength data for the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code  

SciTech Connect

Tensile and creep data of the type used to establish allowable stress levels for the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code have been examined for type 321H stainless steel. Both inhomogeneous, unbalanced data sets and well-planned homogeneous data sets have been examined. Data have been analyzed by implementing standard manual techniques on a modern digital computer. In addition, more sophisticated techniques, practical only through the use of the computer, have been applied. The result clearly demonstrates the efficacy of computerized techniques for these types of analyses.

Booker, M.K.; Booker, B.L.P.

1980-01-01

186

Results from Evaluation of Proposed ASME AG-1 Section FI Metal Media Filters - 13063  

SciTech Connect

High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration technology is commonly used in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that require control of radioactive particulate matter (PM) emissions due to treatment or management of radioactive materials. Although HEPA technology typically makes use of glass fiber media, metal and ceramic media filters are also capable of filtering efficiencies beyond the required 99.97%. Sintered metal fiber filters are good candidates for use in DOE facilities due to their resistance to corrosive environments and resilience at high temperature and elevated levels of relative humidity. Their strength can protect them from high differential pressure or pressure spikes and allow for back pulse cleaning, extending filter lifetime. Use of these filters has the potential to reduce the cost of filtration in DOE facilities due to life cycle cost savings. ASME AG-1 section FI has not been approved due to a lack of protocols and performance criteria for qualifying section FI filters. The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) with the aid of the FI project team has developed a Section FI test stand and test plan capable of assisting in the qualification ASME AG-1 section FI filters. Testing done at ICET using the FI test stand evaluates resistance to rated air flow, test aerosol penetration and resistance to heated air of the section FI filters. Data collected during this testing consists of temperature, relative humidity, differential pressure, flow rate, upstream particle concentration, and downstream particle concentration. (authors)

Wilson, John A.; Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)] [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

2013-07-01

187

Methods for incorporating effects of LWR coolant environment into ASME code fatigue evaluations.  

SciTech Connect

The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Appendix I to Section HI of the Code specifies design fatigue curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Recent test data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR environments on the fatigue resistance of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels (SSs). Under certain loading and environmental conditions, fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels can be a factor of {approx}70 lower in an LWR environment than in air. These results raise the issue of whether the design fatigue curves in Section III are appropriate for the intended purpose. This paper presents the two methods that have been proposed for incorporating the effects of LWR coolant environments into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations. The mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs in LWR environments are discussed.

Chopra, O. K.

1999-04-15

188

Calibration of denitrifying activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms in an extended ASM2d model.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of an experimental study for the modelling and calibration of denitrifying activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in full-scale WWTPs that incorporate simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The convenience of using different yields under aerobic and anoxic conditions for modelling biological phosphorus removal processes with the ASM2d has been demonstrated. Thus, parameter ?(PAO) in the model is given a physical meaning and represents the fraction of PAOs that are able to follow the DPAO metabolism. Using stoichiometric relationships, which are based on assumed biochemical pathways, the anoxic yields considered in the extended ASM2d can be obtained as a function of their respective aerobic yields. Thus, this modification does not mean an extra calibration effort to obtain the new parameters. In this work, an off-line calibration methodology has been applied to validate the model, where general relationships among stoichiometric parameters are proposed to avoid increasing the number of parameters to calibrate. The results have been validated through a UCT scheme pilot plant that is fed with municipal wastewater. The good concordance obtained between experimental and simulated values validates the use of anoxic yields as well as the calibration methodology. Deterministic modelling approaches, together with off-line calibration methodologies, are proposed to assist in decision-making about further process optimization in biological phosphate removal, since parameter values obtained by off-line calibration give valuable information about the activated sludge process such as the amount of DPAOs in the system. PMID:20638698

Garca-Usach, F; Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

2010-10-01

189

Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluid Mist and Sump Fluid Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to

A. T. SIMPSON; M. STEAR; J. A. GROVES; M. PINEY; S. D. BRADLEY; S. STAGG; B. CROOK

2003-01-01

190

3D automatic anatomy segmentation based on iterative graph-cut-ASM  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This paper studies the feasibility of developing an automatic anatomy segmentation (AAS) system in clinical radiology and demonstrates its operation on clinical 3D images. Methods: The AAS system, the authors are developing consists of two main parts: object recognition and object delineation. As for recognition, a hierarchical 3D scale-based multiobject method is used for the multiobject recognition task, which incorporates intensity weighted ball-scale (b-scale) information into the active shape model (ASM). For object delineation, an iterative graph-cut-ASM (IGCASM) algorithm is proposed, which effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the globally optimal delineation capability of the GC method. The presented IGCASM algorithm is a 3D generalization of the 2D GC-ASM method that they proposed previously in Chen et al.[Proc. SPIE, 7259, 72590C1-72590C-8 (2009)]. The proposed methods are tested on two datasets comprised of images obtained from 20 patients (10 male and 10 female) of clinical abdominal CT scans, and 11 foot magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The test is for four organs (liver, left and right kidneys, and spleen) segmentation, five foot bones (calcaneus, tibia, cuboid, talus, and navicular). The recognition and delineation accuracies were evaluated separately. The recognition accuracy was evaluated in terms of translation, rotation, and scale (size) error. The delineation accuracy was evaluated in terms of true and false positive volume fractions (TPVF, FPVF). The efficiency of the delineation method was also evaluated on an Intel Pentium IV PC with a 3.4 GHZ CPU machine. Results: The recognition accuracies in terms of translation, rotation, and scale error over all organs are about 8 mm, 10 deg. and 0.03, and over all foot bones are about 3.5709 mm, 0.35 deg. and 0.025, respectively. The accuracy of delineation over all organs for all subjects as expressed in TPVF and FPVF is 93.01% and 0.22%, and all foot bones for all subjects are 93.75% and 0.28%, respectively. While the delineations for the four organs can be accomplished quite rapidly with average of 78 s, the delineations for the five foot bones can be accomplished with average of 70 s. Conclusions: The experimental results showed the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed automatic anatomy segmentation system: (a) the incorporation of shape priors into the GC framework is feasible in 3D as demonstrated previously for 2D images; (b) our results in 3D confirm the accuracy behavior observed in 2D. The hybrid strategy IGCASM seems to be more robust and accurate than ASM and GC individually; and (c) delineations within body regions and foot bones of clinical importance can be accomplished quite rapidly within 1.5 min.

Chen, Xinjian; Bagci, Ulas [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Building 10 Room 1C515, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 and Life Sciences Research Center, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071 (China); Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Building 10 Room 1C515, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 (United States)

2011-08-15

191

RXTE/ASM observations of new superbursts from Ser X-1 and 4U 1636-536  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic search for superbursts in the RXTE/ASM archive up to June 2009 of all type I X-ray bursters known to date revealed previously unnoticed long- duration events. Two candidate superbursts were found in ASM data of Ser X-1. One superburst was previously known for this source (Cornelisse et al. 2002, A&A 382, 174). The new ones occurred on 1999 Aug 9 (MJD 51399) and 2008 Oct 14 (MJD 54753).

Kuulkers, Erik

2009-07-01

192

Statistical Physics of Complex Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of complex fluids is a rapidly developing, highly interdisciplinary field that brings together people from a plethora of backgrounds such as mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, materials science, applied mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. In this melting pot of science, the traditional boundaries of various scientific disciplines have been set aside. It is this very property of the field

R Golestanian; M R H Khajehpour; M R Kolahchi; S Rouhani

2005-01-01

193

Updating of ASME Nuclear Code Case N-201 to Accommodate the Needs of Metallic Core Support Structures for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Currently in Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

On September 29, 2005, ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) executed a multi-year, cooperative agreement with the United States DOE for the Generation IV Reactor Materials project. The project's objective is to update and expand appropriate materials, construction, and design codes for application in future Generation IV nuclear reactor systems that operate at elevated temperatures. Task 4 was embarked upon

John F. Kielb; John F. MuHooly; Kobus Smit

2007-01-01

194

Computers in engineering, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This book is covered under the following topics: Robotics, Computers in Fluid Mechanics/Thermal Systems, CAD/CAM/CAE, Finite Element techniques, Computers in Education, Engineering Database Management, and Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

Gupta, G.; Shoup, T.E.

1991-01-01

195

Review of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH and Overview of the Availability of the Original and Augmented Databases Needed to Establish S(sub o), S(sub t), and S(sub r).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It ...

R. W. Swinderman

2009-01-01

196

Actuating fluid pump having priming reservoir  

SciTech Connect

A hydraulically-actuated fuel injection system adapted for an engine is described comprising: at least one hydraulically-actuated fuel injector; means for supplying fuel to the injector; means for supplying hydraulically actuating fluid, separate from the fuel supplying means, to the injector, said actuating fluid supplying means including an actuating fluid sump, a high pressure actuating fluid pump having a pumping chamber arranged in fluid communication with the sump, and a priming reservoir separate from the actuating fluid sump and arranged in fluid communication between the sump and the inlet of the pumping chamber of the pump.

Glassey, S.F.

1993-05-25

197

Fluid Conduit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fluid conduit for flowing electrically conductive fluids includes an electrically conductive pipe, an electrically conductive rod extending axially through the pipe and centrally thereof, a first power source in electrical communication with the pipe an...

C. W. Henoch P. J. Hendricks

1999-01-01

198

Fatigue Crack Flaw Tolerance in Nuclear Power Plant Piping. A Basis for Improvements to ASME Code Section XI Appendix L.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Appendix L of the ASME Section XI Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code as adopted in 1996 provides non-mandatory guidelines for the nuclear power industry to evaluate the serviceability of components that are adversely subjected to fatigue stresses. Appendix L...

S. R. Gosselin F. A. Simonen P. G. Heasler S. R. Doctor

2007-01-01

199

Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.  

SciTech Connect

The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

2003-10-03

200

Fluid Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

Drazin, Philip

1987-01-01

201

FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM PC VERSION)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

Fessler, T. E.

1994-01-01

202

Calibration and simulation of ASM2d at different temperatures in a phosphorus removal pilot plant.  

PubMed

In this work, an organic and nutrient removal pilot plant was used to study the temperature influence on phosphorus accumulating organisms. Three experiments were carried out at 13, 20 and 24.5 degrees C, achieving a high phosphorus removal percentage in all cases. The ASM2d model was calibrated at 13 and 20 degrees C and the Arrhenius equation constant was obtained for phosphorus removal processes showing that the temperature influences on the biological phosphorus removal subprocesses in a different degree. The 24.5 degrees C experiment was simulated using the model parameters obtained by means of the Arrhenius equation. The simulation results for the three experiments showed good correspondence with the experimental data, demonstrating that the model and the calibrated parameters were able to predict the pilot plant behaviour. PMID:16889256

Garca-Usach, F; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

2006-01-01

203

Crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade 2 steel in hydrogen at ambient temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cyclic-load crack growth measurements were performed on ASME SA-105 Grade 2 steel specimens exposed to 10,000- and 15,000-psi hydrogen and to 5000-psi helium, all at ambient temperatures. The cyclic-load crack growth rate was found to be faster in high-pressure hydrogen than in helium. Cyclic-load crack growth rates in this steel were not reduced by preloading in air to a stress intensity of 1.5 times the cyclic K sub max in hydrogen. There are indications that holding under load in hydrogen, and loading and unloading in helium retards hydrogen-accelerated cyclic-load crack growth. Cyclic frequency and R (ratio of K sub min/k sub max) were important variables determining crack growth rate. The crack growth rate increased as a logarithm of the cycle duration and decreased with increasing R.

Walter, R. J.

1975-01-01

204

ASM conference report: genetics and molecular biology of industrial microorganisms 1984  

SciTech Connect

The ASM Conference on Genetics and Molecular Biology of Industrial Microorganisms was held Sept. 30 to Oct. 3, 1984 in Bloomington, Indiana. The meetings reflected the progress in applying molecular techniques to the genetic analysis of industrial microorganisms. Topics of discussion included; gene expression in yeasts; the cloning of an Aspergillus sp. gene for glucomylase into S. cerevisiae; the construction of a yeast acentric ring plasmid (YARpl); the cloning of hygromycin resistant genes into Cephalosporium; optimization of gene expression in E. coli; a model for the initiation of translation in E. coli based on experiments with T4rIIb mutants; the role of proteases in protein turnover; evidence indicating which segments on RNAs are needed for the initiation of DNA synthesis; the application of various gene expression systems for the production of vaccines; the sporulation genes of Bacillus; the inducible chloramphenicol resistance found in Bacillus; gene expression in Streptomyces; enzyme activities in Streptomyces; and cloning of genes involved in antibiotic biosynthesis.

Not Available

1985-01-01

205

The Impact of ASME Section XI Appendix L Inspections on Piping Reliability  

SciTech Connect

Appendix L of the ASME Section XI code sets standards for augmented inspections of piping components that have experienced high levels of fatigue usage, and provides a basis for continued operation of components beyond their original design life. This paper describes probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations that estimate the reductions in piping failure probabilities associated with the Appendix L inspections. The improvements in piping reliability are a function of the frequency of the inspections and the quality of the ultrasonic examination methods (probability of flaw detection). Both preexisting fabrication flaws and flaws initiated by fatigue cycling are included in the probabilistic calculations. The calculations show that a program of Appendix L inspections can maintain piping failure rates during a period of extended operation at levels that are at or below the failure frequencies that are estimated for the original period of the design life.

Simonen, Fredric A.; Gosselin, Stephen R.

2001-12-31

206

Education and research in fluid dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid dynamics constitutes an essential subject for engineering, since auronautic engineers (airship flights in PBL, flight processes), industrial engineers (fluid transportation), naval engineers (ship/vessel building) up to agricultural engineers (influence of the weather conditions on crops/farming). All the above-mentioned examples possess a high social and economic impact on mankind. Therefore, the fluid dynamics education of engineers is very important, and, at the same time, this subject gives us an interesting methodology based on a cycle relation among theory, experiments and numerical simulation. The study of turbulent plumes -a very important convective flow- is a good example because their theoretical governing equations are simple; it is possible to make experimental plumes in an aesy way and to carry out the corresponding numerical simulatons to verify experimental and theoretical results. Moreover, it is possible to get all these aims in the educational system (engineering schools or institutions) using a basic laboratory and the "Modellus" software.

Lpez Gonzlez-Nieto, P.; Redondo, J. M.; Cano, J. L.

2009-04-01

207

Development of a Consensus Standard for Verification and Validation of Nuclear System Thermal-Fluids Software  

SciTech Connect

With the resurgence of nuclear power and increased interest in advanced nuclear reactors as an option to supply abundant energy without the associated greenhouse gas emissions of the more conventional fossil fuel energy sources, there is a need to establish internationally recognized standards for the verification and validation (V&V) of software used to calculate the thermal-hydraulic behavior of advanced reactor designs for both normal operation and hypothetical accident conditions. To address this need, ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Standards and Certification has established the V&V 30 Committee, under the jurisdiction of the V&V Standards Committee, to develop a consensus standard for verification and validation of software used for design and analysis of advanced reactor systems. The initial focus of this committee will be on the V&V of system analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software for nuclear applications. To limit the scope of the effort, the committee will further limit its focus to software to be used in the licensing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. In this framework, the Standard should conform to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other regulatory practices, procedures and methods for licensing of nuclear power plants as embodied in the United States (U.S.) Code of Federal Regulations and other pertinent documents such as Regulatory Guide 1.203, 'Transient and Accident Analysis Methods' and NUREG-0800, 'NRC Standard Review Plan'. In addition, the Standard should be consistent with applicable sections of ASME NQA-1-2008 'Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Applications (QA)'. This paper describes the general requirements for the proposed V&V 30 Standard, which includes; (a) applicable NRC and other regulatory requirements for defining the operational and accident domain of a nuclear system that must be considered if the system is to be licensed, (b) the corresponding calculation domain of the software that should encompass the nuclear operational and accident domain to be used to study the system behavior for licensing purposes, (c) the definition of the scaled experimental data set required to provide the basis for validating the software, (d) the ensemble of experimental data sets required to populate the validation matrix for the software in question, and (e) the practices and procedures to be used when applying a validation standard. Although this initial effort will focus on software for licensing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors, it is anticipated that the practices and procedures developed for this Standard can eventually be extended to other nuclear and non-nuclear applications.

Edwin A. Harvego; Richard R. Schultz; Ryan L. Crane

2011-12-01

208

Effect of thin condensate films of a metal working fluid of an electric propulsion engine on the integral optical coefficients of a spacecraft's thermal control coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials on experimental studies to determine the effect of thin condensate films of cesium (used as a model working medium for electric propulsion engines and some spacecraft power sources) on integral optical coefficients of spacecraft thermal control coatings are presented. A technique modified by the author and employing the regular thermal regime of a thin metal plate is used. Measurement results demonstrate that films with thicknesses of 100-1000 can seriously degrade the integral optical coefficients of thermal control coatings and thus disturb the heat balance of some spacecraft systems.

Chirov, A. A.

2014-05-01

209

Stochastic interpenetration of fluids  

SciTech Connect

We describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.

Steinkamp, M.J.; Clark, T.T.; Harlow, F.H.

1995-11-01

210

Computational Fluid Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used to study and solve complex fluid flow and heat transfer problems. This comprehensive text ranges from elementary concepts for the beginner to state-of-the-art CFD for the practitioner. It discusses and illustrates the basic principles of finite difference (FD), finite element (FE), and finite volume (FV) methods, with step-by-step hand calculations. Chapters go on to examine structured and unstructured grids, adaptive methods, computing techniques, and parallel processing. Finally, the author describes a variety of practical applications to problems in turbulence, reacting flows and combustion, acoustics, combined mode radiative heat transfer, multiphase flows, electromagnetic fields, and relativistic astrophysical flows. Students and practitioners--particularly in mechanical, aerospace, chemical, and civil engineering--will use this authoritative text to learn about and apply numerical techniques to the solution of fluid dynamics problems.

Chung, T. J.

2002-03-01

211

Spacer fluids  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a conduit extends, the wellbore having a space occupied by a drilling fluid. It comprises displacing the drilling fluid from the space with a spacer fluid comprising: sulfonated styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer, bentonite, welan gum, surfactant and a weighting agent; and displacing the spacer composition and filling the wellbore space with a settable cement composition.

Wilson, W.N.; Bradshaw, R.D.; Wilton, B.S.; Carpenter, R.B.

1992-05-19

212

Some connections between fluid mechanics and the solving of industrial and environmental fluid-flow problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ways in which advances in fluid mechanics have led to improvements in engineering design are discussed, with attention to the stimulation of fluid mechanics research by industrial and environmental problems. The development of many practical uses of fluid flow without the benefit of scientific study is also emphasized. Among the topics discussed are vortices and coherent structures in turbulent

J. C. R. Hunt

1981-01-01

213

Unified system for holographic measurement in fluid and solid mechanics: application of the system to volumetric flow measurement in an internal combustion engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports holographic measurements of full-field 3D flows inside a production geometry 4-stoke internal combustion engine with extensive optical access through both the cylinder wall and the piston crown. The seeded flow is recorda at two instants as a reflection hologram of high numerical aperture. A purpose built holographic camera using a phase conjugate holographic optical element is used to compensate for the gross aberrations caused by imaging through a thick walled, glass cylinder. Fiber-optic, conjugate recognition and subsequent correlation of the complex amplitude recorded by the hologram facilitates sub- wavelength measurement of particle displacement without directional ambiguity. Preliminary measurements of the flow field within the cylinder at the bottom of the induction stroke are discussed. The results clearly show the potential of this technique to extract 3D velocity information in hostile environments.

