Science.gov

Sample records for asme omc code-1994

  1. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plants{close_quotes}. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O&M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O&M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion.

  2. Far infrared maps of the ridge between OMC-1 and OMC-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keene, J.; Smith, J.; Harper, D. A.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Whitcomb, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Dust continuum emission from a 6 ft x 20 ft region surrounding OMC-1 and OMC-2 were mapped at 55 and 125 microns with 4 ft resolution. The dominant features of the maps are a strong peak at OMC-1 and a ridge of lower surface brightness between OMC-1 and OMC-2. Along the ridge the infrared flux densities and the color temperature decreases smoothly from OMC-1 to OMC-2. OMC-1 is heated primarily by several optical and infrared stars situated within or just at the boundary of the cloud. At the region of minimum column density between OMC-1 and OMC-2 the nearby B0.5 V star NU Ori may contribute significantly to the dust heating. Near OMC-2 dust column densities are large enough so that, in addition to the OMC-2 infrared cluster, the nonlocal infrared sources associated with OMC-1 and NU Ori can contribute to the heating.

  3. OMC Compressor Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes efforts expended in the development of an all-composite compressor case. Two pre-production units have been built, one utilizing V-CAP and one utilizing AFR-700B resin systems. Both units have been rig tested at elevated temperatures well above design limit loads. This report discusses the manufacturing processes, test results, and Finite Element Analysis performed. The V-CAP unit was funded by NASA-Lewis Research Center in 1994 under contract number NAS3- 27442 for Development of an All-Composite OMC Compressor Case. This contract was followed by an Air Force study in 1996 to build and identical unit using the AFR-700B resin system in place of the V-CAP system. The second compressor case was funded under U.S. Air Force contract F33615-93-D-5326, Advanced Materials for Aerospace Structures Special Studies (AMAS3), Delivery Order 0021 entitled "Advanced Polymeric Composite Materials and Structures Technology for Advanced High Temperature Gas Turbine Engines.' Initial studies using the V-CAP resin system were undertaken in 1993 under a NASA Lewis contract (NAS3-26829). A first prototype unit was developed in a joint program between Textron-Lycoming (now Allied Signal) and Brunswick (now Lincoln Composites). This unit included composite end closures using low density, high temperature molded end closures. The units was similar in size and shape to a titanium case currently used on the PT-21 0 engine and was funded as part of the integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (EHPTET) initiative of DOD and NASA.

  4. MyPyramid equivalents database for USDA survey food codes, 1994-2002, version 1.0.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The MyPyramid Equivalents Database for USDA Food Codes, 1994-2002 Version 1.0 (MyPyrEquivDB_v1) is based on USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System (2005) and provides equivalents data on the five major food groups and selected subgroups (32 groups in all) for all USDA survey food codes available for ...

  5. Physical properties of the OMC-2 and OMC-3 cores from CS and C(18)O observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castets, A.; Langer, W. D.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of the OMC-2 and OMC-3 cores in the Orion giant molecular cloud using high spatial spectral resolution observations of several transitions of the (13)CO, C(18)O, C(S-32) and C(S-34) molecules taken with the SEST telescope. The OMC-2 core consists of one clump (22 solar mass) with a radius of 0.11 pc surrounded by a cluster of 11 discrete infrared sources. The H2 column density and volume density in the center of this clump are 2 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm and 9 x 10(exp 5)/cu cm respectively. From a comparison between physical parameters derived from C(18)O and C(S-32) observations we conclude that the molecular envelope around the core has been completely removed by these sources and that only the very dense gas is left. OMC-3 shows a more complex elongated structure in C(18)O and CS than OMC-2. The C(S-32) and C(S-34) maps show that the denser region can be separated into at least sub-cores of roughly equal sizes (radius approximately equals 0.13 pc), with n(H2) = 6 x 10(exp 5)/cu cm, and a mass of 10 solar mass (from C(S-32)). The very different masses obtained for the central core from C(18)O and C(S-32) (55 and 12 solar mass respectively) indicate that a massive envelope is still present around the very dense sub-cores. We report the first detection of several molecular outflows in OMC-3. The presence of an IRAS source and the first detection of these outflows confirm that star formation is going on in OMC-3. Based on the different physical properties of these regions compared with OMC-1, OMC-2 appears to be in an intermediate evolutionary stage between OMC-1 and OMC-3.

  6. Molecular hydrogen polarization images of OMC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, M.G.; Minchin, N.R.; Hough, J.H.; Aspin, C.; Axon, D.J. California Univ., Irvine Hatfield Polytechnic Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, HI Nuffield Radio Astronomy Labs., Jodrell Bank )

    1991-07-01

    An image of the polarization of the shocked H2 v = 1-0 S(1) line emission in the core of OMC-1 has been obtained. Along the molecular outflow of the source, the line is dichroically polarized by a medium of aligned grains located between the earth and the shock fronts. The polarization pattern traces the magnetic field direction, which is parallel to the outflow axis and to the large-scale field direction determined from far-IR continuum measurements. Close to the IR source IRc2, the likely source of the outflow, the aligned vectors twist, indicating that the magnetic field direction changes. Modeling the line ratios of scattered H2 lines in the reflection nebula, it is concluded that the size distribution of grains there is typical of the small grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. By contrast, the scattered continuum radiation from the core region suggests that the grains there are larger than this. 33 refs.

  7. Molecular hydrogen polarization images of OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Michael G.; Minchin, N. R.; Hough, J. H.; Aspin, C.; Axon, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    An image of the polarization of the shocked H2 v = 1-0 S(1) line emission in the core of OMC-1 has been obtained. Along the molecular outflow of the source, the line is dichroically polarized by a medium of aligned grains located between the earth and the shock fronts. The polarization pattern traces the magnetic field direction, which is parallel to the outflow axis and to the large-scale field direction determined from far-IR continuum measurements. Close to the IR source IRc2, the likely source of the outflow, the aligned vectors twist, indicating that the magnetic field direction changes. Modeling the line ratios of scattered H2 lines in the reflection nebula, it is concluded that the size distribution of grains there is typical of the small grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. By contrast, the scattered continuum radiation from the core region suggests that the grains there are larger than this.

  8. HC3N maps of OMC1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, C. R.; Mundy, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    We have made 3.8 sec resolution maps of HC3N (J = 12-11) and 2.7 mm continuum emission in OMC1 using the OVRO mm interferometer. The continuum map, which traces dust column density, shows that the hot core region consists of several clumps, the densest of which lies 3 sec SE of IRc2. HC3N, which traces dense gas, shows the velocity structure in the region. There is no simple pattern of rotation or expansion, nor does the emission resemble a disk centered on IRc2. Since the velocity difference between the hot core and IRc2 and the velocity dispersion in the hot core are comparable with the orbital velocity at a distance of 3 sec. from a 20 M(solar) object, it is possible that the hot core material is bound to IRc2. In the channel at 10.4 km s(-1) V(LSR), we detect strong emission from the source 20 sec NE of IRc2, which confirms indications from continuum and CS (J = 2-1) maps that this is a very dense, possibly protostellar, object. This emission is clearly resolved from the hot core and is elongated north-south, along the direction of the ridge emission. An additional interesting feature in these maps is a compact high velocity source located 4 sec SW of IRc2. This source has a velocity dispersion greather than 20 km/s (FWHM) and is spatially coincident with the zero-offset source seen by Pauls et al. (1983) and a point source in the near IR images taken by Allen et al. (1984). The large localized velocity, dispersion and the highly obscured IR source suggest that this compact source is an outflow from a young stellar companion to IRc2.

  9. NICMOS CAPTURES THE HEART OF OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The infrared vision of the Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) is providing a dramatic new look at the beautiful Orion Nebula which contains the nearest nursery for massive stars. For comparison, Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) image on the left shows a large part of the nebula as it appears in visible light. The heart of the giant Orion molecular cloud, OMC-1, is included in the relatively dim and featureless area inside the blue outline near the top of the image. Light from a few foreground stars seen in the WFPC2 image provides only a hint of the many other stars embedded in this dense cloud. NICMOS's infrared vision reveals a chaotic, active star birth region (as seen in the right-hand image). Here, stars and glowing interstellar dust, heated by and scattering the intense starlight, appear yellow-orange. Emission by excited hydrogen molecules appears blue. The image is oriented with north up and east to the left. The diagonal extent of the image is about 0.4 light-years. Some details are as small as the size of our solar system. The brightest object in the image is a massive young star called BN (Becklin-Neugebauer). Blue 'fingers' of molecular hydrogen emission indicate the presence of violent outflows, probably produced by a young star or stars still embedded in dust (located to the lower left, southeast, of BN). The outflowing material may also produce the crescent-shaped 'bow shock' on the edge of a dark feature north of BN and the two bright 'arcs' south of BN. The detection of several sets of closely spaced double stars in these observations further demonstrates NICMOS's ability to see fine details not possible from ground-based telescopes. Credits: NICMOS image -- Rodger Thompson, Marcia Rieke, Glenn Schneider, Susan Stolovy (University of Arizona); Edwin Erickson (SETI Institute/Ames Research Center); David Axon (STScI); and NASA WFPC2 image -- C. Robert O'Dell, Shui Kwan Wong (Rice

  10. Review and Application of ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, Bradford P.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The intent of the workshop is to review the application of the ASME Nuclear Crane Standards ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1-2000. The ASME Nuclear Crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities.

  11. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  12. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  13. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  14. Risk based ASME Code requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Balkey, K.R.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this ASME Research Task Force is to develop and to apply a methodology for incorporating quantitative risk analysis techniques into the definition of in-service inspection (ISI) programs for a wide range of industrial applications. An additional objective, directed towards the field of nuclear power generation, is ultimately to develop a recommendation for comprehensive revisions to the ISI requirements of Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will require development of a firm technical basis for such requirements, which does not presently exist. Several years of additional research will be required before this can be accomplished. A general methodology suitable for application to any industry has been defined and published. It has recently been refined and further developed during application to the field of nuclear power generation. In the nuclear application probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques and information have been incorporated. With additional analysis, PRA information is used to determine the consequence of a component rupture (increased reactor core damage probability). A procedure has also been recommended for using the resulting quantified risk estimates to determine target component rupture probability values to be maintained by inspection activities. Structural risk and reliability analysis (SRRA) calculations are then used to determine characteristics which an inspection strategy must posess in order to maintain component rupture probabilities below target values. The methodology, results of example applications, and plans for future work are discussed.

  15. Role for outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and OmcB of Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 in reduction of manganese dioxide.

    PubMed

    Myers, J M; Myers, C R

    2001-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can use a wide variety of terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration, including certain insoluble manganese and iron oxides. To examine whether the outer membrane (OM) cytochromes of MR-1 play a role in Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reduction, mutants lacking the OM cytochrome OmcA or OmcB were isolated by gene replacement. Southern blotting and PCR confirmed replacement of the omcA and omcB genes, respectively, and reverse transcription-PCR analysis demonstrated loss of the respective mRNAs, whereas mRNAs for upstream and downstream genes were retained. The omcA mutant (OMCA1) resembled MR-1 in its growth on trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), dimethyl sulfoxide, nitrate, fumarate, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate and its reduction of nitrate, nitrite, ferric citrate, FeOOH, and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid. Similarly, the omcB mutant (OMCB1) grew on fumarate, nitrate, TMAO, and thiosulfate and reduced ferric citrate and FeOOH. However, OMCA1 and OMCB1 were 45 and 75% slower than MR-1, respectively, at reducing MnO(2). OMCA1 lacked only OmcA. While OMCB1 lacked OmcB, other OM cytochromes were also missing or markedly depressed. The total cytochrome content of the OM of OMCB1 was less than 15% of that of MR-1. Western blots demonstrated that OMCB1 still synthesized OmcA, but most of it was localized in the cytoplasmic membrane and soluble fractions rather than in the OM. OMCB1 had therefore lost the ability to properly localize multiple OM cytochromes to the OM. Together, the results suggest that the OM cytochromes of MR-1 participate in the reduction of Mn(IV) but are not required for the reduction of Fe(III) or other electron acceptors. PMID:11133454

  16. Role for Outer Membrane Cytochromes OmcA and OmcB of Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 in Reduction of Manganese Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Judith M.; Myers, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can use a wide variety of terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration, including certain insoluble manganese and iron oxides. To examine whether the outer membrane (OM) cytochromes of MR-1 play a role in Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reduction, mutants lacking the OM cytochrome OmcA or OmcB were isolated by gene replacement. Southern blotting and PCR confirmed replacement of the omcA and omcB genes, respectively, and reverse transcription-PCR analysis demonstrated loss of the respective mRNAs, whereas mRNAs for upstream and downstream genes were retained. The omcA mutant (OMCA1) resembled MR-1 in its growth on trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), dimethyl sulfoxide, nitrate, fumarate, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate and its reduction of nitrate, nitrite, ferric citrate, FeOOH, and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid. Similarly, the omcB mutant (OMCB1) grew on fumarate, nitrate, TMAO, and thiosulfate and reduced ferric citrate and FeOOH. However, OMCA1 and OMCB1 were 45 and 75% slower than MR-1, respectively, at reducing MnO2. OMCA1 lacked only OmcA. While OMCB1 lacked OmcB, other OM cytochromes were also missing or markedly depressed. The total cytochrome content of the OM of OMCB1 was less than 15% of that of MR-1. Western blots demonstrated that OMCB1 still synthesized OmcA, but most of it was localized in the cytoplasmic membrane and soluble fractions rather than in the OM. OMCB1 had therefore lost the ability to properly localize multiple OM cytochromes to the OM. Together, the results suggest that the OM cytochromes of MR-1 participate in the reduction of Mn(IV) but are not required for the reduction of Fe(III) or other electron acceptors. PMID:11133454

  17. On OMC-1 temperatures determined from methyl cyanide observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the J(k) = 12(k)-11(k) and 13(k)-12(k) transitions of methyl cyanide detected by other investigators in the direction of OMC-1. The original interpretation of those observations argues for the presence of two distinct temperature regions or possibly a temperature gradient within the cloud. The analysis presented here demonstrates that the observations of these particular molecular transitions are consistent with a single methyl cyanide emission region with a source kinetic temperature of 121.2 + or - 8.2 K and a molecular rotational temperature of 16.6 + or - 1.8 K.

  18. Spectropolarimetry of the molecular hydrogen line emission from OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Michael G.; Hough, J. H.; Axon, David J.; Hasegawa, T.; Tamura, M.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of the H2 v = 1-0 S(1) line at 35 km/s velocity resolution were obtained at several locations within OMC-1, including the molecular hydrogen reflection nebula. All line profiles are smooth and show no evidence for being composed of discrete components. The data are discussed with respect to a model for the H2 line formation in which the emission originates in discrete clumps moving at different velocities. It is suggested that the extended blue wing may come from fast-moving clumps embedded in a wind.

  19. ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Development

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, H. B.

    2005-07-13

    Support was provided by DOE for the 2nd ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Development. The final conference program and abstracts book is attached. The conference presentations are organized around topics that are central to the current research areas in prokaryotic development. The program starts with topics that involve relatively simple models systems and ends with systems that are more complex. The topics are: i) the cell cycle, ii) the cytoskeleton, iii) morphogenesis, iv) developmental transcription, v) signaling, vi) multicellularity, and vii) developmental diversity and symbiosis. The best-studied prokaryotic development model systems will be highlighted at the conference through research presentations by leaders in the field. Many of these systems are also model systems of relevance to the DOE mission including carbon sequestration (Bradyrizobium, Synechococcus), energy production (Anabaena, Rhodobacter) and bioremediation (Caulobacter, Mesorhizobium). In addition, many of the highlighted organisms have important practical applications; the actinomycetes and myxobacteria produce antimicrobials that are of commercial interest. It is certain that the cutting-edge science presented at the conference will be applicable to the large group of bacteria relevant to the DOE mission.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Polarization Measurements of OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Burton, Michael G.; Schultz, A. S. B.

    2006-01-01

    We present 2 micrometer polarization measurements of positions in the BN region of the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1) made with NICMOS Camera 2 (0.2" resolution) on Hubble Space Telescope. Our goals are to seek the sources of heating for IRc2, 3, 4, and 7, identify possible young stellar objects (YSOs), and characterize the grain alignment in the dust clouds along the lines-of-sight to the stars. Our results are as follows: BN is approximately 29% polarized by dichroic absorption and appears to be the illuminating source for most of the nebulosity to its north and up to approximately 5" to its south. Although the stars are probably all polarized by dichroic absorption, there are a number of compact, but non-point-source, objects that could be polarized by a combination of both dichroic absorption and local scattering of star light. We identify several candidate YSOs, including an approximately edge-on bipolar YSO 8.7" east of BN, and a deeply-embedded IRc7, all of which are obviously self-luminous at mid-infrared wavelengths and may be YSOs. None of these is a reflection nebula illuminated by a star located near radio source I, as was previously suggested. Other IRc sources are clearly reflection nebulae: IRc3 appears to be illuminated by IRc2-B or a combination of the IRc2 sources, and IRc4 and IRc5 appear to be illuminated by an unseen star in the vicinity of radio source I, or by Star n or IRc2-A. Trends in the magnetic field direction are inferred from the polarization of the 26 stars that are bright enough to be seen as NICMOS point sources. Their polarization ranges from N less than or equal to 1% (all stars with this low polarization are optically visible) to greater than 40%. The most polarized star has a polarization position angle different from its neighbors by approximately 40 degrees, but in agreement with the grain alignment inferred from millimeter polarization measurements of the cold dust cloud in the southern part of OMC-1. The polarization

  1. The ASME Code today -- Challenges, threats, opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Canonico, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    Since its modest beginning as a single volume in 1914 the ASME Code, or some of its parts, is recognized today in 48 of the United States and all providence`s of Canada. The ASME Code today is composed of 25 books including two Code Case books. These books cover the new construction of boilers and pressure vessels and the new construction and In-Service-Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components. The ASME accredits all manufacturers of boilers and pressure vessels built to the ASME Code. There are approximately 7650 symbol stamps issued throughout the world. Over 23% of the symbol stamps have been issued outside the USA and Canada. The challenge to the ASME Code is to be accepted as the world standard for pressure boundary components. There are activities underway to achieve that goal. The ASME Code is being revised to make it a more friendly document to entities outside of North America. To achieve that end there are specific tasks underway which are described here.

  2. Model for the intense molecular line emission from OMC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Draine, B.T.; Roberge, W.G.

    1982-08-15

    We present a model which attributes the observed H/sub 2/ and CO line emission OMC-1 to a magnetohydrodynamic shock propagating into magnetized molecular gas. By requiring the shock to reporoduce the observed line intensities, we determine the shock speed to be v/sub s/roughly-equal38 km s/sup -1/ and the preshock density and (transverse) magnetic field to be n/sub H/roughly-equal7 x 10/sup 5/ cm/sup -3/, B/sub O/roughly-equal1.5 milligauss. The model is compared to observations of H/sub 2/, CO, OH, O I, and C I in emission and of CO in absorption. The shock gas may be detectible in H I 21 cm emission.

  3. A Chlamydia trachomatis OmcB C-Terminal Fragment Is Released into the Host Cell Cytoplasm and Is Immunogenic in Humans ▿

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Manli; Gong, Siqi; Lei, Lei; Liu, Quanzhong; Zhong, Guangming

    2011-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) is an antigen with diagnostic and vaccine relevance. To further characterize OmcB, we generated antibodies against OmcB C-terminal (OmcBc) and N-terminal (OmcBn) fragments. Surprisingly, the anti-OmcBc antibody detected dominant signals in the host cell cytosol, while the anti-OmcBn antibody exclusively labeled intrainclusion signals in C. trachomatis-infected cells permeabilized with saponin. Western blot analyses revealed that OmcB was partially processed into OmcBc and OmcBn fragments. The processed OmcBc was released into host cell cytosol, while the OmcBn and remaining full-length OmcB were retained within the chlamydial inclusions. The organism-associated OmcB epitopes became detectable only after the C. trachomatis-infected cells were permeabilized with strong detergents such as SDS. However, the harsh permeabilization conditions also led to the leakage of the already secreted OmcBc and chlamydia-secreted protease (CPAF) out of the host cells. The OmcBc processing and release occurred in all biovars of C. trachomatis. Moreover, the released OmcBc but not the retained OmcBn was highly immunogenic in C. trachomatis-infected women, which is consistent with the concept that exposure of chlamydial proteins to host cell cytosol is accompanied by increased immunogenicity. These observations have provided important information for further exploring/optimizing OmcB as a target for the development of diagnosis methods and vaccines. PMID:21422182

  4. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  5. Searching for Pulsating Stars in Eclipsing Binaries in the OMC--VAR Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso-Garzón, J.; Moya, A.; Montesinos, B.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Domingo, A.

    The first catalogue of variable sources observed by OMC (OMC--VAR hereafter) contains light curves for 5263 variable stars, out of which we have been able to detect periodicities for 1137 objects. A large variety of objects can be found in the catalogue, but the most frequent ones in the present compilation are pulsating stars and eclipsing binaries. We have performed an analysis to find eclipsing systems showing evidences of pulsations in one of their components some preliminary results are shown.

  6. Improvement of ASME NH for Grade 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard Riou

    2007-10-09

    This report has been prepared in the context of Task 3 of the ASME/DOE Gen IV material project. It has been identified that creep-fatigue evaluation procedures presently available in ASME (1) and RCC-MR (2) have been mainly developed for austenitic stainless steels and may not be suitable for cyclic softening materials such as mod 9 Cr 1 Mo steel (grade 91). The aim of this document is, starting from experimental test results, to perform a review of the procedures and, if necessary, provide recommendations for their improvements.

  7. Proceedings: 1985 ASME-EPRI Radwaste Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1985-07-01

    This year's ASME-EPRI workshop targeted three main topics: meeting federal requirements, using mobile services, and cutting costs. A highlight of the workshop was a detailed report on the mobile services for radwaste management that are now available to utilities from outside contractors.

  8. NICMOS Narrow-band Images of OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Angela S. B.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Erickson, E. F.; Kaufman, M. J.; Hollenbach, D. J.; O'Dell, C. R.; Young, E. T.; Chen, H.

    1998-01-01

    We present images of a 90in. x 90in. field centered on BN in OMC-1, taken with the Near-Infrared Camera and MultiObject Spectrograph (NICMOS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The observed lines are H2 1-0 S(l), Pa, [FeII] 1.64 pm, and the adjacent continua. The region is rich in interesting structures. The most remarkable are the streamers or "fingers" of H2 emission which extend from 15in. to 50in. from IRc2, seen here in unprecedented detail. Unlike the northern H2 fingers, the inner fingers do not exhibit significant [FeII] emission at theirdips, which we suggest is due to lower excitation. These observations also show that the general morphology of the Pa and [FeII] emission (both imaged for the first time in this region) bears a striking resemblance to that of the Ha and [SII] emission previously observed with WFPC2. This implies that these IR and optical lines are produced by radiative excitation on the surface of the molecular cloud. The Pa morphology of HH 202 is also very similar to its H a and [OIII] emission, again suggesting that the Pa in this object is photo-excited by the Trapezium, as has been suggested for the optical emission. We find evidence of shock-excited [FeII] in HH 208, where it again closely follows the morphology of [SII]. There is also H2 coincident with the [SII] and [FeII] emission, which may be associated with HH 208. Finally, we note some interesting continuum features: diffuse "tails" trailing from IRc3 and IRc4, more extensive observations of the "crescent" found by Stolovy, et al. (1998), and new observations of a similar oval object nearby. We also find a "V"-shaped region which may be the boundary of a cavity being cleared by IRc2.

  9. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC)/paraffin composites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongjing; Wang, Liuding; Zhang, Jiangdong; Wei, Gao; Guo, Shaoli; Shen, Zhongyuan

    2014-08-01

    The ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC)/paraffin composites were successfully prepared by a facile physical mixing method and an EMI SE of 21-23 dB was achieved at the OMC loading of 5.69 wt.% in the X band. This indicates that the composites are very suitable for an application as effective and lightweight EMI shielding materials. The EMI shielding of the composite shows an absorption-dominant mechanism, i.e., a contribution shift from reflection to absorption is observed with the increase in OMC loading and frequency. This could be explained by the intrinsic properties (electrical conductivity, complex permittivity and potential large defects) and novel structure of the composites. PMID:25936048

  10. ASME Task Group report on primary stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, T.P.; Hechmer, J.

    1997-02-01

    This paper considers the subject of primary stress as applied in pressure vessel design carried out in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1992). The paper is the result of discussions held by members of the Task Group on Primary Stress. Specific subjects discussed include methods for calculating primary stresses, the ASME limits on primary stresses and their meaning, use of the Code stress classification table in pressure vessel design, and commentary on the use of state-of-the-art analysis techniques to design pressure vessels and satisfy Code primary stress limits. A modified definition for primary stress is given, and examples for evaluating primary stresses for different geometries is provided.

  11. Current Activities of the ASME Subgroup NUPACK

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald M. Foster; D. Keith Morton; Paul McConnell

    2007-10-01

    Current activities of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Section III Subgroup on Containment Systems for Spent Fuel High-Level Waste Transport Packagings (also known as Subgroup NUPACK) are reviewed with emphasis on the recent revision of Subsection WB. Also, brief insightson new proposals for the development of rules for internal support structures and for a strain-based acceptance criteria are provided.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: INTEGRAL-OMC optically variable sources (Alfonso-Garzon+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso-Garzon, J.; Domingo, A.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Gimenez, A.

    2012-10-01

    The OMC-VAR catalogue contains 5263 sources classified as variable, for 1337 of which the periods have been determined. Types of variable objects in the catalogue include eclipsing binaries, pulsating stars, rotating stars, eruptive stars, extragalactic objects, X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, Be stars and other objects with unknown kind of variability. Charts for each object including the DSS image around the target, the unfolded and folded light curves with the periods we have derived and/or with the catalogued ones can be retrieved from the OMC-VAR home page. (3 data files).

  13. Probing turbulence with infrared observations in OMC1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, M.; Field, D.; Lemaire, J. L.; Pijpers, F. P.

    2006-01-01

    A statistical analysis is presented of the turbulent velocity structure in the Orion Molecular Cloud at scales ranging from 70 AU to 3×104 AU. Results are based on IR Fabry-Perot interferometric observations of shock and photon-excited H2 in the K-band S(1) v=1{-}0 line at 2.121 μm and refer to the dynamical characteristics of warm perturbed gas. Data consist of a spatially resolved image with a measured velocity for each resolution limited region (70 AU× 70 AU) in the image. The effect of removal of apparent large scale velocity gradients is discussed and the conclusion drawn that these apparent gradients represent part of the turbulent cascade and should remain within the data. Using our full data set, observations establish that the Larson size-linewidth relation is obeyed to the smallest scales studied here extending the range of validity of this relationship by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. The velocity probability distribution function (PDF) is constructed showing extended exponential wings, providing evidence of intermittency, further supported by the skewness (third moment) and kurtosis (fourth moment) of the velocity distribution. Variance and kurtosis of the PDF of velocity differences are constructed as a function of lag. The variance shows an approximate power law dependence on lag, with exponent significantly lower than the Kolmogorov value, and with deviations below 2000 AU which are attributed to outflows and possibly disk structures associated with low mass star formation within OMC1. The kurtosis shows strong deviation from a Gaussian velocity field, providing evidence of velocity correlations at small lags. Results agree accurately with semi-empirical simulations in Eggers & Wang (1998). In addition, 170 individual H2 emitting clumps have been analysed with sizes between 500 and 2200 AU. These show considerable diversity with regard to PDFs and variance functions (related to second order structure functions) displaying a variety of shapes of

  14. The extinction map of the OMC-1 molecular cloud behind the Orion nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandariato, G.; Robberto, M.; Pagano, I.; Hillenbrand, L. A.

    2011-09-01

    Context. The Orion nebula and its associated young stellar cluster are located at the front-side of the optically thick OMC-1 molecular cloud. In order to disentangle the cluster members from background contamination, it is important to know the extinction provided by the OMC-1, which is poorly known, the available measurements yielding contradictory results. Aims: Our main goal is to derive a new extinction map of the OMC-1, obtaining information about the structure of the OMC-1 and the Orion nebula cluster. Methods: The most recent near-infrared catalog of stars is used to study the distribution of reddening across a 0.3 deg2 area covering the Orion nebula cluster. On the basis of the observed (H,H - KS) diagram, we establish a criterion for disentangling contaminants from bona-fide cluster members. For contaminant stars, interstellar reddenings are estimated by comparison with a synthetic galactic model. A statistical analysis is then performed to consistently account for local extinction, reddening and star-counts analysis. Results: We derive the extinction map of the OMC-1 with angular resolution <5'. We also assemble a sample of candidate cluster members, for which we measure the extinction provided by the nebular environment. These extinction measurements are analyzed similarly to the contaminant sample, and an extinction map of the Orion nebula is derived. Conclusions: The extinction provided by the OMC-1 is variable on spatial scales of a few arcminutes, while showing a general increase from the outskirts (AV ~ 6) to the direction of the Trapezium asterism (AV ≳ 30). The Orion nebula extinction map is more irregular and optically thinner, with AV of the order of a few magnitudes. Both maps are consistent with the optical morphology, in particular the Dark Bay to the north-east of the Trapezium. Both maps also show the presence of a north-south high-density ridge, which confirms the filamentary structure of the Orion molecular complex inside which star

  15. ASME post construction pressure technology codes

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    The need to continue to operate pressurized equipment and other facilities in a safe, reliable and cost effective manner has led to the development of many new approaches to in-service inspection, flaw evaluation, and repair. Interest on the part of users, regulatory authorities and others in standardizing these approaches has led to the formation of a new ASME Main Committee on Post Construction under the Board on Pressure Technology Codes and Standards, and a new Division of the Pressure Vessel Research Council on Continued Operation of Equipment. This paper provides a brief overview of these activities.

  16. First results of a scientific validation of Swarm ASM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulliat, Arnaud; Alken, Patrick; Hulot, Gauthier

    2014-05-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) is an optically pumped helium-4 magnetometer providing scalar measurements of the Earth's magnetic field onboard each of the three Swarm satellites. Its performance (accuracy, noise level, data cleanliness) is expected to be unprecedented among satellite scalar magnetometers. The main function of the ASMs during the Swarm mission will be to calibrate the vector field magnetometers. As part of the commissioning of the ASM instrument, we will compare preliminary ASM data with predictions from various recent geomagnetic models. Special focus will be placed on the DMSP-MAG-1 model, which relies on geomagnetic data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) until 2013.

  17. Dust emissivity in the star-forming filament OMC 2/3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadavoy, S. I.; Stutz, A. M.; Schnee, S.; Mason, B. S.; Di Francesco, J.; Friesen, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    We present new measurements of the dust emissivity index, β, for the high-mass, star-forming OMC 2/3 filament. We combined 160-500 μm data from Herschel with long-wavelength observations at 2 mm and fit the spectral energy distributions across a ≃2 pc long, continuous section of OMC 2/3 at 15 000 AU (0.08 pc) resolution. With these data, we measured β and reconstructed simultaneously the filtered-out large-scale emission at 2 mm. We implemented both variable and fixed values of β, finding that β = 1.7-1.8 provides the best fit across most of OMC 2/3. These β values are consistent with a similar analysis carried out with filtered Herschel data. Thus, we show that β values derived from spatial filtered emission maps agree well with those values from unfiltered data at the same resolution. Our results contradict the very low β values (~0.9) previously measured in OMC 2/3 between 1.2 mm and 3.3 mm data, which we attribute to elevated fluxes in the 3.3 mm observations. Therefore, we find no evidence of rapid, extensive dust grain growth in OMC 2/3. Future studies with Herschel data and complementary ground-based long-wavelength data can apply our technique to obtain reliable determinations of β in nearby cold molecular clouds. A FITS image for the GISMO 2 mm observations is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A30

  18. A Sensitive VLA Search for Small-Scale Glycine Emission Toward OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Snyder, L. E.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Palmer, Patrick; Liu, S.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted a deep Q-band (lambda-7 mm) search with the Very Large Array (VLA) toward OMC-1 for the lowest energy conformation (conformer I) of glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in four rotational transitions: the 6(sub 15)- 5(sub 14), 6(sub 24)-5(sub 23), 7(sub 17- 6(sub 16), and 7(sub 07)-6(sub 06). Our VLA observations sample the smallest-scale structures to date in the search for glycine toward OMC-1. No glycine emission features were detected. Thus if glycine exists in OMC-1, either it is below our detection limit, or it is more spatially extended than other large molecules in this source, or it is primarily in its high energy form (conformer II). Our VLA glycine fractional abundance limits in OMC-1 are comparable to those determined from previous IRAM 30m measurements -- somewhat better or worse depending on the specific source model -- and the entire approximately 1 foot primary beam of the VLA was searched while sensitive to an areal spatial scale approximately 150 times smaller than the 24 inch beam of the IRAM single-element telescope. In the course of this work, we detected and imaged the 4(sub 14)-3(sub 13) A and E transitions of methyl formate (HCOOCH3) and also the 2(sub 02) - 1(sub 01) transition of formic acid (HCOOH). Since formic acid is a possible precursor to glycine, our glycine limits and formic acid results provide a constraint on this potential formation chemistry route for glycine in OMC-1.

  19. Outer-membrane cytochrome-c, OmcF from Geobacter sulfurreducens: high structural similarity to an algal cytochrome c6.

    SciTech Connect

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Londer, Y. Y.; Wood, S. J.; Duke, N. E. C.; Morgado, L.; Salgueiro, C. A.; Schiffer, M.; Biosciences Division; Univ. Nova de Lisboa

    2009-01-01

    Putative outer membrane c-type cytochromes have been implicated in metal ion reducing properties of Geobacter sulfurreducens. OmcF (GSU2432), OmcB (GSU2731), and OmcC (GSU2737) are three such proteins that have predicted lipid anchors. OmcF is a monoheme cytochrome, whereas OmcB and OmcC are multiheme cytochromes. Deletion of OmcF was reported to affect the expression of OmcB and OmcC in G. sulfurreducens. The OmcF deficient strain was impaired in its ability to both reduce and grow on Fe(III) citrate probably because the expression of OmcB, which is crucial for iron reduction, is low in this strain. U(VI) reduction activity of this bacterium is also lower on deletion of OmcB or OmcF. The U(VI) reduction activity is affected more by the deletion of OmcF than by the deletion of OmcB. The soluble part of OmcF (residues 20-104, referred to as OmcF{sub S} hereafter) has sequence similarity to soluble cytochromes c{sub 6} of photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria. The cytochrome c{sub 6} proteins in algae and cyanobacteria are electron transport proteins that mediate the transfer of electrons from cytochrome b{sub 6}f to photosystem I and have high reduction potentials of about +350 mV and low pI. The structures of seven cytochromes c{sub 6} have been previously determined. Further, a c{sub 6}-like cytochrome (PetJ2) of unknown function was recently identified in Synechoccus sp. PCC 7002 with a reduction potential of +148 mV and high pI. Here, we report the structure of OmcF{sub S} and its remarkable structural similarity to that of cytochrome c{sub 6} from the green alga, Monoraphidium braunii. To our knowledge, OmcF{sub S} is the first example of a cytochrome c{sub 6}-like structure from a nonphotosynthetic organism.

  20. Extracellular Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Belchik, Sara M.; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Wang, Yuanmin; Sevinc, Papatya C.; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe; Lu, H. Peter; Fredrickson, James K.; Shi, Liang

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the roles of cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in Cr(VI) reduction, the effects of deleting the mtrC and/or omcA gene on Cr(VI) reduction and the cellular locations of reduced Cr(III) precipitates were investigated. Compared to the rate of reduction of Cr(VI) by the wild type (wt), the deletion of mtrC decreased the initial rate of Cr(VI) reduction by 43.5%, while the deletion of omcA or both mtrC and omcA lowered the rate by 53.4% and 68.9%, respectively. In wt cells, Cr(III) precipitates were detected by transmission electron microscopy in the extracellular matrix between the cells, in association with the outer membrane, and inside the cytoplasm. No extracellular matrix-associated Cr(III) precipitates, however, were found in the cytochrome mutant cell suspension. In mutant cells without either MtrC or OmcA, most Cr(III) precipitates were found in association with the outer membrane, while in mutant cells lacking both MtrC and OmcA, most Cr(III) precipitates were found inside the cytoplasm. Cr(III) precipitates were also detected by scanning election microscopy on the surfaces of the wt and mutants without MtrC or OmcA but not on the mutant cells lacking both MtrC and OmcA, demonstrating that the deletion of mtrC and omcA diminishes the extracellular formation of Cr(III) precipitates. Furthermore, purified MtrC and OmcA reduced Cr(VI) with apparent kcat values of 1.2 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard deviation) and 10.2 ± 1 s−1 and Km values of 34.1 ± 4.5 and 41.3 ± 7.9 μM, respectively. Together, these results consistently demonstrate that MtrC and OmcA are the terminal reductases used by S. oneidensis MR-1 for extracellular Cr(VI) reduction where OmcA is a predominant Cr(VI) reductase. PMID:21498755

  1. 78 FR 37848 - ASME Code Cases Not Approved for Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1233, ``ASME Code Cases not Approved for Use.'' This regulatory guide lists the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code Cases that the NRC has determined not to be acceptable for use on a generic...

  2. Characterization of the Decaheme c-Type Cytochrome OmcA in Solution and on Hematite Surfaces by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering and Neutron Reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Johs, A.; Shi, L.; Droubay, T.; Ankner, J.F.; Liang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The outer membrane protein OmcA is an 85 kDa decaheme c-type cytochrome located on the surface of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. It is assumed to mediate shuttling of electrons to extracellular acceptors that include solid metal oxides such as hematite (α-Fe2O3). No information is yet available concerning OmcA structure in physiologically relevant conditions such as aqueous environments. We purified OmcA and characterized its solution structure by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and its interaction at the hematite-water interface by neutron reflectometry. SAXS showed that OmcA is a monomer that adopts a flat ellipsoidal shape with an overall dimension of 34 × 90 × 65 Å3. To our knowledge, we obtained the first direct evidence that OmcA undergoes a redox state-dependent conformational change in solution whereby reduction decreases the overall length of OmcA by ∼7 Å (the maximum dimension was 96 Å for oxidized OmcA, and 89 Å for NADH and dithionite-reduced OmcA). OmcA was also found to physically interact with electron shuttle molecules such as flavin mononucleotide, resulting in the formation of high-molecular-weight assemblies. Neutron reflectometry showed that OmcA forms a well-defined monomolecular layer on hematite surfaces, where it assumes an orientation that maximizes its contact area with the mineral surface. These novel insights into the molecular structure of OmcA in solution, and its interaction with insoluble hematite and small organic ligands, demonstrate the fundamental structural bases underlying OmcA's role in mediating redox processes. PMID:20550916

  3. Characterization of the Decaheme c-Type Cytochrome OmcA in Solution and on Hematite Surfaces by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering and Neutron Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johs, Alexander; Shi, Liang; Droubay, Timothy C.; Ankner, John F.; Liang, L.

    2010-06-01

    The outer membrane protein OmcA is an 85 kDa decaheme c-type cytochrome located on the surface of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. It is assumed to mediate shuttling of electrons to extracellular acceptors that include solid metal oxides such as hematite (a-Fe2O3). No information is yet available concerning OmcA structure in physiologically relevant conditions such as aqueous environments. We purified OmcA and characterized its solution structure by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and its interaction at the hematite-water interface by neutron reflectometry. SAXS showed that OmcA is a monomer that adopts a flat ellipsoidal shape with an overall dimension of 34 x 90 x 65A˚ 3. To our knowledge, we obtained the first direct evidence that OmcA undergoes a redox state-dependent conformational change in solution whereby reduction decreases the overall length of OmcA by ~7 A˚ (the maximum dimension was 96 A˚ for oxidized OmcA, and 89 A˚ for NADH and dithionite-reduced OmcA). OmcA was also found to physically interact with electron shuttle molecules such as flavin mononucleotide, resulting in the formation of high-molecular-weight assemblies. Neutron reflectometry showed that OmcA forms a well-defined monomolecular layer on hematite surfaces, where it assumes an orientation that maximizes its contact area with the mineral surface. These novel insights into the molecular structure of OmcA in solution, and its interaction with insoluble hematite and small organic ligands, demonstrate the fundamental structural bases underlying OmcA’s role in mediating redox processes.

  4. Purification and Characterization of OmcZ, an Outer-Surface, Octaheme c-Type Cytochrome Essential for Optimal Current Production by Geobacter sulfurreducens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kengo; Qian, Xinlei; Morgado, Leonor; Kim, Byoung-Chan; Mester, Tünde; Izallalen, Mounir; Salgueiro, Carlos A.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the c-type cytochrome OmcZ, which is present in large (OmcZL; 50-kDa) and small (OmcZS; 30-kDa) forms, for optimal current production in microbial fuel cells. This protein was further characterized to aid in understanding its role in current production. Subcellular-localization studies suggested that OmcZS was the predominant extracellular form of OmcZ. N- and C-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of purified OmcZS and molecular weight measurements indicated that OmcZS is a cleaved product of OmcZL retaining all 8 hemes, including 1 heme with the unusual c-type heme-binding motif CX14CH. The purified OmcZS was remarkably thermally stable (thermal-denaturing temperature, 94.2°C). Redox titration analysis revealed that the midpoint reduction potential of OmcZS is approximately −220 mV (versus the standard hydrogen electrode [SHE]) with nonequivalent heme groups that cover a large reduction potential range (−420 to −60 mV). OmcZS transferred electrons in vitro to a diversity of potential extracellular electron acceptors, such as Fe(III) citrate, U(VI), Cr(VI), Au(III), Mn(IV) oxide, and the humic substance analogue anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate, but not Fe(III) oxide. The biochemical properties and extracellular localization of OmcZ suggest that it is well suited for promoting electron transfer in current-producing biofilms of G. sulfurreducens. PMID:20400562

  5. High-angular resolution observations towards OMC-2 FIR 4: Dissecting an intermediate-mass protocluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sepulcre, A.; Taquet, V.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Ceccarelli, C.; Dominik, C.; Kama, M.; Caux, E.; Fontani, F.; Fuente, A.; Ho, P. T. P.; Neri, R.; Shimajiri, Y.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Intermediate-mass stars are an important ingredient of our Galaxy and a key to understanding how high- and low-mass stars form in clusters. One of the closest known young intermediate-mass protoclusters is OMC-2 FIR 4, which is located at a distance of 420 pc in Orion. This region is one of the few where the complete 500-2000 GHz spectrum has been observed with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board the Herschel satellite, and unbiased spectral surveys at 0.8, 1, 2, and 3 mm have been obtained with the JCMT and IRAM 30-m telescopes. Aims: We aim to disentangle the core multiplicity, to investigate the morphology of this region in order to study the formation of a low- and intermediate-mass protostar cluster, and to aid in interpretation of the single-dish line profiles already in our hands. Methods: We used the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to image OMC-2 FIR 4 in the 2-mm continuum emission, as well as in DCO+(2-1), DCN(2-1), C34S(3-2), and several CH3OH lines. In addition, we analysed observations of the NH3(1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion transitions that used the Very Large Array of the NRAO. The resulting maps have an angular resolution that allows us to resolve structures of 5″, which is equivalent to ~2000 AU. Results: Our observations reveal three spatially resolved sources within OMC-2 FIR 4, of one or several solar masses each, with hints of further unresolved substructure within them. Two of these sources have elongated shapes and are associated with dust continuum emission peaks, thus likely containing at least one molecular core each. One of them also displays radio continuum emission, which may be attributed to a young B3-B4 star that dominates the overall luminosity output of the region. The third identified source displays a DCO+(2-1) emission peak and weak dust continuum emission. Its higher abundance of DCO+ relative to the other two regions suggests a lower temperature, hence its possible association with either a younger low

  6. The X-ray crystal structure of Shewanella oneidensis OmcA reveals new insight at the microbe-mineral interface

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Marcus; Baiden, Nanakow; Johs, Alexander; Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Liang, Liyuan; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Gates, Andrew J.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2014-05-21

    The x-ray crystal structure of Shewanella oneidensis OmcA, an extracellular decaheme cytochrome involved in mineral reduction, was solved to a resolution of 2.7 Å. The four OmcA molecules in the asymmetric unit were arranged so the distance between heme-5 on adjacent OmcA monomers was less than 1 nm, indicative of a transient OmcA dimer capable of intermolecular electron transfer. A previously identified hematite binding motif was identified near heme 10, forming a hydroxylated surface that would bring a heme-10 electron egress site to ~ 1 nm of mineral surface.

  7. Accelerator System Model (ASM) user manual with physics and engineering model documentation. ASM version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The Accelerator System Model (ASM) is a computer program developed to model proton radiofrequency accelerators and to carry out system level trade studies. The ASM FORTRAN subroutines are incorporated into an intuitive graphical user interface which provides for the {open_quotes}construction{close_quotes} of the accelerator in a window on the computer screen. The interface is based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC) software technology written for the Macintosh operating system in the C programming language. This User Manual describes the operation and use of the ASM application within the SPARC interface. The Appendix provides a detailed description of the physics and engineering models used in ASM. ASM Version 1.0 is joint project of G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc. and the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Neither the ASM Version 1.0 software nor this ASM Documentation may be reproduced without the expressed written consent of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc.

  8. Direct Involvement of ombB, omaB and omcB Genes in Extracellular Reduction of Fe(III) by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yimo; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Shi, Liang

    2015-10-01

    The tandem gene clusters orfR-ombB-omaB-omcB and orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC of the metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA are responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite [a poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide]. Each gene cluster encodes a putative transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer-membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt, OmaB/OmaC) and an outer-membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC). The individual roles of OmbB, OmaB and OmcB in extracellular reduction of Fe(III), however, have remained either uninvestigated or controversial. Here, we showed that replacements of ombB, omaB, omcB and ombB-omaB with an antibiotic gene in the presence of ombC-omaC-omcC had no impact on reduction of Fe(III)-citrate by G. sulfurreducens PCA. Disruption of ombB, omaB, omcB and ombB-omaB in the absence of ombC-omaC-omcC, however, severely impaired the bacterial ability to reduce Fe(III)-citrate as well as ferrihydrite. These results unequivocally demonstrate an overlapping role of ombB-omaB-omcB and ombC-omaC-omcC in extracellular Fe(III) reduction by G. sulfurreducens PCA. Involvement of both ombB-omaB-omcB and ombC-omaC-omcC in extracellular Fe(III) reduction reflects the importance of these trans-outer membrane protein complexes in the physiology of this bacterium. Moreover, the kinetics of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite reduction by these mutants in the absence of ombC-omaC-omcC were nearly identical, which clearly show that OmbB, OmaB and OmcB contribute equally to extracellular Fe(III) reduction. Finally, orfS was found to have a negative impact on the extracellular reduction of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite in G. sulfurreducens PCA probably by serving as a transcriptional repressor.

  9. Direct involvement of ombB, omaB, and omcB genes in extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yimo; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Shi, Liang

    2015-10-01

    The tandem gene clusters orfR-ombB-omaB-omcB and orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC of the metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA are responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite [a poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide]. Each gene cluster encodes a putative transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer-membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt, OmaB/OmaC) and an outer-membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC). The individual roles of OmbB, OmaB and OmcB in extracellular reduction of Fe(III), however, have remained either uninvestigated or controversial. Here, we showed that replacements of ombB, omaB, omcB and ombB-omaB with an antibiotic gene in the presence of ombC-omaC-omcC had no impact on reduction of Fe(III)-citrate by G. sulfurreducens PCA. Disruption of ombB, omaB, omcB and ombB-omaB in the absence of ombC-omaC-omcC, however, severely impaired the bacterial ability to reduce Fe(III)-citrate as well as ferrihydrite. These results unequivocally demonstrate an overlapping role of ombB-omaB-omcB and ombC-omaC-omcC in extracellular Fe(III) reduction by G. sulfurreducens PCA. Involvement of both ombB-omaB-omcB and ombC-omaC-omcC in extracellular Fe(III) reduction reflects the importance of these trans-outer membrane protein complexes in the physiology of this bacterium. Moreover, the kinetics of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite reduction by these mutants in the absence of ombC-omaC-omcC were nearly identical, which clearly show that OmbB, OmaB and OmcB contribute equally to extracellular Fe(III) reduction. Finally, orfS was found to have a negative impact on the extracellular reduction of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite in G. sulfurreducens PCA probably by serving as a transcriptional repressor.

  10. Direct involvement of ombB, omaB, and omcB genes in extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Yimo; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Shi, Liang

    2015-10-01

    The tandem gene clusters orfR-ombB-omaB-omcB and orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC of the metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA are responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite [a poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide]. Each gene cluster encodes a putative transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer-membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt, OmaB/OmaC) and an outer-membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC). The individual roles of OmbB, OmaB and OmcB in extracellular reduction of Fe(III), however, have remained either uninvestigated or controversial. Here, we showed that replacements of ombB, omaB, omcB and ombB-omaB with an antibiotic gene in the presence of ombC-omaC-omcC had nomore » impact on reduction of Fe(III)-citrate by G. sulfurreducens PCA. Disruption of ombB, omaB, omcB and ombB-omaB in the absence of ombC-omaC-omcC, however, severely impaired the bacterial ability to reduce Fe(III)-citrate as well as ferrihydrite. These results unequivocally demonstrate an overlapping role of ombB-omaB-omcB and ombC-omaC-omcC in extracellular Fe(III) reduction by G. sulfurreducens PCA. Involvement of both ombB-omaB-omcB and ombC-omaC-omcC in extracellular Fe(III) reduction reflects the importance of these trans-outer membrane protein complexes in the physiology of this bacterium. Moreover, the kinetics of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite reduction by these mutants in the absence of ombC-omaC-omcC were nearly identical, which clearly show that OmbB, OmaB and OmcB contribute equally to extracellular Fe(III) reduction. Finally, orfS was found to have a negative impact on the extracellular reduction of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite in G. sulfurreducens PCA probably by serving as a transcriptional repressor.« less

  11. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

    2014-06-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M-1 with a detection limit of 0.31 μM and a linear detection range from 0.39 μM to 8.98 μM for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis-Menten \\left( K_{M}^{app} \\right) was 6.28 μM. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor.

  12. A 3D view of the outflow in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, H. D.; Cunningham, N. J.; Gustafsson, M.; Bally, J.; Lemaire, J.-L.; Favre, C.; Field, D.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Stars whose mass is an order of magnitude greater than the Sun play a prominent role in the evolution of galaxies, exploding as supernovae, triggering bursts of star formation and spreading heavy elements about their host galaxies. A fundamental aspect of star formation is the creation of an outflow. The fast outflow emerging from a region associated with massive star formation in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1), located behind the Orion Nebula, appears to have been set in motion by an explosive event. Aims: We study the structure and dynamics of outflows in OMC-1. We combine radial velocity and proper motion data for near-IR emission of molecular hydrogen to obtain the first 3-dimensional (3D) structure of the OMC-1 outflow. Our work illustrates a new diagnostic tool for studies of star formation that will be exploited in the near future with the advent of high spatial resolution spectro-imaging in particular with data from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). Methods: We used published radial and proper motion velocities obtained from the shock-excited vibrational emission in the H2 v = 1-0 S(1) line at 2.122 μm obtained with the GriF instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the Apache Point Observatory, the Anglo-Australian Observatory, and the Subaru Telescope. Results: These data give the 3D velocity of ejecta yielding a 3D reconstruction of the outflows. This allows one to view the material from different vantage points in space giving considerable insight into the geometry. Our analysis indicates that the ejection occurred ≲720 years ago from a distorted ring-like structure of ~15″ (6000 AU) in diameter centered on the proposed point of close encounter of the stars BN, source I and maybe also source n. We propose a simple model involving curvature of shock trajectories in magnetic fields through which the origin of the explosion and the center defined by extrapolated proper motions of BN, I and n may be brought into spatial

  13. Experience and extensions to the ASM2 family of models.

    PubMed

    Dudley, J; Buck, G; Ashley, R; Jack, A

    2002-01-01

    The development of ASM2 has created a complex model for biological phosphorus removal. Most of the published work on calibrating this model has focused on the design of experiments to maximise information with which to calibrate the model, or the use of hourly data collected around and within an aeration tank. But many sewage works do not collect such data, nor have such instrumentation. The application of ASM2 with sparse data collected at a low frequency, and mostly only input-output, is considered in this paper, based on data collected at a Swedish sewage works. This paper shows that ASM2 can be calibrated with such measurements. This paper also looks at a modification to ASM2d to better handle heterotrophic usage of volatile fatty acids, and the use of this model to study the effects of large increases in in-sewer storage on sewage treatment works. Concern about the generation of large quantities of VFAs, and their effect on the sewage treatment processes, was unfounded. PMID:11989871

  14. Risk analysis of nuclear safeguards regulations. [Aggregated Systems Model (ASM)

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Altman, W.D.; Judd, B.R.

