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1

Pressurized-fluid-operated engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pressurized-fluid-operated reciprocating engine for providing output power by use of a pressurized gas that expands within the engine without combustion. It comprises: an engine block having a plurality of cylinders within which respective pistons are reciprocatable to provide a rotary power output; gas inlet means connected with the engine block for introducing a pressurized gas into the respective cylinders in a predetermined, timed relationship to provide a smooth power output from the engine; gas outlet means connected with the engine block for conveying exhaust gas from the respective cylinders after the gas expanded to move the pistons within the cylinders; and recirculation means extending between the inlet means and the outlet means for recirculation a predetermined quantity of exhaust gas. The recirculation means including ejector means for drawing exhaust gas into the recirculation means.

Holleyman, J.E.

1990-01-30

2

Spreadsheet Fluid Dynamics in Aerospace Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spreadsheets are now widely used in engineering and scientific fields to solve numerical, analytical, and experimental problems. The present authors tried to extend the Spreadsheet Fluid Dynamics, i.e., SFD, to aerospace engineering problems. Spreadsheets enable us to present the analytical solutions in graphical forms easily. The matrix inverse function makes it possible to solve the aerodynamic panel methods and the

Etsuo MORISHITA; Hisao KOYAMA; Takeo OKUNUKI; Hiroyoshi ASANO; Yoshihiro FUJIMAKI; Kazuo NAKAMURA; Shingo TARAO

3

Supercritical fluid technologies and tissue engineering scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid (SCF) processing methods possess advantages over standard processing methods for the production of scaffolds for use in tissue engineering. Advantages include the absence of organic solvents, the ability to incorporate delicate biologicals without loss of activity, and control over the morphology of an internal porous architecture. This review describes SCF processing methods of relevance to tissue engineering and

Robin A. Quirk; Richard M. France; Kevin M. Shakesheff; Steven M. Howdle

2004-01-01

4

Computational fluid dynamics for chemical reactor engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) involves the numerical solution of conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy in a flow geometry of interest, together with additional sets of equations reflecting the problem at hand. In this paper the current capabilities of CFD for chemical reactor engineering are illustrated by considering a series of examples from industrial practice. These examples form the

C. K. Harris; D. Roekaerts; F. J. J. Rosendal; F. G. J. Buitendijk; Ph. Daskopoulos; A. J. N. Vreenegoor; H. Wang

1996-01-01

5

Engine Cylinder Fluid Characteristics of Diesel Engine Converted to CNG Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This research has investigated the fluid characteristic effect in the engine cylinder of four-stroke direct injection diesel engine converted to port injection dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) engine spark ignition. This research has using ,computational ,engine model,for steady-state and transient simulation. The investigation and simulation of the engine cylinder flow performance ,characteristic profile based on engine ,computational model. The

Awang Idris; Rosli Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahim Ismail

6

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2011-09-01

7

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2012-09-01

8

Closeout of IE Bulletin 79-03: Longitudinal weld defects in ASME SA-312 Type 304 stainless steel pipe spools manufactured by Youngstown Welding and Engineering Co  

SciTech Connect

Documentation is provided in this report for the closeout of IE Bulletin 79-03, on the subject of fusion welded austenitic stainless steel pipe (without filler metal) manufactured by the Youngstown Welding and Engineering Company. Only pipe used or planned for use in safety-related systems is considered. The bulletin is closed out on the basis of definite criteria for all of the 121 facilities for which actions were required. This bulletin was issued by the NRC on March 12, 1979, to require certain actions by all holders of operating licenses and construction permits for power reactors. The NRC's concern was based on the discoveries of faulty longitudinal welds at Palo Verde and San Onofre. The investigations for Bulletin 79-03 led to the finding that volumetric examination of the fusion welds per the ASME Code requirements did not assure detection of centerline lack of penetration (CLP). Therefore, the problem of faulty welds applied to all manufacturers of SA-312/A-312 Type 300 Series welded steel pipe. Bulletin 79-03A was issued on April 4, 1980, to supersede the required actions of Bulletin 79-03, and to collect information on all of the subject pipe and fittings in safety-related systems. Refer to NUREG/CR-5284 for the companion closeout report on IE Bulletin 79-03A, ''Longitudinal weld defects in ASME SA-312 Type 304 stainless steel pipe.'' Background information is provided in the introduction and Appendix A of this report as well as NUREG/CR-5284.

Foley, W.J.; Dean, R.S.; Hennick, A.

1989-04-01

9

The Fluid Dynamics of an Idealized Pulsed Detonation Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed Detonation Engines (PDEs) have received considerable attention recently because they have the potential to make a major impact in aerospace propulsion. In this talk, detailed numerical simulations are used to examine the basic fluid dynamics of an idealized pulsed detonation engine. The simulated engine consists of a tube closed at one-end and open at the other. It is shown

K. Kailasanath; G. Patnaik

2000-01-01

10

Computational Fluid Dynamic Design of Rocket Engine Pump Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for design and analysis of turbomachinery components is needed as the requirements of pump performance and reliability become more stringent for the new generation of rocket engine. A fast grid generator, ...

W. Chen G. H. Prueger D. C. Chan A. H. Eastland

1992-01-01

11

ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics )CFD) models to address environmental engineering challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant source emissions, atmospheric dispersion and resulting human exposure. CFD simulations ...

12

Fluid design studies of integrated modular engine system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was performed to develop a fluid system design and show the feasibility of constructing an integrated modular engine (IME) configuration, using an expander cycle engine. The primary design goal of the IME configuration was to improve the propulsion system reliability. The IME fluid system was designed as a single fault tolerant system, while minimizing the required fluid components. This study addresses the design of the high pressure manifolds, turbopumps and thrust chambers for the IME configuration. A physical layout drawing was made, which located each of the fluid system components, manifolds and thrust chambers. Finally, a comparison was made between the fluid system designs of an IME system and a non-network (clustered) engine system.

Frankenfield, Bruce; Carek, Jerry

1993-06-01

13

Stirling engine performance optimization with different working fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design flexibility of Stirling cycle devices is evident from the wide variety of mechanical configurations that have been developed as well as the many differing applications that have been shown to be technically feasible. The choice of working fluid is one option that strongly influences engine design. Hydrogen permits the most compact engine (for a given power output and

J. G. Daley; W. W. Marr; T. J. Heames

1986-01-01

14

Stirling engine performance optimization with different working fluids  

SciTech Connect

The design flexibility of Stirling cycle devices is evident from the wide variety of mechanical configurations that have been developed as well as the many differing applications that have been shown to be technically feasible. The choice of working fluid is one option that strongly influences engine design. Hydrogen permits the most compact engine (for a given power output and efficiency) of any gaseous working fluid investigated and has therefore been the choice in Stirling development programs directed at the automotive application where engine size is a major concern. Systems using helium or air are presently under development for applications where size is not as important a consideration. This paper describes calculated characteristics of engines optimized for four working fluids (hydrogen, helium, air and methane). A comparison is given between engines whose exterior dimensions are minimized and with lower rpm, lower pressure engine designs calculated by maximizing the dimensionless parameter known as the Beale number. Design point power and efficiency are the same in the resulting eight conceptual designs but great variation is shown in engine characteristics due both to working fluid differences and to the two different design objectives. 5 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Daley, J.G.; Marr, W.W.; Heames, T.J.

1986-01-01

15

Current Activities of the ASME Subgroup NUPACK  

SciTech Connect

Current activities of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Section III Subgroup on Containment Systems for Spent Fuel High-Level Waste Transport Packagings (also known as Subgroup NUPACK) are reviewed with emphasis on the recent revision of Subsection WB. Also, brief insightson new proposals for the development of rules for internal support structures and for a strain-based acceptance criteria are provided.

Gerald M. Foster; D. Keith Morton; Paul McConnell

2007-10-01

16

Fluid heating attachment for automobile engine cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fluid heating attachment for automobile engines cooling systems with a device for warming the engine and prewarming the washer fluid when the engine is not running, and for also warming the washer fluid when the engine is running. The attachment consists of: a housing having a heating chamber and having an inlet and an outlet connected in communication with the chamber, the housing inlet and outlet being connected in communication with the radiator outlet hose and space heater supply hose, respectively, thus to connect the chamber in the cooling system as part of the flow path of coolant circulated through the system and thereby fill the chamber with the circulated coolant; a tubular conduit means for windshield washer fluid, supported within the chamber in position to be substantially wholly immersed in the coolant filling the chamber; the conduit means including inflow and outflow ends projecting exteriorly of the chamber and respectively connected to the inlet and outlet end portions of the windshield washer fluid supply line to provide a heated supply of washer fluid for the spray head; and heating means within the chamber for elevating the temperature of the coolant and the washer fluid therein, the heating means comprising an electrical heating element wholly immersed in the coolant within the chamber in laterally spaced relation to the conduit means and adapted for connection to a supply of house current, from the housing to the space heater supply hose and into the upper end of the block, and thereafter downwardly through the block to the lower end thereof to displace and force upwardly coolant that is of a lower temperature.

Linker, R.E.; Linker, M.P.

1986-03-11

17

The Fluid Dynamics of a Pulse Detonation Engine-IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed Detonation Engines (PDEs) have received considerable attention recently because they have the potential to make a major impact in aerospace propulsion. Previously, the fluid dynamics of an idealized PDE, consisting of a tube closed at one end and open at the other has been presented. Typically, gaseous fuels are used in both experiments and simulations. However, for most practical

K. Kailasanath; S. Cheatham

2003-01-01

18

The Fluid Dynamics of a Pulse Detonation Engine-III  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed Detonation Engines (PDEs) have received considerable attention recently because they have the potential to make a major impact in aerospace propulsion. Previously, we showed that the fluid dynamics of an idealized PDE, consisting of a tube closed at one end and open at the other is quite complex and depends strongly on the boundary conditions at the open end.

K. Kailasanath; Chiping Li

2002-01-01

19

The Fluid Dynamics of a Pulse Detonation Engine-II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed Detonation Engines (PDEs) have received considerable attention recently because they have the potential to make a major impact in aerospace propulsion. Last year, we showed that the fluid dynamics of an idealized PDE, consisting of a tube closed at one end and open at the other is quite complex and depends strongly on the boundary conditions at the open

K. Kailasanath; Gopal Patnaik; Chiping Li

2001-01-01

20

Computational fluid dynamics in aerospace engineering at Wichita State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of recent research performed in the department of Aerospace Engineering of the Wichita State University in the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics is presented. Computer codes developed and solutions obtained for a variety of flow conditions are also presented. The following subject areas are covered: steady and unsteady free and impinging 2D jet flows; viscous and inviscid solutions

Steve Klausmeyer; S. Reddy; X. Lui; M. Papadakis

1991-01-01

21

The role of computational fluid dynamics in aeronautical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the available methods in actual design and the trend in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are presented. Inviscid linear flow, the panel method and the vortex lattice method are the only methods for analyzing arbitrary practical configurations and are the most useful engineering tools available. Although these approach a relatively mature level, the improvement required for these methods are:

J. Okumura; T. Jyonouchi; K. Sawada

1983-01-01

22

Computational fluid dynamic design of rocket engine pump components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for design and analysis of turbomachinery components is needed as the requirements of pump performance and reliability become more stringent for the new generation of rocket engine. A fast grid generator, designed specially for centrifugal pump impeller, which allows a turbomachinery designer to use CFD to optimize the component design will be presented. The

Wei-Chung Chen; George H. Prueger; Daniel C. Chan; Anthony H. Eastland

1992-01-01

23

Compliance with ASME NQA-1 and QAMS-005/80 quality requirements under the Environmental Restoration Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A number of approaches have been advanced within the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor organizations in recent years towards reconciliation of DOE and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality assurance (QA) requirements as applicable to environmental investigation at DOE facilities. The DOE has adopted ASME NQA-1 as the preferred standard for all projects conducted at its nuclear facilities. The EPA, through direct requests in consent agreements or by other means, requires consideration of its QAMS-005/80 guidelines for all environmental data gathering and monitoring investigations under its purview. It is suggested that one approach to implementing the DOE and the EPA standards exists that by its nature is less prone to the implementation problems and the costs associated with the introduction of new and complex requirements documents. That approach involves a re-examination and reaffirmation of the basic intent of the ASNE NQA-1 and the QAMS-005/80 standards, and the establishment of flexible, ASME NQA-1-based program management structures and supporting procedures. Multiple investigations may then be pursued in compliance with detailed secondary planning documents, which may be prepared in compliance with QAMS-005/80 and/or other applicable EPA guidelines to meet the specific needs of individual contract tasks and applicable consent orders. Since it makes the best possible use of existing QA programs, supporting QA and technical procedures, and existing management and training systems, this approach has proved to be both practical and flexible.

Dausin, L.R. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mills, J.G.; Gorman, M.J. [Golder Associates (United States)

1991-08-19

24

America's Abundant Electricity and the ASME Boiler Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The building of great steam power plants with utmost consideration for public safety has created today's American miracle of abundant electricity. Behind this great achievement stand the mechanical engineers who have designed and built these power plants under their ethical responsibilities for public safety, in full compliance with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler Code and under the

Adolph Ackerman

1979-01-01

25

The Fluid Dynamics of a Pulse Detonation Engine-V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed Detonation Engines (PDE) have received considerable attention recently because they have the potential to make a major impact in aerospace propulsion. Previously, several aspects of the fluid dynamics of a PDE have been presented at these meetings. Reliable and repeated low-energy initiation of detonations in the high-speed flow in PDEs operating on fuel-air mixtures is one of the remaining

K. Kailasanath; C. Li

2004-01-01

26

Reliability Engineering and Robust Design: New Methods for Thermal\\/Fluid Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed more improvement to the SINDA\\/FLUINT thermohydraulic analyzer than at any other time in its long history. These improvements have included not only expansions in analytic power, but also the addi- tions of high-level modules that offer revolutions in thermal\\/ fluid engineering itself. One such high-level module, \\

Brent A. Cullimore

2000-01-01

27

Reliability Engineering and Robust Design: New Methods for Thermal\\/Fluid Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed more improvement to the SINDA\\/FLUINT thermohydraulic analyzer than at any other time in its long history. These improvements have included not only expansions in analytic power, but also the additions of high-level modules that offer revolutions in thermal\\/fluid engineering itself. One such high-level module, \\

Brent A. Cullimore; Glenn T. Tsuyuki

2002-01-01

28

Overview of ASME V&V 20-2009 standard for verification and validation in computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this Standard is the specification of a verification and validation approach that quantifies the degree of accuracy inferred from the comparison of solution and data for a specified variable at a specified validation point. The approach uses the concepts from experimental uncertainty analysis to consider the errors and uncertainties in both the solution and the data. The scope of this Standard is the quantification of the degree of accuracy of simulation of specified validation variables at a specified validation point for cases in which the conditions of the actual experiment are simulated. Consideration of solution accuracy at points within a domain other than the validation points, for example interpolation/extrapolation in a domain of validation, is a matter of engineering judgment specific to each family of problems and is beyond the scope of this Standard.

Dowding, Kevin J.; Blackwell, Bennie Francis; Hills, Richard Guy

2010-03-01

29

The Fluid Dynamics of a Pulse Detonation Engine-VI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed Detonation Engines (PDEs) have received considerable attention recently because they have the potential to make a major impact in aerospace propulsion. Previously, several aspects of the fluid dynamics of an idealized PDE, consisting of a tube closed at one end and open at the other have been presented. Typically, gaseous fuels are used in both experiments and simulations. However, for most practical applications, liquid fuels will have to be considered. Previously, we have presented some preliminary results on multiphase detonations in tubes. In this talk, we will present simulations of the single-cycle performance of PDEs operating on JP10-Oxygen and JP10-Air mixtures. Results for a range of fuel droplet sizes, as well as results when some of the fuel is prevaporized will be presented. The implications of these results on the development and potential application of the PDE will also be discussed.

Kailasanath, K.

2005-11-01

30

Nondestructive testing standards and the ASME code  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive testing (NDT) requirements and standards are an important part of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In this paper, the evolution of these requirements and standards is reviewed in the context of the unique technical and legal stature of the ASME Code. The coherent and consistent manner by which the ASME Code rules are organized is described, and the interrelationship between the various ASME Code sections, the piping codes, and the ASTM Standards is discussed. Significant changes occurred in ASME Sections 5 and 11 during the 1980s, and these are highlighted along with projections and comments regarding future trends and changes in these important documents. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

Spanner, J.C.

1991-04-01

31

ASME Code requirements for multi-canister overpack design and fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The baseline requirements for the design and fabrication of the MCO include the application of the technical requirements of the ASME Code, Section III, Subsection NB for containment and Section III, Subsection NG for criticality control. ASME Code administrative requirements, which have not historically been applied at the Hanford site and which have not been required by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for licensed spent fuel casks/canisters, were not invoked for the MCO. As a result of recommendations made from an ASME Code consultant in response to DNFSB staff concerns regarding ASME Code application, the SNF Project will be making the following modifications: issue an ASME Code Design Specification and Design Report, certified by a Registered Professional Engineer; Require the MCO fabricator to hold ASME Section III or Section VIII, Division 2 accreditation; and Use ASME Authorized Inspectors for MCO fabrication. Incorporation of these modifications will ensure that the MCO is designed and fabricated in accordance with the ASME Code. Code Stamping has not been a requirement at the Hanford site, nor for NRC licensed spent fuel casks/canisters, but will be considered if determined to be economically justified.

SMITH, K.E.

1998-11-03

32

Computational fluid dynamic design of rocket engine pump components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for design and analysis of turbomachinery components is needed as the requirements of pump performance and reliability become more stringent for the new generation of rocket engine. A fast grid generator, designed specially for centrifugal pump impeller, which allows a turbomachinery designer to use CFD to optimize the component design will be presented. The CFD grid is directly generated from the impeller blade G-H blade coordinates. The grid points are first generated on the meridional plane with the desired clustering near the end walls. This is followed by the marching of grid points from the pressure side of one blade to the suction side of a neighboring blade. This fast grid generator has been used to optimize the consortium pump impeller design. A grid dependency study has been conducted for the consortium pump impeller. Two different grid sizes, one with 10,000 grid points and one with 80,000 grid points were used for the grid dependency study. The effects of grid resolution on the turnaround time, including the grid generation and completion of the CFD analysis, is discussed. The impeller overall mass average performance is compared for different designs. Optimum design is achieved through systematic change of the design parameters. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that CFD can be effectively used not only for flow analysis but also for design and optimization of turbomachinery components.

Chen, Wei-Chung; Prueger, George H.; Chan, Daniel C.; Eastland, Anthony H.

1992-07-01

33

Method for starting and operating an advanced regenerative parallel compound dual fluid heat engine-advanced Cheng cycle(ACC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a Cheng cycle, dual fluid heat engine of the type is described having: (i) a gas turbine engine including a compressor for compressing a first working fluid, having a compressor outlet, a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the compressor outlet, a turbine unit having an inlet in fluid communication with the combustion chamber for performing work by expansion

1993-01-01

34

Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offerings on the physics of fluids. By an educational Web site called School for Champions, the first site is the Fluids lesson plan (1). Here, students or anyone interested can read about the basics of fluids and then take a short interactive quiz on the topic. The second site is maintained by Steve Lower of the Department of Chemistry at Simon Fraser University called Liquids and their Vapors (2). This Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file contains an eighteen-page document that covers topics such as properties of liquids and changes of state. The next site contains an interactive multimedia activity presented by explorescience.com called Floating Log (3). The site allows users to explore how a fluid can affect buoyancy by letting them change the mass of the log and the fluid's density. The next site from Purdue University's Chemical Education Web site is called Liquids (4). This page describes the structure of liquids, what kinds of materials form liquids, vapor pressure, and more. The fifth site, offered by Professor M.S. Cramer at the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, is entitled Gallery of Fluid Dynamics (5). It contains movies, animations, photographs, and descriptions of various fluid mechanics topics such as condensation, shock waves, and supersonic cars. Next comes the Innovative Technology Solutions Corporation's Fundamental Fluid Mechanics Movies Web site (6). Over thirty short films show how fluids move in various conditions including gravity waves, fire, material transport, and hydraulics. From the University of Waterloo's Department of Mechanical Engineering-Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory comes the next site, called the Fluid Properties Calculator (7). This online tool allows users to select a fluid and enter a temperature to calculate various parameters such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. The last site is the online journal Physics of Fluids (8), which is published monthly by the American Institute of Physics with the cooperation of The American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics. The journal is "devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex or multiphase fluids" and provides free full-text articles for online viewing.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

35

Risk based ASME Code requirements  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this ASME Research Task Force is to develop and to apply a methodology for incorporating quantitative risk analysis techniques into the definition of in-service inspection (ISI) programs for a wide range of industrial applications. An additional objective, directed towards the field of nuclear power generation, is ultimately to develop a recommendation for comprehensive revisions to the ISI requirements of Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will require development of a firm technical basis for such requirements, which does not presently exist. Several years of additional research will be required before this can be accomplished. A general methodology suitable for application to any industry has been defined and published. It has recently been refined and further developed during application to the field of nuclear power generation. In the nuclear application probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques and information have been incorporated. With additional analysis, PRA information is used to determine the consequence of a component rupture (increased reactor core damage probability). A procedure has also been recommended for using the resulting quantified risk estimates to determine target component rupture probability values to be maintained by inspection activities. Structural risk and reliability analysis (SRRA) calculations are then used to determine characteristics which an inspection strategy must posess in order to maintain component rupture probabilities below target values. The methodology, results of example applications, and plans for future work are discussed.

Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Balkey, K.R.

1992-09-01

36

ASME AG-1 Requirement Exemption Justifications for Ventilation Systems at Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks at the Hanford Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Washington State Department of Health regulations require compliance with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) AG-1, 'Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment,' for all new radioactive air emission units. As a result, these requirements have b...

2004-01-01

37

Effects of fluid flow on the in vitro degradation kinetics of biodegradable scaffolds for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable polymers are used extensively in the field of tissue engineering. Many of these scaffolds are subjected to fluid flow, either in vivo or in bioreactors ex vivo. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of fluid flow on the degradation characteristics and kinetics of scaffolds in vitro. Scaffolds with different porosity and permeability

C. M Agrawal; J. S McKinney; D Lanctot; K. A Athanasiou

2000-01-01

38

Drilling Fluid Considerations in Design of Engineered Horizontal Directional Drilling Installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review is presented that identifies a number of areas where procedures for the engineering design of bored installations in soil using horizontal directional drilling HDD can be improved through a more realistic consideration of drilling fluid drag effects and skin friction coefficients. The current HDD practice of calculating annular frictional pressure loss caused by drilling fluid drag based

Michael E. Baumert; Erez N. Allouche; Ian D. Moore

2005-01-01

39

Measuring and metering of unsteady flows - 1991; Proceedings of the 1st Joint ASME/JSME Fluids Engineering Conference, Portland, OR, June 23-27, 1991  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics presented include flow oscillations in ducts with an abrupt enlargement, flow characteristics of developing transitional oscillatory flows in the entrance region of a square duct, velocity measurements of flows in a T-shaped junction by means of dual-beam-sweep laser speckle velocimetry, and measurements of surface pressure distributions on a spherical body at free fall. Also presented are the responses of small propeller current meters to impulsive and pulsating turbulent flows, void fraction measurements in gas-liquid flows, and the determination of unsteady flow inside rotating drums by flow visualization with double-exposure photographs.

Dodge, Franklin T.; Honami, Shinji; Kawata, Yutaka; Padmanabhan, M.

40

Early Work on Fluid Mechanics in The IC Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early work of Ricardo is described, in which squish is used in flat-head engines to generate turbulence levels comparable to those in overhead-valve engines, leading to rapid flame propagation, and suppressing knock. Work by NACA before World War II is described, in which turbulence levels were measured in overhead-valve engines, indicating indirectly that surprisingly high levels were achieved just before ignition, possibly due to a tumble instability. Finally, work of Obukhov of 30 years ago is described, in which instabilities of tumbling flow are investigated in ellipsoids crudely modeling the engine cylinder as the piston rises; this suggests that there is an instability leading to intense small-scale motion just before ignition. Suggestions for further work are given.

Lumley, John L.

41

ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Development  

SciTech Connect

Support was provided by DOE for the 2nd ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Development. The final conference program and abstracts book is attached. The conference presentations are organized around topics that are central to the current research areas in prokaryotic development. The program starts with topics that involve relatively simple models systems and ends with systems that are more complex. The topics are: i) the cell cycle, ii) the cytoskeleton, iii) morphogenesis, iv) developmental transcription, v) signaling, vi) multicellularity, and vii) developmental diversity and symbiosis. The best-studied prokaryotic development model systems will be highlighted at the conference through research presentations by leaders in the field. Many of these systems are also model systems of relevance to the DOE mission including carbon sequestration (Bradyrizobium, Synechococcus), energy production (Anabaena, Rhodobacter) and bioremediation (Caulobacter, Mesorhizobium). In addition, many of the highlighted organisms have important practical applications; the actinomycetes and myxobacteria produce antimicrobials that are of commercial interest. It is certain that the cutting-edge science presented at the conference will be applicable to the large group of bacteria relevant to the DOE mission.

Kaplan, H. B.

2005-07-13

42

Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics in building services engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to building services design is illustrated and reviewed. Principal areas of application are designs requiring an understanding of the air flow pattern, such as design of smoke control systems and air distribution in a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system. In such an approach, the indoor air motion is described by a set of partial differential

W. K. Chow

1996-01-01

43

Fluid dynamic derivatives: Marine and wind engineering approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative formulation, applied in marine and air craft fluid dynamics, of the traditional aerodynamic derivatives model, is presented. The relationship between the derivatives of the two models is derived, from which the exact interdependencies of the derivatives of the traditional model can be found. A forced motion model testing device, termed a planar motion mechanism (PMM), applicable for the

Andreas G. Jensen

1997-01-01

44

The role of computational fluid dynamics in aeronautical engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical analyses by solving Euler/Navier-Stokes Equations has been used in practical aeronautical engineerings. Here, the results of two dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses of a multiple slotted flap, and a three dimensional wing design problem using Euler analyses are shown.

Kishimoto, Takuji; Uchida, Takashi

1988-12-01

45

The role of computational fluid dynamics in aeronautical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical analyses by solving Euler\\/Navier-Stokes Equations has been used in practical aeronautical engineerings. Here, the results of two dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses of a multiple slotted flap, and a three dimensional wing design problem using Euler analyses are shown.

Takuji Kishimoto; Takashi Uchida

1988-01-01

46

The role of computational fluid dynamics in aeronautical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task of aircraft design often favors a robust, low-cost computational method rather than a sophisticated one. Examples of such engineering methods currently in use are described in this paper. Included are a viscous-inviscid coupling procedure for a 2-D airfoil at high angle of attack in incompressible flow, a vortex-lattice procedure for not-so-slender wings, and extensions of the FLO22 code

T. Uchida; T. Jyonouchi; K. Sawada; T. Nohisa

1984-01-01

47

Superhydrophobic surface as a fluid enhancement material in engineering applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a superhydrophobic surface and its relation to the enhancement of the droplet fluid dynamics to the surface of the object materials was investigated. As the comparison, hydrophilic and uncoated surface of an object also investigated. The investigations used height of impact at 89 mm. The high quality speed camera is employed to investigate the droplet dynamic on a copper foil and a calcium fluoride surfaces. Both of the materials are coated with superhydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces separately. The droplet diameter was analyzed using the program PHANTOM. The droplet contact angle was analyzed by the Goniometry method. The water was dropped on the calcium fluoride and the copper foil using a syringe (sharp tip) with initial droplet diameter of 1.9 mm. To record the droplet fluid shape, the photo micro sensor was placed inside the trigger box below the syringe. The results showed that the superhydrophobic surface both on copper foil and calcium fluoride enhanced the mobility of a droplet compared to the hydrophilic and the uncoated surfaces. The results showed that the maximum droplet diameter on the copper foil coated by the superhydrophobic, the hydrophilic and the uncoated surfaces are 4.7, 5.0, 5.2 mm, respectively; and for the calcium fluoride are 4.5, 5.1 and 5.5 mm, respectively. Meanwhile, the results for the droplet contact angle on the copper foil coated by the superhydrophobic, the hydrophilic and the uncoated surfaces are 20°, 90°, 160°, respectively; and for the calcium fluoride are 25°, 95°, 165°, respectively.

Tetuko, Anggito P.; Khaerudini, Deni S.; Sardjono, Priyo; Sebayang, Perdamean; Rosengarten, Gary

2013-09-01

48

Inhomogeneity of fluid flow in Stirling engine regenerators  

SciTech Connect

The literature relating to inhomogeneity of flow regenerators is briefly reviewed. It is noted that, in contrast to other applications of regenerators, relatively little attention has been paid to the consequences of flow inhomogeneity for thermal regeneration in Stirling cycle machines. The construction of regenerator capsules for a large stationary Stirling engine is described. A test rig is developed to measure the gas velocity profile across the face of the packed regenerator capsules under steady flow conditions. Measured flow profiles for a number of different matrix materials and construction techniques are presented, and it is noted that stacked-mesh regenerator matrices tend to display marked inhomogeneities of flow. The consequences of flow inhomogeneity for flow friction and regenerator effectiveness are analyzed theoretically, and approximate formulae deduced. One method for reducing flow inhomogeneity in stacked-screen matrice

Jones, J.D. (School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser Univ. Burnaby, British Columbia (CA))

1989-10-01

49

Proceedings: 2003 ASME/EPRI Radwaste Workshop  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear utilities are continually evaluating methods to improve operations and reduce costs associated with radioactive waste management. The 26th Annual ASME/EPRI Workshop facilitates this effort by communicating technology and management improvements throughout the industry. This workshop, restricted to utility radwaste professionals, also serves to communicate practical in-plant improvements with the opportunity to discuss them in detail.

None

2004-05-01

50

Proceedings: 2002 ASME/EPRI Radwaste Workshop  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear utilities are continually evaluating methods to improve operations and reduce costs associated with radioactive waste management. The 25th Annual ASME/EPRI Workshop facilitates this effort by communicating technology and management improvements throughout the industry. This workshop, restricted to utility radwaste professionals, also serves to communicate practical in-plant improvements with the opportunity to discuss them in detail.

None

2002-11-01

51

Controlling health risks from workplace exposure to metalworking fluids in the United Kingdom engineering industry.  

PubMed

On October 15, 2002, the United Kingdom (UK) Health and Safety Executive (HSE) launched new guidance for the engineering industry, aimed at reducing health risks from metalworking fluids (MWFs). This guidance was the culmination of many years of work on this subject. In the early 1990s, the UK occupational exposure standards (OES) for oil mist were 5 mg/m(-3) 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA), and 10 mg/m(-3) short-term exposure limit (STEL). This was only applicable to highly refined mineral oil mists and there was no exposure limit for water-mix MWFs (emulsions, semi-synthetics, and synthetics). HSE therefore undertook to review the existing exposure limit for neat mineral oil mists (neat oils are fluids that contain highly refined mineral oils and additives, and are used neat without mixing with water) and consider developing one for water-mix MWFs. This led to the development of new air-sampling methods, a comprehensive survey, and the development of new good practice guidance in the place of statutory exposure limits. This new good practice guidance has been endorsed and launched with the help of relevant industry supplier, employer, and employee associations. The guidance builds on the philosophy of tackling health risks as a holistic approach; for example, not just tackling mist control through the use of ventilation, but also fluid selection, fluid delivery, and fluid management (fluid management means to effectively manage all aspects of the fluid, from storage and stock preparation to sump cleaning and fluid disposal, etc.). Tools, such as laminated task sheets, are provided to make it user friendly. It also demonstrates the business benefits from this approach, that managing your MWFs effectively can reduce the incidence of ill health, reduce fluid and disposal costs, increase tool life, and improve machining performance. PMID:14555440

Stear, Martin A

2003-11-01

52

Constitutive overexpression of asm2 and asm39 increases AP3 production in the actinomycete Actinosynnema pretiosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutive overexpression of regulators in the ansamitocin biosynthetic cluster of Actinosynnema pretiosum was investigated as a strategy to increase the production of ansamitocin-P3 (AP-3), a clinically promising chemotherapeutic\\u000a agent. Putative transcriptional regulators asm2, asm29, and asm34 as well as the putative regulatory protein asm39 were cloned into a single-site integrative vector and a multicopy replicative vector, pAP40 and pREP, respectively,

Daniel Ng; Hing Kah Chin; Victor Vai Tak Wong

2009-01-01

53

An engineering model for adsorption of gases onto flat surfaces and clustering in supercritical fluids  

SciTech Connect

Physical adsorption is used in gas purification processes such as the removal of volatile organic compounds from stack gases, as a means of fractionating fluids that are difficult to separate by other methods, and in adsorbent regenerations using supercritical fluids. Physical adsorption is also of interest in transportation and storage of radioactive gases, in separation and purification of lower hydrocarbons, in supercritical extractions and chromatography, and in critical point drying. The authors present an engineering model to describe physical adsorption from sub- to supercritical conditions on flat walls and clustering in supercritical fluids using a single temperature-independent parameter for fluid-solid interactions. The fluid-solid potential is superimposed on the Peng-Robinson equation of state, and the configurational energy integral in the inhomogeneous fluid phase is simplified with a local density approximation. This model is capable of quantitative fits over wide pressure and temperature ranges. Model predictions for physical adsorption of pure gases on flat walls are compared with experimental surface excess data, and model predictions for describing the clustering phenomenon are compared with experimental fluorescence spectra.

Subramanian, R.; Pyada, H.; Lira, C.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-11-01

54

Mechanobiology of engineered cartilage cultured under a quantified fluid-dynamic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural cartilage remodels both in vivo and in vitro in response to mechanical forces and hence mechanical stimulation is\\u000a believed to have a potential as a tool to modulate extra-cellular matrix synthesis in tissue-engineered cartilage. Fluid-induced\\u000a shear is known to enhance chondrogenesis on animal cells. A well-defined hydrodynamic environment is required to study the\\u000a biochemical response to shear of three-dimensional

M. T. Raimondi; F. Boschetti; L. Falcone; G. B. Fiore; A. Remuzzi; E. Marinoni; M. Marazzi; R. Pietrabissa

2002-01-01

55

Fluid Flow Analysis of the SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) High Pressure Fuel and Oxidizer Turbine Coolant Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective is to provide improved analysis capability for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel and oxidizer turbine coolant systems. Each of the systems was analyzed to determine fluid flow rate and thermodynamic and transport proper...

G. A. Teal

1989-01-01

56

Proceedings: 2001 ASME/EPRI Radwaste Workshop  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear utilities continually evaluate methods to improve operations and reduce costs associated with radioactive waste management. The continuing deregulation process has increased the emphasis on this activity. The Annual ASME/EPRI Workshop facilitates this effort by communicating technology and management improvements throughout the industry. This workshop, restricted to utility radwaste professionals, also serves to communicate practical in-plant improvements with the opportunity to discuss them in detail.

None

2001-12-01

57

Proceedings: 2000 ASME/EPRI Radwaste Workshop  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear utilities are continually evaluating methods to improve operations and reduce costs associated with radioactive waste management. The continuing deregulation process has added increased emphasis to this activity. The Annual ASME/EPRI Workshop facilitates this effort by communicating technological and managerial improvements throughout the industry. This workshop, restricted to utility radwaste professionals, also serves to communicate practical in-plant improvements with the opportunity to discuss them in detail.