Chan, Victor S.; Barnhart, Donald H.; Garner, Colin P.; Halliwell, Neil A.; Coupland, Jeremy M.

1999-10-01

214

High Level Analysis, Design and Validation of Distributed Mobile Systems with CoreASM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System design is a creative activity calling for abstract models that facilitate reasoning about the key system attributes (desired requirements and resulting properties) so as to ensure these attributes are properly established prior to actually building a system. We explore here the practical side of using the abstract state machine (ASM) formalism in combination with the CoreASM open source tool environment for high-level design and experimental validation of complex distributed systems. Emphasizing the early phases of the design process, a guiding principle is to support freedom of experimentation by minimizing the need for encoding. CoreASM has been developed and tested building on a broad scope of applications, spanning computational criminology, maritime surveillance and situation analysis. We critically reexamine here the CoreASM project in light of three different application scenarios.

Farahbod, R.; Glsser, U.; Jackson, P. J.; Vajihollahi, M.

215

Effect of cyclic frequency on the fatigue life of ASME SA106B piping steel in PWR environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue life tests in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments were performed on smooth and sharply notched specimens\\u000a of ASME SA-106-B piping steel at cyclic frequencies of 1.0 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and 0.017 Hz. On the basis of these tests, it was concluded\\u000a that no effect of cyclic frequency existed for smooth specimens whereas a frequency of 0.017 Hz proved to

J. B. Terrell

1988-01-01

216

Fatigue strength of smooth and notched specimens of ASME SA 106B steel in PWR (pressurized water reactor) environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue strain-life tests were conducted on ASME SA 106-B piping steel base metal and weld metal specimens in 288\\/degree\\/C (550\\/degree\\/F) pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments as a function of strain amplitude, strain ratio, notch acuity, and cyclic frequency. Notched base metal specimens tested at 0.017 Hz in 1.0 part per billion (ppB) dissolved oxygen environments nearly completely used up the

Terrell

1988-01-01

217

Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (ASM)Induced Resistance against Tobamoviruses Involves Induction of RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRp) and Alternative Oxidase (AOX) Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobamoviruses are the major viral pathogens of tomato and bell pepper. The preliminary results showed that Acibenzolar-S- methyl (ASM; S-methylbenzo (1,2,3) thiadiazole-7-carbothiate) pre-treatment to tomato and tobacco plants reduces the concentration of Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) and Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) in tomato and bell pepper seedlings, respectively. Pre-treatment of the indicator plant (Nicotiana glutinosa) with the ASM followed by

Kallahally Nagendra Madhusudhan; Saligrama Adavigowda Deepak; Harishchandra Sripathi Prakash; Ganesh Kumar; Nam Soo Jwa; Randeep Rakwal

218

Orbital Fluid Transfer System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS meet the servicing requirements for ISS and could also provide the automated fluid and power interface system needed for on orbit consumable resupply of spacecraft into the new century.

Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

1998-01-01

219

Wall-Thinning in Nuclear Piping, Status and ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Section XI Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wall thinning due to wet steam is a well known phenomenon in both fossil and nuclear power plants; however, the widely reported wall thinning and failure of a feedwater line in the Surry Power Plant was quite unexpected because it occurred in single-phase...

S. H. Bush B. Chexal

1988-01-01

220

46 CFR 61.30-5 - Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS...and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-5 Preparation of thermal fluid heater for...

2009-10-01

221

46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements... Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating...types, such as donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, heating...

2009-10-01

222

46 CFR 61.30-5 - Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS...and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-5 Preparation of thermal fluid heater for...

2010-10-01

223

46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements... Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating...types, such as donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, heating...

2010-10-01

224

Unsteady Simulation of an ASME Venturi Flow in a Cross Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsteady numerical simulations of an ASME venturi flow into a cross flow were performed. The velocity ratios between the venturi flow and the free stream were 25, 50, and 75%. Two cases of the venturi with and without a tube extension have been investigated. The tube extension length was approximately 4D (here D is the inner diameter of the venturi's outlet), connecting the venturi to the bottom surface of the numerical wind tunnel. A finite volume approach with the Wilcox K-? turbulence model were used. Results that include contours of the mean velocity, velocity vector, turbulent kinetic energy, pressure and vortices within the venturi as well as downstream in the interaction region indicate that when the venturi is flushed with the surface, there is evidence of flow separation within the venturi, near the outlet. However, when the tube extension was added, the pressure recovery was sustained and flow separation within the venturi was not present and the characteristics of the flow in the interaction region were similar to the corresponding characteristics of a pipe jet in a cross flow.

Bonifacio, Jeremy; Rahai, Hamid

2010-11-01

225

Analysis of systematic errors of the ASM/RXTE monitor and GT-48 ?-ray telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observational data concerning variations of light curves of supernovae remnantsthe Crab Nebula, Cassiopeia A, Tycho Brahe, and pulsar Velaover 14 days scale that may be attributed to systematic errors of the ASM/RXTE monitor are presented. The experimental systematic errors of the GT-48 ?-ray telescope in the mono mode of operation were also determined. For this the observational data of TeV J2032 + 4130 (Cyg ?-2, according to the Crimean version) were used and the stationary nature of its ?-ray emission was confirmed by long-term observations performed with HEGRA and MAGIC. The results of research allow us to draw the following conclusions: (1) light curves of supernovae remnants averaged for long observing periods have false statistically significant flux variations, (2) the level of systematic errors is proportional to the registered flux and decreases with increasing temporal scale of averaging, (3) the light curves of sources may be modulated by the year period, and (4) the systematic errors of the GT-48 ?-ray telescope, in the amount caused by observations in the mono mode and data processing with the stereo-algorithm come to 0.12 min-1.

Fidelis, V. V.

2011-06-01

226

Preparation of a biomimetic nanocomposite scaffold for bone tissue engineering via mineralization of gelatin hydrogel and study of mineral transformation in simulated body fluid.  

PubMed

In this study, double diffusion method in a physiologically relevant environment was used to prepare a biomimetic gelatin-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomposite scaffold. The precipitated calcium phosphate within gelatin as well as produced nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized by the commonly used bulk techniques. The results showed that nanocomposite scaffolds were porous with three-dimensionally interconnected microstructure, pore size ranging from 150 to 350 ?m. Porosity was about 82% and nanocrystalline precipitated minerals were dispersed evenly among gelatin fibers. A mineral containing amorphous calcium phosphate and brushite precipitate was formed within the gelatin matrix at 4C. After incubation in SBF solution at 37C for 5 days, the mineral phase was transformed to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. It should be noted that precursor phases inside a scaffold implanted into the body can result in biomimetic conversion of precursors to hydroxyapatite that is very similar to the bone mineral and has a profound level of biocompatibility. Thus, our results highlight the potential use of engineered biomimetic bone tissue scaffolds in the bone tissue repair process. PMID:22374752

Azami, Mahmoud; Moosavifar, Mir Javad; Baheiraei, Nafiseh; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Ai, Jafar

2012-05-01

227

Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two-dimensional systems.

Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-Ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

2012-01-01

228

The transformation of heat in an engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a thermodynamic basis for rating heat engines. The production of work by a heat engine rests on the operation of supplying heat, under favorable conditions, to a working fluid and then taking it away.

Neumann, Kurt

1929-01-01

229

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Subject Category - D - Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reports in the category cover: engineering (general); communications; electronics and electrical engineering; fluid mechanics and heat transfer instrumentation and photography; lasers and masers; mechanical engineering; quality assurance and reliability; ...

1989-01-01

230

Engine construction  

SciTech Connect

An engine has at least two piston-cylinder assemblies each comprising a cylinder formed in an engine block with a cylinder head and a piston therein in sliding relationship toward and away from the head, a piston rod operatively connected to the piston and to a crankshaft, motion producing member of shape-memory material, e.g. Nitinol, having a transformation temperature range, secured to the cylinder head and the side of the piston opposite from the connecting rod, the motion producing member having a heat treated high temperature extended shape memory position and a low temperature low energy compressed position, the Nitinol member being of hollow tubular form and having pressure and return hoses connected thereto for supplying and removing cooling fluid into and from the Nitinol member, an electrical heating device connected to the Nitinol member, whereby the Nitinol member is easily compressed with relatively little force from the extended shape memory position to the compressed position when cooling fluid is supplied thereto to reduce the temperature of the Nitinol member to or below the lower limit of the transformation temperature range and the Nitinol member is automatically extended with relatively great force from the compressed position to the shape memory position when heated by the heating device to or above the upper limit of the transformation temperature range.

Dillon, C.L.

1984-03-06

231

Flowmeter for Clear and Translucent Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transducer with only three moving parts senses flow of clear or translucent fluid. Displacement of diaphragm by force of flow detected electrooptically and displayed by panel meter or other device. Transducer used to measure flow of gasoline to automobile engine.

White, P. R.

1985-01-01

232

CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

WITTEKIND WD

2007-10-03

233

Fluid Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hydraulics and pneumatics are both forms of fluid power, a common means of driving and controlling mechanical motions. It is one of the three kinds of power, with the other two being mechanical and electrical. Fluid power systems are widely used in most machinery, such as automobiles and construction equipment.The National Fluid Power Association (1) has an excellent introduction to the topic, which includes a general overview and descriptions of over 20 practical applications. It also looks at the current state of fluid power technology and how it has progressed in recent years. For a more detailed discussion of fluid power principles and how hydraulic and pneumatic devices operate, Integrated Publishing (2) offers twelve chapters of material, complete with diagrams. Fluid Power Web (3) is a comprehensive source of information about components, vendors, and software. Ideas and Applications is an especially interesting section, as it periodically gives a new article about clever, innovative ways of using fluid power systems. Every two months, the Fluid Power Society (4) publishes a journal with a few articles about industry news and trends. Three specialized issues are offered each year, and there is an archive with issues that date back to 1998. A complete hydraulics system is broken down into its constituent parts and explained at this Web site (5). The author uses many drawings and animations to illustrate the physical processes involved in hydraulics. The Institute of Hydraulics and Automation (6), located at the University of Tampere in Finland, has a very active research program with many focus areas. Telerobotics, mobile hydraulics, cavitation, and virtual testing are all investigated at the institute, and project descriptions in each of these areas are given on the site. The Division of Fluid Power Technology (7) at a Swedish university has developed a digital simulation tool for fluid power system design. Called HOPSAN, the software can be freely downloaded from the Web site to run on the Windows operating system (a Fortran compiler is required for Windows 95 and newer). Students at Purdue University (8) have recently built "what is thought to be the first vehicle that uses water in all of its hydraulic systems." This article highlights the students' achievement and considers the rationale behind this original design.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

234

Geophysical fluid dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systematic scaling or dimensional analysis reveals that certain scales of geophysical fluid flows (such as stellar, ocean, and planetary atmosphere circulations) can be accurately modeled in the laboratory using a procedure which differs from conventional engineering modeling. Rather than building a model to obtain numbers for a specific design problem, the relative effects of the significant forces are systematically varied in an attempt to deepen understanding of the effects of these forces. Topics covered include: (1) modeling a large-scale planetary atmospheric flow in a rotating cylindrical annulus; (2) achieving a radial dielectric body force; (3) spherical geophysical fluid dynamics experiments for Spacelab flights; (4) measuring flow and temperature; and (5) the possible effect of rotational or precessional disturbances on the flow in the rotating spherical containers.

Fowlis, W. W.

1981-01-01

235

GUIDELINE FOR FLUID MODELING OF ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION  

EPA Science Inventory

The fundamental principles for fluid modeling of flow and dispersion of pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer are reviewed. The usefulness of fluid models are evaluated from both scientific and engineering viewpoints. Because many detailed decisions must be made during the...

236

TAYLOR VORTEX FLOW OF A MAGNETIC FLUID  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flows of magnetic fluids are increasing importance in a number of fields of engineering and this has increased the interest in studying flows of this kind. For such flow investi gations conventional methods, such has hot wire anemometry, cannot be applied because of the special properties of magnetic fluids. In addition, the dark coloured liquid dose not permit laser-Doppler-techniques to

H. Kikura; Y. Takeda; F. Durst

237

Engine Oil and Its Viscosity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practical example of how the viscosity of fluids impacts us everyday as we drive our cars; explains why viscosity of engine oil is important. The site also features other information about different aspects of automotive care and safety.

2008-10-07

238

Diffusive spreading and mixing of fluid monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ultra-thin, i.e. monolayer, films plays an important role in the emerging field of nano-fluidics. Since the dynamics of such films is governed by the interplay between substrate-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions, the transport of matter in nanoscale devices may eventually be efficiently controlled by substrate engineering. For such films, the dynamics is expected to be captured by two-dimensional

M. N. Popescu; S. Dietrich; G. Oshanin

2005-01-01

239

Computing Properties Of Pure And Mixed Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GASPLUS created as two-part code: first designed for use with pure fluids and second designed for use with mixtures of fluids and phases. Offers routines for mathematical modeling of conditions of fluids in pumps, turbines, compressors and other machines. Other routines for calculating performance of para/ortho-hydrogen reactor and heat of para/normal-hydrogen reaction as well as unique convergence routine demonstrates engineering flavor of GASPLUS. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Fowler, J. R.; Hendricks, Robert C.

1993-01-01

240

Experimental investigation of gasoline compression ignition combustion in a light-duty diesel engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to increased ignition delay and volatility, low temperature combustion (LTC) research utilizing gasoline fuel has experienced recent interest [1-3]. These characteristics improve air-fuel mixing prior to ignition allowing for reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot (or particulate matter, PM). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Engine Research Center (Ra et al. [4, 5]) have validated these attributes and established baseline operating parameters for a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) concept in a light-duty diesel engine over a large load range (3-16 bar net IMEP). In addition to validating these computational results, subsequent experiments at the Engine Research Center utilizing a single cylinder research engine based on a GM 1.9-liter diesel engine have progressed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition processes, and established the capability of critical controlling input parameters to better control GCI operation. The focus of this thesis can be divided into three segments: 1) establishment of operating requirements in the low-load operating limit, including operation sensitivities with respect to inlet temperature, and the capabilities of injection strategy to minimize NOx emissions while maintaining good cycle-to-cycle combustion stability; 2) development of novel three-injection strategies to extend the high load limit; and 3) having developed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition kinetics, and how changes in physical processes (e.g. engine speed effects, inlet pressure variation, and air-fuel mixture processes) affects operation, develop operating strategies to maintain robust engine operation. Collectively, experimental results have demonstrated the ability of GCI strategies to operate over a large load-speed range (3 bar to 17.8 bar net IMEP and 1300-2500 RPM, respectively) with low emissions (NOx and PM less than 1 g/kg-FI and 0.2 g/kg-FI, respectively), and low fuel consumption (gross indicated fuel consumption <200 g/kWh). [1] Dec, J. E., Yang, Y., and Dronniou, N., 2011, "Boosted HCCI - Controlling Pressure- Rise Rates for Performance Improvements using Partial Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline," SAE Int. J. Engines, 4(1), pp. 1169-1189. [2] Kalghatgi, G., Hildingsson, L., and Johansson, B., 2010, "Low NO(x) and Low Smoke Operation of a Diesel Engine Using Gasolinelike Fuels," Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions of the Asme, 132(9), p. 9. [3] Manente, V., Zander, C.-G., Johansson, B., Tunestal, P., and Cannella, W., 2010, "An Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency from Idle to Max Load Using Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion," SAE International, 2010-01-2198. [4] Ra, Y., Loeper, P., Reitz, R., Andrie, M., Krieger, R., Foster, D., Durrett, R., Gopalakrishnan, V., Plazas, A., Peterson, R., and Szymkowicz, P., 2011, "Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime," SAE Int. J. Engines, 4(1), pp. 1412-1430. [5] Ra, Y., Loeper, P., Andrie, M., Krieger, R., Foster, D., Reitz, R., and Durrett, R., 2012, "Gasoline DICI Engine Operation in the LTC Regime Using Triple- Pulse Injection," SAE Int. J. Engines, 5(3), pp. 1109-1132.

Loeper, C. Paul

241

Information sources in engineering  

SciTech Connect

This book was designed to serve as a guide to the wide range of sources of information used by engineers. The first part of this research tool describes the major primary and secondary sources for information (including online systems) that are relevant to all engineering disciplines. The second part provides the same information for each of the 19 specific engineering disciplines, with each chapter being written by an expert in the particular branch of engineering. This new edition of a work previously published under the title Use of Engineering Literature has been completely re-written with a new team of contributors. There is greater emphasis on disciplines basic to all engineering areas, e.g., fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and materials science. Recent developments covered include robotics, CAD/CAM systems, renewable energy sources, and the use of online systems for information retrieval.

Anthony, L.J.

1985-01-01

242

Fluid Shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility); (5) ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, 2-dimensional ultrasound including optic nerve sheath diameter, globe flattening, and retina-choroid thickness, Doppler ultrasound of ophthalmic and retinal arteries, and veins); (6) cardiac variables by ultrasound (inferior vena cava, tricuspid flow and tissue Doppler, pulmonic valve, stroke volume, right heart dimensions and function, four-chamber views); and (7) ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, and ICP calculated by MRI). On the ground, acute head-down tilt will induce cephalad fluid shifts, whereas LBNP will oppose these shifts. Controlled Mueller maneuvers will manipulate cardiovascular variables. Through interventions applied before, during, and after flight, we intend to fully evaluate the relationship between fluid shifts and the VIIP syndrome. This study has been selected for flight implementation and is one of the candidate investigations being considered for the one year mission.

Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

2014-01-01

243

Thermal conversion engine  

SciTech Connect

An engine is disclosed which can convert thermal energy into mechanical energy by making use of the expansion in the volume of a liquid, such as water, when it freezes, and a corresponding decrease in the volume when the frozen material returns to its liquid state. A cylinder containing the liquid with a piston positioned above the liquid is placed in a large container through which a repetitive succession of cold fluids and hot fluids are passed. The cold fluid entering the container freezes the liquid in the cylinder. The volume of the liquid increases raising the piston. The cold fluid is then removed from the container and hot fluid applied to defrost the frozen material in the cylinder returning it to its liquid state. The volume then decreases causing a lowering of the piston. The reciprocating movement of the piston is applied to an output which can then be amplified to produce greater displacement.

Kuo, S.F.

1980-02-05

244

PREFACE: Statistical Physics of Complex Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of complex fluids is a rapidly developing, highly interdisciplinary field that brings together people from a plethora of backgrounds such as mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, materials science, applied mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. In this melting pot of science, the traditional boundaries of various scientific disciplines have been set aside. It is this very property of the field

R. Golestanian; M. R. H. Khajehpour; M. R. Kolahchi; S. Rouhani

2005-01-01

245

ASME proceedings of the 32nd national heat transfer conference (HTD-Vol. 345). Volume 7: Radiative heat transfer  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains a portion of the over 240 ASME papers which were presented at the conference. For over 40 years, the National Heat Transfer Conference has been the premiere forum for the presentation and dissemination of the latest advances in heat transfer. The work contained in these volumes range from studies of fundamental phenomena to applications in the latest heat transfer equipment. Radiative heat transfer is the subject covered by the papers in this volume. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

Kaminski, D.; Smith, A.M.; Smith, T.F. [eds.