    1982-06-01

    The Aggregated Systems Model (ASM), a probabilisitic risk analysis tool for nuclear safeguards, was applied to determine benefits and costs of proposed amendments to NRC regulations governing nuclear material control and accounting systems. The objective of the amendments was to improve the ability to detect insiders attempting to steal large quantities of special nuclear material (SNM). Insider threats range from likely events with minor consequences to unlikely events with catastrophic consequences. Moreover, establishing safeguards regulations is complicated by uncertainties in threats, safeguards performance, and consequences, and by the subjective judgments and difficult trade-offs between risks and safeguards costs. The ASM systematically incorporates these factors in a comprehensive, analytical framework. The ASM was used to evaluate the effectiveness of current safeguards and to quantify the risk of SNM theft. Various modifications designed to meet the objectives of the proposed amendments to reduce that risk were analyzed. Safeguards effectiveness was judged in terms of the probability of detecting and preventing theft, the expected time to detection, and the expected quantity of SNM diverted in a year. Data were gathered in tours and interviews at NRC-licensed facilities. The assessment at each facility was begun by carefully selecting scenarios representing the range of potential insider threats. A team of analysts and facility managers assigned probabilities for detection and prevention events in each scenario. Using the ASM we computed the measures of system effectiveness and identified cost-effective safeguards modifications that met the objectives of the proposed amendments.

  15. CO (v = 1-0) emission in the molecular shock regions of OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasdalen, G. L.; Hackwell, John A.; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.

    1992-01-01

    Using the new Aerospace spectrometer on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, we have obtained observations of the molecular shocks associated with OMC-1. Unexpectedly these observations reveal (b = 1-0) emission from CO at 4.6 microns superposed on a strong continuum. Our observations strongly suggest that both the emission feature and the continuum are produced in molecular shocks. Since the (v = 1-0) band of CO is only excited in high-velocity shocks, we may be observing for the first time the primary driving mechanism in these regions. Even if these features are produced by scattering, the characteristics will provide new constraints on the conditions in and the geometry of the shock regions.

  16. The protostar OMC-2 FIR 4: Results from the CHESS Herschel/HIFI spectral survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kama, Mihkel; Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Dominik, Carsten; Caux, Emmanuel; Fuente, Asuncion

    2013-07-01

    The intermediate-mass protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 in Orion is the focus of several ongoing studies, including a CHESS key programme Herschel/HIFI spectral survey. In this poster, we review recent CHESS results on this source, including the properties of the central hot core, the presence of a compact outflow, the spatial variation of the chemical composition, and the discovery of a tenuous foreground cloud. The HIFI spectrum of FIR 4 contains 719 lines from 40 species and isotopologs. Cooling by lines detectable with our sensitivity contributes 2% of the total in the 480 to 1900 GHz range. The total line flux is dominated by CO, followed by H2O and CH3OH. Initial comparisons with spectral surveys of other sources will also be presented.

  17. WERITAS: weighted ensemble of regional image textures for ASM segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Robert; Doyle, Scott; Rosen, Mark; Kalyanpur, Arjun; Pungavkar, Sona; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Genega, Elizabeth; Rofsky, Neil; Lenkinski, Robert; Madabhushi, Anant

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present WERITAS, which is based in part on the traditional Active Shape Model (ASM) segmentation system. WERITAS generates multiple statistical texture features, and finds the optimal weighted average of those texture features by maximizing the correlation between the Euclidean distance to the ground truth and the Mahalanobis distance to the training data. The weighted average is used a multi-resolution segmentation system to more accurately detect the object border. A rigorous evaluation was performed on over 200 clinical images comprising of prostate images and breast images from 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla MRI machines via 6 distinct metrics. WERITAS was tested against a traditional multi-resolution ASM in addition to an ASM system which uses a plethora of random features to determine if the selection of features is improving the results rather than simply the use of multiple features. The results indicate that WERITAS outperforms all other methods to a high degree of statistical significance. For 1.5T prostate MRI images, the overlap from WERITAS is 83%, the overlap from the random features is 81%, and the overlap from the traditional ASM is only 66%. In addition, using 3T prostate MRI images, the overlap from WERITAS is 77%, the overlap from the random features is 54%, and the overlap from the traditional ASM is 59%, suggesting the usefulness of WERITAS. The only metrics in which WERITAS was outperformed did not hold any degree of statistical significance. WERITAS is a robust, efficient, and accurate segmentation system with a wide range of applications.

  18. Operating nuclear plant feedback to ASME and French codes

    SciTech Connect

    Journet, J.; O`Donnell, W.J.

    1996-12-01

    The French have an advantage in nuclear plant operating experience feedback due to the highly centralized nature of their nuclear industry. There is only one utility in charge of design as well as operations (EDF) and only one reactor vendor (Framatome). The ASME Code has played a key role in resolving technical issues in the design and operation of nuclear plants since the inception of nuclear power. The committee structure of the Code brings an ideal combination of senior technical people with both broad and specialized experience to bear on complex how safe is safe enough technical issues. The authors now see an even greater role for the ASME Code in a proposed new regulatory era for the US nuclear industry. The current legalistic confrontational regulatory era has been quite destructive. There now appears to be a real opportunity to begin a new era of technical consensus as the primary means for resolving safety issues. This change can quickly be brought about by having the industry take operating plant problems and regulatory technical issues directly to the ASME Code for timely resolution. Surprisingly, there is no institution in the US nuclear industry with such a mandate. In fact, the industry is organized to feedback through the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues which could be far better resolved through the ASME Code. Major regulatory benefits can be achieved by closing this loop and providing systematic interaction with the ASME Code. The essential elements of a new regulatory era and ideas for organizing US institutional industry responsibilities, taken from the French experience, are described in this paper.

  19. On the nature of the deeply embedded protostar OMC-2 FIR 4

    SciTech Connect

    Furlan, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Fischer, W. J.; Osorio, M.; Stutz, A. M.; Ali, B.; Manoj, P.; Adams, J. D.; Tobin, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 μm, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 μm. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 μm, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L {sub ☉}, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L {sub ☉}. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L {sub ☉}. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L {sub ☉}, while the luminosity of the colder (∼20 K) extended core could be around 100 L {sub ☉}, with a mass of about 27 M {sub ☉}. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L {sub ☉}. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.

  20. 75 FR 24323 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... by reference into the regulations in a final rule dated September 10, 2008 (73 FR 52730), as corrected on October 2, 2008 (73 FR 57235), incorporating Section III of the 2004 Edition of the ASME B&PV..., 2008 (73 FR 52729). The NRC follows a three-step process to determine acceptability of new...

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the outer membrane cytochrome OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tomanicek, S.J.; Johs, A.; Sawhney, M.S.; Shi, L.; Liang, L.

    2012-05-24

    The outer membrane cytochrome OmcA functions as a terminal metal reductase in the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The ten-heme centers shuttle electrons from the transmembrane donor complex to extracellular electron acceptors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of OmcA are reported. Crystals of OmcA were grown by the sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method using PEG 20 000 as a precipitant. The OmcA crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.0, b = 246.0, c = 136.6 {angstrom}, = 90, {beta} = 97.8, {gamma} = 90{sup o}. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 3.25 {angstrom}.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the outer membrane cytochrome OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tomanicek, S. J.; Johs, Alexander; Sawhney, M. S.; Shi, Liang; Liang, L.

    2012-01-01

    The outer membrane cytochrome OmcA functions as a terminal metal reductase in the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The ten-heme centers shuttle electrons from the transmembrane donor complex to extracellular electron acceptors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of OmcA are reported. Crystals of OmcA were grown by the sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method using PEG 20 000 as a precipitant. The OmcA crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.0, b = 246.0, c = 136.6 A ° , * = 90, * = 97.8, * = 90*. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 3.25 A ° .

  3. Isolation of a High-Affinity Functional Protein Complex between OmcA and MtrC: Two Outer Membrane Decaheme c-type Cytochromes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Chen, Baowei; Wang, Zheming; Elias, Dwayne A.; Mayer, M. Uljana; Gorby, Yuri A.; Ni, Shuisong; Lower, Brian H.; Kennedy, David W.; Wunschel, David S.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric A.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium that is capable of using insoluble oxidized metals, such as manganese [Mn(III, IV)] and iron [Fe(III)] oxides and oxyhydroxides, as terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration. The ability of S. oneidensis MR-1 to reduce oxidized Mn and/or Fe has previously been linked to OmcA and MtrC: two decaheme c-type cytochromes that are localized to the outer membrane. To investigate how the electron transport proteins OmcA and MtrC are organized, we expressed and purified recombinant OmcA and MtrC from wild type S. oneidensis MR-1 as well as a mutant that lacked OmcA and MtrC (ΔomcA/mtrC). After purification to the nearly electrophoretic homogeneity from the ΔomcA/mtrC mutant, the recombinant OmcA and MtrC exhibited the characteristics of c-type cytochromes, and each of their polypeptides was confirmed to contain 10 hemes. When purified from wild type cells, endogenous MtrC or OmcA was always co-purified with recombinant OmcA or MtrC, respectively. Fluorescence polarization experiment showed that recombinant OmcA bound to the FlAsH-labeled MtrC with a dissociation constant of 7 ×10-7 M. The purified recombinant OmcA or MtrC alone displayed intrinsic ferric reductase activity with NADH used as an electron donor. Ferric reductase specific activity increased by 35 to 41% when nearly equimolar concentrations of OmcA and MtrC were assayed relative to the two proteins assayed independently. These results demonstrate that OmcA and MtrC directly interact with each other to form a stable complex with high ferric reductase activity.

  4. Direct Involvement of Type II Secretion System in Extracellular Translocation of Shewanella Oneidensis Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Deng, Shuang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Zheming; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mottaz, Heather M.; Hill, Eric A.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Richardson, David J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2008-08-01

    Outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are extracellular lipoproteins important for dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides during anaerobic respiration. To investigate the roles of type II secretion system (T2S) in translocation of MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane, we measured the effects of deleting two T2S genes, gspD and gspG, on the secretion of MtrC and OmcA when cells were grown under anaerobic conditions. Deletion of gspD or gspG resulted in slightly yellowish supernatants, different from the pink supernatant of wild type (wt). Comparative proteomic analyses revealed that, although MtrC, OmcA and NrfA, a periplasmic nitrite reductase, were present the supernatants of wt and ΔgspD mutant, their peptides counts were much lower in ΔgspD than in wt. Subsequent analyses with heme-staining and Western blot not only confirmed that deletion of gspD or gspG reduced the abundances of MtrC and OmcA in the supernatants, but also revealed that the deletions consequently increased their abundances inside the cells. Complementation of ΔgspG mutant with functional GspG could reverse the effects of deleting gspG on the colors of the supernatants and the abundances of MtrC and OmcA. In contrast, Western results showed that the abundance of NrfA was reduced in the supernatant and the cells of ΔgspD mutant, suggesting that reduced NrfA in the periplasm, where MtrC and OmcA were accumulated, contributed to its reduction in the supernatant. Thus, our results demonstrate at the first time that T2S facilitates translocation of MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane.

  5. Recent changes to ASME B31.3

    SciTech Connect

    Becht, C. IV; Frikken, D.R.; Bane, E.J.

    1996-07-01

    The code for process piping, ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping, has undergone significant changes and additions in recent years. This includes many aspects of design, materials, and fabrication. Included are substantial changes to material impact testing requirements, qualification procedures for unlisted components, coverage of bellows expansion joints, and safety relief set pressure requirements. This paper provides an update on some of these recent changes to the Code together with some background on reasons for the changes.

  6. ASME code post weld heat treatment requirements: Current issues

    SciTech Connect

    McEnerney, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    An understanding of current ASME Code PWHT issues requires consideration of various governing factors. These include: historical perspective regarding rule development and needs for PWHT, design criteria dictating the purpose, potential adverse effects, validity of existing and/or need for additional global PWHT parameters, and fundamental questions and/or inadequate current requirements regarding local PWHT. Various activities to address the current issues are in progress at different code task groups and organizations.

  7. Proceedings of the 1994 ASME/IEEE joint railroad conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, K.L.; Hill, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The proceedings contains 22 papers from the IEEE/ASME Joint Railroad Conference. Topics discussed include flange bearing crossing frogs; rapid transit; vehicle on-board computer systems; total transport system control functions; automated train dispatching system; wheel thermal damage limits; AC propulsion; AC traction drives; electric power supplies; failure detection and identification; cargo transportation; and critical speed for railroad vehicles. Papers within the scope of the data base have been processed separately.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SMA 1.3mm image of OMC 1 North (Teixeira+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, P. S.; Takahashi, S.; Zapata, L. A.; Ho, P. T. P.

    2016-02-01

    We observed OMC 1n using the eight 6m antennas of the SMA1 in the compact configuration on December 4, 20, and 24, 2008 (2007B-S028, P.I.: L. Zapata) and in the subcompact configuration on February 1, 2009 (2008B-S072, P.I.: L. Zapata) at 230GHz. The primary beam at this frequency is 55", and the nine pointing centers were distributed in a Nyquist-sampled grid. (2 data files).

  9. Electrochemical interaction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and its outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC with hematite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Meitl, Leisa A.; Eggleston, Carrick M.; Colberg, Patricia J.; Khare, Nidhi; Reardon, Catherine L.; Shi, Liang

    2009-09-15

    Bacterial metal reduction is an important biogeochemical process in anaerobic environments. An understanding of electron transfer pathways from dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) to solid phase metal (hydr)oxides is important for understanding metal redox cycling in soils and sediments, for utilizing DMRB in bioremedation, and for developing technologies such as microbial fuel cells. Here we hypothesize that the outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are the only terminal reductases capable of direct electron transfer to a hematite working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to study electron transfer between hematite electrodes and protein films, S. oneidensis MR-1 wild-type cell suspensions, and cytochrome deletion mutants. After controlling for hematite electrode dissolution at negative potential, the midpoint potentials of adsorbed OmcA and MtrC were measured (-201 mV and -163 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively). Cell suspensions of wild-type MR-1, deletion mutants deficient in OmcA (ΔomcA), MtrC (ΔmtrC), and both OmcA and MtrC (ΔmtrC-ΔomcA) were also studied; voltammograms for ΔmtrC-ΔomcA were indistinguishable from the control. When the control was subtracted from the single deletion mutant voltammograms, redox peaks were consistent with the present cytochrome (i.e., ΔomcA consistent with MtrC and ΔmtrC consistent with OmcA). The results indicate that OmcA and MtrC are capable of direct electron exchange with hematite electrodes, consistent with a role as terminal reductases in the S. oneidensis MR-1 anaerobic respiratory pathway involving ferric minerals. There was no evidence for other terminal reductases operating under the conditions investigated. A Marcus-based approach to electron transfer kinetics indicated that the rate constant for electron transfer ket varies from 0.025 s-1 in the absence of a barrier to 63.5 s-1 with a 0.2 eV barrier.

  10. Protoplanetary Disks in the Orion OMC1 Region Imaged with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, J. A.; Bally, J. M.; Ginsburg, A.; Sheehan, P. D.

    2016-07-01

    We present ALMA observations of the Orion Nebula that cover the OMC1 outflow region. Our focus in this paper is on compact emission from protoplanetary disks. We mosaicked a field containing ∼600 near-IR-identified young stars, around which we can search for sub-millimeter emission tracing dusty disks. Approximately 100 sources are known proplyds identified with the Hubble Space Telescope. We detect continuum emission at 1 mm wavelengths toward ∼20% of the proplyd sample, and ∼8% of the larger sample of near-IR objects. The noise in our maps allows 4σ detection of objects brighter than ∼1.5 mJy, corresponding to protoplanetary disk masses larger than 1.5 M J (using standard assumptions about dust opacities and gas-to-dust ratios). None of these disks are detected in contemporaneous CO(2-1) or C18O(2-1) observations, suggesting that the gas-to-dust ratios may be substantially smaller than the canonical value of 100. Furthermore, since dust grains may already be sequestered in large bodies in Orion Nebula cluster (ONC) disks, the inferred masses of disk solids may be underestimated. Our results suggest that the distribution of disk masses in this region is compatible with the detection rate of massive planets around M dwarfs, which are the dominant stellar constituent in the ONC.

  11. ASME PTC 46 -- Acceptance test code for overall plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.R.; Yost, J.G.

    1999-11-01

    ASME published PTC 46 in 1996 after five years of development. PTC 46 is the first industry standard providing explicit procedures for conducting acceptance tests to determine the overall thermal performance and output of power generating units. It is applicable to any heat cycle power generating unit. This survey paper provides an overview of PTC 46 and discusses how PTC 46 can be used for acceptance testing of new combined cycle and fossil steam power generating units. Several technical papers have been previously presented that provide more detailed information and discussion on the use of PTC 46 in acceptance testing.

  12. In Vivo Identification of the Outer Membrane Protein OmcA-MtrC Interaction Network in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Cells Using Novel Hydrophobic Chemical Cross-Linkers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haizhen; Tang, Xiaoting; Munske, Gerhard R.; Zakharova, Natalia L.; Yang, Li; Zheng, Chunxiang; Wolff, Meagan A.; Tolic, Nikola; Anderson, Gordon A.; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bruce, James E.

    2008-04-01

    Outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA (SO1779) and MtrC (SO1778) are the integral components of electron transfer used by Shewanella oneidensis for anaerobic respiration of metal (hydr)oxides. Here the OmcA-MtrC interaction was identified in vivo using a novel hydrophobic chemical cross-linker (MRN) combined with immunoprecipitation techniques. In addition, identification of other OM proteins from the cross-linked complexes allows first visualization of the OmcA-MtrC interaction network. Further experiments on omcA and mtrC mutant cells showed OmcA plays a central role in the network interaction. For comparison, two commercial cross-linkers were also used in parallel and both resulted in fewer OM protein identifications, indicating the superior properties of MRN for identification of membrane protein interactions. Finally, comparison experiments of in vivo cross-linking and cell lysate cross-linking resulted in significantly different protein interaction data, demonstrating the importance of in vivo cross-linking for study of protein-protein interactions in cells.

  13. ASM Based Synthesis of Handwritten Arabic Text Pages.

    PubMed

    Dinges, Laslo; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Elzobi, Moftah; El-Etriby, Sherif; Ghoneim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Document analysis tasks, as text recognition, word spotting, or segmentation, are highly dependent on comprehensive and suitable databases for training and validation. However their generation is expensive in sense of labor and time. As a matter of fact, there is a lack of such databases, which complicates research and development. This is especially true for the case of Arabic handwriting recognition, that involves different preprocessing, segmentation, and recognition methods, which have individual demands on samples and ground truth. To bypass this problem, we present an efficient system that automatically turns Arabic Unicode text into synthetic images of handwritten documents and detailed ground truth. Active Shape Models (ASMs) based on 28046 online samples were used for character synthesis and statistical properties were extracted from the IESK-arDB database to simulate baselines and word slant or skew. In the synthesis step ASM based representations are composed to words and text pages, smoothed by B-Spline interpolation and rendered considering writing speed and pen characteristics. Finally, we use the synthetic data to validate a segmentation method. An experimental comparison with the IESK-arDB database encourages to train and test document analysis related methods on synthetic samples, whenever no sufficient natural ground truthed data is available. PMID:26295059

  14. ASM Based Synthesis of Handwritten Arabic Text Pages

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, Laslo; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Elzobi, Moftah; El-etriby, Sherif; Ghoneim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Document analysis tasks, as text recognition, word spotting, or segmentation, are highly dependent on comprehensive and suitable databases for training and validation. However their generation is expensive in sense of labor and time. As a matter of fact, there is a lack of such databases, which complicates research and development. This is especially true for the case of Arabic handwriting recognition, that involves different preprocessing, segmentation, and recognition methods, which have individual demands on samples and ground truth. To bypass this problem, we present an efficient system that automatically turns Arabic Unicode text into synthetic images of handwritten documents and detailed ground truth. Active Shape Models (ASMs) based on 28046 online samples were used for character synthesis and statistical properties were extracted from the IESK-arDB database to simulate baselines and word slant or skew. In the synthesis step ASM based representations are composed to words and text pages, smoothed by B-Spline interpolation and rendered considering writing speed and pen characteristics. Finally, we use the synthetic data to validate a segmentation method. An experimental comparison with the IESK-arDB database encourages to train and test document analysis related methods on synthetic samples, whenever no sufficient natural ground truthed data is available. PMID:26295059

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transitions in OMC-2 FIR 4 in the far-IR (Kama+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kama, M.; Lopez-Sepulcre, A.; Dominik, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Fuente, A.; Caux, E.; Higgins, R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Alonso-Albi, T.

    2014-04-01

    Broadband spectral surveys of protostars offer a rich view of the physical, chemical and dynamical structure and evolution of star-forming regions. The Herschel Space Observatory opened up the terahertz regime to such surveys, giving access to the fundamental transitions of many hydrides and to the high-energy transitions of many other species. A comparative analysis of the chemical inventories and physical processes and properties of protostars of various masses and evolutionary states is the goal of the Herschel CHEmical Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS) key program. This paper focusses on the intermediate-mass protostar, OMC-2 FIR 4. We obtained a spectrum of OMC-2 FIR 4 in the 480 to 1902GHz range with the HIFI spectrometer onboard Herschel and carried out the reduction, line identification, and a broad analysis of the line profile components, excitation, and cooling. We detect 719 spectral lines from 40 species and isotopologs. The line flux is dominated by CO, H2O, and CH3OH. The line profiles are complex and vary with species and upper level energy, but clearly contain signatures from quiescent gas, a broad component likely due to an outflow, and a foreground cloud. We find abundant evidence for warm, dense gas, as well as for an outflow in the field of view. Line flux represents 2% of the 7L⊙ luminosity detected with HIFI in the 480 to 1250GHz range. Of the total line flux, 60% is from CO, 13% from H2O and 9% from CH3OH. A comparison with similar HIFI spectra of other sources is set to provide much new insight into star formation regions, a case in point being a difference of two orders of magnitude in the relative contribution of sulphur oxides to the line cooling of Orion KL and OMC-2 FIR 4. (1 data file).

  16. Depletion of chlorine into HCl ice in a protostellar core. The CHESS spectral survey of OMC-2 FIR 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kama, M.; Caux, E.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Wakelam, V.; Dominik, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lanza, M.; Lique, F.; Ochsendorf, B. B.; Lis, D. C.; Caballero, R. N.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The freezeout of gas-phase species onto cold dust grains can drastically alter the chemistry and the heating-cooling balance of protostellar material. In contrast to well-known species such as carbon monoxide (CO), the freezeout of various carriers of elements with abundances <10-5 has not yet been well studied. Aims: Our aim here is to study the depletion of chlorine in the protostellar core, OMC-2 FIR 4. Methods: We observed transitions of HCl and H2Cl+ towards OMC-2 FIR 4 using the Herschel Space Observatory and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory facilities. Our analysis makes use of state of the art chlorine gas-grain chemical models and newly calculated HCl-H2 hyperfine collisional excitation rate coefficients. Results: A narrow emission component in the HCl lines traces the extended envelope, and a broad one traces a more compact central region. The gas-phase HCl abundance in FIR 4 is 9 × 10-11, a factor of only 10-3 that of volatile elemental chlorine. The H2Cl+ lines are detected in absorption and trace a tenuous foreground cloud, where we find no depletion of volatile chlorine. Conclusions: Gas-phase HCl is the tip of the chlorine iceberg in protostellar cores. Using a gas-grain chemical model, we show that the hydrogenation of atomic chlorine on grain surfaces in the dark cloud stage sequesters at least 90% of the volatile chlorine into HCl ice, where it remains in the protostellar stage. About 10% of chlorine is in gaseous atomic form. Gas-phase HCl is a minor, but diagnostically key reservoir, with an abundance of ≲10-10 in most of the protostellar core. We find the [35Cl]/[37Cl] ratio in OMC-2 FIR 4 to be 3.2 ± 0.1, consistent with the solar system value. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Role of Outer-Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in the Biomineralization of Ferrihydrite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Catherine L.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Kennedy, David W.; Saffarini, Daad; Arey, Bruce W.; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Moore, Dean A.; Mclean, Jeffrey S.; Moyles, Dianne M.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to improve the understanding of electron transfer mechanisms at the microbe-mineral interface, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mutants with in-frame deletions of outer membrane cytochrome genes mtrC, omcA, or both, were characterized for the ability to reduce metal oxides using a suite of microscopic, spectroscopic, and biochemicalr techniques. The results indicate that neither MtrC nor OmcA are essential for the reduction of soluble, complexed Fe(III)-citrate or Fe(III)-NTA; however, at least one of these outer membrane cytochromes is required for the reduction of Fe(III)- and Mn(III/IV)- oxides. In vitro analysis of purified, recombinant protein demonstrated that both cytochromes transfer electrons directly to metal-oxides; however, MtrC transfers electrons at a faster rate than OmcA. Immunolocalization of MtrC and OmcA reveal that both cytochromes are surface-exposed on the cell outer-membrane and co-localize with insoluble iron precipitates when respiring ferrihydrite or cultured aerobically with Fe(III)-citrate. Additionally, during prolonged incubation, wild-type cells promoted biotransformation of ferrihydrite to vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2•8H2O] while the double cytochrome mutant was unable to form any secondary mineral phases. Collectively, our results support a role for direct electron transfer from OMCs to metal oxides by establishing their in vitro electron transfer activities, confirming the requirement of either MtrC or OmcA for in vivo reductive biomineralization of ferrihydrite, and localizing the cytochromes to the cell exterior where they can directly contact mineral substrates.

  18. 3D automatic anatomy recognition based on iterative graph-cut-ASM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Bagci, Ulas; Alavi, Abass; Torigian, Drew A.

    2010-02-01

    We call the computerized assistive process of recognizing, delineating, and quantifying organs and tissue regions in medical imaging, occurring automatically during clinical image interpretation, automatic anatomy recognition (AAR). The AAR system we are developing includes five main parts: model building, object recognition, object delineation, pathology detection, and organ system quantification. In this paper, we focus on the delineation part. For the modeling part, we employ the active shape model (ASM) strategy. For recognition and delineation, we integrate several hybrid strategies of combining purely image based methods with ASM. In this paper, an iterative Graph-Cut ASM (IGCASM) method is proposed for object delineation. An algorithm called GC-ASM was presented at this symposium last year for object delineation in 2D images which attempted to combine synergistically ASM and GC. Here, we extend this method to 3D medical image delineation. The IGCASM method effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the globally optimal delineation capability of the GC method. We propose a new GC cost function, which effectively integrates the specific image information with the ASM shape model information. The proposed methods are tested on a clinical abdominal CT data set. The preliminary results show that: (a) it is feasible to explicitly bring prior 3D statistical shape information into the GC framework; (b) the 3D IGCASM delineation method improves on ASM and GC and can provide practical operational time on clinical images.

  19. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING... accordance with section IX of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited,...

  20. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING... accordance with section IX of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited,...

  1. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING... accordance with section IX of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited,...

  2. ASME Nuclear Crane Standards for Enhanced Crane Safety and Increased Profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhurst, Stephen N.

    2000-01-01

    The ASME NOG-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes', covers top running cranes for nuclear facilities; with the ASME NUM-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Cranes, Monorails, and Hoists', covering the single girder, underhung, wall and jib cranes, as well as the monorails and hoists. These two ASME nuclear crane standards provide criteria for designing, inspecting and testing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety to meet the 'defense-in-depth' approach of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents NUREG 0554 and NUREG 0612. In addition to providing designs for enhanced safety, the ASME nuclear crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with standard safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities. The ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1 standards not only provide enhanced safety for handling a critical load, but also increase profit by minimizing the possibility of load drops, by reducing cumbersome operating restrictions, and by providing the foundation for a sound licensing position. The ASME nuclear crane standards can also increase profit by providing the designs and information to help ensure that the right standard equipment is purchased. Additionally, the ASME nuclear crane standards can increase profit by providing designs and information to help address current issues, such as the qualification of nuclear plant cranes for making 'planned engineered lifts' for steam generator replacement and decommissioning.

  3. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  4. Constitutive overexpression of asm18 increases the production and diversity of maytansinoids in Actinosynnema pretiosum.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanren; Lu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yuemao

    2016-03-01

    Ansamitocins isolated from Actinosynnema pretiosum, potent antitumor compounds, belong to the family of maytansinoids, and the antibody-maytansinoid conjugates are currently under different phases of clinical trials. The clinical applications of ansamitocins have stimulated extensive studies to improve their production yields. In this study, we investigated the function of a pathway-specific S treptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family regulator, Asm18, and observed that ectopic overexpression of the asm18 gene increased the production of N-demethyl-4,5-desepoxy-maytansinol (2) to 50 mg/L in the HGF052 + pJTU824-asm18 strain, an increase by 4.7-fold compared to that of the control strain HGF052 + pJTU824. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the overexpression of the asm18 gene selectively increased the transcription levels of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the starter unit (asm43), polyketide assembly (asmA), post-PKS modification (asm21), as well as the transcription levels of the regulatory gene (asm8), which is a specific LAL-type activator in ansamitocin biosynthesis. With the increase of fermentation titre, seven ansamitocin analogs (1-7) including three new ones (1, 5, and 6) and maytansinol (7) were isolated from the HGF052 + pJTU824-asm18 strain. Our results not only pave the way for further improving the production of ansamitocin analogs but also indicate that the post-PKS modifications of ansamitocin biosynthesis are flexible, which brings a potential of producing maytansinol, the most fascinating intermediate for the synthesis of antibody-maytansinoid conjugates, by optimizing the HGF052 and/or HGF052 + pJTU824-asm18 strains. PMID:26572523

  5. Encapsulating connections on SoC designs using ASM++ charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, Santiago; Herrero, Luis C.; Martínez, Fernando; Rey, Alexis B.

    This article presents a methodology to encapsulate, not only the functionality of several SoC modules, but also the connections between those modules. To achieve these results, the possibilities of Algorithmic State Machines (ASM charts) have been extended to develop a compiler. Using this approach, a SoC design becomes a set of chart boxes and links: several boxes describe parameterized modules in a hierarchical fashion, other boxes encapsulate their connections, and all boxes are linked together using simple lines. At last, a compiler processes all required files and generates the corresponding VHDL or Verilog code, valid for simulation and synthesis. A small SoC design with two DSP processors is shown as an example.

  6. ASM stepper alignment through thick epitaxial silicon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Iain

    1999-04-01

    High voltage bipolar and BiCMOS processes often use thick epitaxially grown layers of silicon. These films 12-24 micrometers thick offer a considerable challenge to the alignment of subsequent process layers due to the 'wash out' and image distortion, caused to any underlying pattern, which render automatic alignment mark recognition difficult it not impossible. Historically using projection aligner technology these immediately post Epi layers have been manually aligned with future automatic alignment target defined at the first opportunity post Epi. This is not possible using ASM steppers, as these depend upon marks etched into the silicon, before first processing, to create marks, to which all subsequent layers are registered. To allow the stepper to run wafers with these Epi films a new approach was required.

  7. FIRST SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS WITH SOFIA/FORCAST: PROPERTIES OF INTERMEDIATE-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS IN OMC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Joseph D.; Herter, Terry L.; Gull, George E.; Henderson, Charles P.; Schoenwald, Justin; Stacey, Gordon; Osorio, Mayra; Macias, Enrique; Thomas Megeath, S.; Fischer, William J.; Ali, Babar; D'Alessio, Paola; De Buizer, James M.; Shuping, Ralph Y.; Keller, Luke D.; Morris, Mark R.; Remming, Ian S.; Stanke, Thomas; Stutz, Amelia; and others

    2012-04-20

    We examine eight young stellar objects in the OMC-2 star-forming region based on observations from the SOFIA/FORCAST early science phase, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, and other results in the literature. We show the spectral energy distributions (SED) of these objects from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, and compare the SEDs with those of sheet collapse models of protostars and circumstellar disks. Four of the objects can be modeled as protostars with infalling envelopes, two as young stars surrounded by disks, and the remaining two objects have double-peaked SEDs. We model the double-peaked sources as binaries containing a young star with a disk and a protostar. The six most luminous sources are found in a dense group within a 0.15 Multiplication-Sign 0.25 pc region; these sources have luminosities ranging from 300 L{sub Sun} to 20 L{sub Sun }. The most embedded source (OMC-2 FIR 4) can be fit by a class 0 protostar model having a luminosity of {approx}50 L{sub Sun} and mass infall rate of {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  8. THE DISCOVERY OF THE YOUNGEST MOLECULAR OUTFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS PROTOSTELLAR CORE, MMS-6/OMC-3

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2012-01-20

    We present subarcsecond resolution HCN (4-3) and CO (3-2) observations made with the Submillimeter Array, toward an extremely young intermediate-mass protostellar core, MMS 6-main, located in the Orion Molecular Cloud 3 region (OMC-3). We have successfully imaged a compact molecular outflow lobe ( Almost-Equal-To 1000 AU) associated with MMS 6-main, which is also the smallest molecular outflow ever found in the intermediate-mass protostellar cores. The dynamical timescale of this outflow is estimated to be {<=}100 yr. The line width dramatically increases downstream at the end of the molecular outflow ({Delta}v {approx} 25 km s{sup -1}) and clearly shows the bow-shock-type velocity structure. The estimated outflow mass ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }) and outflow size are approximately two to four orders and one to three orders of magnitude smaller, respectively, while the outflow force ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} km s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) is similar, compared to the other molecular outflows studied in OMC-2/3. These results show that MMS 6-main is a protostellar core at the earliest evolutionary stage, most likely shortly after the second core formation.

  9. Regulation of dynein-mediated autophagosomes trafficking by ASM in CASMCs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pin-Lan; Nguyen, Thaison; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM; gene symbol Smpd1) has been shown to play a crucial role in autophagy maturation by controlling lysosomal fusion with autophagosomes in coronary arterial smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). However, the underlying molecular mechanism by which ASM controls autophagolysosomal fusion remains unknown. In primary cultured CASMCs, lysosomal Ca2+ induced by 7-ketocholesterol (7-Ket, an atherogenic stimulus and autophagy inducer) was markedly attenuated by ASM deficiency or TRPML1 gene silencing suggesting that ASM signaling is required for TRPML1 channel activity and subsequent lysosomal Ca2+ release. In these CASMCs, ASM deficiency or TRPML1 gene silencing markedly inhibited 7-Ket-induced dynein activation. In addition, 7-Ket-induced autophagosome trafficking, an event associated with lysosomal Ca2+ release and dynein activity, was significantly inhibited in ASM-deficient (Smpd1−/−) CASMCs compared to that in Smpd1+/+ CASMCs. Finally, overexpression of TRPML1 proteins restored 7-Ket-induced lysosomal Ca2+ release and autophagosome trafficking in Smpd1−/− CASMCs. Collectively, these results suggest that ASM plays a critical role in regulating lysosomal TRPML1-Ca2+ signaling and subsequent dynein-mediated autophagosome trafficking, which leads its role in controlling autophagy maturation in CASMCs under atherogenic stimulation. PMID:26709800

  10. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hass, Ulla

    2011-02-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the

  11. The First ASME Code Stamped Cryomodule at SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, M P; Crofford, M T; Douglas, D L; Kim, S -H; Steward, S T; Strong, W H; Afanador, R; Hannah, B S; Saunders, J; Mammosser, J D

    2012-07-01

    The first spare cryomodule for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been designed, fabricated, and tested by SNS personnel. The approach to design for this cryomodule was to hold critical design features identical to the original design such as bayonet positions, coupler positions, cold mass assembly, and overall footprint. However, this is the first SNS cryomodule that meets the pressure requirements put forth in the 10 CFR 851: Worker Safety and Health Program. The most significant difference is that Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code was applied to the vacuum vessel of this cryomodule. Applying the pressure code to the helium vessels within the cryomodule was considered. However, it was determined to be schedule prohibitive because it required a code case for materials that are not currently covered by the code. Good engineering practice was applied to the internal components to verify the quality and integrity of the entire cryomodule. The design of the cryomodule, fabrication effort, and cryogenic test results will be reported in this paper.

  12. Estimates of margins in ASME Code strength values for stainless steel nuclear piping

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.

    1995-11-01

    The margins in the ASME Code stainless steel allowable stress values that can be attributed to the variations in material strength are evaluated for nuclear piping steels. Best-fit curves were calculated for the material test data that were used to determine allowable stress values for stainless steels in the ASME Code, supplemented by more recent data, to estimate the mean stresses. The mean yield stresses (on which the stainless steel S{sub m} values are based) from the test data are about 15 to 20% greater than the ASME Code yield stress values. The ASME Code yield stress values are estimated to approximately coincide with the 97% confidence limit from the test data. The mean and 97% confidence limit values can be used in the probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear piping.

  13. 14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... all-cargo carrier, you must have submitted your RTM reports to the Department for the second calendar... correct an error that you document to the Department, you must not alter the ASM or RTM reports...

  14. 115-year-old society knows how to reach young scientists: ASM Young Ambassador Program.

    PubMed

    Karczewska-Golec, Joanna

    2015-12-25

    With around 40,000 members in more than 150 countries, American Society for Microbiology (ASM) faces the challenge of meeting very diverse needs of its increasingly international members base. The newly launched ASM Young Ambassador Program seeks to aid the Society in this effort. Equipped with ASM conceptual support and financing, Young Ambassadors (YAs) design and pursue country-tailored approaches to strengthen the Society's ties with local microbiological communities. In a trans-national setting, the active presence of YAs at important scientific events, such as 16th European Congress on Biotechnology, forges new interactions between ASM and sister societies. The paper presents an overview of the Young Ambassadors-driven initiatives at both global and country levels, and explores the topic of how early-career scientists can contribute to science diplomacy and international relations. PMID:25449541

  15. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING General Requirements § 57.02-2 Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. (a) The qualifications for all types of welders and brazers,...

  16. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section... AND BRAZING General Requirements § 57.02-2 Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. (a) The... in this part. Table 57.02-1(a)—Limitations and Modifications to the Adoption of section IX of...

  17. Fatigue evaluation of ASME Class 1 components considering the environmental effects

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, M.M.; Maneschy, E.

    1995-12-01

    A discussion considering fatigue design basis (FDB) and fatigue operating basis (FOB) approaches is presented. These two concepts are applied to evaluate the lifetime of typical ASME 3 class 1 components through simplified and detailed stress analysis. The cumulative usage factor (CUF) calculated using S-N fatigue curves available in the ASME 3 are compared to those obtained by S-N curves modified by the reactor environment. Some recommendations are presented to assess the fatigue in nuclear power plants structures.

  18. A Minimal Path Searching Approach for Active Shape Model (ASM)-based Segmentation of the Lung.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shengwen; Fei, Baowei

    2009-03-27

    We are developing a minimal path searching method for active shape model (ASM)-based segmentation for detection of lung boundaries on digital radiographs. With the conventional ASM method, the position and shape parameters of the model points are iteratively refined and the target points are updated by the least Mahalanobis distance criterion. We propose an improved searching strategy that extends the searching points in a fan-shape region instead of along the normal direction. A minimal path (MP) deformable model is applied to drive the searching procedure. A statistical shape prior model is incorporated into the segmentation. In order to keep the smoothness of the shape, a smooth constraint is employed to the deformable model. To quantitatively assess the ASM-MP segmentation, we compare the automatic segmentation with manual segmentation for 72 lung digitized radiographs. The distance error between the ASM-MP and manual segmentation is 1.75 ± 0.33 pixels, while the error is 1.99 ± 0.45 pixels for the ASM. Our results demonstrate that our ASM-MP method can accurately segment the lung on digital radiographs. PMID:24386531

  19. A minimal path searching approach for active shape model (ASM)-based segmentation of the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shengwen; Fei, Baowei

    2009-02-01

    We are developing a minimal path searching method for active shape model (ASM)-based segmentation for detection of lung boundaries on digital radiographs. With the conventional ASM method, the position and shape parameters of the model points are iteratively refined and the target points are updated by the least Mahalanobis distance criterion. We propose an improved searching strategy that extends the searching points in a fan-shape region instead of along the normal direction. A minimal path (MP) deformable model is applied to drive the searching procedure. A statistical shape prior model is incorporated into the segmentation. In order to keep the smoothness of the shape, a smooth constraint is employed to the deformable model. To quantitatively assess the ASM-MP segmentation, we compare the automatic segmentation with manual segmentation for 72 lung digitized radiographs. The distance error between the ASM-MP and manual segmentation is 1.75 +/- 0.33 pixels, while the error is 1.99 +/- 0.45 pixels for the ASM. Our results demonstrate that our ASM-MP method can accurately segment the lung on digital radiographs.

  20. Risk-based inspection in ASME Section XI

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, J.J.

    1996-12-01

    By 1970 the first edition of the ASME Code Section XI, Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Reactor Coolant Systems was published. From its inception, the Section XI inservice inspection scope was based on a fundamental risk-based selection process. In other words the inservice inspection scope included components where the consequences of a pressure boundary failure were high. Once the consequence significant system boundaries were established, inspections would then be performed at locations believed to be most susceptible service induced failure. Current Section XI requirements require that inspection locations be selected on the basis of peak stress and fatigue usage values contained in the Design Reports. These original stress calculations were designed to qualify a design and assure that the plant would provide reliable service throughout its design life. For the most part, the fatigue usage values in these reports do not provide an accurate measure of service life. As service history has demonstrated, the use of Design Report stresses and fatigue usage values can be misleading. The Section XI ISI inspection requirements have always been intended to focus inspections at those locations in the plant that pose the greater risk to reactor safety. This fundamental principle behind the Section XI inspection requirements has guided Section XI since its inception. However, today Utility resources are limited. The move in many states to deregulate utilities and growing competition from independent power producers is challenging Owners to reduce operating and maintenance cost without sacrificing safety. These programs should allow plants to focus limited resources on those locations where damage mechanisms are active and consequences are high. This will provide for efficient use of plants resources and improve safety.

  1. Specific Bonds between an Iron Oxide Surface and Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Brian H.; Shi, Liang; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Droubay, Timothy C.; Mccready, David E.; Lower, Steven

    2007-07-31

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is purported to express outer membrane cytochromes (e.g., MtrC and OmcA) that transfer electrons directly to Fe(III) in a mineral during anaerobic respiration.  A prerequisite for this type of reaction would be the formation of a stable bond between a cytochrome and an iron oxide surface.  Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect whether a specific bond forms between a hematite (Fe2O3) thin film, created with oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and recombinant MtrC or OmcA molecules coupled to gold substrates.  Force spectra displayed a unique force signature indicative of a specific bond between each cytochrome and the hematite surface.  The strength of the OmcA-hematite bond was approximately twice as strong as the MtrC-hematite bond, but direct binding to hematite was twice as favorable for MtrC.  Reversible folding/unfolding reactions were observed for mechanically denatured MtrC molecules bound to hematite.  The force measurements for the hematite-cytochrome pairs were compared to spectra collected between an iron oxide and S. oneidensis under anaerobic conditions.  There is a strong correlation between the whole cell and pure protein force spectra suggesting that the unique binding attributes of each cytochrome complement one another and allow both MtrC and OmcA to play a prominent role in the transfer of electrons to Fe(III) in minerals.  Finally, by comparing the magnitude of binding force for the whole cell vs. pure protein data, we were able to estimate that a single bacterium of S. oneidensis (2 x 0.5 μm) expresses ~104 cytochromes on its outer surface. 

  2. Specific bonds between an iron oxide surface and outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Lower, Brian H; Shi, Liang; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Droubay, Timothy C; McCready, David E; Lower, Steven K

    2007-07-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is purported to express outer membrane cytochromes (e.g., MtrC and OmcA) that transfer electrons directly to Fe(III) in a mineral during anaerobic respiration. A prerequisite for this type of reaction would be the formation of a stable bond between a cytochrome and an iron oxide surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect whether a specific bond forms between a hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) thin film, created with oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and recombinant MtrC or OmcA molecules coupled to gold substrates. Force spectra displayed a unique force signature indicative of a specific bond between each cytochrome and the hematite surface. The strength of the OmcA-hematite bond was approximately twice that of the MtrC-hematite bond, but direct binding to hematite was twice as favorable for MtrC. Reversible folding/unfolding reactions were observed for mechanically denatured MtrC molecules bound to hematite. The force measurements for the hematite-cytochrome pairs were compared to spectra collected for an iron oxide and S. oneidensis under anaerobic conditions. There is a strong correlation between the whole-cell and pure-protein force spectra, suggesting that the unique binding attributes of each cytochrome complement one another and allow both MtrC and OmcA to play a prominent role in the transfer of electrons to Fe(III) in minerals. Finally, by comparing the magnitudes of binding force for the whole-cell versus pure-protein data, we were able to estimate that a single bacterium of S. oneidensis (2 by 0.5 microm) expresses approximately 10(4) cytochromes on its outer surface. PMID:17468239

  3. Specific Bonds between an Iron Oxide Surface and Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1▿

    PubMed Central

    Lower, Brian H.; Shi, Liang; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Droubay, Timothy C.; McCready, David E.; Lower, Steven K.

    2007-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is purported to express outer membrane cytochromes (e.g., MtrC and OmcA) that transfer electrons directly to Fe(III) in a mineral during anaerobic respiration. A prerequisite for this type of reaction would be the formation of a stable bond between a cytochrome and an iron oxide surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect whether a specific bond forms between a hematite (Fe2O3) thin film, created with oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and recombinant MtrC or OmcA molecules coupled to gold substrates. Force spectra displayed a unique force signature indicative of a specific bond between each cytochrome and the hematite surface. The strength of the OmcA-hematite bond was approximately twice that of the MtrC-hematite bond, but direct binding to hematite was twice as favorable for MtrC. Reversible folding/unfolding reactions were observed for mechanically denatured MtrC molecules bound to hematite. The force measurements for the hematite-cytochrome pairs were compared to spectra collected for an iron oxide and S. oneidensis under anaerobic conditions. There is a strong correlation between the whole-cell and pure-protein force spectra, suggesting that the unique binding attributes of each cytochrome complement one another and allow both MtrC and OmcA to play a prominent role in the transfer of electrons to Fe(III) in minerals. Finally, by comparing the magnitudes of binding force for the whole-cell versus pure-protein data, we were able to estimate that a single bacterium of S. oneidensis (2 by 0.5 μm) expresses ∼104 cytochromes on its outer surface. PMID:17468239

  4. ASME code considerations for the compact heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Nestell, James; Sham, Sam

    2015-08-31

    . Classic shell and tube designs will be large and costly, and may only be appropriate in steam generator service in the SHX where boiling inside the tubes occurs. For other energy conversion systems, all of these features can be met in a compact heat exchanger design. This report will examine some of the ASME Code issues that will need to be addressed to allow use of a Code-qualified compact heat exchanger in IHX or SHX nuclear service. Most effort will focus on the IHX, since the safety-related (Class A) design rules are more extensive than those for important-to-safety (Class B) or commercial rules that are relevant to the SHX.

  5. Abundance of the Multiheme c-Type Cytochrome OmcB Increases in Outer Biofilm Layers of Electrode-Grown Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Camille S.; LaBelle, Edward V.; Brantley, Susan L.; Bond, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    When Geobacter sulfurreducens utilizes an electrode as its electron acceptor, cells embed themselves in a conductive biofilm tens of microns thick. While environmental conditions such as pH or redox potential have been shown to change close to the electrode, less is known about the response of G. sulfurreducens to growth in this biofilm environment. To investigate whether respiratory protein abundance varies with distance from the electrode, antibodies against an outer membrane multiheme cytochrome (OmcB) and cytoplasmic acetate kinase (AckA) were used to determine protein localization in slices spanning ∼25 µm-thick G. sulfurreducens biofilms growing on polished electrodes poised at +0.24 V (vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode). Slices were immunogold labeled post-fixing, imaged via transmission electron microscopy, and digitally reassembled to create continuous images allowing subcellular location and abundance per cell to be quantified across an entire biofilm. OmcB was predominantly localized on cell membranes, and 3.6-fold more OmcB was detected on cells 10–20 µm distant from the electrode surface compared to inner layers (0–10 µm). In contrast, acetate kinase remained constant throughout the biofilm, and was always associated with the cell interior. This method for detecting proteins in intact conductive biofilms supports a model where the utilization of redox proteins changes with depth. PMID:25090411

  6. The ASM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Microbiology: A Case Study of the Advocacy Role of Societies in Reform Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Horak, Rachel E. A.; Merkel, Susan; Chang, Amy

    2015-01-01

    A number of national reports, including Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, have called for drastic changes in how undergraduate biology is taught. To that end, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has developed new Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate microbiology that outline a comprehensive curriculum for any undergraduate introductory microbiology course or program of study. Designed to foster enduring understanding of core microbiology concepts, the Guidelines work synergistically with backwards course design to focus teaching on student-centered goals and priorities. In order to qualitatively assess how the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are used by educators and learn more about the needs of microbiology educators, the ASM Education Board distributed two surveys to the ASM education community. In this report, we discuss the results of these surveys (353 responses). We found that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are being implemented in many different types of courses at all undergraduate levels. Educators indicated that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines were very helpful when planning courses and assessments. We discuss some specific ways in which the ASM Curriculum Guidelines have been used in undergraduate classrooms. The survey identified some barriers that microbiology educators faced when trying to adopt the ASM Curriculum Guidelines, including lack of time, lack of financial resources, and lack of supporting resources. Given the self-reported challenges to implementing the ASM Curriculum Guidelines in undergraduate classrooms, we identify here some activities related to the ASM Curriculum Guidelines that the ASM Education Board has initiated to assist educators in the implementation process. PMID:25949769

  7. Swarm's Absolute Magnetometer (ASM) Experimental Vector Mode, a Unique Capability With Considerable Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulot, G.; Vigneron, P.; Leger, J. M.; Fratter, I.; Olsen, N.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Brocco, L.; Sirol, O.; Lalanne, X.; Boness, A.; Cattin, V.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to providing the reference absolute scalar measurements on the three Alpha, Bravo and Charlie satellites of the Swarm mission, each Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) can also, and simultaneously, provide independent experimental vector field measurements. These experimental data appear to be of the expected quality (though somewhat less so on Charlie). In addition, comparisons of these measurements with readings from the Vector Field Magnetometer (VFM, located some distance away along the boom and used to produce the nominal Swarm Level1b vector data) show that the mechanical link between both instruments is very stable on all three satellites. These remarkable circumstances make it possible not only to compare the output of the VFM and ASM instruments for cross-validation purposes, but also to compute geomagnetic field models using only ASM scalar and vector mode data, without resorting to VFM data. Such models can then be compared to models computed in exactly the same way from VFM data (using exactly the same data distribution in time and space for both models, which thus only differ by the fact that the data are provided by either the ASM experimental vector mode, or the nominal L1b calibrated VFM data). As we shall illustrate in this presentation, such comparisons provide extremely valuable information. Not only do they show that ASM experimental vector mode data can indeed be used to produce high-degree geomagnetic field models, but they also provide a very interesting perspective on what may be the cause of undesired perturbations on either of the ASM and VFM instruments.

  8. 46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), as limited, modified, or replaced... subchapter. See 46 CFR 56.60-1(b) for the other adopted commercial standards applicable to piping systems... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and...

  9. 46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), as limited, modified, or replaced... subchapter. See 46 CFR 56.60-1(b) for the other adopted commercial standards applicable to piping systems... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and...

  10. 46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), as limited, modified, or replaced... subchapter. See 46 CFR 56.60-1(b) for the other adopted commercial standards applicable to piping systems... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and...

  11. 46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), as limited, modified, or replaced... subchapter. See 46 CFR 56.60-1(b) for the other adopted commercial standards applicable to piping systems... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and...

  12. 46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), as limited, modified, or replaced... subchapter. See 46 CFR 56.60-1(b) for the other adopted commercial standards applicable to piping systems... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and...

  13. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01-1), as limited, modified, or replaced by specific requirements in... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME...

  14. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01-1), as limited, modified, or replaced by specific requirements in... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME...

  15. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01-1), as limited, modified, or replaced by specific requirements in... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME...

  16. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01-1), as limited, modified, or replaced by specific requirements in... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME...

  17. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01-1), as limited, modified, or replaced by specific requirements in... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME...

  18. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs. PMID:26439861

  19. Evaluation of ASME Section XI Reference Level Sensitivity for Initiation of Ultrasonic Inspection Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T. T.; Selby, G. P.

    1981-04-01

    This report evaluates the change in inspection sensitivity resulting in major changes of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI between 1974 and 1977 Editions. It was found that the inspection sensitivity resulting from requirements of the 1977 Edition of Section XI were not adequate to detect minimum flaws referenced by same Code.