None

2001-02-01

58

Development of Hands-On Student Experience with Modern Facilities, Measurement Systems, and Uncertainty Analysis in Undergraduate Fluids Engineering Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development described of hands-on student experience with modern facilities, measurement systems, and uncertainty analysis in undergraduate fluids engineering laboratories. Classroom and pre-lab lectures and laboratories teach students experimental fluid dynamics (EFD) methodology and uncertainty analysis (UA) procedures following a step-by-step approach, which mirrors the \\

Fred Stern; Marian Muste; Surageet Ghosh; Jun Shao; Don Yarbrough

59

A biocompatible tissue scaffold produced by supercritical fluid processing for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluids are used in various industrial fields, such as the food and medical industries, because they have beneficial physical and chemical properties and are also nonflammable and inexpensive. In particular, supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO(2)) is attractive due to its mild critical temperature, pressure values, and nontoxicity. Poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (PLCL), which is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and very elastic polymer, has been used in cartilage tissue engineering. However, organic solvents, such as chloroform or dichloromethane, are usually used for the fabrication of a PLCL scaffold through conventional methods. This leads to a cytotoxic effect and long processing time for removing solvents. To alleviate these problems, supercritical fluid processing is introduced here. In this study, we fabricated a mechano-active PLCL scaffold by supercritical fluid processing for cartilage tissue engineering, and we compared it with a scaffold made by a conventional solvent-casting method in terms of physical and biological performance. Also, to examine the optimum condition for preparing scaffolds with ScCO(2), we investigated the effects of pressure, temperature, and the depressurization rate on PLCL foaming. The PLCL scaffolds produced by supercritical fluid processing had a homogeneously interconnected porous structure, and they exhibited a narrow pore size distribution. Also, there was no cytotoxicity of the scaffolds made with ScCO(2) compared to the scaffolds made by the solvent-pressing method. The scaffolds were seeded with chondrocytes, and they were subcutaneously implanted into nude mice for up to 4 weeks. In vivo accumulation of extracellular matrix of cell-scaffold constructs demonstrated that the PLCL scaffold made with ScCO(2) formed a mature and well-developed cartilaginous tissue compared to the PLCL scaffold formed by solvent pressing. Consequently, these results indicated that the PLCL scaffolds made by supercritical fluid processing offer well-interconnected and nontoxic substrates for cell growth, avoiding problems associated with a solvent residue. This suggests that these elastic PLCL scaffolds formed by supercritical fluid processing could be used for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:22834918

Kim, Su Hee; Jung, Youngmee; Kim, Soo Hyun

2012-09-07

60

An analytical model of heat transfer and fluid dynamic performances of an unconventional NTR engine for manned interplanetary missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical model of fluid flow and heat transfer of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engine concept is presented. The engine is based on the direct conversion of the kinetic energy of the fission fragments (FFs) into the propellant enthalpy. The FFs can escape from an extremely thin layer of fissionable material: a sufficiently large surface coated with few micrometers

Ivan Di Piazza

2009-01-01

61

Exploring the essence of productive pedagogy in Fluid Mechanics and Material and process curricula for second year Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Curriculum development in the fluid mechanics and material and processes subjects for foundation levels for the engineering students at university level has been assessed against the requirements of engineering education productive pedagogy in the new era. Four corners are essential for productive pedagogy namely Intellectual quality, Connectedness, Supportive learning environment and Recognition of difference. These are checked against the

A. Elgezawy

62

Numerical simulation and optimization on heat transfer and fluid flow in cooling channel of liquid rocket engine thrust chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To find the optimal number of channels of rocket engine thrust chamber, it was found that the optimal channel number is 335, at which the cooling effect of the thrust chamber cooling channel reaches the best, which can be helpful to design rocket engine thrust chamber. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT with standard

Qiuwang Wang; Feng Wu; Min Zeng; Laiqin Luo; Jiguo Sun

2006-01-01

63

CONFERENCE REPORT: Engineering offshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Report on 3rd international offshore mechanics and arctic engineering symposium (part of Energy sources technology conference and exhibition), ASME and others, 12-16 February 1984 in New Orleans, USA.

Tony Blakeborough

1984-01-01

64

Numerical prediction of fluid motion in the induction system and the cylinder in reciprocating engines  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a multi-dimensional computer program for simulating fluid dynamics in reciprocating internal combustion engines. The numerical procedure uses a time-dependent implicit finite-difference approach in a general curvilinear coordinate system on a grid which may expand and contract with the motion of the intake valve and piston. In this program, special attention has been paid to take into account complex geometries: the computational domain includes the intake port and the cylinder, the motion and closure of the valve are described, the piston may contain a bowl. The intake process followed by compression in two- and three-dimensional direct injection four stroke diesel engine configurations are simulated. The results show that the program is applicable to characterize flow structure simultaneously in the intake port and the cylinder.

Paul, E.M.

1987-01-01

65

Breakdown voltage determination of gaseous and near cryogenic fluids with application to rocket engine ignition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid rocket engines extensively use spark-initiated torch igniters for ignition. As the focus shifts to longer missions that require multiple starts of the main engines, there exists a need to solve the significant problems associated with using spark-initiated devices. Improving the fundamental understanding of predicting the required breakdown voltage in rocket environments along with reducing electrical noise is necessary to ensure that missions can be completed successfully. To better understand spark ignition systems and add to the fundamental research on spark development in rocket applications, several parameter categories of interest were hypothesized to affect breakdown voltage: (i) fluid, (ii) electrode, and (iii) electrical. The fluid properties varied were pressure, temperature, density and mass flow rate. Electrode materials, insert electrode angle and spark gap distance were the electrode properties varied. Polarity was the electrical property investigated. Testing how breakdown voltage is affected by each parameter was conducted using three different isolated insert electrodes fabricated from copper and nickel. A spark plug commonly used in torch igniters was the other electrode. A continuous output power source connected to a large impedance source and capacitance provided the pulsing potential. Temperature, pressure and high voltage measurements were recorded for the 418 tests that were successfully completed. Nitrogen, being inert and similar to oxygen, a propellant widely used in torch igniters, was used as the fluid for the majority of testing. There were 68 tests completed with oxygen and 45 with helium. A regression of the nitrogen data produced a correction coefficient to Paschen's Law that predicts the breakdown voltage to within 3000 volts, better than 20%, compared to an over prediction on the order of 100,000 volts using Paschen's Law. The correction coefficient is based on the parameters most influencing breakdown voltage: fluid density, spark gap distance, electrode angles, electrode materials and polarity. The research added to the fundamental knowledge of spark development in rocket ignition applications by determining the parameters that most influence breakdown voltage. Some improvements to the research should include better temperature measurements near the spark gap, additional testing with oxygen and testing with fuels of interest such as hydrogen and methane.

Nugent, Nicholas Jeremy

66

Computational Fluid Dynamic Modelling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Gasoline-Like Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of a compression—ignition (CI) heavy-duty engine fuelled with diesel and gasoline-like fuels. A state-of-the-art engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool was used to explore the influences of the physical and chemical properties of diesel and gasoline-like fuels (no. 91 gasoline and E10) on spray development, auto-ignition and combustion processes, and pollutant formation. The CFD

Y Shi; Y Wang; R D Reitz

2010-01-01

67

Role of cells in freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions within engineered tissues.  

PubMed

During cryopreservation, ice forms in the extracellular space resulting in freezing-induced deformation of the tissue, which can be detrimental to the extracellular matrix (ECM) microstructure. Meanwhile, cells dehydrate through an osmotically driven process as the intracellular water is transported to the extracellular space, increasing the volume of fluid for freezing. Therefore, this study examines the effects of cellular presence on tissue deformation and investigates the significance of intracellular water transport and cell-ECM interactions in freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions. Freezing-induced deformation characteristics were examined through cell image deformetry (CID) measurements of collagenous engineered tissues embedded with different concentrations of MCF7 breast cancer cells versus microspheres as their osmotically inactive counterparts. Additionally, the development of a biophysical model relates the freezing-induced expansion of the tissue due to the cellular water transport and the extracellular freezing thermodynamics for further verification. The magnitude of the freezing-induced dilatation was found to be not affected by the cellular water transport for the cell concentrations considered; however, the deformation patterns for different cell concentrations were different suggesting that cell-matrix interactions may have an effect. It was, therefore, determined that intracellular water transport during freezing was insignificant at the current experimental cell concentrations; however, it may be significant at concentrations similar to native tissue. Finally, the cell-matrix interactions provided mechanical support on the ECM to minimize the expansion regions in the tissues during freezing. PMID:23719856

Seawright, Angela; Ozcelikkale, Altug; Dutton, Craig; Han, Bumsoo

2013-09-01

68

Characterization of Acid Sphingomyelinase Activity in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Background As a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is involved in the regulation of cell fate and signaling via hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to form ceramide. While increased activity of the lysosomal form has been associated with various pathological conditions, there are few studies on secretory ASM limited only to cell models, plasma or serum. Methods An optimized assay based on a fluorescent substrate was applied to measure the ASM activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from mice and from 42 patients who were classified as controls based on normal routine CSF values. Results We have detected ASM activity in human CSF, established a sensitive quantitative assay and characterized the enzyme’s properties. The enzyme resembles plasmatic ASM including protein stability and Zn2+-dependence but the assays differ considerably in the optimal detergent concentration. Significantly increased activities in the CSF of ASM transgenic mice and undetectable levels in ASM knock-out mice prove that the measured ASM activity originates from the ASM-encoding gene SMPD1. CSF localized ASM activities were comparable to corresponding serum ASM levels at their respective optimal reaction conditions, but no correlation was observed. The large variance in ASM activity was independent of sex, age or analyzed routine CSF parameters. Conclusions Human and mouse CSF contain detectable levels of secretory ASM, which are unrelated to serum ASM activities. Further investigations in humans and in animal models will help to elucidate the role of this enzyme in human disease and to assess its value as a potential biomarker for disease type, severity, progress or therapeutic success.

Muhle, Christiane; Huttner, Hagen B.; Walter, Silke; Reichel, Martin; Canneva, Fabio; Lewczuk, Piotr; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes

2013-01-01

69

Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in stirling engine modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that

Tew; R. C. Jr

1988-01-01

70

Fluid motion within the cylinder of internal combustion engines - The 1986 Freeman Scholar Lecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow field within the cylinder of internal combustion engines is the most important factor controlling the combustion process. Thus it has a major impact on engine operation. This paper reviews those aspects of gas motion into, within, and out of the engine cylinder that govern the combustion characteristics and breathing capabilities of spark-ignition engines and compression-ignition or diesel engines.

John B. Heywood

1987-01-01

71

Overview of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Problem Areas Encountered in Stirling Engine Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirli...

R. C. Tew

1988-01-01

72

Application of the ASME code in the design of the GA-4 and GA-9 casks  

SciTech Connect

General Atomics (GA) is developing two spent fuel shipping casks for transport by legal weight truck (LWT). The casks are designed to the loading, environmental conditions and safety requirements defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71). To ensure that all components of the cask meet the 10CFR71 rules, GA established structural design criteria for each component based on NRC Regulatory Guides and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code). This paper discusses the criteria used for different cask components, how they were applied and the conservatism and safety margins built into the criteria and assumption.

Mings, W.J. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Koploy, M.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1992-08-01

73

Application of the ASME code in the design of the GA-4 and GA-9 casks  

SciTech Connect

General Atomics (GA) is developing two spent fuel shipping casks for transport by legal weight truck (LWT). The casks are designed to the loading, environmental conditions and safety requirements defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71). To ensure that all components of the cask meet the 10CFR71 rules, GA established structural design criteria for each component based on NRC Regulatory Guides and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code). This paper discusses the criteria used for different cask components, how they were applied and the conservatism and safety margins built into the criteria and assumption.

Mings, W.J. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Koploy, M.A. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

74

Proceedings of the 1991 ASME JSME thermal engineering joint conference  

SciTech Connect

This book is organized under the following headings: Electrohydrodynamic heat transfer augmentation; Forced convection augmentation and heat transfer control; Turbulent heat transfer; Thermal problems in the environment; Energy conversion systems; Measurement, visualization, and imaging; Thermal problems in space technology; and Thermal properties.

Lloyd, J.R.; Kurosaki, Y.

1991-01-01

75

Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in stirling engine modeling  

SciTech Connect

NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.

Tew, R.C. Jr.

1988-02-01

76

Fluid mechanics of combustion systems; Proceedings of the Fluids Engineering Conference, Boulder, CO, June 22, 23, 1981  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work examines such topics as the parametric variations of a heat balanced engine, the calculation of pulverized coal combustion in an axisymmetrical furnace, optical tomography for diagnostics in combusting flows, the numerical simulation of swirling flow in a cyclone chamber, and the flow aerodynamics modeling of an MHD swirl combustor. Consideration is also given to the interaction between strain fields and flames in spark ignition engines, the flow and combustion characteristics of turbulent reacting flames, the application of numerical modeling to gas turbine combustor development problems, and the prediction of swirling flow fields in axisymmetric combustor geometries.

Morel, T.; Lohmann, R. P.; Rackley, J. M.

1981-01-01

77

Stereo photography of neutral density He-filled bubbles for 3-D fluid motion studies in an engine cylinder.  

PubMed

A new technique has been developed for studies of fluid motion within the cylinder of a reciprocating piston engine during the air induction process. Helium-filled bubbles, serving as neutrally buoyant flow tracer particles, enter the cylinder along with the inducted air charge. The bubble motion is recorded by stereo cine photography through the transparent cylinder of a specially designed research engine. Quantitative data on the 3-D velocity field generated during induction is obtained from frame-to-frame analysis of the stereo images, taking into account refraction of the rays due to the transparent cylinder. Other applications for which this technique appears suitable include measurements of velocity fields within intake ports and flow-field dynamics within intake manifolds of multicylinder engines. PMID:20372559

Kent, J C; Eaton, A R

1982-03-01

78

Mechanics of granular-frictional-visco-plastic fluids in civil and mining engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shear stress generated in mine backfill slurries and fresh concrete contains both velocity gradient dependent and frictional terms, categorised as frictional viscous plastic fluids. This paper discusses application of the developed analytical solution for flow rate as a function of pressure and pressure gradient in discs, pipes and cones for such frictional Bingham-Herschel-Bulkley fluids. This paper discusses application of this continuum fluid model to industrial materials like mine and mineral slurries, backfills and fresh concrete tests.

Alehossein, H.; Qin, Z.

2013-10-01

79

Fluid motion within the cylinder of internal combustion engines - The 1986 Freeman Scholar Lecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of gas motion into, within, and out of the engine cylinder which govern the combustion characteristics and capabilities of spark-ignition engines and compression-ignition or diesel engines are considered. Flow characteristics through inlet and exhaust valves in four-stroke cycle engines, and through ports in the cylinder liner in two-stroke cycle engines, are discussed. Features and turbulence characteristics of common in-cylinder flows including the large scale rotating flows precipitated by the conical intake jet and two-stroke scavenger flows are reviewed. The flow phenomenon near walls are then discussed, with application to heat transfer and hydrocarbon emissions phenomena.

Heywood, John B.

1987-03-01

80

Laser Doppler velocimetry measurements of flow within the cylinder of a motored tow-stroke cycle engine-comparison with some computational fluid dynamics predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to assess the ability of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to predict the scavenging flow in the cylinder of a two-stroke cycle engine. Predictions were obtained from a CFD simulation of the flow within the cylinder. Due to the apparent sym-metry of the engine port layout, only half of the cylinder volume was modelled.

J. P. Creaven; R Fleck; R. G. Kenny; G Cunningham

2003-01-01

81

TOPICAL REVIEW: Overview of the lattice Boltzmann method for nano- and microscale fluid dynamics in materials science and engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article gives an overview of the lattice Boltzmann method as a powerful technique for the simulation of single and multi-phase flows in complex geometries. Owing to its excellent numerical stability and constitutive versatility it can play an essential role as a simulation tool for understanding advanced materials and processes. Unlike conventional Navier-Stokes solvers, lattice Boltzmann methods consider flows to be composed of a collection of pseudo-particles that are represented by a velocity distribution function. These fluid portions reside and interact on the nodes of a grid. System dynamics and complexity emerge by the repeated application of local rules for the motion, collision and redistribution of these coarse-grained droplets. The lattice Boltzmann method, therefore, is an ideal approach for mesoscale and scale-bridging simulations. It is capable to tackling particularly those problems which are ubiquitous characteristics of flows in the world of materials science and engineering, namely, flows under complicated geometrical boundary conditions, multi-scale flow phenomena, phase transformation in flows, complex solid-liquid interfaces, surface reactions in fluids, liquid-solid flows of colloidal suspensions and turbulence. Since the basic structure of the method is that of a synchronous automaton it is also an ideal platform for realizing combinations with related simulation techniques such as cellular automata or Potts models for crystal growth in a fluid or gas environment. This overview consists of two parts. The first one reviews the philosophy and the formal concepts behind the lattice Boltzmann approach and presents also related pseudo-particle approaches. The second one gives concrete examples in the area of computational materials science and process engineering, such as the prediction of lubrication dynamics in metal forming, dendritic crystal growth under the influence of fluid convection, simulation of metal foam processing, flow percolation in confined geometries, liquid crystal hydrodynamics and processing of polymer blends.

Raabe, D.

2004-11-01

82

After-School Math PLUS (ASM+) Final Evaluation Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report summarizes findings from the Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) evaluation of After-School Math PLUS (ASM+). This program was designed to help students find the math in everyday experiences and create awareness about the importance of math skills for future career options. The evaluation was conducted by AED's Center for…

Academy for Educational Development, 2007

2007-01-01

83

Risk analysis of nuclear safeguards regulations. [Aggregated Systems Model (ASM)  

SciTech Connect

The Aggregated Systems Model (ASM), a probabilisitic risk analysis tool for nuclear safeguards, was applied to determine benefits and costs of proposed amendments to NRC regulations governing nuclear material control and accounting systems. The objective of the amendments was to improve the ability to detect insiders attempting to steal large quantities of special nuclear material (SNM). Insider threats range from likely events with minor consequences to unlikely events with catastrophic consequences. Moreover, establishing safeguards regulations is complicated by uncertainties in threats, safeguards performance, and consequences, and by the subjective judgments and difficult trade-offs between risks and safeguards costs. The ASM systematically incorporates these factors in a comprehensive, analytical framework. The ASM was used to evaluate the effectiveness of current safeguards and to quantify the risk of SNM theft. Various modifications designed to meet the objectives of the proposed amendments to reduce that risk were analyzed. Safeguards effectiveness was judged in terms of the probability of detecting and preventing theft, the expected time to detection, and the expected quantity of SNM diverted in a year. Data were gathered in tours and interviews at NRC-licensed facilities. The assessment at each facility was begun by carefully selecting scenarios representing the range of potential insider threats. A team of analysts and facility managers assigned probabilities for detection and prevention events in each scenario. Using the ASM we computed the measures of system effectiveness and identified cost-effective safeguards modifications that met the objectives of the proposed amendments.

Al-Ayat, R.A.; Altman, W.D.; Judd, B.R.

1982-06-01

84

Radiation-induced temperature shift of thhe ASME K/sub Ic/ curve  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the temperature shift and shape of the K/sub Ic/ curve described in Sect. XI of the ASME Boiler and pressure Vessel Code. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 215-mm-thick plate. Charpy impact, tensile, dropweight, and compact specimens up to 203.2 mm thick were fabricated and tested to provide a large data for unirradiated material. Similar specimens with compacts up to 101.6 mm thick, irradiated at about 288/degree/C to a mean fluence of about 1.6 /times/ 10/sup 19/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor, were tested to provide a similarly large data base with which to evaluate the temperature shift and shape of the ASME K/sub Ic/ curves. Testing was performed by both Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Materials Engineering Associates. Both linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze test results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Nanstad, R.K.; Haggag, F.M.; Iskander, S.K.

1989-01-01

85

Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)|

Gosman, A. D.; And Others

1979-01-01

86

Engineering aspects of a molten salt heat transfer fluid in a trough solar field  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was carried out to investigate the feasibility of utilizing a molten salt as the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and for thermal storage in a parabolic trough solar field to improve system performance and to reduce the levelized electricity cost. The operating large-scale solar parabolic trough plants in the USA currently use a high temperature synthetic oil in the

D. Kearney; B. Kelly; U. Herrmann; R. Cable; J. Pacheco; R. Mahoney; H. Price; D. Blake; P. Nava; N. Potrovitza

2004-01-01

87

Study of nonlinear processes of a large experimental thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine by using computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article focuses on using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to study several important nonlinear phenomenon and processes of a large experimental thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine. First, the simulated physical model was introduced, and the suitable numerical scheme and algorithm for the time-dependent compressible thermoacoustic system was determined through extensive numerical tests. Then, the simulation results of the entire evolution process of self-excited thermoacoustic oscillation and the acoustical characteristics of pressure and velocity waves were presented and analyzed. Especially, the onset temperature and the saturation process of dynamic pressure were captured by the CFD simulation. In addition, another important nonlinear phenomenon accompanying the acoustic wave, which is the steady mass flow through the traveling-wave loop inside the thermoacoustic engine, was studied. To suppress the steady mass flow numerically, a fan model was adopted in the simulation. Finally, the multidimensional effects of vortex formation in the thermal buffer tube and other components were displayed numerically. Most importantly, a substantial comparison between the simulation and experiments was made, which demonstrated well the validity and powerfulness of the CFD simulation for characterizing several complicated nonlinear phenomenon involved in the self-excited thermoacoustic heat engine.

Yu, G. Y.; Luo, E. C.; Dai, W.; Hu, J. Y.

2007-10-01

88

Computational fluid dynamics simulation of the air/suppressant flow in an uncluttered F18 engine nacelle  

SciTech Connect

For the purposes of designing improved Halon-alternative fire suppression strategies for aircraft applications, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the air flow, suppressant transport, and air-suppressant mixing within an uncluttered F18 engine nacelle were performed. The release of inert gases from a Solid Propellant Gas Generator (SPGG) was analyzed at two different injection locations in order to understand the effect of injection position on the flow patterns and the mixing of air and suppression agent. An uncluttered engine nacelle was simulated to provide insight into the global flow features as well as to promote comparisons with previous nacelle fire tests and recent water tunnel tests which included little or no clutter. Oxygen concentration levels, fuel/air residence times that would exist if a small fuel leak were present, velocity contours, and streamline patterns are presented inside the engine nacelle. The numerical results show the influence of the gent release location on regions of potential flame extinction due to oxygen inerting and high flame strain. The occurrence of inflow through the exhaust ducts on the aft end of the nacelle is also predicted. As expected, the predicted oxygen concentration levels were consistently higher than the measured levels since a fire was not modeled in this analysis. Despite differences in the conditions of these simulations and the experiments, good agreement was obtained between the CFD predictions and the experimental measurements.

Lopez, A.R.; Gritzo, L.A.; Hassan, B.

1997-06-01

89

Snapshots of New Asm/batse Transient Sources with RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to take a snapshot of each new X-ray transient discovered by the ASM and BATSE in the AO2 period with PCA/HEXTE. BATSE has been discovering bright new transient about 1-2 (about a dozen marginal detections) every year, and this rate is expected to increase with the addition of ASM. The combined detection power of the two instruments will boost our confidence even with relatively faint sources. Most of our targets are expected to be relatively weak transients, therefore may otherwise be ignored without a dedicated effort to classify and catalog them. The objectives of this proposal are two-fold: (1) to provide a uniform database for archival studies; and (2) to quantitatively characterize their X-ray spectra and basic timing properties.

Cui, Wei

90

Thesaurus of engineered materials  

SciTech Connect

This book is published jointly by ASM International and the Institute of Metals in London. It contains the vocabulary for classification, processing, and properties of polymers, ceramics, and composites. Over 500 main terms are included, together with cross-reference terms and a list of index terms. The book is the basis for the terminology used in the recently introduced Engineered Materials Abstracts.

Not Available

1987-01-01

91

Enhancing Student Learning in Food Engineering Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current generation of students coming into food science and engineering programs is very visually oriented from their early experiences. To increase their interest in learning, new and visually appealing teaching materials need to be developed. Two diverse groups of students may be identified based on their math skills. Food science students…

Wong, Shin Y.; Connelly, Robin K.; Hartel, Richard W.

2010-01-01

92

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Residual Fuel Oil Combustion in the Context of Marine Diesel Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified model is presented for vaporization and combustion of heavy residual based fuel oil in high-pressure sprays, in the context of marine diesel engines. The fuel is considered as a mix of residual base and cutter stock. The model accounts for multiple fuel components as well as limited diffusion rates and thermal decomposition rates within droplets by the use

L Goldsworthy

2006-01-01

93

Corrosion-inhibiting gas-turbine engine lubricant. II. Fluid formulation and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion-inhibiting capability of over one hundred candidate materials was assessed using the Corrosion Rate Evaluation Procedure (CREP). The candidate inhibitors were evaluated in single-additive and two-additive combinations formulated into a qualified MIL-L-7808H fluid. Several physical property measurements, including total acid number, flash point, and foaming characteristics, were used to screen various candidate inhibitors and inhibitor combinations. The more promising

P. A. Warner; W. E. Ward

1984-01-01

94

Long term culture of epithelia in a continuous fluid gradient for biomaterial testing and tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Epithelia perform barrier functions being exposed to different fluids on the luminal and basal side. For long-term testing of new biomaterials as artificial basement membrane substitutes, it is important to simulate this fluid gradient. Individually-selected biomaterials can be placed in tissue carriers and in gradient containers, where different media are superfused. Epithelia growing on the tissue carriers form a physiological barrier during the whole culture period. Frequently however, pressure differences between the luminal and basal compartments occur. This is caused by a unilateral accumulation of gas bubbles in the container compartments resulting in tissue damage. Consequently, the occurence of gas bubbles has to be minimized. Air bubbles in the perfusion culture medium preferentially accumulate at sites where different materials come into contact. The first development is new screw caps for media bottles, specifically designed to allow fluid contact with only the tube and not the cap material. The second development is the separation of remaining gas bubbles from the liquid phase in the medium using newly-developed gas expander modules. By the application of these new tools, the yield of embryonic renal collecting duct epithelia with intact barrier function on a fragile natural support material can be significantly increased compared to earlier experiments. PMID:11484942

Minuth, W W; Strehl, R; Schumacher, K; de Vries, U

2001-01-01

95

Quantitative, single shot, two-dimensional spontaneous Raman measurements for fluid mechanics and engine applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous Raman Scattering was used for quantitative, two-dimensional, single-shot measurements of species concentration in optically accessible confinements and in an experimental single-cylinder internal combustion engine. The study comprised three parts. In the first part, the technique was used for methane concentration measurements in a laminar jet issuing into compressed nitrogen (10 bar, 293 K). The injection Reynolds number was 550.

Dimitrios Constantinou Kyritsis

1998-01-01

96

Application of computational fluid dynamics to the design of the Space Transportation Main Engine subscale nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

CFD analyses of the Space Transportation Main Engine film\\/dump cooled subscale nozzle are presented, with an emphasis on the timely impact of CFD in the design of the subscale nozzle secondary coolant system. Calculations were performed with the Generalized Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), using a Baldwin-Lomas Turbulence model, and finite rate hydrogen-oxygen chemistry. Design iterations for both the secondary coolant

J. L. Garrett; S. A. Syed

1992-01-01

97

Effects of Initial Seeding Density and Fluid Perfusion Rate on Formation of Tissue-Engineered Bone  

PubMed Central

We describe a novel bioreactor system for tissue engineering of bone that enables cultivation of up to six tissue constructs simultaneously, with direct perfusion and imaging capability. The bioreactor was used to investigate the relative effects of initial seeding density and medium perfusion rate on the growth and osteogenic differentiation patterns of bone marrow–derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on three-dimensional scaffolds. Fully decellularized bovine trabecular bone was used as a scaffold because it provided suitable “biomimetic” topography, biochemical composition, and mechanical properties for osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Trabecular bone plugs were completely denuded of cellular material using a serial treatment with hypotonic buffers and detergents, seeded with hMSCs, and cultured for 5 weeks. Increasing seeding density from 30×106 cells/mL to 60×106 cells/mL did not measurably influence the characteristics of tissue-engineered bone, in contrast to an increase in the perfusion rate from 100 ?ms?1 to 400 ?ms?1, which radically improved final cell numbers, cell distributions throughout the constructs, and the amounts of bone proteins and minerals. Taken together, these findings suggest that the rate of medium perfusion during cultivation has a significant effect on the characteristics of engineered bone.

GRAYSON, WARREN L.; BHUMIRATANA, SARINDR; CANNIZZARO, CHRISTOPHER; CHAO, P.-H. GRACE; LENNON, DONALD P.; CAPLAN, ARNOLD I.; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

2009-01-01

98

Structure and Dynamics of Fluids in Microporous and Mesoporous Earth and Engineered Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of liquids in confined geometries (pores, fractures) typically differs, due to the effects of large internal surfaces and geometrical confinement, from their bulk behavior in many ways. Phase transitions (i.e., freezing and capillary condensation), sorption and wetting, and dynamical properties, including diffusion and relaxation, may be modified, with the strongest changes observed for pores ranging in size from <2 to 50 nm—the micro- and mesoporous regimes. Important factors influencing the structure and dynamics of confined liquids include the average pore size and pore size distribution, the degree of pore interconnection, and the character of the liquid-surface interaction. While confinement of liquids in hydrophobic matrices, such as carbon nanotubes, or near the surfaces of mixed character, such as many proteins, has also been an area of rapidly growing interest, the confining matrices of interest to earth and materials sciences usually contain oxide structural units and thus are hydrophilic. The pore size distribution and the degree of porosity and inter-connection vary greatly amongst porous matrices. Vycor, xerogels, aerogels, and rocks possess irregular porous structures, whereas mesoporous silicas (e.g., SBA-15, MCM-41, MCM-48), zeolites, and layered systems, for instance clays, have high degrees of internal order. The pore type and size may be tailored by means of adjusting the synthesis regimen. In clays, the interlayer distance may depend on the level of hydration. Although studied less frequently, matrices such as artificial opals and chrysotile asbestos represent other interesting examples of ordered porous structures. The properties of neutrons make them an ideal probe for comparing the properties of bulk fluids with those in confined geometries. In this chapter, we provide a brief review of research performed on liquids confined in materials of interest to the earth and material sciences (silicas, aluminas, zeolites, clays, rocks, etc.), emphasizing those neutron scattering techniques that assess both structural modification and dynamical behavior. Quantitative understanding of the complex solid-fluid interactions under different thermodynamic situations will impact both the design of better substrates for technological applications (e.g., chromatography, fluid capture, storage and release, and heterogeneous catalysis) as well as our fundamental understanding of processes encountered in the environment (i.e., fluid and waste mitigation, carbon sequestration, etc.).

Cole, David R.; Mamontov, Eugene; Rother, Gernot

99

Sructure and dynamics of fluids in micropous and mesoporous earth and engineered materials  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of liquids in confined geometries (pores, fractures) typically differs, due to the effects of large internal surfaces and geometri-cal confinement, from their bulk behavior in many ways. Phase transitions (i.e., freezing and capillary condensation), sorption and wetting, and dy-namical properties, including diffusion and relaxation, may be modified, with the strongest changes observed for pores ranging in size from <2 nm to 50 nm the micro- and mesoporous regimes. Important factors influ-encing the structure and dynamics of confined liquids include the average pore size and pore size distribution, the degree of pore interconnection, and the character of the liquid-surface interaction. While confinement of liq-uids in hydrophobic matrices, such as carbon nanotubes, or near the sur-faces of mixed character, such as many proteins, has also been an area of rapidly growing interest, the confining matrices of interest to earth and ma-terials sciences usually contain oxide structural units and thus are hydro-philic. The pore size distribution and the degree of porosity and inter-connection vary greatly amongst porous matrices. Vycor, xerogels, aerogels, and rocks possess irregular porous structures, whereas mesopor-ous silicas (e.g., SBA-15, MCM-41, MCM-48), zeolites, and layered sys-tems, for instance clays, have high degrees of internal order. The pore type and size may be tailored by means of adjusting the synthesis regimen. In clays, the interlayer distance may depend on the level of hydration. Al-though studied less frequently, matrices such as artificial opals and chry-sotile asbestos represent other interesting examples of ordered porous structures. The properties of neutrons make them an ideal probe for com-paring the properties of bulk fluids with those in confined geometries. In this chapter, we provide a brief review of research performed on liquids confined in materials of interest to the earth and material sciences (silicas, aluminas, zeolites, clays, rocks, etc.), emphasizing those neutron scattering techniques which assess both structural modification and dynamical behav-ior. Quantitative understanding of the complex solid-fluid interactions under different thermodynamic situations will impact both the design of bet-ter substrates for technological applications (e.g., chromatography, fluid capture, storage and release, and heterogeneous catalysis) as well as our fundamental understanding of processes encountered in the environment (i.e., fluid and waste mitigation, carbon sequestration, etc.).

Cole, David R [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL

2009-01-01

100

Reaction Engineering International and Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff exchange: Addressing computational fluid dynamics needs of the chemical process industry  

SciTech Connect

Staff exchanges, such as the one described in this report, are intended to facilitate communications and collaboration among scientists and engineers at Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, in US industry, and academia. Funding support for these exchanges is provided by the DOE, Office of Energy Research, Laboratory Technology Transfer Program. Funding levels for each exchange typically range from $20,000 to $40,000. The exchanges offer the opportunity for the laboratories to transfer technology and expertise to industry, gain a perspective to industry`s problems, and develop the basis for further cooperative efforts through Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAS) or other mechanisms. Information in this report on the staff exchange of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff with Reaction Engineering International (REI) includes the significant accomplishments, significant problems, industry benefits realized, recommended follow-on work and potential benefit of that work. The objectives of this project were as follows: Work with REI to develop an understanding of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) needs of the chemical process industry; assess the combined capabilities of the PNL and REI software analysis tools to address these needs; and establish a strategy for a future programmatically funded, joint effort to develop a new CFD tool for the chemical process industry.

Fort, J.A.

1995-07-01

101

Quantitative, single shot, two-dimensional spontaneous Raman measurements for fluid mechanics and engine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous Raman Scattering was used for quantitative, two-dimensional, single-shot measurements of species concentration in optically accessible confinements and in an experimental single-cylinder internal combustion engine. The study comprised three parts. In the first part, the technique was used for methane concentration measurements in a laminar jet issuing into compressed nitrogen (10 bar, 293 K). The injection Reynolds number was 550. Initial results showed unexpected structures in the acquired concentration profiles. Thus, the steadiness of the laminar flow was confirmed with high speed shadowgraph movies and laser induced fluorescence measurements. Eventually, it was proven that the structures were due to characteristics of the camera system. A technique was then devised for the proper acquisition and processing of data and spatial resolution of 500 mum was achieved. Methane number density equal to 12% of the number density of pure methane (0.247E+26 molecules/msp3) was then measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 3. The measurements were compared with the results of direct numerical simulation of the flow field. In the second part, measurements in a laminar hydrogen jet were taken. Because of the reduced Raman signal of hydrogen, the incident laser power was increased by installing the pressurized chamber within the laser cavity. This yielded an increase in power by a factor of 2.5. For the measurement of the laser sheet intensity in the laser cavity, insertion of a fluorescent dye cell and Rayleigh scattering were used and evaluated comparatively. The precise location of the waist of the laser sheet was determined by trial and error. The spatial resolution of the measurements was 650 mum and a number density of 0.371E+26 hydrogen molecules/msp3 was measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The measurements were again compared with results of direct numerical simulation. In the third part, the feasibility of two-dimensional single-shot Spontaneous Raman measurements in an engine cylinder was established. Measurements of methane concentration after direct injection in the cylinder of an experimental single-cylinder engine were taken. The engine was not fired to avoid laser induced incandescence interference. The spatial resolution was limited to 800 mum by the thickness of the laser sheet. Fast mixing of the methane jet was documented but a precise evaluation of the equivalence ratio was beyond the resolution of this first attempt. Finally, existing hardware for data acquisition and algorithms for two dimensional data reduction were reviewed and recommendations were made for the extraction of quantitative information from two-dimensional, single-shot Spontaneous Raman signals which are weak and noisy.