1997-07-01

246

Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is one discipline falling under the broad heading of computer-aided engineering (CAE). CAE, together with computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), comprise a mathematical-based approach to engineering product and process design, analysis and fabrication. In this overview of CFD for the design engineer, our purposes are three-fold: (1) to define the scope of CFD and motivate its utility for engineering, (2) to provide a basic technical foundation for CFD, and (3) to convey how CFD is incorporated into engineering product and process design.

Haworth, D.C.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Ranganathan, R.

1998-09-01

247

Workshop on Engineering Turbulence Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussed here is the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion. For each level of computation, there are a few turbulence models which represent the state-of-the-art for that level. However, it is important to know their capabilities as well as their deficiencies in order to help engineers select and

Louis A. Povinelli; W. W. Liou; A. Shabbir; T.-H. Shih

1992-01-01

248

Nano liquid-metal fluid as ultimate coolant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed for the first time the concept of the nano liquid-metal fluid, aiming to establish an engineering route to make the highest conductive coolant. Using several widely accepted theoretical models for characterizing the nano fluid, the thermal conductivity enhancement of the liquid-metal fluid due to addition of more conductive nano particles was predicted. Further, the effects of particle size,

Kun-Quan Ma; Jing Liu

2007-01-01

249

Fluids for energy transport and conversion in solar power stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar power station can be optimized with regard to internal losses by the proper choice of heat-carrying fluids. Attention is given to the choice of optimal fluids for heat transmission from the absorber to the engine cycle, as well as within the engine cycle. It is shown how a preliminary choice can be made in a simple way from the material data of the various fluids without detailed design calculations.

Schmidt, G.

1981-02-01

250

Constraint fluids.  

PubMed

We present a fluid simulation method based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) in which incompressibility and boundary conditions are enforced using holonomic kinematic constraints on the density. This formulation enables systematic multiphysics integration in which interactions are modeled via similar constraints between the fluid pseudoparticles and impenetrable surfaces of other bodies. These conditions embody Archimede's principle for solids and thus buoyancy results as a direct consequence. We use a variational time stepping scheme suitable for general constrained multibody systems we call SPOOK. Each step requires the solution of only one Mixed Linear Complementarity Problem (MLCP) with very few inequalities, corresponding to solid boundary conditions. We solve this MLCP with a fast iterative method. Overall stability is vastly improved in comparison to the unconstrained version of SPH, and this allows much larger time steps, and an increase in overall performance by two orders of magnitude. Proof of concept is given for computer graphics applications and interactive simulations. PMID:22241284

Bodin, Kenneth; Lacoursire, Claude; Servin, Martin

2012-03-01

251

TU Delft: Hydraulic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the Dutch reputation for water management, it's no surprise that one of their leading technical institutes, The Technische Universiteit Delft, offers a program in Hydraulic Engineering. The website, in both Dutch and English, describes their program as an attempt "to bridge the gap between basic sciences (fluid mechanics and soil mechanics in particular) and practical engineering applications in the design, construction, maintenance, management and eventually the demolition of hydraulic structures." The Education section of the website posts MSc theses completed by their students. The research section describes current and recently completed research projects and includes a listing of publications, some of which are available to download. The website also has a link to a Hydraulic Engineering portal, which offers various publication databases (some in Dutch only), and the Civil Engineering Knowledge Centre, which provides library access and discussion forums for students and staff of Civil Engineering.

252

TECHNICAL BASIS AND APPLICATION OF NEW RULES ON FRACTURE CONTROL OF HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN VESSEL IN ASME SECTION VIII, DIVISION 3 CODE  

SciTech Connect

As a part of an ongoing activity to develop ASME Code rules for the hydrogen infrastructure, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved new fracture control rules for Section VIII, Division 3 vessels in 2006. These rules have been incorporated into new Article KD-10 in Division 3. The new rules require determining fatigue crack growth rate and fracture resistance properties of materials in high pressure hydrogen gas. Test methods have been specified to measure these fracture properties, which are required to be used in establishing the vessel fatigue life. An example has been given to demonstrate the application of these new rules.

Rawls, G

2007-04-30

253

Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of the RELAP5\\/MOD3.2 Two-Fluid Thermal-Hydraulic Code System - II: Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents results that illustrate the validation of the Adjoint Sensitivity Model (ASM-REL\\/TF) corresponding to the two-fluid model with noncondensable(s) used in RELAP5\\/MOD3.2. This validation has been carried out by using sample problems involving (a) a liquid phase only, (b) a gas phase only, and (c) a two-phase mixture (of water and steam). Thus, the 'Two-Loops with Pumps' sample

M. Ionescu-Bujor; D. G Cacuci

2000-01-01

254

Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

255

ANALYSIS OF FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTIONS USING A TIME-MARCHING TECHNIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidstructure interaction problems arise in many different areas of engineering where the system considered or some of its components are directly in contact with a fluid. Examples are aircraft, jet engines, ships, pipelines, nuclear and chemical reactors, offshore structures, bridges, etc. In these cases, the fluid often plays an important role in determining the behavior of the structure of interest.

I. Jadic; R. M. C. SO; M. P. MIGNOLET

1998-01-01

256

GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural

Theiss; Timothy J

2012-01-01

257

Principles of fluid mechanics  

SciTech Connect

This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements.

Kreider, J.F.

1985-01-01

258

Influence of long-time stress relief treatments on the dynamic fracture toughness properties of ASME SA508 C1 2a and ASME SA533 GR B C12 pressure vessel steels  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic fracture toughness tests were performed on materials which had been subjected to one of three long-time post weld type stress relief heat treatments: 48 hours at 1000/degree/F (538/degree/C), 24 hours at 1125/degree/F (607/degree/C), and 48 hours at 1125/degree/F (607/degree/C). Linear elastic K/sub Id/ results were obtained at low temperatures while J-integral techniques were utilized to evaluate dynamic fracture toughness over the transition and upper shelf temperature ranges. Tensile, Charpy impact, and drop weight nil-ductility transition tests as well as room temperature, air environment fatigue crack growth rate tests (SA508 Cl 2a only) were also performed. The fracture toughness of both materials exceeded the ASME specified minimum reference toughness K/sub IR/ curve. 17 refs.

Logsdon, W.A.

1982-03-01

259

Codes and standards for quality engineering  

SciTech Connect

Codes and Standards address the requirements for safety and reliability of pressure vessels and piping--materials, design, analysis, construction, fabrication, welding, nondestructive examination, acceptance testing, inservice inspection and testing, repair, replacement and modification. The role of Quality Engineering in all of these aspects of Codes and Standards is immense. In light of the experiences and lessons learned, the Codes and Standards Technical Committee of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division organized several technical and panel sessions. Papers presented at these sessions are contained in this volume. The following topics are discussed: flow-accelerated corrosion; corrosion in piping and vessels; changing priorities in codes and standards; piping system operability; and operating plant criteria. In addition to the above topics, brief summaries of the presentations at the panel sessions sponsored by the Codes and Standards Technical Committee are included in this volume. These pertain to the changing priorities in Codes and Standards and a discussion on the status of ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards. Thirty-eight papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Rao, K.R.; Antaki, G.; Peltola, D.; Chao, K.K.N.; Reedy, R.F.; Tang, H.T.; Esselman, T.C.; Staffiera, J. (eds.)

1994-01-01

260

Current Results and Proposed Activities in Microgravity Fluid Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Institute for Problems in Mechanics' Laboratory work in mathematical and physical modelling of fluid mechanics develops models, methods, and software for analysis of fluid flow, instability analysis, direct numerical modelling and semi-empirical models of turbulence, as well as experimental research and verification of these models and their applications in technological fluid dynamics, microgravity fluid mechanics, geophysics, and a number of engineering problems. This paper presents an overview of the results in microgravity fluid dynamics research during the last two years. Nonlinear problems of weakly compressible and compressible fluid flows are discussed.

Polezhaev, V. I.

1996-01-01

261

46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pipe Flanges: Ring-Joint, Spiral-Wound, and Jacketed. ASME...Standard Specification for Pipe-Line Expansion Joints of the Packed... Standard Specification for Line-Blind Valves for Marine Applications...Pressures) and Welded Pipe Line Strainers (150 psig and...

2009-10-01

262

46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pipe Flanges: Ring-Joint, Spiral-Wound, and Jacketed. ASME...Standard Specification for Pipe-Line Expansion Joints of the Packed... Standard Specification for Line-Blind Valves for Marine Applications...Pressures) and Welded Pipe Line Strainers (150 psig and...

2010-10-01

263

Evaluation of an Alternative Grade Of CXM-7 for Use in PBXN-109, The Explosive Fill for the Penguin ASM Warhead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of a new grade of CXM-7, the explosive component of PBXN-109, was conducted at DSTO as R & D support to ADI Ltd, the sub-contractor for the manufacture of the Penguin ASM warhead. Tests were performed to characterise the material's physico-c...

R. M. Dexter B. L. Hamshere I. J. Lochert

2002-01-01

264

Evaluation of the capacity of welded attachments to elbows as compared to the methodology of ASME Code Case N-318  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a series of tests conducted to assess the capacity of various configurations of integral welded attachments. These tests are unique in that the attachments are welded to the outer radius of pipe elbows. The lug configurations tested include both rectangular and cross (cruciform) shapes. Both limit load and fatigue tests are performed on the lug-elbow configurations. The results of the limit load tests are presented as limit moments. The results of the fatigue tests are cycles-to-failure. Markl`s equation is then used, with the fatigue results, to determine stress intensification factors. The limit moments and stress intensification factors are then compared to those developed using the methodology of ASME Code Case N-318. The level of conservatism in the Code Case methodology is then compared to the test results.

Rawls, G.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wais, E.A. [Wais and Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Rodabaugh, E.C. [Rodabaugh (E.C.) and Associates, Hilliard, OH (United States)

1992-04-01

265

Evaluation of the capacity of welded attachments to elbows as compared to the methodology of ASME Code Case N-318  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a series of tests conducted to assess the capacity of various configurations of integral welded attachments. These tests are unique in that the attachments are welded to the outer radius of pipe elbows. The lug configurations tested include both rectangular and cross (cruciform) shapes. Both limit load and fatigue tests are performed on the lug-elbow configurations. The results of the limit load tests are presented as limit moments. The results of the fatigue tests are cycles-to-failure. Markl's equation is then used, with the fatigue results, to determine stress intensification factors. The limit moments and stress intensification factors are then compared to those developed using the methodology of ASME Code Case N-318. The level of conservatism in the Code Case methodology is then compared to the test results.

Rawls, G.B. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Wais, E.A. (Wais and Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Rodabaugh, E.C. (Rodabaugh (E.C.) and Associates, Hilliard, OH (United States))

1992-01-01

266

Evaluation of the capacity of welded attachments to elbows as compared to the methodology of ASME Code Case N-318  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a series of tests conducted to assess the capacity of various configurations of integral welded attachments. These tests are unique in that the attachments are welded to the outer radius of pipe elbows. The lug configurations tested include both rectangular and cross (cruciform) shapes. Both limit load and fatigue tests are performed on the lug-elbow configurations. The results of the limit load tests are presented as limit moments. The results of the fatigue tests are cycles-to-failure. Markl's equation is then used, with the fatigue results, to determine stress intensification factors. The limit moments and stress intensification factors are then compared to those developed using the methodology of ASME Code Case N-318. The level of conservatism in the Code Case methodology is then compared to the test results.

Rawls, G. B.; Wais, E. A.; Rodabaugh, E. C.

267

Comparisons of ANS, ASME, AWS, and NFPA standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800, and related documents  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANS, ASME, AWS and NFPA standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Spiesman, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-11-01

268

Fluid channeling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fluid channeling system includes a fluid ejector, a heat exchanger, and a fluid pump disposed in series flow communication The ejector includes a primary inlet for receiving a primary fluid, and a secondary inlet for receiving a secondary fluid which is mixed with the primary fluid and discharged therefrom as ejector discharge. Heat is removed from the ejector discharge in the heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger discharge is compressed in the fluid pump and channeled to the ejector secondary inlet as the secondary fluid In an exemplary embodiment, the temperature of the primary fluid is greater than the maximum operating temperature of a fluid motor powering the fluid pump using a portion of the ejector discharge, with the secondary fluid being mixed with the primary fluid so that the ejector discharge temperature is equal to about the maximum operating temperature of the fluid motor.

Davis, Donald Y. (Inventor); Hitch, Bradley D. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

269

TRAIL death receptor 4 signaling via lysosome fusion and membrane raft clustering in coronary arterial endothelial cells: evidence from ASM knockout mice.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptor, death receptor 4 (DR4), have been implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the signaling mechanism mediating DR4 activation leading to endothelial injury remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that ceramide production via hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) results in membrane raft (MR) clustering and the formation of important redox signaling platforms, which play a crucial role in amplifying redox signaling in endothelial cells leading to endothelial dysfunction. The present study aims to investigate whether TRAIL triggers MR clustering via lysosome fusion and ASM activation, thereby conducting transmembrane redox signaling and changing endothelial function. Using confocal microscopy, we found that TRAIL induced MR clustering and co-localized with DR4 in coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs) isolated from wild-type (Smpd1 (+/+)) mice. Furthermore, TRAIL triggered ASM translocation, ceramide production, and NADPH oxidase aggregation in MR clusters in Smpd1 ( +/+ ) CAECs, whereas these observations were not found in Smpd1 (-/-) CAECs. Moreover, ASM deficiency reduced TRAIL-induced O(2) (-[Symbol: see text]) production in CAECs and abolished TRAIL-induced impairment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in small resistance arteries. By measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that Lamp-1 (lysosome membrane marker protein) and ganglioside G(M1) (MR marker) were trafficking together in Smpd1 (+/+) CAECs, which was absent in Smpd1 (-/-) CAECs. Consistently, fluorescence imaging of living cells with specific lysosome probes demonstrated that TRAIL-induced lysosome fusion with membrane was also absent in Smpd1 (-/-) CAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that ASM is essential for TRAIL-induced lysosomal trafficking, membrane fusion and formation of MR redox signaling platforms, which may play an important role in DR4-mediated redox signaling in CAECs and consequently endothelial dysfunction. PMID:23108456

Li, Xiang; Han, Wei-Qing; Boini, Krishna M; Xia, Min; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

2013-01-01

270

TRAIL-Death Receptor 4 Signaling via Lysosome Fusion and Membrane Raft Clustering In Coronary Arterial Endothelial Cells: Evidence from ASM Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptor death receptor 4 (DR4) have been implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the signaling mechanism mediating DR4 activation and leading to endothelial injury remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that ceramide production via hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) results in membrane raft (MRs) clustering and formation of important redox signaling platforms, which play a crucial role in amplifying redox signaling in endothelial cells leading to endothelial dysfunction. The present study aims to investigate whether TRAIL triggers MR clustering via lysosome fusion and ASM activation, thereby conducting transmembrane redox signaling and changing endothelial function. Using confocal microscopy, we found that TRAIL induced MR clustering and its co-localization with DR4 in coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs) isolated from wild-type (Smpd1+/+) mice. Further, TRAIL triggered ASM translocation, ceramide production and NADPH oxidase aggregation in MR clusters in Smpd1+/+ CAECs, whereas these observations were not found in Smpd1?/? CAECs. Moreover, ASM deficiency reduced TRAIL-induced O2? production in CAECs and abolished TRAIL-induced impairment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in small resistance arteries. By measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we found that Lamp-1 (lysosome membrane marker protein) and ganglioside GM1 (MR marker) were trafficking together in Smpd1+/+ CAECs, which was absent in Smpd1?/? CAECs. Consistently, fluorescence imaging of living cells with specific lysosome probes demonstrated that TRAIL-induced lysosome fusion with membrane was also absent in Smpd1?/? CAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that ASM is essential for TRAIL-induced lysosomal trafficking and fusion with membrane and formation of MR redox signaling platforms, which may play an important role in DR4-mediated redox signaling in CAECs and consequent endothelial dysfunction.

Li, Xiang; Han, Wei-Qing; Boini, Krishna M.; Xia, Min; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

2012-01-01

271

Acoustical heat pumping engine  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1983-08-16

272

Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flow in Internal Combustion Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multidimensional numerical simulations of the reactive fluid flow in an internal combustion engine cylinder are useful in helping engine designers obtain insight into the physical mechanisms governing efficiency and pollutant formation. A comprehensive nu...

L. D. Cloutman J. K. Dukowicz J. D. Ramshaw

1980-01-01

273

Stirling cycle engine and refrigeration systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Stirling cycle heat engine is disclosed in which displacer motion is controlled as a function of the working fluid pressure P sub 1 and a substantially constant pressure P sub 0. The heat engine includes an auxiliary chamber at the constant pressure P sub 0. An end surface of a displacer piston is disposed in the auxiliary chamber. During the compression portion of the engine cycle when P sub 1 rises above P sub 0 the displacer forces the working fluid to pass from the cold chamber to the hot chamber of the engine. During the expansion portion of the engine cycle the heated working fluid in the hot chamber does work by pushing down on the engine's drive piston. As the working fluid pressure P sub 1 drops below P sub 0 the displacer forces most of the working fluid in the hot chamber to pass through the regenerator to the cold chamber. The engine is easily combinable with a refrigeration section to provide a refrigeration system in which the engine's single drive piston serves both the engine and the refrigeration section.

Higa, W. H. (inventor)

1976-01-01

274

A Fluid Mechanics Hypercourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This CD-ROM is designed to accompany James Fay's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. An enhanced hypermedia version of the textbook, it offers a number of ways to explore the fluid mechanics domain. These include a complete hypertext version of the original book, physical-experiment video clips, excerpts from external references, audio annotations, colored graphics, review questions, and progressive hints for solving problems. Throughout, the authors provide expert guidance in navigating the typed links so that students do not get lost in the learning process. System requirements: Macintosh with 68030 or greater processor and with at least 16 Mb of RAM. Operating System 6.0.4 or later for 680x0 processor and System 7.1.2 or later for Power-PC. CD-ROM drive with 256- color capability. Preferred display 14 inches or above (SuperVGA with 1 megabyte of VRAM). Additional system font software: Computer Modern postscript fonts (CM/PS Screen Fonts, CMBSY10, and CMTT10) and Adobe Type Manager (ATM 3.0 or later). James A. Fay is Professor Emeritus and Senior Lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at MIT.

Fay, James A.; Sonwalkar, Nishikant

1996-05-01

275

Fluid valve with wide temperature range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fluid valve suitable for either metering or pressure regulating fluids at various temperatures is provided for a fuel system as may be utilized in an aircraft gas turbine engine. The valve includes a ceramic or carbon pad which cooperates with a window in a valve plate to provide a variable area orifice which remains operational during large and sometimes rapid variations in temperature incurred from the use of different fuels.

Kast, Howard Berdolt (Inventor)

1976-01-01

276

46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers. 52.01-35 Section 52.01-35...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-35...fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers. (a) To determine the...

2013-10-01

277

Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

2004-05-03

278

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Las Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2000-01-01

279

Fluid and electrolyte balance.  