  20. PHASE I MATERIALS PROPERTY DATABASE DEVELOPMENT FOR ASME CODES AND STANDARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Lin, Lianshan

    2013-01-01

    To support the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes and Standard (BPVC) in modern information era, development of a web-based materials property database is initiated under the supervision of ASME Committee on Materials. To achieve efficiency, the project heavily draws upon experience from development of the Gen IV Materials Handbook and the Nuclear System Materials Handbook. The effort is divided into two phases. Phase I is planned to deliver a materials data file warehouse that offers a depository for various files containing raw data and background information, and Phase II will provide a relational digital database that provides advanced features facilitating digital data processing and management. Population of the database will start with materials property data for nuclear applications and expand to data covering the entire ASME Code and Standards including the piping codes as the database structure is continuously optimized. The ultimate goal of the effort is to establish a sound cyber infrastructure that support ASME Codes and Standards development and maintenance.

  1. Status of ASME Section III Task Group on Graphite Support Core Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Bratton; Tim D. Burchell

    2005-08-01

    This report outlines the roadmap that the ASME Project Team on Graphite Core Supports is pursuing to establish design codes for unirradiated and irradiated graphite core components during its first year of operation. It discusses the deficiencies in the proposed Section III, Division 2, Subsection CE graphite design code and the different approaches the Project Team has taken to address those deficiencies.

  2. 14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs? 330.31 Section 330.31 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR...

  3. 14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs? 330.31 Section 330.31 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR...

  4. 14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs? 330.31 Section 330.31 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR...

  5. 14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs? 330.31 Section 330.31 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR...

  6. Interpreting ASME limits and philosophy in FEA of pressure vessel parts

    SciTech Connect

    Bezerra, L.M.; Cruz, J.R.B.; Miranda, C.A.J.; Neto, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    In recent years there has been an effort to interpret finite element (FE) stress results on the light of the ASME B and PV rules and philosophy. Many task groups have issued guidelines on stress linearization and classifications. All those attempts have come up trying to cope modern FE techniques with the rules imposed by the ASME Code. This paper is an independent contribution to the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) groups which are studying the stress classification and the failure mechanism in a FE framework. This work tries to complement the interesting work by Hollinger and Hechmer presented in the PVP-94 in Minneapolis. In that paper, the authors examined a typical support skirt and showed relations between the skirt collapse load obtained by finite element analysis and the loads allowed from the ASME stress limits. To complement such paper, in the present article, different skirt geometry configurations are analyzed. The configurations here investigated consist of similar support skirts but with different angles of attachments between cylinder and cone parts. It will be possible to observe the influence of the bending stress in the collapse load and its relation to the allowable loads inferred from the ASME limits. A pressure vessel with torispherical head under internal pressure is also examined. Using elastic and limit load FEA, the present paper determines the collapse loads of the configurations. It sets up the relations between these collapse loads, stress categories, and limits dictated by the ASME Code Subsection NB. On the light of NB rules and philosophy, this paper shows how different methods of stress assessment, classification, and limits may influence in the design of a pressure vessel.

  7. Mutational and gene expression analysis of mtrDEF, omcA and mtrCAB during arsenate and iron reduction in Shewanella sp. ANA-3

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Carolina; Murphy, Julie N.; Saltikov, Chad W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Arsenate respiration and Fe(III) reduction are important processes that influence the fate and transport of arsenic in the environment. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of arsenate on Fe(III) reduction using arsenate and Fe(III) reduction deficient mutants of Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3. Ferrihydrite reduction in the absence of arsenate was similar for an arsenate reduction mutant (arrA and arsC deletion strain of ANA-3) compared with wild-type ANA-3. However, the presence of arsenate adsorbed onto ferrihydrite impeded Fe(III) reduction for the arsenate reduction mutant but not in the wild-type. In an Fe(III) reduction mutant (mtrDEF, omcA, mtrCAB null mutant of ANA-3), arsenate was reduced similarly to wild-type ANA-3 indicating the Fe(III) reduction pathway is not required for ferrihydrite-associated arsenate reduction. Expression analysis of the mtr/omc gene cluster of ANA-3 showed that omcA and mtrCAB were expressed under soluble Fe(III), ferrihydrite and arsenate growth conditions and not in aerobically grown cells. Expression of arrA was greater with ferrihydrite pre-adsorbed with arsenate relative to ferrihydrite only. Lastly, arrA and mtrA were simultaneously induced in cells shifted to anaerobic conditions and exposed to soluble Fe(III) and arsenate. These observations suggest that, unlike Fe(III), arsenate can co-induce operons (arr and mtr) implicated in arsenic mobilization. PMID:20236164

  8. Effects of in vivo exposure to UV filters (4-MBC, OMC, BP-3, 4-HB, OC, OD-PABA) on endocrine signaling genes in the insect Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing evidence indicating that several UV filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. Numerous studies have evaluated hormonal effects in vertebrates, mainly reporting estrogenic and androgenic activities in mammals and fishes. There is only limited knowledge about potential endocrine activity in invertebrate hormonal systems. In this work, the effects on endocrine signaling genes of six frequently used UV filters were investigated in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. The UV filters studied were: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also called 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC); benzophenone-3 (BP-3); 4-hidroxybenzophenone (4-HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). After in vivo exposure at different dosages, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR), the ultraspiracle (usp, ortholog of the RXR) and the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) were quantified by Real Time PCR. The EcR gene was significantly upregulated by 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA, with a dose-related response following 24h exposure. In contrast, the benzophenones, BP-3 and 4-HB, as well as OC did not alter this gene at the same exposure conditions. The transcription profiles of the usp and ERR genes were not significantly affected, except for BP-3 that inhibited the usp gene at the highest concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence in invertebrates of a direct effect of UV filters on endocrine-related genes, and is consistent with the known effects on vertebrate hormonal receptor genes. The capability of 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA to stimulate the expression of the ecdysone receptor, a key transcription factor for the ecdysone-genomic response in arthropods, suggests the possibility of a broad and long-term effect on this hormonal pathway. These findings strengthen the need for further research about the ecotoxicological implications

  9. The Herschel/HIFI spectral survey of OMC-2 FIR 4 (CHESS). An overview of the 480 to 1902 GHz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kama, M.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Dominik, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Fuente, A.; Caux, E.; Higgins, R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Alonso-Albi, T.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Broadband spectral surveys of protostars offer a rich view of the physical, chemical and dynamical structure and evolution of star-forming regions. The Herschel Space Observatory opened up the terahertz regime to such surveys, giving access to the fundamental transitions of many hydrides and to the high-energy transitions of many other species. Aims: A comparative analysis of the chemical inventories and physical processes and properties of protostars of various masses and evolutionary states is the goal of the Herschel CHEmical Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS) key program. This paper focusses on the intermediate-mass protostar, OMC-2 FIR 4. Methods: We obtained a spectrum of OMC-2 FIR 4 in the 480 to 1902 GHz range with the HIFI spectrometer onboard Herschel and carried out the reduction, line identification, and a broad analysis of the line profile components, excitation, and cooling. Results: We detect 719 spectral lines from 40 species and isotopologs. The line flux is dominated by CO, H2O, and CH3OH. The line profiles are complex and vary with species and upper level energy, but clearly contain signatures from quiescent gas, a broad component likely due to an outflow, and a foreground cloud. Conclusions: We find abundant evidence for warm, dense gas, as well as for an outflow in the field of view. Line flux represents 2% of the 7 L⊙ luminosity detected with HIFI in the 480 to 1250 GHz range. Of the total line flux, 60% is from CO, 13% from H2O and 9% from CH3OH. A comparison with similar HIFI spectra of other sources is set to provide much new insight into star formation regions, a case in point being a difference of two orders of magnitude in the relative contribution of sulphur oxides to the line cooling of Orion KL and OMC-2 FIR 4. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Comparison of effects of estradiol (E2) with those of octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) - 2 filters of UV light - on several uterine, vaginal and bone parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Seidlova-Wuttke, D.; Jarry, H.; Christoffel, J.; Rimoldi, G.; Wuttke, W. . E-mail: ufkendo@med.uni-goettingen.de

    2006-02-01

    OMC and 4MBC are 2 absorbers of ultraviolet light which are used in unknown quantities in sunscreens, cosmetics and plastic products to protect against UV light-induced damage of the skin or of fragrances or plastic material. From there, they were shown to reach surface water and/or by direct contamination or ingestion the human. Under various conditions in mice and rats, both substances were shown to be estrogenic. Therefore, we compared in vitro and in vivo the effects of chronic application of these compounds at 2 doses with those of E2, all administered via food. No signs of toxicity were observed under application of 0.6 mg E2, 57.5 or 275 mg of OMC, 57.5 or 250 mg of 4MBC; these amounts were ingested with 21 g of control food, 17.8 g E2 food, 20.6 g or 22.3 g OMC food and 23.7 or 22.8 g 4MBC food. In the uterus, vagina and bone, E2 exerted the expected stimulatory effects which were minimally shared by OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and vagina as assessed by histology and determination of a variety of estrogen-regulated genes such as insulin-like growth factor-1, progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor {beta}. In the bone, OMC had no effect, while 4MBC shared the antiosteoporotic effects of E2 as measured by quantitative computer tomography in the metaphysis of the tibia. The mechanism of action of 4MBC, however, appears to be different as E2 reduced serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal breakdown products of collagen-1{alpha}1 which were both increased by 4MBC. Taken together, these data indicate a very weak estrogenic effect of OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and in the vagina but not in the bone where 4MBC exerted antiosteoporotic effects by a different mechanism than E2.

  11. A methodology for existing system upgrade to current ASME standards and system lifetime extension

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.K.; Dwight, J.E. Jr.; Hawkes, G.L.; Pace, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl events, there has been an increase in the awareness and review of government operated reactors both internationally, and within the United States. Government reactors have recently come under increased and indepth scrutiny. Department of Energy Secretary Hodel committed to a review of the safety of non-commercial reactors and irradiation facilities within the department. The increased attention has been in the areas of accident response, PRA of the facilities, environmental impacts, and the construction and associated standards for the facilities. This paper focuses on the system qualifications to current standards. Specifically, this paper discusses a method used for upgrading an existing high pressure nuclear system to current ASME Code standards and to extend the system's lifetime. This paper reports the methods used in an attempt to qualify components of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to current ASME Code Section III standards.

  12. ASME AG-1 Section FC Qualified HEPA Filters; a Particle Loading Comparison - 13435

    SciTech Connect

    Stillo, Andrew; Ricketts, Craig I.

    2013-07-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters used to protect personnel, the public and the environment from airborne radioactive materials are designed, manufactured and qualified in accordance with ASME AG-1 Code section FC (HEPA Filters) [1]. The qualification process requires that filters manufactured in accordance with this ASME AG-1 code section must meet several performance requirements. These requirements include performance specifications for resistance to airflow, aerosol penetration, resistance to rough handling, resistance to pressure (includes high humidity and water droplet exposure), resistance to heated air, spot flame resistance and a visual/dimensional inspection. None of these requirements evaluate the particle loading capacity of a HEPA filter design. Concerns, over the particle loading capacity, of the different designs included within the ASME AG-1 section FC code[1], have been voiced in the recent past. Additionally, the ability of a filter to maintain its integrity, if subjected to severe operating conditions such as elevated relative humidity, fog conditions or elevated temperature, after loading in use over long service intervals is also a major concern. Although currently qualified HEPA filter media are likely to have similar loading characteristics when evaluated independently, filter pleat geometry can have a significant impact on the in-situ particle loading capacity of filter packs. Aerosol particle characteristics, such as size and composition, may also have a significant impact on filter loading capacity. Test results comparing filter loading capacities for three different aerosol particles and three different filter pack configurations are reviewed. The information presented represents an empirical performance comparison among the filter designs tested. The results may serve as a basis for further discussion toward the possible development of a particle loading test to be included in the qualification requirements of ASME AG-1

  13. A method for certification of FRP piping fabricators for ASME B31.3 systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, K.D.

    1996-07-01

    Cost-effective FRP piping is often the material of choice for transport of corrosive chemicals. Plant Managers and Engineers have great concern about the integrity of FRP piping joints and the safety of these systems. A specification requirement, in the bid documents, that all fabricators be Certified by the FRP piping manufacturer is a method to promote successful fabrication. A method is proposed, which is in accordance with ASME B31.3 Piping Code, to train and certify fabricators.

  14. A Proposal for the Maximum KIC for Use in ASME Code Flaw and Fracture Toughness Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Mark; Stevens, Gary; Erickson, Marjorie A; Yin, Shengjun

    2011-01-01

    Nonmandatory Appendices A [1] and G [2] of Section XI of the ASME Code use the KIc curve (indexed to the material reference transition temperature, RTNDT) in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) flaw evaluations, and for the purpose of establishing RPV pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. Neither of these appendices places an upper-limit on the KIc value that may be used in these assessments. Over the years, it has often been suggested by some of the members of the ASME Section XI Code committees that are responsible for maintaining Appendices A and G that there is a practical upper limit of 200 ksi in (220 MPa m) [4]. This upper limit is not well recognized by all users of the ASME Code, is not explicitly documented within the Code itself, and the one source known to the authors where it is defended [4] relies on data that is either in error, or is less than 220 MPa m. However, as part of the NRC/industry pressurized thermal shock (PTS) re-evaluation effort, empirical models were developed that propose common temperature dependencies for all ferritic steels operating on the upper shelf. These models relate the fracture toughness properties in the transition regime to those on the upper shelf and, combined with data for a wide variety of RPV steels and welds on which they are based, suggest that the practical upper limit of 220 MPa m exceeds the upper shelf fracture toughness of most RPV steels by a considerable amount, especially for irradiated steels. In this paper, available models and data are used to propose upper bound limits of applicability on the KIc curve for use in ASME Code, Section XI, Nonmandatory Appendices A and G evaluations that are consistent with available data for RPV steels.

  15. Need for ASME code changes for reliable characterization of thermal fatigue cracks in Class 1 components

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.N.; Ware, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current inspection requirements for detecting and sizing thermal fatigue cracks in major light water reactor components. A review of field experience indicates that several sites in base metal that are susceptible to thermal fatigue damage are not included in the service inspection programs. Current inservice inspection procedures and conventional ultrasonic inspection techniques are not adequate for reliable detection and sizing of thermal fatigue cracks. This paper makes several recommendations for changes in ASME Section 11 inspection requirements. 12 refs.

  16. RXTE/ASM Observations Of SS 433 And Cygnus X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Lisa; Mason, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a dynamic period search analysis of the X-ray binaries SS 433 and Cygnus X-2 using data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All Sky Monitor (RXTE/ASM) spanning over 13 years. We report the detection of a period in SS 433 near 162 days. This may be the first detection of the disk precession period in X-rays. We detect an 81.8 day period in the object Cygnus X-2. The RXTE/ASM light curve is inconsistent with the 77.7 day X-ray period of Wijnands et al. (1996), which was based on a small subset of the RXTE/ASM data combined with data from VELA 5B, and Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitors. Since Cygnus X-2 displays periodic behavior that seems to come and go, producing different best-fit periods on time scales of a few years; we suggest that Cygnus X-2 exhibits quasi-periodic oscillations of about 80 days. This research is supported by a grant from the New Mexico Space Grant Consortium.

  17. A 2015 Igrf Candidate Model Based on Swarm's Experimental ASM Vector Mode Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.; Olsen, N.; Leger, J. M.; Jager, T.; Brocco, L.; Sirol, O.; Coisson, P.; Lalanne, X.; Chulliat, A.; Bertrand, F.; Boness, A.; Fratter, I.

    2014-12-01

    Each of the three Alpha, Bravo and Charlie satellites of the ESA Swarm mission carries an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (CNES customer furnished ASM instrument designed by CEA-Léti) that provides the nominal 1 Hz scalar data of the mission, but also delivers 1 Hz experimental vector data. Tests during the commissioning and calibration/validation phase have shown that these data and the rigidity of the boom mechanically linking the ASM to the star imager (STR) on Alpha and Bravo were of such good quality that an IGRF candidate geomagnetic field model could possibly be produced from such ASM-only data (without having to resort to any of the nominal vector field magnetometer (VFM) data of the mission). In this presentation, we will report on our efforts to build such an IGRF candidate, which intends to provide an image of the January 1, 2015 Geomagnetic Field, alternative to the images provided by IGRF candidate models based on Swarm nominal L1b data, or other data.

  18. Understanding the Long-Term Spectral Variability of Cygnus X-1 from BATSE and ASM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Poutanen, Juri; Paciesas, William S.; Wen, Linqing; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of observations of Cygnus X-1 by the RXTE/ASM (1.5-12 keV) and CGRO/BATSE (20-300 keV), including about 1200 days of simultaneous data. We find a number of correlations between intensities and hardnesses in different energy bands from 1.5 keV to 300 keV. In the hard (low) spectral state, there is a negative correlation between the ASM 1.5-12 keV flux and the hardness at any energy. In the soft (high) spectral state, the ASM flux is positively correlated with the ASM hardness (as previously reported) but uncorrelated with the BATSE hardness. In both spectral states, the BATSE hardness correlates with the flux above 100 keV, while it shows no correlation with the flux in the 20-100 keV range. At the same time, there is clear correlation between the BATSE fluxes below and above 100 keV. In the hard state, most of the variability can be explained by softening the overall spectrum with a pivot at approximately 50 keV. The observations show that there has to be another, independent variability pattern of lower amplitude where the spectral shape does not change when the luminosity changes. In the soft state, the variability is mostly caused by a variable hard (Comptonized) spectral component of a constant shape superimposed on a constant soft blackbody component. These variability patterns are in agreement with the dependence of the rms variability on the photon energy in the two states. We interpret the observed correlations in terms of theoretical Comptonization models. In the hard state, the variability appears to be driven mostly by changing flux in seed photons Comptonized in a hot thermal plasma cloud with an approximately constant power supply. In the soft state, the variability is consistent with flares of hybrid, thermal/nonthermal, plasma with variable power above a stable cold disk. Also, based on broadband pointed observations simultaneous with those of the ASM and BATSE, we find the intrinsic bolometric luminosity increases by a

  19. Role of outer membrane c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cell production, accumulation and detachment during respiration on hematite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has the capacity to contribute to iron cycling over the long term by respiring on crystalline iron oxides such as hematite when poorly crystalline phases are depleted. The ability of outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC of MR-1 to bind to an...

  20. Effects of Bio-Au Nanoparticles on Electrochemical Activity of Shewanella oneidensis Wild Type and ΔomcA/mtrC Mutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ranran; Cui, Li; Chen, Lixiang; Wang, Chao; Cao, Changli; Sheng, Guoping; Yu, Hanqing; Zhao, Feng

    2013-11-01

    Both Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 wild type and its mutant ΔomcA/mtrC are capable of transforming AuIII into Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Cyclic voltammetry reveals a decrease in redox current after the wild type is exposed to AuIII but an increase in oxidation current for the mutant. The peak current of the wild type is much higher than that of the mutant before the exposure of AuIII, but lower than that of the mutant after the formation of AuNPs. This suggests that damage to the electron transfer chain in the mutant could be repaired by AuNPs to a certain extent. Spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis indicate a decrease in cell protein content after the formation of AuNPs, which provides a convenient way to detect intracellular information on cells.

  1. Effects of Bio-Au Nanoparticles on Electrochemical Activity of Shewanella oneidensis Wild Type and ΔomcA/mtrC Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ranran; Cui, Li; Chen, Lixiang; Wang, Chao; Cao, Changli; Sheng, Guoping; Yu, Hanqing; Zhao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Both Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 wild type and its mutant ΔomcA/mtrC are capable of transforming AuIII into Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Cyclic voltammetry reveals a decrease in redox current after the wild type is exposed to AuIII but an increase in oxidation current for the mutant. The peak current of the wild type is much higher than that of the mutant before the exposure of AuIII, but lower than that of the mutant after the formation of AuNPs. This suggests that damage to the electron transfer chain in the mutant could be repaired by AuNPs to a certain extent. Spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis indicate a decrease in cell protein content after the formation of AuNPs, which provides a convenient way to detect intracellular information on cells. PMID:24264440

  2. Far-infrared and submillimeter observations of the multiple cores in S255, W3, and OMC-1 - Evidence for fragmentation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, D. T.; Davidson, J. A.; Dragovan, M.; Hildebrand, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The two cores of the S255 cloud were mapped at 60, 100, 185, and 400 microns and 40-400 microns maps were made of the cores and S255, OMC-1 and W3. Absolute flux densities were determined with an accuracy of 30 percent. The luminosities and masses of the S255 cores were equivalent to those of the other objects, including the concentration of a compact H II region around young objects. The densified regions are regarded as typical of areas where massive objects are forming. The observed 1.4-4 km/sec velocity differences between two cores in any one cloud indicates that the angular momentum of the original clouds, which drove the collapse of the cores, is transferred to the massive young stars.

  3. C-13H3OH in OMC-1. [and spectral line identifications combining laboratory spectroscopy with broad-band astronomical line searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, G. A.; Sutton, E. C.; Masson, C. R.; Phillips, T. G.; Herbst, E.; Plummer, G. M.; De Lucia, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Transition line data for C-13H3OH in OMC-1 were gathered with a superconducting tunnel junction receiver and a 512 channel spectrometer on a 10.4 m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. The methanol was scanned at 236 GHz and an observational efficiency of 85 percent. The survey was carried out to complement the data base on the line frequencies of internal rotors such as methanol and thereby the resolution of the C-12/C-13 ratio toward the galactic center. The data indicated that previous emission lines attributed to CO(+) and CH3CHO are actually methanol emissions, and the associated C-12/C-13 ratio is about 30.

  4. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development.

    PubMed

    Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists' leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants ("scholars") from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP's long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program's 2010-2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and helps

  5. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Amy L.; Pribbenow, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants (“scholars”) from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010–2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and

  6. New methods of analysis of materials strength data for the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, M.K.; Booker, B.L.P.

    1980-01-01

    Tensile and creep data of the type used to establish allowable stress levels for the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code have been examined for type 321H stainless steel. Both inhomogeneous, unbalanced data sets and well-planned homogeneous data sets have been examined. Data have been analyzed by implementing standard manual techniques on a modern digital computer. In addition, more sophisticated techniques, practical only through the use of the computer, have been applied. The result clearly demonstrates the efficacy of computerized techniques for these types of analyses.

  7. ASME N510 test results for Savannah River Site AACS filter compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.D.; Punch, T.M.

    1995-02-01

    The K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site recently implemented design improvements for the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) by procuring, installing, and testing new Air Cleaning Units, or filter compartments, to ASME AG-11, N509, and N510 requirements. Specifically, these new units provide documentable seismic resistance to a Design Basis Accident earthquake, provide 2 inch adsorber beds with 0.25 second residence time, and meet all AG-1, N509, and N510 requirements for testability and maintainability. This paper presents the results of the Site acceptance testing and discusses an issue associated with sample manifold qualification testing.

  8. Material organizations in the 1994 Addenda ASME Code Section III, Division I

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, M.N.; Kist, N.C.

    1995-12-01

    This paper provides a history of the requirements for materials in ASME Code Section 3, Nuclear Power Plant Components, from its inception to the present 1992 Edition and the new 1994 Addenda. Major events in the development of the Code are listed, and the organizations involved in materials that are covered by this standard arc described. Changes to duties and responsibilities of individuals and organizations performing Section 3 material activities are identified, and the requirements for accreditation and qualification are discussed. A Code Case to provide alternatives to compliance is presented.

  9. Friction and wear testing source book: Selected references from ASTM standards and ASM handbooks

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    A collection of key standards and reference articles about friction, lubrication, and wear makes this a valuable reference book to answer questions about wear mechanisms and testing, and how different measurement methods compare to each other. The focus is on test methods, with supporting material on analysis of wear-related failures. Selected information is reprinted from ASTM Standards, Volumes 2.05, 3.02, 5.02, 5.03 and 13.01, and ASM Handbooks, Volumes 8 (Mechanical Testing), 11 (Failure Analysis and Prevention) and 18 (Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology).

  10. Materials and design bases issues in ASME Code Case N-47

    SciTech Connect

    Huddleston, R.L.; Swindeman, R.W. )

    1993-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the design bases (principally ASME Code Case N-47) was conducted for design and operation of reactors at elevated temperatures where the time-dependent effects of creep, creep-fatigue, and creep ratcheting are significant. Areas where Code rules or regulatory guides may be lacking or inadequate to ensure the operation over the expected life cycles for the next-generation advanced high-temperature reactor systems, with designs to be certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have been identified as unresolved issues. Twenty-two unresolved issues were identified and brief scoping plans developed for resolving these issues.

  11. Overview of the new ASME Performance Test Code for wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.

    1986-01-01

    The principal technical features of the ASME Performance Test Code for wind turbines are presented and such issues as what sizes and types of wind turbines should be included, what the principal measure of performance should be, and how wind speed should be measured are discussed. It is concluded that the present test code is applicable to wind turbine systems of all sizes. The principal measure of performance as defined by this code is net energy output and the primary performance parameter is the 'test energy ratio' which is based on a comparison between the measured and predicted energy output for the test period.

  12. Application of the ASME code in the design of the GA-4 and GA-9 casks

    SciTech Connect

    Mings, W.J. ); Koploy, M.A. )

    1992-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing two spent fuel shipping casks for transport by legal weight truck (LWT). The casks are designed to the loading, environmental conditions and safety requirements defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71). To ensure that all components of the cask meet the 10CFR71 rules, GA established structural design criteria for each component based on NRC Regulatory Guides and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code). This paper discusses the criteria used for different cask components, how they were applied and the conservatism and safety margins built into the criteria and assumption.

  13. Application of the ASME code in the design of the GA-4 and GA-9 casks

    SciTech Connect

    Mings, W.J.; Koploy, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing two spent fuel shipping casks for transport by legal weight truck (LWT). The casks are designed to the loading, environmental conditions and safety requirements defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71). To ensure that all components of the cask meet the 10CFR71 rules, GA established structural design criteria for each component based on NRC Regulatory Guides and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code). This paper discusses the criteria used for different cask components, how they were applied and the conservatism and safety margins built into the criteria and assumption.

  14. Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Wang, Z.

    1992-07-01

    The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material.

  15. Quasi-ellipsoidal heads to ASME Code under internal pressure stress analysis by the Force Method

    SciTech Connect

    Guedes, E.

    1996-12-01

    Torispherically-dished pressure vessel heads that meet Section VIII of the ASME Code can be completely analyzed by means of the so-called Force Method. Thus combined normal stresses (pressure plus radial growth plus bending) at the shell junctures that make up those heads may be determined to a good degree of accuracy, along with the ideal bending-free location of the welding line (circumferential joint that connects head to shell). As a useful consequence, head skirt is kept to a safe minimum.

  16. Comparison of effects of estradiol (E2) with those of octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC)--2 filters of UV light - on several uterine, vaginal and bone parameters.

    PubMed

    Seidlová-Wuttke, D; Jarry, H; Christoffel, J; Rimoldi, G; Wuttke, W

    2006-02-01

    OMC and 4MBC are 2 absorbers of ultraviolet light which are used in unknown quantities in sunscreens, cosmetics and plastic products to protect against UV light-induced damage of the skin or of fragrances or plastic material. From there, they were shown to reach surface water and/or by direct contamination or ingestion the human. Under various conditions in mice and rats, both substances were shown to be estrogenic. Therefore, we compared in vitro and in vivo the effects of chronic application of these compounds at 2 doses with those of E2, all administered via food. No signs of toxicity were observed under application of 0.6 mg E2, 57.5 or 275 mg of OMC, 57.5 or 250 mg of 4MBC; these amounts were ingested with 21 g of control food, 17.8 g E2 food, 20.6 g or 22.3 g OMC food and 23.7 or 22.8 g 4MBC food. In the uterus, vagina and bone, E2 exerted the expected stimulatory effects which were minimally shared by OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and vagina as assessed by histology and determination of a variety of estrogen-regulated genes such as insulin-like growth factor-1, progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor beta. In the bone, OMC had no effect, while 4MBC shared the antiosteoporotic effects of E2 as measured by quantitative computer tomography in the metaphysis of the tibia. The mechanism of action of 4MBC, however, appears to be different as E2 reduced serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal breakdown products of collagen-1alpha1 which were both increased by 4MBC. Taken together, these data indicate a very weak estrogenic effect of OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and in the vagina but not in the bone where 4MBC exerted antiosteoporotic effects by a different mechanism than E2. PMID:15979666

  17. Code cases for implementing risk-based inservice testing in the ASME OM code

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Historically inservice testing has been reasonably effective, but quite costly. Recent applications of plant PRAs to the scope of the IST program have demonstrated that of the 30 pumps and 500 valves in the typical plant IST program, less than half of the pumps and ten percent of the valves are risk significant. The way the ASME plans to tackle this overly-conservative scope for IST components is to use the PRA and plant expert panels to create a two tier IST component categorization scheme. The PRA provides the quantitative risk information and the plant expert panel blends the quantitative and deterministic information to place the IST component into one of two categories: More Safety Significant Component (MSSC) or Less Safety Significant Component (LSSC). With all the pumps and valves in the IST program placed in MSSC or LSSC categories, two different testing strategies will be applied. The testing strategies will be unique for the type of component, such as centrifugal pump, positive displacement pump, MOV, AOV, SOV, SRV, PORV, HOV, CV, and MV. A series of OM Code Cases are being developed to capture this process for a plant to use. One Code Case will be for Component Importance Ranking. The remaining Code Cases will develop the MSSC and LSSC testing strategy for type of component. These Code Cases are planned for publication in early 1997. Later, after some industry application of the Code Cases, the alternative Code Case requirements will gravitate to the ASME OM Code as appendices.

  18. Results from Evaluation of Proposed ASME AG-1 Section FI Metal Media Filters - 13063

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, John A.; Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2013-07-01

    High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration technology is commonly used in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that require control of radioactive particulate matter (PM) emissions due to treatment or management of radioactive materials. Although HEPA technology typically makes use of glass fiber media, metal and ceramic media filters are also capable of filtering efficiencies beyond the required 99.97%. Sintered metal fiber filters are good candidates for use in DOE facilities due to their resistance to corrosive environments and resilience at high temperature and elevated levels of relative humidity. Their strength can protect them from high differential pressure or pressure spikes and allow for back pulse cleaning, extending filter lifetime. Use of these filters has the potential to reduce the cost of filtration in DOE facilities due to life cycle cost savings. ASME AG-1 section FI has not been approved due to a lack of protocols and performance criteria for qualifying section FI filters. The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) with the aid of the FI project team has developed a Section FI test stand and test plan capable of assisting in the qualification ASME AG-1 section FI filters. Testing done at ICET using the FI test stand evaluates resistance to rated air flow, test aerosol penetration and resistance to heated air of the section FI filters. Data collected during this testing consists of temperature, relative humidity, differential pressure, flow rate, upstream particle concentration, and downstream particle concentration. (authors)

  19. A strategy for implementation of experience based seismic equipment qualification in IEEE and ASME industry standards

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.M.

    1996-12-01

    In the past 20 years, extensive data on the performance of mechanical and electric equipment during actual strong motion earthquakes and seismic qualification tests has been accumulated. Recognizing that an experience based approach provides a technically sound and cost effective method for the seismic qualification of some or certain equipment, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment established a Special Working Group to investigate the incorporation of experienced based methods into the industry consensus codes and standards currently used in the seismic qualification of Seismic Category Nuclear Power Plant equipment. This paper presents the strategy (course of action) which was developed by the Special Working Group for meeting this objective of incorporation of experience based seismic qualification standards used in the design and seismic qualification of seismic category nuclear power plant equipment. This strategy was recommended to both chartering organizations, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment for their consideration and implementation. The status of the review and implementation of the Special Working Group`s recommended strategy by the sponsoring organization is also discussed.

  20. Methods for incorporating effects of LWR coolant environment into ASME code fatigue evaluations.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.

    1999-04-15

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Appendix I to Section HI of the Code specifies design fatigue curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Recent test data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR environments on the fatigue resistance of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels (SSs). Under certain loading and environmental conditions, fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels can be a factor of {approx}70 lower in an LWR environment than in air. These results raise the issue of whether the design fatigue curves in Section III are appropriate for the intended purpose. This paper presents the two methods that have been proposed for incorporating the effects of LWR coolant environments into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations. The mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs in LWR environments are discussed.

  1. Overview of new rules and recent changes in ASME code, Section VIII, pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    In this presentation, some of the new rules and recent changes to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 8, Divisions 1 and 2, are reviewed. On July 1, 1995, the 1995 Edition of the ASME Code was issued. This 1995 Edition incorporates those items which were added of changed in the 1992, 1993, and 1994 Addenda to the 1992 Edition of the Code. The 1995 Edition contains no new items which were not included in the previous edition and three addenda. With the possibility of an extended time before some of the new rules are able to appear in the addenda, the recent trend is to put the rules in Code Cases which are approved earlier. Consequently, it is necessary to review new Code Cases as well as Code changes. Updates continue for impact requirements for standard components as well as for materials other than UCS, carbon steel and low alloys. Extensive changes have been made for UHA, high-alloy, materials regarding impact requirements. Example problems have been revised to include these effects. Significant changes are reviewed.

  2. Comparison of ASME Code NB-3200 and NB-3600 results for fatigue analysis of B31.1 branch nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Nitzel, M.E.; Ware, A.G.; Morton, D.K.

    1996-06-01

    Fatigue analyses wre conducted on two reactor coolant system branch nozzles in an operating PWR designed to the B31.1 Code, for which no explicit fatigue analysis was required by the licensing basis. These analyses were performed as part of resolving issues connected with NRC`s Fatigue Action Plan to determine if the cumulative usage factor (CUF) for these nozzles, using the 1992 ASME Code and representative PWR transients, were comparable to nozzles designed and analyzed to the ASME Code. Both NB-3200 and NB-3600 ASME Code methods were used. NB-3200 analyses included the development of finite element models for each nozzle. Although detailed thermal transients were not available for the plant analyzed, representative transients from similar PWRs were applied in each method. CUFs calculated using NB-3200 methods were significantly less than using NB-3600. The paper points out differences in analysis methods and highlights difficulties and unknowns in performing more detailed analyses to reduce conservative assumptions.

  3. 3D automatic anatomy segmentation based on iterative graph-cut-ASM

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xinjian; Bagci, Ulas

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This paper studies the feasibility of developing an automatic anatomy segmentation (AAS) system in clinical radiology and demonstrates its operation on clinical 3D images. Methods: The AAS system, the authors are developing consists of two main parts: object recognition and object delineation. As for recognition, a hierarchical 3D scale-based multiobject method is used for the multiobject recognition task, which incorporates intensity weighted ball-scale (b-scale) information into the active shape model (ASM). For object delineation, an iterative graph-cut-ASM (IGCASM) algorithm is proposed, which effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the globally optimal delineation capability of the GC method. The presented IGCASM algorithm is a 3D generalization of the 2D GC-ASM method that they proposed previously in Chen et al.[Proc. SPIE, 7259, 72590C1-72590C-8 (2009)]. The proposed methods are tested on two datasets comprised of images obtained from 20 patients (10 male and 10 female) of clinical abdominal CT scans, and 11 foot magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The test is for four organs (liver, left and right kidneys, and spleen) segmentation, five foot bones (calcaneus, tibia, cuboid, talus, and navicular). The recognition and delineation accuracies were evaluated separately. The recognition accuracy was evaluated in terms of translation, rotation, and scale (size) error. The delineation accuracy was evaluated in terms of true and false positive volume fractions (TPVF, FPVF). The efficiency of the delineation method was also evaluated on an Intel Pentium IV PC with a 3.4 GHZ CPU machine. Results: The recognition accuracies in terms of translation, rotation, and scale error over all organs are about 8 mm, 10 deg. and 0.03, and over all foot bones are about 3.5709 mm, 0.35 deg. and 0.025, respectively. The accuracy of delineation over all organs for all subjects as expressed in TPVF and FPVF is 93.01% and 0.22%, and

  4. Crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade 2 steel in hydrogen at ambient temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Cyclic-load crack growth measurements were performed on ASME SA-105 Grade 2 steel specimens exposed to 10,000- and 15,000-psi hydrogen and to 5000-psi helium, all at ambient temperatures. The cyclic-load crack growth rate was found to be faster in high-pressure hydrogen than in helium. Cyclic-load crack growth rates in this steel were not reduced by preloading in air to a stress intensity of 1.5 times the cyclic K sub max in hydrogen. There are indications that holding under load in hydrogen, and loading and unloading in helium retards hydrogen-accelerated cyclic-load crack growth. Cyclic frequency and R (ratio of K sub min/k sub max) were important variables determining crack growth rate. The crack growth rate increased as a logarithm of the cycle duration and decreased with increasing R.

  5. Investigation of ASME code: Section 3, Subsection NB, Suggested revisions: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Love, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    The nuclear industry has become increasingly aware that engineering standards documents include requirements which are technically inconsistent and in many cases excessively costly to apply. As a result of these concerns, a study of Subsection NB of Section III of the ASME Code was undertaken. Subsection NB addresses Code requirements for Class 1 Components for nuclear power plants. The study was restricted to one subsection with the intent of discovering the extent of the difficulties in the Code. The areas of primary concern were those requirements which have a direct impact on design, fabrication, and examination. Subsection NB was carefully reviewed for inconsistencies and unworkable criteria. Seventy-seven such deficiencies were identified. A preliminary recommendation was prepared for each inconsistency or unworkable criterion. An overall critique of the Subsection was written, and suggestions were made for addressing the problems as part of a major Code revision.

  6. ASM conference report: genetics and molecular biology of industrial microorganisms 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The ASM Conference on Genetics and Molecular Biology of Industrial Microorganisms was held Sept. 30 to Oct. 3, 1984 in Bloomington, Indiana. The meetings reflected the progress in applying molecular techniques to the genetic analysis of industrial microorganisms. Topics of discussion included; gene expression in yeasts; the cloning of an Aspergillus sp. gene for glucomylase into S. cerevisiae; the construction of a yeast acentric ring plasmid (YARpl); the cloning of hygromycin resistant genes into Cephalosporium; optimization of gene expression in E. coli; a model for the initiation of translation in E. coli based on experiments with T4rIIb mutants; the role of proteases in protein turnover; evidence indicating which segments on RNAs are needed for the initiation of DNA synthesis; the application of various gene expression systems for the production of vaccines; the sporulation genes of Bacillus; the inducible chloramphenicol resistance found in Bacillus; gene expression in Streptomyces; enzyme activities in Streptomyces; and cloning of genes involved in antibiotic biosynthesis.

  7. Calibration and simulation of ASM2d at different temperatures in a phosphorus removal pilot plant.

    PubMed

    García-Usach, F; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2006-01-01

    In this work, an organic and nutrient removal pilot plant was used to study the temperature influence on phosphorus accumulating organisms. Three experiments were carried out at 13, 20 and 24.5 degrees C, achieving a high phosphorus removal percentage in all cases. The ASM2d model was calibrated at 13 and 20 degrees C and the Arrhenius equation constant was obtained for phosphorus removal processes showing that the temperature influences on the biological phosphorus removal subprocesses in a different degree. The 24.5 degrees C experiment was simulated using the model parameters obtained by means of the Arrhenius equation. The simulation results for the three experiments showed good correspondence with the experimental data, demonstrating that the model and the calibrated parameters were able to predict the pilot plant behaviour. PMID:16889256

  8. Change of nonlinear acoustics in ASME grade 122 steel welded joint during creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Toshihiro; Honma, Takumi; Ishii, Yutaka; Tabuchi, Masaaki; Hongo, Hiromichi; Hirao, Masahiko

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we described the changes of two nonlinear acoustic characterizations; resonant frequency shift and three-wave interaction, with electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) throughout the creep life in the welded joints of ASME Grade 122, one of high Cr ferritic heat resisting steels. EMAR was a combination of the resonant acoustic technique with a non-contact electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). These nonlinear acoustic parameters decreased from the start to 50% of creep life. After slightly increased, they rapidly increased from 80% of creep life to rupture. We interpreted these phenomena in terms of dislocation recovery, recrystallization, and restructuring related to the initiation and growth of creep void, with support from the SEM and TEM observation.

  9. 76 FR 11191 - Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... the ANPRM published on December 23, 2010 (ANPRM; 75 FR 80765). The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or you may visit http://www.regulations.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On December 23, 2010, PHMSA published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM; 75 FR...

  10. Materials Reliability Program: Risk-Informed Revision of ASME Section XI Appendix G - Proof of Concept (MRP-143)

    SciTech Connect

    B. Bishop; et al

    2005-03-30

    This study indicates that risk-informed methods can be used to significantly relax the current ASME and NRC Appendix G requirements while still maintaining satisfactory levels of reactor vessel structural integrity. This relaxation in Appendix G requirements directly translates into significant improvements in operational flexibility.

  11. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2003-10-03

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

  12. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1) as limited, modified, or replaced by specific requirements in this part. The... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the...

  13. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1) as limited, modified, or replaced by specific requirements in this part. The... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the...

  14. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1) as limited, modified, or replaced by specific requirements in this part. The... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the...

  15. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1) as limited, modified, or replaced by specific requirements in this part. The... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the...

  16. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1) as limited, modified, or replaced by specific requirements in this part. The... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the...

  17. Impact of the A18.1 ASME Standard on Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts on Accessibility and Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmer, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the effect of the ASME A18.1 Standard concerning accessibility and usability of Platform Lifts and their remaining technological challenges. While elevators are currently the most effective means of vertical transportation related to speed, capacity, rise and usability, their major drawbacks for accessibility are cost and…

  18. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  19. Corticosteroid-Induced MKP-1 Represses Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion by Enhancing Activity of Tristetraprolin (TTP) in ASM Cells.

    PubMed

    Prabhala, Pavan; Bunge, Kristin; Ge, Qi; Ammit, Alaina J

    2016-10-01

    Exaggerated cytokine secretion drives pathogenesis of a number of chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma. Anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapies, including corticosteroids, are front-line therapies and although they have proven clinical utility, the molecular mechanisms responsible for their actions are not fully understood. The corticosteroid-inducible gene, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase 1 (MKP-1, DUSP1) has emerged as a key molecule responsible for the repressive effects of steroids. MKP-1 is known to deactivate p38 MAPK phosphorylation and can control the expression and activity of the mRNA destabilizing protein-tristetraprolin (TTP). But whether corticosteroid-induced MKP-1 acts via p38 MAPK-mediated modulation of TTP function in a pivotal airway cell type, airway smooth muscle (ASM), was unknown. While pretreatment of ASM cells with the corticosteroid dexamethasone (preventative protocol) is known to reduce ASM synthetic function in vitro, the impact of adding dexamethasone after stimulation (therapeutic protocol) had not been explored. Whether dexamethasone modulates TTP in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner in this cell type was also unknown. We address this herein and utilize an in vitro model of asthmatic inflammation where ASM cells were stimulated with the pro-asthmatic cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the impact of adding dexamethasone 1 h after stimulation assessed. IL-6 mRNA expression and protein secretion was significantly repressed by dexamethasone acting in a temporally distinct manner to increase MKP-1, deactivate p38 MAPK, and modulate TTP phosphorylation status. In this way, dexamethasone-induced MKP-1 acts via p38 MAPK to switch on the mRNA destabilizing function of TTP to repress pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from ASM cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2153-2158, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26825339

  20. Cyclic-load crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade II steel in high-pressure hydrogen at ambient temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. J.; Chandler, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    ASME SA-105 Grade II steel, which is used in high-pressure hydrogen compressor systems, is similar to steels used or considered for use in high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels and pipelines. This paper summarizes the results of a program conducted to provide cyclic-load crack growth rate (da/dN) data for a fracture mechanics analysis of a 15,000 psi hydrogen compressor facility which contains pulse quieter and after-cooler separator vessels constructed of the ASME SA-105 Grade II steel. Included in the program were tests performed to assist in establishing operating procedures that could minimize the effect of hydrogen on crack growth rates during operation.

  1. Application of the Load Coefficient Method of ASME Code Case N-468 to the seismic analysis of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    ASME Code case N-468 recognizes the use of static analysis (the Load Coefficient Method or LCM) as an alternative to the commonly used response spectra modal analysis method (or RSMAM) for the structural evaluation of piping systems. The LCM, in various forms, has been commonly used in the late 1960's to mid-1970's for the design of nuclear piping systems of all sizes. With the advent of more user-friendly software, the LCM slowly gave way to the RSMAM, the latter being almost exclusively used throughout the 1980's. The paper presents the development of the seismic load coefficients in accordance with ASME Section III Code Case N-468. The load coefficients are then applied to 87 piping systems and compared to the response spectra modal analysis method.

  2. Application of the Load Coefficient Method of ASME Code Case N-468 to the seismic analysis of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    ASME Code case N-468 recognizes the use of static analysis (the Load Coefficient Method or LCM) as an alternative to the commonly used response spectra modal analysis method (or RSMAM) for the structural evaluation of piping systems. The LCM, in various forms, has been commonly used in the late 1960`s to mid-1970`s for the design of nuclear piping systems of all sizes. With the advent of more user-friendly software, the LCM slowly gave way to the RSMAM, the latter being almost exclusively used throughout the 1980`s. The paper presents the development of the seismic load coefficients in accordance with ASME Section III Code Case N-468. The load coefficients are then applied to 87 piping systems and compared to the response spectra modal analysis method.

  3. Incinerator ash bill supported by ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Municipal waste combustion facilities must be retained as an option for solving this nation's total solid waste management problems, John W. Norton, representing the Solid Waste Processing Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), told the House Subcommittee on Transportation and Hazardous Materials. Norton testified on H.R. 2162, the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Act of 1989. The bill would ensure environmentally sound disposal of incinerator ash residues while improving public confidence in the disposal of municipal waste through combustion. Although agreeing that the EPA should issue guidelines removing certain items (such as batteries) from the trash to be burned, Norton urged additional research to determine the impact of such actions. He cautioned that toxic components such as heavy metals are pervasive in wastes and, therefore, it is unlikely that removal of a few items will significantly affect the quality of either ash or air emissions. We believe recycling and reuse of municipal solid waste incinerator ash offers great promise to reduce the need for disposal in landfills, testified Norton. He urged that the bill authorize a substantial research program on ash recycling and reuse at EPA.

  4. Unsteady Simulation of an ASME Venturi Flow in a Cross Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, Jeremy; Rahai, Hamid

    2010-11-01

    Unsteady numerical simulations of an ASME venturi flow into a cross flow were performed. The velocity ratios between the venturi flow and the free stream were 25, 50, and 75%. Two cases of the venturi with and without a tube extension have been investigated. The tube extension length was approximately 4D (here D is the inner diameter of the venturi's outlet), connecting the venturi to the bottom surface of the numerical wind tunnel. A finite volume approach with the Wilcox K-φ turbulence model were used. Results that include contours of the mean velocity, velocity vector, turbulent kinetic energy, pressure and vortices within the venturi as well as downstream in the interaction region indicate that when the venturi is flushed with the surface, there is evidence of flow separation within the venturi, near the outlet. However, when the tube extension was added, the pressure recovery was sustained and flow separation within the venturi was not present and the characteristics of the flow in the interaction region were similar to the corresponding characteristics of a pipe jet in a cross flow.

  5. ASME B89.4.19 Performance Evaluation Tests and Geometric Misalignments in Laser Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Muralikrishnan, B.; Sawyer, D.; Blackburn, C.; Phillips, S.; Borchardt, B.; Estler, W. T.

    2009-01-01

    Small and unintended offsets, tilts, and eccentricity of the mechanical and optical components in laser trackers introduce systematic errors in the measured spherical coordinates (angles and range readings) and possibly in the calculated lengths of reference artifacts. It is desirable that the tests described in the ASME B89.4.19 Standard [1] be sensitive to these geometric misalignments so that any resulting systematic errors are identified during performance evaluation. In this paper, we present some analysis, using error models and numerical simulation, of the sensitivity of the length measurement system tests and two-face system tests in the B89.4.19 Standard to misalignments in laser trackers. We highlight key attributes of the testing strategy adopted in the Standard and propose new length measurement system tests that demonstrate improved sensitivity to some misalignments. Experimental results with a tracker that is not properly error corrected for the effects of the misalignments validate claims regarding the proposed new length tests. PMID:27504211

  6. A case study for assessment of consistency between ASME Section III and XI rules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Wilkowski, G.

    1996-12-01

    A case study was conducted to evaluate how the current ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B and PV) Code Section XI nuclear piping flaw evaluation rules are affected by the design stress changes in increasing the allowable stress with the B and PV Code Section III piping design rules. A piping model was developed for this purpose from a realistic nuclear piping referred to as BM3 that has been used widely for developing or evaluating the nuclear piping design rules. The piping system was modified so that all the conditions required by the 1995 Section III rules are met. Seismic excitations and internal pressure were increased to reach the maximum allowable stresses under the Section III rules including the effects of pressure, deadweight, seismic inertia, seismic anchor motion, and thermal expansion. The stresses thus calculated elastically using a finite element analysis were then combined using the Section XI rules to evaluate whether the maximum stress ratios for flaw acceptance are exceeded that are allowed by Section XI IWB-3514 for the workmanship standard flaw sizes corresponding to current nondestructive examination capability at butt weld areas. Quantitative results were provided for discussions.

  7. D0 Silicon Upgrade: ASME Code and Pressure Calculations for Liquid Nitrogen Subcooler

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwazaki, Andrew; Leicht, Todd; /Fermilab

    1995-10-04

    Included in this engineering note are three separate calculation divisions. The first calculations are the determination of the required thickness of the LN{sub 2} subcooler flat head according to ASME code. This section includes Appendix A-C. The minimum plate thickness determined was 0.563 in. The actual thickness chosen in fabrication was a 3/4-inch plate milled to 0.594-inch at the bolt circle. Along with the plate thickness, this section calculates the required reinforcement area at the top plate penetrations. It was found that a 1/4-inch fillet weld at each penetration was adequate. The next set of calculations were done to prove that the subcooler internal pressure will always be less than 15 psig and therefore will not be classified as a pressure vessel. The subcooler is always open to a vent pipe. Appendix D calculations show that the vent pipe has a capacity of 1042 lbs/hr if 15 psig is present at the subcooler. It goes on to show that the inlet piping would at that flow rate, see a pressure drop of 104 psig. The maximum supply pressure of the LN{sub 2} storage dewar is 50 psig. Appendix E addresses required flow rates for steady state, loss of vacuum, or fire conditions. Page E9 shows a summary which states the maximum pressure would be 1.50 psig at fire conditions and internal pressure.

  8. Three-dimensional ASM-based segmentation of the subcortical nucleus from volumetric MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yili; Gao, Wenpeng; Xiao, Yongfei; Wang, Shuguo

    2009-10-01

    Delineation of the subcortical nucleus in MR images is prerequisite for advanced radiotheraphy, surgical planning and morphometric analysis. However, it is always difficult to implement such a complicated work. We proposed a novel framework of 3D active shape model (ASM) based segmentation of the subcortical nucleus in MR images. Firstly, the most representative one of all samples represented by the segmented MR volumes is selected as the template and triangulated to generate a triangulated surface mesh. Then, free form deformation is used to establish dense point correspondences between the template and the other samples. A set of consistent triangle meshes are obtained to build the model by a statistical analysis. To fit the model to a MR volume, the model is initialized with Talairach transformation and the edge map around the model is extracted using watershed transform. An algorithm of robust point matching is used to find a transformation matrix and model parameters to transpose the model near the target nucleus and match the model to the target nucleus, respectively. The proposed framework was tested on 18 brain MR volumes. The caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and hippocampus were selected as the objects. In comparison with manual segmentation, the accuracy (Mean+/-SD) of the proposed framework is 0.90+/-0.04 for all objects.

  9. Report No. 2: ASME post-weld heat treating practices: An interpretive report

    SciTech Connect

    Spaeder, C.E. Jr.; Doty, W.D.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the present ASME Code requirements, identify inconsistencies, provide recommendations for changes and recommend research that should be the basis of further changes in post weld heat treatment (PWHT) practices. Based on a review of the effects of PWHT practices and the present Code rules, it is concluded that present Code rules are generally applicable to high carbon steels produced without notch toughness requirements. For modern-day steels that exhibit high toughness and enhanced weldability, the present Code rules might impose unnecessary requirements and, for certain steels, might actually produce undesirable effects on the properties of the steel. A review of specific requirements related to time and temperature indicate that some are not consistent with literature data and are in need of revision. The authors propose that revisions be made to the Code rules to relate the PWHT requirements to notch toughness and nondestructive examination considerations when a PWHT is not required because of outside considerations (i.e., environmental effects). Such revisions would permit economies in the fabrication of some pressure vessels to take advantage of the effect of high toughness on service performance. Specific research that would be the basis of changes in Code requirements is presented.