Kyritsis, Dimitrios Constantinou

102

REVIEW OF PROPOSED METHODOLOGY FOR A RISK- INFORMED RELAXATION TO ASME SECTION XI APPENDIX G  

SciTech Connect

The current regulations, as set forth by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), to insure that light-water nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) maintain their structural integrity when subjected to planned normal reactor startup (heat-up) and shut-down (cool-down) transients are specified in Appendix G to 10 CFR Part 50, which incorporates by reference Appendix G to Section XI of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code. The technical basis for these regulations are now recognized by the technical community as being conservative and some plants are finding it increasingly difficult to comply with the current regulations. Consequently, the nuclear industry has developed, and submitted to the ASME Code for approval, an alternative risk-informed methodology that reduces the conservatism and is consistent with the methods previously used to develop a risk-informed revision to the regulations for accidental transients such as pressurized thermal shock (PTS). The objective of the alternative methodology is to provide a relaxation to the current regulations which will provide more operational flexibility, particularly for reactor pressure vessels with relatively high irradiation levels and radiation sensitive materials, while continuing to provide reasonable assurance of adequate protection to public health and safety. The NRC and its contractor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have recently performed an independent review of the industry proposed methodology. The NRC / ORNL review consisted of performing probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analyses for a matrix of cool-down and heat-up rates, permutated over various reactor geometries and characteristics, each at multiple levels of embrittlement, including 60 effective full power years (EFPY) and beyond, for various postulated flaw characterizations. The objective of this review is to quantify the risk of a reactor vessel experiencing non-ductile fracture, and possible subsequent failure, over a wide range of normal transient conditions, when the maximum allowable thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions, derived from both the current ASME code and the industry proposed methodology, are imposed on the inner surface of the reactor vessel. This paper discusses the results of the NRC/ORNL review of the industry proposal including the matrices of PFM analyses, results, insights, and conclusions derived from these analyses.

Dickson, Terry L [ORNL; Kirk, Mark [NRC

2010-01-01

103

Validating Use-Cases with the AsmL Test Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Abstract State Machine Language supports use-case oriented modeling in a faithful way. In this paper we discuss how the AsmL test tool, a new component of the AsmL tool environment, is used to generate finite state machines from use-case models which can be used for validation purposes or for testing. 1 The Abstract State Machine Language (AsmL) is an

Michael Barnett; Wolfgang Grieskamp; Wolfram Schulte; Nikolai Tillmann; Margus Veanes

2003-01-01

104

14 CFR 25.1182 - Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines. 25.1182 Section 25.1182...attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines. (a) Each nacelle area immediately...attaching structure containing flammable fluid lines, must meet each requirement...

2013-01-01

105

Application of computational fluid dynamics to the design of the Space Transportation Main Engine subscale nozzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CFD analyses of the Space Transportation Main Engine film/dump cooled subscale nozzle are presented, with an emphasis on the timely impact of CFD in the design of the subscale nozzle secondary coolant system. Calculations were performed with the Generalized Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), using a Baldwin-Lomas Turbulence model, and finite rate hydrogen-oxygen chemistry. Design iterations for both the secondary coolant cavity passage and the secondary coolant lip are presented. In addition, validation of the GASP chemistry and turbulence models by comparison with data and other CFD codes are presented for a hypersonic laminar separation corner, a backward facing step, and a 2D scramjet nozzle with hydrogen-oxygen kinetics.

Garrett, J. L.; Syed, S. A.

1992-07-01

106

Combustion Chambers for Natural Gas SI Engines Part I: Fluid Flowand Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most economical way to convert truck and bus DI-diesel engines\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009to natural gas operation is to replace the injector with a spark\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009plug and modify the combustion chamber in the piston crown for spark\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009ignition operation. The modification of the piston crown should give\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009a geometry well suited for spark ignition operation with the original\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009swirling inlet port.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Ten

Bengt Johansson; Krister Olsson

1995-01-01

107

Effects of freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions on the cells and extracellular matrix of engineered tissues  

PubMed Central

The two most significant challenges for successful cryopreservation of engineered tissues (ETs) are preserving tissue functionality and controlling highly tissue-type dependent preservation outcomes. In order to address these challenges, freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions should be understood, which determine the post-thaw cell viability and extracellular matrix (ECM) microstructure. However, the current understanding of this tissue-level biophysical interaction is still limited. In this study, freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions and their impact on the cells and ECM microstructure of ETs were investigated using dermal equivalents as a model ET. The dermal equivalents were constructed by seeding human dermal fibroblasts in type I collagen matrices with varying cell seeding density and collagen concentration. While these dermal equivalents underwent an identical freeze/thaw condition, their spatiotemporal deformation during freezing, post-thaw ECM microstructure, and cellular level cryoresponse were characterized. The results showed that the extent and characteristics of freezing-induced deformation were significantly different among the experimental groups, and the ETs with denser ECM microstructure experienced a larger deformation. The magnitude of the deformation was well correlated to the post-thaw ECM structure, suggesting that the freezing-induced deformation is a good indicator of post-thaw ECM structure. A significant difference in the extent of cellular injury was also noted among the experimental groups, and it depended on the extent of freezing-induced deformation of the ETs and the initial cytoskeleton organization. These results suggest that the cells have been subjected to mechanical insult due to the freezing-induced deformation as well as thermal insult. These findings provide insight on tissue-type dependent cryopreservation outcomes, and can help to design and modify cryopreservation protocols for new types of tissues from a pre-developed cryopreservation protocol.

Teo, Ka Yaw; DeHoyos, Tenok O.; Dutton, J. Craig; Grinnell, Frederick; Han, Bumsoo

2011-01-01

108

3D automatic anatomy recognition based on iterative graph-cut-ASM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We call the computerized assistive process of recognizing, delineating, and quantifying organs and tissue regions in medical imaging, occurring automatically during clinical image interpretation, automatic anatomy recognition (AAR). The AAR system we are developing includes five main parts: model building, object recognition, object delineation, pathology detection, and organ system quantification. In this paper, we focus on the delineation part. For the modeling part, we employ the active shape model (ASM) strategy. For recognition and delineation, we integrate several hybrid strategies of combining purely image based methods with ASM. In this paper, an iterative Graph-Cut ASM (IGCASM) method is proposed for object delineation. An algorithm called GC-ASM was presented at this symposium last year for object delineation in 2D images which attempted to combine synergistically ASM and GC. Here, we extend this method to 3D medical image delineation. The IGCASM method effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the globally optimal delineation capability of the GC method. We propose a new GC cost function, which effectively integrates the specific image information with the ASM shape model information. The proposed methods are tested on a clinical abdominal CT data set. The preliminary results show that: (a) it is feasible to explicitly bring prior 3D statistical shape information into the GC framework; (b) the 3D IGCASM delineation method improves on ASM and GC and can provide practical operational time on clinical images.

Chen, Xinjian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Bagci, Ulas; Alavi, Abass; Torigian, Drew A.

2010-03-01

109

Integrin and GPCR Crosstalk in the Regulation of ASM Contraction Signaling in Asthma  

PubMed Central

Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is one of the cardinal features of asthma. Contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells that line the airway wall is thought to influence aspects of AHR, resulting in excessive narrowing or occlusion of the airway. ASM contraction is primarily controlled by agonists that bind G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which are expressed on ASM. Integrins also play a role in regulating ASM contraction signaling. As therapies for asthma are based on symptom relief, better understanding of the crosstalk between GPCRs and integrins holds good promise for the design of more effective therapies that target the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism that governs AHR. In this paper, we will review current knowledge about integrins and GPCRs in their regulation of ASM contraction signaling and discuss the emerging concept of crosstalk between the two and the implication of this crosstalk on the development of agents that target AHR.

Teoh, Chun Ming; Tam, John Kit Chung; Tran, Thai

2012-01-01

110

A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH  

SciTech Connect

The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

R. W. Swindeman

2009-12-14

111

Encapsulating connections on SoC designs using ASM++ charts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a methodology to encapsulate, not only the functionality of several SoC modules, but also the connections between those modules. To achieve these results, the possibilities of Algorithmic State Machines (ASM charts) have been extended to develop a compiler. Using this approach, a SoC design becomes a set of chart boxes and links: several boxes describe parameterized modules in a hierarchical fashion, other boxes encapsulate their connections, and all boxes are linked together using simple lines. At last, a compiler processes all required files and generates the corresponding VHDL or Verilog code, valid for simulation and synthesis. A small SoC design with two DSP processors is shown as an example.

de Pablo, Santiago; Herrero, Luis C.; Martínez, Fernando; Rey, Alexis B.

112

Snapshots of New Asm/batse Transient Sources with RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to take a snapshot of each new X-ray transient discovered in the AO-3 period with the PCA and HEXTE. The BATSE has been discovering bright new transients about 1-2 (about a dozen marginal detections) every year, so has the ASM in AO-2 with the current software and calibration. The combined detection power of the two instruments will boost our confidence even with relatively faint sources. Most of our targets are expected to be relatively weak transients, therefore may otherwise be ignored without a dedicated effort to classify and catalog them. The objectives of this proposal are (1) to localize the source, (2) to characterize its X-ray spectra and basic timing properties, and (3) to provide a uniform database for archival studies.

Cui, Wei

113

Sounding water vapor, ozone and particle (SWOP) campaign at Lhasa and Kunming during the ASM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asian summer monsoon (ASM) anticyclone circulation is recognized to be a significant transport pathway for water vapor and pollutants to enter the stratosphere. Observational evidences, however, are largely based on satellite retrievals. During the last few summers, we have conducted balloon-borne water vapor, ozone, and particle meaurements at Kunming and Lhasa during the ASM. We present the key characteristics of these measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These measurements are key to study the transport and microphysics in the ASM anticyclone.

Bian, Jianchun; Xuan, Yuejian; Li, Qian; Zhang, Jinqiang; Chen, Hongbin; Lu, Daren; Vömel, Holger; Hurst, Dale; Wienhold, Frank

2013-04-01

114

Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof. O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled 'Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines' held on September 15-1...

C. DellaCorte O. Pinkus

2002-01-01

115

Relaxation Methods Applied to Engineering Problems. VII. Problems Relating to the Percolation of Fluids through Porous Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accepted theory of percolation of fluids through porous materials (which is based on Darcy's law of resistance) indicates that the velocities can be calculated from a velocity-potential which, in two-dimensional motion, is plane-harmonic within the fluid field. The associated stream function, and the fluid pressure, are also plane-harmonic, so in cases where all boundaries are known their determination is

F. S. Shaw; R. V. Southwell

1941-01-01

116

Externally cooled absorption engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An externally cooled, absorption engine apparatus and method are described, the apparatus including a closed cycle system having a first fluid and a second fluid, the first fluid constituting a working fluid and having a relatively lower boiling point while the second fluid constitutes a solvent for the first fluid and has a relatively higher boiling point and a relatively

Brinkerhoff

1981-01-01

117

Forgings and bars for nuclear and other special applications (ASME SA-654 with additional requirements)  

SciTech Connect

This standard covers carbon steel and medium- and high-alloy steel forgings and bars for nuclear and associated applications. Material shall conform to the requirements of ASME SA-654 and to the additional requirements of this standard.

Not Available

1981-05-01

118

Estimates of margins in ASME Code strength values for stainless steel nuclear piping  

SciTech Connect

The margins in the ASME Code stainless steel allowable stress values that can be attributed to the variations in material strength are evaluated for nuclear piping steels. Best-fit curves were calculated for the material test data that were used to determine allowable stress values for stainless steels in the ASME Code, supplemented by more recent data, to estimate the mean stresses. The mean yield stresses (on which the stainless steel S{sub m} values are based) from the test data are about 15 to 20% greater than the ASME Code yield stress values. The ASME Code yield stress values are estimated to approximately coincide with the 97% confidence limit from the test data. The mean and 97% confidence limit values can be used in the probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear piping.

Ware, A.G.

1995-11-01

119

Numerical methods for fluid transient analysis; Proceedings of the Applied Mechanics, Bioengineering, and Fluids Engineering Conference, Houston, TX, June 20-22, 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the topics discussed are implicit methods for the solution of the one-dimensional wave equation, second-order explicit methods for transient flow analysis, a generalized implicit finite difference method for transient analysis of compressible and incompressible fluid flows, the modeling of transient two-component flow with a four-point implicit method, one-dimensional transient gas flow with internal heating, transient pressure wave radial and

C. S. Martin; M. H. Chaudhry

1983-01-01

120

Valve inlet fluid conditions for pressurizer safety and relief valves in combustion engineering-designed plants. Final report. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to assemble documented information for C-E designed plants concerning pressurizer safety and power operated relief valve (PROV) inlet fluid conditions during actuation as calculated by conventional licensing analyses. This information is to be used to assist in the justification of the valve inlet fluid conditions selected for the testing of safety valves and PORVs

J. Bahr; D. Chari; M. Puchir; S. Weismantel

1982-01-01

121

DEP4ASM: Stata module to create [in]dependent variable for alternative-specific models  

Microsoft Academic Search

dep4asm creates a new variable that can be used as the dependent variable in an alternative-specific model. The variabe containing the alternatives is identified by varname. Each observation will be duplicated as many times as there are alternatives, that may be chosen. The created new variable (labeled choice by default) indicates which alternative has actually been chosen. indep4asm creates a

Daniel Klein

2010-01-01

122

ASM: scaled down active segmented mirror developed to simulate a segmented primary mirror  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Active Segmented Mirror is a key subsystem of the Active Phasing Experiment. The size of the ASM is 154 mm in diameter. It will be used to test new types of phasing sensors recently developed within the ELT design study supported by the European Union. To our knowledge it is the first time that such miniature active optics composed of hexagonal segments having 3 degrees of freedom with a resolution of the order of a few nanometers and a range of several micrometers is manufactured. The ASM is composed of 61 hexagonal segments called "modules". Each module is assembled, glued and integrated from standard (piezo-actuators) and custom-made (mirrors, mechanics) parts procured from industries. The ASM has been designed and integrated at the European Southern Observatory. Specifications, designs, assembly tools, hand work skills, electronics, software, control algorithms and test procedures are the field of competences required to obtain in the end a "plug and play" product. The concept of the ASM is tested and validated by a prototype version composed of 7 modules equivalent of the central area of the ASM itself. The design, integration and results of the ASM tests are presented.

Dupuy, Christophe; Frank, Christoph; Gonté, Frédéric; Araujo Hauck, Constanza; Brast, Roland; Esteves, Regina; Nylund, Matti; Sedghi, Babak; Derie, Frédéric

2006-07-01

123

Asm-1(+), a Neurospora Crassa Gene Related to Transcriptional Regulators of Fungal Development  

PubMed Central

This report describes the identification, cloning, and molecular analysis of Asm-1(+) (Ascospore maturation 1), the Neurospora crassa homologue of the Aspergillus nidulans stuA (stunted A) gene. The Asm-1(+) gene is constitutively transcribed and encodes an abundant, nucleus-localized 68.5-kD protein. The protein product of Asm-1(+) (ASM-1), contains a potential DNA-binding motif present in related proteins from A. nidulans (StuA), Candida albicans (EFGTF-1), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Phd1 and Sok2). This motif is related to the DNA binding motif of the Swi4/Mbp1/Res family of transcription factors that control the cell cycle. Deletion of Asm-1(+) destroys the ability to make protoperithecia (female organs), but does not affect male-specific functions. We propose that the APSES domain (ASM-1, Phd1, StuA, EFGTF-1, and Sok2) defines a group of proteins that constitute a family of related transcription factors involved in the control of fungal development.

Aramayo, R.; Peleg, Y.; Addison, R.; Metzenberg, R.

1996-01-01

124

Report on the activities of the ASME-NQA Committee Working Group on Quality Assurance Requirements for Research and Development, April 1990 to August 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report transmits to the public eye the activities of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers-Nuclear Quality Assurance (ASME-NQA) Committee Working Group on Quality Assurance Requirements for Research and Development. The appendix lists the members of this group as of August 1991. The report covers a period of 17 months. The working group met eight times in this period, and much intellectual ground was traversed. There was seldom agreement on the nature of the task, but there was no doubt as to its urgency. The task was how to adapt the nuclear quality assurance standard, the NQA-1, to research and development work. 1 fig., 7 tabs.

Dronkers, J.J.

1991-09-01

125

Numerical methods for fluid transient analysis. Proceedings of the applied mechanics, bioengineering, and fluids engineering conference, Houston, TX, June 20-22, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Among the topics discussed are implicit methods for the solution of the one-dimensional wave equation, second-order explicit methods for transient flow analysis, a generalized implicit finite difference method for transient analysis of compressible and incompressible fluid flows, the modeling of transient two-component flow with a four-point implicit method, one-dimensional transient gas flow with internal heating, transient pressure wave radial and axial variations, and vaporous and gaseous cavitation simulation. Also discussed are variable celerity modeling by the method of characteristics, a numerical model for transients in petroleum product pipelines, solid-liquid-gas mixture one-dimensional transient flows, hydraulic transients in tunnels with concurrent open channel and pressurized flow, and waterhammer transient control with dynamic programming of valve stoking. For individual items see A84-13235 to A84-13238.

Martin, C.S.; Chaudhry, M.H.

1983-01-01

126

Numerical methods for fluid transient analysis; Proceedings of the Applied Mechanics, Bioengineering, and Fluids Engineering Conference, Houston, TX, June 20-22, 1983  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the topics discussed are implicit methods for the solution of the one-dimensional wave equation, second-order explicit methods for transient flow analysis, a generalized implicit finite difference method for transient analysis of compressible and incompressible fluid flows, the modeling of transient two-component flow with a four-point implicit method, one-dimensional transient gas flow with internal heating, transient pressure wave radial and axial variations, and vaporous and gaseous cavitation simulation. Also discussed are variable celerity modeling by the method of characteristics, a numerical model for transients in petroleum product pipelines, solid-liquid-gas mixture one-dimensional transient flows, hydraulic transients in tunnels with concurrent open channel and pressurized flow, and waterhammer transient control with dynamic programming of valve stoking. For individual items see A84-13235 to A84-13238

Martin, C. S.; Chaudhry, M. H.

127

Fluid Power Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.…

Moore, Pam

2008-01-01

128

Requirements for design of Class 1 elevated temperature nuclear system components (supplement to ASME Code Case N-47)  

SciTech Connect

This standard provides rules for the design of Class 1 nuclear components for use at elevated temperatures. It constitutes a complete set of requirements only when used in conjunction with Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) and addenda, and ASME Code Case N-47. Unmodified portions of Code Case N-47 are not repeated in this standard but are considered requirements of this standard.

Not Available

1986-06-30

129

Interactive fluid-structural dynamic problems in power engineering, presented at the Joint Conference of the Pressure Vessels and Piping, Materials, Nuclear Engineering, Solar Energy Divisions, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Proceedings includes 11 papers, in which emphasis has been placed on understanding the physics of coupled fluid-structure systems commonly encountered in the power generation industry and on clarifying the different methods of solving the problem. Papers that solve specific problems are included mainly as illustrative examples. Topics considered include: nuclear reactors and power plants and their safeguard systems; liquid storage tanks; vapor quench systems; steam generators; and seismic wave effects. All papers are abstracted and indexed separately.

Au-Yang, M.K.; Moody, F.J. (eds.)

1981-01-01

130

Interactive fluid-structural dynamic problems in power engineering, presented at the joint conference of the pressure vessels and piping, materials, nuclear engineering, solar energy divisions, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Proceedings includes 11 papers, in which emphasis has been placed on understanding the physics of coupled fluid-structure systems commonly encountered in the power generation industry and on clarifying the different methods of solving the problem. Papers that solve specific problems are included mainly as illustrative examples. Topics considered include: nuclear reactors and power plants and their safeguard systems; liquid storage tanks; vapor quench systems; steam generators; and seismic wave effects. Seven papers are abstracted and indexed separately.

Au-Yang, M.K.; Moody, F.J. (eds.)

1981-01-01

131

Shape Optimization of Vehicle Radiator Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (cfd)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive manufacturers need to improve the efficiency and lifetime of all engine components. In the case of radiators, performance depends significantly on coolant flow homogeneity across the tubes and overall pressure drop between the inlet and outlet. Design improvements are especially needed in tube-flow uniformity to prevent premature fouling and failure of heat exchangers. Rather than relying on ad-hoc geometry changes, the current study combines Computational Fluid Dynamics with shape optimization methods to improve radiator performance. The goal is to develop an automated suite of virtual tools to assist in radiator design. Two objective functions are considered: a flow non-uniformity coefficient,Cf, and the overall pressure drop, dP*. The methodology used to automate the CFD and shape optimization procedures is discussed. In the first phase, single and multi-variable optimization methods, coupled with CFD, are applied to simplified 2-D radiator models to investigate effects of inlet and outlet positions on the above functions. The second phase concentrates on CFD simulations of a simplified 3-D radiator model. The results, which show possible improvements in both pressure and flow uniformity, validate the optimization criteria that were developed, as well as the potential of shape optimization methods with CFD to improve heat exchanger design. * Improving Radiator Design Through Shape Optimization, L. Guessous and S. Maddipatla, Paper # IMECE2002-33888, Proceedings of the 2002 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 2002

Maddipatla, Sridhar; Guessous, Laila

2002-11-01

132

Progress in railroad freight car engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the result of an annual survey, conducted by the author on behalf of the Rail Transportation Division (RTD), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to document progress in the design, construction and use of freight cars and components. Typically, the design must be at a prototype stage or beyond in order for it to be included here.

S. K. Punwani

1997-01-01

133

Characterization of the effect of surface roughness and texture on fluid flow—past, present, and future ? ? A preliminary version of this paper was presented at ICMM05: Third International Conference on Microchannels and Minichannels, held at University of Toronto, June 13–15, 2005, organized by S.G. Kandlikar and M. Kawaji, CD-ROM Proceedings, ISBN: 0-7918-3758-0, ASME, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface roughness (texture) has an effect on fluid flow in networks which has been studied for well over a century. The exact effect roughness has on fluid flow has not been completely understood, but a working estimate has been offered by a variety of authors over time. The work of Colebrook, Nikuradse, and Moody has provided practitioners with a method

James B. Taylor; Andres L. Carrano; Satish G. Kandlikar

2006-01-01

134

EXPERIMENTAL AND ENGINEERING SUPPORT FOR THE CAFB (CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED) DEMONSTRATION: RESIDUE DISPOSAL/UTILIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of the disposal and utilization of spent sulfur sorbent from the Chemically Active Fluid-bed (CAFB) process. Lignite ash with a minimum of 10% CaO can be used as a replacement for sand or medium aggregate or as a partial replacement fo...

135

Utilising Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for the Modelling of Granular Material in Large-Scale Engineering Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the framework is described for the modelling of granu- lar material by employing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). This is achieved through the use and implementation in the continuum theory of con- stitutive relations, which are derived in a granular dynamics framework and parametrise particle interactions that occur at the micro-scale level. The simu- lation of a process

Nicholas Christakis; Pierre Chapelle; Mayur K. Patel; Mark Cross; Ian Bridle; Hadi Abou-chakra; John Baxter

2002-01-01

136

Experimental and Engineering Support for the CAFB (Chemically Active Fluid-Bed) Demonstration: Residue Disposal/Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of an investigation of the disposal and utilization of spent sulfur sorbent from the Chemically Active Fluid-bed (CAFB) process. Lignite ash with a minimum of 10% CaO can be used as a replacement for sand or medium aggregate or as...

C. H. Peterson N. H. Ulerich R. A. Newby D. L. Keairns

1984-01-01

137

Education and research in fluid dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid dynamics constitutes an essential subject for engineering, since auronautic engineers (airship flights in PBL, flight processes), industrial engineers (fluid transportation), naval engineers (ship\\/vessel building) up to agricultural engineers (influence of the weather conditions on crops\\/farming). All the above-mentioned examples possess a high social and economic impact on mankind. Therefore, the fluid dynamics education of engineers is very important, and,

P. López González-Nieto; J. M. Redondo; J. L. Cano

2009-01-01

138

Report on task assignment No. 3 for the Waste Package Project; Parts A & B, ASME pressure vessel codes review for waste package application; Part C, Library search for reliability/failure rates data on low temperature low pressure piping, containers, and casks with long design lives  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Package Project Research Team, at UNLV, has four general required tasks. Task one is the management, quality assurance, and overview of the research that is performed under the cooperative agreement. Task two is the structural analysis of spent fuel and high level waste. Task three is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code review for waste package application. Finally, task four is waste package labeling. This report includes preliminary information about task three (ASME Pressure Vessel Code review for Waste package Application). The first objective is to compile a list of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code that can be applied to waste package containers design and manufacturing processes. The second objective is to explore the use of these applicable codes to the preliminary waste package container designs. The final objective is to perform a library search for reliability and/or failure rates data on low pressure, low temperature, containers and casks with long design lives.

Trabia, M.B.; Kiley, M.; Cardle, J.; Joseph, M.

1991-07-01

139

Proceedings of the tenth ASME wind energy symposium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Wind Symposium is to provide a forum for researchers to discuss fundamental issues and basic problems confronting the advancement of wind technology. Wind energy research includes activities in atmospheric fluid aerodynamics, structural dynamics, crack mechanics and fatigue analysis, electrical systems, control systems, and system analysis. The technology continues to show signs of maturity, and there is

D. E. Berg; P. S. Veers

1991-01-01

140

Proceedings of the 1998 ASME energy sources technology conference (ETCE`98)  

SciTech Connect

The approximately 160 papers in these proceedings have been arranged under the following topical sections: (1) Computers in engineering -- Technical databases and applied computing; Workgroup computing; Software process models; Internet computing; (2) Drilling technology -- Coiled tubing technology; Drilling dynamics and drilling systems; Advances in drill bits; Advances in percussion drilling; Testing field and laboratory; Novel/scientific drilling; Advances in drilling fluids; (3) Emerging energy technology -- Spray and combustion; Fuel cells; Flammability and flames; Fuels and engines; Miscellaneous combustion topics; (4) Composite materials design and analysis -- Interaction of cracks, notched strength, and free edge effects in laminated composites; Stress analysis of composites; Material response identification, property alteration, damage detection, and environmental effects; Wave propagation in elastic medium, numerical methods for composites; Process and property characterization of advanced materials; Fatigue degradation, viscoplasticity in composites, and numerical simulation of reinforced concrete structures; Aging, creep, plastic anisotropy, joining of different materials, and time history analysis; Shock fronts in compressible medium; Numerical simulation of propagating fronts and shocks in compressible medium; Computational methods and numerical simulation; Analysis and modeling techniques; (5) Manufacturing and services -- Drilling equipment; Process equipment; Patents and intellectual property; Computational methods in manufacturing; (6) Non-destructive evaluation engineering -- NDE applications: Visual inspections; Material property determination/flaw sizing; (7) Offshore engineering and operations -- Environmental and safety issues in offshore operations; Floating production system; Offshore topside facilities; Offshore facility infrastructure; Offshore structures and pipelines; (8) Pipeline engineering and operations -- Pipeline risk management; Pipeline integrity; Evaluation and rehabilitation; Multiphase flow; Pipeline simulation; Pipeline design and operations; New technology; Erosion and corrosion; (9) Plant engineering and reliability -- Reliability methods; Reliability techniques; (10) Petroleum production technology -- Pipeline risk management; Multiphase flow; Multiphase flow equipment; Drilling fluids and completions; Erosion and corrosion; Multiphase pumping; (11) Tribology -- Manufacturing processes; Land-based gas turbine research; Lubrication, tribo-physics and tribo-chemistry. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

NONE

1998-12-31

141

ASM LabCap's contributions to disease surveillance and the International Health Regulations (2005).  

PubMed

The revised International Health Regulations [IHR(2005)], which requires the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop core capacities to detect, assess, report, and respond to public health threats, is bringing new challenges for national and international surveillance systems. As more countries move toward implementation and/or strengthening of their infectious disease surveillance programs, the strengthening of clinical microbiology laboratories becomes increasingly important because they serve as the first line responders to detect new and emerging microbial threats, re-emerging infectious diseases, the spread of antibiotic resistance, and the possibility of bioterrorism. In fact, IHR(2005) Core Capacity #8, "Laboratory", requires that laboratory services be a part of every phase of alert and response.Public health laboratories in many resource-constrained countries require financial and technical assistance to build their capacity. In recognition of this, in 2006, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established an International Laboratory Capacity Building Program, LabCap, housed under the ASM International Board. ASM LabCap utilizes ASM's vast resources and its membership's expertise-40,000 microbiologists worldwide-to strengthen clinical and public health laboratory systems in low and low-middle income countries. ASM LabCap's program activities align with HR(2005) by building the capability of resource-constrained countries to develop quality-assured, laboratory-based information which is critical to disease surveillance and the rapid detection of disease outbreaks, whether they stem from natural, deliberate or accidental causes.ASM LabCap helps build laboratory capacity under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and under a sub-contract with the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Successful activities of ASM LabCap have occurred throughout Africa, Asia, Central America and the Caribbean. In addition, ASM LabCap coordinates efforts with international agencies such as the WHO in order to maximize resources and ensure a unified response, with the intended goal to help build integrated disease surveillance and response capabilities worldwide in compliance with HR(2005)'s requirements. PMID:21143829

Specter, Steven; Schuermann, Lily; Hakiruwizera, Celestin; Sow, Mah-Séré Keita

2010-12-03

142

Electrorheological fluids  

SciTech Connect

An electrorheological fluid is a substance whose form changes in the presence of electric fields. Depending on the strength of the field to which it is subjected, an electrorheological fluid can run freely like water, ooze like honey or solidify like gelatin. Indeed, the substance can switch from ne state to another within a few milliseconds. Electrorheological fluids are easy to make; they consist of microscopic particles suspended in an insulating liquid. Yet they are not ready for most commercial applications. They tend to suffer from a number of problems, including structural weakness as solids, abrasiveness as liquids and chemical breakdown, especially at high temperatures. Automotive engineers could imagine, for instance, constructing an electrorheological clutch. It was also hoped that electrorheological fluids would lead to valveless hydraulic systems, in which solidifying fluid would shut off flow through a thin section of pipe. Electrorheological fluids also offer the possibility of a shock absorber that provides response times of milliseconds and does not require mechanical adjustments. 3 refs.

Halsey, T.C. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Martin, J.E. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-10-01

143

Compositional and microstructural changes of engineered plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates during incubation in protein-free simulated body fluid.  

PubMed

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings engineered for maximum surface roughness (coating type I), porosity (coating type II), and tensile adhesion strength (coating type III) were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) onto Ti6Al4V substrates and characterized for their microstructure, phase composition, and design properties. The composition of the as-sprayed coatings changed during treatment with protein-free simulated body fluid (Hank's Balanced Salt Solution, HBSS) for up to 12 weeks by preferential dissolution of thermal decomposition products, and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). From solutions supersaturated with respect to calcium and phosphorus ions, a thin, very porous layer precipitated onto the leached surfaces of coating type II samples after an incubation time of 8 weeks, consisting of spherical agglomerates of a poorly crystallized bone-like Ca-deficient defect hydroxyapatite that is thought to accelerate in vivo bone apposition rates and, hence, may induce favorable osseoconductive conditions. PMID:11074428

Grassmann, O; Heimann, R B

2000-01-01

144

Fluid transients in fluid-structure interaction-1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers in this volume continue to demonstrate that the subject of fluid transients encompasses many areas of fluids engineering. Coupled to structural interactions, the problems are challenging indeed.

F. T. Dodge; F. J. Moody

1989-01-01

145

Status of ASME Section III Task Group on Graphite Support Core Structures  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the roadmap that the ASME Project Team on Graphite Core Supports is pursuing to establish design codes for unirradiated and irradiated graphite core components during its first year of operation. It discusses the deficiencies in the proposed Section III, Division 2, Subsection CE graphite design code and the different approaches the Project Team has taken to address those deficiencies.

Robert L. Bratton; Tim D. Burchell

2005-08-01

146

Evaluation of conservatisms and environmental effects in ASME Code, Section III, Class 1 fatigue analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the results of a study regarding the conservatisms in ASME Code Section 3, Class 1 component fatigue evaluations and the effects of Light Water Reactor (LWR) water environments on fatigue margins. After review of numerous Class 1 stress reports, it is apparent that there is a substantial amount of conservatism present in many existing component fatigue evaluations.

A. F. Deardorff; J. K. Smith

1994-01-01

147

Structural integrity of vessels for coal conversion systems. [ASME and ANSI codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrity of a coal conversion system need not be compromised by material considerations in design or fabrication. The ASME and ANSI Codes assure the structural integrity of the large pressure vessels and piping when they are placed into service. Imposing additional requirements, such as increased impact toughness, will further assure the reliability and safety of the Code-fabricated vessel. Incorporating

Canonico

1979-01-01

148

14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compensation as an all-cargo carrier, you must have submitted your RTM reports to the Department for the second calendar quarter of...you document to the Department, you must not alter the ASM or RTM reports you earlier submitted to the Department. Your...

2010-01-01

149

14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compensation as an all-cargo carrier, you must have submitted your RTM reports to the Department for the second calendar quarter of...you document to the Department, you must not alter the ASM or RTM reports you earlier submitted to the Department. Your...

2009-01-01

150

History of the internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

The study of engineering history by the practioners of engineering is not well-developed. This is unfortunate, because if nothing else, it is the culture of our profession, but even more importantly, it provides us with a proper understanding of current and future engineering. Without an adequate historical background the engineer could, for example, respond incorrectly to problems that might arise in some device or make inappropriate changes in the design. History can also suggest the path that might be followed by a new product, and thereby guide the development and marketing. Because of the fuller appreciation of the art and science of engineering that is provided by an awareness of engineering history, it seems appropriate for the ASME to recognize the role in our profession. The papers in this volume, which deal and various aspects of the history of the internal combustion engine, were presented in a session at the Fall Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division held in Dearborn, Michigan on October 17, 1989. The session was jointly sponsored and arranged by the Internal Combustion Engine Division and by the History and Heritage Committee of ASME. It is the first in what the latter hopes will be a regular series of sessions at various Society meetings jointly sponsored with the different divisions of the Society. It is hoped in this way to raise the consciousness of the engineering community to its history and to encourage in particular the preparation of historical papers by engineer-historians, who are involved in the practice of engineering. An approximate chronological order has been chosen for the arrangement of the papers, with the first, by H.O. Hardenberg, being on the gunpowder engines, which were experimented with from the sixteenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century.