PubMed

Assessment and careful maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in patients is an essential part of the nurse's role. This article explores fluid and electrolyte balance with reference to the normal physiology of body fluids and regulation of fluids and electrolytes. It also considers some common conditions associated with fluid imbalance. PMID:24641059

McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair

280

Magnetized drive fluids  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

1986-04-01

281

Advanced engineering analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Engineering Analysis project is being used to improve the breadth of engineering analysis types, the particular phenomena which may be simulated, and also increase the accuracy and usability of the results of both new and current types of simulations and analyses. This is an interim report covering several topics under this project. Information on two new implementations of failure criteria for metal forming, the implementation of coupled fluid flow/heat transfer analysis, a correction to a contact solution problem with a 3-D parabolic brick finite element, and the development and implementation of a file translator to link I-DEAS to DYNA3D is provided.

Freeman, W. R.; Lee, M. D.; Mahoney, J. F.; Schrank, M. G.

1992-11-01

282

Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled "Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines" held on September 15-17, 1999 in Albany, New York. The impetus for the workshop came from the ASME's Research Committee on Tribology whose goal is to explore new tribological research topics which may become future research opportunities. Since this subject is of current interest to other industrial and government entities the conference received cosponsorship as noted above. The conference was well attended by government, industrial and academic participants. Topics discussed included current tribological issues in gas turbines as well as the potential impact (drawbacks and advantages) of future tribological technologies especially foil air bearings and magnetic beatings. It is hoped that this workshop report may serve as a starting point for continued discussions and activities in oil-free turbomachinery systems.

DellaCorte, Chris; Pinkus, Oscar

2000-01-01

283

Engineer Girl  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This engineering website is geared towards girls and young women to encourage and inspire them to pursue careers in engineering. The site includes articles, links, contests, and biographies of current women engineers.

2013-01-01

284

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOEpatents

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01

285

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

2000-01-01

286

Quartz resonator fluid monitors for vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thickness shear mode (TSM) quartz resonators operating in a new 'Lever oscillator' circuit are used as monitors for critical automotive fluids. These monitors respond to the density and viscosity of liquids contacting the quartz surface. Sensors have been developed for determining the viscosity characteristics of engine lubricating oil, the state-of-charge of lead-acid storage batteries, and the concentration variations in engine coolant.

Cernosek, R. W.; Martin, S. J.; Wessendorf, K. O.; Terry, M. D.; Rumpf, A. N.

287

Supercritical organic Rankine engines (SCORE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the potential for increasing organic Rankine cycle engine efficiencies by the use of supercritical cycles and increased component efficiencies. Both CP-25 (toluene) and RC-1 (hexafluorobenzene-pentafluorobenzene) working fluids are considered. The technical issues of operating in the supercritical regime, as well as a comparison of the characteristics of the working fluids in achieving high component efficiencies, are discussed. The approach to achieving higher component efficiencies and the estimated achievable values are also described.

Boretz, J. E.

288

Automatic Fluid Dispenser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus for dispensing fluid to test animals according to a time schedule is disclosed. Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time aft...

P. C. Sakellaris

1975-01-01

289

Fluid Science Users Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The microgravity fluid science concerns all the studies aimed at the understanding of influence of gravity levels in the properties and hydrodynamics of fluids or to exploit particular fluid behaviors occurring under reduced gravity levels to study new or...

R. Monti L. Carotenuto

1992-01-01

290

Acoustics of Fluid-Structure Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustics of Fluid-Structure Interactions addresses an increasingly important branch of fluid mechanics--the absorption of noise and vibration by fluid flow. This subject, which offers numerous challenges to conventional areas of acoustics, is of growing concern in places where the environment is adversely affected by sound. Howe presents useful background material on fluid mechanics and the elementary concepts of classical acoustics and structural vibrations. Using examples, many of which include complete worked solutions, he vividly illustrates the theoretical concepts involved. He provides the basis for all calculations necessary for the determination of sound generation by aircraft, ships, general ventilation and combustion systems, as well as musical instruments. Both a graduate textbook and a reference for researchers, Acoustics of Fluid-Structure Interactions is an important synthesis of information in this field. It will also aid engineers in the theory and practice of noise control.

Howe, M. S.

1998-08-01

291

Engineering Practice and Engineering Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers ways of applying science and technology studies to the teaching of engineering ethics. Suggests modifications of both detailed case studies on engineering disasters and hypothetical, ethical dilemmas employed in engineering ethics classes. (Author/CCM)

Lynch, William T.; Kline, Ronald

2000-01-01

292

Engineering and Software Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phrase software engineering' has many meanings. One central meaning is the reliable development of dependable computer-based systems, especially those for critical applications. This is not a solved problem. Failures in software development have played a large part in many fatalities and in huge economic losses. While some of these failures may be attributable to programming errors in the narrowest sensea program's failure to satisfy a given formal specificationthere is good reason to think that most of them have other roots. These roots are located in the problem of software engineering rather than in the problem of program correctness. The famous 1968 conference was motivated by the belief that software development should be based on the types of theoretical foundations and practical disciplines that are traditional in the established branches of engineering. Yet after forty years of currency the phrase software engineering' still denotes no more than a vague and largely unfulfilled aspiration. Two major causes of this disappointment are immediately clear. First, too many areas of software development are inadequately specialised, and consequently have not developed the repertoires of normal designs that are the indispensable basis of reliable engineering success. Second, the relationship between structural design and formal analytical techniques for software has rarely been one of fruitful synergy: too often it has defined a boundary between competing dogmas, at which mutual distrust and incomprehension deprive both sides of advantages that should be within their grasp. This paper discusses these causes and their effects. Whether the common practice of software development will eventually satisfy the broad aspiration of 1968 is hard to predict; but an understanding of past failure is surely a prerequisite of future success.

Jackson, Michael

293

Stirling cycle engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a Stirling cycle type engine including a cylinder having a cylinder cap, a power piston and a displacer piston both slidably carried within the cylinder. The displacer piston divides the interior of the cylinder into two chambers one of which is located between the power piston and displacer piston. The two chambers are connected to one another through cooler means for cooling a fluid in the apparatus. A regenerator means for absorbing heat from a fluid and heater means for heating a fluid in the apparatus, the improvement comprises: the cooler means comprising a cooling tank formed around the lower portion of the cylinder and cooler elements. The cooler elements define cooler flow passageways within the cooling tank, and means for circulating a cooling fluid within the cooler means; the regenerator means comprising regenerator elements defining regenerator flow passageways; the heater means comprising heater elements defining heater flow passageways; the cooler flow passageways, the heater flow passageways and the regenerator flow passageways serially connected with one another; the cooler means and the regenerator means being disposed on a common peripheral side of the cylinder and vertically aligned therewith to thereby reduce the radial extension of the engine. The regenerator means extending vertically and parallel to but spaced from the outer peripheral wall of the cylinder, the regenerator means comprising a cylinderical tube, the upper end of the tube communicating with the heater means.

Ishiki, N.; Takei, Y.

1987-10-06

294

Research in Applied Mathematics, Fluid Mechanics and Computer Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1998 through March 31, 1999.

1999-01-01

295

[Research activities in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period April 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995.

1995-01-01

296

An activated sludge modeling framework for xenobiotic trace chemicals (ASM-X): assessment of diclofenac and carbamazepine.  

PubMed

Conventional models for predicting the fate of xenobiotic organic trace chemicals, identified, and calibrated using data obtained in batch experiments spiked with reference substances, can be limited in predicting xenobiotic removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). At stake is the level of model complexity required to adequately describe a general theory of xenobiotic removal in WWTPs. In this article, we assess the factors that influence the removal of diclofenac and carbamazepine in activated sludge, and evaluate the complexity required for the model to effectively predict their removal. The results are generalized to previously published cases. Batch experimental results, obtained under anoxic and aerobic conditions, were used to identify extensions to, and to estimate parameter values of the activated sludge modeling framework for Xenobiotic trace chemicals (ASM-X). Measurement and simulation results obtained in the batch experiments, spiked with the diclofenac and carbamazepine content of preclarified municipal wastewater shows comparably high biotransformation rates in the presence of growth substrates. Forward dynamic simulations were performed using full-scale data obtained from Bekkelaget WWTP (Oslo, Norway) to evaluate the model and to estimate the level of re-transformable xenobiotics present in the influent. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that xenobiotic loading conditions can significantly influence the removal capacity of WWTPs. We show that the trace chemical retransformation in upstream sewer pipes can introduce considerable error in assessing the removal efficiency of a WWTP, based only on parent compound concentration measurements. The combination of our data with those from the literature shows that solids retention time (SRT) can enhance the biotransformation of diclofenac, which was not the case for carbamazepine. Model approximation of the xenobiotic concentration, detected in the solid phase, suggest that between approximately 1% and 16% of the total solid carbamazepine and diclofenac concentrations, respectively, is due to sorption-the remainder being non-bioavailable and sequestered. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the model's predictive power over conventional tools in a statistical analysis, performed at four levels of structural complexity. To assess WWTP retrofitting needs to remove xenobiotic trace chemicals, we suggest using mechanistic models, e.g., ASM-X, in regional risk assessments. For preliminary evaluations, we present operating charts that can be used to estimate average xenobiotic removal rates in WWTPs as a function of SRT and the xenobiotics mass loads normalised to design treatment capacity. PMID:22565415

Plsz, Benedek Gy; Langford, Katherine H; Thomas, Kevin V

2012-11-01

297

Algorithmic trends in computational fluid dynamics; The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE)/LaRC Workshop, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, US, Sep. 15-17, 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose here is to assess the state of the art in the areas of numerical analysis that are particularly relevant to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to identify promising new developments in various areas of numerical analysis that will impact CFD, and to establish a long-term perspective focusing on opportunities and needs. Overviews are given of discretization schemes, computational fluid dynamics, algorithmic trends in CFD for aerospace flow field calculations, simulation of compressible viscous flow, and massively parallel computation. Also discussed are accerelation methods, spectral and high-order methods, multi-resolution and subcell resolution schemes, and inherently multidimensional schemes.

Hussaini, M. Y. (editor); Kumar, A. (editor); Salas, M. D. (editor)

1993-01-01

298

Advances in finite element analysis in fluid dynamics - 1991; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This volume includes papers on the applications of finite element methods for calculation of viscoelastic flows, using differential constitutive models; an implicit linelet-based solver for incompressible flows; a finite element computation of compressible flows with the SUPG formulation; a numerical solution of the boundary layer equations, using the finite element method; numerical simulation of the boundary layer equations, using the finite element method; and numerical simulation of the solidification of aluminum alloy castings. Other papers are on flow and transport in systems with free and/or moving boundaries, finite solution of compressible Navier-Stokes equations, a 3D penalty finite element model of forming processes, three segregated finite-element solution algorithms for the numerical solution of incompressible flow problems, and finite element simulation of 2D Benard convection with gravity modulation.

Dhaubhadel, M.N.; Engelman, M.S.; Reddy, J.N.

1991-01-01

299

Advances in finite element analysis in fluid dynamics - 1991; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume includes papers on the applications of finite element methods for calculation of viscoelastic flows, using differential constitutive models; an implicit linelet-based solver for incompressible flows; a finite element computation of compressible flows with the SUPG formulation; a numerical solution of the boundary layer equations, using the finite element method; numerical simulation of the boundary layer equations, using the

M. N. Dhaubhadel; Michael S. Engelman; J. N. Reddy

1991-01-01

300

Comparative studies on the effects of a yucca extract and acibenzolar- S -methyl (ASM) on inhibition of Venturia inaequalis in apple leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of an extract of Yucca schidigera on the control and infection process of the apple scab pathogen, Venturia inaequalis, was examined and compared with the chemical resistance inducer, acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM). In seedling assays, both materials significantly reduced apple scab symptoms and pathogen sporulation on leaves\\u000a and both showed similar control efficacies as the reference treatment, sulphur. Whereas yucca

M. Bengtsson; H. J. Lyngs Jrgensen; A. Pham; M. Lbeck; J. Hockenhull

2009-01-01

301

Evaluation of an Alternative Grade Of CXM-7 for Use in PBXN-109, the Explosive Fill for the Penguin ASM Warhead  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of a new grade of CXM-7, the explosive component of PBXN-109, was conducted at DSTO as R & D support to ADI Ltd, the sub-contractor for the manufacture of the Penguin ASM warhead. Tests were performed to characterise the material's physico- chemical and sensitiveness properties. The processing properties of PBXN-109 incorporating this grade of CXM-7 were also evaluated

Richard M. Dexter; Brian L. Hamshere; Ian J. Lochert

302

Review of elastic stress and fatigue-to-failure data for branch connections and tees in relation to ASME design criteria for nuclear power piping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the third in a series of reports on the state-of-the art design guidance for piping system branch connections and tees provided by Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The other reports covered primary or limit-loads and nozzle flexibility. The principal objective of this report, as with the others, was to identify and collect the

E. C. Rodabaugh; S. E. Moore; R. C. Gwaltney

1994-01-01

303

Operating Fluid for Waste Heat Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to an operating fluid for Rankine cycle engines used to recover the thermal energy of waste heat, converting this into dynamic energy. It consists of a mixture of acetone and toluene (< 80 wt % toluene). (ERA citation 11:016476)

1985-01-01

304

Fluid mechanics of pulse detonation thrusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of constant volume combustion cycle as compared to constant pressure combustion in terms of thermodynamic efficiency have focused the researches of advanced propulsion on detonation engines. The paper gives coverage of efforts undertaken during past decades in adjusting detonations for propulsion applications, and highlights new challenges in studying fluid flow dynamics relevant to onset of detonation.

Phylippov, Yu. G.; Dushin, V. R.; Nikitin, V. F.; Nerchenko, V. A.; Korolkova, N. V.; Guendugov, V. M.

2012-07-01

305

Multivariable gas turbine engine controller design using quantitative feedback theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex thermo-fluid systems pose many difficult engineering problems in the area of automatic control system design. Typically, thermo-fluid systems exhibit nonlinear behavior, a high degree of process uncertainty, as well as transport lag and other time delay behaviors. The jet aircraft engine is a good example of one such system where the linearized dynamical behavior varies widely over the ranges

Richard E Nordgren

1994-01-01

306

Forensic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Forensic Engineers (1) provides a short definition of forensic engineering as: "the application of the art and science of engineering in matters which are in, or may possibly relate to the jurisprudence system, inclusive of alternative dispute resolution." Specialty areas in forensic engineering include fire investigation, industrial accidents, product liability, traffic accidents, civil engineering and transportation disasters, and environmental systems failures. For example, forensic engineers investigate structural collapses, such as the 2004 Paris Airport collapse described in this article from the Institution of Structural Engineers (2) This website from Materials Evaluation and Engineering, Inc. (3) points out that materials engineering is useful in product failure analysis because many products fail due to materials problems. Given the role forensic engineers play in legal disputes, research in forensic engineering is also a topic on this engineering ethics website (4). Forensic-Evidence.com (5 ) offers The Forensic Center Newsletter, which aims "to stimulate interdisciplinary efforts and research that unite, explore, and advance knowledge in the broad areas of law, medicine, and forensic sciences." This website from the Engineering Forensics Research Institute provides some examples of current research in forensic engineering (6). Finally, Glendale High School offers this Civil Structures Module (7) as a resource for teaching about topics related to forensic engineering, using the 1981 Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkway collapse as an example for analysis.

307

Implementation of ASME Code, Section XI, Code Case N-770, on Alternative Examination Requirements for Class 1 Butt Welds Fabricated with Alloy 82/182  

SciTech Connect

In May 2010, the NRC issued a proposed notice of rulemaking that includes a provision to add a new section to its rules to require licensees to implement ASME Code Case N-770, Alternative Examination Requirements and Acceptance Standards for Class 1 PWR Piping and Vessel Nozzle Butt Welds Fabricated with UNS N06082 or UNS W86182 Weld Filler Material With or Without the Application of Listed Mitigation Activities, Section XI, Division 1, with 15 conditions. Code Case N-770 contains baseline and inservice inspection (ISI) requirements for unmitigated butt welds fabricated with Alloy 82/182 material and preservice and ISI requirements for mitigated butt welds. The NRC stated that application of ASME Code Case N-770 is necessary because the inspections currently required by the ASME Code, Section XI, were not written to address stress corrosion cracking Alloy 82/182 butt welds, and the safety consequences of inadequate inspections can be significant. The NRC expects to issue the final rule incorporating this code case into its regulations in the spring 2011 time frame. This paper discusses the new examination requirements, the conditions that NRC is imposing , and the major concerns with implementation of the new Code Case.

Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.

2012-09-17

308

A Retrospective Look at 20 Years of ASM Education Programs (1990-2010) and a Prospective Look at the Next 20 Years (2011-2030)  

PubMed Central

Professional societies provide visibility and legitimacy to the work of their post secondary educator members, advocate best practices in courses and sponsored student research, and establish deep networks and communities that catalyze members to collectively engage in undergraduate teaching and learning scholarship. Within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), the Education Board, established in the mid-1970s, assumes this role. I have been fortunate enough to watch several pivotal programs support our growth and change the status quo by providing opportunities for biology educators to flourish. In this retrospective review, the background and details I offer about each initiative help explain ASM Education offerings, how our growth has been supported and how the status quo has changed. In this prospective look, I offer my vision of the future in post secondary education where classroom learning is student-centered and focused on global problems affecting our health and environment. For the profession to proliferate, the ASM must provide members as many opportunities in learning biology as they do with advancing biology to new frontiers.

Chang, Amy

2011-01-01

309

Comparative study of diverse model building strategies for 3D-ASM segmentation of dynamic gated SPECT data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the course of the last two decades, myocardial perfusion with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has emerged as an established and well-validated method for assessing myocardial ischemia, viability, and function. Gated-SPECT imaging integrates traditional perfusion information along with global left ventricular function. Despite of these advantages, inherent limitations of SPECT imaging yield a challenging segmentation problem, since an error of only one voxel along the chamber surface may generate a huge difference in volume calculation. In previous works we implemented a 3-D statistical model-based algorithm for Left Ventricle (LV) segmentation of in dynamic perfusion SPECT studies. The present work evaluates the relevance of training a different Active Shape Model (ASM) for each frame of the gated SPECT imaging acquisition in terms of their subsequent segmentation accuracy. Models are subsequently employed to segment the LV cavity of gated SPECT studies of a virtual population. The evaluation is accomplished by comparing point-to-surface (P2S) and volume errors, both against a proper Gold Standard. The dataset comprised 40 voxel phantoms (NCAT, Johns Hopkins, University of of North Carolina). Monte-Carlo simulations were generated with SIMIND (Lund University) and reconstructed to tomographic slices with ASPIRE (University of Michigan).

Tobon-Gomez, C.; Butakoff, C.; Ordas, S.; Aguade, S.; Frangi, A. F.