  10. The use of lamination analysis and the Tsai-Wu stress criterion in ASME standards for fiber reinforced plastic vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Conlisk, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    The ASME publishes two standards on FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastic) vessels: Section X of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, and RTP-1 (Reinforced Thermoset Plastic Corrosion Resistant Equipment), which concerns low pressure FRP vessels. The paper describes the application of lamination theory and the Tsai-Wu tensor strength criterion to qualifying designs to the two standards. Numerical examples of application of the theory to typical laminates subjected to pure membrane, pure bending, and combined membrane and bending loads are presented.

  11. High Level Analysis, Design and Validation of Distributed Mobile Systems with CoreASM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahbod, R.; Glässer, U.; Jackson, P. J.; Vajihollahi, M.

    System design is a creative activity calling for abstract models that facilitate reasoning about the key system attributes (desired requirements and resulting properties) so as to ensure these attributes are properly established prior to actually building a system. We explore here the practical side of using the abstract state machine (ASM) formalism in combination with the CoreASM open source tool environment for high-level design and experimental validation of complex distributed systems. Emphasizing the early phases of the design process, a guiding principle is to support freedom of experimentation by minimizing the need for encoding. CoreASM has been developed and tested building on a broad scope of applications, spanning computational criminology, maritime surveillance and situation analysis. We critically reexamine here the CoreASM project in light of three different application scenarios.

  12. Development and application of proposed ASME Section XI Code changes for risk-based inspection of piping

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.A.

    1996-12-01

    This synopsis has been written to describe a perspective on the development and application of ASME Section XI Code changes for risk-based inspection of piping. The content is specifically related to the use of risk-based technology for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of piping and efforts made to support the ASME Research/Westinghouse Owners Group/Millstone Unit 3 approach for use of this technology. The opinions contained herein may or may not reflect those of the ASME Codes and Standards Committees responsible for these activities. In order to take such a detailed technical subject and put it into an understandable format, the author has chosen to provide an analogy to simplify what is actually taking place. Risk-based technology in the ISI of piping can be likened to the process of making and using specifically ground prescription glasses to allow for better vision. It provides a process to develop and use these uniquely ground glasses that will dynamically focus on all the locations and obstacles within a plant`s piping systems that could cause that plant to trip and fall; more importantly it identifies the locations where the fall could possibly hurt someone else. In this way, Nuclear Safety is being addressed.

  13. SPASM: a 3D-ASM for segmentation of sparse and arbitrarily oriented cardiac MRI data.

    PubMed

    van Assen, Hans C; Danilouchkine, Mikhail G; Frangi, Alejandro F; Ordás, Sebastián; Westenberg, Jos J M; Reiber, Johan H C; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

    2006-04-01

    A new technique (SPASM) based on a 3D-ASM is presented for automatic segmentation of cardiac MRI image data sets consisting of multiple planes with arbitrary orientations, and with large undersampled regions. Model landmark positions are updated in a two-stage iterative process. First, landmark positions close to intersections with images are updated. Second, the update information is propagated to the regions without image information, such that new locations for the whole set of the model landmarks are obtained. Feature point detection is performed by a fuzzy inference system, based on fuzzy C-means clustering. Model parameters were optimized on a computer cluster and the computational load distributed by grid computing. SPASM was applied to image data sets with an increasing sparsity (from 2 to 11 slices) comprising images with different orientations and stemming from different MRI acquisition protocols. Segmentation outcomes and calculated volumes were compared to manual segmentation on a dense short-axis data configuration in a 3D manner. For all data configurations, (sub-)pixel accuracy was achieved. Performance differences between data configurations were significantly different (p<0.05) for SA data sets with less than 6 slices, but not clinically relevant (volume differences<4 ml). Comparison to results from other 3D model-based methods showed that SPASM performs comparable to or better than these other methods, but SPASM uses considerably less image data. Sensitivity to initial model placement proved to be limited within a range of position perturbations of approximately 20 mm in all directions. PMID:16439182

  14. An ASM/ADM model interface for dynamic plant-wide simulation.

    PubMed

    Nopens, Ingmar; Batstone, Damien J; Copp, John B; Jeppsson, Ulf; Volcke, Eveline; Alex, Jens; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2009-04-01

    Mathematical modelling has proven to be very useful in process design, operation and optimisation. A recent trend in WWTP modelling is to include the different subunits in so-called plant-wide models rather than focusing on parts of the entire process. One example of a typical plant-wide model is the coupling of an upstream activated sludge plant (including primary settler, and secondary clarifier) to an anaerobic digester for sludge digestion. One of the key challenges when coupling these processes has been the definition of an interface between the well accepted activated sludge model (ASM1) and anaerobic digestion model (ADM1). Current characterisation and interface models have key limitations, the most critical of which is the over-use of X(c) (or lumped complex) variable as a main input to the ADM1. Over-use of X(c) does not allow for variation of degradability, carbon oxidation state or nitrogen content. In addition, achieving a target influent pH through the proper definition of the ionic system can be difficult. In this paper, we define an interface and characterisation model that maps degradable components directly to carbohydrates, proteins and lipids (and their soluble analogues), as well as organic acids, rather than using X(c). While this interface has been designed for use with the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2), it is widely applicable to ADM1 input characterisation in general. We have demonstrated the model both hypothetically (BSM2), and practically on a full-scale anaerobic digester treating sewage sludge. PMID:19232670

  15. Towards a consensus-based biokinetic model for green microalgae - The ASM-A.

    PubMed

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Sæbø, Mariann; Bregua de la Sotilla, Marta; Van Wagenen, Jonathan; Smets, Barth F; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2016-10-15

    Cultivation of microalgae in open ponds and closed photobioreactors (PBRs) using wastewater resources offers an opportunity for biochemical nutrient recovery. Effective reactor system design and process control of PBRs requires process models. Several models with different complexities have been developed to predict microalgal growth. However, none of these models can effectively describe all the relevant processes when microalgal growth is coupled with nutrient removal and recovery from wastewaters. Here, we present a mathematical model developed to simulate green microalgal growth (ASM-A) using the systematic approach of the activated sludge modelling (ASM) framework. The process model - identified based on a literature review and using new experimental data - accounts for factors influencing photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microalgal growth, nutrient uptake and storage (i.e. Droop model) and decay of microalgae. Model parameters were estimated using laboratory-scale batch and sequenced batch experiments using the novel Latin Hypercube Sampling based Simplex (LHSS) method. The model was evaluated using independent data obtained in a 24-L PBR operated in sequenced batch mode. Identifiability of the model was assessed. The model can effectively describe microalgal biomass growth, ammonia and phosphate concentrations as well as the phosphorus storage using a set of average parameter values estimated with the experimental data. A statistical analysis of simulation and measured data suggests that culture history and substrate availability can introduce significant variability on parameter values for predicting the reaction rates for bulk nitrate and the intracellularly stored nitrogen state-variables, thereby requiring scenario specific model calibration. ASM-A was identified using standard cultivation medium and it can provide a platform for extensions accounting for factors influencing algal growth and nutrient storage using wastewater resources. PMID:27525381

  16. Impact of the A18.1 ASME Standard on platform lifts and stairway chairlifts on accessibility and usability.

    PubMed

    Balmer, David C

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article summarizes the effect of the ASME A18.1 Standard concerning accessibility and usability of Platform Lifts and their remaining technological challenges. While elevators are currently the most effective means of vertical transportation related to speed, capacity, rise and usability, their major drawbacks for accessibility are cost and space. Platform lifts and stairway chairlifts remain the "devices of choice" for small elevation changes in existing buildings. ADAAG limits them to very specific circumstances in new construction. The ASME A18.1 Standard addresses the safety requirements of inclined stairway chairlifts (which are not ADA compliant) and inclined and vertical platform lifts (which are ADA Compliant). Chairlifts do not provide access for wheeled mobility devices. Restricting access by means of keys is eliminated, inclined platform lift designs that do not interfere with stairway traffic, promoting new ideas for the design of vertical lifts, increasing the allowable vertical travel of a lift and strengthening lift ramps to improve their safety. Despite design advances inherent in the A18.1, significant platform lift usability issues continue to exist. Increased sizes and weights of powered mobility devices indicate that the permitted lift platform area be modified and that permitted weight capacities be codified as minimums instead of maximums. PMID:20402046

  17. ASME AG-1 REQUIREMENT EXEMPTION JUSTIFICATIONS FOR VENTILATION SYSTEMS AT NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2004-09-03

    Washington State Department of Health regulations require compliance with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) AG-1, ''Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment,'' for all new radioactive air emission units. As a result, these requirements have been applied to systems that ventilate the radioactive waste storage tanks in the tank farm facilities on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. ASME AG-1 is applied as a regulatory constraint to waste tank ventilation systems at the Hanford Site, even though the code was not intended for these systems. An assessment was performed to identify which requirements should be exempted for waste tank ventilation systems. The technical justifications for requirement exemptions were prepared and presented to the regulator. The technical justifications were documented so that select requirement exemptions for specific projects and systems can be sought through the regulator's permitting process. This paper presents the rationale for attempting to receive requirement exemption and presents examples of the technical justifications that form the basis for these exemptions.

  18. Modification of ASM3 for the determination of biomass adsorption/storage capacity in bulking sludge control.

    PubMed

    Makinia, J; Rosenwinkel, K H; Phan, L C

    2006-01-01

    The selector activated sludge (SAS) systems are known to prevent excessive growth of filamentous microorganisms responsible for bulking sludge, but these systems were hardly ever modelled. This study aimed to develop a model capable of predicting rapid substrate removal in the SAS systems. For this purpose, the Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) was extended with three processes (adsorption, direct growth on the adsorbed substrate under aerobic or anoxic conditions). The modified ASM3 was tested against the results of batch experiments with the biomass originating from two full-scale SAS systems in Germany. The endogenous biomass was mixed with various readily biodegradable substrates (acetate, peptone, glucose and wastewater) and the utilisation of substrate (expresses as COD) and oxygen uptake rates (OURs) were measured during the experiments. In general, model predictions fitted to the experimental data, but a considerable number of kinetic (5) and stoichiometric (2) parameters needed to be adjusted during model calibration. The simulation results revealed that storage was generally a dominating process compared to direct growth in terms of the adsorbed substrate utilisation. The contribution of storage ranged from 65-71% (Plant A) and 69-92% (Plant B). PMID:16605021

  19. TECHNICAL BASIS AND APPLICATION OF NEW RULES ON FRACTURE CONTROL OF HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN VESSEL IN ASME SECTION VIII, DIVISION 3 CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G

    2007-04-30

    As a part of an ongoing activity to develop ASME Code rules for the hydrogen infrastructure, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved new fracture control rules for Section VIII, Division 3 vessels in 2006. These rules have been incorporated into new Article KD-10 in Division 3. The new rules require determining fatigue crack growth rate and fracture resistance properties of materials in high pressure hydrogen gas. Test methods have been specified to measure these fracture properties, which are required to be used in establishing the vessel fatigue life. An example has been given to demonstrate the application of these new rules.

  20. Role of Outer Membrane C-Type Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 Cell Production, Accumulation, and Detachment During Respiration on Hematite

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Andrew C.; Peterson, L.; Reardon, Catherine L.; Reed, Samantha B.; Culley, David E.; Romine, Margaret F.; Geesey, Gill G.

    2012-07-01

    Solid phase iron oxides are considered to be important terminal electron acceptors for microbial respiration in many anoxic environments. Besides the knowledge that cells attach to and reduce these substrates, other aspects of surface-associated cell behavior and the related cell surface components that influence cell-mineral interactions are not well understood. In the present study, wild-type cells of the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 formed thin biofilms one-to-two cell layers in thickness when respiring on natural specular hematite under flow conditions similar to those which exist in aquatic sediments and subsurface environments. The distribution of cells within the biofilm indicated that direct contact was not required for electron transfer from cells to the mineral surface. Detached biomass in the form of single cells represented >99% of the surface-associated wild-type cell production from respiration on hematite over the biofilm life cycle. A mutant deficient in the outer membrane c35 type cytochrome OmcA, while still able to respire and replicate on hematite, established a lower steady-state cell density on the mineral surface than that of the wild-type strain. A mutant deficient in MtrC, another outer membrane c-type cytochrome, and a mutant deficient in both cytochromes were unable to reduce sufficient amounts of hematite to support detectable growth on the mineral surface. When considered in the context of previous work, the results support a growing body of evidence that the relative importance of OmcA and MtrC to cell respiration and replication depends on the form of iron oxide available as terminal electron acceptor.

  1. Systolic and diastolic assessment by 3D-ASM segmentation of gated-SPECT Studies: a comparison with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobon-Gomez, C.; Bijnens, B. H.; Huguet, M.; Sukno, F.; Moragas, G.; Frangi, A. F.

    2009-02-01

    Gated single photon emission tomography (gSPECT) is a well-established technique used routinely in clinical practice. It can be employed to evaluate global left ventricular (LV) function of a patient. The purpose of this study is to assess LV systolic and diastolic function from gSPECT datasets in comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) measurements. This is achieved by applying our recently implemented 3D active shape model (3D-ASM) segmentation approach for gSPECT studies. This methodology allows for generation of 3D LV meshes for all cardiac phases, providing volume time curves and filling rate curves. Both systolic and diastolic functional parameters can be derived from these curves for an assessment of patient condition even at early stages of LV dysfunction. Agreement of functional parameters, with respect to CMR measurements, were analyzed by means of Bland-Altman plots. The analysis included subjects presenting either LV hypertrophy, dilation or myocardial infarction.

  2. Evaluation of the capacity of welded attachments to elbows as compared to the methodology of ASME Code Case N-318

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawls, G. B.; Wais, E. A.; Rodabaugh, E. C.

    This paper presents the results of a series of tests conducted to assess the capacity of various configurations of integral welded attachments. These tests are unique in that the attachments are welded to the outer radius of pipe elbows. The lug configurations tested include both rectangular and cross (cruciform) shapes. Both limit load and fatigue tests are performed on the lug-elbow configurations. The results of the limit load tests are presented as limit moments. The results of the fatigue tests are cycles-to-failure. Markl's equation is then used, with the fatigue results, to determine stress intensification factors. The limit moments and stress intensification factors are then compared to those developed using the methodology of ASME Code Case N-318. The level of conservatism in the Code Case methodology is then compared to the test results.

  3. A guide for the ASME code for austenitic stainless steel containment vessels for high-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    The design and fabrication criteria recommended by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for high-level radioactive materials containment vessels used in packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This Code provides material, design, fabrication, examination, and testing specifications for nuclear power plant components. However, many of the requirements listed in the Code are not applicable to containment vessels made from austenitic stainless steel with austenitic or ferritic steel bolting. Most packaging designers, engineers, and fabricators are intimidated by the sheer volume of requirements contained in the Code; consequently, the Code is not always followed and many requirements that do apply are often overlooked during preparation of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that constitutes the basis to evaluate the packaging for certification.

  4. Comparisons of ANS, ASME, AWS, and NFPA standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800, and related documents

    SciTech Connect

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANS, ASME, AWS and NFPA standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

  5. Structural diversity in gallium(III) complexes of the tripodal triarsine MeC(CH2AsMe2)3.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Hector, Andrew L; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Webster, Michael; Zhang, Wenjian

    2007-06-01

    The preparation and crystal structures of the first examples of gallium halide complexes with the tripodal arsine, MeC(CH(2)AsMe(2))3, reveal three distinctly different coordination modes for the ligand; the neutral [{micro(3)-MeC(CH(2)AsMe(2))3-kappaAs:kappaAs':kappaAs''}(GaI(3))3] with the triarsine coordinating to three GaI(3) units, [{Me(2)AsCH(2)C(Me)(CH(2)AsMe(2))2-kappa(2)AsAs'}GaCl(2)][GaCl(4)] involving bidentate chelation to a GaCl2+ cationic unit with the third As donor atom uncoordinated, and [{MeC(CH(2)AsMe(2))3-kappaAs:kappa(2)As'As''}(GaCl3)(GaCl2)][GaCl4] in which the triarsine forms a bidentate chelate to the GaCl2+ unit and the third As donor atom binds to a further GaCl3 unit. PMID:17514342

  6. 46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 54.01-1), as limited, modified, or replaced by specific... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section 54.01-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure vessels shall...

  7. 46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 54.01-1), as limited, modified, or replaced by specific... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section 54.01-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure vessels shall...

  8. 46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 54.01-1), as limited, modified, or replaced by specific... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section 54.01-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure vessels shall...

  9. 46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 54.01-1), as limited, modified, or replaced by specific... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section 54.01-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure vessels shall...

  10. 46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 54.01-1), as limited, modified, or replaced by specific... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section 54.01-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure vessels shall...

  11. Regulatory Safety Issues in the Structural Design Criteria of ASME Section III Subsection NH and for Very High Temperatures for VHTR & GEN IV

    SciTech Connect

    William J. O’Donnell; Donald S. Griffin

    2007-05-07

    The objective of this task is to identify issues relevant to ASME Section III, Subsection NH [1], and related Code Cases that must be resolved for licensing purposes for VHTGRs (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concepts such as those of PBMR, Areva, and GA); and to identify the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code to cover the unresolved safety issues. Subsection NH was originally developed to provide structural design criteria and limits for elevated-temperature design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems and some gas-cooled systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) reviewed the design limits and procedures in the process of reviewing the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) for a construction permit in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and identified issues that needed resolution. In the years since then, the NRC and various contractors have evaluated the applicability of the ASME Code and Code Cases to high-temperature reactor designs such as the VHTGRs, and identified issues that need to be resolved to provide a regulatory basis for licensing. This Report describes: (1) NRC and ACRS safety concerns raised during the licensing process of CRBR , (2) how some of these issues are addressed by the current Subsection NH of the ASME Code; and (3) the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code and Code Cases to cover unresolved regulatory issues for very high temperature service.

  12. TRAIL-Death Receptor 4 Signaling via Lysosome Fusion and Membrane Raft Clustering In Coronary Arterial Endothelial Cells: Evidence from ASM Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Han, Wei-Qing; Boini, Krishna M.; Xia, Min; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptor death receptor 4 (DR4) have been implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the signaling mechanism mediating DR4 activation and leading to endothelial injury remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that ceramide production via hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) results in membrane raft (MRs) clustering and formation of important redox signaling platforms, which play a crucial role in amplifying redox signaling in endothelial cells leading to endothelial dysfunction. The present study aims to investigate whether TRAIL triggers MR clustering via lysosome fusion and ASM activation, thereby conducting transmembrane redox signaling and changing endothelial function. Using confocal microscopy, we found that TRAIL induced MR clustering and its co-localization with DR4 in coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs) isolated from wild-type (Smpd1+/+) mice. Further, TRAIL triggered ASM translocation, ceramide production and NADPH oxidase aggregation in MR clusters in Smpd1+/+ CAECs, whereas these observations were not found in Smpd1−/− CAECs. Moreover, ASM deficiency reduced TRAIL-induced O2−· production in CAECs and abolished TRAIL-induced impairment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in small resistance arteries. By measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we found that Lamp-1 (lysosome membrane marker protein) and ganglioside GM1 (MR marker) were trafficking together in Smpd1+/+ CAECs, which was absent in Smpd1−/− CAECs. Consistently, fluorescence imaging of living cells with specific lysosome probes demonstrated that TRAIL-induced lysosome fusion with membrane was also absent in Smpd1−/− CAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that ASM is essential for TRAIL-induced lysosomal trafficking and fusion with membrane and formation of MR redox signaling platforms, which may

  13. Assays for in vitro monitoring of proliferation of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Elena A; Lim, Poay; Goncharov, Dmitry A; Eszterhas, Andrew; Panettieri, Reynold A; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2006-01-01

    Vascular and airway remodeling, which are characterized by airway smooth muscle (ASM) and pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) proliferation, contribute to the pathology of asthma, pulmonary hypertension, restenosis and atherosclerosis. To evaluate the proliferation of VSM and ASM cells in response to mitogens, we perform a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. The proliferation protocol takes approximately 48 h and includes stimulating cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with agonists, labeling cells with [3H]thymidine and examining levels of [3H]thymidine incorporation by scintillation counting. Although using radiolabeled [3H]thymidine incorporation is a limitation, the greatest benefit of the assay is providing reliable and statistically significant data. PMID:17406550

  14. Implementation of ANSI/ASME NQA-1 for development of GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlap, M.G.

    1989-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has awarded General Atomics (GA) a contract to develop a legal weight truck (LWT) transportation system to transport boiling-water-reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuels. DOE's contract requires GA to establish, maintain, and implement an NRC-approved Quality Assurance Program in accordance with ANSI/ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements'' 1986 Edition (basic requirements and supplements), and the 1986 la Addenda. GA's Quality Assurance Program is a company-wide system described in GA's Quality Assurance Manual (QAM). General Atomics' Quality Assurance Program is implemented for a specific project by means of a Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). The QAPD is the document used by GA to invoke and document selected quality and project-applicable requirements. The QAPD is a tailored technical quality plan for a specific contract which can add to, revise, or delete certain portions of the basic GA QA Manual. The QAPD then becomes the controlling QA document for a specific project, and the provisions of the QAPD are followed by all project team members as though it were the QA Manual. For the legal weight truck (LWT) transportation project, GA has developed a QAPD that invokes the NRC-approved QA Program and also addresses the additional requirements that are included in the NQA-1 1986 Edition and la Addenda and the additional DOE/ID imposed requirements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G.; Newhouse, N.; Rana, M.; Shelley, B.; Gorman, M.

    2010-04-13

    The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 20.7 MPa (3,000 ps)i to 103.4 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 inches). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, included Acoustic Emission testing at time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

  16. Elastic-plastic analysis of the PVRC burst disk tests with comparison to the ASME code -- Primary stress limits

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.P.; Holliday, J.E.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides a comparison between finite element analysis results and test data from the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) burst disk program. Testing sponsored by the PVRC over 20 years ago was done by pressurizing circular flat disks made from three different materials until failure by bursting. The purpose of this re-analysis is to investigate the use of finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the primary stress limits of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1998) and to qualify the use of elastic-plastic (EP-FEA) for limit load calculations. The three materials tested represent the range of strength and ductility found in modern pressure vessel construction and include a low strength high ductility material, a medium strength medium ductility material, and a high strength low ductility low alloy material. Results of elastic and EP-FEA are compared to test data. Stresses from the elastic analyses are linearized for comparison of Code primary stress limits to test results. Elastic-plastic analyses are done using both best-estimate and elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) stress-strain curves. Both large strain-large displacement (LSLD) and small strain-small displacement (SSSD) assumptions are used with the EP-FEA. Analysis results are compared to test results to evaluate the various analysis methods, models, and assumptions as applied to the bursting of thin disks.

  17. Comparative study of diverse model building strategies for 3D-ASM segmentation of dynamic gated SPECT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobon-Gomez, C.; Butakoff, C.; Ordas, S.; Aguade, S.; Frangi, A. F.

    2007-03-01

    Over the course of the last two decades, myocardial perfusion with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has emerged as an established and well-validated method for assessing myocardial ischemia, viability, and function. Gated-SPECT imaging integrates traditional perfusion information along with global left ventricular function. Despite of these advantages, inherent limitations of SPECT imaging yield a challenging segmentation problem, since an error of only one voxel along the chamber surface may generate a huge difference in volume calculation. In previous works we implemented a 3-D statistical model-based algorithm for Left Ventricle (LV) segmentation of in dynamic perfusion SPECT studies. The present work evaluates the relevance of training a different Active Shape Model (ASM) for each frame of the gated SPECT imaging acquisition in terms of their subsequent segmentation accuracy. Models are subsequently employed to segment the LV cavity of gated SPECT studies of a virtual population. The evaluation is accomplished by comparing point-to-surface (P2S) and volume errors, both against a proper Gold Standard. The dataset comprised 40 voxel phantoms (NCAT, Johns Hopkins, University of of North Carolina). Monte-Carlo simulations were generated with SIMIND (Lund University) and reconstructed to tomographic slices with ASPIRE (University of Michigan).

  18. Analysis of systematic errors of the ASM/RXTE monitor and GT-48 γ-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidelis, V. V.

    2011-06-01

    The observational data concerning variations of light curves of supernovae remnants—the Crab Nebula, Cassiopeia A, Tycho Brahe, and pulsar Vela—over 14 days scale that may be attributed to systematic errors of the ASM/RXTE monitor are presented. The experimental systematic errors of the GT-48 γ-ray telescope in the mono mode of operation were also determined. For this the observational data of TeV J2032 + 4130 (Cyg γ-2, according to the Crimean version) were used and the stationary nature of its γ-ray emission was confirmed by long-term observations performed with HEGRA and MAGIC. The results of research allow us to draw the following conclusions: (1) light curves of supernovae remnants averaged for long observing periods have false statistically significant flux variations, (2) the level of systematic errors is proportional to the registered flux and decreases with increasing temporal scale of averaging, (3) the light curves of sources may be modulated by the year period, and (4) the systematic errors of the GT-48 γ-ray telescope, in the amount caused by observations in the mono mode and data processing with the stereo-algorithm come to 0.12 min-1.

  19. A Retrospective Look at 20 Years of ASM Education Programs (1990–2010) and a Prospective Look at the Next 20 Years (2011–2030)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Professional societies provide visibility and legitimacy to the work of their post secondary educator members, advocate best practices in courses and sponsored student research, and establish deep networks and communities that catalyze members to collectively engage in undergraduate teaching and learning scholarship. Within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), the Education Board, established in the mid-1970s, assumes this role. I have been fortunate enough to watch several pivotal programs support our growth and change the status quo by providing opportunities for biology educators to flourish. In this retrospective review, the background and details I offer about each initiative help explain ASM Education offerings, how our growth has been supported and how the status quo has changed. In this prospective look, I offer my vision of the future in post secondary education where classroom learning is student-centered and focused on global problems affecting our health and environment. For the profession to proliferate, the ASM must provide members as many opportunities in learning biology as they do with advancing biology to new frontiers. PMID:23653733

  20. Implementation of ASME Code, Section XI, Code Case N-770, on Alternative Examination Requirements for Class 1 Butt Welds Fabricated with Alloy 82/182

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-09-17

    In May 2010, the NRC issued a proposed notice of rulemaking that includes a provision to add a new section to its rules to require licensees to implement ASME Code Case N-770, ‘‘Alternative Examination Requirements and Acceptance Standards for Class 1 PWR Piping and Vessel Nozzle Butt Welds Fabricated with UNS N06082 or UNS W86182 Weld Filler Material With or Without the Application of Listed Mitigation Activities, Section XI, Division 1,’’ with 15 conditions. Code Case N-770 contains baseline and inservice inspection (ISI) requirements for unmitigated butt welds fabricated with Alloy 82/182 material and preservice and ISI requirements for mitigated butt welds. The NRC stated that application of ASME Code Case N-770 is necessary because the inspections currently required by the ASME Code, Section XI, were not written to address stress corrosion cracking Alloy 82/182 butt welds, and the safety consequences of inadequate inspections can be significant. The NRC expects to issue the final rule incorporating this code case into its regulations in the spring 2011 time frame. This paper discusses the new examination requirements, the conditions that NRC is imposing , and the major concerns with implementation of the new Code Case.

  1. Case study of the propagation of a small flaw under PWR loading conditions and comparison with the ASME code design life. Comparison of ASME Code Sections III and XI

    SciTech Connect

    Yahr, G.T.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Richardson, A.K.; Server, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A cooperative study was performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the degree of conservatism and consistency in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III fatigue evaluation procedure and Section XI flaw acceptance standards. A single, realistic, sample problem was analyzed to determine the significance of certain points of criticism made of an earlier parametric study by staff members of the Division of Engineering Standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The problem was based on a semielliptical flaw located on the inside surface of the hot-leg piping at the reactor vessel safe-end weld for the Zion 1 pressurized-water reactor (PWR). Two main criteria were used in selecting the problem; first, it should be a straight pipe to minimize the computational expense; second, it should exhibit as high a cumulative usage factor as possible. Although the problem selected has one of the highest cumulative usage factors of any straight pipe in the primary system of PWRs, it is still very low. The Code Section III fatigue usage factor was only 0.00046, assuming it was in the as-welded condition, and fatigue crack-growth analyses predicted negligible crack growth during the 40-year design life. When the analyses were extended past the design life, the usage factor was less than 1.0 when the flaw had propagated to failure. The current study shows that the criticism of the earlier report should not detract from the conclusion that if a component experiences a high level of cyclic stress corresponding to a fatigue usage factor near 1.0, very small cracks can propagate to unacceptable sizes.

  2. Results from Evaluation of Representative ASME AG-1 Section FK Radial Flow Dimple Pleated HEPA Filters Under Elevated Conditions - 12002

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Rickert, Jaime G.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-07-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) has recently added Section FK establishing requirements for radial flow HEPA filters to the Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1). Section FK filters are expected to be a major element in the HEPA filtration systems across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Radial flow filters have been used in Europe for some time, however a limited amount of performance evaluation data exists with respect to these new AG-1 Section FK units. In consultation with a technical working group, the Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University (MSU)has evaluated a series of representative AG-1 Section FK dimple pleated radial flow HEPA filters. The effects of elevated relative humidity and temperature conditions on these filters are particularly concerning. Results from the evaluation of Section FK filters under ambient conditions have been presented at the 2011 waste management conference. Additions to the previous test stand to enable high temperature and high humidity testing, a review of the equipment used, the steps taken to characterize the new additions, and the filter test results are presented in this study. Test filters were evaluated at a volumetric flow rate of 56.6 m{sup 3}/min (2000 cfm) and were challenged under ambient conditions with Alumina, Al(OH){sub 3}, until reaching a differential pressure of 1 kPa (4 in. w.c.), at which time the filters were tested, unchallenged with aerosol, at 54 deg. C (130 deg. F) for approximately 1 hour. At the end of that hour water was sprayed near the heat source to maximize vaporization exposing the filter to an elevated relative humidity up to 95%. Collected data include differential pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and volumetric flow rate versus time. (authors)

  3. A study of outburst ephemeris and burst properties of blackhole candidate 4U 1630-47 with ASM, MAXI and Suzaku data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Lalitha; Agrawal, V. K.

    4U 1630-47 is a soft X-ray transient which is thought to be a blackhole candidate. This source exhibits quasi-periodic outbursts on time scales of 500-700 days. In addition to the normal outbursts which usually last for a few months, the source displays superoutbursts, lasting for one to two years, seen to recur in every 10-12 years. The outburst ephemeris has been studied previously upto 1996 outbursts. In this work we present the updated ephemeris using 16 years data obtained from All Sky Monitor (ASM) onboard RXTE and one years data from MAXI satellite. The data covers 7 outbursts seen from ASM and one outburst seen by MAXI. We study morphology of each of these outbursts. We find that most of the bursts can be classified in basic three categories: flat top, FRED (Fast Rise Exponential Decay) and triangular. We also investigate relation between burst properties with quiescent flux level using Suzaku data, a study which has not been done previously.

  4. ITER's Tokamak Cooling Water System and the the Use of ASME Codes to Comply with French Regulations of Nuclear Pressure Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan; Ferrada, Juan J; Curd, Warren; Dell Orco, Dr. Giovanni; Barabash, Vladimir; Kim, Seokho H

    2011-01-01

    During inductive plasma operation of ITER, fusion power will reach 500 MW with an energy multiplication factor of 10. The heat will be transferred by the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) to the environment using the secondary cooling system. Plasma operations are inherently safe even under the most severe postulated accident condition a large, in-vessel break that results in a loss-of-coolant accident. A functioning cooling water system is not required to ensure safe shutdown. Even though ITER is inherently safe, TCWS equipment (e.g., heat exchangers, piping, pressurizers) are classified as safety important components. This is because the water is predicted to contain low-levels of radionuclides (e.g., activated corrosion products, tritium) with activity levels high enough to require the design of components to be in accordance with French regulations for nuclear pressure equipment, i.e., the French Order dated 12 December 2005 (ESPN). ESPN has extended the practical application of the methodology established by the Pressure Equipment Directive (97/23/EC) to nuclear pressure equipment, under French Decree 99-1046 dated 13 December 1999, and Order dated 21 December 1999 (ESP). ASME codes and supplementary analyses (e.g., Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) will be used to demonstrate that the TCWS equipment meets these essential safety requirements. TCWS is being designed to provide not only cooling, with a capacity of approximately 1 GW energy removal, but also elevated temperature baking of first-wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, and divertor. Additional TCWS functions include chemical control of water, draining and drying for maintenance, and facilitation of leak detection/localization. The TCWS interfaces with the majority of ITER systems, including the secondary cooling system. U.S. ITER is responsible for design, engineering, and procurement of the TCWS with industry support from an Engineering Services Organization (ESO) (AREVA Federal Services, with support

  5. Optimized periodic verification testing blended risk and performance-based MOV inservice test program an application of ASME code case OMN-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, C.; Fleming, K.; Bidwell, D.; Forbes, P.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents an application of ASME Code Case OMN-1 to the GL 89-10 Program at the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). Code Case OMN-1 provides guidance for a performance-based MOV inservice test program that can be used for periodic verification testing and allows consideration of risk insights. Blended probabilistic and deterministic evaluation techniques were used to establish inservice test strategies including both test methods and test frequency. Described in the paper are the methods and criteria for establishing MOV safety significance based on the STPEGS probabilistic safety assessment, deterministic considerations of MOV performance characteristics and performance margins, the expert panel evaluation process, and the development of inservice test strategies. Test strategies include a mix of dynamic and static testing as well as MOV exercising.

  6. Review of ASME code criteria for control of primary loads on nuclear piping system branch connections and recommendations for additional development work

    SciTech Connect

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report collects and uses available data to reexamine the criteria for controlling primary loads in nuclear piping branch connections as expressed in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In particular, the primary load stress indices given in NB-3650 and NB-3683 are reexamined. The report concludes that the present usage of the stress indices in the criteria equations should be continued. However, the complex treatment of combined branch and run moments is not supported by available information. Therefore, it is recommended that this combined loading evaluation procedure be replaced for primary loads by the separate leg evaluation procedure specified in NC/ND-3653.3(c) and NC/ND-3653.3(d). No recommendation is made for fatigue or secondary load evaluations for Class 1 piping. Further work should be done on the development of better criteria for treatment of combined branch and run moment effects.

  7. First-principles study of energetic and electronic properties of A2Ti2O7 (A=Sm, Gd, Er) pyrochlore

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H. Y.; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2008-10-01

    First-principles calculations have been carried out to study the electronic properties of A2Ti2O7 (A=Sm, Gd, Er) pyrochlores. It was found that f electrons have negligible effect on the structural and energetic properties, but have significant effect on the electronic properties. Density of state analysis shows that A-site 4f electrons do take part in the chemical bonding. Also, we found that bond is less covalent than and bonds, while bond in Gd2Ti2O7 is more covalent. It was proposed that for A2Ti2O7 (A = Sm, Gd, Er) pyrochlores, bonds may play more significant role in determining their radiation resistance to amorphization.

  8. Probing the Mysteries of the X-Ray Binary 4U 1210-64 with ASM, PCA, MAXI, BAT, and Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, Joel B.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Mukai, Koji; Pottschmidt, Katja

    2014-10-01

    4U 1210-64 has been postulated to be a high-mass X-ray binary powered by the Be mechanism. X-ray observations with Suzaku, the ISS Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (PCA) and All Sky Monitor (ASM) provide detailed temporal and spectral information on this poorly understood source. Long-term ASM and MAXI observations show distinct high and low states and the presence of a 6.7101 ± 0.0005 day modulation, interpreted as the orbital period. Folded light curves reveal a sharp dip, interpreted as an eclipse. To determine the nature of the mass donor, the predicted eclipse half-angle was calculated as a function of inclination angle for several stellar spectral types. The eclipse half-angle is not consistent with a mass donor of spectral type B5 V however, stars with spectral types B0 V or B0-5 III are possible. The best-fit spectral model consists of a power law with index Γ = 1.85^{+0.04}_{-0.05} and a high-energy cutoff at 5.5 ± 0.2 keV modified by an absorber that fully covers the source as well as partially covering absorption. Emission lines from S XVI Kα, Fe Kα, Fe XXV Kα, and Fe XXVI Kα were observed in the Suzaku spectra. Out of eclipse, the Fe Kα line flux was strongly correlated with unabsorbed continuum flux, indicating that the Fe I emission is the result of fluorescence of cold dense material near the compact object. The Fe I feature is not detected during eclipse, further supporting an origin close to the compact object.

  9. Probing the mysteries of the X-ray binary 4U 1210-64 with ASM, PCA, MAXI, BAT, and Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Coley, Joel B.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Mukai, Koji; Pottschmidt, Katja

    2014-10-01

    4U 1210-64 has been postulated to be a high-mass X-ray binary powered by the Be mechanism. X-ray observations with Suzaku, the ISS Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (PCA) and All Sky Monitor (ASM) provide detailed temporal and spectral information on this poorly understood source. Long-term ASM and MAXI observations show distinct high and low states and the presence of a 6.7101 ± 0.0005 day modulation, interpreted as the orbital period. Folded light curves reveal a sharp dip, interpreted as an eclipse. To determine the nature of the mass donor, the predicted eclipse half-angle was calculated as a function of inclination angle for several stellar spectral types. The eclipse half-angle is not consistent with a mass donor of spectral type B5 V; however, stars with spectral types B0 V or B0-5 III are possible. The best-fit spectral model consists of a power law with index Γ = 1.85{sub −0.05}{sup +0.04} and a high-energy cutoff at 5.5 ± 0.2 keV modified by an absorber that fully covers the source as well as partially covering absorption. Emission lines from S XVI Kα, Fe Kα, Fe XXV Kα, and Fe XXVI Kα were observed in the Suzaku spectra. Out of eclipse, the Fe Kα line flux was strongly correlated with unabsorbed continuum flux, indicating that the Fe I emission is the result of fluorescence of cold dense material near the compact object. The Fe I feature is not detected during eclipse, further supporting an origin close to the compact object.

  10. RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT observations of spectral transitions in bright X-ray binaries in 2005-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Yu, Wen-Fei; Yan, Zhen

    2011-04-01

    We have studied X-ray spectral state transitions that can be seen in the long-term monitoring light curves of bright X-ray binaries from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift during a period of five years from 2005 to 2010. We have applied a program to automatically identify the hard-to-soft (H-S) spectral state transitions in the bright X-ray binaries monitored by the ASM and the BAT. In total, we identified 128 hard-to-soft transitions, of which 59 occurred after 2008. We also determined the transition fluxes and the peak fluxes of the following soft states, updated the measurements of the luminosity corresponding to the H-S transition and the peak luminosity of the following soft state in about 30 bright persistent and transient black hole and neutron star binaries following Yu & Yan, and found the luminosity correlation and the luminosity range of spectral transitions in data between 2008-2010 are about the same as those derived from data before 2008. This further strengthens the idea that the luminosity at which the H-S spectral transition occurs in the Galactic X-ray binaries is determined by non-stationary accretion parameters such as the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate rather than the mass accretion rate itself. The correlation is also found to hold in data of individual sources 4U 1608-52 and 4U 1636-53.

  11. Updating of ASME Nuclear Code Case N-201 to Accommodate the Needs of Metallic Core Support Structures for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Currently in Development

    SciTech Connect

    Mit Basol; John F. Kielb; John F. MuHooly; Kobus Smit

    2007-05-02

    On September 29, 2005, ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) executed a multi-year, cooperative agreement with the United States DOE for the Generation IV Reactor Materials project. The project's objective is to update and expand appropriate materials, construction, and design codes for application in future Generation IV nuclear reactor systems that operate at elevated temperatures. Task 4 was embarked upon in recognition of the large quantity of ongoing reactor designs utilizing high temperature technology. Since Code Case N-201 had not seen a significant revision (except for a minor revision in September, 2006 to change the SA-336 forging reference for 304SS and 316SS to SA-965 in Tables 1.2(a) and 1.2(b), and some minor editorial changes) since December 1994, identifying recommended updates to support the current high temperature Core Support Structure (CSS) designs and potential new designs was important. As anticipated, the Task 4 effort identified a number of Code Case N-201 issues. Items requiring further consideration range from addressing apparent inconsistencies in definitions and certain material properties between CC-N-201 and Subsection NH, to inclusion of additional materials to provide the designer more flexibility of design. Task 4 developed a design parameter survey that requested input from the CSS designers of ongoing high temperature gas cooled reactor metallic core support designs. The responses to the survey provided Task 4 valuable input to identify the design operating parameters and future needs of the CSS designers. Types of materials, metal temperature, time of exposure, design pressure, design life, and fluence levels were included in the Task 4 survey responses. The results of the survey are included in this report. This research proves that additional work must be done to update Code Case N-201. Task 4 activities provide the framework for the Code Case N-201 update and future work to provide input on materials. Candidate

  12. Biological activity of palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of the acetone Schiff bases of S-methyl- and S-benzyldithiocarbazate and the X-ray crystal structure of the [Pd(asme)2] (asme=anionic form of the acetone Schiff base of S-methyldithiocarbazate) complex.

    PubMed

    Akbar Ali, Mohammad; Mirza, Aminul Huq; Butcher, Raymond J; Tarafder, M T H; Keat, Tan Boon; Ali, A Manaf

    2002-11-25

    Palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of general empirical formula, [M(NS)(2)] (NS=uninegatively charged acetone Schiff bases of S-methyl- and S-benzyldithiocarbazate; M=Pt(II) and Pd(II)) have been prepared and characterized by a variety of physicochemical techniques. Based on conductance, IR and electronic spectral evidence, a square-planar structure is assigned to these complexes. The crystal and molecular structure of the [Pd(asme)(2)] complex (asme=anionic form of the acetone Schiff base of S-methyldithiocarbazate) has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The complex has a distorted cis-square planar structure with the ligands coordinated to the palladium(II) ions as uninegatively charged bidentate NS chelating agents via the azomethine nitrogen and the mercaptide sulfur atoms. The distortion from a regular square-planar geometry is attributed to the restricted bite angles of the ligands. Antimicrobial tests indicate that the Schiff bases exhibit strong activities against the pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (mutant defective DNA repair), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis (wild type) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi, Candida albicans (CA), Candida lypotica (2075), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (20341) and Aspergillus ochraceous (398)-the activities exhibited by these compounds being greater than that of the standard antibacterial and antifungal drugs, streptomycin and nystatin, respectively. The palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes are inactive against most of these organisms but, the microbe, Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows strong sensitivity to the platinum(II) complexes. Screening of the compounds for their cytotoxicities against T-lymphoblastic leukemia cancer cells has shown that the acetone Schiff base of S-methyldithiocarbazate (Hasme) exhibits a very weak activity, whereas the S-benzyl derivative (Hasbz) is inactive. However, the palladium(II) complexes exhibit strong cytotoxicities against this cancer; their

  13. Parameter estimation procedure for complex non-linear systems: calibration of ASM No. 1 for N-removal in a full-scale oxidation ditch.

    PubMed

    Abusam, A; Keesman, K J; van Straten, G; Spanjers, H; Meinema, K

    2001-01-01

    When applied to large simulation models, the process of parameter estimation is also called calibration. Calibration of complex non-linear systems, such as activated sludge plants, is often not an easy task. On the one hand, manual calibration of such complex systems is usually time-consuming, and its results are often not reproducible. On the other hand, conventional automatic calibration methods are not always straightforward and often hampered by local minima problems. In this paper a new straightforward and automatic procedure, which is based on the response surface method (RSM) for selecting the best identifiable parameters, is proposed. In RSM, the process response (output) is related to the levels of the input variables in terms of a first- or second-order regression model. Usually, RSM is used to relate measured process output quantities to process conditions. However, in this paper RSM is used for selecting the dominant parameters, by evaluating parameters sensitivity in a predefined region. Good results obtained in calibration of ASM No. 1 for N-removal in a full-scale oxidation ditch proved that the proposed procedure is successful and reliable. PMID:11385868

  14. ASME Section VIII Recertification of a 33,000 Gallon Vacuum-jacketed LH2 Storage Vessel for Densified Hydrogen Testing at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, Adam M.; Notardonato, William U.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. GODU-LH2 has three main objectives: zero-loss storage and transfer, liquefaction, and densification of liquid hydrogen. A cryogenic refrigerator has been integrated into an existing, previously certified, 33,000 gallon vacuum-jacketed storage vessel built by Minnesota Valley Engineering in 1991 for the Titan program. The dewar has an inner diameter of 9.5 and a length of 71.5; original design temperature and pressure ranges are -423 F to 100 F and 0 to 95 psig respectively. During densification operations the liquid temperature will be decreased below the normal boiling point by the refrigerator, and consequently the pressure inside the inner vessel will be sub-atmospheric. These new operational conditions rendered the original certification invalid, so an effort was undertaken to recertify the tank to the new pressure and temperature requirements (-12.7 to 95 psig and -433 F to 100 F respectively) per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. This paper will discuss the unique design, analysis and implementation issues encountered during the vessel recertification process.

  15. Periodic X-ray Modulation and its Possible Relation with Eccentricity in Black Hole Binaries : Long-Term Swift/BAT and RXTE/ASM Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arindam; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    X-ray binary orbits are expected to have some eccentricity, albeit small. Stellar companion of a black hole orbiting in an eccentric orbit will experience modulating tidal force with a periodicity same as that of the orbital period which will result in a modulation of accretion rates, seed photon flux, and flux of inverse Comptonized harder X-rays as well. Timing analysis of long-term X-ray data (1.5-12 keV) of RXTE/ASM and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift/BAT satellites reveal this periodicity in several black hole candidates. If this modulation is assumed to be solely due to tidal effects (without taking other effects, such as eclipses, reflection from winds, super-hump phenomena etc. into account), the RMS-value of the peak in power density spectrum allows us to estimate eccentricities of these orbits. We present these very interesting results. We show that our results generally agree with independent studies of these parameters.

  16. Evidence of Two Component Accretion Flows as revealed by time lag properties: Results of Long-Term RXTE/ASM Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arindam; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Long-term RXTE/ASM X-ray data of several Galactic black hole candidates (BHCs) are analyzed. The results of this analysis show the existence of two component accretion flow (TCAF) in both low-mass and high-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs & HMXBs). Large disks with long viscous timescales in the accreting matter with high angular momentum are prevalent in LMXBs due to processes like Roche lobe overflow, while small disks with little viscous delays are observed in HMXBs, primarily because of wind accretion. Two parameters are defined as photon indices, independent of the choice of a BHC, in order to find correlation between the two components, namely, the Keplerian disk component and the sub-Keplerian component, thereby estimating the time lag between two aforesaid timescales. Fluxes of hard and soft photons are observed to be anti-correlated with respect to these photon indices. The time lags give us an idea of the viscosity in the Keplerian component.

  17. A Comparison of the Variability of the Symbiotic X-ray Binaries GX 1+4, 4U 1954+31, and 4U 1700+24 from Swift/BAT and RXTE/ASM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbet, R. H. D.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Markwardt, C. B.; Tueller, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray variability of three symbiotic X-ray binaries, GX 1+4, 4U 1700+24, and 4U 1954+31, using observations made with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) All-Sky Monitor (ASM). Observations of 4U 1954+31 with the Swift BAT show modulation at a period near 5 hours. Models to explain this modulation are discussed including the presence of an exceptionally slow X-ray pulsar in the system and accretion instabilities. We conclude that the most likely interpretation is that 4U 1954+31 contains one of the slowest known X-ray pulsars. Unlike 4U 1954+31, neither GX 1+4 nor 4U 1700+24 show any evidence for modulation on a timescale of hours. An analysis of the RXTE ASM light curves of GX l+4, 4U 1700+24, and 4U 1954+31 does not show the presence of periodic modulation in any source, although there is considerable variability on long timescales for all three sources. There is no modulation in GX 1+4 on either the optical 1161 day orbital period or a previously reported 304 day X-ray period. For 4U 1700+24 we do not confirm the 404 day period previously proposed for this source from a shorter duration ASM light curve.

  18. Report on task assignment No. 3 for the Waste Package Project; Parts A & B, ASME pressure vessel codes review for waste package application; Part C, Library search for reliability/failure rates data on low temperature low pressure piping, containers, and casks with long design lives

    SciTech Connect

    Trabia, M.B.; Kiley, M.; Cardle, J.; Joseph, M.

    1991-07-01

    The Waste Package Project Research Team, at UNLV, has four general required tasks. Task one is the management, quality assurance, and overview of the research that is performed under the cooperative agreement. Task two is the structural analysis of spent fuel and high level waste. Task three is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code review for waste package application. Finally, task four is waste package labeling. This report includes preliminary information about task three (ASME Pressure Vessel Code review for Waste package Application). The first objective is to compile a list of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code that can be applied to waste package containers design and manufacturing processes. The second objective is to explore the use of these applicable codes to the preliminary waste package container designs. The final objective is to perform a library search for reliability and/or failure rates data on low pressure, low temperature, containers and casks with long design lives.

  19. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and Active Materials: Selected Papers from the ASME 2008 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 08) (Maryland, USA, 28-30 October 2008) Adaptive and Active Materials: Selected Papers from the ASME 2008 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 08) (Maryland, USA, 28-30 October 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    The rapid development of the field of Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures, and Materials Systems led the Aerospace Division ASMS TC to launch the new annual SMASIS conference in 2008. The conference focuses on the multi-disciplinary challenges of developing new multifunctional materials and implementing them in advanced systems. The research spans length scales from nano-structured materials to civil, air, and space structures. The first conference consisted of six symposia, each focusing on a different research area. This special issue of Smart Materials and Structures summarizes some of the top research presented at the 2008 SMASIS conference in the materials-focused symposia. These symposia focused on the behavior and mechanics of active materials, on multifunctional materials, and on bio-inspired materials. The behavior and mechanics of active materials is an approach that combines observed material behavior with mechanism-based models that not only give insight into the observed behavior, but guide the development of new materials. This approach has been applied to shape memory metals and polymers, ferroelectrics, ferromagnetics, and recently to multiferroic materials, and has led to considerable improvements in our understanding of multi-field phenomena. Multifunctional materials are the next generation of active materials. These materials include structural, sensing, and actuation components integrated into a material system. A natural extension of multifunctional materials is a new class of bio-inspired materials. Bio-inspired materials range from detailed bio-mimicry of sensing and self healing materials to nano and microstructures that take advantage of features observed in biological systems. The Editors would like to express their sincere thanks to all of the authors for their contributions to this special issue on 'Adaptive and Active Materials' for Smart Materials and Structures. We convey our gratitude to all of the reviewers for their time and

  20. Explanation of the photocurrent quantum efficiency (Φ) enhancements through the CAN's model equation for the p-CuI sensitized methylviolet-C18 LB films in the photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) and Cu/n-Cu2O/M-C18/p-CuI solid-state photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, C. A. N.; Liyanaarachchi, U. S.; AARajapaksha, R. D.

    2013-04-01

    Photocurrent enhancements in a dye sensitized photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a Cu/p-CuI/M-C18 photoelectrode and a dye sensitized solid state photovoltaic cell (DSSC) with Cu/n-Cu2O/M-C18/p-CuI are studied by controlling the formation of dye aggregates of M-C18 Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films on the p-CuI layer. LB films of M-C18 are deposited under biasing conditions during the LB deposition process on Cu/p-CuI, Cu/n-Cu2O/p-CuI and conductive glass plates with the three-electrode configuration setup coupling to the LB trough. LB films prepared under positive biasing conditions enhance the photocurrent quantum efficiencies for both PECs and DSSCs controlling and minimizing the formation of dye aggregates. The electrolyte used for LB deposition and photocurrent measurements is (10-2 M) Fe2+ + Fe3+ (10-2 M) and (10-2 M) NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4, pH = 6 buffer solution. Maximum photocurrent quantum efficiencies (Фmax%) obtained are ≈22% for PEC and ≈20% for DSSCs, where the M-C18 LB film deposition applied potentials +0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl. The mechanism of the photocurrent enhancement is discussed through the CAN's model equation, Ф = AD0-BD02, where A = k1k2/F, B = I k12 k2[2k6/F3 + k2k4/k32 X2F2], F = k2 + k5Y + k7 + k1 I [1 + k2/k3 X], presented from our previous study [1]. Experimental evidence for the formation of the aggregates of M-C18 LB films for the negative applied potentials and suppression of the aggregates with positive applied potentials are presented from absorption spectra, AFM pictures and fluorescence measurements of the samples. Conversion efficiency obtained is ≈2.5%, Voc ≈750 mV and Isc ≈ 5.8 mA cm-2 for DSSC fabricated with +0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl applied deposition potential of M-C18 LB films.