Somerscales, E.F.C. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)); Zagotta, A.A. (Sealed Power Corp., Muskegon, MI (US))

1989-01-01

151

Fluids Laboratory Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image gallery from the University of Iowa Hydroscience and Engineering group provides a look at fluid dynamics. The images in the gallery are divided into twelve differently names sets of images including "Flow around bodies," and "Vortices."

2007-07-17

152

ASME 1995 Nadai Lecture -- Plasticity of porous and particulate materials  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the formulation of constitutive equation for those materials for which the irreversible changes of the volume is also to be taken into account. These are mainly geomaterials, cement, powders of various kinds, ceramics, etc. Experimental evidence is first presented showing that the time effects on irreversible volumetric changes and failure are very important. The concept of compressibility/dilatancy boundary is further introduced. The general constitutive equation able to describe instantaneous response, transient and stationary creep, dilatancy and/or compressibility during creep, failure, creep damage and creep failure, is presented. Examples formulated for various materials are given. Comparison between model prediction and experimental data shows a very good agreement. A few examples of applications of the model to mining engineering problems are mentioned.

Cristescu, N.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Mechanics and Engineering Science

1996-04-01

153

Corticosteroids Reduce IL6 in ASM Cells via Up-Regulation of MKP-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which corticosteroids reduce airway inflamma- tion are not completely understood. Traditionally, corticosteroids were thought to inhibit cytokines exclusively at the transcriptional level.Ourrecentevidence,obtainedinairwaysmoothmuscle(ASM), no longer supports this view. We have found that corticosteroids do not act at the transcriptional level to reduce TNF-a-induced IL-6 gene expression. Rather, corticosteroids inhibit TNF-a-induced IL-6 secretion by reducing the stability of the

Timo Quante; Yee Ching Ng; Emma E. Ramsay; Sheridan Henness; Jodi C. Allen; Johannes Parmentier; Qi Ge; Alaina J. Ammit

2008-01-01

154

RXTE/ASM Observations Of SS 433 And Cygnus X-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a dynamic period search analysis of the X-ray binaries SS 433 and Cygnus X-2 using data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All Sky Monitor (RXTE/ASM) spanning over 13 years. We report the detection of a period in SS 433 near 162 days. This may be the first detection of the disk precession period in X-rays. We detect an 81.8 day period in the object Cygnus X-2. The RXTE/ASM light curve is inconsistent with the 77.7 day X-ray period of Wijnands et al. (1996), which was based on a small subset of the RXTE/ASM data combined with data from VELA 5B, and Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitors. Since Cygnus X-2 displays periodic behavior that seems to come and go, producing different best-fit periods on time scales of a few years; we suggest that Cygnus X-2 exhibits quasi-periodic oscillations of about 80 days. This research is supported by a grant from the New Mexico Space Grant Consortium.

Hoffman, Lisa; Mason, P. A.

2010-01-01

155

Harmonic engine  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2009-10-20

156

Applied Fluid Mechanics. Lecture Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This set of lecture notes is used as a supplemental text for the teaching of fluid dynamics, as one component of a thermodynamics course for engineering technologists. The major text for the course covered basic fluids concepts such as pressure, mass flow, and specific weight. The objective of this document was to present additional fluids

Gregg, Newton D.

157

14 CFR 25.1143 - Engine controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...means of controlling its engine. (d) For each fluid injection (other than fuel) system and its controls...part of the engine, the applicant must show that the flow of the injection fluid is adequately controlled. (e) If a power...

2013-01-01

158

14 CFR 23.1143 - Engine controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...every other engine or supercharger. (e) For each fluid injection (other than fuel) system and its controls...part of the engine, the applicant must show that the flow of the injection fluid is adequately controlled. (f) If a...

2013-01-01

159

Assessment of ASME code examinations on regenerative, letdown and residual heat removal heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Inservice inspection requirements for pressure retaining welds in the regenerative, letdown, and residual heat removal heat exchangers are prescribed in Section XI Articles IWB and IWC of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Accordingly, volumetric and/or surface examinations are performed on heat exchanger shell, head, nozzle-to-head, and nozzle-to-shell welds. Inspection difficulties associated with the implementation of these Code-required examinations have forced operating nuclear power plants to seek relief from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The nature of these relief requests are generally concerned with metallurgical, geometry, accessibility, and radiation burden. Over 60% of licensee requests to the NRC identify significant radiation exposure burden as the principle reason for relief from the ASME Code examinations on regenerative heat exchangers. For the residual heat removal heat exchangers, 90% of the relief requests are associated with geometry and accessibility concerns. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was funded by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to review current practice with regard to volumetric and/or surface examinations of shell welds of letdown heat exchangers regenerative heat exchangers and residual (decay) heat removal heat exchangers Design, operating, common preventative maintenance practices, and potential degradation mechanisms are reviewed. A detailed survey of domestic and international PWR-specific operating experience was performed to identify pressure boundary failures (or lack of failures) in each heat exchanger type and NSSS design. The service data survey was based on the PIPExp® database and covers PWR plants worldwide for the period 1970-2004. Finally a risk assessment of the current ASME Code inspection requirements for residual heat removal, letdown, and regenerative heat exchangers is performed. The results are then reviewed to discuss the examinations relative to plant safety and occupational radiation exposures.

Gosselin, Stephen R.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.; Simonen, Fredric A.; Tinsley, G. A.; Lydell, B.; Doctor, Steven R.

2005-07-01

160

Fragility tests of welded attachments as compared to ASME Code Case N-318  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results from a series of fragility tests to assess the capacity of integral welded pipe attachments of various configurations. Both limit load and fatigue tests were performed on rectangular lugs and crosses (cruciforms) on straight pipe. The results of the limit load tests are presented as a limit moment. The results of the fatigue tests are cycles-to-failure. Markl's equation is then used to determine stress intensification factors. The limit moments and stress intensification factors are then compared to those developed using the methodology of ASME Code Case N-318 to determine the level of conservatism in the Code Case.

Rawls, G.B. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Wais, E.A. (Wais and Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Rodabaugh, E.C. (Rodabaugh (E.C.) and Associates, Hilliard, OH (United States))

1990-01-01

161

Fragility tests of welded attachments as compared to ASME Code Case N-318  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results from a series of fragility tests to assess the capacity of integral welded pipe attachments of various configurations. Both limit load and fatigue tests were performed on rectangular lugs and crosses (cruciforms) on straight pipe. The results of the limit load tests are presented as a limit moment. The results of the fatigue tests are cycles-to-failure. Markl`s equation is then used to determine stress intensification factors. The limit moments and stress intensification factors are then compared to those developed using the methodology of ASME Code Case N-318 to determine the level of conservatism in the Code Case.

Rawls, G.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wais, E.A. [Wais and Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Rodabaugh, E.C. [Rodabaugh (E.C.) and Associates, Hilliard, OH (United States)

1990-12-31

162

Materials and design bases issues in ASME Code Case N-47  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary evaluation of the design bases (principally ASME Code Case N-47) was conducted for design and operation of reactors at elevated temperatures where the time-dependent effects of creep, creep-fatigue, and creep ratcheting are significant. Areas where Code rules or regulatory guides may be lacking or inadequate to ensure the operation over the expected life cycles for the next-generation advanced high-temperature reactor systems, with designs to be certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have been identified as unresolved issues. Twenty-two unresolved issues were identified and brief scoping plans developed for resolving these issues.

Huddleston, R.L.; Swindeman, R.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1993-04-01

163

Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material.

Raske, D.T.; Wang, Z.

1992-07-01

164

14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095 Section 23.1095...1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing...simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed in pounds per...

2013-01-01

165

46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be...

2010-10-01

166

46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be...

2009-10-01

167

Migration from hierarchal storage management to ASM storage server: a case study.  

PubMed

The Department of Radiology at the University of Utah Hospitals and Clinics had to make a change from its current hierarchical storage management (HSM) system. The HSM software is the heart of any near-line data storage system and any change in this software affects all near-line and on-line data storage. In this case, over a terabyte of data had been migrated in more than 2 million files. The traditional method of reading in the old data and then writing it out to the new system was calculated to take more than 60 years. Here, we will examine the reasons for making such a radical change in the HSM used. We will also discuss why ASM (the new HSM software) was selected, and the performance improvements seen. A second, less difficult transition was made a few months later, of upgrading to a newer faster tape technology. The two types of tapes were incompatible, but the storage software and robotics used allowed for a peaceful coexistence during the transition. The transition from HSM to ASM was not a trivial task. It required a reasonable implementation/migration plan, which involved finding the correct resources and thinking outside the norm for solutions. All sites that have any amount of data stored in near-line devices will face similar conversions. This presentation should help in the event that a data conversion plan is not already in place. PMID:10342172

Baune, D; Bookman, G

1999-05-01

168

Intrinsically irreversible heat engine  

DOEpatents

A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1984-01-01

169

Intrinsically irreversible heat engine  

DOEpatents

A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1984-12-25

170

3D automatic anatomy segmentation based on iterative graph-cut-ASM  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This paper studies the feasibility of developing an automatic anatomy segmentation (AAS) system in clinical radiology and demonstrates its operation on clinical 3D images.Methods: The AAS system, the authors are developing consists of two main parts: object recognition and object delineation. As for recognition, a hierarchical 3D scale-based multiobject method is used for the multiobject recognition task, which incorporates intensity weighted ball-scale (b-scale) information into the active shape model (ASM). For object delineation, an iterative graph-cut-ASM (IGCASM) algorithm is proposed, which effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the globally optimal delineation capability of the GC method. The presented IGCASM algorithm is a 3D generalization of the 2D GC-ASM method that they proposed previously in Chen et al. [Proc. SPIE, 7259, 72590C1–72590C-8 (2009)]. The proposed methods are tested on two datasets comprised of images obtained from 20 patients (10 male and 10 female) of clinical abdominal CT scans, and 11 foot magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The test is for four organs (liver, left and right kidneys, and spleen) segmentation, five foot bones (calcaneus, tibia, cuboid, talus, and navicular). The recognition and delineation accuracies were evaluated separately. The recognition accuracy was evaluated in terms of translation, rotation, and scale (size) error. The delineation accuracy was evaluated in terms of true and false positive volume fractions (TPVF, FPVF). The efficiency of the delineation method was also evaluated on an Intel Pentium IV PC with a 3.4 GHZ CPU machine.Results: The recognition accuracies in terms of translation, rotation, and scale error over all organs are about 8 mm, 10° and 0.03, and over all foot bones are about 3.5709 mm, 0.35° and 0.025, respectively. The accuracy of delineation over all organs for all subjects as expressed in TPVF and FPVF is 93.01% and 0.22%, and all foot bones for all subjects are 93.75% and 0.28%, respectively. While the delineations for the four organs can be accomplished quite rapidly with average of 78 s, the delineations for the five foot bones can be accomplished with average of 70 s.Conclusions: The experimental results showed the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed automatic anatomy segmentation system: (a) the incorporation of shape priors into the GC framework is feasible in 3D as demonstrated previously for 2D images; (b) our results in 3D confirm the accuracy behavior observed in 2D. The hybrid strategy IGCASM seems to be more robust and accurate than ASM and GC individually; and (c) delineations within body regions and foot bones of clinical importance can be accomplished quite rapidly within 1.5 min.

Chen, Xinjian; Bagci, Ulas

2011-01-01

171

Fluid Dynamic Verification Experiments on STS-70.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fluid dynamic experiments were flown on STS-70 as phase two of the engineering evaluation of the first bioreactor Engineering Development Unit (EDU NUMBER 1). The phase one experiments were comparative cell cultures in identical units on earth and onboard...

S. J. Kleis

1996-01-01

172

Fluid Dynamics for Physicists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This textbook provides an accessible and comprehensive account of fluid dynamics that emphasizes fundamental physical principles and stresses connections with other branches of physics. Beginning with a basic introduction, the book goes on to cover many topics not typically treated in texts, such as compressible flow and shock waves, sound attenuation and bulk viscosity, solitary waves and ship waves, thermal convection, instabilities, turbulence, and the behavior of anisotropic, non-Newtonian and quantum fluids. Undergraduate or graduate students in physics or engineering who are taking courses in fluid dynamics will find this book invaluable.

Faber, T. E.

1995-08-01

173

Assays for in vitro monitoring of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration of human pulmonary vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells contributes to vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Evidence also indicates that, in part, migration of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells may contribute to airway remodeling associated with asthma. Here we describe migration of VSM and ASM cells in vitro using Transwell or Boyden chamber assays. Because dissecting signaling

Elena A Goncharova; Dmitry A Goncharov; Vera P Krymskaya

2007-01-01

174

Assays for in vitro monitoring of proliferation of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular and airway remodeling, which are characterized by airway smooth muscle (ASM) and pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) proliferation, contribute to the pathology of asthma, pulmonary hypertension, restenosis and atherosclerosis. To evaluate the proliferation of VSM and ASM cells in response to mitogens, we perform a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. The proliferation protocol takes approximately 48 h and includes stimulating

Elena A Goncharova; Poay Lim; Dmitry A Goncharov; Andrew Eszterhas; Reynold A Panettieri; Vera P Krymskaya

2007-01-01

175

The Variety of Fluid Dynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three research topics which are concerned with eminently practical problems and deal at the same time with fundamental fluid dynamical problems. These research topics come from the general areas of chemical and biological engineering, geophysics, and pure mathematics. (HM)

Barnes, Francis; And Others

1980-01-01

176

Collaborating with Industry to Improve the Role of Business in Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently many pressures on the traditional four-year degree program and many educators and professional societies, including ASME, are starting to examine the viability of the four- year degree. In the US today many, if not most, new jobs are in small to medium businesses. The engineers in these companies must not only be technically proficient but they must

Sheryl Sorby; Robert Warrington; Mary Raber

2006-01-01

177

Impact of the A18.1 ASME Standard on Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts on Accessibility and Usability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes the effect of the ASME A18.1 Standard concerning accessibility and usability of Platform Lifts and their remaining technological challenges. While elevators are currently the most effective means of vertical transportation related to speed, capacity, rise and usability, their major drawbacks for accessibility are cost and…

Balmer, David C.

2010-01-01

178

Estimates of the burst reliability of thin-walled cylinders designed to meet the ASME Code allowables. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure containment components in nuclear power plants are designed by the conventional deterministic safety factor approach to meet the requirements of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. The inevitable variabilities and uncertainties associated with the design, manufacture, installation, and service processes suggest a probabilistic design approach may also be pertinent. Accordingly, the burst reliabilities of two thin-walled 304 SS

P. A. Stancampiano; P. P. Zemanick

1976-01-01

179

The Impact of ASME Section XI Appendix L Inspections on Piping Reliability  

SciTech Connect

Appendix L of the ASME Section XI code sets standards for augmented inspections of piping components that have experienced high levels of fatigue usage, and provides a basis for continued operation of components beyond their original design life. This paper describes probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations that estimate the reductions in piping failure probabilities associated with the Appendix L inspections. The improvements in piping reliability are a function of the frequency of the inspections and the quality of the ultrasonic examination methods (probability of flaw detection). Both preexisting fabrication flaws and flaws initiated by fatigue cycling are included in the probabilistic calculations. The calculations show that a program of Appendix L inspections can maintain piping failure rates during a period of extended operation at levels that are at or below the failure frequencies that are estimated for the original period of the design life.

Simonen, Fredric A.; Gosselin, Stephen R.

2001-12-31

180

ASM conference report: genetics and molecular biology of industrial microorganisms 1984  

SciTech Connect

The ASM Conference on Genetics and Molecular Biology of Industrial Microorganisms was held Sept. 30 to Oct. 3, 1984 in Bloomington, Indiana. The meetings reflected the progress in applying molecular techniques to the genetic analysis of industrial microorganisms. Topics of discussion included; gene expression in yeasts; the cloning of an Aspergillus sp. gene for glucomylase into S. cerevisiae; the construction of a yeast acentric ring plasmid (YARpl); the cloning of hygromycin resistant genes into Cephalosporium; optimization of gene expression in E. coli; a model for the initiation of translation in E. coli based on experiments with T4rIIb mutants; the role of proteases in protein turnover; evidence indicating which segments on RNAs are needed for the initiation of DNA synthesis; the application of various gene expression systems for the production of vaccines; the sporulation genes of Bacillus; the inducible chloramphenicol resistance found in Bacillus; gene expression in Streptomyces; enzyme activities in Streptomyces; and cloning of genes involved in antibiotic biosynthesis.

Not Available

1985-01-01

181

Recent RXTE/ASM and ROTSEIIId observations of EXO 2030+375 (V2246 Cygni)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims:Using the archival RXTE/ASM and SWIFT/BAT observations, the new orbital phases of type I outbursts of EXO 2030+375 are estimated. A possible correlation between the type II outburst and optical brightness variations is investigated. Methods: In order to estimate the phases of type I outbursts, we fitted Gaussian profiles to the RXTE/ASM and SWIFT/BAT light curves. The time corresponding to the maximum value of the profiles is treated as the arrival time of type I outburst. We used differential magnitudes in the time-series analysis of the optical light curve. MIDAS and its suitable packages were used to reduce and analyze the spectra. Results: Prior to the type II outburst, orbital phases of type I outbursts were delayed for ~6 days after the periastron passage, which is consistent with findings of Wilson et al. (2002, ApJ, 570, 287; 2005, ApJ, 620, L99). After the giant type II outburst, the phase of type I outbursts underwent a sudden shift of ~13 days after the periastron passage. The amplitudes of type I outbursts were increased between MJD ~ 52 500 and ~53 500. These amplitudes then decreased for 10 orbital cycles until the type II outburst was triggered. If the change of outburst amplitudes correlated with the mass accretion, then during the decrease of these amplitudes mass should be deposited in a disk around neutron star temporarily. The release of this stored mass may ignite the type II outburst. We report that the optical light curve became fainter by 0.4 mag during the decrease of amplitude of the type I outbursts. The observed H? profiles and their equivalent widths during the decay and after the giant outburst are consistent with previous observations of the system.

Baykal, A.; K?z?lo?lu, Ü.; K?z?lo?lu, N.; Beklen, E.; Özbey, M.

2008-02-01

182

Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluid Mist and Sump Fluid Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to

A. T. SIMPSON; M. STEAR; J. A. GROVES; M. PINEY; S. D. BRADLEY; S. STAGG; B. CROOK

2003-01-01

183

Vehicle fluids: The other recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling is no longer limited to paper and various types of plastics and metals. Many truck and automotive fluids, including antifreeze, are also recycled regularly throughout the US. Antifreeze is used today in almost every type of internal combustion engine. Whether the fuel is gasoline, diesel, propane, or natural gas, almost all engines need to use a liquid medium to

Walther

1994-01-01

184

Improving reliability of modelling heat and fluid flow in complex gas metal arc fillet welds---part I: an engineering physics model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models have provided significant insight about fusion welding processes and welded materials in recent years, several model input parameters cannot be easily prescribed from fundamental principles. As a result, the model predictions do not always agree with the experimental results. In order to address this problem, the approach adopted here is to develop

A. Kumar; W. Zhang; T. Deb Roy

2005-01-01

185

Experimental and engineering support for the CAFB (Chemically Active Fluid-bed) demonstration: residue disposal\\/utilization. Final report 1979-82  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of an investigation of the disposal and utilization of spent sulfur sorbent from the Chemically Active Fluid-bed (CAFB) process. Lignite ash with a minimum of 10% CaO can be used as a replacement for sand or medium aggregate or as a partial replacement for light aggregate in cement block manufacturing with higher strengths (14.68 to 26.82

C. H. Peterson; N. H. Ulerich; R. A. Newby; D. L. Keairns

1984-01-01

186

Improving reliability of modelling heat and fluid flow in complex gas metal arc fillet welds—part I: an engineering physics model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models have provided significant insight about fusion welding processes and welded materials in recent years, several model input parameters cannot be easily prescribed from fundamental principles. As a result, the model predictions do not always agree with the experimental results. In order to address this problem, the approach adopted here is to develop and test a model that embodies a heat transfer and fluid flow sub-model and an algorithm for optimizing and learning the values of uncertain process variables from a limited volume of experimental data. The heat transfer and fluid flow sub-model numerically calculates three-dimensional temperature and velocity fields, the weld geometry and the shape of the solidified weld reinforcement surface during gas metal arc (GMA) welding of fillet joints. Apart from the transport of heat from the welding arc, additional heat from the metal droplets is also considered in the model. Alternative algorithms for optimization of uncertain welding variables are examined. The overall model is capable of estimating uncertain parameters such as the arc efficiency, effective thermal conductivity and effective viscosity from a limited number of data on weld geometry. Part I of this paper is focused on the details of the numerical model, optimization technique used and an examination of the important features of the model. In an accompanying article (part II), the application of the model to GMA fillet welding of mild steel is described.

Kumar, A.; Zhang, W.; Roy, T. Deb

2005-01-01

187

Pulse combustion engine and heat transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulse combustion powered apparatus for heating and pressurizing fluids is described comprising in combination a pulse combustion heat engine, compressor means, and primary heat exchange means for transferring heat rejected by the heat engine to a primary fluid to be heated. The heat engine includes chamber means for pulse combustion of a fuel to provide combustion gases which have

R. J. Priem; M. R. Ghassemzadeh; J. C. Griffiths

1988-01-01

188

Pulse combustion engine and heat transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid heating and cooling system is described comprising in combination a pulse combustion heat engine, primary heat exchange means for transferring heat rejected by the heat engine to a primary fluid to be heated, and a heat pump system. The heat engine includes chamber means for pulse combustion of a fuel to provide combustion gases which have cyclic periods

R. J. Priem; M. R. Ghassemzadeh; J. C. Griffiths

1987-01-01

189

Development of a Consensus Standard for Verification and Validation of Nuclear System Thermal-Fluids Software  

SciTech Connect

With the resurgence of nuclear power and increased interest in advanced nuclear reactors as an option to supply abundant energy without the associated greenhouse gas emissions of the more conventional fossil fuel energy sources, there is a need to establish internationally recognized standards for the verification and validation (V&V) of software used to calculate the thermal-hydraulic behavior of advanced reactor designs for both normal operation and hypothetical accident conditions. To address this need, ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Standards and Certification has established the V&V 30 Committee, under the jurisdiction of the V&V Standards Committee, to develop a consensus standard for verification and validation of software used for design and analysis of advanced reactor systems. The initial focus of this committee will be on the V&V of system analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software for nuclear applications. To limit the scope of the effort, the committee will further limit its focus to software to be used in the licensing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. In this framework, the Standard should conform to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other regulatory practices, procedures and methods for licensing of nuclear power plants as embodied in the United States (U.S.) Code of Federal Regulations and other pertinent documents such as Regulatory Guide 1.203, 'Transient and Accident Analysis Methods' and NUREG-0800, 'NRC Standard Review Plan'. In addition, the Standard should be consistent with applicable sections of ASME NQA-1-2008 'Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Applications (QA)'. This paper describes the general requirements for the proposed V&V 30 Standard, which includes; (a) applicable NRC and other regulatory requirements for defining the operational and accident domain of a nuclear system that must be considered if the system is to be licensed, (b) the corresponding calculation domain of the software that should encompass the nuclear operational and accident domain to be used to study the system behavior for licensing purposes, (c) the definition of the scaled experimental data set required to provide the basis for validating the software, (d) the ensemble of experimental data sets required to populate the validation matrix for the software in question, and (e) the practices and procedures to be used when applying a validation standard. Although this initial effort will focus on software for licensing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors, it is anticipated that the practices and procedures developed for this Standard can eventually be extended to other nuclear and non-nuclear applications.

Edwin A. Harvego; Richard R. Schultz; Ryan L. Crane

2011-12-01

190

High Level Analysis, Design and Validation of Distributed Mobile Systems with CoreASM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System design is a creative activity calling for abstract models that facilitate reasoning about the key system attributes (desired requirements and resulting properties) so as to ensure these attributes are properly established prior to actually building a system. We explore here the practical side of using the abstract state machine (ASM) formalism in combination with the CoreASM open source tool environment for high-level design and experimental validation of complex distributed systems. Emphasizing the early phases of the design process, a guiding principle is to support freedom of experimentation by minimizing the need for encoding. CoreASM has been developed and tested building on a broad scope of applications, spanning computational criminology, maritime surveillance and situation analysis. We critically reexamine here the CoreASM project in light of three different application scenarios.

Farahbod, R.; Glässer, U.; Jackson, P. J.; Vajihollahi, M.

191

Effect of the hardness of high-strength cast iron on the tendency to seize with asm alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Under conditions of semidry and boundary sliding friction the coefficient of friction decreases with increasing hardness of high-strength magnesium cast iron from HB 229 to HB 277 at pressures of 25, 50, and 75 kg\\/cm2; consequently, the probability of seizing decreases.2.With HB 430 (induction hardening) the coefficient of friction increases at all pressures investigated, the wear of ASM alloy increases,

Z. G. Lipovetskaya

1975-01-01

192

Effect of cyclic frequency on the fatigue life of ASME SA106B piping steel in PWR environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue life tests in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments were performed on smooth and sharply notched specimens\\u000a of ASME SA-106-B piping steel at cyclic frequencies of 1.0 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and 0.017 Hz. On the basis of these tests, it was concluded\\u000a that no effect of cyclic frequency existed for smooth specimens whereas a frequency of 0.017 Hz proved to

J. B. Terrell

1988-01-01

193

Fatigue strength of smooth and notched specimens of ASME SA 106B steel in PWR (pressurized water reactor) environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue strain-life tests were conducted on ASME SA 106-B piping steel base metal and weld metal specimens in 288\\/degree\\/C (550\\/degree\\/F) pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments as a function of strain amplitude, strain ratio, notch acuity, and cyclic frequency. Notched base metal specimens tested at 0.017 Hz in 1.0 part per billion (ppB) dissolved oxygen environments nearly completely used up the

Terrell

1988-01-01

194

Acidic Sphingomyelinase (ASM) Is Necessary for Fas-induced GD3 Ganglioside Accumulation and Efficient Apoptosis of Lymphoid Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ceramides deriving from sphingomyelin hydrolysis are important mediators of apoptotic signals originating from Fas (APO-1\\/CD95). However, definitive evidence for the role played by in- dividual sphingomyelinases is still lacking. We have analyzed lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from patients affected by Niemann Pick disease (NPD), an autosomal recessive disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations within the acidic sphingomyelinase (ASM) gene. NPD

Ruggero De Maria; Maria Rita Rippo; Edward H. Schuchman; Roberto Testi

2010-01-01

195

Induction of disease resistance by the plant activator, acibenzolar- S-methyl (ASM), against bacterial canker ( Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) in tomato seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant defence activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (benzo [1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester, ASM; Bion 50 WG) was assayed on tomato seedlings for its ability to induce resistance against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. Pre-treatment of plants with ASM reduced the severity of the disease as well as the growth of the bacteria in planta. In

Soner Soylu; Ömür Baysal; E. Mine Soylu

2003-01-01

196

Wear resistance of high-strength cast iron and steel 45 paired with alloy ASM in dry and boundary sliding friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Cast iron subjected to treatments 3 and 4, and steel 45 subjected to induction hardening, have a higher tendency to galling when paired with alloy ASM than cast iron subjected to treatment 2 under conditions of dry friction.2.Boundary friction tests showed severe galling of steel 45-ASM pairs under pressures of 75 and 100 kg\\/cm2.3.The tendency to galling is smallest for

Z. G. Lipovetskaya

1974-01-01

197

Full-scale application of the IAWQ ASM No. 2d model.  

PubMed

In the framework of the EU-funded TTP-UPM project (Technology Transfer Project--Urban Pollution Management) the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) of Tielt was modelled with the recently issued IAWQ ASM No. 2d model. Up to 41 % of the total COD load is originating from a textile industry. A measurement campaign was conducted during a period with industrial discharge and a period with only domestic sewage. The stop of the industrial discharge resulted in a highly dynamic response of the system. Based on an expert-approach the calibration was obtained changing only four parameters (anaerobic hydrolysis reduction factor etafe, reduction factor for denitrification etaNO3, the decay rate of autotrophs bAUT and the decay rate of the bio-P organism building blocks bPAO, bPHA, bPP). Influent fractionation remains a critical step within the model calibration. A proven procedure to characterise the influent determinants by standard physical chemical analysis failed to assess the influent COD fractions when the textile waste water is discharged to the WWTP. Selected bench-scale experiments, instead, succeeded in providing the adequate influent characterisation accuracy. For characterising the readily biodegradable COD fraction respirometry is to be preferred. PMID:11547980

Carrette, R; Bixio, D; Thoeye, C; Ockier, P

2001-01-01

198

Three-dimensional ASM-based segmentation of the subcortical nucleus from volumetric MR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delineation of the subcortical nucleus in MR images is prerequisite for advanced radiotheraphy, surgical planning and morphometric analysis. However, it is always difficult to implement such a complicated work. We proposed a novel framework of 3D active shape model (ASM) based segmentation of the subcortical nucleus in MR images. Firstly, the most representative one of all samples represented by the segmented MR volumes is selected as the template and triangulated to generate a triangulated surface mesh. Then, free form deformation is used to establish dense point correspondences between the template and the other samples. A set of consistent triangle meshes are obtained to build the model by a statistical analysis. To fit the model to a MR volume, the model is initialized with Talairach transformation and the edge map around the model is extracted using watershed transform. An algorithm of robust point matching is used to find a transformation matrix and model parameters to transpose the model near the target nucleus and match the model to the target nucleus, respectively. The proposed framework was tested on 18 brain MR volumes. The caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and hippocampus were selected as the objects. In comparison with manual segmentation, the accuracy (Mean+/-SD) of the proposed framework is 0.90+/-0.04 for all objects.

Fu, Yili; Gao, Wenpeng; Xiao, Yongfei; Wang, Shuguo

2009-10-01

199

Creep Effects on Design below the Temperature Limits of ASME Section III Subsection NB  

SciTech Connect

Some recent studies of material response have identified an issue that crosses over and blurs the boundary between ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III Subsection NB and Subsection NH. For very long design lives, the effects of creep show up at lower and lower temperature as the design life increases. Although true for the temperature at which the allowable stress is governed by creep properties, the effect is more apparent, e.g. creep effects show up sooner, at local structural discontinuities and peak thermal stress locations. This is because creep is a function of time, temperature and stress and the higher the localized stress, the lower in temperature creep begins to cause damage. If the threshold is below the Subsection NB to NH temperature boundary, 700 F for ferritic steels and 800 F for austenitic materials, then this potential failure mode will not be considered. Unfortunately, there is no experience base with very long lives at temperatures close to but under the Subsection NB to NH boundary to draw upon. This issue is of particular interest in the application of Subsection NB rules of construction to some High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) concepts. The purpose of this paper is, thus, twofold; one part is about statistical treatment and extrapolation of sparse data for a specific material of interest, A533B; the other part is about how these results could impact current design procedures in Subsection NB.

Sham, Sam [ORNL; Jetter, Robert I [Consultant; Eno, D.R. [Consultant

2010-01-01

200

Rotary engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a rotary internal combustion engine. It comprises: an external rotor housing having a wall defining an internal chamber, a stationary inlet supplying compression fluid to the internal chamber, stationary means mounted in the wall for igniting compression fluid within the internal chamber, means for transporting compression fluid to a combustion chamber formed within the internal chamber from a compression chamber formed within the internal chamber, and a stationary outlet exhausting combustion exhaust from the chamber, a rotor element mounted within the chamber and having an engagement surface with first and second lobes extending therefrom; the internal chamber comprising two spaces, each in the form of a half-crescent, seal means supported within the rotor element for engagement with the housing wall for controlling the flow of compression fluid and combustion gases between the rotor element and housing wall; a central rotating shaft supporting the rotor element within the chamber; and an inlet pawl and a combustion pawl rotatably mounted in the housing wall.

Rogant, H.R.

1990-11-06

201

Computational Fluid Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used to study and solve complex fluid flow and heat transfer problems. This comprehensive text ranges from elementary concepts for the beginner to state-of-the-art CFD for the practitioner. It discusses and illustrates the basic principles of finite difference (FD), finite element (FE), and finite volume (FV) methods, with step-by-step hand calculations. Chapters go on to examine structured and unstructured grids, adaptive methods, computing techniques, and parallel processing. Finally, the author describes a variety of practical applications to problems in turbulence, reacting flows and combustion, acoustics, combined mode radiative heat transfer, multiphase flows, electromagnetic fields, and relativistic astrophysical flows. Students and practitioners--particularly in mechanical, aerospace, chemical, and civil engineering--will use this authoritative text to learn about and apply numerical techniques to the solution of fluid dynamics problems.

Chung, T. J.

2002-03-01

202

46 CFR 58.30-10 - Hydraulic fluid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid...03-1), Cleveland âOpen Cupâ test method. (c) The chemical and physical properties of the hydraulic fluid shall be...

2012-10-01

203

Spacer fluids  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a conduit extends, the wellbore having a space occupied by a drilling fluid. It comprises displacing the drilling fluid from the space with a spacer fluid comprising: sulfonated styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer, bentonite, welan gum, surfactant and a weighting agent; and displacing the spacer composition and filling the wellbore space with a settable cement composition.

Wilson, W.N.; Bradshaw, R.D.; Wilton, B.S.; Carpenter, R.B.

1992-05-19

204

Institute for Mechanical Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute of Mechanical Engineering has the objectives of supporting in Canada the following activities: improvement of vehicles, propulsion systems, and transportation-related facilities and services; improvements in the design and operation of maritime engineering works; protection of the environment; enhancement of energy flexibility; advancement of firms engaged in manufacturing and resource extraction; and related programs of other government departments and agencies. In 1990-91 the Institute, which had changed its name that year from the Division of Mechanical Engineering, consolidated its research activities from nine laboratories to six programs. Activities in these six programs are described: Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Coastal Zone Engineering, Cold Regions Engineering, Combustion and Fluids Engineering, Ground Transportation Technology, and Machinery and Engine Technology.

205

46 CFR 52.25-10 - Organic fluid vaporizer generators (modifies PVG-1 through PVG-12).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Organic fluid vaporizer generators (modifies PVG-1 through...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types... Organic fluid vaporizer generators (modifies PVG-1 through...a) Organic fluid vaporizer generators and parts thereof...

2011-10-01

206

Polar Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is noted that a number of theories proposed recently by various authors are actually identical with the theory of polar fluids suggested by Grad in 1952. The relatively close relationship of the recently presented theory of dipolar fluids to polar flui...

S. C. Cowin

1968-01-01

207

A heat engine with unique characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat engine which operates with one heat reservoir is described. The engine transforms the heat input completely into work by using a compressed fluid from a resource of the environment. For this reason the engine is not a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. The characteristics of the engine are analyzed, and the ways for achieving the most

G. S. Baranescu

1996-01-01

208

Engine construction  

SciTech Connect

An engine has at least two piston-cylinder assemblies each comprising a cylinder formed in an engine block with a cylinder head and a piston therein in sliding relationship toward and away from the head, a piston rod operatively connected to the piston and to a crankshaft, motion producing member of shape-memory material, e.g. Nitinol, having a transformation temperature range, secured to the cylinder head and the side of the piston opposite from the connecting rod, the motion producing member having a heat treated high temperature extended shape memory position and a low temperature low energy compressed position, the Nitinol member being of hollow tubular form and having pressure and return hoses connected thereto for supplying and removing cooling fluid into and from the Nitinol member, an electrical heating device connected to the Nitinol member, whereby the Nitinol member is easily compressed with relatively little force from the extended shape memory position to the compressed position when cooling fluid is supplied thereto to reduce the temperature of the Nitinol member to or below the lower limit of the transformation temperature range and the Nitinol member is automatically extended with relatively great force from the compressed position to the shape memory position when heated by the heating device to or above the upper limit of the transformation temperature range.