2007-03-01

310

Implementation of ANSI/ASME NQA-1 for development of GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel casks  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has awarded General Atomics (GA) a contract to develop a legal weight truck (LWT) transportation system to transport boiling-water-reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuels. DOE's contract requires GA to establish, maintain, and implement an NRC-approved Quality Assurance Program in accordance with ANSI/ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements'' 1986 Edition (basic requirements and supplements), and the 1986 la Addenda. GA's Quality Assurance Program is a company-wide system described in GA's Quality Assurance Manual (QAM). General Atomics' Quality Assurance Program is implemented for a specific project by means of a Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). The QAPD is the document used by GA to invoke and document selected quality and project-applicable requirements. The QAPD is a tailored technical quality plan for a specific contract which can add to, revise, or delete certain portions of the basic GA QA Manual. The QAPD then becomes the controlling QA document for a specific project, and the provisions of the QAPD are followed by all project team members as though it were the QA Manual. For the legal weight truck (LWT) transportation project, GA has developed a QAPD that invokes the NRC-approved QA Program and also addresses the additional requirements that are included in the NQA-1 1986 Edition and la Addenda and the additional DOE/ID imposed requirements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Dunlap, M.G.

1989-06-01

311

DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS  

SciTech Connect

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 20.7 MPa (3,000 ps)i to 103.4 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 inches). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, included Acoustic Emission testing at time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

Rawls, G.; Newhouse, N.; Rana, M.; Shelley, B.; Gorman, M.

2010-04-13

312

Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket ignition.

Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

1998-01-01

313

Lord Kelvin on fluid mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

William Thomson, Baron Kelvin of Largs, was the best-known British scientist of his day, who made fundamental contributions to many areas of physics and engineering. Though his life and work have been much studied, his contributions to fluid mechanics have received far less attention that those in heat, electricity, magnetism, geophysics, "ether theory" and telegraphy. After a general introduction, Kelvin's writings on fluid mechanics are comprehensively surveyed. These reveal the interplay of his mathematical expertise and physical intuition, his deployment of physical analogies, and the origins of some of his work in later-abandoned speculations. Among lasting contributions are his circulation theorem and minimum energy theorem, the misnamed "Stokes' theorem", a generalization of Green's theorem, the method of stationary phase, and much on vortices, instabilities, tides and water waves.

Craik, Alex D. D.

2012-06-01

314

Miscible fluid displacement stability in unconfined porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ flushing groundwater remediation technologies, such as cosolvent flushing, rely on the stability of the interface between the resident and displacing fluids for efficient removal of contaminants. Contrasts in density and viscosity between the resident and displacing fluids can adversely affect the stability of the displacement front. Petroleum engineers have developed techniques to describe these types of processes; however,

James W. Jawitz; Michael D. Annable; P. S. C. Rao

1998-01-01

315

Perspective: future research directions in computational fluid dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The current state of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has yet to reach its full promise as a general tool for engineering design and simulation. Research in the areas of code robustness, complex flows of real fluids, and numerical errors and resolution are proposed as directions aiming toward that goal. The authors illustrate some of the current CFD challenges using selected applications.

Douglass, R.W.; Ramshaw, J.D. (EG G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.)

1994-06-01

316

Solar-thermal engine testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar-thermal engine serves as a high-temperature solar-radiation absorber, heat exchanger, and rocket nozzle, collecting concentrated solar radiation into an absorber cavity and transferring this energy to a propellant as heat. Propellant gas can be heated to temperatures approaching 4,500 F and expanded in a rocket nozzle, creating low thrust with a high specific impulse (Isp). The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) solar-thermal engine is made of 100 percent chemically vapor deposited (CVD) rhenium. The engine ``module'' consists of an engine assembly, propellant feedline, engine support structure, thermal insulation, and instrumentation. Engine thermal performance tests consist of a series of high-temperature thermal cycles intended to characterize the propulsive performance of the engines and the thermal effectiveness of the engine support structure and insulation system. A silicone-carbide electrical resistance heater, placed inside the inner shell, substitutes for solar radiation and heats the engine. Although the preferred propellant is hydrogen, the propellant used in these tests is gaseous nitrogen. Because rhenium oxidizes at elevated temperatures, the tests are performed in a vacuum chamber. Test data will include transient and steady state temperatures on selected engine surfaces, propellant pressures and flow rates, and engine thrust levels. The engine propellant-feed system is designed to supply GN2 to the engine at a constant inlet pressure of 60 psia, producing a near-constant thrust of 1.0 lb. Gaseous hydrogen will be used in subsequent tests. The propellant flow rate decreases with increasing propellant temperature, while maintaining constant thrust, increasing engine Isp. In conjunction with analytical models of the heat exchanger, the temperature data will provide insight into the effectiveness of the insulation system, the structural support system, and the overall engine performance. These tests also provide experience on operational aspects of the engine and associated subsystems, and will include independent variation of both steady state heat-exchanger temperature prior to thrust operation and nitrogen inlet pressure (flow rate) during thrust operation. Although the Shooting Star engines were designed as thermal-storage engines to accommodate mission parameters, they are fully capable of operating as scalable, direct-gain engines. Tests are conducted in both operational modes. Engine thrust and propellant flow rate will be measured and thereby Isp. The objective of these tests is to investigate the effectiveness of the solar engine as a heat exchanger and a rocket. Of particular interest is the effectiveness of the support structure as a thermal insulator, the integrity of both the insulation system and the insulation containment system, the overall temperature distribution throughout the engine module, and the thermal power required to sustain steady state fluid temperatures at various flow rates. .

Tucker, Stephen; Salvail, Pat

2002-01-01

317

Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

2002-01-01

318

Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control  

DOEpatents

A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

Marriott, Craig D

2013-06-04

319

Chemical engineer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do chemical engineers actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about chemical engineering as a career. Here the job of a chemical engineer is defined and described. Chemical engineers often work with industrial manufacturing processes that involve a mix of chemistry and engineering. In the rest of the resource, students can examine a specialized job title associated with chemical engineering: process engineer. Students can view a five-minute video clip of the process engineer as he works in a fertilizer plant making ammonia and urea. Students follow the engineer around the plant as he checks pressure in chemical lines. Students get a glimpse of the inside of a furnace during the chemical-making process. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

320

Perioperative fluid therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perioperative fluid therapy remains a controversial topic despite much research. Here, we review the different types of fluids, what to use in different circumstances and some of the controversies associated with fluid use. Crystalloids are fluids with small water-soluble molecules that can easily cross semi-permeable membranes. Saline-based fluids stay mainly within the extracellular compartment. Glucose solutions provide free water that

Sara-Catrin Cook; Jules Brown

2009-01-01

321

Fluid transport container  

DOEpatents

An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

DeRoos, Bradley G. (41 James St., Sequim, WA 98382); Downing, Jr., John P. (260 Kala Heights Dr., Port Townsand, WA 98368); Neal, Michael P. (921 Amberly Pl., Columbus, OH 43220)

1995-01-01

322

Fluid transport container  

DOEpatents

An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

1995-11-14

323

Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory at Hampton University (HU/FM&AL) jointly with the NASA Glenn Research Center has conducted four connected subprojects under the reporting project. Basically, the HU/FM&AL Team has been involved in joint research with the purpose of theoretical explanation of experimental facts and creation of accurate numerical simulation techniques and prediction theory for solution of current problems in propulsion systems of interest to the NAVY and NASA agencies. This work is also supported by joint research between the NASA GRC and the Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University (IM/MSU) in Russia under a CRDF grant. The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The FM&AL Team uses analytical methods, numerical simulations and possible experimental tests at the Hampton University campus. The fundamental idea uniting these subprojects is to use nontraditional 3D corrugated and composite nozzle and inlet designs and additional methods for exhaust jet noise reduction without essential thrust loss and even with thrust augmentation. These subprojects are: (1) Aeroperformance and acoustics of Bluebell-shaped and Telescope-shaped designs; (2) An analysis of sharp-edged nozzle exit designs for effective fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines: triangular-round, diamond-round and other nozzles; (3) Measurement technique improvement for the HU Low Speed Wind Tunnel; a new course in the field of aerodynamics, teaching and training of HU students; experimental tests of Mobius-shaped screws: research and training; (4) Supersonic inlet shape optimization. The main outcomes during this reporting period are: (l) Publications: The AIAA Paper #00-3170 was presented at the 36th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 17-19 June, 2000, Huntsville, AL. The AIAA Paper #01-1893 has been accepted for the AIAA/NAL-NASDA-ISAS 10th International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, 24-27 April 2001, Kyoto, Japan. The AIAA Paper #01 -3204 has been accepted for presentation at the 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, being held on 08-11 July, in Salt Lake City, UT; (2) A U.S. patent #6,082,635 was granted on July 4, 2000; (3) Grants and proposals: The H U/ FM&AL was awarded the NASA grant NAG-3-2495 in October 2000 and the laboratory is a primary U.S. research team in a joint project under the CRDF award granted to the NASA GRC and IM/MSU (Russia) in July 2000; (4) Theory and numerical simulations: Analytical theory, numerical simulation, comparison of theoretical with experimental results, and modification of theoretical approaches, models, grids, etc., have been conducted for several complicated 2D and 3D nozzle and inlet designs using NASA, ICASE, and IM/MSU codes based on full Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers: CFL3D, FLUENT, and GODUNOV, and others; (5) Experimental Tests: (a) A new course: "Advanced Aerodynamics and Aircraft Performance" presented in spring semester, 2001; training and experimental test research using the HU LSWT. (b) Small-scale M6bius-shaped screws were tested in different conditions and their application has shown essential benefits by comparison with traditional designs; (6) Installation in the FM&AL computer system: second software TECPLOT 8.0 for the UNIX SGI workstation and free TECPLOT 7.5 for the PC Dell computer, and 2D and 3D GRIDGEN (version 9) for the UNIX SGI as well as installation of two free NASA codes, 3D MAG and VULCAN; (7) Student Research Activity: Involvement of two undergraduate students as research assistants in the current research project.

Gilinsky, Mikhail; Morgan, Morris H.; Povitsky, Alex; Schkolnikov, Natalia; Njoroge, Norman; Coston, Calvin; Blankson, Isaiah M.

2001-01-01

324

Principles of liquids working in heat engines.  

PubMed

The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of liquids suggest that they should be powerful working fluids in heat engines. Their use requires heat engines based conceptually on the Stirling and Malone principles. The principles are explained, and then experiments on propylene are presented that demonstrate the principles and confirm the thermodynamic analysis. PMID:16592756

Allen, P C; Knight, W R; Paulson, D N; Wheatley, J C

1980-01-01

325

Pneumatic starter for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A starter arrangement for an engine is described which consists of: a fluid actuated rotary vane motor which is adapted to engage an associated engine, the rotary motor having a hub and at least one blade which is slidably mounted in the hub and is made from a fiber reinforced plastic material to reduce friction, and wherein at least one

J. J. Kristof; M. Elwer

1989-01-01

326

Pressurized vapor driven rotary engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a pressurized fluid rotary engine. It comprises a piston housing; first and second hubs, each hub being rotatably supported in the piston housing about a common axis; piston heads extending radially outwardly from the hubs for travel in a circular path about the axis, each piston head having a pair of working surfaces, each working surface facing

Schadeck

1992-01-01

327

Advancements in Engineering Turbulence Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some new developments in two-equation models and second order closure models are presented. Two-equation models (k-epsilon models) have been widely used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for engineering problems. Most of low-Reynolds number two-equati...

T. Shih

1991-01-01

328

Connecting Local Industry and the Community to Engineering Technology Through Student Vehicle Projects at MTSU  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experimental Vehicles Program (EVP) at MTSU was founded during the summer of 2004 by the local student chapters of ASME and SAE. Both organizations were conducting their own competition vehicle programs, as they had been for several years. These programs include the Formula SAE, Mini Baja (SAE), SolerBike Rayce USA, Solar and Electric Boat (ASME), and The Great Moonbuggy Race (ASME). The various vehicle programs give students a unique real world application for the skills they learn in the class room. Although the organizations collaborated on each project, the various projects lacked unity of purpose and efficient sharing of resources. Realizing this disparity, the organizations jointly decided to develop a blanket program to facilitate the procurement and distribution of financial, intellectual, and human resources. One of the original goals of EVP was to create a brochure highlighting the various vehicle projects in order to attract the attention of local industry for sponsorship purposes, and to hold fundraiser and awareness events to involve the student body in the projects. EVP is currently enjoying considerable success raising funds and drawing attention to what would otherwise be obscure programs. Currently, several companies are interested in sponsoring EVP teams. This paper is intended to provide an example of the effectiveness of an organization like EVP in aiding competition vehicle teams, and how EVP serves to connect local industry and community to engineering education and improve retention.

Foroudastan, Saeed

2009-07-16

329

A computational study of free-piston diesel engine combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the in-cylinder gas motion, combustion process and nitrogen oxide formation in a free-piston diesel engine and compares the results to those of a conventional engine, using a computational fluid dynamics engine model. Enhanced radial gas flow (squish and reverse squish) around top dead centre is found for the free-piston engine compared to a conventional engine, however it

R. Mikalsen; A. P. Roskilly

2009-01-01

330

Selected topics of fluid mechanics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are specific expressions of the principles of motion which are ascribed to Isaac Newton. Thus, the equations which form the framework of applied fluid mechanics or hydraulics are, in addition to the equation of continuity, the Newtonian equations of energy and momentum. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Physical concepts are emphasized, and mathematical procedures are the simplest consistent with the specific requirements of the derivations. In lieu of numerical examples, analogies, and alternative procedures, this treatment stresses a brief methodical exposition of the essential principles. An important objective of this report is to prepare the user to read the literature of the science. Thus, it begins With a basic vocabulary of technical symbols, terms, and concepts. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the language of modern fluid mechanics as it pertains to hydraulic engineering. The basic differential and integral equations of simple fluid motion are derived, and these equations are, in turn, used to describe the essential characteristics of hydrostatics and piezometry. The one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion are defined and are used to derive the general discharge equation. The flow net is described as a means of demonstrating significant characteristics of two-dimensional irrotational flow patterns. A typical flow net is examined in detail. The influence of fluid viscosity is described as an obstacle to the derivation of general, integral equations of motion. It is observed that the part played by viscosity is one which is usually dependent on experimental evaluation. It follows that the dimensionless ratios known as the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

Kindsvater, Carl E.

1958-01-01

331

Systematic Engine Uprate Technology Development and Deployment for Pipeline Compressor Engines Through Increased Torque.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three methods were utilized to analyze key components of slow-speed, large-bore, natural gas integral engines. These three methods included the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), dynamic modal analysis using finite element analysis (FEA), ...

D. Olsen D. Schmitt

2005-01-01

332

Runge-Kutta Discontinuous-Galerkin Level-Set Method for Unsteady Compressible Two-Fluid Flow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A typically interesting type of flow problem is that of flows involving multiple fluids. Especially two-fluid flows, where two non-mixing fluids are separated by a sharp fluid interface, find many applications in both engineering and physics. Although exp...

J. Naber

2006-01-01

333

On the fluid mechanics of fires  

SciTech Connect

Fluid mechanics research related to fire is reviewed with focus on canonical flows, multiphysics coupling aspects, experimental and numerical techniques. Fire is a low-speed, chemically-reacting, flow in which buoyancy plans an important role. Fire research has focused on two canonical flows, the reacting boundary-layer and the reacting free plume. There is rich, multi-lateral, bi-directional, coupling among fluid mechanics and scalar transport, combustion, and radiation. There is only a limited experimental fluid-mechanics database for fire due to measurement difficulties in the harsh environment, and the focus within the fire community on thermal/chemical consequences. Increasingly, computational fluid dynamics techniques are being used to provide engineering guidance on thermal/chemical consequences and to study fire phenomenology.

TIESZEN,SHELDON R.

2000-02-29

334

On the Fluid Mechanics of Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid mechanics research related to fire is reviewed with a focus on canonical flows, multiphysics coupling aspects, and experimental and numerical techniques. Fire is a low-speed, chemically reacting flow in which buoyancy plays an important role. Fire research has focused on two canonical flows, the reacting boundary layer and the reacting free plume. There is rich, multilateral, bidirectional coupling among fluid mechanics and scalar transport, combustion, and radiation. There is only a limited experimental fluid mechanics database for fire owing to measurement difficulties in the harsh environment and to the focus within the fire community on thermal/chemical consequences. Increasingly, computational fluid dynamics techniques are being used to provide engineering guidance on thermal/chemical consequences and to study fire phenomenology.

Tieszen, Sheldon R.

335

Computer Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at computer engineers and describes their job, employment outlook, earnings, and training and qualifications. Provides a list of resources related to computer engineering careers and the computer industry. (JOW)

Moncarz, Roger

2000-01-01

336

Biochemical Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biochemical engineering as a scientific discipline is becoming accepted in England and is drawing many young men and women to its ranks. This article focuses on how engineering came to embrace the biological sciences. (Author/SA)

Dunnill, P.

1979-01-01

337

Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof. O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled "Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines" held on September 15-17, 1999 in Albany, New York. The impetus for the workshop came from the ASME's Research Committee on tribology whose goal is to explore new tribological research topics which may become future research opportunities. Since this subject is of current interest to other industrial and government entities the conference received cosponsorship as noted above. The conference was well attended by government, industrial, and academic participants. Topics discussed included current tribological issues in gas turbines as well as the potential impact (drawbacks and advantages) of future tribological technologies especially foil air bearings and magnetic bearings. It is hoped that this workshop report may serve as a starting point for continued discussions and activities in oil-free turbomachinery systems.

DellaCorte, Chris; Pinkus, Oscar

2002-01-01

338

Current research activities: Applied and numerical mathematics, fluid mechanics, experiments in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics, and computer science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics including fluid dynamics, acoustics, and combustion, aerodynamics, and computer science during the period 1 Apr. 1992 - 30 Sep. 1992 is summarized.

1992-01-01

339

Search Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

If you want to find anything on the World Wide Web (WWW), you need to know about search engines. Hitherto, both Internet sceptics and technophobes have criticised the various search engines for having the same failings as the WWW itself: that the overall quality and relevance of sites are poor. After all, what search engines retrieve for you is merely

Rustam Al-Shahi

2001-01-01

340

Genome engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 50 years, those engineering genetic material have pursued increasingly challenging targets. During that time, the tools and resources available to the genetic engineer have grown to encompass new extremes of both scale and precision, opening up new opportunities in genome engineering. Today, our capacity to generate larger de novo assemblies of DNA is increasing at a rapid

George M Church; Peter A Carr

2009-01-01

341

Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year at the National Council of Systems Engineering (NCOSE) symposium lots of dedicated people spend a lot of energy assessing, measuring and educating people about an incomplete body of knowledge (systems engineering). The incompleteness is due to the lack of a definition of what that body of knowledge is supposed to cover. Now every systems engineer knows that it

Joe Kasser

1969-01-01

342

Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

1993-01-01

343

Fluid Queue Driven by a Fluid Queue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consider a fluid system consisting of two reservoirs. The first reservoir receives and releases fluid at rates which depend on the state of a two-state Markov process. The second reservoir, which is called a credit buffer, is driven by the first one, in s...