  1. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2011 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 11) (Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 18-21 September 2011) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2011 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 11) (Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 18-21 September 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brei, Diann

    2012-09-01

    The fourth annual meeting of the ASME/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in sunny Scottsdale, Arizona. Each year we strive to grow and offer new experiences. This year we held a special Guest Symposium on Sustainability along with two focused topic tracks on energy harvesting and active composites to encourage cross-fertilization between these important fields and our community. This cross-disciplinary emphasis was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Wayne Brown, President and founder of Dynalloy, Inc., 'Cross-Discipline Sharing'; Dr Brad Allenby, Arizona State University, 'You Want the Future? You can't Handle the Future!'; and Professor Aditi Chattopadhyay, Arizona State University, 'A Multidisciplinary Approach to Structural Health Monitoring and Prognosis'. SMASIS continues to grow our community through both social and technical interchange. The conference location, the exotic Firesky Resort and Spa, exemplified the theme of our Guest Symposium on Sustainability, being the only Green Seal certified resort in Arizona, and highlighting four elements thought to represent all that exist: fire, water, earth and air. Several special events were held around this theme including the night at the oasis reception sponsored by General Motors, sustainability bingo, smart trivia and student networking lunches, and an Arizona pow-wow with a spectacular Indian hoop dance. Our student and young professional development continues to grow strong with best paper and hardware competitions, scavenger student outing and games night. We are very proud that our students and young professionals are always seeking out ways to give back to the community, including organizing outreach to local high school talent. We thank all of our sponsors who made these special events possible. We hope that these social events provided participants with the opportunity to expand their own personal community and broaden their horizons. Our

  2. Synthesis, structure and properties of the oxychalcogenide series A{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4} (A=Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Y)

    SciTech Connect

    Tuxworth, A.J.; Evans, J.S.O.

    2014-02-15

    Seven oxyselenide materials have been synthesised with composition A{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4} (A=Sm, Gd–Er, Y) via solid state reactions of A{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiSe{sub 2} and Se at 900 °C. They are all isostructural with Gd{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4}. Structures have been refined from powder X-ray diffraction data and have monoclinic C2/m symmetry with unit cell parameters of a≈15.7 Å, b≈3.75 Å, c≈9.65 Å and β≈117.5°. They contain infinite ribbons of edge-sharing A{sub 4}O and A{sub 3}TiO tetrahedra 4 units wide, which are linked by chains of TiSe{sub 4}O{sub 2} edge-sharing octahedra. Compositions A=Gd–Ho, Y are semiconductors with conductivities 1–3 Sm{sup −1} at 300 K, with electronic band gaps of between 0.25 and 0.37 eV. Magnetic susceptibility is reported from 1.8 K to 300 K for compositions A=Gd–Ho. Rare earth moments appear to order antiferromagnetically at low temperatures with Gd and Tb showing evidence of ferromagnetism due to spin canting over a narrow temperature range close to T{sub N}. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of the A{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4} crystal structure (C2/m symmetry), A{sub 4}O and A{sub 3}TiO edge sharing tetrahedral ribbons in red, chains of edge-sharing TiSe{sub 4}O{sub 2} in blue. Rare earth=green, titanium=blue, selenium=yellow, and oxygen=red. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Seven materials with A{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4} (A=Sm, Gd–Er, Y) have been synthesised as bulk phases for the first time. • Materials are semiconductors and order antiferromagnetically at ∼4 K. • Structure contains M{sub 4}O tetrahedral ribbons and TiSe{sub 4}O{sub 2} 1D octahedral chains.

  3. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2013 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 13) (Snowbird, UT, USA, 16-18 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nancy; Naguib, Hani; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin; Daqaq, Mohammed; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu; Sarles, Andy

    2014-10-01

    The sixth annual meeting of the ASME Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) was held in the beautiful mountain encircled Snowbird Resort and Conference Center in Little Cottonwood Canyon near Salt Lake City, Utah. It is the conference's objective to provide an up-to-date overview of research trends in the entire field of smart materials systems in a friendly casual forum conducive to the exchange of ideas and latest results. As each year we strive to grow and offer new experiences, this year we included special focused topic tracks on nanoscale multiferroic materials and origami engineering. The cross-disciplinary emphasis was reflected in keynote speeches by Professor Kaushik Bhattacharya (California Institute of Technology) on 'Cyclic Deformation and the Interplay between Phase Transformation and Plasticity in Shape Memory Alloys', by Professor Alison Flatau (University of Maryland at College Park) on 'Structural Magnetostrictive Alloys: The Other Smart Material', and by Dr Leslie Momoda (Director of the Sensors and Materials Laboratories, HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA) on 'Architecturing New Functional Materials: An Industrial Perspective'. SMASIS 2013 was divided into seven symposia which span basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. SYMP 1. Development and Characterization of Multifunctional Materials. SYMP 2. Mechanics and Behavior of Active Materials. SYMP 3. Modeling, Simulation and Control of Adaptive Systems. SYMP 4. Integrated System Design and Implementation. SYMP 5. Structural Health Monitoring. SYMP 6. Bioinspired Smart Materials and Systems. SYMP 7. Energy Harvesting. Authors of selected papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2, and 6) as well as energy harvesting (symposium 7) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart

  4. ASM News Volume 71 Number 9, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Tamar Barkay and Barth F. Smets

    2005-01-01

    Genetic exchanges among prokaryotes, formerly considered only a marginal phenomenon, increasingly are being viewed as profoundly affecting evolution. Indeed, some researchers argue for utterly revamping our concept of microbial speciation and phylogeny by replacing the traditional ''tree'' with a newer ''net'' to account for these horizontal transfers of genes. This conceptual ferment is occurring while molecular biologists reveal how horizontal gene transfers occur even as microbes protect the integrity of their genomes. Other studies reveal the number and diversity and abundance of genetic elements that mediate horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) or facilitate genome rearrangements, deletions, and insertions. Taken together, this information suggests that microbial communities collectively possess a dynamic gene pool, where novel genetic combinations act as a driving force in genomic innovation, compensating individual microbial species for their inability to reproduce sexually. These microbial genomic dynamics can present both environmental threats and promise to humans. One major threat, for example, comes from the spread of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes among pathogenic microbes. Another less-documented issue involves transgenic plants and animals, whose uses are being restricted because of concerns that genes may be transferred to untargeted organisms where they might cause harm. A possible benefit from HGT comes from its potential to enhance the functional diversity of microbial communities and to improve their performance in changing or extreme environments. Such changes might be exploited, for example, as part of efforts to manage environmental pollution and might be achieved by spreading genes into resident microbes to confer specific biochemical activities.

  5. ASME Code Calculations for the CC Cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, R.D.; /Fermilab

    1987-11-04

    This engineering note contains the ASHE Code calculations for the CC Cryostat prepared by the manufacturer, Richmond-Lox Equipment Company. Most of these were taken from calculations initially prepared by Fermilab personne1and pub1ished in Eng. Note 68.

  6. ASM Student Technology and Career Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents a general overview of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for students who are perspective MSFC employees. The presentation includes an organizational chart and a summary of MSFC activities, as well as photographs and descriptions of some of the center's test facilities.

  7. 1994 ASME/IEEE Joint Railroad Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, K.L.; Hill, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    This conference proceedings contains 21 papers. Topics discussed include railroad transportation, signal systems, computer systems, control systems, power supply system, vehicle suspensions, vehicle wheels, traction, failure (mechanical) and sensors. Some papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2012 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 12) (Stone Mountain, GA, USA, 19-21 September 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelecke, Stefan; Erturk, Alper; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Naguib, Hani; Huber, John; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Philen, Michael; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu

    2013-09-01

    The fifth annual meeting of the ASME/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) was held in beautiful Stone Mountain near Atlanta, GA. It is the conference's objective to provide an up-to-date overview of research trends in the entire field of smart materials systems. This was reflected in keynote speeches by Professor Eduard Arzt (Institute of New Materials and Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany) on 'Micro-patterned artificial 'Gecko' surfaces: a path to switchable adhesive function', by Professor Ray H Baughman (The Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas) on 'The diverse and growing family of carbon nanotube and related artificial muscles', and by Professor Richard James (University of Minnesota) on 'The direct conversion of heat to electricity using multiferroic materials with phase transformations'. SMASIS 2012 was divided into eight symposia which span basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. • SYMP 1. Development and characterization of multifunctional materials. • SYMP 2. Mechanics and behavior of active materials. • SYMP 3. Modeling, simulation and control of adaptive systems. • SYMP 4. Integrated system design and implementation. • SYMP 5. Structural health monitoring/NDE. • SYMP 6. Bio-inspired materials and systems. • SYMP 7. Energy harvesting. • SYMP 8. Structural and materials logic. This year we were particularly excited to introduce a new symposium on energy harvesting, which has quickly matured from a special track in previous years to an independent symposium for the first time. The subject cuts across fields by studying different materials, ranging from piezoelectrics to electroactive polymers, as well as by emphasizing different energy sources from wind to waves and ambient vibrations. Modeling, experimental studies, and technology applications all

  9. Synthesis of magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Fe-OMC) adsorbent and its evaluation for fuel desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzin Nejad, N.; Shams, E.; Amini, M. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent was synthesized using soft templating method to adsorb sulfur from model oil (dibenzothiophene in n-hexane). Through this research, pluronic F-127, resorcinol-formaldehyde and hydrated iron nitrate were respectively used as soft template, carbon source and iron source. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and transmission electron microscopy. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement revealed the high surface area (810 m2 g-1), maxima pore size of 3.3 nm and large pore volume (1.01 cm3 g-1) of the synthesized sample. The adsorbent showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 111 mg dibenzothiophene g-1 of adsorbent. Sorption process was described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation and could be better fitted by the Freundlich model, showing the heterogeneous feature of the adsorption process. In addition, the adsorption capacity of regenerated adsorbent was 78.6% of the initial level, after five regeneration cycles.

  10. OMC studies for the matrix elements in ββ decay

    SciTech Connect

    Zinatulina, D.; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Shirchenko, M.; Vasiliev, R.; Yyutlandov, I.; Briançon, Ch.; Petitjean, C.

    2013-12-30

    Energy and time spectra of gamma-rays following μ-capture in natural Kr, Se, Cd and Sm, as well as isotopic enriched {sup 82}Kr, {sup 76}Se, {sup 106}Cd and {sup 150}Sm, have been measured. Total life-times of muons in different isotopes, as well as partial μ-capture rates to the excited states of {sup 48}Sc, {sup 76}As and {sup 106}Ag, were extracted. These results are discussed in the context of the double-beta decay matrix elements. The data are also compared with data from theoretical calculations and with data from charge-exchange reactions on {sup 48}Ti. It is the first time that μ-capture and charge-exchange reaction data are being compared in the context of ββ decay.

  11. ASM Specialty Handbook{reg_sign}: Carbon and alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Carbon and alloy steels are the workhorse of structural materials in modern engineering because of their very reasonable costs coupled with their many and varied properties that allow their use in such a large array of applications. it`s very easy to take steel for granted and forget how much it`s relied upon in critical uses such as cars, bridges, buildings, landing gear assemblies, and more. There are in-depth reviews on formability weldability, machineability, and hardenability of the various steel grades. One can also discover how adding certain alloys can significantly improve steel processing. The strength and toughness section has been greatly expanded with more coverage than ever before of corrosion fatigue. One has access to extensive reports detailing which steels are more susceptible to environmental damage such as stress-corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. Temperature effects relating to mechanical properties and corrosion are also discussed.

  12. Rubber tires are clean burning, superior fuel, ASME told

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    A power plant in Modesto, Calif. has turned the cliche, burning rubber, into a formula for generating electricity from the incineration of discarded tires, according to a paper presented at the 13th National Waste Processing Conference and Exhibit, held on May 1-4, 1988, at the Wyndham Franklin Plaza Hotel, Philadelphia. The tires can be a clean-burning fuel providing a heating value (approximately 14,650 Btu/lb.) superior to bituminous coal. In addition to producing energy, steel can be reclaimed from the incineration of steel belted radial tires and sold for scrap, and zinc can be smelted from fly ash collected by the plant's air pollution control equipment.

  13. Metrication of ASME Pressure Technology Codes and Standards: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, G.L.

    1996-12-01

    There is not universal agreement on metrication. Most agree that it is necessary--sometime, maybe for the next generation, but not now; some agree that it is eventually necessary, and even desirable, but that it is too early; some believe that it is too late, already. Currently, for many pressure technology code users, metrication is neither needed nor wanted; for some, the opposite is true. However, Society leadership indicates that such may not hold for the future, and it is unlikely that the rest of the world will decide to convert to the inch-pound system. Therefore, it seems logical to at least begin the metrication process, which will take years to complete. The first step is accomplished by providing a dual system for reference and familiarity, using the soft side of hard conversion. This leaves the inch-pound system essentially intact, while affording the opportunity for limited use of metric standards and time for true metric sizes and products to become part of PTCS. The eventual goal, is not being metric for the sake of being metric, but to be globally consistent for economic reasons, and to facilitate the movement towards a smaller number of standard sizes worldwide.

  14. ASME cogen turbo power `94. IGTI-Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, H.A.; Cooke, D.H.; Fransson, T.H.; Greitzer, E.M.

    1994-12-31

    This is a collection of papers presented at the 8th Congress and Exposition on Gas Turbines in Cogeneration and Utility, Industrial and Independent Power Generation. The topics of the papers include pacesetter plants and retrofits, plant economics and applications, manufacturing and materials, turbomachinery component design, internal aerodynamic analysis, thermodynamic cycle theory, new engine and cycle developments, performance monitoring and software, emission control, environmental issues, controls and instrumentation, combustion technology, coal and biomass gasification technology, biomass power plant technology, internal and cycle component heat transfer, and cogeneration: grid vs host compatibility characteristics.

  15. ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Buchmeier, Michael J; Davis, Roger J; Drake, Harold; Fang, Ferric C; Gilbert, Jack; Goldman, Barbara M; Imperiale, Michael J; Matsumura, Philip; McAdam, Alexander J; Pasetti, Marcela F; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M; Silhavy, Thomas; Rice, Louis; Young, Jo-Anne H; Shenk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists attempt to publish their work in a journal with the highest possible journal impact factor (IF). Despite widespread condemnation of the use of journal IFs to assess the significance of published work, these numbers continue to be widely misused in publication, hiring, funding, and promotion decisions (1, 2). PMID:27408939

  16. 76 FR 36231 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... last incorporated by reference into the regulations in a final rule dated September 10, 2008 (73 FR 52730), as corrected on October 2, 2008 (73 FR 57235), incorporating Section III of the 2004 Edition of... on May 4, 2010 (75 FR 24324). The public comment period for the proposed rule closed on July 19,...

  17. 77 FR 3073 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... 3073-3075] [FR Doc No: 2012-1212] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 [NRC-2008-0554] RIN 3150... the codified text in a final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 21, 2011 (76 FR... final rule in the Federal Register on June 21, 2011 (76 FR 36232), amending the NRC's regulations...

  18. SPATIALLY RESOLVING SUBSTRUCTURES WITHIN THE MASSIVE ENVELOPE AROUND AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS PROTOSTAR: MMS 6/OMC-3

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Saigo, Kazuya; Tomida, Kengo

    2012-06-10

    With the Submillimeter Array, the brightest (sub)millimeter continuum source in the Orion Molecular Cloud-2/3 region, MMS 6, has been observed in the 850 {mu}m continuum emission with approximately 10 times better angular resolution than previous studies ( Almost-Equal-To 0.''3, Almost-Equal-To 120 AU at Orion). The deconvolved size, the mass, and the column density of MMS 6-main are estimated to be 0.''32 Multiplication-Sign 0.''29 (132 AU Multiplication-Sign 120 AU), 0.29 M{sub Sun }, and 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} cm{sup -2}, respectively. The estimated extremely high mean number density, 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}, suggests that MMS 6-main is likely optically thick at 850 {mu}m. We compare our observational data with three theoretical core models: prestellar core, protostellar core + disk-like structure, and first adiabatic core. These comparisons clearly show that the observational data cannot be modeled as a simple prestellar core with a gas temperature of 20 K. A self-luminous source is necessary to explain the observed flux density in the (sub)millimeter wavelengths. Our recent detection of a very compact and energetic outflow in the CO (3-2) and HCN (4-3) lines supports the presence of a protostar. We suggest that MMS 6 is one of the first cases of an intermediate-mass protostellar core at an extremely young stage. In addition to the MMS 6-main peak, we have also spatially resolved a number of spiky structures and sub-clumps, distributed over the central 1000 AU. The masses of these sub-clumps are estimated to be 0.066-0.073 M{sub Sun }, which are on the order of brown dwarf masses. Higher angular resolution and higher sensitivity observations with ALMA and EVLA will reveal the origin and nature of these structures such as whether they are originated from fragmentations, spiral arms, or inhomogeneity within the disk-like structures/envelope.

  19. The 50th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Development of new mass spectrometers and implementation of new analytical methods were the central themes of the conference. The majority of oral presentations and posters were concerned with the application of mass spectrometry to pharmaceutical and biotechnological research. PMID:18629048

  20. The Early Triassic magmatism of the Alto Paraguay Province, Central South America: Paleomagnetic and ASM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, Marcia; Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; Gomes, Celso de Barros

    2015-10-01

    A paleomagnetic studystudywork was carried out on the Alto Paraguay Province (APP), a belt of alkaline complexes that parallel the Paraguay river for more than 40 km at the border of Brazil and Paraguay. The province is well dated by 40Ar/39Ar method giving ages in the range 240-250 Ma with a preferred age of 241 Ma. Intrusive rocks are predominant but the stocks may be topped by lava flows and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic work on stocks, dikes and flows of the APP identified normal and reversed magnetic components which are carried mainly by titanomagnetites. The calculated paleomagnetic pole located at 319ºE 78ºS (α95 = 6º; k = 23) is in agreement with other South American poles of Permo-Triassic age. Most of the sampling sites showed large variations in rock magnetization, but similar patterns in the variation of the within-site magnetizations, mainly in dikes, suggest geomagnetic polarity transition records. The magnetization data along with the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility determinations suggested that the South and North areas of the province have different evolution characteristics.

  1. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Theiss, Timothy J; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  2. Automatic training and reliability estimation for 3D ASM applied to cardiac MRI segmentation.

    PubMed

    Tobon-Gomez, Catalina; Sukno, Federico M; Butakoff, Constantine; Huguet, Marina; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2012-07-01

    Training active shape models requires collecting manual ground-truth meshes in a large image database. While shape information can be reused across multiple imaging modalities, intensity information needs to be imaging modality and protocol specific. In this context, this study has two main purposes: (1) to test the potential of using intensity models learned from MRI simulated datasets and (2) to test the potential of including a measure of reliability during the matching process to increase robustness. We used a population of 400 virtual subjects (XCAT phantom), and two clinical populations of 40 and 45 subjects. Virtual subjects were used to generate simulated datasets (MRISIM simulator). Intensity models were trained both on simulated and real datasets. The trained models were used to segment the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) from real datasets. Segmentations were also obtained with and without reliability information. Performance was evaluated with point-to-surface and volume errors. Simulated intensity models obtained average accuracy comparable to inter-observer variability for LV segmentation. The inclusion of reliability information reduced volume errors in hypertrophic patients (EF errors from 17 ± 57% to 10 ± 18%; LV MASS errors from -27 ± 22 g to -14 ± 25 g), and in heart failure patients (EF errors from -8 ± 42% to -5 ± 14%). The RV model of the simulated images needs further improvement to better resemble image intensities around the myocardial edges. Both for real and simulated models, reliability information increased segmentation robustness without penalizing accuracy. PMID:22683992

  3. ASME XI stroke time testing of solenoid valves at Connecticut Yankee Station

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company has developed the capability of measuring the stroke times of AC and DC solenoid valves. This allows the station to measure the stroke time of any solenoid valve in the plant, even those valves which do not have valve stem position indicators. Connecticut Yankee has adapted the ITI MOVATS Checkmate 3 system, using a signal input from a Bruel and Kjaer (B&K) Model 4382 acoustic accelerometer and the Schaumberg Campbell Associates (SCA) Model SCA-1148 dual sensor, which is a combined accelerometer and gaussmeter.

  4. Rapid prototyping and the ASME B5.54 standard for evaluation of machine tool performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.K.; Rhorer, D.

    1998-03-01

    The Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) process has shown feasibility for rapid fabrication of metal to full density. Structural properties equivalent to those of conventionally processed material have been achieved. The process is performed without the use of stereolithography files using a more conventional CNC approach to developing the motion path from the CAD solid model and using multi-axis positioning to deposit material in any plane, not just the horizontal plane used in many current processes. The important criteria for evaluating a solid free-form deposit were suggested and used to evaluate a part produced by DLF example presented here.

  5. Perry`s bio-gas experience 1995 ASME/EPRI radwaste workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenk, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    The Perry Power Plant has been in commercial operation for about ten years. Although we didn`t know it at the time, we now believe our bio-gas problem may have started about seven years ago. Barnwell discovered we had a bio-gas problem about a year and a half ago. We found out we had a bio-gas problem a few hours later. The history associated with this process at Perry is outlined, and past as well as present efforts to monitor this process are also discussed.

  6. DESIGN OF ENGINE INTAKE SYSTEMS USING COMPUTER SIMULATIONS ASME PAPER ICEF2002-523

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computational study of a direct injection engine intake system was conducted to determine if adding scrouds to the intake valves would improve the swirl performance in the engine. The results show that higher swril was generated with a single port and a shrouded valve.

  7. Automatic training and reliability estimation for 3D ASM applied to cardiac MRI segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobon-Gomez, Catalina; Sukno, Federico M.; Butakoff, Constantine; Huguet, Marina; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2012-07-01

    Training active shape models requires collecting manual ground-truth meshes in a large image database. While shape information can be reused across multiple imaging modalities, intensity information needs to be imaging modality and protocol specific. In this context, this study has two main purposes: (1) to test the potential of using intensity models learned from MRI simulated datasets and (2) to test the potential of including a measure of reliability during the matching process to increase robustness. We used a population of 400 virtual subjects (XCAT phantom), and two clinical populations of 40 and 45 subjects. Virtual subjects were used to generate simulated datasets (MRISIM simulator). Intensity models were trained both on simulated and real datasets. The trained models were used to segment the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) from real datasets. Segmentations were also obtained with and without reliability information. Performance was evaluated with point-to-surface and volume errors. Simulated intensity models obtained average accuracy comparable to inter-observer variability for LV segmentation. The inclusion of reliability information reduced volume errors in hypertrophic patients (EF errors from 17 ± 57% to 10 ± 18% LV MASS errors from -27 ± 22 g to -14 ± 25 g), and in heart failure patients (EF errors from -8 ± 42% to -5 ± 14%). The RV model of the simulated images needs further improvement to better resemble image intensities around the myocardial edges. Both for real and simulated models, reliability information increased segmentation robustness without penalizing accuracy.

  8. ASME V\\&V challenge problem: Surrogate-based V&V

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Beghini, Lauren L.; Hough, Patricia D.

    2015-12-18

    The process of verification and validation can be resource intensive. From the computational model perspective, the resource demand typically arises from long simulation run times on multiple cores coupled with the need to characterize and propagate uncertainties. In addition, predictive computations performed for safety and reliability analyses have similar resource requirements. For this reason, there is a tradeoff between the time required to complete the requisite studies and the fidelity or accuracy of the results that can be obtained. At a high level, our approach is cast within a validation hierarchy that provides a framework in which we perform sensitivitymore » analysis, model calibration, model validation, and prediction. The evidence gathered as part of these activities is mapped into the Predictive Capability Maturity Model to assess credibility of the model used for the reliability predictions. With regard to specific technical aspects of our analysis, we employ surrogate-based methods, primarily based on polynomial chaos expansions and Gaussian processes, for model calibration, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification in order to reduce the number of simulations that must be done. The goal is to tip the tradeoff balance to improving accuracy without increasing the computational demands.« less

  9. ASME V\\&V challenge problem: Surrogate-based V&V

    SciTech Connect

    Beghini, Lauren L.; Hough, Patricia D.

    2015-12-18

    The process of verification and validation can be resource intensive. From the computational model perspective, the resource demand typically arises from long simulation run times on multiple cores coupled with the need to characterize and propagate uncertainties. In addition, predictive computations performed for safety and reliability analyses have similar resource requirements. For this reason, there is a tradeoff between the time required to complete the requisite studies and the fidelity or accuracy of the results that can be obtained. At a high level, our approach is cast within a validation hierarchy that provides a framework in which we perform sensitivity analysis, model calibration, model validation, and prediction. The evidence gathered as part of these activities is mapped into the Predictive Capability Maturity Model to assess credibility of the model used for the reliability predictions. With regard to specific technical aspects of our analysis, we employ surrogate-based methods, primarily based on polynomial chaos expansions and Gaussian processes, for model calibration, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification in order to reduce the number of simulations that must be done. The goal is to tip the tradeoff balance to improving accuracy without increasing the computational demands.

  10. A Social Medium: ASM's 5th Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria Meeting in Review

    PubMed Central

    Federle, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The 5th American Society for Microbiology Conference on Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria (CCCB-5), which convened from 18 to 21 October 2014 in San Antonio, TX, highlighted recent advances in our understanding of microbial intercellular signaling. While the CCCB meetings arose from interests in pheromone signaling and quorum sensing, it was evident at CCCB-5 that the cell-cell communication field is continuing to mature, expanding into new areas and integrating cutting-edge technologies. In this minireview, we recap some of the research discussed at CCCB-5 and the questions that have arisen from it. PMID:25917904

  11. Fluid mechanics phenomena in microgravity; ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Nov. 8-13, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siginer, Dennis A. (Editor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of symposia presenting research activity in microgravity fluid mechanics. General topics addressed include two-phase flow and transport phenomena, thermo-capillary flow, and interfacial stability. Papers present mathmatical models of fluid dynamics in the microgravity environment. Applications suggested include space manufacturing and storage of liquids in low gravity.

  12. ASM Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black-Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Klis, Michiel

    Resubmission accepted Cycle 2-10 proposal. The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100.000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our RXTE work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black hole transient (if any) will reach 10^5 cps/5 PCU levels. When this occurs a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state of the art high count rate observations covering all of the most crusial aspects of the source variability.

  13. ASM Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black-Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Klis, Michiel

    Resubmission accepted Cycle 2-11 proposal. The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100.000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our RXTE work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black hole transient (if any) will reach 10^5 cps/5 PCU levels. When this occurs a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state of the art high count rate observations covering all of the most crusial aspects of the source variability.

  14. Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket ignition.

  15. Long-term studies with the Ariel 5 ASM. 2: The strong Cygnus sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The three bright 3-6 keV X-ray sources in Cygnus are examined for regular temporal variability with a 1300-day record from the Ariel 5 All Sky Monitor. The only periods consistently observed are 5.6 days for Cyg X-1, 11.23 days for Cyg X-2, and 4.8 hours for Cyg X-3.

  16. Long-term studies with the Ariel 5 ASM. II - The strong Cygnus sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The three bright 3-6 keV X-ray sources in Cygnus are examined for regular temporal variability with a 1300 day record from the Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitor. The only periods consistently observed are 5.6 days for Cyg X-1, 11.23 days for Cyg X-2, and 4.8 hours for Cyg X-3. The 78.4 day period of Kemp, Herman, and Barbour for Cyg X-1, the 9.843 day period of Cowley, Crampton, and Hutchings for Cyg X-2, and the 16.75 day period of Holt et al. for Cyg X-3 are not confirmed.

  17. Self-Instruction through Reading: The Keller Plan. ASME Medical Education Booklet No. 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoward, Peter J.

    1976-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the Keller Plan in medical education are reviewed. The author's advice is based in part on his experience using the method in a course in histology at the University of Dundee, Scotland. (LBH)

  18. Proceedings of the 1998 ASME energy sources technology conference (ETCE`98)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The approximately 160 papers in these proceedings have been arranged under the following topical sections: (1) Computers in engineering -- Technical databases and applied computing; Workgroup computing; Software process models; Internet computing; (2) Drilling technology -- Coiled tubing technology; Drilling dynamics and drilling systems; Advances in drill bits; Advances in percussion drilling; Testing field and laboratory; Novel/scientific drilling; Advances in drilling fluids; (3) Emerging energy technology -- Spray and combustion; Fuel cells; Flammability and flames; Fuels and engines; Miscellaneous combustion topics; (4) Composite materials design and analysis -- Interaction of cracks, notched strength, and free edge effects in laminated composites; Stress analysis of composites; Material response identification, property alteration, damage detection, and environmental effects; Wave propagation in elastic medium, numerical methods for composites; Process and property characterization of advanced materials; Fatigue degradation, viscoplasticity in composites, and numerical simulation of reinforced concrete structures; Aging, creep, plastic anisotropy, joining of different materials, and time history analysis; Shock fronts in compressible medium; Numerical simulation of propagating fronts and shocks in compressible medium; Computational methods and numerical simulation; Analysis and modeling techniques; (5) Manufacturing and services -- Drilling equipment; Process equipment; Patents and intellectual property; Computational methods in manufacturing; (6) Non-destructive evaluation engineering -- NDE applications: Visual inspections; Material property determination/flaw sizing; (7) Offshore engineering and operations -- Environmental and safety issues in offshore operations; Floating production system; Offshore topside facilities; Offshore facility infrastructure; Offshore structures and pipelines; (8) Pipeline engineering and operations -- Pipeline risk management; Pipeline integrity; Evaluation and rehabilitation; Multiphase flow; Pipeline simulation; Pipeline design and operations; New technology; Erosion and corrosion; (9) Plant engineering and reliability -- Reliability methods; Reliability techniques; (10) Petroleum production technology -- Pipeline risk management; Multiphase flow; Multiphase flow equipment; Drilling fluids and completions; Erosion and corrosion; Multiphase pumping; (11) Tribology -- Manufacturing processes; Land-based gas turbine research; Lubrication, tribo-physics and tribo-chemistry. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  19. Framework for evaluating the effectiveness of nuclear-safeguards systems. [Aggregated Systems Model (ASM)

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1981-10-20

    This paper describes an analytical tool for evaluating the effectiveness of safeguards that protect special nuclear material (SNM). The tool quantifies the effectiveness using several measures, including probabilities and expected times to detect and respond to malevolent attempts against the facility. These measures are computed for a spectrum of threats involving outsiders, insiders, collusion, falsification, and deceit. Overall system effectiveness is judged using performance indices aggregated over all threats. These indices can be used by designers and regulators when comparing costs and benefits of various safeguards. The framework is demonstrated with an example in which we assess vulnerabilities of a safeguards system and identify cost-effective design modifications.

  20. COMPARISON OF TWO EPOCHS OF THE ZEEMAN EFFECT IN THE 44 GHz CLASS I METHANOL (CH{sub 3}OH) MASER LINE IN OMC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Momjian, E.; Sarma, A. P. E-mail: asarma@depaul.edu

    2012-12-01

    We present a second epoch of observations of the 44 GHz Class I methanol maser line toward the star-forming region Orion Molecular Cloud 2. The observations were carried out with the Very Large Array, and constitute one of the first successful Zeeman effect detections with the new Wide-band Digital Architecture correlator. Comparing to the result of our earlier epoch of data for this region, we find that the intensity of the maser increased by 50%, but the magnetic field value has stayed the same, within the errors. This suggests that the methanol maser may be tracing the large-scale magnetic field that is not affected by the bulk gas motions or turbulence on smaller scales that is causing the change in maser intensity.

  1. The distribution of the 6(2)-6(1) and 5(2)-5(1) E-type methanol masers in OMC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, K. J.; Gaume, R.; Stolovy, S.; Wilson, T. L.; Walmsley, C. M.; Menten, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of mapping of the 6(2)-6(1) and 5(2)-5(1) E transition of CH3OH toward the Orion-KL region with an angular resolution of 3 arcsec and a frequency resolution of 12 kHz (0.15 km/s). They are shown to lie over an area of approximately 40 arcsec, as previously shown by Matsakis et al. (1980). A detailed comparison exhibits a qualitative agreement of the intensities and sizes with the previous map. In 11 of 14 cases, the positions, flux densities, and radial velocities of the 6(2)-6(1) E and 5(2)-5(1) E maser components agree. Although individual maser emission regions are unresolved in the present 3-arcsec beam, the variation of position with velocity within what is thought to be a single feature implies clustering of masers on scales of less than 3 arcsec. The most intense feature has a brightness temperature in excess of 100,000 K. The best agreement is within the map of the 8(0)-7(1) A transition of methanol.

  2. Proteins involved in electron transfer to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides by Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter uraniireducens.

    PubMed

    Aklujkar, M; Coppi, M V; Leang, C; Kim, B C; Chavan, M A; Perpetua, L A; Giloteaux, L; Liu, A; Holmes, D E

    2013-03-01

    Whole-genome microarray analysis of Geobacter sulfurreducens grown on insoluble Fe(III) oxide or Mn(IV) oxide versus soluble Fe(III) citrate revealed significantly different expression patterns. The most upregulated genes, omcS and omcT, encode cell-surface c-type cytochromes, OmcS being required for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxide reduction. Other electron transport genes upregulated on both metal oxides included genes encoding putative menaquinol : ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase complexes Cbc4 and Cbc5, periplasmic c-type cytochromes Dhc2 and PccF, outer membrane c-type cytochromes OmcC, OmcG and OmcV, multicopper oxidase OmpB, the structural components of electrically conductive pili, PilA-N and PilA-C, and enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Genes upregulated on Fe(III) oxide encode putative menaquinol : ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase complexes Cbc3 and Cbc6, periplasmic c-type cytochromes, including PccG and PccJ, and outer membrane c-type cytochromes, including OmcA, OmcE, OmcH, OmcL, OmcN, OmcO and OmcP. Electron transport genes upregulated on Mn(IV) oxide encode periplasmic c-type cytochromes PccR, PgcA, PpcA and PpcD, outer membrane c-type cytochromes OmaB/OmaC, OmcB and OmcZ, multicopper oxidase OmpC and menaquinone-reducing enzymes. Genetic studies indicated that MacA, OmcB, OmcF, OmcG, OmcH, OmcI, OmcJ, OmcM, OmcV and PccH, the putative Cbc5 complex subunit CbcC and the putative Cbc3 complex subunit CbcV are important for reduction of Fe(III) oxide but not essential for Mn(IV) oxide reduction. Gene expression patterns for Geobacter uraniireducens were similar. These results demonstrate that the physiology of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria differs significantly during growth on different insoluble and soluble electron acceptors and emphasize the importance of c-type cytochromes for extracellular electron transfer in G. sulfurreducens. PMID:23306674

  3. Evaluation of octyl p-methoxycinnamate included in liposomes and cyclodextrins in anti-solar preparations: preparations, characterizations and in vitro penetration studies

    PubMed Central

    de Souza de Bustamante Monteiro, Mariana Sato; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia; Volpato, Nadia Maria; de Freitas, Zaida Maria Faria; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Awareness of the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation has led to the increasing use of sunscreens, thus, the development of safe and effective antisolar preparations is important. The inclusion of sunscreen molecules in different release systems, like liposomes (lipo) and cyclodextrins (CD) is therefore required. Methods The in vivo sun protection factor (SPF), water resistance, and in vitro transdermal penetration test of octyl p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) in different dispersions, such as OMC encapsulated in liposomes (lipo/OMC), OMC encapsulated in β-cyclodextrins (β-CD/OMC), OMC encapsulated in both release systems (lipo/OMC and β-CD/OMC), and an OMC-free formulation were determined. Results Although the formulation containing only the lipo/OMC system revealed high value of in vivo SPF (11.0 ± 1.3) and water resistance (SPF = 10.3 ± 2.2), the formulation containing both release systems (lipo/OMC + β-cyclodextrin/OMC) showed the best result in the in vivo SPF test (11.6 ± 1.6). In the penetration test, the formulation containing the lipo/OMC system had better performance, since a high amount of OMC in the epidermis (18.04 ± 1.17 μg) and a low amount of OMC in the dermis (9.4 ± 2.36 μg) were observed. These results suggest that liposomes interact with the cells of the stratum corneum, promoting retention of OMC in this layer. Conclusion According to our study, the lipo/OMC system is the most advantageous release system, due to its ability to both increase the amount of OMC in the epidermis and decrease the risk of percutaneous absorption. PMID:22787399

  4. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 34th and AIAA/ASME Adaptive Structures Forum, La Jolla, CA, Apr. 19-22, 1993, Technical Papers. Pts. 1-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed include the prediction of helicopter component loads using neural networks, spacecraft on-orbit coupled loads analysis, hypersonic flutter of a curved shallow panel with aerodynamic heating, thermal-acoustic fatigue of ceramic matrix composite materials, transition elements based on transfinite interpolation, damage progression in stiffened composite panels, a direct treatment of min-max dynamic response optimization problems, and sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears. Also discussed are dynamics of a layered elastic system, confidence bounds on structural reliability, mixed triangular space-time finite elements, advanced transparency development for USAF aircraft, a low-velocity impact on a graphite/PEEK, an automated mode-tracking strategy, transonic flutter suppression by a passive flap, a nonlinear response of composite panels to random excitation, an optimal placement of elastic supports on a simply supported plate, a probabilistic assessment of composite structures, a model for mode I failure of laminated composites, a residual flexibility approach to multibody dynamics,and multilayer piezoelectric actuators.

  5. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 34th and AIAA/ASME Adaptive Structures Forum, La Jolla, CA, Apr. 19-22, 1993, Technical Papers. Pts. 1-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topics addressed include the prediction of helicopter component loads using neural networks, spacecraft on-orbit coupled loads analysis, hypersonic flutter of a curved shallow panel with aerodynamic heating, thermal-acoustic fatigue of ceramic matrix composite materials, transition elements based on transfinite interpolation, damage progression in stiffened composite panels, a direct treatment of min-max dynamic response optimization problems, and sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears. Also discussed are dynamics of a layered elastic system, confidence bounds on structural reliability, mixed triangular space-time finite elements, advanced transparency development for USAF aircraft, a low-velocity impact on a graphite/PEEK, an automated mode-tracking strategy, transonic flutter suppression by a passive flap, a nonlinear response of composite panels to random excitation, an optimal placement of elastic supports on a simply supported plate, a probabilistic assessment of composite structures, a model for mode I failure of laminated composites, a residual flexibility approach to multibody dynamics,and multilayer piezoelectric actuators.

  6. Bite the apple, get driven out of the garden: A risky story telling at the ASME town meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, K.C.

    1994-11-01

    Risk, the all-encompassing four-letter word became a widely used household cliche and an institutional mantra in the nineties. Risk analysis models from the Garden of Eden to the Capitol Hill lawn have made a number of sharp paradigm shifts to evolve itself as a decision-making tool from individual risk perception to societal risk-based regulatory media. Risk always coexists with benefit and is arbitrated by costs. Risk-benefit analysis has been in use in business and industry in economic ventures for a long time. Only recently risk management in its current state of development, evolved as a regulatory tool for controlling large technological systems that have potential impacts on the health and safety of the public and on the sustainability of the ecology and the environment. This paper summarizes the evolution of the risk management concepts and models in industry and the regulatory agencies in the US over the last three decades. It also discusses the benefits and limitations of this evolving discipline as it is applied to high-risk technologies from the nuclear power plant and petrochemical industry, etc. to nuclear weapons technology.

  7. Structural applications of mechanical alloying; Proceedings of the ASM International Conference, Myrtle Beach, SC, Mar. 27-29, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Froes, F.H.; Debarbadillo, J.J. Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV )

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on mechanically alloyed (MA) products discusses their aerospace and industrial applications, the design and isothermal forging of Ni-base oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloys, the microstructure and tensile properties of ODS ferritic alloys, the high temperature corrosion resistance of MA refractory products, the mechanical properties of novel MA Fe-based ODS alloys, and dispersoids in MA metals. Also discussed are MA Al-alloys for aircraft applications, the microstructure and properties of MA Al-Mn, the MA processing of the Ti-Al system, the origin of the strength of MA Al alloys, the interaction of Al with SiC during MA processing, the synthesis of chromium silicide via MA, and the MA production of 'TiC-steel'.

  8. Performance Demonstration Initiative U.S. implementation of ASME B and PV code section 11 Appendix 8

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, F.L.; Ammirato, F.; Huffman, K.; Carr, F.

    1994-12-31

    New requirements have now been added to Section 11 as mandatory Appendix 8, ``Performance Demonstration Requirements for Ultrasonic Examination systems``. The appendix was recently published and incorporates performance demonstration requirements for ultrasonic examination equipment, procedures, and personnel. These new requirements will have far reaching and significant impact on the conduct of ISI at all nuclear power plants. For the first time since Section 11 was issued in 1970, the effectiveness of ultrasonic examination procedures and the proficiency of examiners must be demonstrated on reactor pressure vessel (RPV), piping, and bolting markups containing real flaws, Recognizing the importance and complexity of Appendix 8 implementation, representatives from all US nuclear utilities have formed the Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI) to implement Appendix 8 to provide for uniform implementation.

  9. Long-term studies with the Ariel 5 ASM. I - Hercules X-1, Vela X-1, and Centaurus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve hundred days of 3-6 keV X-ray data from Her X-1, Vela X-1, and Cen X-3 accumulated with the Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitor are interrogated. The binary periodicities of all three can be clearly observed, as can the 35 day variation of Her X-1, for which we can refine the period to 34.875 plus or minus 0.030 days. No such longer-term periodicity less than 200 days is observed from Vela X-1. The 26.6 days low-state recurrence period for Cen X-3 is not observed, but a 43.0 day candidate periodicity is found which may be consistent with the precession of an accretion disk in that system. The present results are illustrative of the long-term studies which can be performed on approximately 50 sources over a temporal base which will ultimately extend to at least 1800 days.

  10. International Symposium on Laser Anemometry, 3rd, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, Dec. 13-18, 1987, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybbs, A.; Ali, F.; Morrison, G.

    The conference presents papers on instrumentation and signal processing; internal flows; turbulence; jets, boundary layers, and two-phase flows; and industrial and geological flows. Particular attention is given to the application of a two-axis Bragg cell to achieve a lower cost microcomputer controlled two-component LDA, a new signal processor for noisy LDV signals, uncertainties due to visibility and phase response functions of LDV optical single particle counters, a comparison of measured near-wall velocity profiles and flow visualization in a separated flow, and turbulence production over a rough wall at Mach 3. Other topics include two-step finite difference methods for fluid transient analysis, a three-dimensional microlaser anemometer for boundary layer studies, and LDA measurement of the passage flow field in an annular airfoil cascade.

  11. Computational experiments; Proceedings of the ASME/JSME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 23-27, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. K.; Smolinski, P.; Ohayon, R.; Navickas, J.; Gvildys, J.

    1989-06-01

    Papers applying FEM to engineering problems are presented, covering topics such as a numerical approach to software development for thermoforming simulations, flow three-dimensional analysis of pressure responses in an enclosed launching system, comparing flow three-dimensional calculations with very large amplitude slosh data, and the computational analysis of stress concentrations in pressure vessel cascades. Other topics include FEM studies of flow past an array of plates, stochastic finite elements for automotive impact, numerical simulation in the deployment of space structures, axial buckling of a thin cylindrical shell, applying FEM to the prediction of vibrations of liquid propelled launch vehicles, analysis of a large bore piping system supported with viscodampers, stochastic simulation of lubricant depletion on a magnetic storage disk, and two-dimensional crak inclusion interaction effects. Additional topics include analyzing damage mechanisms using the energy release rate, the suspension of solid particles in an aerospace plane's slush hydrogen tanks, modal methods for the analysis of vibrations of structures coupled with fluids, the elastic-plastic behavior of fibrous metal matrix composites, and stochastic finite element analysis of nonlinear media.

  12. ASME 1988 National Heat Transfer Conference, Houston, TX, July 24-27, 1988, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2, & 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Harold R.

    Various papers on heat transfer are presented. The general topics addressed include: combustion in multiphase systems, combustion fundamentals, modeling of combustion systems, combustion and thermal systems, radiation heat transfer, heat pipes and heat pipe heat exchangers, ceramic heat exchangers, air-cooled heat exchangers, compact heat exchangers, heat pipe mechanisms in electronic equipment cooling, cryogenic and immersion cooling of electronic systems, non-Darcy effects in porous media, augmentation heat transfer, and space-related heat transfer equipment.

  13. 78 FR 79363 - Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... fittings (see Sec. 179.300-12), more stringent welding (see Sec. 178.300-9), and inspection (see Sec. 179... General TM Material TD Design TW Tanks Fabricated by Welding TF Fabrication TE Examination TT Testing...

  14. 75 FR 80765 - Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or you may visit http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... incorporated by reference into the regulations under Docket No. RSPA-99-6213 (HM-218) (August 18, 2000; 65 FR... incorporated by reference under Docket HM-183C (November 3, 1994; 59 FR 55162). VII. Current HMR, Section...

  15. Forum on Turbulent Flows - 1990; Joint CSME/ASME Spring Meeting, Toronto, Canada, June 4-7, 1990, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, W. M.; Morris, M. J.; Samimy, M.

    The present conference on turbulent flows discusses mathematical modeling of metal flow in aluminum reduction pots, low Reynolds number turbulence modeling of rotating flows, the decay of turbulent pipe flow, a Lagrangian Monte Carlo model of turbulent dispersion in the convective planetary boundary layer, order within chaos in confined jet flows, and an experimental investigation into the effect of initial conditions on simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation of fluctuations in the transition of a planar turbulent jet. Also discussed are a numerical study of twin-jet impingement upwash flow, vorticity and velocity measurements in a 2:1 mixing layer, a numerical investigation of turbulent cube flow, the effect of mean fluid velocity gradients on particle velocity fluctuations in turbulent flows, and steady flow in a three-dimensional rectangular cavity that is yawed from the freestream turbulent boundary layer.

  16. The first twenty years of the ASME Committee on nuclear air and gas treatment - a retrospective by a founding member

    SciTech Connect

    Jacox, J.

    1997-08-01

    Since the 1996 Winter Meeting of CONAGT was the twentieth anniversary of CONAGT a review of the Committee and its members seems in order. This Paper will cover the background and formation of CONAGT as well as the history to date. This history will include not only the basic accomplishments but some of the less successfully met goals and a look at some of the personalities involved in the Committee work. General future plans will be included. The intent of the Paper is less a formal history than a personal recollection of the Committee and those who worked so hard to create the best possible Codes and Standards for the industry to use. 10 refs.

  17. DETECTION OF PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN SOURCE AND FINISHED WATER - 3RD EDITION ASM'S METHODS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protozoans are eukaryotic organisms which can live either a free-living or parasitic existence. Some free-living forms, under the right conditions, can become opportunistic parasites. Enteric pathogenic protozoans, like Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which are now known to be tra...

  18. Adaptive structures; Proceedings of the ASME Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 10-15, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The present conference on adaptive structures discusses piezoelectric and electrostrictive sensors and actuators for adaptive structures and smart materials, real-time control for composite structures with embedded actuators and sensors, a laminated-shell theory incorporating embedded distributed actuators, traveling-wave power flow techniques, uncertainty modeling for the control of an active structure, and active vibration isolation in the presence of unmodeled structural dynamic response. Also discussed are the control of flexible beams via free-free active truss, truss structure control using member actuators with latch mechanism, neural processors for smart-structure control, the effect of imperfections on the static control of adaptive structures, adaptive structures for segmented optical systems, and the shape-control of flexible structures.

  19. ASM Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black-Hole Candidates (core Program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resubmission accepted Cycle 2-11 proposal. The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100.000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our RXTE work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black hole transient (if any) will reach 10^5 cps/5 PCU levels. When this occurs a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state of the art high count rate observations covering all of the most crusial aspects of the source variability.

  20. Project Response To ASME Question for Comparison of Pure Oxy-Firing to Diluted Oxy-Firing

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schoenfield; Tom Ochs

    2009-08-31

    High flame temperature oxy-combustion and low flame temperature oxy-combustion are the two primary types of oxy-combustion, which is the combustion of fossil fuel with oxygen instead of air. High flame temperature oxy-combustion results in increased radiant energy, but heat flux at the water walls has been demonstrated to be maintained within design parameters. Less fossil fuel is used, so less CO{sub 2} is produced. Latent and sensible heat can be partially recovered from the compressors. CO{sub 2} capture costs are decreased. Evenly distributed heat avoids creating hot spots. The NETL IPR capture system can capture 100% of the CO{sub 2} when operating at steady state. New boiler designs for high flame temperature oxy-combustion can take advantage of the higher flame temperatures. High flame temperature oxy-combustion with IPR capture can be retrofitted on existing plants. High flame temperature oxy-combustion has significantly improved radiant heat transfer compared to low flame temperature oxy-combustion, but heat flux at the water walls can be controlled. High flame temperature oxy-combustion used with the NETL's Integrated Pollutant Removal System can capture 95%-100% of the CO{sub 2} with heat recovery. These technologies create CO{sub 2} capture cost savings, and are applicable to new design and existing design boilers.

  1. Attenuated Allergenic Activity of Ovomucoid After Electrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ovomucoid (OMC) is the most prominent allergen causing hen's egg allergy, containing disulfide (S-S) bonds that may be responsible for its allergic action. As S-S bonds may be reduced during electrolysis, this study was undertaken to evaluate modulation of the allergic action of OMC after electrolysis. Electrolysis was carried out for 1% OMC containing 1% sodium chloride for 30 minutes with a voltage difference of 90 V, 0.23 A (30 mA/cm2). Protein assays, amino acid measurement, and mass spectrometry in untreated OMC and OMC on both the anode and cathode sides after electrolysis were performed. Moreover, 21 patients with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy were evaluated by using the skin prick test (SPT) for untreated OMC and OMC after electrolysis. The allergic action of OMC was reduced after electrolysis on both the anode and cathode sides when evaluated by the SPT. The modifications of OMC on electrolysis caused the loss of 2 distinct peptide fragments (57E-63K and 123H-128R) as seen on matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The total free SH groups in OMC were increased on the cathode side. Although the regions of S-S broken bonds were not determined in this study, the change in S-S bonds in OMC on both the anode and cathode sides may reduce the allergenic activity. PMID:26333707

  2. Attenuated Allergenic Activity of Ovomucoid After Electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kido, Jun; Matsumoto, Tomoaki

    2015-11-01

    Ovomucoid (OMC) is the most prominent allergen causing hen's egg allergy, containing disulfide (S-S) bonds that may be responsible for its allergic action. As S-S bonds may be reduced during electrolysis, this study was undertaken to evaluate modulation of the allergic action of OMC after electrolysis. Electrolysis was carried out for 1% OMC containing 1% sodium chloride for 30 minutes with a voltage difference of 90 V, 0.23 A (30 mA/cm²). Protein assays, amino acid measurement, and mass spectrometry in untreated OMC and OMC on both the anode and cathode sides after electrolysis were performed. Moreover, 21 patients with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy were evaluated by using the skin prick test (SPT) for untreated OMC and OMC after electrolysis. The allergic action of OMC was reduced after electrolysis on both the anode and cathode sides when evaluated by the SPT. The modifications of OMC on electrolysis caused the loss of 2 distinct peptide fragments (57E-63K and 123H-128R) as seen on matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The total free SH groups in OMC were increased on the cathode side. Although the regions of S-S broken bonds were not determined in this study, the change in S-S bonds in OMC on both the anode and cathode sides may reduce the allergenic activity. PMID:26333707

  3. Hydrodechlorination of Silicon Tetrachloride to Trichlorosilane Over Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Catalysts: Effect of Pretreatment of Oxygen and Hydrochloric Acid.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Do-Hwan; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Kim, Ji Man; Yang, O Bong

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on the catalytic reaction for the conversion of silicon tetrachloride (STC) to trichlorosilane (TCS) over pretreated ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) catalysts by oxygen (denoted as OMC-O2) and hydrochloric acid (denoted as OMC-HCl) at 300 degrees C under N2 atmosphere. The OMC-O2 shows significantly improved the surface area (1341.2 m2/g) and pore volume (1.65 cm3/g), which results in the highest conversion rate of 7.3% as compared to bare OMC (4.3%) and OMC-HCI (5.7%). It is found that the conversion rate of STC to TCS is proportional to the number of Si-O bond over OMC catalysts, which suggests that Si-O-C bond formation is crucial to the reaction as active sites. The O2 pretreatment seems to promote the generation of oxygenated species for the formation of Si-O-C. PMID:27433674

  4. Ordered mesoporous carbon/graphene nano-sheets composites as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Leng-Leng; Chen, Ming; Ren, Tie-Zhen; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The composites of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and graphene nano-sheets (GNS) are prepared by mixing OMC with different weight ratios of GNS, and utilized as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Tafel polarization, and cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrate that the OMC/GNS CEs display the enhanced electron transport property and fast reduction rate of I3- in comparison with those of the individual OMC and GNS CEs, due to the combination of superior electrical conductivity of GNS and good catalytic activity of OMC. Under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2), the DSSCs based on the OMC/GNS CEs show a maximum power conversion efficiency of 6.82%, which is comparable to 7.08% of the cell with the conventional Pt CE at the same experimental conditions, suggesting that the OMC/GNS composites are one of advanced CE materials for low-cost DSSCs.