Dillon, C.L.

1984-03-06

209

Probing the Mysteries of the X-Ray Binary 4U 1210-64 with ASM, MAXI and Suzaku  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical and X-ray observations of 4U 1210-64 (1ES 1210-646) suggest that the source is a High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) probably powered by the Be mechanism. Data acquired by the RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM), the ISS Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) and Suzaku provide a detailed temporal and spectral description of this poorly understood source. Long-term data produced by ASM and MAXI indicate that the source shows two distinct high and low states. A 6.7-day orbital period of the system was found in folded light curves produced by both ASM and MAXI. A two day Suzaku observation in Dec. 2010 took place during a transition from the minimum to the maximum of the folded light curve. The two day Suzaku observation reveals large variations in flux indicative of strong orbit to orbit variability. Flares in the Suzaku light curve can reach nearly 1.4 times the mean count rate. From a spectral analysis of the Suzaku data, emission lines in the Fe K alpha region were detected at 6.4 keV, 6.7 keV and 6.97 keV interpreted as FeI, FeXXV and FeXXVI. In addition, emission lines were observed at approximately 1.0 and 2.6 keV, corresponding to NeX and SXVI respectively. Thermal bremsstrahlung or power law models both modified by interstellar and partially covering absorption provide a good fit to the continuum data. This source is intriguing for these reasons: i) No pulse period was observed; ii) 6.7 day orbital period is much less than typical orbital periods seen in Be/X-ray Binaries; iii) The optical companion is a B5V--an unusual spectral class for an HMXB; iv) There are extended high and low X-ray states.

Coley, Joel B.; Corbet, R.; Mukai, K.; Pottschmidt, K.

2013-01-01

210

Acid sphingomyelinase (Asm) deficiency patients in The Netherlands and Belgium: disease spectrum and natural course in attenuated patients.  

PubMed

Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a neurovisceral lysosomal storage disorder caused by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) deficiency, which can be categorized as either Niemann-Pick disease type A [NPD-A], with progressive neurological disease and death in early childhood, or as Niemann-Pick disease type B [NPD-B], with a more variable spectrum of manifestations. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant sphingomyelinase is currently studied as potential treatment for NPD-B patients. The objective of this study is to characterize the clinical features of patients with ASM deficiency in the Netherlands and Belgium with focus on the natural disease course of NPD-B patients. Prospective and retrospective data on ASM deficient patients were collected in The Netherlands and part of Belgium. Patients with NPD-B that could be followed prospectively were evaluated every 6-12 months for pulmonary function tests, 6 minute walk test (6 MWT), imaging (bone marrow infiltration measured by QCSI, organ volumes by MRI and CT scan of the lungs) and biochemical markers. Twenty-five patients with ASM deficiency were identified (13 males, 12 females, median age 13years, range 1-59 years). Nine patients had died at the time of the study, including four NPD-A patients at the age of 1,1, 2, 3 and five NPDB patents at the age of 5, 6, 43, 56 and 60 years. There was a high prevalence of homozygosity and compound heterozygosity for the common p.Arg608del mutation in 43% and 19% of NPD-B patients, respectively. In NPD-B patients, thrombocytopenia was present in most, while anemia and leucopenia were less common (33% and 6 % respectively). HDL cholesterol was reduced in most patients. Pulmonary disease was severe in several patients. Follow-up up to 11 years revealed a gradual decrease in platelet count. Detailed investigations in 6 NPD-B patients with follow-up in 4 patients revealed remarkable stable disease parameters up to 6 years, with some decline in pulmonary function and 6 MWT. Bone marrow fat fractions were decreased, indicating the presence of storage macrophages. Lung involvement was not related to the extent of visceromegaly, cytopenia or bone marrow involvement. In conclusion, in NPD-B patients pulmonary disease is the most debilitating feature. Disease manifestations are mostly stable in attenuated patients. Bone marrow infiltration is a less prominent feature of the disease. PMID:22818240

Hollak, C E M; de Sonnaville, E S V; Cassiman, D; Linthorst, G E; Groener, J E; Morava, E; Wevers, R A; Mannens, M; Aerts, J M F G; Meersseman, W; Akkerman, E; Niezen-Koning, K E; Mulder, M F; Visser, G; Wijburg, F A; Lefeber, D; Poorthuis, B J H M

2012-06-30

211

Swift/BAT and RXTE/ASM Discovery of the Orbital Period of IGR J16418-4532  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) light curve of IGR J16418-4532 (Tomsick et al. 2004 ATEL #224) obtained between 2004 Dec 21 and 2005 Sep 17 shows modulation at a period near 3.75 days. This period is confirmed and refined by observations made with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor (ASM) between 1996 Jan 9 and 2006 March 16. The mean BAT count rate of IGR J16418-4532 in the range 14 - 195 keV is 9.5 (+/- 0.9 statistical) E-4 counts/s/cm^2 which corresponds to approximately 3 mCrab.

Corbet, R.; Barbier, L.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Fenimore, E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Palmer, D.; Parsons, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Sato, G.; Tueller, J.; Remillard, R.

2006-03-01

212

Pattern formation in granular and granular-fluid flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particles and suspensions of particles in fluids are regularly used in many engineering disciplines such as catalysis and reaction engineering, environmental engineering, pharmaceutical engineering, etc. A few issues that are commonly encountered include ensuring homogeneity in pharmaceutical suspensions, predicting particle transport in atmospheric and effluent streams, and manufacturing uniform composite materials. Yet the fundamental study of particle motions in granular

Nhat-Hang P. Duong

2004-01-01

213

Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluids.  

PubMed

A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two-dimensional systems. PMID:22400567

Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

2012-01-11

214

Information sources in engineering  

SciTech Connect

This book was designed to serve as a guide to the wide range of sources of information used by engineers. The first part of this research tool describes the major primary and secondary sources for information (including online systems) that are relevant to all engineering disciplines. The second part provides the same information for each of the 19 specific engineering disciplines, with each chapter being written by an expert in the particular branch of engineering. This new edition of a work previously published under the title Use of Engineering Literature has been completely re-written with a new team of contributors. There is greater emphasis on disciplines basic to all engineering areas, e.g., fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and materials science. Recent developments covered include robotics, CAD/CAM systems, renewable energy sources, and the use of online systems for information retrieval.

Anthony, L.J.

1985-01-01

215

CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

WITTEKIND WD

2007-10-03

216

Impact of the A18.1 ASME Standard on platform lifts and stairway chairlifts on accessibility and usability.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT This article summarizes the effect of the ASME A18.1 Standard concerning accessibility and usability of Platform Lifts and their remaining technological challenges. While elevators are currently the most effective means of vertical transportation related to speed, capacity, rise and usability, their major drawbacks for accessibility are cost and space. Platform lifts and stairway chairlifts remain the "devices of choice" for small elevation changes in existing buildings. ADAAG limits them to very specific circumstances in new construction. The ASME A18.1 Standard addresses the safety requirements of inclined stairway chairlifts (which are not ADA compliant) and inclined and vertical platform lifts (which are ADA Compliant). Chairlifts do not provide access for wheeled mobility devices. Restricting access by means of keys is eliminated, inclined platform lift designs that do not interfere with stairway traffic, promoting new ideas for the design of vertical lifts, increasing the allowable vertical travel of a lift and strengthening lift ramps to improve their safety. Despite design advances inherent in the A18.1, significant platform lift usability issues continue to exist. Increased sizes and weights of powered mobility devices indicate that the permitted lift platform area be modified and that permitted weight capacities be codified as minimums instead of maximums. PMID:20402046

Balmer, David C

2010-01-01

217

Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is one discipline falling under the broad heading of computer-aided engineering (CAE). CAE, together with computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), comprise a mathematical-based approach to engineering product and process design, analysis and fabrication. In this overview of CFD for the design engineer, our purposes are three-fold: (1) to define the scope of CFD and motivate its utility for engineering, (2) to provide a basic technical foundation for CFD, and (3) to convey how CFD is incorporated into engineering product and process design.

Haworth, D.C.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Ranganathan, R.

1998-09-01

218

Actively pressurized engine cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of operating an engine cooling system of the type comprising a heat exchanger, means for circulating a liquid coolant through coolant passages in the engine and through the heat exchanger, and means for adjusting the cooling effect of the heat exchanger on the fluid, the method comprising the steps of: adjusting the heat transfer capacity

Scarselletta

1988-01-01

219

Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved Stirling engine, having an expansion piston and a compression piston sliding into respective cylinders and defining an upper side and a lower side therein, a heater and a cooler on the upper side of the cylinders, and a regenerator in communication between the heater and cooler, comprising: a piston rod integral with each piston and moving coaxially to the cylinder axis; a bottom on the lower side of each cylinder for forming respective lower chambers, the rods being slidingly and sealingly engaged through the bottoms; labyrinth dynamic seals formed on the expansion piston, for allowing a seepage of fluid from the upper to the lower side of the cylinder. By means of absorption by the fluid in the lower side of the cylinder, of the heat transferred by conduction from the walls of the cylinder and the expansion piston, a lower Stirling cycle is established in the lower chambers, which produces a double-action effect with heat recovery and work production.

Bartolini, C.M.; Naso, V.; Suraci, F.

1988-08-02

220

TU Delft: Hydraulic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the Dutch reputation for water management, it's no surprise that one of their leading technical institutes, The Technische Universiteit Delft, offers a program in Hydraulic Engineering. The website, in both Dutch and English, describes their program as an attempt "to bridge the gap between basic sciences (fluid mechanics and soil mechanics in particular) and practical engineering applications in the design, construction, maintenance, management and eventually the demolition of hydraulic structures." The Education section of the website posts MSc theses completed by their students. The research section describes current and recently completed research projects and includes a listing of publications, some of which are available to download. The website also has a link to a Hydraulic Engineering portal, which offers various publication databases (some in Dutch only), and the Civil Engineering Knowledge Centre, which provides library access and discussion forums for students and staff of Civil Engineering.

221

Computational experiments; Proceedings of the ASME/JSME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 23-27, 1989  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papers applying FEM to engineering problems are presented, covering topics such as a numerical approach to software development for thermoforming simulations, flow three-dimensional analysis of pressure responses in an enclosed launching system, comparing flow three-dimensional calculations with very large amplitude slosh data, and the computational analysis of stress concentrations in pressure vessel cascades. Other topics include FEM studies of flow past an array of plates, stochastic finite elements for automotive impact, numerical simulation in the deployment of space structures, axial buckling of a thin cylindrical shell, applying FEM to the prediction of vibrations of liquid propelled launch vehicles, analysis of a large bore piping system supported with viscodampers, stochastic simulation of lubricant depletion on a magnetic storage disk, and two-dimensional crak inclusion interaction effects. Additional topics include analyzing damage mechanisms using the energy release rate, the suspension of solid particles in an aerospace plane's slush hydrogen tanks, modal methods for the analysis of vibrations of structures coupled with fluids, the elastic-plastic behavior of fibrous metal matrix composites, and stochastic finite element analysis of nonlinear media.

Liu, W. K.; Smolinski, P.; Ohayon, R.; Navickas, J.; Gvildys, J.

1989-06-01

222

Adaptive and Active Materials: Selected Papers from the ASME 2008 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 08) (Maryland, USA, 28–30 October 2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of the field of Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures, and Materials Systems led the Aerospace Division ASMS TC to launch the new annual SMASIS conference in 2008. The conference focuses on the multi-disciplinary challenges of developing new multifunctional materials and implementing them in advanced systems. The research spans length scales from nano-structured materials to civil, air, and space

Christopher Lynch

2009-01-01

223

Evaluation of an Alternative Grade Of CXM-7 for Use in PBXN-109, The Explosive Fill for the Penguin ASM Warhead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of a new grade of CXM-7, the explosive component of PBXN-109, was conducted at DSTO as R & D support to ADI Ltd, the sub-contractor for the manufacture of the Penguin ASM warhead. Tests were performed to characterise the material's physico-c...

R. M. Dexter B. L. Hamshere I. J. Lochert

2002-01-01

224

Regulatory Safety Issues in the Structural Design Criteria of ASME Section III Subsection NH and for Very High Temperatures for VHTR & GEN IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this task is to identify issues relevant to ASME Section III, Subsection NH [1], and related Code Cases that must be resolved for licensing purposes for VHTGRs (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concepts such as those of PBMR, Areva, and GA); and to identify the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added

William J. ODonnell; Donald S. Griffin

2007-01-01

225

14 CFR 25.1183 - Flammable fluid-carrying components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid-carrying components. 25.1183 Section...Fire Protection § 25.1183 Flammable fluid-carrying components. (a) Except...and other component carrying flammable fluid in any area subject to engine fire...

2013-01-01

226

Magnetic fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of studies done on ferrofluids is presented, and recently discovered technological uses for such a fluid are examined. By interacting magnetization and pressure, a ferrofluid plug, held in place by a focused magnetic field imposed from the outside, serves as an airtight seal in rotating machinery. A 160 stage rotary seal has withstood a pressure differential of 66 atmospheres. The fluid has also proved useful in the design of loudspeakers, as it does not drip out of the gap in the cylindrical permanent magnet which allows the voice coil to move, thus serving as a coolant for the system. Finally, the fluid can be used to separate materials according to density, as the magnetic-levitation forces that can be established in the fluid are strong enough to float materials of any density. Other applications are being explored, such as an induced convection that can be much more vigorous than simple gravity convection when a gradient magnetic field is applied to a heated ferrofluid.

Rosensweig, R. E.

1982-10-01

227

Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of the RELAP5\\/MOD3.2 Two-Fluid Thermal-Hydraulic Code System - II: Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents results that illustrate the validation of the Adjoint Sensitivity Model (ASM-REL\\/TF) corresponding to the two-fluid model with noncondensable(s) used in RELAP5\\/MOD3.2. This validation has been carried out by using sample problems involving (a) a liquid phase only, (b) a gas phase only, and (c) a two-phase mixture (of water and steam). Thus, the 'Two-Loops with Pumps' sample

M. Ionescu-Bujor; D. G Cacuci

2000-01-01

228

Systolic and diastolic assessment by 3D-ASM segmentation of gated-SPECT Studies: a comparison with MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gated single photon emission tomography (gSPECT) is a well-established technique used routinely in clinical practice. It can be employed to evaluate global left ventricular (LV) function of a patient. The purpose of this study is to assess LV systolic and diastolic function from gSPECT datasets in comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) measurements. This is achieved by applying our recently implemented 3D active shape model (3D-ASM) segmentation approach for gSPECT studies. This methodology allows for generation of 3D LV meshes for all cardiac phases, providing volume time curves and filling rate curves. Both systolic and diastolic functional parameters can be derived from these curves for an assessment of patient condition even at early stages of LV dysfunction. Agreement of functional parameters, with respect to CMR measurements, were analyzed by means of Bland-Altman plots. The analysis included subjects presenting either LV hypertrophy, dilation or myocardial infarction.

Tobon-Gomez, C.; Bijnens, B. H.; Huguet, M.; Sukno, F.; Moragas, G.; Frangi, A. F.

2009-02-01

229

Survey for N-Nitroso Compounds at Chrysler Mound Road Engine Plant, Detroit, Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was undertaken to determine the extent of N-nitroso contamination in a Chrysler Engine Plant where metalworking cutting fluids were utilized. Three stock metalworking fluids, eight diluted metalworking fluids and six air samples were collected on ...

S. Fan J. Fajen

1978-01-01

230

Engineering TV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introducing Engineering TV, an innovative online video program by engineers for engineers. Twice a week, each 5-8 minute episode shows cutting-edge technology in action and looks behind the scenes as today's engineers shape tomorrow's breakthroughs.

2010-04-14

231

eFluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started over ten years ago, eFluids is a "specialty web portal designed to serve as a one-stop web information resource for anyone working the areas of flow engineering, fluid mechanics research, education, and directly related topics." The primary editors behind the site include professors from Arizona State University, Tufts University, and the University of California, Santa Barbara. On the homepage, visitors can check out the "Who's Who in Fluid Mechanics" to get up to date on the field's key participants. The "Publications" area is a nice find, as it contains listings of the most important journals in the field. Down near the bottom of the homepage, visitors shouldn't miss the gallery of flow videos and images. Here they will find several dozen videos that demonstrate the principles behind a vortex and the world of patterned coating. Also, educators will be delighted to see their "Gallery of Experiments", which features 23 experiments that address viscous flows and static equilibrium. If that isn't enough, the site is rounded out by a section on bicycle aerodynamics.

232

Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat  

SciTech Connect

Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; /Indore, Ctr. for Advanced Tech.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

233

Value Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defines value engineering, shows why it is necessary, and emphasizes the engineer's responsibility for using engineering disciplines in the design of a product. Recognizing that value engineering is a duty of the professional engineer, the paper stresses application of value engineering to attain Armed Services goals, and reduce costs while speeding up delivery of the weapon system. Many

A. Zappacosta

1962-01-01

234

A Four-Cylinder Stirling Engine Controls Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A four working space, double acting piston, Stirling engine simulation was developed for controls studies. Two simulations, one for detailed fluid behavior, and a second model with simple fluid behavior but containing the four working space aspects and en...

C. F. Lorenzo C. J. Daniele

1980-01-01

235

Update of Reservoir Engineering Activities at Cerro Prieto.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Engineering activities are reviewed briefly in the following areas: new wells, well completion and development, drilling problems, problems with existing wells, fluid production, two-phase fluid transmission line, reinjection, well tests, and future drill...

H. Alonso E B. Dominguez A M. J. Lippmann Molinar C R. E. Schroeder

1979-01-01

236

Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flow in Internal Combustion Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multidimensional numerical simulations of the reactive fluid flow in an internal combustion engine cylinder are useful in helping engine designers obtain insight into the physical mechanisms governing efficiency and pollutant formation. A comprehensive nu...

L. D. Cloutman J. K. Dukowicz J. D. Ramshaw

1980-01-01

237

GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012  

SciTech Connect

Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL

2012-01-01

238

Acoustical heat pumping engine  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1983-08-16

239

Rotary piston type fluid machine  

SciTech Connect

A rotary piston type fluid machine comprises one or more rotary piston type fluid machine units, each comprising a doughnut type ring-shaped cylinder with an annular slit being provided in the wall at the inward periphery lying in a plane containing the annular central line of the cylinder, a rotor rotatively supported by the cylinder with the peripheral portion being shiftably received within the slit, one or more rotary pistons secured to the peripheral surface of the rotor and adapted to be shifted within the cylinder, and one or more gate valves mounted to the cylinder so as to cross the cylinder and adapted to periodically protrude into the cylinder in synchronization with the movement of the rotary pistons. The rotary piston type fluid machine unit can be utilized as a compressor, an internal combustion engine, a pump, etc. by using it singly, or as a number of the units in combination.

Kagamiyama, R.

1984-05-29

240

Verification strategies for fluid-based plasma simulation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Verification is an essential aspect of computational code development for models based on partial differential equations. However, verification of plasma models is often conducted internally by authors of these programs and not openly discussed. Several professional research bodies including the IEEE, AIAA, ASME and others have formulated standards for verification and validation (V&V) of computational software. This work focuses on verification, defined succinctly as determining whether the mathematical model is solved correctly. As plasma fluid models share several aspects with the Navier-Stokes equations used in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), the CFD verification process is used as a guide. Steps in the verification process: consistency checks, examination of iterative, spatial and temporal convergence, and comparison with exact solutions, are described with examples from plasma modeling. The Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS), which has been used to verify complex systems of PDEs in solid and fluid mechanics, is introduced. An example of the application of MMS to a self-consistent plasma fluid model using the local mean energy approximation is presented. The strengths and weaknesses of the techniques presented in this work are discussed.

Mahadevan, Shankar

2012-10-01

241

Engineering Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Technology and Innovation in Manufacturing Education (TIME Center), examines the various careers available to engineers. Engineers work in many fields including design and development, testing, production, and maintenance. This page contains links to many engineering related websites such as A SightseerâÂÂs Guide to Engineering, Cyberchase Online, NASAâÂÂs Education Website, and Discover Engineering.

2011-10-11

242

Selective Guide to Literature on Chemical Engineering. Engineering Literature Guides, Number 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The material in this guide covers areas important to the chemical industries. Topics such as heat and mass transfer, plastics, polymers, fluid flow, and process engineering are included. This document is a survey of information sources in chemical engineering and is intended to identify those core resources which can help engineers and librarians…

Rousseau, Rosemary, Comp.

243

Computational fluid dynamics: Research activities and services at NRC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is presented of research activities and services available to outside clients in the field of computational fluid dynamics within the Transportation Technology Program at Canada's National Research Council. Research objectives, current activities, numerical tools and hardware available, and contacts for further inquiries are given for computational fluid dynamics research in the following laboratories or program divisions at the Council: Coastal Zone Engineering Program Hydraulics Laboratory; Building Performance Laboratory; Numerical Wave Tank Program; Ship Dynamics Simulation Program; Combustion and Fluids Engineering Program; Arctic Vessel Research Laboratory; Institute for Aerospace Research High Speed and Applied Aerodynamics Laboratories; Cold Regions Engineering Program; and Industrial Materials Institute Computer Integrated Materials Processing activities.

1992-09-01

244

Comparative studies on the effects of a yucca extract and acibenzolar- S -methyl (ASM) on inhibition of Venturia inaequalis in apple leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of an extract of Yucca schidigera on the control and infection process of the apple scab pathogen, Venturia inaequalis, was examined and compared with the chemical resistance inducer, acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM). In seedling assays, both materials significantly reduced apple scab symptoms and pathogen sporulation on leaves\\u000a and both showed similar control efficacies as the reference treatment, sulphur. Whereas yucca

M. Bengtsson; H. J. Lyngs Jørgensen; A. Pham; M. Lübeck; J. Hockenhull

2009-01-01

245

EDITORIAL: Adaptive and Active Materials: Selected Papers from the ASME 2008 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 08) (Maryland, USA, 28-30 October 2008) Adaptive and Active Materials: Selected Papers from the ASME 2008 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 08) (Maryland, USA, 28-30 October 2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of the field of Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures, and Materials Systems led the Aerospace Division ASMS TC to launch the new annual SMASIS conference in 2008. The conference focuses on the multi-disciplinary challenges of developing new multifunctional materials and implementing them in advanced systems. The research spans length scales from nano-structured materials to civil, air, and space

Christopher Lynch

2009-01-01

246

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOEpatents

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01

247

DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS  

SciTech Connect

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 20.7 MPa (3,000 ps)i to 103.4 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 inches). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, included Acoustic Emission testing at time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

Rawls, G.; Newhouse, N.; Rana, M.; Shelley, B.; Gorman, M.

2010-04-13

248

Modeling nitrous oxide production during biological nitrogen removal via nitrification and denitrification: extensions to the general ASM models.  

PubMed

Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N(2)O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N(2)O dynamics during both nitrification and denitrification in biological N removal. Six additional processes and three additional reactants, all involved in known biochemical reactions, have been added. The validity and applicability of the model is demonstrated by comparing simulations with experimental data on N(2)O production from four different mixed culture nitrification and denitrification reactor study reports. Modeling results confirm that hydroxylamine oxidation by ammonium oxidizers (AOB) occurs 10 times slower when NO(2)(-) participates as final electron acceptor compared to the oxic pathway. Among the four denitrification steps, the last one (N(2)O reduction to N(2)) seems to be inhibited first when O(2) is present. Overall, N(2)O production can account for 0.1-25% of the consumed N in different nitrification and denitrification systems, which can be well simulated by the proposed model. In conclusion, we provide a modeling structure, which adequately captures N(2)O dynamics in autotrophic nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification driven biological N removal processes and which can form the basis for ongoing refinements. PMID:21780759

Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Smets, Barth F

2011-08-29

249

Elastic-plastic analysis of the PVRC burst disk tests with comparison to the ASME code -- Primary stress limits  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a comparison between finite element analysis results and test data from the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) burst disk program. Testing sponsored by the PVRC over 20 years ago was done by pressurizing circular flat disks made from three different materials until failure by bursting. The purpose of this re-analysis is to investigate the use of finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the primary stress limits of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1998) and to qualify the use of elastic-plastic (EP-FEA) for limit load calculations. The three materials tested represent the range of strength and ductility found in modern pressure vessel construction and include a low strength high ductility material, a medium strength medium ductility material, and a high strength low ductility low alloy material. Results of elastic and EP-FEA are compared to test data. Stresses from the elastic analyses are linearized for comparison of Code primary stress limits to test results. Elastic-plastic analyses are done using both best-estimate and elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) stress-strain curves. Both large strain-large displacement (LSLD) and small strain-small displacement (SSSD) assumptions are used with the EP-FEA. Analysis results are compared to test results to evaluate the various analysis methods, models, and assumptions as applied to the bursting of thin disks.

Jones, D.P.; Holliday, J.E.

1999-02-01

250

A Retrospective Look at 20 Years of ASM Education Programs (1990-2010) and a Prospective Look at the Next 20 Years (2011-2030)  

PubMed Central

Professional societies provide visibility and legitimacy to the work of their post secondary educator members, advocate best practices in courses and sponsored student research, and establish deep networks and communities that catalyze members to collectively engage in undergraduate teaching and learning scholarship. Within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), the Education Board, established in the mid-1970s, assumes this role. I have been fortunate enough to watch several pivotal programs support our growth and change the status quo by providing opportunities for biology educators to flourish. In this retrospective review, the background and details I offer about each initiative help explain ASM Education offerings, how our growth has been supported and how the status quo has changed. In this prospective look, I offer my vision of the future in post secondary education where classroom learning is student-centered and focused on global problems affecting our health and environment. For the profession to proliferate, the ASM must provide members as many opportunities in learning biology as they do with advancing biology to new frontiers.

Chang, Amy

2011-01-01

251

Recent developments in computational fluid dynamics; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, Nov. 27-Dec. 2, 1988  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical techniques for the solution of flow problems are examined in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include k-epsilon turbulence models, Lagrangian-Euler methods for materials with memory and friction, robust vortex methods for three-dimensional incompressible flows, an FEM for viscous compressible flows, and solving the Navier-Stokes equations with consistent mass and a pressure Poisson equation. Consideration is given to a Galerkin/least-squares method for advective-diffusive equations; direct numerical simulation of a three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer; bipolar coordinates for computation of transition-duct flows; and finite elements for compressible flow, the shallow-water equations, and transport.

Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Hughes, Thomas J. R.

252

Recent developments in computational fluid dynamics; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, Nov. 27Dec. 2, 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical techniques for the solution of flow problems are examined in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include k-epsilon turbulence models, Lagrangian-Euler methods for materials with memory and friction, robust vortex methods for three-dimensional incompressible flows, an FEM for viscous compressible flows, and solving the Navier-Stokes equations with consistent mass and a pressure Poisson equation. Consideration is given to a Galerkin\\/least-squares

Tayfun E. Tezduyar; Thomas J. R. Hughes

1988-01-01

253

Multi-cylinder hot gas engine  

DOEpatents

A multi-cylinder hot gas engine having an equal angle, V-shaped engine block in which two banks of parallel, equal length, equally sized cylinders are formed together with annular regenerator/cooler units surrounding each cylinder, and wherein the pistons are connected to a single crankshaft. The hot gas engine further includes an annular heater head disposed around a central circular combustor volume having a new balanced-flow hot-working-fluid manifold assembly that provides optimum balanced flow of the working fluid through the heater head working fluid passageways which are connected between each of the cylinders and their respective associated annular regenerator units. This balanced flow provides even heater head temperatures and, therefore, maximum average working fluid temperature for best operating efficiency with the use of a single crankshaft V-shaped engine block.

Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

1985-01-01

254

Engineering sustainable engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability is one of the global grand challenges of the 21st century. In order for future generations to enjoy a satisfactory quality of life, the current generation must find ways to meet humanity's needs for energy, shelter, food and water in ways that are environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable. Engineers must be trained to design systems and technologies that have

M. L. Sattler; K. Alavi; V. C. P. Chen; S. P. Mattingly; K. J. Rogers; Y. P. Weatherton; B. Afotey; M. Rani

2010-01-01

255

Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

2004-05-03

256

Drilling fluid additives  

SciTech Connect

The addition of magnesium oxide to a drilling fluid additive comprising bentonite and ferrochrome lignosulfonate, the drilling fluid additive having a pH of about 9.5 to 12, increases the usefulness of such a drilling fluid additive and increases considerably the yield point of the drilling fluid containing this drilling fluid additive.

Forster, J.W.; Roper, L.E.

1980-06-24

257

Fluid sampling tool  

SciTech Connect

A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Las Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2000-01-01

258

Using supercritical heat recovery process in Stirling engines for high thermal efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stirling engine, using a composite working fluid, such as two-component fluid: gaseous carrier and phase-change component and single multi-phase fluid as the working fluid is studied to get high thermal efficiency. In Stirling engine with a composite fluid, a thermodynamic supercritical heat recovery and heating process is proposed and demonstrated to improve the heat transfer of the heat regenerator and

Zhaolin Gu; Haruki Sato; Xiao Feng

2001-01-01

259

Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in the development of energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required in many industrial applications. In this paper we propose that an innovative new class of heat transfer fluids can be engineered by suspending metallic nanoparticles in conventional heat transfer fluids. The resulting {open_quotes}nanofluids{close_quotes} are expected to exhibit high thermal conductivities compared to those of currently used heat transfer fluids, and they represent the best hope for enhancement of heat transfer. The results of a theoretical study of the thermal conductivity of nanofluids with copper nanophase materials are presented, the potential benefits of the fluids are estimated, and it is shown that one of the benefits of nanofluids will be dramatic reductions in heat exchanger pumping power.

Choi, S.U.S.; Eastman, J.A.

1995-10-01

260

Shockwave Engine: Wave Disk Engine  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: MSU is developing a new engine for use in hybrid automobiles that could significantly reduce fuel waste and improve engine efficiency. In a traditional internal combustion engine, air and fuel are ignited, creating high-temperature and high-pressure gases which expand rapidly. This expansion of gases forces the engine’s pistons to pump and powers the car. MSU’s engine has no pistons. It uses the combustion of air and fuel to build up pressure within the engine, generating a shockwave that blasts hot gas exhaust into the blades of the engine’s rotors causing them to turn, which generates electricity. MSU’s redesigned engine would be the size of a cooking pot and contain fewer moving parts—reducing the weight of the engine by 30%. It would also enable a vehicle that could use 60% of its fuel for propulsion.

None

2010-01-14

261

Integrated 3-Parameter Diagram for Determining Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of thermodynamic properties of fluids has motivated recent studies in developing methods of calculating thermodynamic properties. Among the various methods, the use of computational diagrams is a commonly used engineering method. Convention...

G. Zhao X. Deng M. Zhu

1987-01-01

262

Computational Fluid Dynamics Requirements at the Naval Postgraduate School.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The needs for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in connection with student and faculty activities in the engineering departments at NPS are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on internal, propulsion related flows. Currently available CFD codes are also reviewe...

C. Hirsch

1986-01-01

263

Engineering developments for sodium heat engine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report preliminary results of testing and analysis of the stresses induced in tubular beta-double prime-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) membranes as used in sodium heat engine (SHE) cells due to thermal gradients, neutral sodium absorption in the surfaces and bulk material and residual stresses remaining from tube manufacture. The authors report results from experiments conducted on a recirculating single tube vapor-fed cell module operated continuously under load for 850. The electromagnetic pump system used to recirculate the sodium working fluid for this test cell was redesigned and its performance is also discussed.

Hunt, T. K.; Pantolin, J.; Sievers, R. K.; Kummer, J. T.; Novak, Robert F.

264

Stirling engines  

SciTech Connect

The Stirling engine was invented by a Scottish clergyman in 1816, but fell into disuse with the coming of the diesel engine. Advances in materials science and the energy crisis have made a hot air engine economically attractive. Explanations are full and understandable. Includes coverage of the underlying thermodynamics and an interesting historical section. Topics include: Introduction to Stirling engine technology, Theoretical concepts--practical realities, Analysis, simulation and design, Practical aspects, Some alternative energy sources, Present research and development, Stirling engine literature.

Reader, G.T.; Hooper

1983-01-01

265

Fuel regenerated non-polluting internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine in which heat is derived from the engine cooling system and\\/or the exhaust to heat a working fluid in a closed circulatory system. This heat transforms the working fluid into a gas which is delivered to a turbine which drives a generator. The generator delivers dc current to an electrolysis cell in which water is decomposed.

1977-01-01

266

Fuel regenerated non-polluting internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of an internal combustion engine in which heat is derived from the engine cooling system and\\/or the exhaust to heat a working fluid in a closed circulatory system. This heat transforms the working fluid into a gas which is delivered to a turbine which drives a generator. The generator delivers dc current to an electrolysis cell

1977-01-01

267

Fuel regenerating non-polluting internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of an internal combustion engine in which heat is derived from the engine cooling system and\\/or the exhaust to heat a working fluid in a closed circulatory system. This heat transforms the working fluid into a gas which is delivered to a turbine which drives a generator. The generator delivers dc current to an electrolysis cell

1977-01-01

268

Utilization of coal powering a gas turbine engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus 10 for consuming coal in powering a gas turbine engine 12 is disclosed. The apparatus includes an auxiliary combustor 16 and a partial gasifier 18. The gasifier 18 produces combustible char and combustible fluids. The combustible fluids are burned in the gas turbine engine. The combustible char is burned in the auxiliary combustor to form high temperature gases.

1983-01-01

269

Surgical Device Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit focuses on teaching students about the many aspects of biomedical engineering (BME). Students come to see that BME is a broad field that relies on concepts from many engineering disciplines. They also begin to understand some of the special considerations that must be made when dealing with the human body. Activities and class discussions encourage students to think as engineers to come up with their own solutions to some of medical challenges that have been solved throughout the history of BME. Class time iincludes brainstorming and presenting ideas to the class for discussion. Specific activities include examination of the material properties and functions of surgical instruments and prosthetics, a simulation of the training experience of a surgical resident, and an investigation of the properties of fluid flow in vascular tissue.