D. P. Kroese W. R. W. Scheinhardt

1996-01-01

344

Solar engineering 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains paper presented at the second ASME-JSES-JSME international solar energy conference. It is organized under the following headings: Solar ponds, Energy fundamentals in solar systems, General solar energy, Solar powered cars, Distributed receiver components and systems, Central receiver components and systems, Chemical processes and waste destruction, High flux and innovative applications, Solar thermal space propulsion, Solar dynamic power

T. R. Mancini; K. Watanabe; D. E. Klett

1991-01-01

345

Engine Lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PS 212, a plasma-sprayed coating developed by NASA, is used to coat valves in a new rotorcam engine. The coating eliminates the need for a liquid lubricant in the rotorcam, which has no crankshaft, flywheel, distributor or water pump. Developed by Murray United Development Corporation, it is a rotary engine only 10 inches long with four cylinders radiating outward from a central axle. Company officials say the engine will be lighter, more compact and cheaper to manufacture than current engines and will feature cleaner exhaust emissions. A licensing arrangement with a manufacturer is under negotiation. Primary applications are for automobiles, but the engine may also be used in light aircraft.

1993-01-01

346

Aircraft Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by Florida International University and NASA, this website presents a brief tutorial on the schematics for different car and aircraft engines, their cooling mechanisms, and engine development history. Here, visitors will find information on air-breathing, turboprop, turbofan, prop-fan, and ramjet engines along with handy and clear illustrations of each. This is a useful resource for educators looking for a brief, introductory handout for students in mechanical engineering and aeronautics or for students seeking material to simply illustrate the differences between engine types.

2007-07-16

347

Hot-surface ignition tests of aircraft fluids. Final report, May 1987-May 1988  

SciTech Connect

Five fluids commonly found in aircraft-engine components, JP-4 and JP-8 fuels, Mil-H-5606 and Mil-H-83282 hydraulic fluids and Mil-L-7808 lubricating oil, were tested in the Aircraft Engine Nacelle Fire Test simulator (AENFTS) to define their Minimum Hot Surface Ignition Temperature (MHSIT's) when introduced as a spray or stream onto a hot engine bleed duct. The test employed a simple, uncluttered test section and a realistically simulated portion of the F-16 engine compartment. MHSIT's for all but Mil-H-83282 were consistently found to be higher than the fluids autoignition temperature.

Johnson, A.M.; Roth, A.J.; Moussa, N.A.

1988-11-01

348

A New Yield Power Law Analysis Tool Improves Insulating Annular Fluid Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering analysis can help avoid significant problems in deep offshore completions. Because yield- power-law fluids offer better convective heat-loss control, new algorithms have been developed that allow the modeling of convective heat transfer through such fluids. Special cases - Newtonian, Bingham Plastic, and power law - were also included in this model. This new software permits appropriate annular fluid design

Robert L. Horton; Thor S. Froitland; William E. Foxenberg; Dave Knox

2005-01-01

349

Computational Fluid Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) activities at the Langley Research Center is given. The role of supercomputers in CFD research, algorithm development, multigrid approaches to computational fluid flows, aerodynamics computer programs, com...

1989-01-01

350

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2001-09-25

351

Directed Fluid Sheets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is concerned mainly with incompressible inviscid fluid sheets but the incompressible linearly viscous fluid sheet is also considered. The development is based on a direct formulation using the two-dimensional theory of directed media called Cos...

A. E. Green P. M. Naghdi

1976-01-01

352

Pleural fluid analysis  

MedlinePLUS

... of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

353

Peritoneal fluid culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

354

Fluids Systems Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a course on fluids systems as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. Topics include fluid power standards, hydraulic power, pneumatic power, hypergolic and cryogenic flight systems, and hypergolic loading.

2011-08-01

355

Yellow spinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE OBSERYA'fIOX of yellow discoloration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dates back to the earliest of lumbar punctures. In 1902 Milian and Chiray, 1 in their description of the supernatant fluid in subarachnoid hemorrhage, proposed the term \\

Donald G. Rosenberg; John T. Galambos

1960-01-01

356

Metalworking and Machining Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, ...

A. Erdemir F. Sykora M. Dorbeck

2003-01-01

357

Fluid Structure Coupling Algorithm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fluid-structure-interaction algorithm has been developed and incorporated into the two-dimensional code PELE-IC. This code combines an Eulerian incompressible fluid algorithm with a Lagrangian finite element shell algorithm and incorporates the treatmen...

W. H. McMaster E. Y. Gong C. S. Landram D. F. Quinones

1980-01-01

358

Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this project, we continue to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). The FM&AL was established at Hampton University in June of 1996 and has conducted research under two NASA grants: NAG-1-1835 (1996-99), and NAG-1-1936 (1997-00). In addition, the FM&AL has jointly conducted research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) grant #RE2-136 (1996-99). The goals of the FM&AL programs are twofold: (1) to improve the working efficiency of the FM&AUs team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and (2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the HU FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of engine pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MUREP) Program, that the HU FM&AL can make its most important contribution. The main achievements for the reporting period in the development of concepts for noise reduction and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles and inlets for aircraft engines are as follows: (1) Publications- The AIAA Paper #99-1924 has been presented at the 5th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, May 10-12, 1999, Seattle, WA; the AIAA Paper #00-3315 has been accepted for the 36th AIAA/ASME/ SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 17-19 July, 2000, Huntsville, AL; and another paper has been accepted for the International Environmental Congress, 14-16 June, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia. (2) Two patents were granted on July 20, 1999, and January 12, 2000. (3) Three reports/presentations at the NASA LaRC and GRC (06/22199, 09/26/ 99, and 06/25/00). (4) Grants and Proposals: Four proposals were submitted to the NASA and CRDF; a NASA Faculty Award was granted on January, 2000. A CRDF Young Investigator Program Award was granted for a 3 months visit of the Russian scientist to the HU FM&AL (03/99-05/99). (5) Theory and Numerical Simulations- Analytical theory, numerical simulation, comparison of theoretical with experimental results, and modification of theoretical approaches, models, grids etc. have been conducted for several complicated 2D and 3D nozzle and inlet designs using NASA codes based on full Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers: CFL3D, CRAFT, GODUNOV, and others. New approach for environmental monitoring via infrasound. (6) Experimental Tests: Experimental acoustic tests at the TsAGI, Moscow, with nozzles having Screwdriver or Axisymmetric Plug and Permeable Shells. A small scale working model of the NASA Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) has been installed in the Experimental Hall of the HU FM&AL (June, 1999). Preliminary preparations for experimental tests were made. (7) Students Research Activity: Involvement of the two graduate students as research assistants in the current research project.

Gilinsky, Mikhail; Morgan, Morris H.; Hardin, Jay C.; Mosiane, Lotlamoreng; Kaushal, Patel; Blankson, Isaiah M.

2000-01-01

359

Engineering Writing/Writing Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the writings of an engineer employed by a large manufacturing firm. Argues that the engineer's writing, although not the final product, is the essential means by which the product is created. Suggests that, because a report reflects final, agreed-upon knowledge about a product, the product and the document become one in the engineer's

Winsor, Dorothy A.

1990-01-01

360

Fluid and electrolyte emergency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid deficits and electrolyte imbalances are common among surgical, traumatised and intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Fluid\\u000a deficits can occur in the absence of obvious fluid loss secondary to vasodilation or generalised alterations of the endothelial\\u000a barrier resulting in diffuse capillary leak. Thus, especially in the inflammatory patient, large fluid deficits become obvious.\\u000a This situation is characterised by panendothelial injury

J. Boldt

361

Fluid Flow Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical phenomena of fluid flows are often analyzed in computational fluid dynamics. With the progress in computer systems, complex 3D time-varying flow simulations are becoming feasible. There are many existing techniques for visualizing fluid flows; however, most of them do not consider the time-dependent nature of the flow. Hence, they may not provide adequate insights to the flow phenomena. New techniques for visualizing time-varying fluid flows are presented.

Lane, David A.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

362

Fluid management in CRRT.  

PubMed

Fluid management with CRRT requires an understanding of the principles of fluid removal and fluid balance. Although these appear to be similar to intermittent hemodialysis, there are significant differences. In order to utilize these techniques to their full ability, a variety of strategies can be used. No matter which method is used it is imperative that the goals for fluid management be well defined and monitoring for errors be a part of the protocol. PMID:11395901

Mehta, R L

2001-01-01

363

Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump  

DOEpatents

An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2001-01-01

364

The Physics of Fluid Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From drinking fountains at playgrounds, water systems in homes, and working bathrooms at schools to hydraulic bridges and levee systems, fluid mechanics are an essential part of daily life. Fluid mechanics, the study of how forces are applied to fluids, is outlined in this unit as a sequence of two lessons and three corresponding activities. The first lesson provides a basic introduction to Pascal's law, Archimedes' principle and Bernoulli's principle and presents fundamental definitions, equations and problems to solve with students, as well as engineering applications. The second lesson provides a basic introduction to above-ground storage tanks, their pervasive use in the Houston Ship Channel, and different types of storage tank failure in major storms and hurricanes. The unit concludes with students applying what they have learned to determine the stability of individual above-ground storage tanks given specific storm conditions so they can analyze their stability in changing storm conditions, followed by a project to design their own storage tanks to address the issues of uplift, displacement and buckling in storm conditions.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

365

Application of artificial neural networks in engine modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to develop an accurate simulation tool with a small computer resource footprint for engine design. The modelling approach uses artificial neural networks (ANNs) based on multilayer perceptrons (MLPs). The ANN is used to represent engine in-cylinder processes by training the ANN to approximate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results of the engine. The ANN approach was

Y He; C J Rutland

2004-01-01

366

Modeling Tools Predict Flow in Fluid Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Because rocket engines operate under extreme temperature and pressure, they present a unique challenge to designers who must test and simulate the technology. To this end, CRAFT Tech Inc., of Pipersville, Pennsylvania, won Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Marshall Space Flight Center to develop software to simulate cryogenic fluid flows and related phenomena. CRAFT Tech enhanced its CRUNCH CFD (computational fluid dynamics) software to simulate phenomena in various liquid propulsion components and systems. Today, both government and industry clients in the aerospace, utilities, and petrochemical industries use the software for analyzing existing systems as well as designing new ones."

2010-01-01

367

Engine control system having speed-based timing  

DOEpatents

A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the cylinder and an actuator associated with the engine valve. The control system also has a controller in communication with the actuator. The controller is configured to receive a signal indicative of engine speed and compare the engine speed signal with a desired engine speed. The controller is also configured to selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve to control an amount of air/fuel mixture delivered to the cylinder based on the comparison.

Willi, Martin L. (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott B. (Metamora, IL); Montgomery, David T. (Edelstein, IL); Gong, Weidong (Dunlap, IL)

2012-02-14

368

Advanced engineering analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Engineering Analysis project is being used to improve the breadth of engineering analysis types, the particular phenomena which may be simulated, and also increase the accuracy and usability of the results of both new and current types of simulations and analyses. This is an interim report covering several topics under this project. Information on two new implementations of failure criteria for metal forming, the implementation of coupled fluid flow/heat transfer analysis capabilities, the integration of experimental shock and vibration test data with analyses, a correction to a contact solution problem with a 3-D parabolic brick finite element, and the development and implementation of a file translator to link IDEAS to DYNA3D is provided in this report.

Freeman, W.R.

1992-11-01

369

Engineering the Lymphatic System  

PubMed Central

The recent advances in our understanding of lymphatic physiology and the role of the lymphatics in actively regulating fluid balance, lipid transport, and immune cell trafficking has been furthered in part through innovations in imaging, tissue engineering, quantitative biology, biomechanics, and computational modeling. Interdisciplinary and bioengineering approaches will continue to be crucial to the progression of the field, given that lymphatic biology and function are intimately woven with the local microenvironment and mechanical loads experienced by the vessel. This is particularly the case in lymphatic diseases such as lymphedema where the microenvironment can be drastically altered by tissue fibrosis and adipocyte accumulation. In this review we will highlight contributions engineering and mechanics have made to lymphatic physiology and will discuss areas that will be important for future research.

Nipper, Matthew E.

2011-01-01

370

Clustered engine study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several topics are presented in viewgraph form which together encompass the preliminary assessment of nuclear thermal rocket engine clustering. The study objectives, schedule, flow, and groundrules are covered. This is followed by the NASA groundrules mission and our interpretation of the associated operational scenario. The NASA reference vehicle is illustrated, then the four propulsion system options are examined. Each propulsion system's preliminary design, fluid systems, operating characteristics, thrust structure, dimensions, and mass properties are detailed as well as the associated key propulsion system/vehicle interfaces. A brief series of systems analysis is also covered including: thrust vector control requirements, engine out possibilities, propulsion system failure modes, surviving system requirements, and technology requirements. An assessment of vehicle/propulsion system impacts due to the lessons learned are presented.

Shepard, Kyle; Sager, Paul; Kusunoki, Sid; Porter, John; Campion, AL; Mouritzan, Gunnar; Glunt, George; Vegter, George; Koontz, Rob

1993-01-01

371

Hot-surface ignition tests of aircraft fluids. Final report, May 1987May 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five fluids commonly found in aircraft-engine components, JP-4 and JP-8 fuels, Mil-H-5606 and Mil-H-83282 hydraulic fluids and Mil-L-7808 lubricating oil, were tested in the Aircraft Engine Nacelle Fire Test simulator (AENFTS) to define their Minimum Hot Surface Ignition Temperature (MHSIT's) when introduced as a spray or stream onto a hot engine bleed duct. The test employed a simple, uncluttered test

A. M. Johnson; A. J. Roth; N. A. Moussa

1988-01-01

372

Fluid Dynamic Verification Experiments on STS-70  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid dynamic experiments were flown on STS-70 as phase two of the engineering evaluation of the first bioreactor Engineering Development Unit (EDU#1). The phase one experiments were comparative cell cultures in identical units on earth and onboard STS-70. In phase two, two types of fluid dynamic experiments were performed. Qualitative comparisons of the basic flow patterns were evaluated with the use of 'dye' streaklines formed from alternate injections of either a mild acid or base solution into the external flow loop that was then perfused into the vessel. The presence of Bromothymol Blue in the fluid then caused color changes from yellow to blue or vice versa, indicating the basic fluid motions. This reversible change could be repeated as desired. In the absence of significant density differences in the fluid, the flow patterns in space should be the same as on earth. Video tape records of the flow patterns for a wide range of operating conditions were obtained. The second type of fluid dynamic experiment was the quantitative evaluation of the trajectories of solid beads of various densities and sizes. The beads were introduced into the vessel and the paths recorded on video tape, with the vessel operated at various rotation rates and flow perfusion rates. Because of space limitations, the video camera was placed as close as possible to the vessel, resulting in significant optical distortion. This report describes the analysis methods to obtain comparisons between the in-flight fluid dynamics and numerical models of the flow field. The methods include optical corrections to the video images and calculation of the bead trajectories for given operating conditions and initial bead locations.

Kleis, Stanley J.

1996-01-01

373

Engineer Girl!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Operated by the National Academy of Engineering, Engineer Girl is a Web site that increases awareness of the opportunities that exist in this profession for women and girls. There is a lot of material covered on the site that will give anyone a good understanding of what engineering is and why it is important. Information about the many different disciplines within engineering are explained in such a way as to spark interest in girls. Tips that will help girls orient their education toward engineering are also included, like what classes to take, how to prepare for college, and how to get scholarships. Some links to other useful Internet resources are scattered around the site, as well as some interesting facts about women and engineering.

2001-01-01

374

Invisible Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questionnaire to ask mention three names of scientists you know and three names of engineers you know was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

Ohashi, Hideo

375

Try Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Admittedly, Dilbert and his fellow engineers haven't boosted the image of the engineering profession, but the website "TryEngineering" succeeds at making engineering seem a little cooler. Visitors will note that the site is sponsored by IBM, IEEE, and TryScience, and it provides information for parents, students, teachers and counselors. The "Lesson Plans" link "provides tips on how lessons can be integrated with other subject areas and offers background information on engineering and engineering careers." Visitors can search the lesson plans by age range, category or keyword, and there are over 100, so there is bound to be more than one that is of interest. Some of the lessons include "Can You Canoe?", "A Century of Plastics", and "Build Your Own Robot Arm". The "Play Games" link offers visitors such fun as "Solar Car Racing", "Roller Coaster Designer" and "Design a Parachute".

376

Teaching Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Purdue University has one of the strongest schools of engineering in the United States, and they remain committed to providing new and interesting materials about the art and science of teaching engineering to their students. Professors Phillip C. Wankat and Frank S. Oreovicz recently created this very helpful textbook to aid engineering educators in the classroom, and it is exciting to see that it is available online here for free. Visitors can download the entire book, or they can just browse around through some of the seventeen chapters. These chapters include "Problem Solving and Creativity", "Lectures", and "Learning Theories". Additionally, there are several helpful appendices, such as "Obtaining an Academic Position" and "Sample Teaching Course Outline". Overall, it's an exemplary resource, and one that will be most useful to engineering educators. These materials can be used in a variety of engineering courses, including those that deal with chemical and mechanical engineering.

377

WATER MIST IMPINGEMENT ONTO A HEATED SURFACE. PROCEEDING OF THE ASME/JSME JOINT THERMAL ENGINEERING CONFERENCE (5TH) 1999, HELD IN SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA.  

EPA Science Inventory

An experimental study on the interaction of a water mist with a heated surface is described. The long term objective is to produce experimental data that can be used to validate submodels for four key physical phenomena involved in the interaction of sprays with burning surfaces:...

378

Heat transfer in gas turbine engines and three-dimensional flows; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, Nov. 27-Dec. 2, 1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present conference on heat transfer characteristics of gas turbines and three-dimensional flows discusses velocity-temperature fluctuation correlations at the flow stagnation flow of a circular cylinder in turbulent flow, heat transfer across turbulent boundary layers with pressure gradients, the effect of jet grid turbulence on boundary layer heat transfer, and heat transfer characteristics predictions for discrete-hole film cooling. Also discussed are local heat transfer in internally cooled turbine airfoil leading edges, secondary flows in vane cascades and curved ducts, three-dimensional numerical modeling in gas turbine coal combustor design, numerical and experimental results for tube-fin heat exchanger airflow and heating characteristics, and the computation of external hypersonic three-dimensional flow field and heat transfer characteristics.

Elovic, E. (editor); O'Brien, J. E. (editor); Pepper, D. W. (editor)

1988-01-01

379

Fluid flow check device  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fluid flow check device adapted for interconnection with a fluid flow line check valve while the check valve is positioned in the flow line, comprising: a pivot shaft removably connected at a first end with a flapper pivot axle within the check valve while the check valve is positioned in the flow line; a fluid check device housing having an opening therethrough; a switch mounted within the fluid flow check device housing actuated by rotation of a second end of the pivot shaft, which extend into the fluid flow check device housing through the opening; and alarm means operatively connected to the switch for indicating a fluid flow or no-fluid flow condition of the check valve.

League, B.E.

1989-02-21

380

Intravenous maintenance fluids revisited.  

PubMed

Intravenous maintenance fluid therapy aims to replace daily urinary and insensible losses for ill children in whom adequate enteric administration of fluids is contraindicated or infeasible. The traditional determination of fluid volumes and composition dates back to Holliday and Segar's seminal article from 1957, which describes the relationship between weight, energy expenditure, and physiologic losses in healthy children. Combined with estimates of daily electrolyte requirements, this information supports the use of the hypotonic maintenance fluids that were widely used in pediatric medicine. However, using hypotonic intravenous fluids in a contemporary hospitalized patient who may have complex physiologic derangements, less caloric expenditure, decreased urinary output, and elevated antidiuretic hormone levels is often not optimal; evidence over the last 2 decades shows that it may lead to an increased incidence of hyponatremia. In this review, we present the evidence for using isotonic rather than hypotonic fluids as intravenous maintenance fluid. PMID:24196097

Cavari, Yuval; Pitfield, Alexander F; Kissoon, Niranjan

2013-11-01

381

Spinning fluids reactor  

DOEpatents

A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

2012-11-20

382

Engineering Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The overarching goal of this planning grant is for Rice University engineering faculty, TSU education faculty, and HISD teachers, counselors, and administrators to develop a comprehensive program designed to systemically change science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) instruction and culture in high-minority high schools in order to increase the number of underrepresented minority students that are excited, motivated, and well-prepared to enter engineering university majors and to complete those majors to graduation.