  5. Lipid nanoparticles as carrier for octyl-methoxycinnamate: in vitro percutaneous absorption and photostability studies.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco; Rizza, Luisa; Blasi, Paolo; Schoubben, Aurelie; Perrotta, Rosario; Tarico, Maria Stella; Damiani, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the evaluation of lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles, SLN, and nanostructured lipid carriers, NLC) as potential carriers for octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC). The release pattern of OMC from SLN and NLC was evaluated in vitro, determining its percutaneous absorption through excised human skin. Additional in vitro studies were performed in order to evaluate, after UVA radiation treatment, the spectral stability of OMC-loaded lipid nanoparticles. From the obtained results, ultrasonication method yielded both SLN and NLC in the nanometer range with a high active loading and a particle shape close to spherical. Differential scanning calorimetry data pointed out the key role of the inner oil phase of NLC in stabilizing the particle architecture and in increasing the solubility of OMC as compared with SLN. In vitro results showed that OMC, when incorporated in viscosized NLC dispersions (OMC-NLC), exhibited a lower flux with respect to viscosized SLN dispersions (OMC-SLN) and two reference formulations: a microemulsion (OMC-ME) and a hydroalcoholic gel (OMC-GEL). Photostability studies revealed that viscosized NLC dispersions were the most efficient at preserving OMC from ultraviolet-mediated photodegradation. PMID:21905033

  6. Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheet Transplantation Enhances Early Tendon Graft to Bone Tunnel Healing in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Kota; Akahane, Manabu; Morita, Yusuke; Ogawa, Munehiro; Ueha, Tomoyuki; Shimizu, Takamasa; Kura, Tomohiko; Kawate, Kenji; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets (OMCS) could induce bone formation around grafted tendons, thereby enhancing early stage tendon to bone tunnel healing in skeletally mature male Japanese white rabbits. First, the osteogenic potential of rabbit OMCS was evaluated. Then, the OMCS were transplanted into the interface between the grafted tendon and the bone tunnel created at the tibia. Histological assessments and biomechanical tensile testing were performed after 3 weeks. The rabbit OMCS showed high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, positive staining of ALP, and osteogenic potential when transplanted subcutaneously with beta tricalcium phosphate disks. Newly formed bony walls and positive collagen type I staining were seen around the grafted tendon with OMCS transplantation, whereas such bony walls were thinner or less frequent without OMCS transplantation. Micro-computed tomography images showed significantly higher bone volume in the OMCS transplantation group. The pullout strength was significantly higher with OMCS (0.74 ± 0.23 N/mm2) than without OMCS (0.58 ± 0.15 N/mm2). These results show that OMCS enhance early tendon to bone tunnel healing. This method can be applied to cases requiring early tendon to bone tunnel healing after ligament reconstruction surgery. PMID:24106718

  7. Boundary layer stability and transition to turbulence; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME and JSME Joint Fluids Engineering Conference, 1st, Portland, OR, June 23-27, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, D. C. (Editor); Reed, H. L. (Editor); Kobayashi, R. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented at the conference provide an overview of current research related to the mechanisms of the laminar-turbulent transition. The principal topics discussed include receptivity, bypass mechanisms, curvature, three-dimensionality, nonlinearities, breakdown, and control. Papers are included on linear and nonlinear receptivity to vortical free-stream disturbances; initiation of boundary-layer disturbances by nonlinear mode interactions; stability and transition to turbulence of thin liquid film flow along a rotating disk; and turbulent intermittency measurements for turbomachinery flows.

  8. Proceedings of the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. Session 1A--Session 2C: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing, jointly sponsored by the Board of Nuclear Codes and Standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, provides a forum for the discussion of current programs and methods for inservice testing and motor-operated valve testing at nuclear power plants. The symposium also provides an opportunity to discuss the need to improve that testing in order to help ensure the reliable performance of pumps and valves. The participation of industry representatives, regulators, and consultants results in the discussion of a broad spectrum of ideas and perspectives regarding the improvement of inservice testing of pumps and valves at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume 1, covers sessions 1A through session 2C. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  9. 46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (2) Materials used in piping systems must be selected from the specifications that appear in Table 56.60-1(a) of this section or 46 CFR 56.60-2, Table 56.60-2(a), or they may be... (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) if not prohibited by a regulation of...

  10. 46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (2) Materials used in piping systems must be selected from the specifications that appear in Table 56.60-1(a) of this section or 46 CFR 56.60-2, Table 56.60-2(a), or they may be... (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) if not prohibited by a regulation of...

  11. 46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (2) Materials used in piping systems must be selected from the specifications that appear in Table 56.60-1(a) of this section or 46 CFR 56.60-2, Table 56.60-2(a), or they may be... (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) if not prohibited by a regulation of...

  12. 46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (2) Materials used in piping systems must be selected from the specifications that appear in Table 56.60-1(a) of this section or 46 CFR 56.60-2, Table 56.60-2(a), or they may be... (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) if not prohibited by a regulation of...

  13. 46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (2) Materials used in piping systems must be selected from the specifications that appear in Table 56.60-1(a) of this section or 46 CFR 56.60-2, Table 56.60-2(a), or they may be... (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) if not prohibited by a regulation of...

  14. Aviation Support Equipment Technician (ASE 3 & 2 and ASM 3 & 2). Volume 1, Basics. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Jesse R.; And Others

    This Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable aviation support equipment personnel to help themselves fulfill the requirements for advancement. Designed for individual study and not formal classroom instruction, the RTM provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational…

  15. Heat transfer in gas turbine engines and three-dimensional flows; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, Nov. 27-Dec. 2, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elovic, E.; O'Brien, J. E.; Pepper, D. W.

    The present conference on heat transfer characteristics of gas turbines and three-dimensional flows discusses velocity-temperature fluctuation correlations at the flow stagnation flow of a circular cylinder in turbulent flow, heat transfer across turbulent boundary layers with pressure gradients, the effect of jet grid turbulence on boundary layer heat transfer, and heat transfer characteristics predictions for discrete-hole film cooling. Also discussed are local heat transfer in internally cooled turbine airfoil leading edges, secondary flows in vane cascades and curved ducts, three-dimensional numerical modeling in gas turbine coal combustor design, numerical and experimental results for tube-fin heat exchanger airflow and heating characteristics, and the computation of external hypersonic three-dimensional flow field and heat transfer characteristics.

  16. Draft ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III, Division 5, Section HB, Subsection B, Code Case for Alloy 617 and Background Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Julie Knibloe

    2015-08-01

    Alloy 617 is the leading candidate material for an intermediate heat exchanger for the very high temperature reactor. To evaluate the behavior of this material in the expected service conditions, strain controlled cyclic tests that include long hold times up to 240 minutes at maximum tensile strain were conducted at 850°C. In terms of the total number of cycles to failure, the fatigue resistance decreased when a hold time was added at peak tensile strain. Increases in the tensile hold duration degraded the creep fatigue resistance, at least to the investigated strain controlled hold time of up to 60 minutes at the 0.3% strain range and 240 minutes at the 1.0% strain range. The creep fatigue deformation mode is considered relative to the lack of saturation, or continually decreasing number of cycles to failure with increasing hold times. Additionally, preliminary values from the 850°C creep fatigue data are calculated for the creep fatigue damage diagram and have higher values of creep damage than those from tests at 950°C.

  17. Creep-fatigue interaction at high temperature; Proceedings of the Symposium, 112th ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Haritos, G.K.; Ochoa, O.O.

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on creep-fatigue interaction at high temperature are presented. Individual topics addressed include: analysis of elevated temperature fatigue crack growth mechanisms in Alloy 718, physically based microcrack propagation laws for creep-fatigue-environment interaction, in situ SEM observation of short fatigue crack growth in Waspaloy at 700 C under cyclic and dwell conditions, evolution of creep-fatigue life prediction models, TMF design considerations in turbine airfoils of advanced turbine engines. Also discussed are: high temperature fatigue life prediction computer code based on the total strain version of strainrange partitioning, atomic theory of thermodynamics of internal variables, geometrically nonlinear analysis of interlaminar stresses in unsymmetrically laminated plates subjected to uniform thermal loading, experimental investigation of creep crack tip deformation using moire interferometry.

  18. Creep-fatigue interaction at high temperature; Proceedings of the Symposium, 112th ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritos, George K.; Ochoa, O. O.

    Various papers on creep-fatigue interaction at high temperature are presented. Individual topics addressed include: analysis of elevated temperature fatigue crack growth mechanisms in Alloy 718, physically based microcrack propagation laws for creep-fatigue-environment interaction, in situ SEM observation of short fatigue crack growth in Waspaloy at 700 C under cyclic and dwell conditions, evolution of creep-fatigue life prediction models, TMF design considerations in turbine airfoils of advanced turbine engines. Also discussed are: high temperature fatigue life prediction computer code based on the total strain version of strainrange partitioning, atomic theory of thermodynamics of internal variables, geometrically nonlinear analysis of interlaminar stresses in unsymmetrically laminated plates subjected to uniform thermal loading, experimental investigation of creep crack tip deformation using moire interferometry. (For individual items see A93-31336 to A93-31344)

  19. Analytical and computational models of shells; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 10-15, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Editor); Belytschko, Ted (Editor); Simo, Juan C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics presented include asymptotic analysis and computation for shells, the edge effects in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory, nonlinear problems of geometrically exact shell theories, and developments in variational methods for high performance plate and shell elements. Also presented are an assumed strain solid element model for geometrically nonlinear shell analysis, shell finite elements with six degrees of freedom per node, hierarchic plate and shell models based on p-extension, and a simple shell element formulation for large-scale elastoplastic analysis. Also discussed are the assessment of computational models for multilayered composite cylinders, shell models for impact analysis, analysis of shell structures subjected to contact-impacts, and the application of shell theory to cardiac mechanics.

  20. Variability of computational fluid dynamics solutions for pressure and flow in a giant aneurysm: the ASME 2012 Summer Bioengineering Conference CFD Challenge.

    PubMed

    Steinman, David A; Hoi, Yiemeng; Fahy, Paul; Morris, Liam; Walsh, Michael T; Aristokleous, Nicolas; Anayiotos, Andreas S; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C; Berg, Philipp; Janiga, Gábor; Bols, Joris; Segers, Patrick; Bressloff, Neil W; Cibis, Merih; Gijsen, Frank H; Cito, Salvatore; Pallarés, Jordi; Browne, Leonard D; Costelloe, Jennifer A; Lynch, Adrian G; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; Fu, Wenyu; Qiao, Aike; Hodis, Simona; Kallmes, David F; Kalsi, Hardeep; Long, Quan; Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Finol, Ender A; Kono, Kenichi; Malek, Adel M; Lauric, Alexandra; Menon, Prahlad G; Pekkan, Kerem; Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Marsden, Alison L; Oshima, Marie; Katagiri, Kengo; Peiffer, Véronique; Mohamied, Yumnah; Sherwin, Spencer J; Schaller, Jens; Goubergrits, Leonid; Usera, Gabriel; Mendina, Mariana; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Habets, Damiaan F; Xiang, Jianping; Meng, Hui; Yu, Yue; Karniadakis, George E; Shaffer, Nicholas; Loth, Francis

    2013-02-01

    Stimulated by a recent controversy regarding pressure drops predicted in a giant aneurysm with a proximal stenosis, the present study sought to assess variability in the prediction of pressures and flow by a wide variety of research groups. In phase I, lumen geometry, flow rates, and fluid properties were specified, leaving each research group to choose their solver, discretization, and solution strategies. Variability was assessed by having each group interpolate their results onto a standardized mesh and centerline. For phase II, a physical model of the geometry was constructed, from which pressure and flow rates were measured. Groups repeated their simulations using a geometry reconstructed from a micro-computed tomography (CT) scan of the physical model with the measured flow rates and fluid properties. Phase I results from 25 groups demonstrated remarkable consistency in the pressure patterns, with the majority predicting peak systolic pressure drops within 8% of each other. Aneurysm sac flow patterns were more variable with only a few groups reporting peak systolic flow instabilities owing to their use of high temporal resolutions. Variability for phase II was comparable, and the median predicted pressure drops were within a few millimeters of mercury of the measured values but only after accounting for submillimeter errors in the reconstruction of the life-sized flow model from micro-CT. In summary, pressure can be predicted with consistency by CFD across a wide range of solvers and solution strategies, but this may not hold true for specific flow patterns or derived quantities. Future challenges are needed and should focus on hemodynamic quantities thought to be of clinical interest. PMID:23445061

  1. Numerical heat transfer with personal computers and supercomputing; Proceedings of the ASME National Heat Transfer Conference, Philadelphia, PA, Aug. 6-9, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R. K.

    1989-06-01

    Various papers on numerical heat transfer using PCs and supercomputing are presented. Individual topics addressed include: a generalized program for computing two-dimensional boundary layers on a PC, microcomputer software for heat transfer education, PC-based adaptive irregular triangular grid generation for transient diffusion problems, numerical studies of convective heat transfer in an inclined semiannular enclosure, capabilities of PCs for numerical convective heat transfer, one-dimensional analysis of plane and radial thin film flows including solid-body rotation, and analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipes. Also considered are: transient combined mixed convection and radiation from a straight vertical fin, finite element method for fluid flow and heat transfer on a PC, use of finite elements and PCs in teaching heat transfer, application of supercomputers to computational heat transfer, heat transfer to a thin liquid film with a free surface, numerical simulation of internal supersonic flow, and numerical prediction of vortex shedding behind a square cylinder.

  2. Advances in dynamics and control of flexible spacecraft and space-based manipulations; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Nov. 25-30, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Alberts, Thomas E.; Kakad, Yogendra P.

    Consideration is given to control formulations for vibration suppression of an active structure in slewing motions, the use if distributed sensing in control of large flexible spacecraft, an improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems, and nonlinear slew maneuver dynamics of large flexible spacecrafts. Attention is also given to initial experiments in trusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot, dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, initial experiments in cooperative manipulation from a moving platform, and intelligent pipelined control architecture for remote robotic applications.

  3. Heat transfer in gas turbine engines; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 10-15, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. C.; Mayle, R. E.

    Topics presented include an experimental study of convective heat transfer in radially rotating rectangular ducts, an experimental study of heat transfer in a spanwise rotating channel turbulated with 45 deg. criss-cross ribs, local heat transfer on a flat surface roughened with broken ribs, and turbulent heat transfer and friction in a square channel with discrete rib turbulators. Also presented are simulating transitional flow and heat transfer over the flat plate and circular cylinder using a k-epsilon turbulence model, velocity and temperature profiles for stagnation film cooling, film cooling effectiveness in high turbulence flow, and local convection heat transfer on a plane wall in the vicinity of strong streamwise accelerations.

  4. Processing and manufacturing of composite materials; Proceedings of the Symposium, 112th ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivatsan, T. S.; Chandrashekhar, S.

    Papers are presented on the machining of fiber reinforced composites, the milling of continuous carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy, advances in composite machining with abrasive water jets, delamination in surface plies of graphite/epoxy caused by the edge-trimming process, and cryogenic machining of Kevlar composites. Consideration is given to a thermodynamic evaluation of ceramic-composite cutting tools for machining titanium, microstructural changes in carbon fibers during high-temperature processing, synthesis of particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites using spray techniques, and on-line monitoring of composite prepreg fabrication. Attention is also given to the effects of postannealing on fatigue behavior in PEEK and its short fiber-reinforced composites, the effect of fabrication parameters on void content for filament-wound composites, and the fabrication of a W-1 percent ThO2-reinforced Fe-25Cr-8Al-0.5Y superalloy matrix composite.

  5. Calibration and validation of a modified ASM1 using long-term simulation of a full-scale pulp mill wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Keskitalo, Jukka; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2010-04-14

    A mathematical model modified from the well established Activated Sludge Model no. 1 was used for modelling a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in a bleached kraft pulp mill. Effluents from the pulp and paper industry are typically nutrient deficient, which was considered in the model. The wastewater characterization and model calibration were based on respirometric batch experiments with sludge and wastewater sampled from the WWTP. The model performance was validated in a long-term simulation using routinely measured process data from the WWTP as the model inputs. The simulation results proved useful in evaluating nutrient dosage strategies at the WWTP and in troubleshooting poor treatment plant performance. However, in order to achieve a completely accurate description of nitrogen removal, more complex phenomena would have to be included in the model. Even though the simulated period was long compared to the brief measurement campaign used in the model calibration, the model was able to describe the treatment plant's behaviour. The calibrated model can be expected to stay valid for a long time, which allows the use of deterministic modelling in practical applications at pulp and paper WWTPs. PMID:20480830

  6. Heat transfer in space systems; Proceedings of the Symposium, AIAA/ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Seattle, WA, June 18-20, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S. H.; Anderson, E. E.; Simoneau, R. J.; Chan, C. K.; Pepper, D. W.

    Theoretical and experimental studies of heat-tranfer in a space environment are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon to cool high-power electronics, a low-pressure-drop heat exchanger with integral heat pipe, an analysis of the thermal performance of heat-pipe radiators, measurements of temperature and concentration fields in a rectangular heat pipe, and a simplified aerothermal heating method for axisymmetric blunt bodies. Consideration is given to entropy production in a shock wave, bubble-slug transition in a two-phase liquid-gas flow under microgravity, plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity, the Microgravity Thaw Experiment, the flow of a thin film on stationary and rotating disks, an advanced ceramic fabric body-mounted radiator for Space Station Freedom phase 0 design, and lunar radiators with specular reflectors.

  7. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  8. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.; Shaffer, L.L.

    1997-08-01

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the {open_quotes}hit or miss{close_quotes} type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA`s required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Proceedings of the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. Volume 2, Session 3A--Session 4B

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing, jointly sponsored by the Board of Nuclear Codes and Standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, provides a forum for the discussion of current programs and methods for inservice testing and motor-operated valve testing at nuclear power plants. The symposium also provides an opportunity to discuss the need to improve that testing in order to help ensure the reliable performance of pumps and valves. The participation of industry representatives, regulators, and consultants results in the discussion of a broad spectrum of ideas and perspectives regarding the improvement of inservice testing of pumps and valves at nuclear power plants. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  10. Advances in dynamics and control of flexible spacecraft and space-based manipulations; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Nov. 25-30, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M. (Editor); Alberts, Thomas E. (Editor); Kakad, Yogendra P. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to control formulations for vibration suppression of an active structure in slewing motions, the use if distributed sensing in control of large flexible spacecraft, an improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems, and nonlinear slew maneuver dynamics of large flexible spacecrafts. Attention is also given to initial experiments in trusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot, dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, initial experiments in cooperative manipulation from a moving platform, and intelligent pipelined control architecture for remote robotic applications.

  11. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 33rd, Dallas, TX, Apr. 13-15, 1992, Technical Papers. Pt. 3 - Structural dynamics I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The present conference on structural dynamics encompasses finite-element analyses of rotorcraft vibration, spacecraft dynamics, dynamic analyses, rotor aeroelasticity, rotorcraft dynamics, damping, control analysis and experiments, and experimental dynamics and testing. Specific issues addressed include NASA/industry design-analysis methods for vibrations, controlling a large flexible structure to mimic a rigid one, the dynamic response of rapidly heated space structures, interval prediction in structural dynamic analysis, mode localization in computer disk drives, and a discrete transfer-matrix method for rotating beams. Also addressed are the dynamics of axially moving continua on an elastic foundation, stiffness and stress in a fluid-filled circular diaphragm, linear structure control by the modal force technique, directional filters for sensing 1D structural dynamics, and an adaptive multilevel substructuring method for efficient modeling of complex structures.

  12. WATER MIST IMPINGEMENT ONTO A HEATED SURFACE. PROCEEDING OF THE ASME/JSME JOINT THERMAL ENGINEERING CONFERENCE (5TH) 1999, HELD IN SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental study on the interaction of a water mist with a heated surface is described. The long term objective is to produce experimental data that can be used to validate submodels for four key physical phenomena involved in the interaction of sprays with burning surfaces:...

  13. Genome assembly of Diuraphis noxia strain: RWA2 Russian wheat aphid. Bioproject: PRJNA233413. Assembly No. ASM118638v1 (Dnoxia_1.0)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, is among one of the most destructive species with origins in Central Asia west of the Tian Shan Mountains in northwestern China. It is a significant pest of wheat and barley, expanded its range throughout all cereal production areas of the world, ...

  14. Computational mechanics - Advances and trends; Proceedings of the Session - Future directions of Computational Mechanics of the ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 7-12, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume provide an overview of the advances made in a number of aspects of computational mechanics, identify some of the anticipated industry needs in this area, discuss the opportunities provided by new hardware and parallel algorithms, and outline some of the current government programs in computational mechanics. Papers are included on advances and trends in parallel algorithms, supercomputers for engineering analysis, material modeling in nonlinear finite-element analysis, the Navier-Stokes computer, and future finite-element software systems.

  15. Long-term studies with the Ariel-5 asm. 1: Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3. [periodic variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    Twelve hundred days of 3-6 keV X-ray data from Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3 accumulated with the Ariel-5 all-sky monitor are interrogated. The binary periodicities of all three can be clearly observed, as can the approximately 35-d variation of Her X-1, for which we can refine the period to 34.875 plus or minus .030-d. No such longer-term periodicity less than 200-d is observed from Vela X-1. The 26.6-d low-state recurrence period for Cen X-3 previously suggested is not observed, but a 43.0-d candidate periodicity is found which may be consistent with the precession of an accretion disk in that system. The present results are illustrative of the long-term studies which can be performed on approximately 50 sources over a temporal base which will ultimately extend to at least 1800 days.

  16. Heat transfer in space systems; Proceedings of the Symposium, AIAA/ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Seattle, WA, June 18-20, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S. H. (Editor); Anderson, E. E. (Editor); Simoneau, R. J. (Editor); Chan, C. K. (Editor); Pepper, D. W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of heat-tranfer in a space environment are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon to cool high-power electronics, a low-pressure-drop heat exchanger with integral heat pipe, an analysis of the thermal performance of heat-pipe radiators, measurements of temperature and concentration fields in a rectangular heat pipe, and a simplified aerothermal heating method for axisymmetric blunt bodies. Consideration is given to entropy production in a shock wave, bubble-slug transition in a two-phase liquid-gas flow under microgravity, plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity, the Microgravity Thaw Experiment, the flow of a thin film on stationary and rotating disks, an advanced ceramic fabric body-mounted radiator for Space Station Freedom phase 0 design, and lunar radiators with specular reflectors.

  17. Heat transfer in gas turbine engines and three-dimensional flows; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, Nov. 27-Dec. 2, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elovic, E. (Editor); O'Brien, J. E. (Editor); Pepper, D. W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present conference on heat transfer characteristics of gas turbines and three-dimensional flows discusses velocity-temperature fluctuation correlations at the flow stagnation flow of a circular cylinder in turbulent flow, heat transfer across turbulent boundary layers with pressure gradients, the effect of jet grid turbulence on boundary layer heat transfer, and heat transfer characteristics predictions for discrete-hole film cooling. Also discussed are local heat transfer in internally cooled turbine airfoil leading edges, secondary flows in vane cascades and curved ducts, three-dimensional numerical modeling in gas turbine coal combustor design, numerical and experimental results for tube-fin heat exchanger airflow and heating characteristics, and the computation of external hypersonic three-dimensional flow field and heat transfer characteristics.

  18. Automated synthesis of transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) and open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs) through aggressive space mapping (ASM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selga, Jordi; Rodríguez, Ana; Orellana, Marco; Boria, Vicente; Martín, Ferran

    2014-09-01

    This paper is focused on the application of space mapping optimization to the automated synthesis of transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) and open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs). These structures are of interest for the implementation of resonant-type metamaterial transmission lines and for the design of planar microwave circuits based on such complementary resonators. The paper presents a method to generate the layouts of CSRR- and OCSRR-loaded microstrip lines from the elements of their equivalent circuit models. Using the so-called aggressive space mapping, a specific implementation that uses quasi-Newton type iteration, we have developed synthesis algorithms that are able to provide the topology of these CSRR- and OCSRR-loaded lines in few steps. The most relevant aspect, however, is that this synthesis process is completely automatic, i.e., it does not require any action from the designers, other than initiating the algorithm. Moreover, this technique can be translated to other electrically small planar elements described by lumped element equivalent circuit models.

  19. Mechanics of composites at elevated and cryogenic temperatures; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Applied Mechanics Conference, Columbus, OH, June 16-19, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, S. N.; Jones, W. F.; Herakovich, C. T.

    The present conference discusses thermomechanical response prediction for metal-matrix composites (MMCs), the effect of the matrix constitutive model on MMC residual thermal stresses, high temperature gradient effects on laminate stiffness and stress distribution, a micromechanical thermal stress analysis for space structure composites, and the mechanical behavior of SCS-6/Ti-6-4 MMC at elevated temperature. Also discussed are the computational micromechanics of woven composites, a macroscopic strength criterion for tridirectional fiber composites, the effects of heat flow on stress singularities at the interface crack, the ductility of a continuous fiber-reinforced Al-matrix MMC, the thermal buckling of symmetrically laminated composite plates, and the interfacial mechanics of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4.

  20. Carbothermal synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbon-supported nano zero-valent iron with enhanced stability and activity for hexavalent chromium reduction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ying; Hu, Yuchen; Jiang, Baojiang; Zou, Jinlong; Tian, Guohui; Fu, Honggang

    2016-05-15

    Composites of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) are prepared by using simultaneous carbothermal reduction methods. The reactivity and stability of nZVI are expected to be enhanced by embedding it in the ordered pore channels. The structure characteristics of nZVI/OMC and the removal pathway for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) by nZVI/OMC are investigated. Results show that nZVI/OMC with a surface area of 715.16 m(2) g(-1) is obtained at 900 °C. nZVI with particle sizes of 20-30 nm is uniformly embedded in the OMC skeleton. The stability of nZVI is enhanced by surrounding it with a broad carbon layer and a little γ-Fe is derived from the passivation of α-Fe. Detection of ferric state (Fe 2p3/2, around 711.2eV) species confirms that part of the nZVI on the outer surface is inevitably oxidized by O2, even when unused. The removal efficiency of Cr(VI) (50 mg L(-1)) by nZVI/OMC is near 99% within 10 min through reduction (dominant mechanism) and adsorption. nZVI/OMC has the advantage in removal efficiency and reusability in comparison to nZVI/C, OMC and nZVI. This study suggests that nZVI/OMC has the potential for remediation of heavy metal pollution in water. PMID:25898797

  1. GRTS operations monitor/control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrer, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    An Operations Monitor/Control System (OMCS) was developed to support remote ground station equipment. The ground station controls a Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) relocated to provide coverage in the tracking system's zone of exclusion. The relocated satellite significantly improved data recovery for the Gamma Ray Observatory mission. The OMCS implementation, performed in less than 11 months, was mission critical to TDRS drift operations. Extensive use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) hardware and software products contributed to implementation success. The OMCS has been operational for over 9 months with no significant problems. This paper will share our experiences in OMCS development and integration.

  2. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brei, Diann

    2011-09-01

    The third annual meeting of the AMSE/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in the heart of historic Philadelphia's cultural district, and included a pioneer banquet in the National Constitutional Center. The applications emphasis of the 2010 conference was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Alan Taub, vice president of General Motors global research and development, 'Smart materials in the automotive industry'; Dr Charles R Farrar, engineering institute leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 'Future directions for structural health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructure'; and Professor Christopher S Lynch of the University of California Los Angeles, 'Ferroelectric materials and their applications'. The SMASIS conference was divided into six technical symposia each of which included basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. The six symposia were: SYMP 1 Multifunctional Materials; SYMP 2 Active Materials, Mechanics and Behavior; SYMP 3 Modeling, Simulation and Control; SYMP 4 Enabling Technologies and Integrated System Design; SYMP 5 Structural Health Monitoring/NDE; and SYMP 6 Bio-inspired Smart Materials and Structures. In addition, the conference introduced a new student and young professional development symposium. Authors of papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2 and 6) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart Materials and Structures. This set of papers demonstrates the exceptional quality and originality of the conference presentations. We are appreciative of their efforts in producing this collection of highly relevant articles on smart materials.

  3. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of octyl methoxycinnamate liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Varjão Mota, Aline de Carvalho; Faria de Freitas, Zaida Maria; Júnior, Eduardo Ricci; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela Maria; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; Ribeiro, Vanessa Lira; Silva, Ronald Santos; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Solar radiation causes damage to human skin, and photoprotection is the main way to prevent these harmful effects. The development of sunscreen formulations containing nanosystems is of great interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries because of the many potential benefits. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) liposomal nanosystem (liposome/OMC) to obtain a sunscreen formulation with improved safety and efficacy by retaining OMC for longer on the stratum corneum. Methods The liposome/OMC nanostructure obtained was tested for enzymatic hydrolysis with lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and biodistribution with liposomes labeled with technetium-99m. The liposome/OMC formulation was then incorporated in a gel formulation and tested for ocular irritation using the hen’s egg test-chorio-allantoic membrane (HET-CAM) assay, in vitro and in vivo sun protection factor, in vitro release profile, skin biometrics, and in vivo tape stripping. Results The liposome/OMC nanosystem was not hydrolyzed from R. miehei by lipase. In the biodistribution assay, the liposome/OMC formulation labeled with technetium-99m had mainly deposited in the skin, while for OMC the main organ was the liver, showing that the liposome had higher affinity for the skin than OMC. The liposome/OMC formulation was classified as nonirritating in the HET-CAM test, indicating good histocompatibility. The formulation containing liposome/OMC had a higher in vivo solar photoprotection factor, but did not show increased water resistance. Inclusion in liposomes was able to slow down the release of OMC from the formulation, with a lower steady-state flux (3.9 ± 0.33 μg/cm2/hour) compared with the conventional formulation (6.3 ± 1.21 μg/cm2/hour). The stripping method showed increased uptake of OMC in the stratum corneum, giving an amount of 22.64 ± 7.55 μg/cm2 of OMC, which was higher than the amount found for the conventional formulation (14.57 ± 2.30 μg/cm2

  4. Tracing the Magnetic Field in Orion A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houde, Martin; Dowell, C. Darren; Hildebrand, Roger H.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Peng, Ruisheng; Bastien, Pierre

    2004-04-01

    We use extensive 350 μm polarimetry and continuum maps obtained with the Hertz polarimeter and SHARC II (Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II) along with HCN and HCO+ spectroscopic data to trace the orientation of the magnetic field in the Orion A star-forming region. Using the polarimetry data, we find that the direction of the projection of the magnetic field in the plane of the sky relative to the orientation of the integral-shaped filament varies considerably as one moves from north to south. While in IRAS 05327-0457 and OMC-3 MMS 1-6 the projection of the field is primarily perpendicular to the filament, it becomes better aligned with it at OMC-3 MMS 8-9, and well aligned with it at OMC-2 FIR 6. The OMC-2 FIR 4 cloud, located between the last two clouds, is a peculiar object in which we find almost no polarization. There is a relatively sharp boundary within its core where two adjacent regions exhibiting differing polarization angles merge. The projected angle of the field is more complicated in OMC-1, where it exhibits smooth variations in its orientation across the face of this massive complex. We also note that while the relative orientation of the projected angle of the magnetic field to the filament varies significantly in the OMC-3 and OMC-2 regions, its orientation relative to a fixed position on the sky shows far greater stability. This suggests that the orientation of the field is perhaps relatively unaffected by the mass condensation present in these parts of the molecular cloud. By combining the polarimetry and spectroscopic data, we were able to measure a set of average values for the inclination angle of the magnetic field relative to the line of sight. We find that the field is oriented quite close to the plane of the sky in most places. More precisely, the inclination of the magnetic field is ~73° around OMC-3 MMS 6, ~74° at OMC-3 MMS 8-9, ~80° at OMC-2 FIR 4, ~65° in the northeastern part of OMC-1, and ~49° in the Orion bar

  5. Tracing the Magnetic Field in Orion A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, C. Darren; Hildebrand, Roger H.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Peng, Rui-Sheng; Bastien, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    We use extensive 350 micron polarimetry and continuum maps obtained with Hertz and SHARC II along with HCN and HCO(sup +) spectroscopic data to trace the orientation of the magnetic field in the Orion A star-forming region. Using the polarimetry data, we find that the direction of the projection of the magnetic field in the plane of the sky relative to the orientation of the integral-shaped filament varies considerably as one moves from north to south. While in IRAS 05327-0457 and OMC-3 MMS 1-6 the projection of the field is primarily perpendicular to the filament it becomes better aligned with it at OMC-3 MMS 8-9 and well aligned with it at OMC-2 FIR 6. The OMC-2 FIR 4 cloud, located between the last two, is a peculiar object where we find almost no polarization. There is a relatively sharp boundary within its core where two adjacent regions exhibiting differing polarization angles merge. The projected angle of the field is more complicated in OMC-1 where it exhibits smooth variations in its orientation across the face of this massive complex. We also note that while the relative orientation of the projected angle of the magnetic field to the filament varies significantly in the OMC-3 and OMC-2 regions, its orientation relative to a fixed position on the sky shows much more stability. This suggests that, perhaps, the orientation of the field is relatively unaffected by the mass condensations present in these parts of the molecular cloud. By combining the polarimetry and spectroscopic data we were able to measure a set of average d u e s for the inclination angle of the magnetic field relative to the line of sight. We find that the field is oriented quite close to the plane of the sky in most places. More precisely, the inclination of the magnetic field is approx. = 73 deg around OMC-3 MMS 6, approx. = 74 deg at OMC-3 MMS 8-9, approx. = 80 deg at OMC-2 FIR 4, approx. = 65 deg in the northeastern part of OMC-1, and approx. = 49 deg in the Bas. The small difference

  6. Selective Acquiescence, Creative Commitment and Strategic Conformity: Situated National Policy Responses to Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The non-binding nature of the Bologna Declaration and loose policy-making and implementation through the open method of coordination (OMC) have led to varied national responses to the Bologna Process. The OMC has allowed countries room for manoeuvre to interpret Bologna policy and attach different degrees of importance to it. Looking at the…

  7. Early Survey Results from the Minnesota Medical Cannabis Program.

    PubMed

    McGriff, Deepa; Anderson, Susan; Arneson, Tom

    2016-06-01

    As part of its legislative mandate, the Minnesota Department of Health's Office of Medical Cannabis (OMC) is required to study and report on the state's medical cannabis program. This article describes preliminary findings from the OMC's research about who is using the program and whether patients and their certifying health care practitioners are noticing benefits and harms. PMID:27464390

  8. A Pilot Study to Compare Oxidative Status between Organically and Conventionally Managed Dairy Cattle During the Transition Period.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the redox balance of organically managed dairy cattle (OMC; n = 40) during the transition period and to compare this with conventionally managed cattle (CMC; n = 22). Serum samples of dairy cows from two organic and one conventional farm were taken. Markers of oxidants production [reactive oxygen species] and total serum antioxidant capacity were measured in four different production stages: (i) far-off dry (2 to 1 months before calving; 44 samples in CMC and 48 in OMC); (ii) close-up dry (1 month until 3 days before calving; 44 CMC; 54 OMC); (iii) fresh (3 days to +1 month after calving; 44 CMC; 49 OMC); and (iv) peak of lactation (+1 to +3 months; 71 CMC; 78 OMC). Values were compared between production stages and against a metabolic baseline status (4th-5th month of pregnancy; 40 CMC; 30 OMC). Our results indicated that throughout the periparturient period, OMC had lower concentrations of reactive oxygen species, but also a lower antioxidant capacity than CMC. Indeed, when the two components of the redox balance were assessed together through the Oxidative Stress index, the values of this parameter were higher for OMC than for CMC, thereby implying a higher risk of oxidative stress. Therefore, further larger studies are needed to confirm the current observations, as organically reared animals might be exposed to a lack of antioxidants supply. PMID:25845278

  9. Effect of compounding process on the structure and electrochemical properties of ordered mesoporous carbon/polyaniline composites as electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lixia; Song, Huaihe; Zhang, Qincang; Yao, Jingyuan; Chen, Xiaohong

    Polyaniline (PANI) loaded ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) composites were prepared via different processes, involving the in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of OMC or its precursor and the direct physical mixing method. On the basis of analyzing the morphologies and structures of these three OMC/PANI composites, the influence of compounding processes on the electrochemical properties as electrodes for supercapacitors was first investigated. It was observed that regardless of compounding process, two distinct electrochemical behaviors took place on all of the composite electrodes, including a redox reaction with insertion and deinsertion of electrolyte ions, and electrostatic attraction at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Additionally, these OMC/PANI composites showed higher specific capacitances compared with pure OMC and PANI. Most significantly, the in situ synthesized OMC/PANI composite using OMC as a starting material exhibited the highest specific capacitance of 747 F g -1 at a current density of 0.1 A g -1 and excellent rate capability, which was attributed to the high degree of dispersion of PANI and the contact of PANI with electrolyte as well as the double fixing effects of surface and mesopore of OMC on PANI.

  10. The Europeanisation of Education Policy: Researching Changing Governance and "New" Modes of Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexiadou, Nafsika

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how the European Union coordinates education policy making through the use of a mode of governance called the open method of coordination (OMC). Part One briefly presents and discusses the mechanisms of the education OMC and its key characteristics. Part Two draws on contemporary theories of Europeanisation and discourse…

  11. New Forms of European Union Governance in the Education Sector? A Preliminary Analysis of the Open Method of Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Bettina; Alexiadou, Nafsika

    2007-01-01

    This article critically explores how a new form of European Union (EU) governance--the open method of coordination (OMC)--impinges on education policies. The first part discusses three key characteristics of the OMC, in particular its flexibility, reflexivity and reliance on the techniques of new public management. It also outlines briefly why the…

  12. Policy Learning and Governance of Education Policy in the EU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Bettina; Alexiadou, Nafsika

    2010-01-01

    Open methods for coordinating (OMC) education policies in the EU rely on a number of techniques, one of which is policy learning. This article examines how policy learning and governance transform each other. More specifically, policy-learning in the education OMC becomes differentiated into four distinct learning styles: mutual, competitive,…

  13. A European Space for Education Looking for Its Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Ninni

    2010-01-01

    The open method of coordination (OMC) within the Lisbon strategy is discussed in terms of a European Space for Education and "programme ontology". The focus is on indicators and the European dimension, and how they "work" in the forming of contents and identities in this European Space for Education. The OMC is analyzed in relation to Nancy…

  14. Education Policy Convergence through the Open Method of Coordination: Theoretical Reflections and Implementation in "Old" and "New" National Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexiadou, Nafsika; Fink-Hafner, Danica; Lange, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses two key questions about the convergence of education policies in the European Union (EU). How does the open method of coordination (OMC), a new governance instrument for the Europeanisation of education policies, change existing national education policy making and how can the OMC and national responses to it be researched?…

  15. Hierarchically ordered mesoporous carbon/graphene composites as supercapacitor electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanjie; Li, Zhu; Guo, Kunkun; Shao, Ting

    2016-08-25

    Hierarchically ordered mesoporous carbon/graphene (OMC/G) composites have been fabricated by means of a solvent-evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method. The structures of these composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K. These results indicate that OMC/G composites possess the hierarchically ordered hexagonal p6mm mesostructure with the lattice unit parameter and pore diameter close to 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively. The specific surface area of OMC/G composites after KOH activation is high up to 2109.2 m(2) g(-1), which is significantly greater than OMC after activation (1474.6 m(2) g(-1)). Subsequently, the resulting OMC/G composites as supercapacitor electrode materials exhibit an outstanding capacitance as high as 329.5 F g(-1) in 6 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1), which is much higher than both OMC (234.2 F g(-1)) and a sample made by mechanical mixing of OMC with graphene (217.7 F g(-1)). In addition, the obtained OMC/G composites display good cyclic stability, and the final capacitance retention is approximately 96% after 5000 cycles. These ordered mesopores in the OMC/G composites are beneficial to the accessibility and rapid diffusion of the electrolyte, while graphene in OMC/G composites can also facilitate the transport of electrons during the processes of charging and discharging owing to its high conductivity, thereby leading to an excellent energy storage performance. The method demonstrated in this work would open up a new route to design and develop graphene-based architectures for supercapacitor applications. PMID:27523568

  16. Role of gap junctions and protein kinase A during the development of oocyte maturational competence in Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshizaki, G.; Takeuchi, T.; Soyano, K.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Meiotic resumption in teleost oocytes is induced by a maturation-inducing hormone (MIH). The sensitivity of oocytes to MIH, also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is induced by LH via mechanisms that are not fully understood. A previous study of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) showed the presence of functional heterologous gap junctions (GJs) between oocytes and their surrounding granulosa cells. The objectives of this study were to determine the role of ovarian GJs and of protein kinase A (PKA) during the acquisition of OMC. We examined the effects of the specific GJ inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) and 18??-glycyrrhetinic acid (??-GA) on the LH-(hCG)-dependent acquisition of OMC and on MIH-(17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one)-dependent meiotic resumption; measured the cAMP content of ovarian follicles during the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC; and determined the effects of PK activators and inhibitors on hCG-dependent OMC. Production of follicular cAMP increased during the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC. Both GJ inhibitors and the PKA inhibitor H8-dihydrochloride, but not the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, suppressed the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC in a dose-dependent manner. The PKA activator forskolin induced OMC with a similar potency to hCG. Unlike previous observations with teleosts where disruption of heterologous GJ either blocks or stimulates meiotic resumption, treatment with GJ inhibitors did not affect MIH-dependent meiotic resumption in maturationally competent follicles of Ayu. These observations suggest that ovarian GJs are essential for LH-dependent acquisition of OMC but not for MIH-dependent meiotic resumption, and that the stimulation of OMC by LH is mediated by cAMP-dependent PKA. They are also consistent with the view that a precise balance between GJ-mediated signals (positive or negative) and oocyte maturational readiness is required for hormonally regulated meiotic resumption. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - References for Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... A17.1-2004 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. ANSI/ASME B30.2-2005 Overhead and Gantry Cranes... Construction Tower Cranes. ANSI/ASME B30.4-2003 Portal, Tower, and Pedestal Cranes. ANSI/ASME B30.5-2004 Mobile And Locomotive Cranes. ANSI/ASME B30.6-2003 Derricks. ANSI/ASME B30.7-2001 Base Mounted Drum...

  18. Wet oxidation of ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 by using (NH4)2S2O8 for fast adsorption of Sr(II): An investigation on surface chemistry and adsorption mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Ye, Gang; Chen, Jing; Lv, Dachao; Wang, Jianchen

    2015-12-01

    Surface modification of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by wet oxidation provides an oxygen-enriched platform for complexation of metal ions. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the surface chemistry and textual property of OMC FDU-15 modified by wet oxidation using (NH4)2S2O8 as a benign oxidant. And, for the first time, the adsorption behavior and mechanism of wet-oxidized OMC FDU-15 toward Sr(II) in aqueous solutions were investigated. The mesostructural regularity of the OMC FDU-15 was well-reserved under wet oxidation. Compared to OMC CMK-type counterparts prepared via nanocasting, the OMC FDU-15 by soft template method showed much-enhanced structural stability. Due to the introduction of abundant oxygen-containing species, the oxidized OMC FDU-15 exhibited excellent hydrophilicity and dispersibility in aqueous solutions. The adsorption behavior toward Sr(II) was fully investigated, showing a super-fast adsorption kinetics (< 5 min to reach equilibrium) and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Moreover, an in-depth X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis through deconvolution of high resolution C1s and O1s spectra was implemented to identify the chemical species of the surface functional groups, while probing the adsorption mechanism. The results suggested that oxygen donor atoms in Csbnd O single bonds mainly contribute to the adsorption of Sr(II) via formation of metal-ligand complexation.

  19. A target field design of open multi-purpose RF coil for musculoskeletal MR imaging at 3T.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Diange; Wang, Xiaoying; Huang, Kefu; Zhang, Jue

    2016-10-01

    Musculoskeletal MR imaging under multi-angle situations plays an increasingly important role in assessing joint and muscle tissues system. However, there are still limitations due to the closed structures of most conventional RF coils. In this study, a time-harmonic target-field method was employed to design open multi-purpose coil (OMC) for multi-angle musculoskeletal MR imaging. The phantom imaging results suggested that the proposed OMC could achieve homogeneously distributed magnetic field and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 239.04±0.83 in the region of interest (ROI). The maximum temperature in the heating hazard test was 16°C lower than the standard regulation, which indicated the security of the designed OMC. Furthermore, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed OMC for musculoskeletal MR imaging, especially for multi-angle imaging, a healthy volunteer was examined for MR imaging of elbow, ankle and knee using OMC. The in vivo imaging results showed that the proposed OMC is effective for MR imaging of musculoskeletal tissues at different body parts, with satisfied B1 field homogeneity and SNR. Moreover, the open structure of the OMC could provide a large joint movement region. The proposed open multi-purpose coil is feasible for musculoskeletal MR imaging, and potentially, it is more suitable for the evaluation of musculoskeletal tissues under multi-angle conditions. PMID:27114344

  20. Synthesis of graphitic ordered mesoporous carbon with cubic symmetry and its application in lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Seop; Jeong, Jinhoo; Cho, Won Il; Kim, Woong

    2016-03-01

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery faces a couple of major problems in practical applications, including the low conductivity of sulfur and the dissolution of polysulfides. A cathode constructed using a composite of sulfur and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) is a promising solution to both problems, as OMCs can have high conductivity and a complex pore structure to trap polysulfides. In this work, we demonstrate that performance of the Li-S battery can be significantly enhanced by using an OMC with a high degree of graphitization and a pore network with cubic symmetry. This graphitic OMC (GOMC) can be produced in a single step using iron phthalocyanine precursor and a silica template with cubic Ia3d symmetry. The GOMC-sulfur (GOMC/S) composite is 175% higher in electrical conductivity compared to the typical OMC-sulfur (OMC/S) composite. In addition, the three-dimensional pore network in GOMC prevents the migration of dissolved polysulfides. These characteristics of GOMC contribute to the improved rate capability and cyclability of the corresponding Li-S battery.

  1. Simple synthesis of Ni-containing ordered mesoporous carbons and their adsorption/desorption of methylene orange.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong; Wang, Xiufang; Pan, Yufang

    2012-04-30

    A simple route has been developed to synthesize magnetic Ni-containing ordered mesoporous carbons (Ni/OMCs) without using a solvent for dissolving carbon precursor or magnetic source. The adsorption and desorption of methylene orange (MO) on the obtained Ni/OMCs were investigated. The effects of Ni(NO(3))(2) loading amount and carbonization temperature on the morphologies, the structural parameters and magnetic properties of these Ni/OMCs were evaluated by X-ray diffraction(XRD), N(2) sorption analysis, transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and physical property measurements. With the increase of Ni(NO(3))(2) loading amount, the ordering of the mesoporous structures, the specific surface area and the total pore volumes of Ni/OMCs decreased, but the pore diameters of Ni/OMCs and the sizes of Ni particle increased. The saturation magnetization strength could be easily adjusted by varying the amount of Ni(NO(3))(2). The specific surface area and total pore volumes decreased with the increasing of carbonization temperature. The size of Ni particle was the biggest at 750°C. The adsorption of MO into Ni/OMCs followed the Sips adsorption model. More interestingly, a simple equation was obtained and was proved to well fit the desorption behavior of MO on Ni/OMCs. The values for the relative fitted parameters were obtained and the physical meanings of the parameters were well defined. PMID:22366315

  2. Synthesis of graphitic ordered mesoporous carbon with cubic symmetry and its application in lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Seop; Jeong, Jinhoo; Il Cho, Won; Kim, Woong

    2016-03-29

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery faces a couple of major problems in practical applications, including the low conductivity of sulfur and the dissolution of polysulfides. A cathode constructed using a composite of sulfur and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) is a promising solution to both problems, as OMCs can have high conductivity and a complex pore structure to trap polysulfides. In this work, we demonstrate that performance of the Li-S battery can be significantly enhanced by using an OMC with a high degree of graphitization and a pore network with cubic symmetry. This graphitic OMC (GOMC) can be produced in a single step using iron phthalocyanine precursor and a silica template with cubic Ia3d symmetry. The GOMC-sulfur (GOMC/S) composite is 175% higher in electrical conductivity compared to the typical OMC-sulfur (OMC/S) composite. In addition, the three-dimensional pore network in GOMC prevents the migration of dissolved polysulfides. These characteristics of GOMC contribute to the improved rate capability and cyclability of the corresponding Li-S battery. PMID:26890309

  3. High-Loading Nano-SnO2 Encapsulated in situ in Three-Dimensional Rigid Porous Carbon for Superior Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hairong; Zhao, Jianqing; Tang, Jing; Gong, Hao; He, Ping; Zhou, Haoshen; Yamauchi, Yusuke; He, Jianping

    2016-03-24

    Tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) have been encapsulated in situ in a three-dimensional ordered space structure. Within this composite, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) acts as a carbon framework showing a desirable ordered mesoporous structure with an average pore size (≈6 nm) and a high surface area (470.3 m(2) g(-1)), and the SnO2 NPs (≈10 nm) are highly loaded (up to 80 wt %) and homogeneously distributed within the OMC matrix. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, a SnO2 @OMC composite material can deliver an initial charge capacity of 943 mAh g(-1) and retain 68.9 % of the initial capacity after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g(-1), even exhibit a capacity of 503 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 160 mA g(-1). In situ encapsulation of the SnO2 NPs within an OMC framework contributes to a higher capacity and a better cycling stability and rate capability in comparison with bare OMC and OMC ex situ loaded with SnO2 particles (SnO2/OMC). The significantly improved electrochemical performance of the SnO2@OMC composite can be attributed to the multifunctional OMC matrix, which can facilitate electrolyte infiltration, accelerate charge transfer, and lithium-ion diffusion, and act as a favorable buffer to release reaction strains for lithiation/delithiation of the SnO2 NPs. PMID:26918383

  4. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus J; Babauta, Jerome T; Kennedy, David W; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R; Clarke, Thomas A; Butt, Julea N; Richardson, David J; Rosso, Kevin M; Zachara, John M; Fredrickson, James K; Shi, Liang

    2014-01-01

    The multi-heme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC) and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC) respectively. Here, we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pcc protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. PMID:25139405

  5. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kennedy, David W.; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R.; Clarke, Thomas A.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-24

    The multiheme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC), and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC), respectively. Here we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pcc protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate, but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Finally, complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.

  6. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kennedy, David W.; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R.; Clarke, Thomas A.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-24

    The multiheme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC), and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC), respectively. Here we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pcc protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate, but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.

  7. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kennedy, David W.; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R.; et al

    2014-09-24

    The multiheme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC), and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC), respectively. Here we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pccmore » protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate, but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Finally, complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.« less

  8. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME/EPA (AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS/ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION CONFERENCE HELD AT WILLIAMSBURG, VIRGINIA ON MAY 27-29, 1981

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a proceedings of a 3-day conference among industry, government, professional engineers and scientists, and the general public concerning hazardous waste incineration which came at a time when EPA interim final rule incineration regulations had just been made public...

  9. ASME Heat Transfer Division: Proceedings. Volume 1: Heat transfer in microgravity systems, radiative heat transfer and radiative heat transfer in low-temperature environments, and thermal contact conductance and inverse problems in heat transfer; HTD-Volume 332

    SciTech Connect

    Gopinath, A.; Sadhal, S.S.; Jones, P.D.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.; Woodbury, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the first section on heat transfer in microgravity, the papers cover phase-change phenomena and thermocapillary flows and surface effects. In the second section, several papers cover solution methods for radiative heat transfer while the rest cover heat transfer in low-temperature environments. The last section covers papers containing valuable information for thermal contact conductance of various materials plus papers on inverse problems in heat transfer. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

  10. A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2013 Recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)a

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Miller, J. Michael; Weinstein, Melvin P.; Richter, Sandra S.; Gilligan, Peter H.; Thomson, Richard B.; Bourbeau, Paul; Carroll, Karen C.; Kehl, Sue C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Schwartzman, Joseph D.; Chapin, Kimberle C.; Snyder, James W.; Forbes, Betty A.; Patel, Robin; Rosenblatt, Jon E.; Pritt, Bobbi S.