Techtronics Program

270

Solar-thermal engine testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar-thermal engine serves as a high-temperature solar-radiation absorber, heat exchanger, and rocket nozzle, collecting concentrated solar radiation into an absorber cavity and transferring this energy to a propellant as heat. Propellant gas can be heated to temperatures approaching 4,500 °F and expanded in a rocket nozzle, creating low thrust with a high specific impulse (Isp). The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) solar-thermal engine is made of 100 percent chemically vapor deposited (CVD) rhenium. The engine ``module'' consists of an engine assembly, propellant feedline, engine support structure, thermal insulation, and instrumentation. Engine thermal performance tests consist of a series of high-temperature thermal cycles intended to characterize the propulsive performance of the engines and the thermal effectiveness of the engine support structure and insulation system. A silicone-carbide electrical resistance heater, placed inside the inner shell, substitutes for solar radiation and heats the engine. Although the preferred propellant is hydrogen, the propellant used in these tests is gaseous nitrogen. Because rhenium oxidizes at elevated temperatures, the tests are performed in a vacuum chamber. Test data will include transient and steady state temperatures on selected engine surfaces, propellant pressures and flow rates, and engine thrust levels. The engine propellant-feed system is designed to supply GN2 to the engine at a constant inlet pressure of 60 psia, producing a near-constant thrust of 1.0 lb. Gaseous hydrogen will be used in subsequent tests. The propellant flow rate decreases with increasing propellant temperature, while maintaining constant thrust, increasing engine Isp. In conjunction with analytical models of the heat exchanger, the temperature data will provide insight into the effectiveness of the insulation system, the structural support system, and the overall engine performance. These tests also provide experience on operational aspects of the engine and associated subsystems, and will include independent variation of both steady state heat-exchanger temperature prior to thrust operation and nitrogen inlet pressure (flow rate) during thrust operation. Although the Shooting Star engines were designed as thermal-storage engines to accommodate mission parameters, they are fully capable of operating as scalable, direct-gain engines. Tests are conducted in both operational modes. Engine thrust and propellant flow rate will be measured and thereby Isp. The objective of these tests is to investigate the effectiveness of the solar engine as a heat exchanger and a rocket. Of particular interest is the effectiveness of the support structure as a thermal insulator, the integrity of both the insulation system and the insulation containment system, the overall temperature distribution throughout the engine module, and the thermal power required to sustain steady state fluid temperatures at various flow rates. .

Tucker, Stephen; Salvail, Pat

2002-01-01

271

Connecting Local Industry and the Community to Engineering Technology Through Student Vehicle Projects at MTSU  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experimental Vehicles Program (EVP) at MTSU was founded during the summer of 2004 by the local student chapters of ASME and SAE. Both organizations were conducting their own competition vehicle programs, as they had been for several years. These programs include the Formula SAE, Mini Baja (SAE), SolerBike Rayce USA, Solar and Electric Boat (ASME), and The Great Moonbuggy Race (ASME). The various vehicle programs give students a unique real world application for the skills they learn in the class room. Although the organizations collaborated on each project, the various projects lacked unity of purpose and efficient sharing of resources. Realizing this disparity, the organizations jointly decided to develop a blanket program to facilitate the procurement and distribution of financial, intellectual, and human resources. One of the original goals of EVP was to create a brochure highlighting the various vehicle projects in order to attract the attention of local industry for sponsorship purposes, and to hold fundraiser and awareness events to involve the student body in the projects. EVP is currently enjoying considerable success raising funds and drawing attention to what would otherwise be obscure programs. Currently, several companies are interested in sponsoring EVP teams. This paper is intended to provide an example of the effectiveness of an organization like EVP in aiding competition vehicle teams, and how EVP serves to connect local industry and community to engineering education and improve retention.

Foroudastan, Saeed

2009-07-16

272

Fluid mechanics of pulse detonation thrusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of constant volume combustion cycle as compared to constant pressure combustion in terms of thermodynamic efficiency have focused the researches of advanced propulsion on detonation engines. The paper gives coverage of efforts undertaken during past decades in adjusting detonations for propulsion applications, and highlights new challenges in studying fluid flow dynamics relevant to onset of detonation.

Phylippov, Yu. G.; Dushin, V. R.; Nikitin, V. F.; Nerchenko, V. A.; Korolkova, N. V.; Guendugov, V. M.

2012-07-01

273

Permeation of compacted clay with organic fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penetration of organic liquids through the soil causes contamination and considerable changes in the geotechnical properties of soils. In general, these changes are attributed to variations in the dielectric constant and chemistry of the pore fluids, which result in several changes in soil behaviour. For this reason, it is necessary to investigate the geotechnical properties of contaminated soils for engineering

Nasim Mosavat; Zalihe Nalbantoglu

2011-01-01

274

Supercritical fluids technology for clean biofuel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels that are predominantly produced from biomass for transport sector applications. As biofuels are renewable, sustainable, carbon neutral and environmentally benign, they have been proposed as promising alternative fuels for gasoline and diesel engines. This paper reviews state-of-the-art application of the supercritical fluid (SCF) technique in biofuels production that includes biodiesel from vegetable oils via

Dongsheng Wen; H. Jiang; Kai Zhang

2009-01-01

275

Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control  

DOEpatents

A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

Marriott, Craig D

2013-06-04

276

Fluid Excitation Forces Acting on a Tube Array.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fluid forces are important in the assessment of vibration of the Space Shuttle Main Engine liquid oxygen posts. This report summarizes the available data on fluid excitation forces acting on tube arrays in turbulent crossflow, and test results for an arra...

S. S. Chen J. A. Jendrzejczyk

1985-01-01

277

Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms

W. M. Toscano; A. C. Harvey; K. Lee

1983-01-01

278

Some new frontiers in chemical engineering thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of chemical engineering thermodynamics shows that its main concern has been development and extension of concepts and ideas that physicists and physical chemists have proposed in only general terms. For example, van der Waals proposed his theory of fluids in 1873 but its use for chemical engineering came only later, starting in the nineteen twenties, when MIT's Warren

J. M. Prausnitz

1995-01-01

279

A computational study of free-piston diesel engine combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the in-cylinder gas motion, combustion process and nitrogen oxide formation in a free-piston diesel engine and compares the results to those of a conventional engine, using a computational fluid dynamics engine model. Enhanced radial gas flow (squish and reverse squish) around top dead centre is found for the free-piston engine compared to a conventional engine, however it

R. Mikalsen; A. P. Roskilly

2009-01-01

280

Stirling engine with a liquid working substance  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical and experimental study of a Stirling engine using a liquid (propylene) as its working substance is presented. This is the first experimental work on liquid Stirling engines (or Malone engines) since the 1920s. Liquid-Stirling technology appears advantageous to conventional freon-based Rankine-cycle technology in many applications. The theory developed here is simple, intuitive, and modular because of the nature of liquid working fluids and because the temperature spanned by liquid Stirling engines is not large. The experimental engine is extremely versatile, and can operate as either a heat pump or prime mover. Extensive measurements with it are in substantial agreement with the simple theory.

Swift, G.W.

1989-06-01

281

Dynamically balanced, hydraulically driven compressor\\/pump apparatus for resonant free piston Stirling engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compressor, pump, or alternator apparatus is designed for use with a resonant free piston Stirling engine so as to isolate apparatus fluid from the periodically pressurized working fluid of the Stirling engine. The apparatus housing has a first side closed by a power coupling flexible diaphragm (the engine working member) and a second side closed by a flexible diaphragm

John A

1984-01-01

282

Fluid flow control device  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fluid flow control device operable in a gas purge mode, liquid flow mode or backflow restriction mode for use with a fluid circulating system including a pump to selectively control the direction of fluid flow through the fluid circulating system. The fluid flow control device comprises: a valve body including a lower fluid chamber and an upper float chamber formed therein and a float movable disposed within the upper float chamber to control the direction of fluid flow through the fluid flow control device. The valve body includes a gas outlet, a fluid outlet, a liquid outlet and a fluid inlet operatively coupled to the outlet of the pump such that fluid entering the upper float chamber when the pump is operating, controls the position of the float therein to cause gas to flow through the gas outlet when in the gas purge mode and liquid to flow through the fluid outlet when in the liquid flow mode and when the pump is not operating, prevent backflow of gas or liquid through the fluid outlet when in the backflow restriction mode and a gas outlet seat and a fluid backflow seat formed adjacent the gas outlet and the fluid outlet respectively to selectively receive the float to prevent flow respectively therethrough when the fluid flow control device is in the liquid flow mode and the backflow restriction mode respectively whereby gas is purged from the pump.

Bailey, D.F.; Morrison, W.F. Jr.

1991-01-01

283

Fluid Time Gate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pure fluid time gate is capable of gating fluid input signals without the use of moving mechanical parts. The output passage of a pure fluid oscillator of the sonic or relaxation type is coupled to the power nozzle of an AND or OR-NOR pure fluid logic...

R. W. Warren

1965-01-01

284

Developments on ASME Code Cases to Risk-Informed Repair/Replacement Activities in Support of Risk-Informed Regulation Initiatives  

SciTech Connect

ASME Code Case N-658, 'Risk-Informed Safety Classification for Use in Risk-Informed Repair/Replacement Activities' and Code Case N-660, 'Alternative Repair/Replacement Requirements For Items Classified In Accordance With Risk-Informed Processes' are being completed to expand the breadth of risk-informed requirements for pressure-retaining items. This initiative, which is built from prior ASME Section XI risk-informed inservice inspection developments over the past decade, has been undertaken in conjunction with U.S. risk-informed regulation efforts. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is working with the industry on risk informing Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 50 (10CFR50). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's basic proposal is to allow modification of some of the special treatment requirements of 10CFR50. Their effort is proceeding via an Advanced Notice of Public Rulemaking, March 3, 2000, and an announcement of Availability of Draft Rule Wording, November 29, 2001, to add 10 CFR 50.69, 'Risk-Informed Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components'. A parallel task by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) to develop a guideline on how to implement the results of the rulemaking is also well underway via NEI 00-04 (Draft Revision B), 'Option 2 Implementation Guideline', May 2001. This paper summarizes the content and status of approval of the proposed ASME Code Cases, including how they relate to the above NRC and NEI efforts. Some initial results from trial application of the Code Cases will also be cited. (authors)

Balkey, Kenneth R. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC (United States); Holston, William C. [Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Inc., Lusby, Md. (United States)

2002-07-01

285

Cellular engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular engineering applies the principles and methods of engineering to the problems of cell and molecular biology of both\\u000a a basic and applied nature. As biomedical engineering has shifted from the organ and tissue level to the cellular and sub-cellular\\u000a level, cellular engineering has emerged as a new area. A cornerstone of much of this activity is cell culture technology,

Robert M. Nerem

1991-01-01

286

Occupational exposure to metalworking fluid mist and sump fluid contaminants.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to assess fluid management and control, including bacterial and fines contamination in the machine sumps. In general, occupational exposure to mineral oil MWF mist was controlled to <3 mg/m(3) (8 h time-weighted average) and to <1 mg/m(3) for water-mix MWF mist (in terms of the concentrate). These exposure values do not necessarily represent best practice, but are believed to be achievable and representative of industry as a whole. Gravimetric analysis of the total inhalable particulate was found to be a good predictor of mineral oil MWF mist but not for water-mix MWF mist. Grinding and drilling operations produced higher exposures than turning and milling for water-mix fluids. There were insufficient data to compare machining operations for mineral oil MWFs. On the whole, fluid management was found to be poor, with most sites failing to meet industry good practice or Health & Safety Executive (HSE) standards. Some of the operating procedures utilized were deficient or unsatisfactory. Poor standards of fluid management were found at all sizes of company. High levels of bacteria, endotoxin and fines were found in sumps, and control of other factors, such as water-mix fluid concentration, was often poor. Mineral oils had higher levels of fines than water-mix fluids (medians of 395 and 18 mg/l, respectively), and grinding produced high levels of fines in both types of MWF. Many water-mix sumps contained bacterial levels of >1 x 10(6) CFU/ml, and endotoxin levels of >100 000 EU/ml were not uncommon. The median values were 109 000 CFU/ml and 8039 EU/ml, respectively. Mists could potentially contain extensive contamination from bacteria and endotoxin. Analysis of the data suggests that sumps operating under typical conditions for machining (a temperature of 20 degrees C, a pH of 9 and a fluid strength below 10%), also appear to provide optimum conditions for the proliferation of bacteria. Low levels of benzo[a]pyrene (median 0.03 micro g/g) were found in the mineral oils, and low levels of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (median 0.4 micro g/ml) were found in the water-mix MWFs. The results of this work will contribute to guidance from the HSE, setting out accepted industry good practice, including guide values for MWF mist and sump fluid contaminants, with significant emphasis on sump fluid management (maintenance and monitoring), as well as control issues. PMID:12505903

Simpson, A T; Stear, M; Groves, J A; Piney, M; Bradley, S D; Stagg, S; Crook, B

2003-01-01

287

Statistical Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A good resource for problems in statistics in engineering. Contains some applets, and good textual examples related to engineering. Some topics include Monte Carlo method, Central Limit Theorem, Risk, Logistic Regression, Generalized Linear Models, and Confidence. Overall, this is a well presented and good site for anyone interested in engineering or mathematics.

Annis, Charles

2008-12-30

288

Runge-Kutta Discontinuous-Galerkin Level-Set Method for Unsteady Compressible Two-Fluid Flow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A typically interesting type of flow problem is that of flows involving multiple fluids. Especially two-fluid flows, where two non-mixing fluids are separated by a sharp fluid interface, find many applications in both engineering and physics. Although exp...

J. Naber

2006-01-01

289

INVESTIGATING PORE SCALE CONFIGURATIONS OF TWO IMMISCIBLE FLUIDS VIA THE LEVEL SET METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of pore level displacement of immiscible fluids has scientific appeal as well as many applications, notably in oil reservoir engineering and in subsurface environmental engineering. Pore network models have been used for numerical simulation of fluid dis- placement over relevant physical volume sizes. An accurate description of the mechanics of displacement could significantly improve the predictions from network

MAÿSA PRODANOVI ´; STEVEN L. BRYANT

290

Solar engineering 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains paper presented at the second ASME-JSES-JSME international solar energy conference. It is organized under the following headings: Solar ponds, Energy fundamentals in solar systems, General solar energy, Solar powered cars, Distributed receiver components and systems, Central receiver components and systems, Chemical processes and waste destruction, High flux and innovative applications, Solar thermal space propulsion, Solar dynamic power

T. R. Mancini; K. Watanabe; D. E. Klett

1991-01-01

291

Selected topics of fluid mechanics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are specific expressions of the principles of motion which are ascribed to Isaac Newton. Thus, the equations which form the framework of applied fluid mechanics or hydraulics are, in addition to the equation of continuity, the Newtonian equations of energy and momentum. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Physical concepts are emphasized, and mathematical procedures are the simplest consistent with the specific requirements of the derivations. In lieu of numerical examples, analogies, and alternative procedures, this treatment stresses a brief methodical exposition of the essential principles. An important objective of this report is to prepare the user to read the literature of the science. Thus, it begins With a basic vocabulary of technical symbols, terms, and concepts. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the language of modern fluid mechanics as it pertains to hydraulic engineering. The basic differential and integral equations of simple fluid motion are derived, and these equations are, in turn, used to describe the essential characteristics of hydrostatics and piezometry. The one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion are defined and are used to derive the general discharge equation. The flow net is described as a means of demonstrating significant characteristics of two-dimensional irrotational flow patterns. A typical flow net is examined in detail. The influence of fluid viscosity is described as an obstacle to the derivation of general, integral equations of motion. It is observed that the part played by viscosity is one which is usually dependent on experimental evaluation. It follows that the dimensionless ratios known as the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

Kindsvater, Carl E.

1958-01-01

292

Therapeutic potential of amniotic fluid stem cells.  

PubMed

Human amniotic fluid cells have been used traditionally as a diagnostic tool for genetic anomalies. More recently it has been recognized that amniotic fluid contains populations of stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC) were first to be described. These cells are able to differentiate towards mesodermal lineages. More recently cells with broader potential, defined as amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC), were also isolated. They have intermediate characteristics between embryonic and adult stem cells and are able to differentiate into lineages representative of all three germ layers but unlike ES cells they do not form tumours in vivo. Furthermore, AFSC have been reverted to functional pluripotency in a transgene-free approach using an epigenetics modifier. These characteristics, together with absence of ethical issues concerning their employment, have made stem cells from amniotic fluid a promising candidate for cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:23157178

Abdulrazzak, Hassan; De Coppi, Paolo; Guillot, Pascale V

2013-03-01

293

On the fluid mechanics of fires  

SciTech Connect

Fluid mechanics research related to fire is reviewed with focus on canonical flows, multiphysics coupling aspects, experimental and numerical techniques. Fire is a low-speed, chemically-reacting, flow in which buoyancy plans an important role. Fire research has focused on two canonical flows, the reacting boundary-layer and the reacting free plume. There is rich, multi-lateral, bi-directional, coupling among fluid mechanics and scalar transport, combustion, and radiation. There is only a limited experimental fluid-mechanics database for fire due to measurement difficulties in the harsh environment, and the focus within the fire community on thermal/chemical consequences. Increasingly, computational fluid dynamics techniques are being used to provide engineering guidance on thermal/chemical consequences and to study fire phenomenology.

TIESZEN,SHELDON R.

2000-02-29

294

Experiments with plunging cylinder liquid piston Stirling engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plunging cylinder liquid piston Stirling engines with flow restrictive seals were tested at atmospheric mean pressure and low temperatures. Two method of fluid level control within the plunging cylinders were investigated, and a higher temperature hot oil engine was operated. An engine was built with 5.75 in internal diameter cylinders with 22 in strokes, to be run in either a

Peter Tailer

1989-01-01

295

Statistical Analysis Tools for Learning in Engineering Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are engineering programs that have used automated data acquisition systems to implement data collection and analyze experiments. Applications include a biochemical engineering laboratory, heat transfer performance, engineering materials testing, mechanical system reliability, statistical control laboratory, thermo-fluid laboratory, and a…

Maher, Carolyn A.

1990-01-01

296

Hot-surface ignition tests of aircraft fluids. Final report, May 1987-May 1988  

SciTech Connect

Five fluids commonly found in aircraft-engine components, JP-4 and JP-8 fuels, Mil-H-5606 and Mil-H-83282 hydraulic fluids and Mil-L-7808 lubricating oil, were tested in the Aircraft Engine Nacelle Fire Test simulator (AENFTS) to define their Minimum Hot Surface Ignition Temperature (MHSIT's) when introduced as a spray or stream onto a hot engine bleed duct. The test employed a simple, uncluttered test section and a realistically simulated portion of the F-16 engine compartment. MHSIT's for all but Mil-H-83282 were consistently found to be higher than the fluids autoignition temperature.

Johnson, A.M.; Roth, A.J.; Moussa, N.A.

1988-11-01

297

Flow Simulation in Secondary Flow Passages of a Rocket Engine Turbopump.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents application of a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) to model fluid flow in a very complex secondary flow circuit of a rocket engine turbopump, SIMPLEX. SIMPLEX was a low cost turbopump designed, manufactured and tested...

A. Majumdar K. VanHooser M. Marsh P. Schallhorn

1998-01-01

298

Compression and thermal conductivity characteristics of magnetorheological fluid–spacer fabric smart structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many reported applications of magnetorheological fluids but very few in combinations with the textile structures. Increasing the stiffness of magnetorheological fluid contained in a fabric by applying a magnetic field has considerable potential in engineering applications. In this work, we have used a spacer (three dimensional) fabric to contain the magnetorheological fluid and then investigated the changes

Suleyman I Mistik; Tahir Shah; Ravi L Hadimani; Elias Siores

2012-01-01

299

Magnelok technology: a complement to magnetorheological fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological or MR fluids have been successfully used to enable highly effective semi-active control systems in automobile primary suspensions to control unwanted motions in civil engineering structures and to provide force-feedback in steer-by-wire systems. A key to the successful use of MR fluids is an appreciation and understanding of the balance and trade-off between the magnetically controlled on-state force and the ever-present off-state viscous force. In all MR fluid applications, one must deal with the fact that MR fluids never fully decouple or go to zero force in their off-state. Magnelok devices are a magnetically controlled compliment to traditional MR fluid devices that have been developed to enable a true force decoupling in the off-state. Magnelok devices may be embodied as linear or rotary dampers, brakes, lockable struts or position holding devices. They are particularly suitable for lock/un-lock applications. Unlike MR fluid devices they contain no fluid yet they do provide a variable level of friction damping that is controlled by the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. Magnelok devices are low cost as they easily accommodate relatively loose mechanical tolerances and require no seals or accumulator. A variety of controllable Magnelok devices and applications are described.

Carlson, J. David

2004-07-01

300

Fluid Dynamics in an Ecological Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid dynamics has long been an invaluable tool in the study of biological mechanics, helping to explain how animals swim and fly, how blood is pumped, gases are exchanged, and propagules are dispersed. The goal of understanding how the physics of fluids has affected the evolution of individual organisms provides strong impetus for teaching and learning fluid mechanics; a viable alternative to the more traditional goals of engineering. In recent years, a third alternative has arisen. The principles of fluid dynamics can be used to specify when and where individual organisms will exceed their physical capabilities, information that can in turn be used to predict species-specific survivorship in a given environment. In other words, biological fluid dynamics can be extended beyond the study of individual organisms to play an important role in our understanding of ecological dynamics. In a world where environmental change is of increasing concern, fluid dynamic aspect of ``ecomechanics'' may be of considerable practical importance. Teaching fluid mechanics in ecology will be discussed in the context of wave-swept rocky shores. Various wave theories can be used to predict the maximum water velocities and accelerations impinging on specific surf-zone plants and animals. Theories of lift, drag, and accelerational forces can then be used to predict the maximum loads imposed on these organisms, loads that can be compared to the organisms' structural limits to predict the fraction of the species that will be dislodged or damaged. Taken across relevant species, this information goes far towards explaining shoreline community dynamics. .

Denny, Mark

2007-11-01

301

Bioreactor Studies and Computational Fluid Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic environment “created” by bioreactors for the culture of a tissue engineered construct (TEC) is known to influence cell migration, proliferation and extra cellular matrix production. However, tissue engineers have looked at bioreactors as black boxes within which TECs are cultured mainly by trial and error, as the complex relationship between the hydrodynamic environment and tissue properties remains elusive, yet is critical to the production of clinically useful tissues. It is well known in the chemical and biotechnology field that a more detailed description of fluid mechanics and nutrient transport within process equipment can be achieved via the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. Hence, the coupling of experimental methods and computational simulations forms a synergistic relationship that can potentially yield greater and yet, more cohesive data sets for bioreactor studies. This review aims at discussing the rationale of using CFD in bioreactor studies related to tissue engineering, as fluid flow processes and phenomena have direct implications on cellular response such as migration and/or proliferation. We conclude that CFD should be seen by tissue engineers as an invaluable tool allowing us to analyze and visualize the impact of fluidic forces and stresses on cells and TECs.

Singh, H.; Hutmacher, D. W.

302

Fourth international workshop on software engineering for computational science and engineering: (SE-CSE2011)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science and Engineering (CSE) software supports a wide variety of domains including nuclear physics, crash simulation, satellite data processing, fluid dynamics, climate modeling, bioinformatics, and vehicle development. The increase in the importance of CSE software motivates the need to identify and understand appropriate software engineering (SE) practices for CSE. Because of the uniqueness of CSE software development, existing SE tools

Jeffrey C. Carver; Roscoe Bartlett; Ian Gorton; Lorin Hochstein; Diane Kelly; Judith Segal

2011-01-01

303

SE-CSE 2008: the first international workshop on software engineering for computational science and engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational Science and Engineering (CS&E) software supports a wide variety of domains including nuclear physics, crash simulation, satellite data processing, fluid dynamics, climate modeling, bioinformatics, and financial modeling. The recent increase in the importance of this type of software motivates the need to better understand how it is developed. This movement creates an opportunity for the software engineering community to

Jeffrey C. Carver

2008-01-01

304

Engineering the Lymphatic System  

PubMed Central

The recent advances in our understanding of lymphatic physiology and the role of the lymphatics in actively regulating fluid balance, lipid transport, and immune cell trafficking has been furthered in part through innovations in imaging, tissue engineering, quantitative biology, biomechanics, and computational modeling. Interdisciplinary and bioengineering approaches will continue to be crucial to the progression of the field, given that lymphatic biology and function are intimately woven with the local microenvironment and mechanical loads experienced by the vessel. This is particularly the case in lymphatic diseases such as lymphedema where the microenvironment can be drastically altered by tissue fibrosis and adipocyte accumulation. In this review we will highlight contributions engineering and mechanics have made to lymphatic physiology and will discuss areas that will be important for future research.

Nipper, Matthew E.

2011-01-01

305

Clustered engine study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several topics are presented in viewgraph form which together encompass the preliminary assessment of nuclear thermal rocket engine clustering. The study objectives, schedule, flow, and groundrules are covered. This is followed by the NASA groundrules mission and our interpretation of the associated operational scenario. The NASA reference vehicle is illustrated, then the four propulsion system options are examined. Each propulsion system's preliminary design, fluid systems, operating characteristics, thrust structure, dimensions, and mass properties are detailed as well as the associated key propulsion system/vehicle interfaces. A brief series of systems analysis is also covered including: thrust vector control requirements, engine out possibilities, propulsion system failure modes, surviving system requirements, and technology requirements. An assessment of vehicle/propulsion system impacts due to the lessons learned are presented.

Shepard, Kyle; Sager, Paul; Kusunoki, Sid; Porter, John; Campion, Al; Mouritzan, Gunnar; Glunt, George; Vegter, George; Koontz, Rob

306

Stirling engine research at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Stirling engine research at Argonne National Laboratory has been focused at (1) development of mathematical models and analytical tools for predicting component and engine performance, and (2) experimental research into fundamental heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena occurring in Stirling cycle devices. A result of the analytical effort has been the formation of a computer library specifically for Stirling engine researchers and developers. The library contains properties of structural materials commonly used, thermophysical properties of several working fluids, correlations for heat transfer calculations and general specifications of mechanical arrangements (including various drive mechanisms) that can be utilized to model a particular engine. The library also contains alternative modules to perform analysis at different levels of sophistication, including design optimization. A reversing flow heat transfer facility is operating at Argonne to provide data at prototypic Stirling engine operating conditions under controlled laboratory conditions. This information is needed to validate analytical models.

Holtz, R.E.; Daley, J.G.; Roach, P.D.

1986-06-01

307

16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference: An Evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Spillway Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used extensively by engineers to model and analyse complex issues related to hydraulic design, planning studies for future generating stations, civil maintenance, supply efficiency, and dam safety. The integrity of computed values from CFD models is of considerable economic importance in the design, upgrading and maintenance of hydroelectric generating stations. CFD models have the ability

P. G. Chanel; J. C. Doering

308

Portable engine  

SciTech Connect

A portable engine is described comprising: a crankcase; an engine cylinder disposed within the crankcase; a cylinder cover for the engine cylinder; a fan connected with the engine cylinder; a fan cover fixed to a front surface of the crankcase to cover the fan and direct a blown stream of air toward the engine cylinder, the fan cover being disposed adjacent the cylinder cover and forming a step therebetween; a partition plate formed integrally with the crankcase to cover the step formed between the fan cover and the cylinder cover; and an ignition coil for the engine cylinder fixed to the partition plate. The fan cover is provided with an opening located at a position corresponding to a position where the ignition coil is disposed, and a cover plate removably fitted to the fan cover to cover the opening.

Ebinuma, T.; Kato, H.; Sakurai, M.

1988-05-17

309

Invisible Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

Ohashi, Hideo

310

Engineer Girl!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Operated by the National Academy of Engineering, Engineer Girl is a Web site that increases awareness of the opportunities that exist in this profession for women and girls. There is a lot of material covered on the site that will give anyone a good understanding of what engineering is and why it is important. Information about the many different disciplines within engineering are explained in such a way as to spark interest in girls. Tips that will help girls orient their education toward engineering are also included, like what classes to take, how to prepare for college, and how to get scholarships. Some links to other useful Internet resources are scattered around the site, as well as some interesting facts about women and engineering.

2001-01-01

311

Information engineering  

SciTech Connect

The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

Hunt, D.N.

1997-02-01

312

Biological Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, presented by MIT and made available online via the university's Open Courseware site, presents a series of materials on biological engineering. Topics include introduction to biological engineering design, systems microbiology, computation for biological engineers and molecular principles of biomaterials. Materials are at both the undergraduate and graduate school levels. OpenCourseWare is free educational material online. Video lectures, assignments and exams are included. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

2011-05-13

313

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2001-09-25

314

Computational Fluid Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) activities at the Langley Research Center is given. The role of supercomputers in CFD research, algorithm development, multigrid approaches to computational fluid flows, aerodynamics computer programs, com...

1989-01-01

315

Micropolar Fluids with Stretch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equations of motion, constitutive equations, and boundary conditions are derived for a class of micropolar fluids which can stretch or contract. These fluids respond to intrinsic rotational motions and spin inertia and therefore can support couple stress ...

A. C. Eringen

1968-01-01

316

Drilling Fluids - Operating Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Operation procedures for handling of drilling fluids; Procedure for making up initial salt water mud; Displacement of salt water system with fresh water; Procedure for adding oil to system; Making up new oil emulsion drilling fluid; Procedure fo...

1964-01-01

317

Engine tribology  

SciTech Connect

Engine tribology continues to be an area of much interest and research, mostly due to the recognition of its impact on performance, efficiency, emissions, durability, and noise. This paper covers virtually all key tribological components of engines, including bearings, pistons, and skirts, piston rings, and valvetrains. Topics include: Engine Friction Modeling; FLARE: An Integrated Software Package for Friction and Lubrication Analysis of Automotive Engines- Part I: Overview and Applications; Lubrication Analysis of Piston Skirts; and Simulation of Secondary Dynamics of Articulated and Conventional Piston Assemblies.

Not Available

1992-01-01

318

Fluid force transducer  

DOEpatents

An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A. (Warrenville, IL)

1982-01-01

319

Observation of Flow Characteristics in a Model I.C. Engine Cylinder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of fluid mechanical effects on unburned hydrocarbon generation was made in a single compression expansion model automobile engine. Full optical access allowed the color Schlieren observations of various gas motion alongside the engine cylinder. Mo...

N. Ishikawa J. W. Daily

1978-01-01

320

Pericardial Fluid Analysis  

MedlinePLUS

... main reasons for fluid accumulation, and an initial set of tests (fluid protein or albumin level, cell count, and appearance) is ... diagnose the cause of fluid accumulation. The initial set of tests performed on a sample of ... appears clear Protein or albumin level—low Cell count—few cells ...

321

Compressible and incompressible fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The considered equations of compressible ideal fluid flow in appropriate nondimensional form are a hyperbolic system in four variables, related to density and fluid velocity. The Euler equations of incompressible fluid flow are a distinctly different system of four equations in four unknowns. Qualitative and quantitative properties of a specific limiting process are developed. The new results include more general

S. Klainerman; Andrew Majda

1982-01-01

322

Rotating fluid bells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of rotating fluid sheets. When a fluid jet issues downwards from a circular nozzle rotating at sufficient speed, the fluid is deflected into bell-shaped forms whose shapes are prescribed by the balance of inertial, gravitational and curvature forces. We examine the dependence of the flow structure on the governing

Nikos Savva

2005-01-01

323

Well servicing fluid additive  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a fluid, pourable well servicing fluid additive comprising a water-soluble polymer, an alkaline earth metal base, and a fibrous material suspended in an oleaginous liquid with a gellant and, optionally, a dispersant therefor. The additive is useful in preparing spud muds, lost circulation pills, and spacer fluids during well servicing operations.

Moity, R.M.

1984-03-27

324

Fluid Movement and Creativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

2012-01-01

325

Metalworking fluids: oil mist and beyond.  

PubMed

This article is based upon my own experiences with metalworking fluids and the adverse health effects and medical conditions associated with exposure to metalworking fluids. I have researched and witnessed the benefits that can be achieved when metalworking fluids are properly maintained and managed. My experiences have provided insight into how a shop operates, including comprehension of the equipment used, processes, mist generating points, engineering controls currently being adopted, and procedures that are used to maintain metalworking fluids. I have been able to share my personal experiences with the country's leading experts in the field of metalworking fluids. I have presented my insights on the topic in Washington, D.C., to the Standard Advisory Committee of OSHA, as well as at many other conferences nationwide. I have provided awareness training for a number of union and nonunion workers. Being a part of developing successful metal removal fluid programs, I realize the importance of transferring and sharing information. Many times an organization is not fully aware of certain conditions and how to combat them. My mission and intent is to properly educate those who are exposed to the harm that metalworking fluids can invoke and to inform those involved of the possible methods of reducing long- and short-term risk. One thing that must be kept in mind is the way we view these fluids. Many shops categorize the fluids as a type of "operating expense" when they should actually be seen as a sort of investment. Just as performing a scheduled maintenance on a machine promises the best possible longevity of that machine, the upkeep of metalworking fluid also provides longer "tool life." Monitoring and maintaining the fluids also provides for more effective and efficient productivity. If we fail to consider that proper management of the fluids can cut cost dramatically, then we will miss out on the financial impact they can have on a company. Try looking at the fluids as a liquid tool. Doing so I believe will bring a better understanding of the value of a successful metalworking fluids program. With this new understanding, it can be seen just who must play a role in the management of metalworking fluids. The employees who deal with the daily tasks involving the coolant play a major part. They are on the floor where these metalworking fluids are being used. In many shops, it is assumed that the environmental health & safety departments are responsible for standard operating procedures and management of fluids. The EH&S department should only be responsible for the protection from exposure and the transfer of information regarding policy and procedure to their employees. Not all shops have the resources required to develop and implement the proper standard operating procedure. Therefore, we must understand that what is feasible for one may not be for another. Companies that lack the sufficient resources should not be neglected. It is crucial that awareness of proper standard operating procedure is shared with everyone involved with the fluids in order to provide proper metalworking fluids management. Fluids are as dynamic as the formulations themselves (complex & dynamic). These fluids can quickly become contaminated with foreign materials and chemicals, thereby become aerosolized into mist. With proper education and training, one will be able to control what gets aerosolized. PMID:14555433

Gauthier, Stephen L

2003-11-01

326

Acoustical heat-pumping engine  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1981-08-14

327

Analysis of the injection process in direct injected natural gas engines. Part 2: Effects of injector and combustion chamber design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of natural gas (NG) direct injection (DI) processes in engines has been performed using multidimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis. The purpose was to investigate the effects of key engine design parameters on the mixing in DI NG engines. Full three-dimensional calculations of injection into a medium heavy-duty diesel engine cylinder were performed. Perturbations on a baseline engine configuration

M. J. Jennings; F. R. Jeske

1994-01-01

328

Algorithm Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithm Engineering is concerned with the design, analysis, implementation, tun- ing, debugging and experimental evaluation of computer programs for solving algorithmic problems. It provides methodologies and tools for developing and engineering efficient al- gorithmic codes and aims at integrating and reinforcing traditional theoretical approaches for the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures.

Camil Demetrescu; Irene FinocchiGiuseppe; F. Italianok

329

Engineering emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore various definitions and characteristics of emergence, how we might recognise and measure emergence, and how we might engineer emergent systems. We discuss the TUNA (Theory Underpinning Nanotech Assemblers) project, which is investigating emergent engineering in the context of molecular nanotechnology, and use the TUNA case study to explore an architecture suitable for emergent complex systems

Susan Stepney; Fiona A. C. Polack; Heather R. Turner

2006-01-01

330

Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)|

Phillips, John

1973-01-01

331

Holistic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors discuss how to prepare high-quality engineers who are better equipped to serve in the changing global marketplace, and suggest educators in pursuing the holistic concept of the "unity of knowledge" that will yield a definition of engineering more fitting for the times ahead. The unity of knowledge is fundamentally…

Grasso, Domenico; Martinelli, David

2007-01-01

332

Corrosion Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

White, Charles V.