383

Biological Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, presented by MIT and made available online via the university's Open Courseware site, presents a series of materials on biological engineering. Topics include introduction to biological engineering design, systems microbiology, computation for biological engineers and molecular principles of biomaterials. Materials are at both the undergraduate and graduate school levels. OpenCourseWare is free educational material online. Video lectures, assignments and exams are included. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

2011-05-13

384

Olympic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Olympics are introduced as the unit theme by describing the engineering required to build grand and complex event centers. Then students are introduced to the techniques of engineering problem solving, specifically brainstorming and the steps of the engineering design process. The importance of thinking "outside of the box" is also emphasized to show that while some challenges seem impossible at first, solutions can be found when they are approached with creativity.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

385

Computational Fluid Dynamics Technology for Hypersonic Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several current challenges in computational fluid dynamics and aerothermodynamics for hypersonic vehicle applications are discussed. Example simulations are presented from code validation and code benchmarking efforts to illustrate capabilities and limitations. Opportunities to advance the state-of-art in algorithms, grid generation and adaptation, and code validation are identified. Highlights of diverse efforts to address these challenges are then discussed. One such effort to re-engineer and synthesize the existing analysis capability in LAURA, VULCAN, and FUN3D will provide context for these discussions. The critical (and evolving) role of agile software engineering practice in the capability enhancement process is also noted.

Gnoffo, Peter A.

2003-01-01

386

Acoustical heat-pumping engine  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1981-08-14

387

Frontiers of Engineering: Reports on Leading-Edge Engineering from the 2002 NAE Symposium on Frontiers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From 2003, this publication "highlights the papers presented at the Eighth Annual National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Frontiers of Engineering Symposium." Each section of the report represents an extended summary of the symposium's presentations. A chapter on Chemical and Molecular Engineering in the 21st Century includes papers on fuel cells, nanoscopic structures, and computational fluid dynamics. Other chapters focus on the Future of Nuclear Energy, Quantum Information Technology, and Technology for Human Beings.

2006-11-15

388

Some connections between fluid mechanics and the solving of industrial and environmental fluid-flow problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ways in which advances in fluid mechanics have led to improvements in engineering design are discussed, with attention to the stimulation of fluid mechanics research by industrial and environmental problems. The development of many practical uses of fluid flow without the benefit of scientific study is also emphasized. Among the topics discussed are vortices and coherent structures in turbulent flows, lubrication, jet and multiphase flows, the control and exploitation of waves, the effect of unsteady forces on structures, and dispersion phenomena. Among the practical achievements covered are the use of bluff shields to control separated flow over truck bodies and reduce aerodynamic drag, ink-jet printing, hovercraft stability, fluidized-bed combustion, the fluid/solid instabilities caused by air flow around a computer memory floppy disc, and various wind turbines.

Hunt, J. C. R.

1981-05-01

389

A Runge-Kutta discontinuous-Galerkin level-set method for unsteady compressible two-fluid flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typically interesting type of flow problem is that of flows involving multiple fluids. Especially two-fluid flows, where two non-mixing fluids are separated by a sharp fluid interface, find many applications in both engineering and physics. Although experimental and analytical results have provided us a solid foundation for two-fluid dynamics, it is the research area involved with numerically solving the

J. Naber

2006-01-01

390

Engineering Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training

Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

391

Rotary engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a rotary combustion engine having (i) a circular rotor disposed within a rotor chamber of a rotary engine housing, the rotor chamber formed of two sections of overlapping circles having different radii and centers. One of the circular sections has essentially the same radius and center as that of the rotor and the other of the circular

Mach

1986-01-01

392

Engine apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to internal combustion engines, the energy output of which is produced as hydraulic pressure, and in one embodiment comprises two, two-cycle internal combustion engines which face each other, the piston rods of each of which are axially aligned and are linked to both of the axially aligned drive pistons of two hydraulic pumps which also face each

Ferris

1982-01-01

393

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

Keveney, Matt

2011-09-22

394

Software Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 450. Software Engineering (3) Prerequisite: CSC 332 and senior standing. Study of the design and production of large and small software systems. Topics include systems engineering, software life-cycle and characterization; use of software tools. Substantial software project required.

Tagliarini, Gene

2003-04-21

395

Rotary engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an internal combustion engine, external heat engine, heat pump, gaseous expander, pump or gas compressor, the combination is described including means forming a cylindrical working chamber communicating with intake and exhaust port means for gases, two pistons having an arcuate length within the range of 90° to 120° of the cylindrical surface of the working chamber. The pistons are

Fawcett

1988-01-01

396

Thinking Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two university educators and a sixth-grade teacher collaborated to create and implement a five-day engineering unit that incorporated both mathematics and science concepts and hands-on learning. In this series of engineering activities, students test the strength of various materials and structures. In addition to learning science concepts and vocabulary, students practiced their measuring and mathematical skills.

Sharp, Janet; Zachary, Loren; Martin, Stu

2004-01-01

397

Mechanical Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a broad overview of the mechanical engineering program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is one of the broadest and most versatile of the engineering professions. The site features lecture notes, assignments, solutions, online textbooks, projects, study groups and exams. This is a nice broad overview of available courses within this program.

2011-01-18

398

Electrochemical Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses engineering ramifications of electrochemistry, focusing on current/potential distribution, evaluation of trade-offs between influences of different phenomena, use of dimensionless numbers to assist in scale-over to new operating conditions, and economics. Also provides examples of electrochemical engineering education content related to

Alkire, Richard C.

1983-01-01

399

Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

Phillips, John

1973-01-01

400

Holistic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss how to prepare high-quality engineers who are better equipped to serve in the changing global marketplace, and suggest educators in pursuing the holistic concept of the "unity of knowledge" that will yield a definition of engineering more fitting for the times ahead. The unity of knowledge is fundamentally

Grasso, Domenico; Martinelli, David

2007-01-01

401

Testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development prototype satellite servicer. The device was designed to transfer consumables from one spacecraft to another. An engineering model was built and underwent development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center. While the current AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit.

Johnston, A. S.; Tyler, Tony R.

1998-01-01

402

Materials engineering  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the Proceedings of the Second Materials Engineering Conference. This valuable collection of papers deal with the awareness, creative use, economics, reliability, selection, design, testing and warranty of materials. The papers address topics of both immediate and lasting industrial importance at a readily assimilated level and contain information which will lead speedily to improvements in industrial practice. Topics considered include recent developments in the science and technology of high modulus polymers; computer aided design of advanced composites; a systematic approach to materials testing in metal forming; new cold working tool steels; friction surfacing and its applications; fatigue life assessment and materials engineering; alternative materials for internal combustion engines; adhesives and the engineer; thermoplastic bearings; engineering applications of ZA alloys; and utility and complexity in the selection of polymeric materials.

Bramley, A.N.

1985-01-01

403

Engine Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increasing the operating temperature of turbine engines reduces fuel consumption and increases engine efficiency. However, engine components must be protected from excessive heat. Lewis Research Center has successfully developed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), which are deposited on the components. They insulate, offer oxidation and corrosion resistance and increase adherence. Surface temperatures can be reduced by 200 degrees centigrade or more. G. E. Aircraft Engines, a Lewis contractor, now uses a TBC based on the one developed at Lewis, on production engines. The system, which consists of a bond and a top coat extends component life from 1.3 to 2 times. The company is also testing TBCs on components that operate at higher temperatures.

1992-01-01

404

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

405

Dielectric fluid motors  

SciTech Connect

On the application of high electric fields to a dielectric fluid, a convective motion of the fluid is induced. By controlling the fluid motion in nonuniform dc fields, a new type of fluid motor is developed. An angular velocity of more than 15s{sup {minus}1} (150 rpm) can be achieved at a dc voltage of 5 kV for a motor with a rotor radius of 10 mm. The efficiency of energy transformation from electric to kinetic energy is about 4{percent}. Since magnetic fields and switching circuits are not required, the advantage of the fluid motor will be enhanced by size reduction. The dielectric fluid motor is attractive as a source of mechanical energy in a micromachine. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Otsubo, Y. [Center of Cooperative Research, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263 (Japan)] [Center of Cooperative Research, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263 (Japan); Edamura, K. [New Technology Management Co., Higashi-Shinkoiwa 2-9-1-306, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 (Japan)] [New Technology Management Co., Higashi-Shinkoiwa 2-9-1-306, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 (Japan)

1997-07-01

406

Fluid Power Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the fundamental concepts important to fluid power, which includes both pneumatic (gas) and hydraulic (liquid) systems. Both systems contain four basic components: reservoir/receiver, pump/compressor, valve, cylinder. Students learn background information about fluid powerboth pneumatic and hydraulic systemsincluding everyday applications in our world (bulldozers, front-end loaders, excavators, chair height lever adjustors, door closer dampers, dental drills, vehicle brakes) and related natural laws. After a few simple teacher demos, they learn about the four components in all fluid power systems, watch two 26-minute online videos about fluid power, complete a crossword puzzle of fluid power terms, and conduct a task card exercise. This prepares them to conduct the associated hands-on activity, using the Portable Fluid Power Demonstrator (teacher-prepared kits) to learn more about the properties of gases and liquids in addition to how forces are transmitted and multiplied within these systems.

Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power, College of Agriculture and Biological Engineering,

407

Falling in Fluid Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Falling in Fluid model shows a sphere falling through a fluid. The sphere is acted on by gravitational, buoyant, and viscous drag forces acting at the interface between the fluid and the object. At high speed, the drag force is proportional to the square of the speed whereas at low speed it is proportional to the speed. These regimes are characterized by the Reynolds number and this model computes the viscous drag force using a phenomenological equation that depends on the Reynolds number. The Falling in Fluid model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_mech__fluids_FallingInFluid.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2010-05-18

408

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

Angel, S.M.

1987-02-27

409

Engine having hydraulic and fan drive systems using a single high pressure pump  

DOEpatents

An engine comprises a hydraulic system attached to an engine housing that includes a high pressure pump and a hydraulic fluid flowing through at least one passageway. A fan drive system is also attached to the engine housing and includes a hydraulic motor and a fan which can move air over the engine. The hydraulic motor includes an inlet fluidly connected to the at least one passageway.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2000-01-01

410

MEMS-based resonant heat engine: scaling analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a scaling model of a MEMS-based resonant heat engine is presented. The engine is an external combustion engine\\u000a made of a cavity encapsulated between two thin membranes. The cavity is filled with a saturated liquidvapor mixture working\\u000a fluid. Both model and experiment are used to investigate issues related to scaling of the engine. The results of the

H. Bardaweel; B. S. Preetham; R. Richards; C. Richards; M. Anderson

411

Ninth Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ninth Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 98) was held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio from August 31 to September 4, 1998. The theme for the hands-on training workshop and conference was "Integrating Computational Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer into the Design Process." Highlights of the workshop (in addition to the papers published herein) included an address by the NASA Chief Engineer, Dr. Daniel Mulville; a CFD short course by Dr. John D. Anderson of the University of Maryland; and a short course by Dr. Robert Cochran of Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, lectures and hands-on training were offered in the use of several cutting-edge engineering design and analysis-oriented CFD and Heat Transfer tools. The workshop resulted in international participation of over 125 persons representing aerospace and automotive industries, academia, software providers, government agencies, and private corporations. The papers published herein address issues and solutions related to the integration of computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer into the engineering design process. Although the primary focus is aerospace, the topics and ideas presented are applicable to many other areas where these and other disciplines are interdependent.

Sakowski, Barbara (Compiler)

1999-01-01

412

Proteomics of Amniotic Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amniotic fluid is fundamental for the development of the fetus. Many proteins detected in the amniotic fluid are already present\\u000a at a very early stage of gestation, whereas other proteins are detected only at the end of the pregnancy. The concentration\\u000a of a given protein in amniotic fluid is governed not only by fetal, placental, or maternal synthesis and degradation,

David Crettaz; Lynne Thadikkaran; Denis Gallot; Pierre-Alain Queloz; Vincent Sapin; Jol S. Rossier; Patrick Hohlfeld; Jean-Daniel Tissot

413

Metalworking and machining fluids  

SciTech Connect

Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Sykora, Frank (Caledon, ON, CA); Dorbeck, Mark (Brighton, MI)

2010-10-12

414

Solar heat transport fluid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress made on the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is reported. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. At least 100 gallons of each type of fluid recommended by the contractor will be delivered under the contract. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

1978-01-01

415

Fluid movement and creativity.  

PubMed

Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation, cognitive flexibility, and remote associations. Alternative mechanisms such as enhanced mood and motivation were also examined. These results suggest that creativity can be influenced by certain types of physical movement. PMID:22352395

Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

2012-11-01

416

The SCSE Organic Rankine engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engine is the heart of a Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS) located at the focal point of a sun-tracking parabolic dish concentrator. The ORC engine employs a single-stage axial-flow turbine driving a high speed alternator to produce up to 25 kW electrical output at the focus of each dish. The organic working fluid is toluene, circulating in a closed-loop system at temperatures up to 400 C (750 F). Design parameters, system description, predicted performance and program status are described.

Boda, F. P.

1981-05-01

417

The SCSE Organic Rankine engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The engine is the heart of a Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS) located at the focal point of a sun-tracking parabolic dish concentrator. The ORC engine employs a single-stage axial-flow turbine driving a high speed alternator to produce up to 25 kW electrical output at the focus of each dish. The organic working fluid is toluene, circulating in a closed-loop system at temperatures up to 400 C (750 F). Design parameters, system description, predicted performance and program status are described.

Boda, F. P.

1981-01-01

418

Electrodeposition from supercritical fluids.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that it is possible to electrodeposit a range of materials, such as Cu, Ag and Ge, from various supercritical fluids, including hydrofluorocarbons and mixtures of CO2 with suitable co-solvents. In this perspective we discuss the relatively new field of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. The perspective focuses on some of the underlying physical chemistry and covers both practical and scientific aspects of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. We also discuss possible applications for supercritical fluid electrodeposition and suggest some key developments that are required to take the field to the next stage. PMID:24469309

Bartlett, P N; Cook, D A; George, M W; Hector, A L; Ke, J; Levason, W; Reid, G; Smith, D C; Zhang, W

2014-04-23

419

Fluid inlet distributor  

SciTech Connect

A fluid inlet distributor is described for a fluid treating vessel adapted to contain a body of oil and a body of a liquid of different gravity from the oil and immiscible therewith. The distributor consists of a chamber provided with at least one row of orifices disposed horizontally along a longitudinal side of the chamber, fluid inlet means to the chamber, and at least one conduit joined to the chamber in fluid communication therewith and extending downwardly from the chamber. The conduits are open at their bottom ends and the chamber being otherwise closed.

Watson, F.D.

1986-09-02

420

Sphere based fluid systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems are described for using multiple closely-packed spheres. In one system for passing fluid, a multiplicity of spheres lie within a container, with all of the spheres having the same outside diameter and with the spheres being closely nested in one another to create multiple interstitial passages of a known size and configuration and smooth walls. The container has an inlet and outlet for passing fluid through the interstitial passages formed between the nested spheres. The small interstitial passages can be used to filter out material, especially biological material such as cells in a fluid, where the cells can be easily destroyed if passed across sharp edges. The outer surface of the spheres can contain a material that absorbs a constitutent in the flowing fluid, such as a particular contamination gas, or can contain a catalyst to chemically react the fluid passing therethrough, the use of multiple small spheres assuring a large area of contact of these surfaces of the spheres with the fluid. In a system for storing and releasing a fluid such as hydrogen as a fuel, the spheres can include a hollow shell containing the fluid to be stored, and located within a compressable container that can be compressed to break the shells and release the stored fluid.

Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

421

Amniotic fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

Amniotic fluid was once considered to be a stagnant pool, approximately circulating with a turnover time of one day. Adequate amniotic fluid volume is maintained by a balance of fetal fluid production (lung liquid and urine) and resorption (swallowing and intramembranous flow). Even though different hypotheses have been advanced on the mechanisms regulating this turnover, the inflow and outflow mechanism that keeps amniotic fluid volume within the normal range is not entirely clear. Regulatory mechanisms act at three levels: placental control of water and solute transfer; regulation of inflows and outflows from the fetus; and, maternal effect on fetal fluid balance. Amniotic fluid is 98-99% water. The chemical composition of its substances varies with gestational age. When fetal urine begins to enter the amniotic sac, amniotic osmolarity decreases slightly compared with fetal blood. After keratinization of the fetal skin, amniotic fluid osmolarity decreases further with advancing gestational age. The low amniotic fluid osmolarity, which is produced by the inflow of markedly hypotonic fetal urine, provides a large potential osmotic force for the outward flow of water across the intramembranous and transmembranous pathways. Within certain limits, amniotic fluid mirrors the metabolic status of the fetoplacental unit; for that reason, a study of its components and their respective variations in the different weeks of pregnancy provides useful indications, both for a correct assessment of fetal maturation and for an evaluation of kidney function parameters and placental insufficiency. PMID:15301282

Modena, Alberto Bacchi; Fieni, Stefania

2004-01-01

422

Thermogelling magnetorheological fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach is proposed for the formulation of kinetically stable magnetorheological (MR) fluids exhibiting an MR effect. Thermoresponsive carrier fluids are used which develop a sol-gel transition on increasing the temperature. Turbidity measurements, multiwave rheology and steady shear flow tests are carried out on model conventional MR fluids prepared by dispersion of carbonyl iron microparticles in triblock copolymer solutions of type PEOx-PPOy-PEOx with x = 100 and y = 65. Experiments demonstrate that the MR fluids remain stable against sedimentation in the gel phase and exhibit a very large (relative) MR effect (up to 1000%) in the sol phase.

Shahrivar, Keshvad; de Vicente, Juan

2014-02-01

423

Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system  

DOEpatents

An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2000-01-01

424

Engineering Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under Goddard Space Flight Center and Jet Propulsion Laboratory SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) contracts, AST Engineering Services, Inc. developed a system engineering computer software tool to model how certain applications will affect a proposed system's performance. Quantitative System Engineering (QASE) evaluates system timing, capacity and availability. The system is used to predict performance of proposed real-time, aerospace systems, embedded systems, and/or scientific systems, as well as in support of NASA's EDOS (Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System) initiative.

1998-01-01

425

Space Station fluid management logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

Dominick, Sam M.