    2013-01-01

    The critical role of the microbiology laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the health care team. This document, developed by both laboratory and clinical experts, provides information on which tests are valuable and in which contexts, and on tests that add little or no value for diagnostic decisions. Sections are divided into anatomic systems, including Bloodstream Infections and Infections of the Cardiovascular System, Central Nervous System Infections, Ocular Infections, Soft Tissue Infections of the Head and Neck, Upper Respiratory Infections, Lower Respiratory Tract infections, Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Intraabdominal Infections, Bone and Joint Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Genital Infections, and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections; or into etiologic agent groups, including Tickborne Infections, Viral Syndromes, and Blood and Tissue Parasite Infections. Each section contains introductory concepts, a summary of key points, and detailed tables that list suspected agents; the most reliable tests to order; the samples (and volumes) to collect in order of preference; specimen transport devices, procedures, times, and temperatures; and detailed notes on specific issues regarding the test methods, such as when tests are likely to require a specialized laboratory or have prolonged turnaround times. There is redundancy among the tables and sections, as many agents and assay choices overlap. The document is intended to serve as a reference to guide physicians in choosing tests that will aid them to diagnose infectious diseases in their patients. PMID:23845951

  11. Quality use of the computer: Computational mechanics, artificial intelligence, robotics, and acoustic sensing; Proceedings of the ASME/JSME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 23-27, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, J. F., Jr.; Gordon, J. L.; Miyoshi, T.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-06-01

    Papers are presented on the use of microcomputers, supercomputers, and workstations in solid and structural mechanics. Artificial intelligence technology, the development and use of expert systems, and research in the area of robotics are discussed. Attention is also given to probabilistic finite element and boundary element methods and acoustic sensing.

  12. [X-ray fluorescence spectrometrlc determination of nine heavy rare earth elements in the enriched mixture of thulium oxide, ytterbium oxide and lutecium oxide by asming thin film technique].

    PubMed

    Li, B; Luo, C; Liu, Q

    1997-04-01

    A method for the determination of nine heavy rare earth elements in the enriched mixture of thulium oxide ytterbium oxide and lutecium oxide by XRF method has been studied in this poper. The samples were prepared by ashing thin film. This method is characterized as it is low cost, economic and simple in standards preparation, and standards can be easily preserved. The accuracy and precision of the results were satisfactory for the demands of prodnction. PMID:15810400

  13. Design study of the KAGRA output mode cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumeta, Ayaka; Bond, Charlotte; Somiya, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    Most second-generation gravitational-wave detectors employ an optical resonator called an output mode cleaner (OMC), which filters out junk light from the signal and the reference light, before it reaches the detection photodiode located at the asymmetric port of the large-scale interferometer. The optical parameters of the OMC should be carefully chosen to satisfy the requirements to filter out unwanted light whilst transmitting the gravitational-wave signal. We use the simulation program FINESSE and realistic mirror phase maps that have the same surface quality as the KAGRA test masses to find out a proper design of the KAGRA OMC.

  14. Design study and prototype experiment of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Kazushiro; Kumeta, Ayaka; Somiya, Kentaro

    2016-05-01

    The sensitivity of the Japanese gravitational-wave detector KAGRA is limited mainly by quantum noise. In order to reduce the quantum noise level, KAGRA employs an output mode-cleaner (OMC), which filters out junk light to clean up the signal and the reference light at the signal extraction port. The proper design of the OMC is a key to achieve the target sensitivity of KAGRA. In this proceeding, we present two results. One is the final result of numerical simulations, from which we determined the optical parameters of the OMC. The other is the latest results of our prototype experiment, the goal of which is to establish the control scheme of the OMC.

  15. Highly dispersed sulfur in ordered mesoporous carbon sphere as a composite cathode for rechargeable polymer Li/S battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiao; Wen, Zhaoyin; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Lezhi; Jin, Jun

    A mesoporous carbon sphere with the uniform channels (OMC) is employed as the conductive matrix in the sulfur cathode for the lithium sulfur battery based on all-solid-state PEO 18Li(CF 3SO 2) 2N-10 wt%SiO 2 electrolyte. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) suggest that the electrochemical stability of the S-OMCs is obviously superior to the pristine sulfur cathode. The S-OMCs composite shows excellent cycling performance with a reversible discharge capacity of about 800 mAh g -1 after 25 cycles. This would be attributed to an appropriate conductive structure in which the active sulfur is highly dispersed in and contacted with the OMCs matrix.

  16. Ordered mesoporous carbon film as an effective solid-phase microextraction coating for determination of benzene series from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Li, Jiansheng; Jiang, Mingyue; Lu, Rui; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-08-12

    The present work reports preparation of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) film supported on a graphite fiber as a new type of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for determination of benzene series from aqueous media. The strategy for the supported OMC film preparation was combined dip-coating technology with solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) approach. A graphite fiber was immersed in an ethanol solution containing phenolic resin and Pluronic triblock copolymer. Upon solvent evaporation and subsequent pyrolysis under 700 °C, the phenolic resin and the surfactant self-assembled on the surface of the graphite fiber to form smooth OMC film. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen isothermal adsorption results indicate that the resultant OMC film possesses well-ordered two dimensional hexagonal mesostructure with pore diameters of 4.5 nm and BET surfaces of 630 m(2)/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies show the supported OMC film with thickness at 8.5 μm is continuous and defect-free. The SPME efficiency of the OMC fiber was evaluated by analysis of five benzene series (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and m-xylene) from water samples by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The analysis results indicate that the prepared OMC fiber has wide linear ranges (0.5-500 μg/L), low detection limits (0.01-0.05 μg/L) and good repeatabilities (4.0-5.8% for one fiber, 2.9-8.7% for fiber-to-fiber). Compared with commercial counterparts, the OMC fiber exhibits improved extraction efficiency for benzene series and PAHs. PMID:26320962

  17. Acid-Functionalized Mesoporous Carbon: An Efficient Support for Ruthenium-Catalyzed g-Valerolactone Production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Villa, Alberto; Schiavoni, Marco; Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng; More, Karren Leslie; Veith, Gabriel M; Prati, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogenation of levulinic acid has been studied using Ru supported on ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) prepared by soft-templating. P- and S-containing acid groups were introduced by postsynthetic functionalization before the addition of 1% Ru by incipient wetness impregnation. These functionalities and the reaction conditions mediate the activity and selectivity of the levulinic acid hydrogenation. The presence of Scontaining groups (Ru/OMC-S and Ru/OMC-P/S) deactivates the Ru catalysts strongly, whereas the presence of P-containing groups (Ru/OMC-P) enhances the activity compared to that of pristine Ru/OMC. Under mild conditions (70 8C and 7 bar H2) the catalyst shows high selectivity to g-valerolactonemore » (GVL; >95%) and high stability on recycling. However, under more severe conditions (200 8C and pH2=40 bar) Ru/OMC-P is particularly able to promote GVL ring-opening and the consecutive hydrogenation to pentanoic acid.« less

  18. Photolysis of the organic UV filter, avobenzone, combined with octyl methoxycinnamate by nano-TiO2 composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Kim, M J; Im, N R; Park, S N

    2015-08-01

    A protection of the skin from harmful UV rays is important in preventing the skin damage and skin aging when exposed to sunlight. Titanium dioxide composites are used as a UV filter in sunscreen products combined with organic compounds such as butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) and octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) to improve the function of the sunscreen. In this study, the photolysis of avobenzone and OMC caused by the photocatalytic TiO2 nano composites (NCs) is investigated. Three different types of oil/water (O/W) sunscreen formulations containing avobenzone and OMC were prepared. Each formulation contained one of three different types of surface modified TiO2 NCs, which were WP-S (small sized hydrophilic TiO2NCs, ~10nm), OP-S (small sized hydrophobic TiO2NCs, ~15nm), and OP-L (large sized hydrophobic TiO2NCs, ~200nm). The physicochemical properties of the NCs were analyzed using biophysical tools. Addition of a different size of TiO2NCs into O/W sunscreen formulations significantly increased the photolysis of OMC. Effect of quercetin on degradation of avobenzone and OMC by the NCs was also studied for all three formulations. Although the OP-S NCs showed the lowest photocatalytic ability and the highest UV blocking capability, the NCs promoted the photolysis of OMC to the greatest extent. These results can be utilized to design more effective sunscreens, which could potentially ensure optimal photo-protection. PMID:26093231

  19. Highly efficient synthesis of ordered nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons with tunable properties and its application in high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Zeng, Chao; Qu, Deyu; Tang, Haolin; Li, Yu; Su, Bao-Lian; Qu, Deyang

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) have been synthesized via aqueous cooperative assembly route in the presence of basic amino acids as either polymerization catalysts or nitrogen dopants. This method allows the large-scale production of nitrogen-doped OMCs with tunable composition, structure and morphology while maintaining highly ordered mesostructures. For instances, the nitrogen content can be varied from ∼1 wt% to ∼6.3 wt% and the mesophase can be either 3-D body-centered cubic or 2-D hexagonal. The specific surface area for typical OMCs is around 600 m2 g-1, and further KOH activation can significantly enhance the surface area to 1866 m2 g-1 without destroying the ordered mesostructures. Benefiting from hierarchically ordered porous structure, nitrogen-doping effect and large-scale production availability, the synthesized OMCs show a great potential towards supercapacitor application. When measured in a symmetrical two-electrode configuration with an areal mass loading of ∼3 mg cm-2, the activated OMC exhibits high capacitance (186 F g-1 at 0.25 A g-1) and good rate capability (75% capacity retention at 20 A g-1) in ionic liquid electrolyte. Even as the mass loading is up to ∼12 mg cm-2, the OMC electrode still yields a specific capacitance of 126 F g-1 at 20 A g-1.

  20. Polyphosphate kinases modulate Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane constituents and alter its capacity to invade and survive in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Madrid, Jesús Arcos; Kumar, Anand; Torrelles, Jordi B; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Polyphosphate kinases 1 and 2 (PPK1 and PPK2) regulate several cellular processes, including the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Despite their importance, whether PPK1 and PPK2 modulate the composition of C. jejuni outer membrane constituents (OMCs) and consequently impact its interaction with host cells remains unknown. Our comparative analysis between C. jejuni wild type, Δppk1, and Δppk2 strains showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the total OMC composition among these strains. Importantly, these OMC variations observed on the C. jejuni polyphosphate kinase mutants are directly related to their capacity to invade, survive, and alter the immune response of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Specifically, sub-fractionation of the C. jejuni OMC indicated that OMC proteins are uniquely associated with bacterial invasion, whereas C. jejuni OMC proteins, lipids, and lipoglycans are all associated with C. jejuni intracellular survival. This study provides new insights regarding the function of polyphosphate kinases and their role in C. jejuni infection. PMID:26714783

  1. Reactivity of sera from sheep immunised with individual outer membrane proteins of Bacteroides nodosus against heterologous bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Emery, D L

    1984-09-01

    In order to identify those bacterial antigens which might be involved in immunity against ovine footrot, antisera were raised in sheep to 6 proteins in the outer membrane complex (OMC) of one strain of Bacteroides nodosus. Examination of the specificity of these antisera by Western blotting, crossed immunoelectrophoresis (XIEP) and IEP, revealed that they recognized the homologous OMC protein, but did not precipitate either undenatured pili or OMC, nor could they agglutinate the homologous bacteria. In contrast, anti-OMC and anti-pili sera could precipitate OMC or pili respectively, and agglutinate whole bacteria. Subsequent analysis of these sera against 5 strains of B. nodosus from different serogroups revealed that Proteins 1, 3 and 4 had a similar antigenic structure in all strains examined. The reactivity of anti-pili sera was restricted to homologous bacteria whereas anti-pilin sera (raised against denatured pili) also reacted with pilin from 2 of 3 heterologous strains. However, none of the patterns of staining or absorption of any of these sera matched the spectrum of cross-protection afforded by vaccination of sheep with B. nodosus strain 198 cells. The results question the role of individual OMC proteins in cross-protective immunity and may imply that interactions between several bacterial components are involved in the phenomenon. PMID:6208674

  2. Preferential adsorption of pentachlorophenol from chlorophenols-containing wastewater using N-doped ordered mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Xingwang

    2016-01-01

    Preferential removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from chlorophenols-containing wastewater has been attracted more attentions in wastewater treatment, since it is one of the most toxic pollutants. The adsorbent of N-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (M-OMC) with high BET surface area of 1901 m(2)/g, large pore volume of 1.64 cm(3)/g and uniform pore size of 3.45 nm has been successfully synthesized via evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method. The effects of solution pH, pore structure of adsorbent and their surface chemical properties on PCP adsorption by M-OMC were investigated in comparison with ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC), and much higher PCP adsorption capacities of M-OMC were obtained. The significantly preferential adsorption of PCP was achieved in the treatment of tri-component wastewater including PCP, p-chlorophenol (CP) and 2.4.6-trichlorophenol (TCP), and its adsorption process well fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm. The initial sorption rate of PCP was 103.5 μmol/(g/min), which was 2.97 times of TCP. It may be attributed to the intensification of π-π interaction between PCP and M-OMC with the nitrogen functional groups. Therefore, M-OMC is promising for removal of PCP in the adsorption pretreatment of chlorophenols-containing wastewater. PMID:26374540

  3. Acid-Functionalized Mesoporous Carbon: An Efficient Support for Ruthenium-Catalyzed g-Valerolactone Production

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Alberto; Schiavoni, Marco; Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng; More, Karren Leslie; Veith, Gabriel M; Prati, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogenation of levulinic acid has been studied using Ru supported on ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) prepared by soft-templating. P- and S-containing acid groups were introduced by postsynthetic functionalization before the addition of 1% Ru by incipient wetness impregnation. These functionalities and the reaction conditions mediate the activity and selectivity of the levulinic acid hydrogenation. The presence of Scontaining groups (Ru/OMC-S and Ru/OMC-P/S) deactivates the Ru catalysts strongly, whereas the presence of P-containing groups (Ru/OMC-P) enhances the activity compared to that of pristine Ru/OMC. Under mild conditions (70 8C and 7 bar H2) the catalyst shows high selectivity to g-valerolactone (GVL; >95%) and high stability on recycling. However, under more severe conditions (200 8C and pH2=40 bar) Ru/OMC-P is particularly able to promote GVL ring-opening and the consecutive hydrogenation to pentanoic acid.

  4. Acid-functionalized mesoporous carbon: an efficient support for ruthenium-catalyzed γ-valerolactone production.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alberto; Schiavoni, Marco; Chan-Thaw, Carine E; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng; More, Karren L; Veith, Gabriel M; Prati, Laura

    2015-08-10

    The hydrogenation of levulinic acid has been studied using Ru supported on ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) prepared by soft-templating. P- and S-containing acid groups were introduced by postsynthetic functionalization before the addition of 1 % Ru by incipient wetness impregnation. These functionalities and the reaction conditions mediate the activity and selectivity of the levulinic acid hydrogenation. The presence of S-containing groups (Ru/OMC-S and Ru/OMC-P/S) deactivates the Ru catalysts strongly, whereas the presence of P-containing groups (Ru/OMC-P) enhances the activity compared to that of pristine Ru/OMC. Under mild conditions (70 °C and 7 bar H2 ) the catalyst shows high selectivity to γ-valerolactone (GVL; >95 %) and high stability on recycling. However, under more severe conditions (200 °C and p H 2=40 bar) Ru/OMC-P is particularly able to promote GVL ring-opening and the consecutive hydrogenation to pentanoic acid. PMID:26089180

  5. Nickel Nanofoam/Different Phases of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Composite Electrodes for Superior Capacitive Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kangsuk; Song, Haeni; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Choi, Soo Hyung; Jang, Jong Hyun; Char, Kookheon; Son, Jeong Gon

    2016-08-31

    Electrochemical energy storage devices based on electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have received considerable attention due to their high power density and potential for obtaining improved energy density in comparison to the lithium ion battery. Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) is a promising candidate for use as an EDLC electrode because it has a high specific surface area (SSA), providing a wider charge storage space and size-controllable mesopore structure with a long-range order, suppling high accessibility to the electrolyte ions. However, OMCs fabricated using conventional methods have several drawbacks including low electronic conductivity and long ionic diffusion paths in mesopores. We used nickel nanofoam, which has a relatively small pore (sub-100 nm to subμm) network structure, as a current collector. This provides a significantly shortened electronic/ionic current paths and plentiful surface area, enabling stable and close attachment of OMCs without the use of binders. Thus, we present hierarchical binder-free electrode structures based on OMC/Ni nanofoams. These structures give rise to enhanced specific capacitance and a superior rate capability. We also investigated the mesopore structural effect of OMCs on electrolyte transport by comparing the capacitive performances of collapsed lamellar, cylindrical, and spherical mesopore electrodes. The highly ordered and straightly aligned cylindrical OMCs exhibited the highest specific capacitance and the best rate capability. PMID:27490161

  6. Respiration of metal (hydr)oxides by Shewanella and Geobacter: a key role for multihaem c-type cytochromes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Squier, Thomas C.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2007-07-01

    Dissimilatory reduction of metal (e.g. Fe, Mn) (hydr)oxides represents a challenge for microorganisms, as their cell envelopes are impermeable to metal (hydr)oxides that are poorly soluble in water. To overcome this physical barrier, the Gram-negative bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobactersulfurreducens have developed electron transfer (ET) strategies that require multihaem c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts). In S. oneidensis MR-1, multihaem c-Cyts CymA and MtrA are believed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane quinone/quinol pool through the periplasm to the outer membrane. The type II secretion system of S. oneidensis MR-1 has been implicated in the reduction of metal (hydr)oxides, most likely by translocating decahaem c-Cyts MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane to the surface of bacterial cells where they form a protein complex. The extracellular MtrC and OmcA can directly reduce solid metal (hydr)oxides. Likewise, outer membrane multihaem c-Cyts OmcE and OmcS of G. sulfurreducens are suggested to transfer electrons from outer membrane to type IV pili that are hypothesized to relay the electrons to solid metal (hydr)oxides. Thus, multihaem c-Cyts play critical roles in S. oneidensis MR-1-and G. sulfurreducens-mediated dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides by facilitating ET across the bacterial cell envelope.

  7. 49 CFR 178.337-16 - Testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conform to appendix 6 in Section VIII of the ASME Code except that permanent magnets shall not be used. (2... with appendix 12 in Section VIII of the ASME Code. Permanent magnets must not be used to perform...

  8. 49 CFR 178.337-16 - Testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conform to appendix 6 in Section VIII of the ASME Code except that permanent magnets shall not be used. (2... with appendix 12 in Section VIII of the ASME Code. Permanent magnets must not be used to perform...

  9. 49 CFR 178.337-16 - Testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conform to appendix 6 in Section VIII of the ASME Code except that permanent magnets shall not be used. (2... with appendix 12 in Section VIII of the ASME Code. Permanent magnets must not be used to perform...

  10. 49 CFR 178.337-16 - Testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conform to appendix 6 in Section VIII of the ASME Code except that permanent magnets shall not be used. (2... with appendix 12 in Section VIII of the ASME Code. Permanent magnets must not be used to perform...

  11. 39 CFR 551.3 - Procedure for selection of causes and recipient executive agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...' Stamp Advisory Committee, which is described in Administrative Support Manual (ASM) section 644.5. For availability of ASM 644.5, contact the Office of Stamp Services (202) 268-2319. (d) The Citizens'...

  12. 39 CFR 551.3 - Procedure for selection of causes and recipient executive agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...' Stamp Advisory Committee, which is described in Administrative Support Manual (ASM) section 644.5. For availability of ASM 644.5, contact the Office of Stamp Services (202) 268-2319. (d) The Citizens'...

  13. 39 CFR 551.3 - Procedure for selection of causes and recipient executive agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...' Stamp Advisory Committee, which is described in Administrative Support Manual (ASM) section 644.5. For availability of ASM 644.5, contact the Office of Stamp Services (202) 268-2319. (d) The Citizens'...

  14. 49 CFR 178.337-6 - Closure for manhole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... other applicable requirements in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter... ASME Code instead of a manhole. (b) The manhole assembly of cargo tanks constructed after June 30,...

  15. 49 CFR 107.504 - Period of registration, updates, and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... days of reissuance of an ASME or National Board Certification, whichever occurs first, by submitting an... this occurs, the registrant shall resubmit the required certification; (3) Loss of ASME or...

  16. 49 CFR 178.337-6 - Closure for manhole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... other applicable requirements in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter... ASME Code instead of a manhole. (b) The manhole assembly of cargo tanks constructed after June 30,...

  17. 46 CFR 197.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with the requirements of section VIII, division 1 or division 2 of the ASME Code, ASME PVHO-1, part 54 of this chapter, or 49 CFR 173.34, as applicable. (d) All repairs and modifications to...

  18. 49 CFR 178.337-6 - Closure for manhole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... UG-46(g)(1) and other applicable requirements in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of... applicable requirements of the ASME Code instead of a manhole. (b) The manhole assembly of cargo...

  19. 49 CFR 178.337-6 - Closure for manhole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... other applicable requirements in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter... ASME Code instead of a manhole. (b) The manhole assembly of cargo tanks constructed after June 30,...

  20. 46 CFR 197.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with the requirements of section VIII, division 1 or division 2 of the ASME Code, ASME PVHO-1, part 54 of this chapter, or 49 CFR 173.34, as applicable. (d) All repairs and modifications to...

  1. 49 CFR 178.337-6 - Closure for manhole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... other applicable requirements in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter... ASME Code instead of a manhole. (b) The manhole assembly of cargo tanks constructed after June 30,...

  2. 46 CFR 151.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Certification in Nondestructive Testing” 151.04-7(c)(2) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section...

  3. Knee cartilage segmentation using active shape models and local binary patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Germán.; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Segmentation of knee cartilage has been useful for opportune diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). This paper presents a semiautomatic segmentation technique based on Active Shape Models (ASM) combined with Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and its approaches to describe the surrounding texture of femoral cartilage. The proposed technique is tested on a 16-image database of different patients and it is validated through Leave- One-Out method. We compare different segmentation techniques: ASM-LBP, ASM-medianLBP, and ASM proposed by Cootes. The ASM-LBP approaches are tested with different ratios to decide which of them describes the cartilage texture better. The results show that ASM-medianLBP has better performance than ASM-LBP and ASM. Furthermore, we add a routine which improves the robustness versus two principal problems: oversegmentation and initialization.

  4. Instigation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and glomerular injury in mice on the high fat diet: role of acid sphingomyelinase gene.

    PubMed

    Boini, Krishna M; Xia, Min; Koka, Saisudha; Gehr, Todd W; Li, Pin-Lan

    2016-04-01

    Ceramide has been reported to initiate inflammasome formation and activation in obesity and different pathological conditions. The present study was performed to explore the role of acid sphingomyelinase (Asm) in the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammasome and activation and consequent glomerular injury. Asm knockout (Asm(-/-)) and wild type (Asm(+/+)) mice with or without Asm short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transfection were fed a HFD or normal chow for 12 weeks to produce obesity and associated glomerular injury. HFD significantly enhanced the Asm activity, ceramide production, colocalization of Nlrp3 (Nod-like receptor protein 3) with ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein) or Caspase-1, NADPH-dependent superoxide (O2(•-)) production in glomeruli of Asm(+/+) mice than in control diet-fed mice. However, such HFD-induced increases in Asm activity, ceramide production, colocalization of Nlrp3 with ASC or Caspase-1, superoxide (O(2•-)) production was attenuated in Asm(-/-) or Asm shRNA-transfected wild-type mice. In consistency with decreased inflammasome formation, the caspase-1 activity and IL-1β production was significantly attenuated in Asm(-/-) or Asm shRNA-transfected wild-type mice fed a HFD. Morphological examinations showed that HFD-induced profound injury in glomeruli of Asm(+/+) mice which was markedly attenuated in Asm(-/-) mice. The decreased glomerular damage index in Asm(-/-) mice was accompanied by attenuated proteinuria. Fluorescent immunohistochemical examinations using podocin as a podocyte marker showed that inflammasome formation induced by the HFD were mostly located in podocytes as demonstrated by co-localization of podocin with Nlrp3. In conclusion, these observations disclose a pivotal role of Asm in the HFD-induced inflammasome formation and consequent glomerular inflammation and injury. PMID:26980705

  5. 46 CFR 199.05 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in... Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code), 1994 199.30; 199.280 Resolution MSC.5(48), International Code...

  6. 46 CFR 56.15-1 - Pipe joining fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... comparable to those of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) or section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); (ii) Subjecting a... the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); or...

  7. 46 CFR 56.15-1 - Pipe joining fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... comparable to those of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) or Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); (ii) Subjecting a... the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); or...

  8. Airway smooth muscle in the pathophysiology and treatment of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Solway, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) plays an integral part in the pathophysiology of asthma. It is responsible for acute bronchoconstriction, which is potentiated by constrictor hyperresponsiveness, impaired relaxation and length adaptation. ASM also contributes to airway remodeling and inflammation in asthma. In light of this, ASM is an important target in the treatment of asthma. PMID:23305987

  9. 40 CFR 98.364 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified by the manufacturer. (1) ASME MFC-3M-2004 Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes Using Orifice, Nozzle, and Venturi (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7). (2) ASME MFC-4M-1986 (Reaffirmed 1997) Measurement of Gas Flow by Turbine Meters (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7). (3) ASME...

  10. 40 CFR 98.364 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified by the manufacturer. (1) ASME MFC-3M-2004 Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes Using Orifice, Nozzle, and Venturi (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7). (2) ASME MFC-4M-1986 (Reaffirmed 1997) Measurement of Gas Flow by Turbine Meters (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7). (3) ASME...

  11. 49 CFR 178.338-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (see appendix G in Section VIII of the ASME Code) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), multiplied by... ambient temperature to the extent recognized in the ASME Code for static loadings. Static loadings must... the design weight of lading (see Appendix G of Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME Code),...

  12. 40 CFR 98.364 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified by the manufacturer. (1) ASME MFC-3M-2004 Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes Using Orifice, Nozzle, and Venturi (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7). (2) ASME MFC-4M-1986 (Reaffirmed 1997) Measurement of Gas Flow by Turbine Meters (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7). (3) ASME...

  13. 78 FR 37721 - Approval of American Society of Mechanical Engineers' Code Cases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment three draft regulatory guides (DG), DG-1230, ``Design, Fabrication and Materials Code Case Acceptability, ASME Section III''; DG-1231, ``Inservice Inspection Code Case Acceptability, ASME Section XI, Division 1''; and DG-1232, ``Operation and Maintenance code Case, Acceptability, ASME OM Code.'' The subject DGs list the......

  14. 46 CFR 56.15-1 - Pipe joining fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... comparable to those of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) or section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); (ii) Subjecting a... the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); or...

  15. 46 CFR 56.15-1 - Pipe joining fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... comparable to those of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) or Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); (ii) Subjecting a... the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); or...

  16. 46 CFR 56.15-1 - Pipe joining fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... comparable to those of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) or Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); (ii) Subjecting a... the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); or...

  17. Allele-Skewed DNA Modification in the Brain: Relevance to a Schizophrenia GWAS.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Sarah A; Ptak, Carolyn; Mak, Denise Y F; Shamsi, Mehrdad; Oh, Gabriel; Knight, Joanne; Boutros, Paul C; Petronis, Arturas

    2016-05-01

    Numerous recent studies have suggested that phenotypic effects of DNA sequence variants can be mediated or modulated by their epigenetic marks, such as allele-skewed DNA modification (ASM). Using Affymetrix SNP microarrays, we performed a comprehensive search of ASM effects in human post-mortem brain and sperm samples (total n = 256) from individuals with major psychosis and control individuals. Depending on the phenotypic category of the brain samples, 1.4%-7.5% of interrogated SNPs exhibited ASM effects. Next, we investigated ASM in the context of genetic studies of schizophrenia and detected that brain ASM SNPs were significantly overrepresented among sub-threshold SNPs from a schizophrenia genome-wide association study (GWAS). Brain ASM SNPs showed a much stronger enrichment in a schizophrenia GWAS than in 17 large GWASs of non-psychiatric diseases and traits, arguing that ASM effects are at least partially tissue specific. Studies of germline and control brain ASM SNPs supported a causal association between ASM and schizophrenia. Finally, significantly higher proportions of ASM SNPs than of non-ASM SNPs were detected at loci exhibiting epigenetic signatures of enhancers and promoters, and they were overrepresented within transcription factor binding regions and DNase I hypersensitive sites. All of these findings collectively indicate that ASM SNPs should be prioritized in follow-up GWASs. PMID:27087318

  18. 46 CFR 56.15-5 - Fluid-conditioner fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... comparable to those of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) or Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); (B) Subjecting a... the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 56.01-2); or (C)...

  19. 46 CFR 56.15-5 - Fluid-conditioner fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... comparable to those of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) or Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); (B) Subjecting a... the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 56.01-2); or (C)...

  20. 46 CFR 56.15-5 - Fluid-conditioner fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... comparable to those of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) or section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); (B) Subjecting a... the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 56.01-2); or (C)...

  1. 46 CFR 56.15-5 - Fluid-conditioner fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... comparable to those of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) or section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); (B) Subjecting a... the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 56.01-2); or (C)...

  2. 46 CFR 56.15-5 - Fluid-conditioner fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... comparable to those of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) or Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); (B) Subjecting a... the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 56.01-2); or (C)...

  3. 46 CFR 52.01-140 - Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... covered, a metal nameplate as described in PG-106.6 of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...-104 through PG-113). (a) All boilers built in accordance with this part must be stamped with the appropriate ASME Code symbol as required by PG-104 through PG-113 of section I of the ASME Boiler and...

  4. The JCMT Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: mapping 13CO and C18O in Orion A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. V.; Davis, C. J.; Francesco, J. Di; Graves, S. F.; Nutter, D.; Richer, J. S.; Roberts, J. F.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.; Brunt, C.; Butner, H. M.; Cavanagh, B.; Chrysostomou, A.; Curtis, E. I.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Etxaluze, M.; Fich, M.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Greaves, J. S.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Sadavoy, S.; Simpson, R. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Viti, S.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Yates, J.

    2012-05-01

    The Gould Belt Legacy Survey will map star-forming regions within 500 pc, using Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP), Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) and Polarimeter 2 (POL-2) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This paper describes HARP observations of the J= 3 → 2 transitions of 13CO and C18O towards Orion A. The 15 arcsec resolution observations cover 5 pc of the Orion filament, including OMC 1 (including BN-KL and Orion bar), OMC 2/3 and OMC 4, and allow a comparative study of the molecular gas properties throughout the star-forming cloud. The filament shows a velocity gradient of ˜1 km s-1 pc-1 between OMC 1, 2 and 3, and high-velocity emission is detected in both isotopologues. The Orion Nebula and Bar have the largest masses and linewidths, and dominate the mass and energetics of the high-velocity material. Compact, spatially resolved emission from CH3CN, 13CH3OH, SO, HCOOCH3, CH3CHO and CH3OCHO is detected towards the Orion Hot Core. The cloud is warm, with a median excitation temperature of ˜24 K; the Orion Bar has the highest excitation temperature gas, at >80 K. The C18O excitation temperature correlates well with the dust temperature (to within 40 per cent). The C18O emission is optically thin, and the 13CO emission is marginally optically thick; despite its high mass, OMC 1 shows the lowest opacities. A virial analysis indicates that Orion A is too massive for thermal or turbulent support, but is consistent with a model of a filamentary cloud that is threaded by helical magnetic fields. The variation of physical conditions across the cloud is reflected in the physical characteristics of the dust cores. We find similar core properties between starless and protostellar cores, but variations in core properties with position in the filament. The OMC 1 cores have the highest velocity dispersions and masses, followed by OMC 2/3 and OMC 4. The differing fragmentation of these cores may explain why OMC 1 has formed

  5. Gonadotropin-dependent oocyte maturational competence requires activation of the protein kinase A pathway and synthesis of RNA and protein in ovarian follicles of Nibe, Nibea mitsukurii (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshizaki, G.; Shusa, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Patino, R.

    2002-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone- (LH)-dependent ovarian follicle maturation has been recently described in two stages for teleost fishes. The oocyte's ability to respond to the steroidal maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is acquired during the first stage; whereas the MIH-dependent resumption of meiosis occurs during the second stage. However, studies directly addressing OMC have been performed with a limited number of species and therefore the general relevance of the two-stage model and its mechanisms remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the hormonal regulation of OMC and its basic transduction mechanisms in ovarian follicles of the sciaenid teleost, Nibe (Nibea mitsukurii). Exposure to MIH [17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one or 17,20??,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one] stimulated germinal vesicle breakdown (index of meiotic resumption) in full-grown follicles primed with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, an LH-like gonadotropin) but not in those pre-cultured in plain incubation medium. The induction of OMC by HCG was mimicked by protein kinase A (PKA) activators (forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP), and blocked by specific inhibitors of PKA (H89 and H8) as well as inhibitors of RNA (actinomycin D) and protein (cycloheximide) synthesis. Forskolin-induced OMC was also inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. A strong activator of protein kinase C, PMA, inhibited HCG-dependent OMC. In conclusion, OMC in Nibe ovarian follicles is gonadotropin-dependent and requires activation of the PKA pathway followed by gene transcription and translation events. These observations are consistent with the two-stage model of ovarian follicle maturation proposed for other teleosts, and suggest that Nibe can be used as new model species for mechanistic studies of ovarian follicle differentiation and maturation in fishes.

  6. MicroRNA regulation of airway smooth muscle function.

    PubMed

    Sun, Maoyun; Lu, Quan

    2016-06-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) controls airway narrowing and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of asthma. MicroRNAs are small yet powerful gene tuners that regulate diverse cellular processes. Recent studies have demonstrated the versatile role of microRNAs in regulating multiple ASM phenotypes that are critically involved in asthma pathogenesis. These ASM phenotypes include proliferation, cell size, chemokine secretion, and contractility. Here we review microRNA-mediated regulation of ASM functions and discuss the potential of microRNAs as a novel class of therapeutic targets to improve ASM function for asthma therapy. PMID:26812790

  7. The Pivotal Role of Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Ozier, Annaïg; Allard, Benoit; Bara, Imane; Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Trian, Thomas; Marthan, Roger; Berger, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by the association of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and remodelling. The aim of the present article is to review the pivotal role of airway smooth muscle (ASM) in the pathophysiology of asthma. ASM is the main effector of AHR. The mechanisms of AHR in asthma may involve a larger release of contractile mediators and/or a lower release of relaxant mediators, an improved ASM cell excitation/contraction coupling, and/or an alteration in the contraction/load coupling. Beyond its contractile function, ASM is also involved in bronchial inflammation and remodelling. Whereas ASM is a target of the inflammatory process, it can also display proinflammatory and immunomodulatory functions, through its synthetic properties and the expression of a wide range of cell surface molecules. ASM remodelling represents a key feature of asthmatic bronchial remodelling. ASM also plays a role in promoting complementary airway structural alterations, in particular by its synthetic function. PMID:22220184

  8. Secretory sphingomyelinase in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Rhein, Cosima; Müller, Christian P; Mühle, Christiane

    2015-06-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism, hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphorylcholine. In mammals, the expression of a single gene, SMPD1, results in two forms of the enzyme that differ in several characteristics. Lysosomal ASM (L-ASM) is located within the lysosome, requires no additional Zn2+ ions for activation and is glycosylated mainly with high-mannose oligosaccharides. By contrast, the secretory ASM (S-ASM) is located extracellularly, requires Zn2+ ions for activation, has a complex glycosylation pattern and has a longer in vivo half-life. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the physiology and pathophysiology of S-ASM, including its sources and distribution, molecular and cellular mechanisms of generation and regulation and relevant in vitro and in vivo studies. Polymorphisms or mutations of SMPD1 lead to decreased S-ASM activity, as detected in patients with Niemann-Pick disease B. Thus, lower serum/plasma activities of S-ASM are trait markers. No genetic causes of increased S-ASM activity have been identified. Instead, elevated activity is the result of enhanced release (e.g., induced by lipopolysaccharide and cytokine stimulation) or increased enzyme activation (e.g., induced by oxidative stress). Increased S-ASM activity in serum or plasma is a state marker of a wide range of diseases. In particular, high S-ASM activity occurs in inflammation of the endothelium and liver. Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between S-ASM activity and mortality induced by severe inflammatory diseases. Serial measurements of S-ASM reveal prolonged activation and, therefore, the measurement of this enzyme may also provide information on past inflammatory processes. Thus, S-ASM may be both a promising clinical chemistry marker and a therapeutic target. PMID:25803076

  9. Electron tunneling properties of outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes from Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Wigginton, Nicholas S; Rosso, Kevin M; Lower, Brian H; Shi, Liang; Hochella, Michael F

    2007-02-01

    In this report, we describe the characterization of two outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes OmcA and MtrC purified from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and tunneling spectroscopy (TS). OmcA and MtrC were solubilized with a common detergent and irreversibly bound to Au (111) substrates as self-assembled cytochrome films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified that OmcA and MtrC were covalently bound to the Au surface via thiol bonds to cysteine residues. Initial STM images show that a layer of detergent covers and protects the cytochrome films. Temporary application of high bias voltage causes the detergent film to reorganize around the tip, opening a window for direct STM imaging of the cytochrome layer underneath. The STM apparent sizes of both OmcA and MtrC are 58 nanometers in diameter consistent with expectations from their molecular masses. Current-voltage TS over individual cytochromes showed that OmcA and MtrC have different abilities to mediate the tunneling current, reflecting differences in their electronic structures. The data suggest that the two cytochromes could have different roles in the electron transport chain during metal reduction.

  10. Endogenous New World primate type C viruses isolated from owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) kidney cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Todaro, G J; Sherr, C J; Sen, A; King, N; Daniel, M D; Fleckenstein, B

    1978-01-01

    A type C virus (OMC-1) detected in a culture of owl monkey kidney cells resembled typical type C viruses morphologically, but was slightly larger than previously characterized mammalian type C viruses. OMC-1 can be transmitted to bat lung cells and cat embryo fibroblasts. The virions band at a density of 1.16 g/ml in isopycnic sucrose density gradients and contain reverse transcriptase and a 60-65S RNA genome composed of approximately 32S subunits. The reverse transcriptase is immunologically and biochemically distinct from the polymerases of othe retroviruses. Radioimmunoassays directed to the interspecies antigenic determinants of the major structure proteins of other type C viruses do not detect a related antigen in OMC-1. Nucleic acid hybridization experiments using labeled viral genomic RNA or proviral cDNA transcripts to normal cellular DNA of different species show that OMC-1 is an endogenous virus with multiple virogene copies (20-50 per haploid genome) present in normal owl monkey cells and is distinct from previously isolated type C and D viruses. Sequences related to the OMC-1 genome can be detected in other New World monkeys. Thus, similar to the Old World primates (e.g., baboons as a prototype), the New World monkeys contain endogenous type C viral genes that appear to have been transmitted in the primate germ line. Images PMID:76312

  11. Comparison of effects of estradiol with those of octylmethoxycinnamate and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor on fat tissue, lipids and pituitary hormones.

    PubMed

    Seidlová-Wuttke, Dana; Christoffel, Julie; Rimoldi, Guillermo; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    Octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) are commercially used absorbers of ultraviolet (UV) light. In rats, they were shown to exert endocrine disrupting including uterotrophic, i.e. estrogenic effects. Estrogens have also metabolic effects, therefore the impact of oral application of the two UV absorbers at 2 doses for 3 months on lipids and hormones were compared with those of estradiol-17beta (E2). E2, OMC and 4MBC reduced weight gain, the size of fat depots and serum leptin, a lipocyte-derived hormone, when compared to the ovariectomized control animals. Serum triglycerides were also reduced by the UV screens but not by E2. On the other hand, E2 and OMC reduced serum cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins; this effect was not shared by 4MBC. While E2 inhibited, OMC and 4MBC stimulated serum LH levels. In the uterus, both UV filters had mild stimulatory effects. 4MBC inhibited serum T4 resulting in increased serum TSH levels. It is concluded that OMC and 4MBC have effects on several metabolic parameters such as fat and lipid homeostasis as well as on thyroid hormone production. Many of these effects are not shared by E2. Hence, other than estrogen-receptive mechanisms may be responsible for these effects. PMID:16368123

  12. Comparison of effects of estradiol with those of octylmethoxycinnamate and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor on fat tissue, lipids and pituitary hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Christoffel, Julie; Rimoldi, Guillermo; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang . E-mail: ufkendo@med.uni-goettingen.de

    2006-07-01

    Octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) are commercially used absorbers of ultraviolet (UV) light. In rats, they were shown to exert endocrine disrupting including uterotrophic, i.e. estrogenic effects. Estrogens have also metabolic effects, therefore the impact of oral application of the two UV absorbers at 2 doses for 3 months on lipids and hormones were compared with those of estradiol-17{beta} (E2). E2, OMC and 4MBC reduced weight gain, the size of fat depots and serum leptin, a lipocyte-derived hormone, when compared to the ovariectomized control animals. Serum triglycerides were also reduced by the UV screens but not by E2. On the other hand, E2 and OMC reduced serum cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins; this effect was not shared by 4MBC. While E2 inhibited, OMC and 4MBC stimulated serum LH levels. In the uterus, both UV filters had mild stimulatory effects. 4MBC inhibited serum T4 resulting in increased serum TSH levels. It is concluded that OMC and 4MBC have effects on several metabolic parameters such as fat and lipid homeostasis as well as on thyroid hormone production. Many of these effects are not shared by E2. Hence, other than estrogen-receptive mechanisms may be responsible for these effects.

  13. Impact of a Gender-Transformative HIV and Antiviolence Program on Gender Ideologies and Masculinities in Two Rural, South African Communities

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Shari L.; Hatcher, Abigail M.; Colvin, Chris; Peacock, Dean

    2013-01-01

    “One Man Can” (OMC) is a rights-based gender equality and health program implemented by Sonke Gender Justice Network (Sonke) in South Africa. The program seeks to reduce the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS and reduce violence against women and men. To understand how OMC workshops impact masculinities, gender norms, and perceptions of women’s rights, an academic/non-governmental organization (NGO) partnership was carried out with the University of Cape Town, the University of California at San Francisco, and Sonke. Sixty qualitative, in-depth interviews were carried out with men who had completed OMC workshops and who were recruited from Sonke’s partner organizations that were focused on gender and/or health-related services. Men were recruited who were over age 18 and who participated in OMC workshops in Limpopo and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa. Results reveal how men reconfigured notions of hegemonic masculinity both in terms of beliefs and practices in relationships, households, and in terms of women’s rights. In the conclusions, we consider the ways in which the OMC program extends public health research focused on masculinities, violence, and HIV/AIDS. We then critically assess the ways in which health researchers and practitioners can bolster men’s engagement within programs focused on gender equality and health. PMID:24311940

  14. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from a UV-A absorber butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane to UV-B absorbers.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Oguchi-Fujiyama, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorescence decay of a UV-A absorber, 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzolymethane (BMDBM) has been observed following a 355 nm laser excitation in the absence and presence of UV-B absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (octyl methoxycinnamate, OMC) and octocrylene (OCR) in ethanol at 77 K. The lifetime of the lowest excited triplet (T1) state of BMDBM is significantly reduced in the presence of OMC and OCR. The observed quenching of BMDBM triplet by OMC and OCR suggests that the intermolecular triplet-triplet energy transfer occurs from BMDBM to OMC and OCR. The T1 state of OCR is nonphosphorescent or very weakly phosphorescent. However, we have shown that the energy level of the T1 state of OCR is lower than that of the enol form of BMDBM. Our methodology of energy-donor phosphorescence decay measurements can be applied to the study of the triplet-triplet energy transfer between UV absorbers even if the energy acceptor is nonphosphorescent. In addition, the delayed fluorescence of BMDBM due to triplet-triplet annihilation was observed in the BMDBM-OMC and BMDBM-OCR mixtures in ethanol at 77 K. Delayed fluorescence is one of the deactivation processes of the excited states of BMDBM under our experimental conditions. PMID:24329403

  15. Acid Sphingomyelinase Gene Deficiency Ameliorates the Hyperhomocysteinemia-Induced Glomerular Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boini, Krishna M.; Xia, Min; Li, Caixia; Zhang, Chun; Payne, Lori P.; Abais, Justine M.; Poklis, Justin L.; Hylemon, Philip B.; Li, Pin-Lan

    2011-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys) enhances ceramide production, leading to the activation of NADPH oxidase and consequent glomerular oxidative stress and sclerosis. The present study was performed to determine whether acid sphingomyelinase (Asm), a ceramide-producing enzyme, is implicated in the development of hHcys-induced glomerular oxidative stress and injury. Uninephrectomized Asm-knockout (Asm−/−) and wild-type (Asm+/+) mice, with or without Asm short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transfection, were fed a folate-free (FF) diet for 8 weeks, which significantly elevated the plasma Hcys level compared with mice fed normal chow. By using in vivo molecular imaging, we found that transfected shRNAs were expressed in the renal cortex starting on day 3 and continued for 24 days. The FF diet significantly increased renal ceramide production, Asm mRNA and activity, urinary total protein and albumin excretion, glomerular damage index, and NADPH-dependent superoxide production in the renal cortex from Asm+/+ mice compared with that from Asm−/− or Asm shRNA-transfected wild-type mice. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the FF diet decreased the expression of podocin but increased desmin and ceramide levels in glomeruli from Asm+/+ mice but not in those from Asm−/− and Asm shRNA-transfected wild-type mice. In conclusion, our observations reveal that Asm plays a pivotal role in mediating podocyte injury and glomerular sclerosis associated with NADPH oxidase–associated local oxidative stress during hHcys. PMID:21893018

  16. A simple method to ordered mesoporous carbons containing nickel nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2009-01-01

    A series of ordered mesoporous carbons containing magnetic Ni nanoparticles (Ni-OMCs) with a variety of Ni loadings was made by a simple one-pot synthetic procedure through carbonization of phenolic resin-Pluronic block copolymer composites containing various amount of nickel nitrate. Such composite materials were characterized by N{sub 2} sorption, XRD, and STEM. Ni-OMCs exhibited high BET surface area, uniform pore size, and large pore volume without obvious pore blockage with a Ni loading as high as 15 wt%. Ni nanoparticles were crystalline with a face-center-cubic phase and observed mainly in the carbon matrix and on the outer surface as well. The average particle size of Ni nanoparticles was dependent on the preparation (carbonization) temperature and Ni loading; the higher the temperature was used and the more the Ni was incorporated, the larger the Ni nanoparticles were observed. One of the applications of Ni-OMCs was demonstrated as magnetically separable adsorbents.

  17. Desalination of Basal Water by Mesoporous Carbons Nanocomposite Membrane.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    The hydro-transportation process used to obtain bitumen from the Alberta oil sands produces large volume of basal depressurization water (BDW), which contains high salt concentrations. In this research, thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane technology applied to treat BDW in lab-scale, and evaluated water properties before and after the treatment. The average rejection ratios of ionic species were 95.2% and 92.8% by TFN membrane (with ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs)) and thin-film composite (TFC) (without OMCs) membrane, respectively. The turbidity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were completely rejected in all treatment conditions. Interestingly, the water flux of TFN membrane was dramatically increased compared to TFC membrane. The increase of water flux was believed to be caused by the increased membrane surface hydrophilicity and nano-pore effects by the OMCs. PMID:27433734

  18. Structure Evolution of Ordered Mesoporous Carbons Induced by Water Content of Mixed Solvents Water/Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Liang, Shujun; Li, Zhenzhong; Zhai, Yan; Song, Yan

    2016-12-01

    In this work, mesostructure evolution of ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) from the 2-D hexagonal (space group p6mm) to the discontinuous cubic [Formula: see text], then towards the face-centered cubic lattice [Formula: see text], and finally, to the simple cubic Pm3n is achieved by simply adjusting the cosolvent water content of the mixed solvents water/ethanol in the presence of a reverse nonionic triblock copolymer and low molecular resin by evaporation-induced self-assembly method. Experimental results demonstrate that both the cosolvent and the reverse triblock copolymer play a key role in the mesophase transitions of OMCs. Furthermore, the OMCs with Pm3n symmetry are reported for the first time. Finally, the mechanism of mesostructure transition was discussed and proposed. PMID:27518232

  19. Wettability-regulated extracellular electron transfer from the living organism of Shewanella loihica PV-4.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun-mei; Lv, Mei-ling; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Huan

    2015-01-26

    C-type cytochromes located on the outer membrane (OMCs) of genus Shewanella act as the main redox-active species to mediate extracellular electron transfer (EET) from the inside of the outer membrane to the external environment: the central challenge that must be met for successful EET. The redox states of OMCs play a crucial role in dictating the rate and extent of EET. Here, we report that the surface wettability of the electrodes strongly influences the EET activity of living organisms of Shewanella loihica PV-4 at a fixed external potential: the EET activity on a hydrophilic electrode is more than five times higher than that on a hydrophobic one. We propose that the redox state of OMCs varies significantly at electrodes with different wettability, resulting in different EET activities. PMID:25470810

  20. Evaluation of sunscreen safety by in vitro skin permeation studies: effects of vehicle composition.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, L; Puglisi, G

    2013-01-01

    For sunscreens to be safe and effective, the lowest possible UV-filter percutaneous absorption should be achieved. In this paper, we evaluated in vitro release and permeation through human skin of two UV-filters, octyl methoxycinnammate (OMC) and butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (BMBM) from six commercial O/W emulsions and we estimated their margin of safety (MoS). OMC and BMBM in vitro release and skin permeation were investigated in Franz-type diffusion cells and permeation data were used to calculate MoS. OMC in vitro skin permeation depended on both its concentration and vehicle composition while BMBM skin permeation depended on its release from the vehicle. MoS values were well beyond the lowest limit accepted for safe products. Although sunscreen skin permeation may depend on many factors, the commercial products investigated are safe under normal "in use" conditions. PMID:23444778

  1. Fate and removal of polycyclic musks, UV filters and biocides during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kupper, T; Plagellat, C; Brändli, R C; de Alencastro, L F; Grandjean, D; Tarradellas, J

    2006-08-01

    The fate of polycyclic musks (PCMs) (HHCB, AHTN, ADBI, AHDI, ATII, DPMI), UV filters (3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor, 4-MBC; octyl-methoxycinnamate, OMC; octocrylene, OC; octyl-triazone, OT) and biocides (permethrin, carbendazim) during wastewater treatment was studied on a full-scale plant. Average influent concentrations of OMC, HHCB, OC, AHTN, 4-MBC and OT were at 20070, 4420, 1680, 1430, 960 and 720 ng L(-1), respectively. The other PCMs, permethrin and carbendazim ranged between < limits of quantification and 670 ng L(-1). Concentrations in the water line decreased significantly for most compounds. Removal rates for PCMs ranged from 72% to 86%, for UV filters from 92% to >99% and were at 92% and 37% for permethrin and carbendazim, respectively. Removal during wastewater treatment was mainly driven by sorption onto solids and biodegradation. For anaerobic sludge digestion, elimination of PCMs, OMC and the biocides was observed. PMID:16797670

  2. OT2_alopezse_3: Mapping the cosmic ray ionisation rate across the Northern end of the Orion A iant molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sepulcre, A.

    2011-09-01

    Cosmic rays (CR) are ubiquitous in the Galaxy and have the important role of ionizing the dens gas of the ISM. New Herschel observations have shown the huge diagnostic power of the OH+ fundamental transition to measure the CR ionization rate in diffuse clouds. Based on previous "serendipity" observations toward OMC2-FIR4 within the KP CHESS, we discovered a tenuous foreground cloud absorbing the fundamental OH+ line. Similarly, Gupta et al. (2010) found an OH+ absorption component at a similar velocity towards Orion KL and estimated a large CR ionization rate more than 10 times larger than the average value observed in diffuse clouds . We propose here to roughly map the CR ionization rate in the direction of the OMC2 and OMC3 complex to understand its extent, nature, and, finally, the source of ionization.

  3. GGA+U study of uranium mononitride: A comparison of the U-ramping and occupation matrix schemes and incorporation energies of fission products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claisse, Antoine; Klipfel, Marco; Lindbom, Niclas; Freyss, Michel; Olsson, Pär

    2016-09-01

    Uranium mononitride is studied in the DFT + U framework. Its ground state is investigated and a study of the incorporation of diverse fission products in the crystal is conducted. The U-ramping and occupation matrix control (OMC) schemes are used to eliminate metastable states. Beyond a certain amount of introduced correlation, the OMC scheme starts to find a lower total energy. The OMC scheme is chosen for the second part of this study. Furthermore, the influence of the magnetic ordering is studied using the U-ramping method, showing that antiferromagnetic order is the most stable one when the U parameter is larger than 1.75 eV. The effect on the density of states is investigated and elastic constants are provided for comparison with other methods and experiments. The incorporation energies of fission products in different defect configurations are calculated and these energies are corrected to take into account the limited size of the supercell.