333

Electrochemical Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses engineering ramifications of electrochemistry, focusing on current/potential distribution, evaluation of trade-offs between influences of different phenomena, use of dimensionless numbers to assist in scale-over to new operating conditions, and economics. Also provides examples of electrochemical engineering education content related to…

Alkire, Richard C.

1983-01-01

334

Corrosion engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book emphasizes the engineering approach to handling corrosion. It presents corrosion data by corrosives or environments rather than by materials. It discusses the corrosion engineering of noble metals, ''exotic'' metals, non-metallics, coatings, mechanical properties, and corrosion testing, as well as modern concepts. New sections have been added on fracture mechanics, laser alloying, nuclear waste isolation, solar energy, geothermal energy,

Fontana

1986-01-01

335

Polygonal particles in fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For arbitrary convex polygonal discrete elements in a fluid in two dimensions, we have implemented a stable microscopic simulation method, i.e. the flow goes around the particles, not through them, as in macroscopic simulations. The incompressible fluid is modeled via the differential algebraic equation formulation for finite elements, so that the pressures are Lagrange parameters of the underlying constraint system. Granular particles are modeled with of a core and a wider shadow around the core: The particle interaction is via the shadow, in which fluid flow is allowed, while the core is an impenetrable boundary for the fluid. The simulation works for arbitrary volume rations, so that both fluid flowing through a granular porespace as well as particles sinking in a fluid can be simulated. We investigate the collapse of a granular step with and without fluid.

Ng, Shi Han; Matuttis, Hans-Georg

2013-06-01

336

Análisis del informe de resultados de ensayo de Emisión Acústica en base a lo establecido en al código ASME Boilers and Presure Vessels Code (BPVC) Sección V Artículo 12 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: El código ASME Boilers and Presure Vessels Code (BPVC) Sección V Articulo 12 2007 define los parámetros y magnitudes que deben ser registrados durante el ensayo de tanques sometidos a alta presión por la técnica de Emisión Acústica. La matriz de datos resultante del ensayo debe ser procesada y analizada a fin de obtener información sobre la integridad del

Carlos M. Ortega; Ricardo E. Juárez

337

Engineering your electrical engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expectation and reality of engineering as a profession is described in this paper. As a new graduate professionals logically expect the first job to be working on a design project with new technology and actually designing a product or system all of the time. The reality is a bit different. They find that they need input from other engineers;

C. Jankowski

2006-01-01

338

Artificial magneto rheological fluid clutch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magneto rheological fluid (MR fluid) is a type of smart fluid in a carrier fluid, usually a type of oil. When subjected to a magnetic field, the fluid greatly increases its apparent viscosity, to the point of becoming a viscoelastic solid. Importantly, the yield stress of the fluid when in its active (“on”) state can be controlled very accurately

2012-01-01

339

Calibration and validation of an ASM3-based steady-state model for activated sludge systems--part II: Prediction of phosphorus removal.  

PubMed

An ASM3-based steady-state model which can be used for estimating the average nitrogen-removal, sludge-production and phosphorus-removal rates of different biological phosphorus-removing systems (AAO, UCT, intermittent processes) is developed. It considers the wastewater composition, the oxygen and nitrate input in the anaerobic compartment and the interaction between biological phosphorus removal and denitrification for different operating conditions. The model is calibrated and validated with data from a number of long-term pilot and full-scale experiments for Swiss municipal wastewater. The steady-state model is adequate for a comparison of different BPR process configurations or for a first estimation of the nutrient-removal efficiency. It allows the plant performance and key parameters to be determined very quickly. Excel spreadsheets of the model for different flow schemes are available from the corresponding author. PMID:11358304

Koch, G; Kühni, M; Rieger, L; Siegrist, H

2001-06-01

340

Plunging cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

A Stirling engine is described comprising, in combination, cylinders having tops and open lower ends, tanks containing hot and cold fluid, with a means plunging the cylinders out of phase into the hot and cold fluid. There is at least one connecting tube providing a passage between the upper portions of the cylinders. A working gas provided in the upper portion of the cylinders and the connecting tube.

Tailer, P.L.; West, J.H.

1987-06-30

341

RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT observations of spectral transitions in bright X-ray binaries in 2005-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied X-ray spectral state transitions that can be seen in the long-term monitoring light curves of bright X-ray binaries from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift during a period of five years from 2005 to 2010. We have applied a program to automatically identify the hard-to-soft (H-S) spectral state transitions in the bright X-ray binaries monitored by the ASM and the BAT. In total, we identified 128 hard-to-soft transitions, of which 59 occurred after 2008. We also determined the transition fluxes and the peak fluxes of the following soft states, updated the measurements of the luminosity corresponding to the H-S transition and the peak luminosity of the following soft state in about 30 bright persistent and transient black hole and neutron star binaries following Yu & Yan, and found the luminosity correlation and the luminosity range of spectral transitions in data between 2008-2010 are about the same as those derived from data before 2008. This further strengthens the idea that the luminosity at which the H-S spectral transition occurs in the Galactic X-ray binaries is determined by non-stationary accretion parameters such as the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate rather than the mass accretion rate itself. The correlation is also found to hold in data of individual sources 4U 1608-52 and 4U 1636-53.

Tang, Jing; Yu, Wen-Fei; Yan, Zhen

2011-04-01

342

Quiet Engine Program Flight Engine Design Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typica...

J. F. Klapproth R. E. Neitzel C. T. Seeley

1974-01-01

343

Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Gasdynamics And Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) offer potential performance improvements over conventional designs, but represent a challenging modeling task. A quasi-1-D, finite-rate chemistry computational fluid dynamics model for PDREs is described and impleme...

C. I. Morris

2004-01-01

344

Engineering Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

Lee, Fitzhugh T.

1974-01-01

345

Rocket Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains the theory of rocket engines using Newton's third law of motion. This five minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

2011-07-27

346

Cybernetic engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a timing mechanism adapted for use in conjunction with a four stroke internal combustion engine including pistons disposed to reciprocate within cylinders and attached to a crankshaft in a timed sequence.

Jones, H.L.

1987-09-08

347

Engineering Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This section is concerned with engineering services. It is an alphabetical listing of companies and consultants offering services including analytical testing services. Addresses are included in section six. (MA)|

Environmental Science and Technology (Environmental Control Issue), 1977

1977-01-01

348

Materials Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gateway Engineering Education Coalition consists of a group of universities that are concerned with providing high-quality educational resources in the field of engineering education. Their site contains a number of topical sections that deal with the different branches of this field. This particular section deals with educational resources in the area of materials engineering, and visitors will be glad to learn that there are interactive features here that cover the corrosion of metals, electrical conductivity, fracture mechanics, and ten additional topics. These materials can be used in the classroom to illustrate different principles and processes within materials engineering, and students may also wish to return to them as reference points during their studies.

349

Disposal of drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

Bryson, W.R.

1983-06-01

350

Dielectric fluid motors  

SciTech Connect

On the application of high electric fields to a dielectric fluid, a convective motion of the fluid is induced. By controlling the fluid motion in nonuniform dc fields, a new type of fluid motor is developed. An angular velocity of more than 15s{sup {minus}1} (150 rpm) can be achieved at a dc voltage of 5 kV for a motor with a rotor radius of 10 mm. The efficiency of energy transformation from electric to kinetic energy is about 4{percent}. Since magnetic fields and switching circuits are not required, the advantage of the fluid motor will be enhanced by size reduction. The dielectric fluid motor is attractive as a source of mechanical energy in a micromachine. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Otsubo, Y. [Center of Cooperative Research, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263 (Japan); Edamura, K. [New Technology Management Co., Higashi-Shinkoiwa 2-9-1-306, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 (Japan)

1997-07-01

351

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

Angel, S.M.

1987-02-27

352

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

353

Microwave fluid flow meter  

DOEpatents

A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

Billeter, Thomas R. (Richland, WA); Philipp, Lee D. (Richland, WA); Schemmel, Richard R. (Lynchburg, VA)

1976-01-01

354

Engine construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engine has at least two piston-cylinder assemblies each comprising a cylinder formed in an engine block with a cylinder head and a piston therein in sliding relationship toward and away from the head, a piston rod operatively connected to the piston and to a crankshaft, motion producing member of shape-memory material, e.g. Nitinol, having a transformation temperature range, secured

1984-01-01

355

Thermoacoustic engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoacoustic engines, or acoustic heat engines, are energy-conversion devices that achieve simplicity and concomitant reliability by use of acoustic technology. Their efficiency can be a substantial fraction of Carnot's efficiency. In thermoacoustic prime movers, heat flow from a high-temperature source to a low-temperature sink generates acoustic power (which may be converted to electric power using a transducer). In thermoacoustic heat

G. W. Swift

1988-01-01

356

Metalworking and machining fluids  

DOEpatents

Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Sykora, Frank (Caledon, ON, CA); Dorbeck, Mark (Brighton, MI)

2010-10-12

357

Magnetorheological fluid composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interesting extension in the use of magnetic fluids has resulted from the development of magnetic fluid composites obtained by dispersing micrometre-sized non-magnetic particles in a magnetic fluid. The composites possess a yield stress in a magnetic field which can be described at sufficiently high strain rates by the Bingham relation 0022-3727\\/29\\/9\\/011\\/img1, where 0022-3727\\/29\\/9\\/011\\/img2 is the shear stress perpendicular to

J. Popplewell; R. E. Rosensweig

1996-01-01

358

Rotating fluid bells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of rotating fluid sheets. When a fluid jet issues downwards from a circular nozzle rotating at sufficient speed, the fluid is deflected into bell-shaped forms whose shapes are prescribed by the balance of inertial, gravitational and curvature forces. We examine the dependence of the flow structure on the governing parameters, and present the results of supporting theoretical developments.

Savva, Nikos

2005-11-01

359

Fluid movement and creativity.  

PubMed

Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation, cognitive flexibility, and remote associations. Alternative mechanisms such as enhanced mood and motivation were also examined. These results suggest that creativity can be influenced by certain types of physical movement. PMID:22352395

Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

2012-02-20

360

Activities of the Institute for Mechanical Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute of Mechanical Engineering (IME) is part of Canada's National Research Council. Its mission is to undertake, support, promote, and disseminate research and development in the mechanical engineering aspects of three vital sectors of the Canadian economy: transportation, resource industries, and manufacturing. The IME achieves its mission by performing research and development in its own facilities; by developing, providing, and transferring expertise and knowledge; by making its research facilities available to collaborators and clients; and by participating in international liaison and collaborative research activities. Six research programs are conducted in the IME: Advanced Manufacturing Technology; Coastal Zone Engineering; Cold Regions Engineering; Combustion and Fluids Engineering; Ground Transportation Technology; and Machinery and Engine Technology. The rationale and major research thrusts of each program are described, and specific achievements in 1991-92 are reviewed. Lists of technical reports and papers presented by IME personnel are also included.

361

Dynamic similarity for non-Newtonian fluids in globe valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experimental work in globe valves has mainly been conducted over a narrow range of laminar or turbulent flow. The work available in laminar flow has not been conducted in geometrically similar valves, hence dynamic similarity could not be established—a critical precursor to practical engineering hydraulic design.In this work various Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, including viscoplastic fluids, were tested in

V. G. Fester; P. T. Slatter

2009-01-01

362

Microfluidic Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The ability to generate high pressures using electrokinetic pumping of liquid through porous media is reported. Pressures in excess of 8000 psi have been achieved using capillaries (< 100 {micro}m i.d.) packed with micron-size silica beads. A model is presented which accurately predicts absolute pressures, flowrates and power conversion efficiencies as well as the experimentally observed dependencies on pore size, applied electric field and electrical properties of the fluid. This phenomenon offers the possibility of creating a new class of microscale fluid devices, electrokinetic pumps and valves, where the performance improves with scale-down by taking advantage of microscale processes.

Phillip H. Paul

1998-12-01

363

Rotary cam fluid working apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising: a housing having housing walls which substantially enclose a housing interior including at least one intake passageway and at least one exhaust passageway through which one working fluid passes to and from the housing interior; a rotor mounted within the housing interior for rotation about a rotor axis of rotation extends longitudinally within the housing; the rotor has exterior surfaces which are substantially cylindrical about the rotor axis of rotation; the rotor further includes interior surfaces having cylindrically concave interior surface portions extending longitudinally within the rotor to define a rotor interior; having at least one rotor port communicating the rotor interior with the housing passageways to allow passage of a working fluid into and from the rotor interior; cam structures mounted substantially within the rotor for rotation with respect thereto; the cam structures including cam surfaces which are convex; exterior surfaces of the cam structures each include a major curvature surface which is at least partially defined by an associated major radius of curvature centered upon the associated axis of rotation of the cam structure; each major radius of curvature is greater than one-half of a separation distance existing between the associated axis of rotation of the cam structure and adjacent axes of rotation of adjacent cam structures; and cam synchronizing means for maintaining structures in approximately parallel relative angular orientations with respect to the housing as the rotor rotates and the cam structures revolve about each other.

Buske, N.

1987-07-07

364

International Symposium on Laser Anemometry, 3rd, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, Dec. 13-18, 1987, Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conference presents papers on instrumentation and signal processing; internal flows; turbulence; jets, boundary layers, and two-phase flows; and industrial and geological flows. Particular attention is given to the application of a two-axis Bragg cell to achieve a lower cost microcomputer controlled two-component LDA, a new signal processor for noisy LDV signals, uncertainties due to visibility and phase response functions of LDV optical single particle counters, a comparison of measured near-wall velocity profiles and flow visualization in a separated flow, and turbulence production over a rough wall at Mach 3. Other topics include two-step finite difference methods for fluid transient analysis, a three-dimensional microlaser anemometer for boundary layer studies, and LDA measurement of the passage flow field in an annular airfoil cascade.

Dybbs, A.; Ali, F.; Morrison, G.

365

Arterial Fluid Dynamics in Health and Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomedical investigators have increasingly realized that principles of fluid dynamics play a major role in maintaining the health of human arteries and also in contributing to arterial disease. This role is not simple, however, and an understanding of how hemodynamic forces and mass transport interact with the cells, proteins and molecules that constitute the artery wall is far from complete. Three dimensional, pulsatile blood flow in compliant arteries is just now becoming amenable to description using engineering approaches such as computational fluid dynamics. This implies that the potential to model blood flow in individual subjects will become a reality, and will become useful clinically. Additionally, how this macroscopic flow interacts with the living cellular and sub cellular world will be one of the major thrusts of biofluid dynamics research in the future. Using atherosclerosis as an example, we will discuss what is known and what is misunderstood regarding macroscopic fluid dynamics and arterial disease, including effects of flow induced wall shear stresses on arterial remodeling and on localization of atherosclerotic plaques in humans. We will demonstrate how the local flow field can be manipulated to cause cellular proliferation in animal models and discuss this within the context of implications to the clinical problem of vascular grafts used to bypass diseased arteries. Finally, we will illustrate the importance of fluid dynamics in understanding fluid - “structure” interactions at the cell level by discussing recent studies on effects of the local shear stress on monocyte adhesion and on expression of adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell surface.

Giddens, Don

2000-11-01

366

Synthesis and characterization of low cost magnetorheological (MR) fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological fluids have great potential for engineering applications due to their variable rheological behavior. These fluids find applications in dampers, brakes, shock absorbers, and engine mounts. However their relatively high cost (approximately US$600 per liter) limits their wide usage. Most commonly used magnetic material "Carbonyl iron" cost more than 90% of the MR fluid cost. Therefore for commercial viability of these fluids there is need of alternative economical magnetic material. In the present work synthesis of MR fluid has been attempted with objective to produce low cost MR fluid with high sedimentation stability and greater yield stress. In order to reduce the cost, economical electrolytic Iron powder (US$ 10 per Kg) has been used. Iron powder of relatively larger size (300 Mesh) has been ball milled to reduce their size to few microns (1 to 10 microns). Three different compositions have been prepared and compared for MR effect produced and stability. All have same base fluid (Synthetic oil) and same magnetic phase i.e. Iron particles but they have different additives. First preparation involves organic additives Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Stearic acid. Other two preparations involve use of two environmental friendly low-priced green additives guar gum (US$ 2 per Kg) and xanthan gum (US$ 12 per Kg) respectively. Magnetic properties of Iron particles have been measured by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Morphology of Iron particles and additives guar gum and xanthan gum has been examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Particles Size Distribution (PSD) has been determined using Particle size analyzer. Microscopic images of particles, MH plots and stability of synthesized MR fluids have been reported. The prepared low cost MR fluids showed promising performance and can be effectively used for engineering applications demanding controllability in operations.

Sukhwani, V. K.; Hirani, H.

2007-04-01

367

Apparatus for multi-fuel system of an engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a fuel injection system of a multi-fuel system having a plurality of fuel metering members each associated with a respective combustion chamber of an engine with the metering members being connected in fluid communication with a fuel tank and a fuel header having an inlet and an outlet, the improvement is described comprising: a mixing chamber connected in fluid

Bailey

1993-01-01

368

Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alcohol fuel conversion apparatus is described for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchanger means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchanger means; a heat source for heating the heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means, in closed fluid communication

1987-01-01

369

Fluid replacement in burns  

PubMed Central

The successful treatment of major burns depends upon accurate and early fluid replacement in the first 36 h. A burns calculator has been designed, based upon the Muir and Barclay formula, which should facilitate the estimation of fluid requirements in burned patients and therefore improve their immediate management in accident and emergency departments. ImagesFIG. 2

Jenkinson, Lloyd R

1982-01-01

370

Time Independent Fluids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)|

Collyer, A. A.

1973-01-01

371

Shear thickening fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instant invention is directed to shear thickening fluids to prevent unwanted flow in wells penetrating subterranean formations. The shear thickening fluids comprise (1) a water swellable granular clay present in sufficient quantity so that, upon interaction with an aqueous phase, a stiff paste rapidly forms having a strength of at least 2000 lbs\\/100 ft², (2) a nonaqueous phase comprising

E. N. Drake; Ch. R. Dawson; M. E. Morrison

1985-01-01

372

Fluid-loss control  

SciTech Connect

Acid fluid loss is extremely difficult to control and is generally considered to be the major factor limiting the effectiveness of acid fracturing treatments. Chemical erosion of fracture faces and the development of wormholes are largely responsible for the reduced efficiency of acid fracturing fluids. The creation of acid wormholes increases the effective area from which leakoff occurs, thus reducing the acid hydraulic efficiency. Once wormholes form, most acid fluid loss originates from these wormholes rather than penetrating uniformly into the fracture face. Methods of acid fluid-loss control are discussed and evaluated with an improved fluid-loss test procedure. This procedure uses limestone cores of sufficient length to contain wormhole growth. Studies demonstrate that if wormhole growth can be controlled, acid fluid loss approaches that of nonreactive fluids. An improved acid fracturing fluid having unique rheological characteristics is described. This acid has a low initial viscosity but temporarily becomes extremely viscous during leakoff. This high leakoff viscosity blocks wormhole development and prevents acid entry into natural fractures. After the treatment, spent-acid viscosity declines rapidly to ensure easier cleanup.

Crowe, C.W.; Trittipo, B.L. (Dowell Schlumberger, Tulsa, OK (US)); Hutchinson, B.H. (El Paso Products Co. (US))

1989-08-01

373

Corrosion in supercritical fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric

W. A. Propp; T. E. Carleson; Chen M. Wai; P. R. Taylor; K. W. Daehling; Shaoping Huang; M. Abdel-Latif

1996-01-01

374

Fluid dynamics: Flattened fingers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interfacial instabilities brought on by the penetration of one fluid into another hamper processes such as enhanced oil recovery from porous rock. But these instabilities can be suppressed with a simple gradient in fluid depth -- a natural feature of many practical vessel geometries.

Juel, Anne

2012-10-01

375

Modelling of Flexible Rods Falling in Fluid with Possible Contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical problems in engineering demand the solution of a wide range of multidisciplinary tasks. One of these branches is\\u000a nuclear engineering. During the analysis and control of nuclear reactors in nuclear power plants the complex problems are\\u000a coming out and connect multibody systems analysis with in- fluences of fluid, possible contacts and impacts, seismic excitations\\u000a and flexibility [1]. With respect

Michal Hajžman; Pavel Polach

376

Fluid flow assays.  

PubMed

Mechanical signals are major regulators of skeletal homeostasis as the addition of exogenous load is followed by enhanced bone formation and the removal of normal loads is followed by net bone loss. The mechanism by which bone cells perceive and respond to changes in their biophysical environment are still poorly understood, but it is widely accepted that the detection of interstitial fluid flow is an initiating cue. In this chapter, we describe two in vitro systems designed to examine the effects of fluid flow on bone cell behavior and to elucidate the signaling cascades activated by this stimulus. The first utilizes a parallel plate flow chamber designed to stimulate a single bone cell type grown on glass slides. The second employs a rotating disk fluid flow apparatus. Commercially-available cell culture inserts allow one type of bone cell to be exposed to fluid flow and signals to be communicated to a second bone cell model not exposed to fluid flow. PMID:18463829

Riddle, Ryan C; Taylor, Amanda F; Donahue, Henry J

2008-01-01

377

Constraining the dark fluid  

SciTech Connect

Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.

Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Gao Changjun [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China)

2009-10-15

378

Fluid blade disablement tool  

SciTech Connect

A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos (Albuquerque, NM); Hughs, Chance G. (Albuquerque, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2012-01-10

379

"Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

2008-06-12

380

The FY1992 survey on commercialization of Stirling engine utilization equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems on commercialization of Stirling engine heat pumps (SEHP) and the solution are studied. The Stirling engine is a small and fixed engine having a 30-40% thermal efficiency and a 1-100 kW output. It is a closed recipro type external combustion engine with non-condensable gas like helium as working fluid. Its theoretical efficiency agrees with that of the Carnot's cycle. This is because the Stirling engine is often called a dream engine. However, the Stirling engine is legally restricted from a viewpoint of ensuring safety because high pressure gas as working fluid is sealed into the Stirling engine. It is feared that this point will be a condition that restricts spread/promotion of the equipment which uses the engine. Therefore, by guidance of MITI and support of organizations/enterprises concerned, a committee was started in 1992FY and studied the safety of the Stirling engine and the related legal systems.

1993-03-01

381

Legal Engine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This metasite is a useful starting-point for any search for online legal information, pulling together a wide array of international, federal, state, and organizational resources. Links are organized in numerous sections, including Caselaw, specific Legal Topics (Cyberlaw, Intellectual Property, Family Law, etc.), Reference Aids, Trial Advocacy, and Federal Rules, among others. Legal Engine also features link collections aimed at professors, students, and lawyers, as well as numerous other related search and legal sites. Please note that most linked pages are displayed within a frame at the Legal Engine site.

382

Engine part  

SciTech Connect

An engine part is described which consists of: a plurality of ceramic members, a first ceramic member having a front surface and a back surface, the front surface contacting a hot gas; and a second ceramic member having a front surface and a back surface, the front surface of the second ceramic member being fittingly secured to the back surface of the first ceramic member by a means for permitting relative sliding therebetween at an operative temperature of the engine part, wherein each of the first and second ceramic members have mechanical strengths of greater than 20 Kg/mm/sup 2/.

Matsui, M.; Soma, T.

1986-07-15

383

Manufacturing Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Manufacturing Engineering is a monthly publication of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers. It is targeted primarily at manufacturing professionals, but it can also be of use to anyone with an interest in the field. This Web site posts between six and ten in-depth articles from each issue of the magazine. Examples of some topics that have been addressed in past issues include turbomachining processes, computer-aided design and manufacturing, and robotic assembly. The online archive maintains all previous monthly postings back to January 2000.

384

Gravitational Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical basics of the gravitational engine's operation are discussed. The basics are based upon non-equivalence of gravitational and inertial masses, and on external origin of the gravitational force, as it follows from the stream mechanism of gravitation. The mechanism is developed from Newton's ideas about existence of streams in ether toward celestial bodies, which are squeezing things to them. Principal scheme of the engine is outlined, its thrust and mass are discussed. Technical problems of its creation are defined, spheres of its applications are named.

Uspensky, George R.

2002-01-01

385

Corrosion engineering  

SciTech Connect

This book emphasizes the engineering approach to handling corrosion. It presents corrosion data by corrosives or environments rather than by materials. It discusses the corrosion engineering of noble metals, ''exotic'' metals, non-metallics, coatings, mechanical properties, and corrosion testing, as well as modern concepts. New sections have been added on fracture mechanics, laser alloying, nuclear waste isolation, solar energy, geothermal energy, and the Statue of Liberty. Special isocorrosion charts, developed by the author, are introduced as a quick way to look at candidates for a particular corrosive.

Fontana, M.G.

1986-01-01

386

Engineering Magic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers offers a fascinating Web site that examines the engineering principles behind some common magic tricks. There are six educational modules given on the site, consisting of Disappearing Milk, Piercing a Balloon, Floating Dollar, Milk Pitcher, Playing Card, and Egg in a Bottle. Each one shows the "magic" as it is performed and then explains how it actually works. There are instructions and materials available to teach the user how to do each trick. Teachers interested in demonstrating the material in class can find lesson plans and handouts for all of the modules.

387

The Engineering Science Curriculum At Penn State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Engineering Science major at Penn State is an interdisciplinary program of study for academically gifted students that features both breadth and depth exposure to the engineering sciences. It is the honors curriculum in the College of Engineering. During the junior year of this program, students study courses selected from a broad range of the engineering sciences such as solid and fluid mechanics (11 credits total during the four years), thermodynamics and heat transfer (6 credits), electrical sciences (10 credits), materials science (6 credits), and applied mathematics and computer science (30 credits). These courses stress the basic principles underlying engineering analysis and synthesis as well as the transferability of engineering concepts from one discipline to another. Seniors then undertake a seven credit capstone design project which they support with four three-credit technical electives. Students work one-on-one with a faculty member on this capstone design project. Because this faculty member can be in any engineering department, these senior projects cover an enormous range of topics. However, because a large number of the faculty of the Engineering Science department (officially known as the Engineering Science and Mechanics department) have an interest in engineered materials (e.g., composites, sensors, powdered materials, thin films, video displays, MEMS, smart materials, electronic devices) many of the senior projects, as well as many of the graduate theses, involve materials design, fabrication, testing, utilization, or corrosion prevention. Some of the current projects and facilities of the department will be highlighted in this talk.

Thompson, William

1997-03-01

388

Two stroke cycle engine with increased efficiency  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus is disclosed for decreasing fuel consumption in a variably loaded, two cycle internal combustion engine. Fluid communication is provided between the working cylinder and air chamber during the upward stroke of the engine up to about 85*-105* btdc, during which time the cylinder gases can flow back into the air chamber reducing engine friction as a result of a delay in the rise of the cylinder gas pressure during compression and a reduction in the peak compression pressure.

Simko, A.O.

1983-06-07

389

On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines  

DOEpatents

A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

Johansson, Lennart N. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2004-06-29

390

Reservoir technology research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been conducting geothermal reservoir research and testing sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1983. The INEL research program is primarily aimed at the development of reservoir engineering techniques for fractured geothermal reservoirs. Numerical methods have been developed which allow the simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex fractured

S. G. Stiger; J. L. Renner

1987-01-01

391

The 1991 research program (of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main research activities and programs are overviewed. The following domains are covered: production techniques, production organization, transportation and storage, mechanical engineering automation, design and construction, ergonomics, design in plastics, thermal mechanics, heat transfer and fluid mechanics, biomedical mechanical engineering, materials science, and technical mechanics and tribology.

1991-05-01

392

Current status and future trends in computational wind engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difficulty of Computational Wind Engineering (hereafter CWE) is described from the viewpoints of Computational Fluid Dynamics (hereafter CFD) technique. The rapid growth of CFD applications to wind engineering is presented. The new trends in turbulence models for applying CWE are noted. The advantages of dynamic subgrid scale (hereafter SGS) models in Large Eddy Simulation (hereafter LES) are clarified.

Shuzo Murakami

1997-01-01

393

Series hybrid vehicles and optimized hydrogen engine design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Livermore, Sandia Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories have a joint project to develop an optimized hydrogen fueled engine for series hybrid automobiles. The major divisions of responsibility are: system analysis, engine design and kinetics modeling by LLNL; performance and emission testing, and friction reduction by SNL; computational fluid mechanics and combustion modeling by LANL. This project is a

J. R. Smith; S. Aceves; P. Vanblarigan

1995-01-01

394

SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) Environment Database Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The internal environment of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is being determined from hot firings of the prototype engines and from model tests using either air or water as the test fluid. The objectives are to develop a database system to facilitate ...

J. Reardon

1987-01-01

395

Optimal Design of a Common Rail Diesel Engine Piston  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter analyzes the main challenges in the application of “simulation optimization” to the design of engine components,\\u000a with particular reference to the combustion chamber of a Direct Injection Diesel engine evaluated via Computational Fluid\\u000a Dynamic (CFD) codes.

Teresa Donateo

396

Development and testing of diesel engine CFD models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for diesel engine combustion and emissions is described. The complexity of diesel combustion requires simulations with many complex, interacting submodels in order to be successful. The review focuses on the current status of work at the University of Wisconsin Engine Research Center. The research program, which has been ongoing for

R. D. Reitz; C. J. Rutland

1995-01-01

397

An advanced engine thermal management system: nonlinear control and test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal combustion engine thermal management system functionality can be enhanced through the introduction of smart thermostat valves and variable speed electric pumps and fans. The traditional automotive cooling system components include a wax based thermostat valve and crankshaft driven water pump. However, servo-motor driven valves, pumps, and fans can better regulate the engine's coolant fluid flow to realize fuel economy

Pradeep Setlur; John R. Wagner; Darren M. Dawson; Egidio Marotta

2005-01-01

398

Determination of bedrock hydraulic conductivity and hydrochemistry using a wellbore fluid logging method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most challenging tasks faced by environmental engineers is cost effective hydraulic and hydrochemical characterization of a fractured bedrock aquifer by means of exploratory wellbores. To address this problem, a new borehole fluid logging metho...

W. H. Pedler M. J. Barvenik C. F. Tsang F. V. Hale

1990-01-01

399

Development of an Integrated BEM Approach for Hot Fluid Structure Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progress made toward the development of a boundary element formulation for the study of hot fluid-structure interaction in Earth-to-Orbit engine hot section components is reported. The convective viscous integral formulation was derived and implemente...

G. F. Dargush P. K. Banerjee

1989-01-01

400

Preliminary results from a four-working space, double-acting piston, Stirling engine controls model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-working space, double-acting piston, Stirling engine simulation is being developed for controls studies. The development method is to construct two simulations, one for detailed fluid behavior, and a second model with simple fluid behavior but containing the four working space aspects and engine inertias, validate these models separately, then upgrade the four-working space model by incorporating the detailed fluid

C. J. Daniele; C. F. Lorenzo

1980-01-01

401

Performance improvements in a longer-stroke, spark-ignition gas engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engine performance with several stroke\\/cylinder diameter (S\\/D) ratios from 1.0 to 2.0 was investigated in a small spark-ignition gas engine by experiments and with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) engine analysis. The experiments were conducted on a specially manufactured, single-cylinder, spark-ignition gas engine with the cylinder head of a commercial diesel engine with a spark plug instead of a fuel

H Ogawa; K Kimura; K Sasaki; Y Sato; T Sako

2011-01-01

402

FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

Subhash Shah

2000-08-01

403

Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

404

Concentric crossflow recuperator for Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Stirling engine adapted to automotive propulsion is disclosed using an improved preheater construction in the external heating circuit. The preheater construction is comprised of a concentric toroid placed about the heater tube array, the inner cylindrical wall of the ring serving as a wall to define the heating chamber for the closed working fluid circuit. The concentric ring is

L. A. Reams; T. F. Dunlap

1978-01-01

405

Anatomy of the Stirling engine cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions are isolated for thermodynamic processes in two Stirling cycle machines to be identical. The conditions form the basis for the concept of 'functional similarity'. Using the similarity conditions the designer may scale the detailed gas circuit specification of a viable Stirling engine to a derivative design of different size, crankshaft speed, working fluid and pressure. The method complements, and

A. J. Organ

1993-01-01

406

Applications of laser optics to aeronautical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lasers and laser optics is discussed for several fields of aeronautical engineering which include experimental fluid and structural mechanics and testing. The advantages of laser optics and the application to laser scattering, holography, and photography are outlined. The application of holography to wind tunnel diagnostics is detailed as a tutorial example of applied laser optics. State of

R. D. Matulka

1974-01-01

407

Coupled inlet-engine dynamic analysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented for unsteady analysis of turbine engine propulsion systems. The method is a coupled analysis of the inlet-compressor combination with multidimensional inlet capability. The method incorporates inviscid, unsteady, computational fluid dynamics in the inlet using an unstructured numerical grid and a one-dimensional dynamic turbomachinery model. The present application of the method is an axisymmetric mixed compression

Keith E. Numbers

1998-01-01

408

Engine with rotor, of new type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention described relates to rotary engines of the type comprising a casing, assembled with two transverse end-plates and constituting a stator equipped with fluid-admission and exhaust tubes; a rotor associated with means for displacing the rotor in the stator so as to form working chambers with this latter; and rectilinear segments freely mounted in rectilinear grooves provided respectively along

A. Brulfert; A. G. Hoss

1977-01-01

409

Four-cylinder Stirling engine controls model  

SciTech Connect

A four working space, double-acting piston, Stirling engine simulation is being developed for controls studies. The development method is to construct two simulations, one for detailed fluid behavior, and a second model with simple fluid behaviour but containing the four working space aspects and engine inertias, validate these models separately, then upgrade the four working space model by incorporating the detailed fluid behavior model for all four working spaces. The single working space (SWS) model contains the detailed fluid dynamics. It has seven control volumes in which continuity, energy, and pressure loss effects are simulated. Comparison of the SWS model with experimental data shows reasonable agreement in net power versus speed characteristics for various mean pressure levels in the working space. The four working space (FWS) model was built to observe the behavior of the whole engine. The drive dynamics and vehicle inertia effects are simulated. To reduce calculation time, only three volumes are used in each working space and the gas temperatures are fixed (no energy equation). Comparison of the FWS model predicted power with experimental data shows reasonable agreement. Since all four working spaces are simulated, the unique capabilities of the model are exercised to look at working fluid supply transients, short circuit transients, and piston ring leakage effects. The FWS model has been upgraded by using the detailed SWS model for each of the four working spaces. Currently the detailed FWS model is being reworked to reduce the amount of calculation time per cycle.

Lorenzo, C.F.; Daniele, C.J.

1980-01-01

410

Thermal engine  

SciTech Connect

A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

1984-01-03

411

Engineering Privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we integrate insights from diverse islands of research on electronic privacy to offer a holistic view of privacy engineering and a systematic structure for the discipline's topics. First we discuss privacy requirements grounded in both historic and contemporary perspectives on privacy. We use a three-layer model of user privacy concerns to relate them to system operations (data

Sarah Spiekermann; Lorrie Faith Cranor

2009-01-01

412

Engineering Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students extend their knowledge of the skeletal system to biomedical engineering design, specifically the concept of artificial limbs. Students relate the skeleton as a structural system, focusing on the leg as structural necessity. They learn about the design considerations involved in the creation of artificial limbs, including materials and sensors.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

413

Adaptive Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineers today cannot meet their professional obligation to the welfare of society if they do not have a broad, multidisciplinary vision, and yet a multidisciplinary vision is becoming enormously difficult to obtain. A new curriculum must emerge that can integrate a focused, discipline-based scientific approach with an integrated approach. To do…

VanderSteen, Jonathan

2011-01-01

414

Automotive Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

calculate engine displacement find the volume of a cylinderThe Volume of a Cylinder ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ now that you have the formula lets convert it into automotive terms original = AREA of BASE X the HEIGHT automotive = AREA of BORE X the STROKE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- with the calculations you have of one cylinder, multiply that by how many cylinders you have total. You now know ...