426

FLUID TRANSPORT DUE TO NONLINEAR FLUIDSTRUCTURE INTERACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating unidirectional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analysed

J. S. Jensen

1997-01-01

427

Parametric Modeling for Fluid Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid Systems involves different projects that require parametric modeling, which is a model that maintains consistent relationships between elements as is manipulated. One of these projects is the Neo Liquid Propellant Testbed, which is part of Rocket U. As part of Rocket U (Rocket University), engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida have the opportunity to develop critical flight skills as they design, build and launch high-powered rockets. To build the Neo testbed; hardware from the Space Shuttle Program was repurposed. Modeling for Neo, included: fittings, valves, frames and tubing, between others. These models help in the review process, to make sure regulations are being followed. Another fluid systems project that required modeling is Plant Habitat's TCUI test project. Plant Habitat is a plan to develop a large growth chamber to learn the effects of long-duration microgravity exposure to plants in space. Work for this project included the design and modeling of a duct vent for flow test. Parametric Modeling for these projects was done using Creo Parametric 2.0.

Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Martinez, Jonathan

2013-01-01

428

Laser engines operating by resonance absorption. [thermodynamic feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic tutorial article on the thermodynamic feasibility of laser engines at the present state of the art. Three main options are considered: (1) laser power applied externally to a heat reservoir (boiler approach); (2) internal heating of working fluid by resonance absorption; and (3) direct conversion of selective excitation into work. Only (2) is considered practically feasible at present. Basic concepts and variants, efficiency relations, upper temperature limits of laser engines, selection of absorbing gases, engine walls, bleaching, thermodynamic cycles of optimized laser engines, laser-powered turbines, laser heat pumps are discussed. Photon engines and laser dissociation engines are also considered.

Garbuny, M.; Pechersky, M. J.

1976-01-01

429

Drill-in fluid reduces formation damage, increases production rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sodium formate drill-in fluid system reduced formation damage, resulting in better-than-expected production rates for an off-shore Dutch development well. Programmed to optimize production capacity and reservoir drainage from a Rotliegend sandstone gas discovery, the 5-7\\/8-in. subhorizontal production interval was drilled and completed barefoot with a unique, rheologically engineered sodium formate drill-in fluid system. The new system, consisting of a

N. Hands; K. Kowbel; S. Maikranz; R. Nouris

1998-01-01

430

Development and testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development program aimed at becoming the standard interface for satellite servicing for years to come. The AFIS will be capable of transferring propellants, fluids, gasses, power, and cryogens from a tanker to an orbiting satellite. The AFIS program currently under consideration is a joint venture between the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and Moog, Inc. An engineering model has been built and is undergoing development testing to investigate the mechanism's abilities.

Milton, Martha E.; Tyler, Tony R.

1993-01-01

431

Development and testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development program aimed at becoming the standard interface for satellite servicing for years to come. The AFIS will be capable of transferring propellants, fluids, gasses, power, and cryogens from a tanker to an orbiting satellite. The AFIS program currently under consideration is a joint venture between the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and Moog, Inc. An engineering model has been built and is undergoing development testing to investigate the mechanism's abilities.

Milton, Martha E.; Tyler, Tony R.

1993-05-01

432

Fluids and Combustion Facility: Fluids Integrated Rack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user facility to accommodate a wide variety of microgravity fluid physics science experiments on-board the US Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR is one of three racks comprising the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The FCF is being designed to increase the amount and quality of scientific data and decrease the development cost of an individual experiment relative to the era of Space Shuttle experiments. The unique, long-term, microgravity environment and long operational times on the ISS will offer experimenters the opportunity to modify experiment parameters based on their findings similar to what can be accomplished in ground laboratories. The FIR concept has evolved over time to provide a flexible, 'optics bench' approach to meet the wide variety of anticipated research needs. The FIR's system architecture presented is designed to meet the needs of the fluid physics community while operating within the constraints of the available ISS resources.

Corban, Robert R.; Winsa, Edward A.

1998-01-01

433

Web Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research...

Y. Deshpande S. Murugeesan A. Ginige S. Hansen D. Schwabe M. M. Gaedke B. White

2003-01-01

434

Rocket Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains the theory of rocket engines using Newton's third law of motion. This five minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

2011-07-27

435

Materials Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gateway Engineering Education Coalition consists of a group of universities that are concerned with providing high-quality educational resources in the field of engineering education. Their site contains a number of topical sections that deal with the different branches of this field. This particular section deals with educational resources in the area of materials engineering, and visitors will be glad to learn that there are interactive features here that cover the corrosion of metals, electrical conductivity, fracture mechanics, and ten additional topics. These materials can be used in the classroom to illustrate different principles and processes within materials engineering, and students may also wish to return to them as reference points during their studies.

436

Software Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their s...

E. M. Fridge J. Hiott J. Golej A. Plumb

1993-01-01

437

Relativistic Fluid Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

fluid mechanics may be characterized as a theory that describes the state of a fluid by means of five functions of at most four independent variables. The latter variables are of two kinds: three variables determining a point in a three dimensional Euclidean space and a fourth one labeling absolute time on some sta ndard universal clock. The five functions,

A. H. Taub

1978-01-01

438

Fluid-loss control  

SciTech Connect

Acid fluid loss is extremely difficult to control and is generally considered to be the major factor limiting the effectiveness of acid fracturing treatments. Chemical erosion of fracture faces and the development of wormholes are largely responsible for the reduced efficiency of acid fracturing fluids. The creation of acid wormholes increases the effective area from which leakoff occurs, thus reducing the acid hydraulic efficiency. Once wormholes form, most acid fluid loss originates from these wormholes rather than penetrating uniformly into the fracture face. Methods of acid fluid-loss control are discussed and evaluated with an improved fluid-loss test procedure. This procedure uses limestone cores of sufficient length to contain wormhole growth. Studies demonstrate that if wormhole growth can be controlled, acid fluid loss approaches that of nonreactive fluids. An improved acid fracturing fluid having unique rheological characteristics is described. This acid has a low initial viscosity but temporarily becomes extremely viscous during leakoff. This high leakoff viscosity blocks wormhole development and prevents acid entry into natural fractures. After the treatment, spent-acid viscosity declines rapidly to ensure easier cleanup.

Crowe, C.W.; Trittipo, B.L. (Dowell Schlumberger, Tulsa, OK (US)); Hutchinson, B.H. (El Paso Products Co. (US))

1989-08-01

439

Nanomaterials and supercritical fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in the preparation and application of nanometer size materials is increasing since they can exhibit properties of great industrial interest. Several techniques have been proposed to produce nanomaterials using supercritical fluids. These processes, taking advantage of the specific properties of supercritical fluids, are generally flexible, more simplified and with a reduced enviromental impact. The result is that nanomaterials

E. Reverchon; R. Adami

2006-01-01

440

Computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) activities at the Langley Research Center is given. The role of supercomputers in CFD research, algorithm development, multigrid approaches to computational fluid flows, aerodynamics computer programs, computational grid generation, turbulence research, and studies of rarefied gas flows are among the topics that are briefly surveyed.

1989-01-01

441

Power Cycle Working Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods and criteria for selecting a working fluid is presented as well as a review of a number of working fluids having properties to a various extent which are required for the use in power plants. Cycle calculations have been carried out in order to fi...

A. Hornnes O. Bolland

1991-01-01

442

Fluid bubble eliminator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal fore generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then filtered through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway.

Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min D. (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

2005-01-01

443

Fluid Bubble Eliminator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal fore generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then filtered through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway.

Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

2005-01-01

444

Engine construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engine has at least two piston-cylinder assemblies each comprising a cylinder formed in an engine block with a cylinder head and a piston therein in sliding relationship toward and away from the head, a piston rod operatively connected to the piston and to a crankshaft, motion producing member of shape-memory material, e.g. Nitinol, having a transformation temperature range, secured

1984-01-01

445

Web Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and\\u000aquantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based\\u000aapplications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of\\u000atheoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper\\u000agives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: a) why is it\\u000aneeded? b) what is its domain

Yogesh Deshpande; San Murugesan; Athula Ginige; Steve Hansen; Daniel Schwabe; Martin Gaedke; Bebo White

2002-01-01

446

Engineering Spore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software engineers, artists, and others who work at Maxis, now owned by video game giant Electronic Arts, have migrated here because Wright is a legend. Over the past two decades, the 48-year-old Wright, who studied architecture and mechanical engineering at Louisiana Tech University has utterly transformed his industry with hits like SimCity, in which players build virtual towns, and

David Kushner

2008-01-01

447

Fluid blade disablement tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos (Albuquerque, NM); Hughs, Chance G. (Albuquerque, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2012-01-10

448

Fluid structure interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few nonflow field problems are considered, taking into account mainly fluid-shell dynamic interaction and fluid-solid impact. Fluid-shell systems are used as models for sloshing and POGO (structure-propulsion coupling oscillation) in liquid rockets, floating lids of oil tanks, large tanks containing fluid, nuclear containment vessels, and head injury studies in biomechanics. The study of structure-water impact finds applications in the problems associated with water landings of reentry vehicles, water entry of torpedoes, and slamming of ships in heavy seas. At least three different methods can be used in handling wet structures. Attention is given to the method which treats fluid by boundary elements and structure by finite elements.

Komatsu, K.

449

Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, September 9 to 10, 1986, focused on future research in the microgravity fluid management field. The symposium allowed researchers and managers to review space applications that require fluid management technology, to present the current status of technology development, and to identify the technology developments required for future missions. The 19 papers covered three major categories: (1) fluid storage, acquisition, and transfer; (2) fluid management applications, i.e., space power and thermal management systems, and environmental control and life support systems; (3) project activities and insights including two descriptions of previous flight experiments and a summary of typical activities required during development of a shuttle flight experiment.

1987-01-01

450

Enzymes in amniotic fluid.  

PubMed

The determination of enzyme levels in cell-free amniotic fluid has proven useful in assessing fetal maturity and fetal well being, and is being utilized for the prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. The activities of amylase, alpha-galactosidase, phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, lysozyme and heat-stable alkaline phosphatase in amniotic fluid increase with gestational age and have an established relationship to fetal maturity. The ratio of amniotic fluid diamine oxidase activity to maternal serum activity (amniotic DAO/serum DAO) may be used as an indicator of the degree of rhesus isoimmunization after 28 weeks gestation. Creatine phosphokinase in amniotic fluid is elevated in cases of in utero fetal death and is of diagnostic significance. The prenatal diagnosis of Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff's disease, fucosidosis, GM1-gangliosidosis and I-cell disease have been made from the analysis of appropriate enzymes in cell-free amniotic fluid. PMID:193424

Watkins, B F; Bermes, E W

1977-01-01

451

Discover Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Turn up your computer's speakers if you want to really experience the homepage of Discover Engineering, as it has some rollicking music and graphics to emphasize how exciting engineering can be. Roller coaster design, the biomechanics of skateboarding, solar cooking, purifying water, and creating virtual computer worlds all involve engineering, and this site has "video activities" to explain them all. Visitors can check out the great video called "Extreme Enough", about a California skateboard shoe company that is using engineering to design skate shoes that "absorb impact and minimize injury" to skaters when they wipe out. The video activity entitled "Engineers for a Sustainable World" shows visitors how engineering is used to create water filtration systems for people who have access to only dirty water, in remote villages and rural areas. At the University of Iowa, local, unclean river water is used to demonstrate how a filtration system, much to the amazement of the three student participants, can make the river water fit to drink.

452

Arterial Fluid Dynamics in Health and Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomedical investigators have increasingly realized that principles of fluid dynamics play a major role in maintaining the health of human arteries and also in contributing to arterial disease. This role is not simple, however, and an understanding of how hemodynamic forces and mass transport interact with the cells, proteins and molecules that constitute the artery wall is far from complete. Three dimensional, pulsatile blood flow in compliant arteries is just now becoming amenable to description using engineering approaches such as computational fluid dynamics. This implies that the potential to model blood flow in individual subjects will become a reality, and will become useful clinically. Additionally, how this macroscopic flow interacts with the living cellular and sub cellular world will be one of the major thrusts of biofluid dynamics research in the future. Using atherosclerosis as an example, we will discuss what is known and what is misunderstood regarding macroscopic fluid dynamics and arterial disease, including effects of flow induced wall shear stresses on arterial remodeling and on localization of atherosclerotic plaques in humans. We will demonstrate how the local flow field can be manipulated to cause cellular proliferation in animal models and discuss this within the context of implications to the clinical problem of vascular grafts used to bypass diseased arteries. Finally, we will illustrate the importance of fluid dynamics in understanding fluid - structure interactions at the cell level by discussing recent studies on effects of the local shear stress on monocyte adhesion and on expression of adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell surface.

Giddens, Don

2000-11-01

453

Electromagnetic probe technique for fluid flow measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constant of the fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow stream. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans to solve this problem will be discussed herein.

Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.

1994-01-01

454

Electromagnetic Probe Technique for Fluid Flow Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constants of each fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow steam. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this industry, a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans and program to solve this problem will be discussed herein.

Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.; Nguyen, T. X.

1994-01-01

455

Analysis of performance of jet engine from characteristics of components II : interaction of components as determined from engine operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William; Kovach, Karl

1949-01-01

456

Self-powered fluid sampler  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An automatic fluid sampler includes a substantially watertight housing and a structure for drawing fluid from outside the housing, wherein the fluid drawing structure is powered by stored potential energy within the housing. A method of automatic fluid sampling employs such samplers, and a fluid sampling system includes a plurality of interconnected samplers.

2005-01-11

457

Synthesis and characterization of low cost magnetorheological (MR) fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological fluids have great potential for engineering applications due to their variable rheological behavior. These fluids find applications in dampers, brakes, shock absorbers, and engine mounts. However their relatively high cost (approximately US600 per liter) limits their wide usage. Most commonly used magnetic material "Carbonyl iron" cost more than 90% of the MR fluid cost. Therefore for commercial viability of these fluids there is need of alternative economical magnetic material. In the present work synthesis of MR fluid has been attempted with objective to produce low cost MR fluid with high sedimentation stability and greater yield stress. In order to reduce the cost, economical electrolytic Iron powder (US 10 per Kg) has been used. Iron powder of relatively larger size (300 Mesh) has been ball milled to reduce their size to few microns (1 to 10 microns). Three different compositions have been prepared and compared for MR effect produced and stability. All have same base fluid (Synthetic oil) and same magnetic phase i.e. Iron particles but they have different additives. First preparation involves organic additives Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Stearic acid. Other two preparations involve use of two environmental friendly low-priced green additives guar gum (US 2 per Kg) and xanthan gum (US 12 per Kg) respectively. Magnetic properties of Iron particles have been measured by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Morphology of Iron particles and additives guar gum and xanthan gum has been examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Particles Size Distribution (PSD) has been determined using Particle size analyzer. Microscopic images of particles, MH plots and stability of synthesized MR fluids have been reported. The prepared low cost MR fluids showed promising performance and can be effectively used for engineering applications demanding controllability in operations.

Sukhwani, V. K.; Hirani, H.

2007-04-01

458

Transient engine performance with water ingestion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The immediate effects on the transient performance of a generic, high bypass ratio jet engine on account of water ingestion are discussed. The air compression subsystem has been analyzed with respect to four aerothermodynamic and mechanical processes associated with two-phase fluid flow and the engine simulation has been carried out under three limiting cases of interest in practice, one pertaining to draining of water at the end of compression and the other two, to partial evaporation at two different locations in the burner. General observations are made on engine operability as a function of engine and control design under various engine and (control input) sensor operating conditions, with various mass fractions of water in the air-water mixture entering the engine, during various pilot-initiated power demand changes.

Haykin, T.; Murthy, S. N. B.

1986-01-01

459

"Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

2008-06-12

460

Engineering Superficial Zone Features in Tissue Engineered Cartilage  

PubMed Central

A major challenge in cartilage tissue engineering is the need to recreate the native tissue's anisotropic extracellular matrix structure. This anisotropy has important mechanical and biological consequences and could be crucial for integrative repair. Here we report that hydrodynamic conditions that mimic the motion-induced flow fields in between the articular surfaces in the synovial joint induce the formation of a distinct superficial layer in tissue engineered cartilage hydrogels, with enhanced production of cartilage matrix proteoglycan and type II collagen. Moreover, the flow stimulation at the surface induces the production of the surface zone protein Proteoglycan 4 (aka PRG4 or lubricin). Analysis of second harmonic generation signature of collagen in this superficial layer reveals a highly aligned fibrillar matrix that resembles the alignment pattern in native tissue's surface zone, suggesting that mimicking synovial fluid flow at the cartilage surface in hydrodynamic bioreactors could be key to creating engineered cartilage with superficial zone features.

Chen, Tony; Hilton, Matthew J.; Brown, Edward B.; Zuscik, Michael J.; Awad, Hani A.

2013-01-01

461

Liquid rocket engine combustion stabilization devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustion instability, which results from a coupling of the combustion process and the fluid dynamics of the engine system, was investigated. The design of devices which reduce coupling (combustion chamber baffles) and devices which increase damping (acoustic absorbers) are described. Included in the discussion are design criteria and recommended practices, structural and mechanical design, thermal control, baffle geometry, baffle/engine interactions, acoustic damping analysis, and absorber configurations.

1974-01-01

462

Engineer Profiles: The District Engineer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This series of four annual interviews with Colonel William W. Badger presents the changing viewpoints of an incumbant District Engineer. The conversations cover a wide range of subjects from the civil works planning process to personnel management. Over t...

F. N. Schubert

1983-01-01

463

Solar-Thermal Engine Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar-thermal engine serves as a high-temperature solar-radiation absorber, heat exchanger, and rocket nozzle. collecting concentrated solar radiation into an absorber cavity and transferring this energy to a propellant as heat. Propellant gas can be heated to temperatures approaching 4,500 F and expanded in a rocket nozzle, creating low thrust with a high specific impulse (I(sub sp)). The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) solar-thermal engine is made of 100 percent chemical vapor deposited (CVD) rhenium. The engine 'module' consists of an engine assembly, propellant feedline, engine support structure, thermal insulation, and instrumentation. Engine thermal performance tests consist of a series of high-temperature thermal cycles intended to characterize the propulsive performance of the engines and the thermal effectiveness of the engine support structure and insulation system. A silicone-carbide electrical resistance heater, placed inside the inner shell, substitutes for solar radiation and heats the engine. Although the preferred propellant is hydrogen, the propellant used in these tests is gaseous nitrogen. Because rhenium oxidizes at elevated temperatures, the tests are performed in a vacuum chamber. Test data will include transient and steady state temperatures on selected engine surfaces, propellant pressures and flow rates, and engine thrust levels. The engine propellant-feed system is designed to Supply GN2 to the engine at a constant inlet pressure of 60 psia, producing a near-constant thrust of 1.0 lb. Gaseous hydrogen will be used in subsequent tests. The propellant flow rate decreases with increasing propellant temperature, while maintaining constant thrust, increasing engine I(sub sp). In conjunction with analytical models of the heat exchanger, the temperature data will provide insight into the effectiveness of the insulation system, the structural support system, and the overall engine performance. These tests also provide experience on operational aspects of the engine and associated subsystems, and will include independent variation of both steady slate heat-exchanger temperature prior to thrust operation and nitrogen inlet pressure (flow rate) during thrust operation. Although the Shooting Star engines were designed as thermal-storage engines to accommodate mission parameters, they are fully capable of operating as scalable, direct-gain engines. Tests are conducted in both operational modes. Engine thrust and propellant flow rate will be measured and thereby I(sub sp). The objective of these tests is to investigate the effectiveness of the solar engine as a heat exchanger and a rocket. Of particu