Todd, Teacher

2005-10-19

415

Sales Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes sales engineers--also called manufacturers' agents, sales representatives, or technical sales support workers--who work with customers and the production department to help design or modify products to meet customers' needs. Includes information about earnings, education and training, job outlook, and working conditions as well as…

Nelson, Andrew J.

2001-01-01

416

Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved Stirling engine, having an expansion piston and a compression piston sliding into respective cylinders and defining an upper side and a lower side therein, a heater and a cooler on the upper side of the cylinders, and a regenerator in communication between the heater and cooler, comprising: a piston rod integral with each piston and

C. M. Bartolini; V. Naso; F. Suraci

1988-01-01

417

Engineering Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

Hatheway, Allen W.

1978-01-01

418

Hero's Engine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In learning how this apparatus works, students will improve their understanding of action/reaction. This knowledge will also help students understand how a rocket engine works and many other important phenomena. Just as the exhaust coming from the rear of

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

419

Stirling Engine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains information about Stirling Engines, including how they operate, their history, and how they are designed. Examples are given, along with references to other information. All the sections of the site have accompanying pictures for clarification. This website is also available in Japanese.

Hirata, Koichi

2006-04-20

420

Copycat Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the idea of biomimicry â or looking to nature for engineering ideas. Biomimicry involves solving human problems by mimicking natural solutions, and it works well because the solutions exist naturally. There are numerous examples of useful applications of biomimicry, and in this lesson we look at a few fun examples.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

421

Updating of ASME Nuclear Code Case N-201 to Accommodate the Needs of Metallic Core Support Structures for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Currently in Development  

SciTech Connect

On September 29, 2005, ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) executed a multi-year, cooperative agreement with the United States DOE for the Generation IV Reactor Materials project. The project's objective is to update and expand appropriate materials, construction, and design codes for application in future Generation IV nuclear reactor systems that operate at elevated temperatures. Task 4 was embarked upon in recognition of the large quantity of ongoing reactor designs utilizing high temperature technology. Since Code Case N-201 had not seen a significant revision (except for a minor revision in September, 2006 to change the SA-336 forging reference for 304SS and 316SS to SA-965 in Tables 1.2(a) and 1.2(b), and some minor editorial changes) since December 1994, identifying recommended updates to support the current high temperature Core Support Structure (CSS) designs and potential new designs was important. As anticipated, the Task 4 effort identified a number of Code Case N-201 issues. Items requiring further consideration range from addressing apparent inconsistencies in definitions and certain material properties between CC-N-201 and Subsection NH, to inclusion of additional materials to provide the designer more flexibility of design. Task 4 developed a design parameter survey that requested input from the CSS designers of ongoing high temperature gas cooled reactor metallic core support designs. The responses to the survey provided Task 4 valuable input to identify the design operating parameters and future needs of the CSS designers. Types of materials, metal temperature, time of exposure, design pressure, design life, and fluence levels were included in the Task 4 survey responses. The results of the survey are included in this report. This research proves that additional work must be done to update Code Case N-201. Task 4 activities provide the framework for the Code Case N-201 update and future work to provide input on materials. Candidate materials such as Type 321 and Type 347 austenitic stainless steels, Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for core support structure construction, and Alloy 718 for Threaded Structural Fasteners were among the recommended materials for inclusion in the Code Case. This Task 4 Report identifies the need to address design life beyond 3 x 105 hours, especially in consideration of 60-year design life. A proposed update to the latest Code Case N-201 revision (i.e., Code Case N-201-5) including the items resolved in this report is included as Appendix A.

Mit Basol; John F. Kielb; John F. MuHooly; Kobus Smit

2007-05-02

422

Interactions fluide-paroi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of this work is the modelling and the analysis of fluid-wall interactions in a cylindrical cavity with a unique orifice serving both as inflow and outflow of an incompressible fluid. The analysis shows that the system's behavior is governed by the values of five dimensionless characteristic parameters. The coupled equations system is then approximated by using a staggered scheme which enables to integrate the structure and the fluid parts separately during each time step. A numerical solution is given with the respective influence of each introduced parameter. We conclude by giving an approximation of the viscous friction effects allowing to uncouple the system of equations.

Kornelik, Sergueï; Naili, Salah; Oddou, Christian; Boubentchikov, Alexï

423

Relativistic fluid dynamics. Proceedings.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: 1. Covariant theory of conductivity in ideal fluid or solid media (B. Carter). 2. Hamiltonian techniques for relativistic fluid dynamics and stability theory (D. D. Holm). 3. Covariant fluid mechanics and thermodynamics: an introduction (W. Israel). 4. Relativistic plasmas (H. Weitzner). 5. An improved relativistic warm plasma model (A. M. Anile, S. Pennisi). 6. Relativistic extended thermodynamics II (I. Müller). 7. Relativistic extended thermodynamics: general assumptions and mathematical procedure (T. Ruggeri). 8. Relativistic hydrodynamics and heavy ion reactions (D. Strottman). 9. Some problems in relativistic hydrodynamics (C. G. van Weert).

Anile, A. M.; Choquet-Bruhat, Y.

424

Dynamic analysis of a nuclear reactor with fluid–structure interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is related to the dynamic (seismic) analysis of a naval propulsion ground prototype (land-based) nuclear reactor with fluid–structure interaction modelling. Many numerical methods have been proposed over the past years to take fluid–structure phenomenon into account in various engineering domains, among which nuclear engineering in seismic analysis. The purpose of the present paper is to make a

Jean-François Sigrist; Daniel Broc; Christian Lainé

2006-01-01

425

Davidson Laboratory: Marine Hydrodynamics & Coastal Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Davidson Laboratory, a hydrodynamic and ocean engineering research center, is part of the Civil, Environmental and Ocean Engineering department at the Stevens Institute of Technology. This laboratory is focused on marine craft and testing as well as coastal engineering, marine environmental engineering, and underwater acoustics. Ongoing research projects in areas such as marine hydrodynamics, coastal engineering, acoustics, turbulence, and computational fluid dynamics are explained in greater detail in the Departments section. A highlight of the Davidson Laboratory site is the Coastal Monitoring Network section, where users have the opportunity to view and read about the coastal conditions (atmosphere pressure, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and wind gust) at locations such as Avalon, New Jersey. The image and data on this page are updated on a regular basis. Although some parts of this site are under construction, the currently available information makes it worth a visit.

426

Test results of applicative 100 W Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small 100 W displacer-type Stirling engine, the `Ecoboy-SCM81' has being developed by a committee of the Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME). The heat engine contains unique features, including an expansion cylinder which is heated by either combustion gas or direct solar energy. Also, a simple cooling system rejects heat from the working fluid. A displacer piston has both

K. Hirata; N. Kagawa; M. Takeuchi; I. Yamashita; N. Isshiki; K. Hamaguchi

1996-01-01

427

The Junior Engineering Technical Society: Explore Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Junior Engineering Technical Society (JETS) has a relatively large Web site. This site has a variety of online motivational brochures that describe most engineering disciplines and the job roles of different types of engineers.

2003-01-01

428

Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID...

M. L. Grygiel

1996-01-01

429

Phoresis in fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a unified theory of phoretic phenomena in single-component fluids. Simple formulas are given for the phoretic velocities of small inert force-free non-Brownian particles migrating through otherwise quiescent single-component gases and liquids and animated by a gradient in the fluid's temperature (thermophoresis), pressure (barophoresis), density (pycnophoresis), or any combination thereof. The ansatz builds upon a recent paper [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.84.046309 84, 046309 (2011)] concerned with slip of the fluid's mass velocity at solid surfaces—that is, with phenomena arising from violations of the classical no-slip fluid-mechanical boundary condition. Experimental and other data are cited in support of the phoretic model developed herein.

Brenner, Howard

2011-12-01

430

Modeling Fluid Structure Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal goal of this program is on integrating experiments with analytical modeling to develop physics-based reduced-order analytical models of nonlinear fluid-structure interactions in articulated naval platforms. The critical research path for thi...

H. Benaroya T. Wei

2000-01-01

431

Fluid and Electrolyte Balance  

MedlinePLUS

Electrolytes are minerals in your body that have an electric charge. They are in your blood, urine and body fluids. Maintaining the right balance of electrolytes helps your body's blood chemistry, muscle action and ...

432

Polymer Fluid Dynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)|

Bird, R. Byron

1980-01-01

433

Well servicing fluid  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a well servicing fluid. It comprises an aqueous medium from about 0.2 to about 5 pounds per barrel of a partially hydrolyzed homopolymer of acrylamide having an average molecular weight greater than 1 million, and a calcium-controlling additive. It comprises from about 0.1 to about 2.5 pounds per barrel of the fluid of an alkali metal bicarbonate, from about 0.1 to about 2.5 pounds per barrel of the fluid of a water-soluble, carboxylic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 1.5 pounds per barrel of the fluid of a terpolymer containing from about 40 to about 70% by weight acrylamide, from about 20 to about 40% by weight of an acrylic acid and from about 5 to about 20% by weight of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid, the terpolymer having an average molecular weight of from about 5 to about 10 million.

Liao, A.

1991-07-02

434

Observability of Viscoelastic Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We apply the observability rank condition to study the observability of various viscoelastic fluids under imposed shear or extensional flows. In this paper the observability means the ability of determining the viscoelastic stress from the time history of...

A. Krener H. Wang H. Zhou W. Kang

2010-01-01

435

Fluid Pressure Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solve for different variables related to force, area, bulk modulus, compressibility, change in volume, fluid column top and bottom pressure, density, acceleration of gravity, depth, height, absolute, atmospheric and gauge pressure.

Raymond, Jimmy

436

Peritoneal Fluid Analysis  

MedlinePLUS

... of the fluid. ^ Back to top Ask a Laboratory Scientist Form temporarily unavailable Due to a dramatic ... the number of questions submitted to the volunteer laboratory scientists who respond to our users, we have ...

437

Corrosion in supercritical fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide...

W. A. Propp T. E. Carleson C. M. Wai P. R. Taylor K. W. Daehling

1996-01-01

438

TryEngineering: Engineered Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan that engages students in engineering practices as they design, construct, and test a musical instrument that will repeat a pattern of three sounds. Students first examine the construction and operation of the recorder, then work in groups to build instruments from common household items. The driving question of the lesson: How do engineers design musical instruments that will reliably produce notes, tones, and patterns of sound? Editor's Note: A recorder is a type of open-ended column wind instrument. Recorders are easier to study than the better-known transverse flute: they are cheaper to acquire and the dynamics are far less complex. This lesson is appropriate for the upper elementary grades, but can also be adapted for older students by introducing concepts of standing waves and fundamental frequency. See Related Materials for content support in teaching the physics of music. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

439

Studies in fluid dynamics as applied to seismology and volcanology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis addresses three problems in seismology and volcanology by applying fluid dynamical theories that have been developed for engineering applications. Fault zones are proposed to operate analogously to journal bearings. A quantitative assessment of the physical regimes in which faults behave as lubricated systems is made using elastohydrodynamic theory. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication with typical parameters explains the following observable phenomenon:

Emily E. Brodsky

2001-01-01

440

Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The practical scenarios discussed in a chemistry or chemical engineering course that use solid or liquid reactants are presented. Important ideas to be considered when handling pressurized fluids are provided and three typical examples are described to enable students develop secondary skills such as the selective search of data, identification…

Aranda, Alfonso; Rodriguez, Maria del Prado

2006-01-01

441

Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practical scenarios discussed in a chemistry or chemical engineering course that use solid or liquid reactants are presented. Important ideas to be considered when handling pressurized fluids are provided and three typical examples are described to enable students develop secondary skills such as the selective search of data, identification of…

Aranda, Alfonso; Rodriguez, Maria del Prado

2006-01-01

442

Permeability evolution as a result of fluid-rock interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid-rock interaction plays a critical role in the evolution of rock permeability. Among the most important engineering applications are flow of hydrocarbons in petroleum reservoirs, thermal energy extraction, water supply exploration, and toxic and radioactive waste management. Important natural examples include multiple dikes and sheeted intrusions, natural hydraulic fracturing, water circulation in the oceanic crust, and ore deposits formation. In

Dmitriy Konstantinovich Astakhov

2000-01-01

443

Role of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Aeropropulsion Ground Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The function of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in an engine test organization is described and compared with the use of CFD in a design environment. Both the test facility operator and the aircraft manufacturer have a common goal for CFD-to reduce the...

J. M. Barton

1984-01-01

444

Instructor's Guide for Fluid Mechanics: A Modular Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to assist engineering teachers in developing an understanding of fluid mechanics in their students. The course is designed around a set of nine self-paced learning modules, each of which contains a discussion of the subject matter; incremental objectives; problem index, set and answers; resource materials; and a quiz with…

Cox, John S.

445

Interactive Volume Visualization of Fluid Flow Simulation Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent development work at the Laboratory for Computational Science & Engineering (LCSE) at the University of Minnesota aimed at in- creasing the performance of parallel volume rendering of large fluid dynamics simulation data is reported. The goal of the work is interactive visual explora- tion of data sets that are up to two terabytes in size. A key system design

Paul R. Woodward; David H. Porter; James B. S. G. Greensky; Alex J. Larson; Michael R. Knox; James Hanson; Niranjay Ravindran; Tyler Fuchs

2006-01-01

446

Numerical, analytical, experimental study of fluid dynamic forces in seals  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA\\/Lewis Research Center is sponsoring a program for providing computer codes for analyzing and designing turbomachinery seals for future aerospace and engine systems. The program is made up of three principal components: (1) the development of advanced three dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics codes, (2) the production of simpler two dimensional (2-D) industrial codes, and (3) the development of a

William Shapiro; Antonio Artiles; Bharat Aggarwal; Jed Walowit; Mahesh M. Athavale; Andrzej J. Preskwas

1992-01-01

447

Unsteady distributed wall shear stress measurements in fluid flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wall-bounded flows are amongst the most common flows encountered in fluid mechanics. Wall shear stress on the walls of these flow fields is an important engineering quantity as it is responsible for skin friction drag, which is a significant portion of the drag on bodies ranging from airplanes to flow in biological systems. Measuring, understanding and eventually controlling the wall

Ebenezer P Gnanamanickam

2010-01-01

448

An investigation of the effect of wettability on NMR characteristics of sandstone rock and fluid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting reservoir wettability and its effect on fluid distribution and hydrocarbon recovery remains one of the major challenges in reservoir evaluation and engineering. Current laboratory based techniques require the use of rock–fluid systems that are representative of in situ reservoir wettability and preferably under reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature. However, the estimation of reservoir wettability is difficult to obtain

S. H. Al-Mahrooqi; C. A. Grattoni; A. K. Moss; X. D. Jing

2003-01-01

449

TOUGH2: A general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase fluid and heat flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation program for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, and unsaturated zone hydrology. A successor to the TOUGH program, TOUGH2 offers added capabilities and user features, including the flexibility to handle different fluid mixtures, facilities

K. Pruess

1991-01-01

450

Rigid fluid: animating the interplay between rigid bodies and fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the Rigid Fluid method, a technique for animating the interplay between rigid bodies and viscous incompressible fluid with free surfaces. We use distributed Lagrange multipliers to ensure two-way coupling that generates realistic motion for both the solid objects and the fluid as they interact with one another. We call our method the rigid fluid method because the simulator

Mark Carlson; Peter J. Mucha; Greg Turk

2004-01-01

451

Rigid fluid: animating the interplay between rigid bodies and fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the Rigid Fluid method, a technique for animating the interplay between rigid bodies and viscous incompressible fluid with free surfaces. We use distributed Lagrange multipliers to en- sure two-way coupling that generates realistic motion for both the solid objects and the fluid as they interact with one another. We call our method the rigid fluid method because the

Mark Carlson; Peter J. Mucha; Greg Turk

2004-01-01

452

Ionat Ion for the use of as M1 to opt IMIze urban w astewater treat Ment: appl Icat Ion to the re Moval of c and n In a sbr Fractionnement de l'eau usée pour l'utilisation du modèle ASM1 en vue de l'optimisation du traitement des eaux usées : application à l'élimination du carbone et de l'azote dans un SBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation of a SBR using Benchmark procedure was done prior to field operation in order to optimize the cycle and phases lengths. The accurate identification of ASM1 variables is a prerequisite to achieve a good prediction. A fractionation procedure was applied to samples, corresponding to dry and rainy weather conditions, for taking into account the ASM1 state variable characteristics

Magali Casellas; Christophe Dagot; MiChel BauDuc

453

Separated Core Turbofan Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new concept for a turbofan engine called the 'Separated Core Turbofan Engine' is proposed and studied under the research program of the ultrahigh bypass turbofan engine for the next generation high-subsonic transport aircraft. The concept engine consist...

Y. Saito M. Endoh Y. Matsuda N. Sugiyama N. Sugahara K. Yamamoto

1996-01-01

454

Engineering Tribology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ideal textbook for a first tribology course, this book provides an interdisciplinary understanding of the field. It includes materials constraints, real design problems and solutions (such as those for journal and rolling element bearing), cams and followers and heavily loaded gear teeth. Including physics, materials science, and surface and lubricant chemistry, the volume integrates quantitative material from a wide variety of disciplines with traditional engineering approaches.

Williams, John

455

Engineering Judgement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineers who develop safety-related systems are required to work to remarkably high standards: SIL 1, the lowest classification recognised by the international standard IEC 61508, requires a probability of failure\\/hour (pfh) of 10-5 or lower; and many systems are required to achieve several orders of magnitude lower failure rates than this. Yet SIL 1 is already so demanding that it

Martyn Thomas

2004-01-01

456

Conveyor Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the engineering behind the conveyor belt and consider the impact this invention has had on transportation and the coordinated shipping and delivery of goods. Teams design and build a conveyor system out of everyday materials that can transport pieces of candy 4 feet (120cm). The conveyor must make a 90 degree turn as it moves along. Teams design their system, build and test it, evaluate their designs, and share observations.

Ieee

2013-07-08

457

Engineering Brainstorming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students act as an engineering consulting firm with the task to design and sell their idea for a new vehicle power system. During the brainstorming activity (Generate Ideas), students determine and comprehend what type of information is important to learn in order to accomplish the task. Then they watch several video clips as part of Multiple Perspectives. The new input contributes to changing and focusing their original ideas.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

458

Cryogenic engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments and trends in cryogenic engineering are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of cryogenics in power generation, machine building, chemistry, and metallurgy. Several cryogenic systems are described, including air-separation apparatus, cryogenic storage systems, cryothermovacuum devices, and the cryogenic systems of superconducting devices. The theoretical principles underlying the design of cryogenic systems are examined, along with the theory for the processes involved.

Beliakov, V. P.

459

Engineered Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how musical instruments are engineered. Learners explore how mass manufacturing impacted the recorder, and then work in teams to design their own musical instrument using easy to find materials. Teams first design their instrument on paper, then build their instrument, and evaluate the strategies employed. The new instrument must be "tunable" and must also be unique from other instruments. Learners will also consider the concepts of patents and intellectual property.

Ieee

2013-07-08

460

Tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Wound care has become one of the first fields to see the benefit of a new technology: tissue engineering. Tissue engineering involves the development of new materials or devices capable of specific interactions with biological tissues. In wound care, these materials may be based entirely on naturally occurring tissues and cells, or may be materials that combine synthetics, usually polymers, with biological layers. Both wound dressings and skin substitutes are available. The complexity of the materials depends on the end uses. Generally, synthetics made from polymeric materials such as Tegaderm and Opsite are used as wound dressings over relatively simple and shallow wounds or as coverings over more complex dressings. Their function is one of protection from water loss, drying, and mechanical injury. More complex dressings vary from dermal replacements made of reconstituted collagen and chondroitan sulfate backed by a polymer layer such as Integra(R) to the complex Apligraftrade mark that contains collagen and seeded cells. This last is designed as a complete skin replacement or skin substitute. Ultimately, engineered skin will contain all of the components necessary to modulate healing and provide the desired response: a wound closed with limited scar tissue that retains all of the characteristics of natural skin. PMID:10082603

Sefton, M V; Woodhouse, K A

1998-12-01

461

Experimental investigation on the drag reducing efficiency of the outer-layer vertical blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental assessment has been made of the drag reducing efficiency of the outer-layer vertical blades, which were first\\u000a devised by Hutchins and Choi (Proceedings of ASME FEDSM’02 2002 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, Montreal)\\u000a and Hutchins (An investigation of larger-scale coherent structures in fully developed turbulent boundary layers, Hutchins\\u000a N (2003), PhD thesis, University of Nottingham). The reported

Hyun Park; Nam Hyun An; Nicholas Hutchins; Kwing-So Choi; Ho Hwan Chun; Inwon Lee

462

Thermal rectification in a fluid reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An organized nonuniform mass distribution in solids leads to a monotonically varying thermal conductivity in a nanomaterial so that the heat flux is directionally dependent. We investigate through molecular dynamics simulations if the influence of an organized mass distribution in a fluid also leads to thermal rectification. Heat transfer is monitored in a water reservoir placed between two (hot and cold) silicon walls. The distribution of the fluid in the reservoirs is organized by applying an external force to each water molecule in a specified direction, creating a density gradient. This external force is smaller than the intermolecular forces in water, in most cases by much more than an order of magnitude. The simulations reveal that mass graded fluid-containing nanosystems can be engineered to possess an asymmetric axial thermal conductance that leads to greater heat flow in the direction of decreasing mass density. The rectification improves as the thermal conductivity is enhanced by increasing the fluid density adjacent to a hot wall, since doing so decreases the interfacial resistance and increases the heat flux.

Murad, Sohail; Puri, Ishwar K.

2012-03-01

463

Fluid loss control differences of crosslinked and linear fracturing fluids  

SciTech Connect

Three fracturing fluids--a crosslinked guar, a delayed hydrating guar, and a linear guar--were tested for fluid loss control at set time intervals while being conditioned in a heated, pressurized flow loop. Each fluid was tested with 3 different fluid loss additive systems: diesel, silica flour, and a combination of diesel and silica flour. The crosslinked system was tested also with 2 additional fluid loss additive systems. These fluids were diesel plus an anionic surfactant and the combination of diesel/silica flour plus the anionic surfactant. These tests show that the fluid loss of crosslinked fracturing fluids is best controlled by using diesel in combination with a surfactant or a properly sized particulate material. The fluid loss of linear fluids is controlled best with particulate additives.

Zigrye, J.L.; Whitfill, D.L.; Sievert, J.A.

1983-01-01

464

CFD modelling and analysis of an opposed piston internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of an opposed piston Internal Combustion (IC) engine, also known as the NuStroke engine, has been developed. The thesis focuses on the design and analysis of this particular engine using ANSYS CFX, a commercial CFD tool. The primary objectives of this thesis are to analyse the gas flow, effect of heat transfer, and combustion

George Thomas

2009-01-01

465

Comparison of diesel-engine inlet-valve flows under steady state and motoring conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow through the inlet valve gap of a Diesel engine cylinder head has been measured under steady flow and motored engine conditions. The excellent agreement between the swirling flows generated at maximum valve lift justifies the use of steady flow data as inlet conditions for the computational fluid dynamic modelling of engine cylinder flows.

Hoefler, T.; Pitcher, G.; Wigley, G.

1993-08-01

466

Numerical simulation of the effects of combustion chamber geometry on nonroad diesel engine performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion chamber geometry is very important for the performance of diesel engine, especially for the nonroad diesel engine with low fuel injection pressure. To decrease the experimental work, the CAE technique, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), was used to design the combustion chamber of a nonroad diesel engine. In order to investigate the effects of combustion chamber geometry on

Luo Maji; Xiang Liangshan; Li Xiong

2011-01-01

467

Heuristic optimality criterion algorithm for shape design of fluid flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a heuristic optimality criterion algorithm for shape design of fluid flow. In this algorithm, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is utilized to calculate the flow field of a fluid domain which is divided into elemental cells. A heuristic optimality criterion is applied for cells at the solid-fluid interface, i.e. the dynamic pressure for fluid cells and the viscous stress on their neighboring solid cells. An automatic program is processed step by step to exchange the positions of solid and fluid cells identified by the optimality criterion, with the objective of decreasing the flow resistance at the constraint of constant fluid volume. To illustrate the procedure of this algorithm for shape design of fluid flow, two simple examples are presented: one with fluid flowing through a right angle elbow and the other through a converging T-junction. Numerical results show that this algorithm can successfully reduce the total pressure drop of the system, demonstrating its potential applications in engineering optimal design.

Wang, Limin; Fan, Yilin; Luo, Lingai

2010-10-01

468

Fluid Mechanics of Urban Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid urbanization of the Earth has led to highly populated cities that act as concentrated centers of anthropogenic stressors on the natural environment. The degradation of environmental quality due to such stressors, in turn, greatly impacts human behavior. Anthropogenic stressors largely originate as a result of coupling between man-made urban elements (i.e., networks of engineering and socio-economic infrastructures) and the environment, for which surrounding fluid motions play a key role. In recent years, research efforts have been directed at the understanding and modeling of fluid motions in urban areas, infrastructure dynamics and interactions thereof, with the hope of identifying environmental impacts of urbanization and complex outcomes (or ``emergent properties'') of nominally simple interactions between infrastructures and environment. Such consequences play an important role in determining the ``resilience'' of cities under anthropogenic stressors, defined as maintaining the structure and essential functions of an urbanity without regime shifts. Holistic integrated models that meld the dynamics of infrastructures and environment as well as ``quality of life'' attributes are becoming powerful decision-making tools with regard to sustainability of urban areas (continuance or even enhancement of socio-economic activities in harmony with the environment). The rudimentary forms of integrated models are beginning to take shape, augmented by comprehensive field studies and advanced measurement platforms to validate them. This presentation deals with the challenges of modeling urban atmosphere, subject to anthropogenic forcing. An important emergent property, the Urban Heat Island, and its role in determining resilience and sustainability of cities will be discussed based on the prediction of a coupled model.

Fernando, Harindra J.

2008-11-01

469

Alternative Automobile Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technology assessment of various heat engines for automobile propulsion is presented covering: the spark ignition (Otto) engine; the compression ignition (diesel) engine; the vapor cycle (Rankine) engine; the Stirling engine; and the open and closed Brayton cycle (gas turbines) engines. Comparative data given include temperature ratio, thermal efficiency, power to mass ratio, exhaust emissions, and manufacturing cost. The defects

David Gordon Wilson

1978-01-01

470

Biocommodity Engineering.  

PubMed

The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of xylose and other nonglucose sugars, and "consolidated bioprocessing" in which cellulase production, cellulose hydrolysis, and fermentation of soluble carbohydrates to desired products occur in a single process step. With respect to product diversification, a distinction is made between replacement of a fossil resource-derived chemical with a biomass-derived chemical of identical composition and substitution of a biomass-derived chemical with equivalent functional characteristics but distinct composition. The substitution strategy involves larger transition issues but is seen as more promising in the long term. Metabolic engineering pursuant to the production of biocommodity products requires host organisms with properties such as the ability to use low-cost substrates, high product yield, competitive fitness, and robustness in industrial environments. In many cases, it is likely to be more successful to engineer a desired pathway into an organism having useful industrial properties rather than trying to engineer such often multi-gene properties into host organisms that do not have them naturally. Identification of host organisms with useful industrial properties and development of genetic systems for these organisms is a research challenge distinctive to biocommodity engineering. Chemical catalysis and separations technologies have important roles to play in downstream processing of biocommodity products and involve a distinctive set of challenges relative to petrochemical processing. At its current nascent state of development, the definition and advancement of the biocommodity field can benefit from integration at multiple levels. These include technical issues associated with integrating unit operations with each other, integrating production of individual products into a multi-product biorefinery, and integrating biorefineries into the broader resource, economic, and environmental systems in which they function. We anticipate that coproduction of multiple products, for example, production of fuels, chemicals, power, and/or feed, is likely to

Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

1999-10-01

471

Fluid Simulation with Articulated Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for creating realistic animations of characters that are swimming through fluids. Our approach combines dynamic simulation with data-driven kinematic motions (motion capture data) to produce realistic animation in a fluid. The interaction of the articulated body with the fluid is performed by incorporating joint constraints with rigid animation and by extending a solid\\/fluid coupling method to

Nipun Kwatra; Christopher Wojtan; Mark Carlson; Irfan A. Essa; Peter J. Mucha; Greg Turk

2010-01-01

472

Electroinsulating fluids — New insulating mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological progress creates new challenges, especially in the areas of energy savings, environmentally friendly materials and sustainable development. These challenges exist for electroinsulating materials, including electroinsulating fluids. Finding substitutes for the petroleum-based fluids used in electrotechnics is not a simple task. It involves the geopolitical location of the manufacturer and the user of the machine, fluid prices and fluid parameters.

P. Trnka; V. Mentlik; J. Cerny

2011-01-01

473

Electrohydrodynamics of real fluids  

SciTech Connect

Prevailing theories of interactions between electric fields and fluids often incorporate an assumption of constant fluid properties in the development of couplings between the equations of motion and Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics. This is a severe limitation in that two of the three electric body forces acting on the fluid arise from gradients in fluid properties (mass density and electric permittivity). These effects are included in the theory by describing property variations with Taylor series expansions about a datum value. This introduces a number of additional terms beyond those described by a zeroth-order theory. Some of these terms are neglected on the basis of physical estimates, leading to an electrohydrodynamic analog to the Boussinesq approximation of classical fluid mechanics. The interactions described by the theory include natural convection due to Joule heating. Coulombic, and electrostrictive body forces and interfacial tractions associated with permittivity gradients. The significance of these effects is discussed for static and dynamic regimes. This discussion includes development of first-order EHD analogs of Bernoulli's Theorem, Kelvin's Circulation Theorem and Crocco's Theorem. The theory is then illustrated with a new, exact solution to the coupled first-order equations of electrohydrodynamics.

Nelson, D.A.

1984-01-01

474

Boiler using combustible fluid  

DOEpatents

A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

1974-07-03

475

Prediction of the turbulent flow in a diuser with commercial CFD codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Motivation & background There have been a few attempts in the literature to compare the performance of com- mercial CFD codes; for instance, laminar and turbulent test cases have been proposed to several CFD code vendors by the Coordinating Group for Computational Fluid Dynamics of the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME (Freitas, 1995). A series of ve benchmark problems

Gianluca Iaccarino

476

Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering

Grygiel

1996-01-01

477

Fluid Flow in Rock Fractures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the hydraulic properties of rock fractures is an issue of great importance in fields such as petroleum engineering, groundwater hydrology, and underground waste isolation. Traditionally, models of fluid flow through rock fractures have been based on the cubic law, which asserts that the local value of the fracture transmissivity is equal to h3/12, where h is the fracture aperture. The local cubic law is mathematically equivalent to assuming that flow in the fracture is governed by the Reynolds lubrication equation. However, this equation is only applicable if the aperture does not change too abruptly, and flowrates are suitably low. These two limitations have led, over the previous decade or so, to a series of computational and experimental investigations aiming to better understand the applicability of the lubrication approximation. These investigations (Mourzenko et al., J. Phys., 1995; Brown et al., GRL, 1995; Yeo et al., Int. J. Rock Mech., 1998; Nicholl et al., WRR, 1999) have showed that the Reynolds equation may over-predict the transmissivity of a fracture by as much as 100%. Other analyses, both theoretical and computational, have concluded that the linear relationship between pressure drop and flowrate will break down if the Reynolds numbers reach some critical value, variously estimated to be between 1-100 (Oron and Berkowitz, WRR, 1998; Brush and Thomson, WRR, 2003). The implication of these results has been that the full three-dimensional, nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations are needed to accurately simulate fluid flow in a rock fracture. In a recently completed project at Imperial College, a surface profilometer was used to measure fracture profiles every 10 microns over the surface of a replica of a fracture in a red Permian sandstone, to within an accuracy of a few microns. These surface data were used as input to two finite element codes that solve the Navier-Stokes equations and the Reynolds equation, respectively. Numerical simulations of flow through these measured aperture fields were carried out at different values of the mean aperture, corresponding to different values of the relative roughness. Flow experiments were also conducted in molds of two regions of the fracture. At low Reynolds numbers, the Navier-Stokes simulations yielded transmissivities for the two fracture regions that were within 6% and 11% of the measured values, whereas the value predicted by the Reynolds simulations were too high by 21% and 43%. We interpret these results as verifying, for apparently the first time in a real rock fracture, that (a) that the Reynolds equation over-predicts the transmissivities, and (b) the Navier-Stokes equation, with the no-slip boundary condition on the fracture walls, is indeed the correct model for fluid flow in a fracture. The initial deviations from linearity, for Reynolds number around 1, are consistent with the "weak inertia" model developed by Mei and Auriault (J. Fluid Mech., 1991) for porous media, and with the results obtained computationally by Skjetne et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 1999) on a two-dimensional self-affine fracture. In the regime 15

Zimmerman, R. W.

2003-12-01

478

Fluid lubricated bearing construction  

DOEpatents

1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

Dunning, John R. (Riverdale, NY); Boorse, Henry A. (Leonia, NJ); Boeker, Gilbert F. (New York, NY)

1976-01-01

479

Supercritical fluid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Chromatographic separations with a supercritical fluid as the mobile phase were suggested more than 20 years ago. Availability of commercial hardware makes this technique more widely usable today. Many separations by this method are now carried out with supercritical carbon dioxide as the mobile phase and packed liquid-chromatography columns as the stationary phase. Although carbon dioxide has many practical advantages, including its near-ambient critical temperature and minimal interference with spectrometric detection, the use of other supercritical fluids or addition of modifiers to carbon dioxide may extend the applications of this technique. Some mixtures that are difficult to analyze by other chromatographic methods may be susceptible to separation by supercritical fluid chromatography. Mixtures that have been separated with supercritical carbon dioxide include resin acids with the empirical formula C/sub 20/H/sub 30/O/sub 2/ and ubiquinones from bacterial cell wall extracts of Legionella pneumophila. 60 refs., 8 figs.

Gere, D.R.

1983-10-21

480

Fluids in extreme confinement.  

PubMed

For extremely confined fluids with a two-dimensional density n in slit geometry of an accessible width L, we prove that in the limit L ? 0, the lateral and transversal degrees of freedom decouple, and the latter become ideal-gas-like. For a small wall separation, the transverse degrees of freedom can be integrated out and renormalize the interaction potential. We identify nL(2) as the hidden smallness parameter of the confinement problem and evaluate the effective two-body potential analytically, which allows calculating the leading correction to the free energy exactly. Explicitly, we map a fluid of hard spheres in extreme confinement onto a 2D fluid of disks with an effective hard-core diameter and a soft boundary layer. Two-dimensional phase transitions are robust and the transition point experiences a shift O(nL(2)). PMID:23368297

Franosch, Thomas; Lang, Simon; Schilling, Rolf

2012-12-11