  4. A V2O3-ordered mesoporous carbon composite with novel peroxidase-like activity towards the glucose colorimetric assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lei; Zeng, Lingxing; Wei, Mingdeng; Li, Chang Ming; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-01

    It is of great scientific and practical significance to explore inorganic mimetic enzymes to replace natural enzymes due to their instability and high cost. Herein we present an interesting discovery that a V2O3-ordered mesoporous carbon composite (V2O3-OMC) has a novel peroxidase-like activity towards fast redox reaction of typical peroxidase substrates H2O2 and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). Due to the small size effect and large surface area of V2O3 nanoparticles supported by OMC, V2O3-OMC exhibited excellent catalytic performance with a kcat of 1.28 × 104 s-1, KM (ABTS) of 0.067 mM and KM (H2O2) of 0.16 mM, and a significantly higher catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) towards the oxidation of ABTS in comparison with the natural peroxidases. Furthermore, the Ping-pong BiBi mechanism was proposed to explain the catalytic reaction by V2O3-OMC. Based on this highly active biomimetic peroxidase and the colorimetric detection of H2O2, a facile analytical method was developed to detect glucose by using V2O3-OMC and glucose oxidase, which had a wide linear range (0.01-4 mM glucose), good selectivity and reliability for successful detection of various real samples. Thus, the novel V2O3-OMC peroxidase mimetic holds great promise for broad potential applications.It is of great scientific and practical significance to explore inorganic mimetic enzymes to replace natural enzymes due to their instability and high cost. Herein we present an interesting discovery that a V2O3-ordered mesoporous carbon composite (V2O3-OMC) has a novel peroxidase-like activity towards fast redox reaction of typical peroxidase substrates H2O2 and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). Due to the small size effect and large surface area of V2O3 nanoparticles supported by OMC, V2O3-OMC exhibited excellent catalytic performance with a kcat of 1.28 × 104 s-1, KM (ABTS) of 0.067 mM and KM (H2O2) of 0.16 mM, and a

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of edible oyster mushroom is mediated through the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mushrooms are well recognized for their culinary properties as well as for their potency to enhance immune response. In the present study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory properties of an edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in vitro and in vivo. Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line and murine splenocytes were incubated with the oyster mushroom concentrate (OMC, 0-100 μg/ml) in the absence or presence of lipopolysacharide (LPS) or concanavalin A (ConA), respectively. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. Expression of cytokines and proteins was measured by ELISA assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. DNA-binding activity was assayed by the gel-shift analysis. Inflammation in mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Results OMC suppressed LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-12p40 from RAW264.7 macrophages. OMC inhibited LPS-induced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) through the down-regulation of expression of COX-2 and iNOS, respectively. OMC also inhibited LPS-dependent DNA-binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Oral administration of OMC markedly suppressed secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice challenged with LPS in vivo. Anti-inflammatory activity of OMC was confirmed by the inhibition of proliferation and secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-2, and IL-6 from concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Conclusions Our study suggests that oyster mushroom possesses anti-inflammatory activities and could be considered a dietary agent against inflammation. The health benefits of the oyster mushroom warrant further clinical studies. PMID:21575254

  6. A V₂O₃-ordered mesoporous carbon composite with novel peroxidase-like activity towards the glucose colorimetric assay.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Zeng, Lingxing; Wei, Mingdeng; Li, Chang Ming; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-21

    It is of great scientific and practical significance to explore inorganic mimetic enzymes to replace natural enzymes due to their instability and high cost. Herein we present an interesting discovery that a V2O3-ordered mesoporous carbon composite (V2O3-OMC) has a novel peroxidase-like activity towards fast redox reaction of typical peroxidase substrates H2O2 and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). Due to the small size effect and large surface area of V2O3 nanoparticles supported by OMC, V2O3-OMC exhibited excellent catalytic performance with a k(cat) of 1.28 × 10(4) s(-1), K(M) (ABTS) of 0.067 mM and K(M) (H2O2) of 0.16 mM, and a significantly higher catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(M)) towards the oxidation of ABTS in comparison with the natural peroxidases. Furthermore, the Ping-pong BiBi mechanism was proposed to explain the catalytic reaction by V2O3-OMC. Based on this highly active biomimetic peroxidase and the colorimetric detection of H2O2, a facile analytical method was developed to detect glucose by using V2O3-OMC and glucose oxidase, which had a wide linear range (0.01-4 mM glucose), good selectivity and reliability for successful detection of various real samples. Thus, the novel V2O3-OMC peroxidase mimetic holds great promise for broad potential applications. PMID:26099042

  7. Effect of land use on the spatial variability of organic matter and nutrient status in an Oxisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Alves, Marlene Cristina; Vidal Vázquez, Eva

    2013-04-01

    Heterogeneity is now considered as an inherent soil property. Spatial variability of soil attributes in natural landscapes results mainly from soil formation factors. In cultivated soils much heterogeneity can additionally occur as a result of land use, agricultural systems and management practices. Organic matter content (OMC) and nutrients associated to soil exchange complex are key attribute in the maintenance of a high quality soil. Neglecting spatial heterogeneity in soil OMC and nutrient status at the field scale might result in reduced yield and in environmental damage. We analyzed the impact of land use on the pattern of spatial variability of OMC and soil macronutrients at the stand scale. The study was conducted in São Paulo state, Brazil. Land uses were pasture, mango orchard and corn field. Soil samples were taken at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth in 84 points, within 100 m x 100 m plots. Texture, pH, OMC, cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, H, Al) and resin extractable phosphorus were analyzed.. Statistical variability was found to be higher in parameters defining the soil nutrient status (resin extractable P, K, Ca and Mg) than in general soil properties (OMC, CEC, base saturation and pH). Geostatistical analysis showed contrasting patterns of spatial dependence for the different soil uses, sampling depths and studied properties. Most of the studied data sets collected at two different depths exhibited spatial dependence at the sampled scale and their semivariograms were modeled by a nugget effect plus a structure. The pattern of soil spatial variability was found to be different between the three study soil uses and at the two sampling depths, as far as model type, nugget effect or ranges of spatial dependence were concerned. Both statistical and geostatistical results pointed out the importance of OMC as a driver responsible for the spatial variability of soil nutrient status.

  8. Nearby regions of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Cunningham, Nathaniel; Moeckel, Nickolas; Smith, Nathan

    Observations of the nearest regions of massive star formation such as Orion are reviewed. Early-type stars in the local OB associations, as well as their superbubbles and supershells provide a fossil record of massive star birth in the Solar vicinity over about the last 40 Myr. This record shows that most massive stars are born from dense, high-pressure, hot cores which spawn transient clusters that dissipate into the field soon after formation. A large fraction (15 to 30%) of massive stars are high-velocity runaways moving at more than 20 km s^{-1}. High-mass stars have a larger companion fraction than their lower-mass siblings. The Orion star forming complex contains the nearest site of on-going massive star formation. Studies of the Orion Nebula and the dense molecular cloud core located immediately behind the HII region provide our sharpest view of massive star birth. This region has formed a hierarchy of clusters within clusters. The Trapezium, OMC-1S, and OMC-1 regions represent three closely spaced sub-clusters within the more extended Orion Nebula Cluster. The oldest of these sub-clusters, which consists of the Trapezium stars, has completely emerged from its natal core. The OMC-1S and OMC-1 regions, are still highly embedded and forming clusters of additional moderate and high mass stars. Over a dozen YSOs embedded in OMC-1S are driving jets and outflows, many of which are injecting energy and momentum into the Orion Nebula. Recent proper motion measurements indicate that the Becklin-Neugebauer object is a high-velocity star moving away from the OMC1 core with a velocity of 30 km s^{-1}, making it the youngest high-velocity star known. Source I may be moving in the opposite direction with a velocity of about 12 km s^{-1}. The projected separation between source I and BN was less than few hundred AU about 500 years ago. The spectacular bipolar molecular outflow and system of shock-excited H_2 fingers emerging from OMC-1 has a dynamical age of about 1100

  9. Spectral response of multilayer optical structures to dynamic mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scripka, David; LeCroy, Garrett; Summers, Christopher J.; Thadhani, Naresh N.

    2015-05-01

    A computational study of Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR) and Optical Microcavities (OMC) was conducted to ascertain their potential as time-resolved mesoscale sensors due to their unique structure-driven spectral characteristics. Shock wave propagation simulations of polymer-based DBRs and glass/ceramic-based OMCs were coupled with spectral response calculations to demonstrate the combined dynamic mechanical and spectral response of the structures. Clear spectral shifts in both structures are predicted as a function of dynamic loading magnitude. Potential applications of the structures include high spatial and temporal resolution surface maps of material states, and in-situ probing of material interfaces during dynamic loading.

  10. Linearization of the full activated sludge model No 1 for interaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Benhalla, Abdelhay; Houssou, Mohamed; Charif, Moussa

    2010-08-01

    This paper deals with the linearization of the full activated sludge model No 1 (ASM1) in the scope of interaction analysis. For consistency, the linearization procedure is developed and validated within the BSM1 simulation benchmark framework. It is based on reaction rate approximation by linear combinations of states. The linear rate models are identified and incorporated in the mass balance equations, yielding a linear locally equivalent to the ASM1 model. Linear models for anoxic and aerated compartments are proposed. It is observed that the presented models track very closely the nonlinear ASM1 responses to various influent data. The key feature of this linearization strategy is that the gotten linear version of the ASM1 model is linear time invariant (LTI) and that it conserves the states biological interpretation and the original ASM1 dimension. It allows, therefore, application of interaction analysis methods and makes it possible to determine motivated control configurations for the ASM1 model. PMID:20131068

  11. Successful management of a giant anterior sacral meningocele with an endoscopic cutting stapler: case report.

    PubMed

    Sunna, Tarek P; Westwick, Harrison J; Zairi, Fahed; Berania, Ilyes; Shedid, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Anterior sacral meningoceles (ASMs) are rare defects in the sacrum with thecal sac herniations and symptoms that commonly include constipation, dysmenorrhea, and urinary disturbances. An ASM causing hydronephrosis and acute renal failure from compression of the lower portion of the urinary tract is a rare clinical entity. Only one other case has been reported. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old man admitted for obstructive renal failure and hydronephrosis due to a giant ASM that measured 25 × 12 × 18 cm and compressed the ureters and bladder. The ASM was successfully treated via an anterior transabdominal approach in which the authors used a novel technique for watertight closure of the meningocele pedicle with an endoscopic cutting stapler. The authors review the literature and discuss the surgical options for the treatment of ASMs, specifically the management of ASMs in the context of obstructive renal failure and hydronephrosis. PMID:26745349

  12. Proceedings of the ASME Heat Transfer Division. Volume 4: Natural convection within a horizontal circular cylinder heated from below and cooled from above; Numerical methods for coupled fluid-thermal-structural interaction; Thermal analysis in waste processing and disposal; Heat transfer in fire and combustion systems; HTD-Volume 335

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D.W.; Douglass, R.W.; Heinrich, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    The first two sections as listed in the title contain 7 papers. The third section on thermal analysis contains 18 papers arranged into the following topical areas: Thermal treatment and municipal wastes; Thermal hydraulics in hazardous and nuclear waste processing and disposal; and Waste processing. Heat transfer in fire and combustion systems contains 17 papers arranged into the following topical sections: Soot/radiation; Combustion systems; Multiphase combustion; and Flames and fires. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Discussion: "Comparison of Statistical Methods for Assessing Spatial Correlations Between Maps of Different Arterial Properties" (Rowland, E. M., Mohamied, Y., Chooi, K. Y., Bailey, E. L., and Weinberg, P. D., 2015, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 137(10), p. 101003): An Alternative Approach Using Segmentation Based on Local Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Himburg, Heather A; Grzybowski, Deborah M; Hazel, Andrew L; LaMack, Jeffrey A; Friedman, Morton H

    2016-09-01

    The biological response of living arteries to mechanical forces is an important component of the atherosclerotic process and is responsible, at least in part, for the well-recognized spatial variation in atherosusceptibility in man. Experiments to elucidate this response often generate maps of force and response variables over the arterial surface, from which the force-response relationship is sought. Rowland et al. discussed several statistical approaches to the spatial autocorrelation that confounds the analysis of such maps and applied them to maps of hemodynamic stress and vascular response obtained by averaging these variables in multiple animals. Here, we point out an alternative approach, in which discrete surface regions are defined by the hemodynamic stress levels they experience, and the stress and response in each animal are treated separately. This approach, applied properly, is insensitive to autocorrelation and less sensitive to the effect of confounding hemodynamic variables. The analysis suggests an inverse relation between permeability and shear that differs from that in Rowland et al. Possible sources of this difference are suggested. PMID:27437909

  14. 46 CFR 56.30-5 - Welded joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... types of butt welding end preparations are shown in ASME B16.25 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...) Each socket weld must conform to ASME B16.11 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), to applicable standards listed in 46 CFR 56.60-1, table 56.60-1(b), and to Figure 127.4.4C in ASME...

  15. 49 CFR 192.911 - What are the elements of an integrity management program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ASME/ANSI B31.8S (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7) for more detailed information on the listed... consequence area. (i) A performance plan as outlined in ASME/ANSI B31.8S, section 9 that includes performance... § 192.947. (k) A management of change process as outlined in ASME/ANSI B31.8S, section 11. (l) A...

  16. 46 CFR 56.30-5 - Welded joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... types of butt welding end preparations are shown in ASME B16.25 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...) Each socket weld must conform to ASME B16.11 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), to applicable standards listed in 46 CFR 56.60-1, Table 56.60-1(b), and to Figure 127.4.4C in ASME...

  17. 46 CFR 56.30-5 - Welded joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... types of butt welding end preparations are shown in ASME B16.25 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...) Each socket weld must conform to ASME B16.11 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), to applicable standards listed in 46 CFR 56.60-1, Table 56.60-1(b), and to Figure 127.4.4C in ASME...

  18. 46 CFR 56.30-5 - Welded joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... types of butt welding end preparations are shown in ASME B16.25 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...) Each socket weld must conform to ASME B16.11 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), to applicable standards listed in 46 CFR 56.60-1, Table 56.60-1(b), and to Figure 127.4.4C in ASME...

  19. 46 CFR 56.30-5 - Welded joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... types of butt welding end preparations are shown in ASME B16.25 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...) Each socket weld must conform to ASME B16.11 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), to applicable standards listed in 46 CFR 56.60-1, table 56.60-1(b), and to Figure 127.4.4C in ASME...

  20. HB-EGF-Promoted Airway Smooth Muscle Cells and Their Progenitor Migration Contribute to Airway Smooth Muscle Remodeling in Asthmatic Mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Li, Hequan; Yao, Yinan; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Yuehong; Xia, Dajing; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-03-01

    The airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells' proliferation, migration, and their progenitor's migration are currently regarded as causative factors for ASM remodeling in asthma. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), a potent mitogen and chemotactic factor, could promote ASM cell proliferation through MAPK pathways. In this study, we obtained primary ASM cells and their progenitors from C57BL/6 mice and went on to explore the role of HB-EGF in these cells migration and the underlying mechanisms. We found that recombinant HB-EGF (rHB-EGF) intratracheal instillation accelerated ASM layer thickening in an OVA-induced asthmatic mouse. Modified Boyden chamber assay revealed that rHB-EGF facilitate ASM cell migration in a dose-dependent manner and ASM cells from asthmatic mice had a greater migration ability than that from normal counterparts. rHB-EGF could stimulate the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 in ASM cells but further migration assay showed that only epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (AG1478) or p38 inhibitor (SB203580), but not ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059), could inhibit rHB-EGF-mediated ASM cells migration. Actin cytoskeleton experiments exhibited that rHB-EGF could cause actin stress fibers disassembly and focal adhesions formation of ASM cells through the activation of p38. Finally, airway instillation of rHB-EGF promoted the recruitment of bone marrow-derived smooth muscle progenitor cells, which were transferred via caudal vein, migrating into the airway from the circulation. These observations demonstrated that ASM remodeling in asthma might have resulted from HB-EGF-mediated ASM cells and their progenitor cells migration, via p38 MAPK-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling. PMID:26826248

  1. Dynamic modeling used for the addition of robotic operation to the Advanced Servomanipulator teleoperator

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, G.K.; Bailey, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A robotic mode has been added to the Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM), a 6 degree-of-freedom master/slave teleoperator. In order to understand the requirements for implementation of robotics on an arm designed for teleoperation, a dynamic simulation of the ASM slave arm was developed. The ASM model and modifications of the control system for robotic operation are presented. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Regional Assessment of soil organic matter profile distribution in the boreal forest ecosystems of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Belousova, Nataliya; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forest ecosystems play one of the key roles in the Global Change challenges responses. The soil carbon stocks are principal regulators of their environmental functions. Boreal forest soil cover is characterized by mutually increased spatial variability in soil organic matter content (SOMC) that one need to take into attention in its current and future environmental functions state assessment including the potential of regional soil organic matter stocks changes due to Global Change and inverse ones. Knowledge of the regional regularities in SOMC profile vertical distribution allows improving their soil environmental functions prediction land quality evaluation. More than 900 profiles of SOMC distribution were studied using the database Boreal that contains data on Russian boreal soils developed in drained conditions on loamy soil forming rocks. These soil profiles belong to seven main types of forest soils of Russian classification and six major regions of Russia. The predomination of accumulation profile type was observed for all cases. Thus the vertical distribution of OMC in the profiles of boreal soils can be described as follow: the layer of maximum OMC is replaced by the layer of dramatic OMC reduction; then the layer of minimal OMC extends up to 2.5 m. The layer of maximal OMC accumulation has the low depth of 5-15 cm. It carried out in different genetic horizons: A1, A1A2, A2, B, AB; sometimes it captures the A2B horizon or the upper part of the illuvial horizon. The OMC in this layer increases from the northern taiga to the southern taiga and from the European part of Russia to Siberia. The second layer is characterized by its depth and by the gradient of OMC decreasing. A great variety of the both parameters is observed. The layer of the sharp OMC fall most often fits with the eluvial horizons A2 or А2В or even the upper part of the Вt (textural) or Bm (metamorphic) horizons. The layer of permanently small OMC may begin in any genetic horizon

  3. Ovalbumin sensitization of guinea pig at birth prevents the ontogenetic decrease in airway smooth muscle responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chitano, Pasquale; Wang, Lu; Degan, Simone; Worthington, Charles L.; Pozzato, Valeria; Hussaini, Syed H.; Turner, Wesley C.; Dorscheid, Delbert R.; Murphy, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Airway smooth muscle (ASM) displays a hyperresponsive phenotype at young age and becomes less responsive in adulthood. We hypothesized that allergic sensitization, which causes ASM hyperresponsiveness and typically occurs early in life, prevents the ontogenetic loss of the ASM hyperresponsive phenotype. We therefore studied whether neonatal allergic sensitization, not followed by later allergen challenges, alters the ontogenesis of ASM properties. We neonatally sensitized guinea pigs to ovalbumin and studied them at 1 week, 3 weeks, and 3 months (adult). A Schultz‐Dale response in isolated tracheal rings confirmed sensitization. The occurrence of inflammation was evaluated in the blood and in the submucosa of large airways. We assessed ASM function in tracheal strips as ability to produce force and shortening. ASM content of vimentin was also studied. A Schultz‐Dale response was observed in all 3‐week or older sensitized animals. A mild inflammatory process was characterized by eosinophilia in the blood and in the airway submucosa. Early life sensitization had no effect on ASM force generation, but prevented the ontogenetic decline of shortening velocity and the increase in resistance to shortening. Vimentin increased with age in control but not in sensitized animals. Allergic sensitization at birth without subsequent allergen exposures is sufficient to prevent normal ASM ontogenesis, inducing persistence to adulthood of an ASM hyperresponsive phenotype. PMID:25501429

  4. Optimization of natural laminar flow airfoils for high section lift-to-drag ratios in the lower Reynolds number range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfenninger, Werner; Vemuru, Chandra S.

    1989-01-01

    Relatively thin natural-laminar-flow airfoils were arranged optimally for different design lift coefficients in the wing chord Reynolds number ranges of 200,000-600,00 and 0.875 x 10 to the 6th to 2 x 10 to the 6th. The 9.5 percent thick airfoil ASM-LRN-010, the 7.9 percent thick airfoil ASM-LRN-012, the 10.4 percent thick airfoil ASM-LRN-015, and the 8.2 percent thick airfoil ASM-LRN-017 were designed for high lift-to-drag ratios using Drela's design and analysis.

  5. Airway smooth muscle and bronchospasm: fluctuating, fluidizing, freezing

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Trepat, Xavier; Nguyen, Trang T. B.; Lenormand, Guillaume; Oliver, Madavi; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    We review here four recent findings that have altered in a fundamental way our understanding of airways smooth muscle (ASM), its dynamic responses to physiological loading, and their dominant mechanical role in bronchospasm. These findings highlight ASM remodeling processes that are innately out-of-equilibrium and dynamic, and bring to the forefront a striking intersection between topics in condensed matter physics and ASM cytoskeletal biology. By doing so, they place in a new light the role of enhanced ASM mass in airway hyper-responsiveness as well as in the failure of a deep inspiration to relax the asthmatic airway. These findings have established that (i) ASM length is equilibrated dynamically, not statically; (ii) ASM dynamics closely resemble physical features exhibited by so-called soft glassy materials; (iii) static force-length relationships fail to describe dynamically contracted ASM states; (iv) stretch fluidizes the ASM cytoskeleton. Taken together, these observations suggest that at the origin of the bronchodilatory effect of a deep inspiration, and its failure in asthma, may lie glassy dynamics of the ASM cell. PMID:18514592

  6. Acid Sphingomyelinase Gene Knockout Ameliorates Hyperhomocysteinemic Glomerular Injury in Mice Lacking Cystathionine-β-Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Boini, Krishna M.; Xia, Min; Abais, Justine M.; Xu, Ming; Li, Cai-xia; Li, Pin-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) has been implicated in the development of hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys)-induced glomerular oxidative stress and injury. However, it remains unknown whether genetically engineering of ASM gene produces beneficial or detrimental action on hHcys-induced glomerular injury. The present study generated and characterized the mice lacking cystathionine β-synthase (Cbs) and Asm mouse gene by cross breeding Cbs+/− and Asm+/− mice. Given that the homozygotes of Cbs−/−/Asm−/− mice could not survive for 3 weeks. Cbs+/−/Asm+/+, Cbs+/−/Asm+/− and Cbs+/−/Asm−/− as well as their Cbs wild type littermates were used to study the role of Asm−/− under a background of Cbs+/− with hHcys. HPLC analysis revealed that plasma Hcys level was significantly elevated in Cbs heterozygous (Cbs+/−) mice with different copies of Asm gene compared to Cbs+/+ mice with different Asm gene copies. Cbs+/−/Asm+/+ mice had significantly increased renal Asm activity, ceramide production and O2.− level compared to Cbs+/+/Asm+/+, while Cbs+/−/Asm−/− mice showed significantly reduced renal Asm activity, ceramide production and O2.− level due to increased plasma Hcys levels. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that colocalization of podocin with ceramide was much lower in Cbs+/−/Asm−/− mice compared to Cbs+/−/Asm+/+ mice, which was accompanied by a reduced glomerular damage index, albuminuria and proteinuria in Cbs+/−/Asm−/− mice. Immunofluorescent analyses of the podocin, nephrin and desmin expression also illustrated less podocyte damages in the glomeruli from Cbs+/−/Asm−/− mice compared to Cbs+/−/Asm+/+ mice. In in vitro studies of podocytes, hHcys-enhanced O2.− production, desmin expression, and ceramide production as well as decreases in VEGF level and podocin expression in podocytes were substantially attenuated by prior treatment with amitriptyline, an Asm inhibitor. In conclusion, Asm gene knockout or

  7. Role of acid sphingomyelinase bioactivity in human CD4+ T-cell activation and immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Bai, A; Kokkotou, E; Zheng, Y; Robson, S C

    2015-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), a lipid hydrolase enzyme, has the potential to modulate various cellular activation responses via the generation of ceramide and by interaction with cellular receptors. We have hypothesized that ASM modulates CD4+ T-cell receptor activation and impacts immune responses. We first observed interactions of ASM with the intracellular domains of both CD3 and CD28. ASM further mediates T-cell proliferation after anti-CD3/CD28 antibody stimulation and alters CD4+ T-cell activation signals by generating ceramide. We noted that various pharmacological inhibitors of ASM or knockdown of ASM using small hairpin RNA inhibit CD3/CD28-mediated CD4+ T-cell proliferation and activation. Furthermore, such blockade of ASM bioactivity by biochemical inhibitors and/or molecular-targeted knockdown of ASM broadly abrogate T-helper cell responses. In conclusion, we detail immune, pivotal roles of ASM in adaptive immune T-cell responses, and propose that these pathways might provide novel targets for the therapy of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26203857

  8. Selective targeting of the α5-subunit of GABAA receptors relaxes airway smooth muscle and inhibits cellular calcium handling

    PubMed Central

    Yocum, Gene T.; Siviski, Matthew E.; Yim, Peter D.; Fu, Xiao Wen; Poe, Michael M.; Cook, James M.; Harrison, Neil; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose; Emala, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical need for novel bronchodilators for the treatment of bronchoconstrictive diseases remains a major medical issue. Modulation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) chloride via GABAA receptor activation to achieve relaxation of precontracted ASM represents a potentially beneficial therapeutic option. Since human ASM GABAA receptors express only the α4- and α5-subunits, there is an opportunity to selectively target ASM GABAA receptors to improve drug efficacy and minimize side effects. Recently, a novel compound (R)-ethyl8-ethynyl-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-4H-benzo[f]imidazo[1,5-a][1,4] diazepine-3-carboxylate (SH-053-2′F-R-CH3) with allosteric selectivity for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors has become available. We questioned whether this novel GABAA α5-selective ligand relaxes ASM and affects intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) regulation. Immunohistochemical staining localized the GABAA α5-subunit to human ASM. The selective GABAA α5 ligand SH-053-2′F-R-CH3 relaxes precontracted intact ASM; increases GABA-activated chloride currents in human ASM cells in voltage-clamp electrophysiology studies; and attenuates bradykinin-induced increases in [Ca2+]i, store-operated Ca2+ entry, and methacholine-induced Ca2+ oscillations in peripheral murine lung slices. In conclusion, selective subunit targeting of endogenous α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors on ASM may represent a novel therapeutic option to treat severe bronchospasm. PMID:25659897

  9. Selective targeting of the α5-subunit of GABAA receptors relaxes airway smooth muscle and inhibits cellular calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Gallos, George; Yocum, Gene T; Siviski, Matthew E; Yim, Peter D; Fu, Xiao Wen; Poe, Michael M; Cook, James M; Harrison, Neil; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose; Emala, Charles W

    2015-05-01

    The clinical need for novel bronchodilators for the treatment of bronchoconstrictive diseases remains a major medical issue. Modulation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) chloride via GABAA receptor activation to achieve relaxation of precontracted ASM represents a potentially beneficial therapeutic option. Since human ASM GABAA receptors express only the α4- and α5-subunits, there is an opportunity to selectively target ASM GABAA receptors to improve drug efficacy and minimize side effects. Recently, a novel compound (R)-ethyl8-ethynyl-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-4H-benzo[f]imidazo[1,5-a][1,4] diazepine-3-carboxylate (SH-053-2'F-R-CH3) with allosteric selectivity for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors has become available. We questioned whether this novel GABAA α5-selective ligand relaxes ASM and affects intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) regulation. Immunohistochemical staining localized the GABAA α5-subunit to human ASM. The selective GABAA α5 ligand SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 relaxes precontracted intact ASM; increases GABA-activated chloride currents in human ASM cells in voltage-clamp electrophysiology studies; and attenuates bradykinin-induced increases in [Ca(2+)]i, store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and methacholine-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in peripheral murine lung slices. In conclusion, selective subunit targeting of endogenous α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors on ASM may represent a novel therapeutic option to treat severe bronchospasm. PMID:25659897

  10. The Methanol Extract of Angelica sinensis Induces Cell Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Human Malignant Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wen-Lin; Harn, Horng-jyh; Hung, Pei-Hsiu; Hsieh, Ming-Chang; Chang, Kai-Fu; Huang, Xiao-Fan; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Lee, Ming-Shih; Tsai, Nu-Man

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascularized and invasive neoplasm. The methanol extract of Angelica sinensis (AS-M) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several diseases, such as gastric mucosal damage, hepatic injury, menopausal symptoms, and chronic glomerulonephritis. AS-M also displays potency in suppressing the growth of malignant brain tumor cells. The growth suppression of malignant brain tumor cells by AS-M results from cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. AS-M upregulates expression of cyclin kinase inhibitors, including p16, to decrease the phosphorylation of Rb proteins, resulting in arrest at the G0-G1 phase. The expression of the p53 protein is increased by AS-M and correlates with activation of apoptosis-associated proteins. Therefore, the apoptosis of cancer cells induced by AS-M may be triggered through the p53 pathway. In in vivo studies, AS-M not only suppresses the growth of human malignant brain tumors but also significantly prolongs patient survival. In addition, AS-M has potent anticancer effects involving cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. The in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of AS-M indicate that this extract warrants further investigation and potential development as a new antibrain tumor agent, providing new hope for the chemotherapy of malignant brain cancer. PMID:24319475

  11. Smooth muscle in human bronchi is disposed to resist airway distension.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Morgan; Henry, Cyndi; Couture, Christian; Marsolais, David; King, Gregory G; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Bossé, Ynuk

    2016-07-15

    Studying airway smooth muscle (ASM) in conditions that emulate the in vivo environment within which the bronchi normally operate may provide important clues regarding its elusive physiological function. The present study examines the effect of lengthening and shortening of ASM on tension development in human bronchial segments. ASM from each bronchial segment was set at a length approximating in situ length (Linsitu). Bronchial tension was then measured during a slow cyclical strain (0.004Hz, from 0.7Linsitu to 1.3Linsitu) in the relaxed state and at graded levels of activation by methacholine. In all cases, tension was greater at longer ASM lengths, and greater during lengthening than shortening. The threshold of methacholine concentration that was required for ASM to account for bronchial tension across the entire range of ASM lengths tested was on average smaller by 2.8 logs during lengthening than during shortening. The length-dependency of ASM tension, together with this lower threshold of methacholine concentration during lengthening versus shortening, suggest that ASM has a greater ability to resist airway dilation during lung inflation than to narrow the airways during lung deflation. More than serving to narrow the airway, as has long been thought, these data suggest that the main function of ASM contraction is to limit airway wall distension during lung inflation. PMID:27095271

  12. Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass and Insulin Resistance in an Elderly Korean Population: The Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project-Health Examination Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Won; Youm, Yoosik; Lee, Won Joon; Choi, Wungrak; Chu, Sang Hui; Park, Yeong-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence supports an association between age-related loss of muscle mass and insulin resistance. However, the association has not been fully investigated in the general population. Thus, we investigated the association between appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and insulin resistance in an elderly Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study included 158 men (mean age, 71.8) and 241 women (mean age, 70.6) from the Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project, which started in 2011. In this study, ASM was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and was analyzed in three forms: ASM (kg), ASM/height2 (kg/m2), and ASM/weight (%). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as a measure of insulin resistance. The relationships between the ASM values and the HOMA-IR were investigated by multiple linear regression models. Results The HOMA-IR was positively associated with ASM (β=0.43, P<0.0001) and ASM/height2 (β=0.36, P<0.0001) when adjusted for sex and age. However, after additional adjustment for body weight, HOMA-IR was inversely associated with ASM (β=-0.43, P<0.001) and ASM/height2 (β=-0.30, P=0.001). Adjustment for other potential confounders did not change these associations. Conversely, HOMA-IR was consistently and inversely associated with ASM/weight before and after adjustment for other potential confounders. Conclusion Our results support the idea that lower skeletal muscle mass is independently associated with insulin resistance in older adults. When evaluating sarcopenia or muscle-related conditions in older adults, their whole body sizes also need to be considered. PMID:25729711

  13. Instigation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and glomerular injury in mice on the high fat diet: role of acid sphingomyelinase gene

    PubMed Central

    Boini, Krishna M.; Xia, Min; Koka, Saisudha; Gehr, Todd W.; Li, Pin-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide has been reported to initiate inflammasome formation and activation in obesity and different pathological conditions. The present study was performed to explore the role of acid sphingomyelinase (Asm) in the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammasome and activation and consequent glomerular injury. Asm knockout (Asm−/−) and wild type (Asm+/+) mice with or without Asm short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transfection were fed a HFD or normal chow for 12 weeks to produce obesity and associated glomerular injury. HFD significantly enhanced the Asm activity, ceramide production, colocalization of Nlrp3 (Nod-like receptor protein 3) with ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein) or Caspase-1, NADPH-dependent superoxide (O2•−) production in glomeruli of Asm+/+mice than in control diet-fed mice. However, such HFD-induced increases in Asm activity, ceramide production, colocalization of Nlrp3 with ASC or Caspase-1, superoxide (O2•−) production was attenuated in Asm−/− or Asm shRNA-transfected wild-type mice. In consistency with decreased inflammasome formation, the caspase-1 activity and IL-1β production was significantly attenuated in Asm−/− or Asm shRNA-transfected wild-type mice fed a HFD. Morphological examinations showed that HFD-induced profound injury in glomeruli of Asm+/+ mice which was markedly attenuated in Asm−/− mice. The decreased glomerular damage index in Asm−/− mice was accompanied by attenuated proteinuria. Fluorescent immunohistochemical examinations using podocin as a podocyte marker showed that inflammasome formation induced by the HFD were mostly located in podocytes as demonstrated by co-localization of podocin with Nlrp3. In conclusion, these observations disclose a pivotal role of Asm in the HFD-induced inflammasome formation and consequent glomerular inflammation and injury. PMID:26980705

  14. Elevation of Serum Acid Sphingomyelinase Activity in Acute Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yuuki; Takahashi, Ikuko; Narita, Ayuko; Takeda, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiromi; Tamura, Masamichi; Kikuchi, Wataru; Komatsu, Akira; Tamura, Hiroaki; Tsuchida, Satoko; Noguchi, Atsuko; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that affects both small and medium-sized vessels including the coronary arteries in infants and children. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a lysosomal glycoprotein that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to ceramide, a lipid, that functions as a second messenger in the regulation of cell functions. ASM activation has been implicated in numerous cellular stress responses and is associated with cellular ASM secretion, either through alternative trafficking of the ASM precursor protein or by means of an unidentified mechanism. Elevation of serum ASM activity has been described in several human diseases, suggesting that patients with diseases involving vascular endothelial cells may exhibit a preferential elevation of serum ASM activity. As acute KD is characterized by systemic vasculitis that could affect vascular endothelial cells, the elevation of serum ASM activity should be considered in these patients. In the present study, serum ASM activity in the sera of 15 patients with acute KD was determined both before and after treatment with infusion of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a first-line treatment for acute KD. Serum ASM activity before IVIG was significantly elevated in KD patients when compared to the control group (3.85 ± 1.46 nmol/0.1 ml/6 h vs. 1.15 ± 0.10 nmol/0.1 ml/6 h, p < 0.001), suggesting that ASM activation may be involved in the pathophysiology of this condition. Serum ASM activity before IVIG was significantly correlated with levels of C-reactive protein (p < 0.05). These results suggest the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in the pathophysiology of KD. PMID:26447086

  15. Airway smooth muscle dysfunction precedes teratogenic congenital diaphragmatic hernia and may contribute to hypoplastic lung morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Neil C; Connell, Marilyn G; Fernig, David G; Wray, Susan; Burdyga, Theodor V; Losty, Paul D; Jesudason, Edwin C

    2006-11-01

    Fetal intervention aims to improve lung growth and survival in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Airway smooth muscle (ASM) is important in lung development: ASM progenitors produce a key growth factor for lung morphogenesis (fibroblast growth factor 10); ASM contractility is also coupled to growth. ASM hyperreactivity occurs in postnatal CDH and may exacerbate barotrauma via impaired lung compliance. We hypothesize that ASM hyperreactivity and its sequelae are based on an early developmental lesion of ASM activity in hypoplastic lung. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 100 mg nitrofen on Day 9.5 of pregnancy to induce lung hypoplasia in offspring (controls had vehicle alone). Normal and hypoplastic lung primordia were cultured from Day 13.5 of gestation at 37 degrees C in 5% CO(2) and loaded at 54 or 78 h with Ca(2+)-sensitive indicators: Fluo-4 for confocal imaging and Indo-1 or Fura-2 for photometric measurements of [Ca(2+)](i). Hypoplastic lung features spontaneous propagating ASM Ca(2+) transients with reduced frequency, increased amplitude, and significantly prolonged plateau duration, relative to control lung. Nonetheless, hypoplastic lung exhibits normal requirement for extracellular calcium entry and intracellular calcium release in initiation and regulation of ASM Ca(2+) waves. Early ASM dysfunction in lung hypoplasia is apparent as specific anomalies of Ca(2+) transients that indicate a problem with plasmalemmal ion channels/action potential generation. Elucidation of such an ASM lesion may allow pharmacologic amelioration not only of ASM hyperreactivity and its sequelae, but also of hypoplastic lung growth itself. PMID:16728706

  16. Single-Cell Imaging and Spectroscopic Analyses of Cr(VI) Reduction on the Surface of Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanmin; Sevinc, Papatya C.; Balchik, Sara M.; Fridrickson, Jim; Shi, Liang; Lu, H. Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigate single-cell reduction of toxic Cr(VI) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), an important bioremediation process, using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Our experiments indicate that the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) can be efficiently reduced to the less toxic and non-soluble Cr2O3 nanoparticles by MR-1. Cr2O3 is observed to emerge as nanoparticles adsorbed on the cell surface and its chemical nature is identified by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Co-localization of Cr2O3 and cytochromes by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy suggests a terminal reductase role for MR-1 surface-exposed cytochromes MtrC and OmcA. Our experiments revealed that the cooperation of surface proteins OmcA and MtrC makes the reduction reaction most efficient, and the sequence of the reducing reactivity of the MR-1 is: wild type > single mutant ΔmtrC or mutant ΔomcA > double mutant (ΔomcA-ΔmtrC). Moreover, our results also suggest that the direct microbial Cr(VI) reduction and Fe(II) (hematite)-mediated Cr(VI) reduction mechanisms may co-exist in the reduction processes. PMID:23249294

  17. Multi-Level Steering and Institution Building: The European Union's Approach to Research Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the conception of the university as a primary driver of innovation and economic growth has brought increased pressure for the European Union (EU) to actively steer university-based research policy, despite its being outside of the EU's direct jurisdiction. While the open method of coordination (OMC) was developed for such situations, the…

  18. Influence of spatial configurations on electromagnetic interference shielding of ordered mesoporous carbon/ordered mesoporous silica/silica composites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiacheng; Zhou, Hu; Zhuang, Jiandong; Liu, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs), obtained by nanocasting using ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) as hard templates, exhibit unique arrangements of ordered regular nanopore/nanowire mesostructures. Here, we used nanocasting combined with hot-pressing to prepare 10 wt% OMC/OMS/SiO2 ternary composites possessing various carbon mesostructure configurations of different dimensionalities (1D isolated CS41 carbon nanowires, 2D hexagonal CMK-3 carbon, and 3D cubic CMK-1 carbon). The electric/dielectric properties and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency (SE) of the composites were influenced by spatial configurations of carbon networks. The complex permittivity and the EMI SE of the composites in the X-band frequency range decreased for the carbon mesostructures in the following order: CMK-3-filled > CMK-1-filled > CS41-filled. Our study provides technical directions for designing and preparing high-performance EMI shielding materials. Our OMC-based silica composites can be used for EMI shielding, especially in high-temperature or corrosive environments, owing to the high stability of the OMC/OMS fillers and the SiO2 matrix. Related shielding mechanisms are also discussed. PMID:24248277

  19. The Open Method of Coordination and the Implementation of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors argue that the use of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) in the implementation of the Bologna process presents coordination problems that do not allow for the full coherence of the results. As the process is quite complex, involving three different levels (European, national and local) and as the final actors in the…

  20. Renewed optical activity of the Be/X-ray binary V 0332+53/BQCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camero-Arranz, A.; Caballero-Garcia, M.; Ozbey-Arabaci, M.; Zurita, C.

    2015-06-01

    We report on optical observations of the binary system V 0332+53. The optical photometry was obtained with the 80-cm IAC80 telescope at the Observatorio del Teide on Tenerife (Spain) and with the Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) on board the INTEGRAL satellite.

  1. High-excitation lines of deuterated formaldehyde (HDCO) in the Orion Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loren, R. B.; Wootten, A.

    1985-12-01

    Five HDCO lines (up to 35 cm-1) have been detected in the narrow OMC-1 kinematic component. The best estimate of the [HDCO]/[H2CO] abundance ratio in OMC-1 is 0.01-0.03, at least an order of magnitude greater than the observed [DCO+]/[HCO+] abundance ratio. The [DCO+]/[HCO+] ratio greatly exceeds the [HDCO]/[H2CO] ratio in cold clouds where the enhancement of both HDCO and DCO+ abundances originates from H2D+. H2D+ is abundant only at temperatures lower than found in OMC- 1. The combination of a low [DCO+]/[HCO+] and high [HDCO]/[H2CO] abundance ratio in OMC-1 requires a different HDCO formation route at high temperature. This alternate HDCO formation path can occur because the exothermicity of the ion exchange reaction of HD and CH3+ is greater than for the HD + H3+ reaction. The CH2D+ thus formed survives to higher temperatures than H2D+. Subsequent reactions with H2 lead to CH4D+ which by electronic recombination forms CH2D. The HDCO (H2CO) forms in the neutral-neutral reaction of CH2D (CH3) and O. These reactions are not competitive in forming a variety of deuterated molecules at low temperatures since electronic recombination rapidly removes CH2D+ and CH4D+ ions while the abundant H2D+ ion is slow to recombine, as reported by Smith and Adam in 1984.

  2. Mesoporous carbon nanomaterials as environmental adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pranav K; Gan, Lihua; Liu, Mingxian; Rao, Nageswara N

    2014-02-01

    The transportation and diffusion of the guest objects or molecules in the porous carbon nanomaterials can be facilitated by reducing the pathway and resistance. The reduced pathway depends on the porous nature of carbon nanomaterials. Classification of porous carbon materials by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has given a new opportunity to design the pores as per their applicability and to understand the mobility of ions, atoms, and molecules in the porous network of carbon materials and also advanced their countless applicability. However, synthesis of carbon nanomaterials with a desired porous network is still a great challenge. Although, remarkable developments have taken place in the recent years, control over the pores size and/or hierarchical porous architectures, especially in the synthesis of carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMCs) is still intriguing. The micro and mesoporous CNSs and OMCs have been prepared by a variety of procedures and over a wide range of compositions using various different surfactant templates and carbon precursors etc. The mechanisms of formation of micromesopore in the CNSs and OMCs are still evolving. On the other hand, the urge for adsorbents with very high adsorption capacities for removing contaminants from water is growing steadily. In this review, we address the state-of-the-art synthesis of micro and mesoporous CNSs and OMCs, giving examples of their applications for adsorptive removals of contaminants including our own research studies. PMID:24749459

  3. European Higher Education, the Inclusion of Students from Under-Represented Groups and the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    The central questions addressed in this paper are the following: (1) In the context of the (European Union) EU's goal of severing the link between social class background and higher education participation, what progress has been made in widening access over the past two decades? (2) Has the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) helped EU…

  4. In Vitro Actions of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I on Ovarian Follicle Maturation in White Perch (Morone americana)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies of follicle maturation in temperate basses showed that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II can induce meiotic resumption, indicated by germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and oocyte maturational competence (OMC), the ability to respond to the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH, ...

  5. Single-Cell Imaging and Spectroscopic Analyses of Cr(VI) Reduction on the Surface of Bacterial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuanmin; Sevinc, Papatya C.; Belchik, Sara M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang; Lu, H. Peter

    2013-01-22

    We investigate single-cell reduction of toxic Cr(VI) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), an important bioremediation process, using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Our experiments indicate that the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) can be efficiently reduced to the less toxic and non-soluble Cr2O3 nanoparticles by MR-1. Cr2O3 is observed to emerge as nanoparticles adsorbed on the cell surface and its chemical nature is identified by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Co-localization of Cr2O3 and cytochromes by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy suggests a terminal reductase role for MR-1 surface-exposed cytochromes MtrC and OmcA. Our experiments revealed that the cooperation of surface proteins OmcA and MtrC makes the reduction reaction most efficient, and the sequence of the reducing reactivity of the MR-1 is: wild type > single mutant @mtrC or mutant @omcA > double mutant (@omcA-@mtrC). Moreover, our results also suggest that the direct microbial Cr(VI) reduction and Fe(II) (hematite)-mediated Cr(VI) reduction mechanisms may co-exist in the reduction processes.

  6. Influence of spatial configurations on electromagnetic interference shielding of ordered mesoporous carbon/ordered mesoporous silica/silica composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiacheng; Zhou, Hu; Zhuang, Jiandong; Liu, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs), obtained by nanocasting using ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) as hard templates, exhibit unique arrangements of ordered regular nanopore/nanowire mesostructures. Here, we used nanocasting combined with hot-pressing to prepare 10 wt% OMC/OMS/SiO2 ternary composites possessing various carbon mesostructure configurations of different dimensionalities (1D isolated CS41 carbon nanowires, 2D hexagonal CMK-3 carbon, and 3D cubic CMK-1 carbon). The electric/dielectric properties and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency (SE) of the composites were influenced by spatial configurations of carbon networks. The complex permittivity and the EMI SE of the composites in the X-band frequency range decreased for the carbon mesostructures in the following order: CMK-3-filled > CMK-1-filled > CS41-filled. Our study provides technical directions for designing and preparing high-performance EMI shielding materials. Our OMC-based silica composites can be used for EMI shielding, especially in high-temperature or corrosive environments, owing to the high stability of the OMC/OMS fillers and the SiO2 matrix. Related shielding mechanisms are also discussed. PMID:24248277

  7. Influence of spatial configurations on electromagnetic interference shielding of ordered mesoporous carbon/ordered mesoporous silica/silica composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiacheng; Zhou, Hu; Zhuang, Jiandong; Liu, Qian

    2013-11-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs), obtained by nanocasting using ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) as hard templates, exhibit unique arrangements of ordered regular nanopore/nanowire mesostructures. Here, we used nanocasting combined with hot-pressing to prepare 10 wt% OMC/OMS/SiO2 ternary composites possessing various carbon mesostructure configurations of different dimensionalities (1D isolated CS41 carbon nanowires, 2D hexagonal CMK-3 carbon, and 3D cubic CMK-1 carbon). The electric/dielectric properties and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency (SE) of the composites were influenced by spatial configurations of carbon networks. The complex permittivity and the EMI SE of the composites in the X-band frequency range decreased for the carbon mesostructures in the following order: CMK-3-filled > CMK-1-filled > CS41-filled. Our study provides technical directions for designing and preparing high-performance EMI shielding materials. Our OMC-based silica composites can be used for EMI shielding, especially in high-temperature or corrosive environments, owing to the high stability of the OMC/OMS fillers and the SiO2 matrix. Related shielding mechanisms are also discussed.

  8. Diving into the redox properties of Geobacter sulfurreducens cytochromes: a model for extracellular electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Santos, Telma C; Silva, Marta A; Morgado, Leonor; Dantas, Joana M; Salgueiro, Carlos A

    2015-05-28

    Geobacter bacteria have a remarkable respiratory versatility that includes the dissimilatory reduction of insoluble metal oxides in natural habitats and electron transfer to electrode surfaces from which electricity can be harvested. In both cases, electrons need to be exported from the cell interior to the exterior via a mechanism designated as extracellular electron transfer (EET). Several c-type cytochromes from G. sulfurreducens (Gs) were identified as key players in this process. Biochemical and biophysical data have been obtained for ten Gs cytochromes, including inner-membrane associated (MacA), periplasmic (PpcA, PpcB, PpcC, PpcD, PpcE and GSU1996) and outer membrane-associated (OmcF, OmcS and OmcZ). The redox properties of these cytochromes have been determined, except for PpcC and GSU1996. In this perspective, the reduction potentials of these two cytochromes were determined by potentiometric redox titrations followed by visible spectroscopy. The data obtained are taken together with those available for other key cytochromes to present a thorough overview of the current knowledge of Gs EET mechanisms and provide a possible rationalization for the existence of several multiheme cytochromes involved in the same respiratory pathways. PMID:25906375

  9. Using mesoporous carbon electrodes for brackish water desalination.

    PubMed

    Zou, Linda; Li, Lixia; Song, Huaihe; Morris, Gayle

    2008-04-01

    Electrosorptive deionisation is an alternative process to remove salt ions from the brackish water. The porous carbon materials are used as electrodes. When charged in low voltage electric fields, they possess a highly charged surface that induces adsorption of salt ions on the surface. This process is reversible, so the adsorbed salt ions can be desorbed and the electrode can be reused. In the study, an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) electrode was developed for electrosorptive desalination. The effects of pore arrangement pattern (ordered and random) and pore size distribution (mesopores and micropores) on the desalination performance was investigated by comparing OMC and activated carbon (AC). It were revealed from X-ray diffraction and N(2) sorption measurements that AC has both micropores and mesopores, whereas ordered mesopores are dominant in OMC. Their performance as potential electrodes to remove salt was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests at a range of electrolyte concentrations and sweep rates. It is deduced that under the same electrochemical condition the specific capacitance values of OMC electrode (i.e. 133 F/g obtained from CV at a sweep rate of 1 mV/s in 0.1M NaCl solution) are larger than those of AC electrode (107 F/g), suggesting that the former has a higher desalting capacity than the latter. Furthermore, the OMC electrode shows a better rate capacity than the AC electrode. In addition, the desalination capacities were quantified by the batch-mode experiment at low voltage of 1.2V in 25 ppm NaCl solution (50 micros/cm conductivity). It was found that the adsorbed ion amounts of OMC and AC electrodes were 11.6 and 4.3 micromol/g, respectively. The excellent electrosorptive desalination performance of OMC electrode might be not only due to the suitable pore size (average of 3.3 nm) for the propagation of the salt ions, but also due to the ordered mesoporous structure that facilitates desorption of the

  10. Herschel CHESS discovery of the fossil cloud that gave birth to the Trapezium and Orion KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sepulcre, A.; Kama, M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Dominik, C.; Caux, E.; Fuente, A.; Alonso-Albi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The Orion A molecular complex is a nearby (420 pc), very well studied stellar nursery that is believed to contain examples of triggered star formation. Aims: As part of the Herschel guaranteed time key programme CHESS, we present the discovery of a diffuse gas component in the foreground of the intermediate-mass protostar OMC-2 FIR 4, located in the Orion A region. Methods: Making use of the full HIFI spectrum of OMC-2 FIR 4 obtained in CHESS, we detected several ground-state lines from OH+, H2O+, HF, and CH+, all of them seen in absorption against the dust continuum emission of the protostar's envelope. We derived column densities for each species, as well as an upper limit to the column density of the undetected H3O+. In order to model and characterise the foreground cloud, we used the Meudon PDR code to run a homogeneous grid of models that spans a reasonable range of densities, visual extinctions, cosmic ray ionisation rates and far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation fields, and studied the implications of adopting the Orion Nebula extinction properties instead of the standard interstellar medium ones. Results: The detected absorption lines peak at a velocity of 9 km s-1, which is blue-shifted by 2 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity of OMC-2 FIR 4 (VLSR = 11.4 km s-1). The results of our modelling indicate that the foreground cloud is composed of predominantly neutral diffuse gas (nH = 100 cm-3) and is heavily irradiated by an external source of FUV that most likely arises from the nearby Trapezium OB association. The cloud is 6 pc thick and bears many similarities with the so-called C+ interface between Orion-KL and the Trapezium cluster, 2 pc south of OMC-2 FIR 4. Conclusions: We conclude that the foreground cloud we detected is an extension of the C+ interface seen in the direction of Orion KL, and interpret it to be the remains of the parental cloud of OMC-1, which extends from OMC-1 up to OMC-2.

  11. Preparation and drug release behavior of temperature-responsive mesoporous carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiufang; Liu Ping; Tian Yong

    2011-06-15

    A temperature-responsive composite based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) has been successfully prepared by a simple wetness impregnation technique. The structures and properties of the composite were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} sorption, thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the inclusion of PNIPAAm had not greatly changed the basic ordered pore structure of the OMCs. Ibuprofen (IBU) was selected as model drug, and in vitro test of IBU release exhibited a temperature-responsive controlled release delivery. - Graphical abstract: The bands located at 1650 and 1549 cm{sup -1} could be assigned to C=O stretching and N-H bending vibrations for polymer PNIPAAm (a). The bands at 1388 and 1369 cm{sup -1} were due to isopropyl group, and the band at 1459 cm{sup -1} was related to the bending vibration of C-H (a). For the PNIPAAm/OMCs composite, the characteristic bands of polymer were still observed besides those for carbon materials and the bands at around 1585 cm{sup -1} and a broad band at about 1100 cm{sup -1} were characteristics for the carbon materials(c). In addition, little shifts of C=O and N-H bands compared to the pure PNIPAAm were also observed (b), indicating a weak interaction between the polymer and carbon material. These results could be a proof that the PNIPAAm has been incorporated into the carbon material. Highlights: > A temperature-responsive PNIPAAm/OMCs composite was successfully synthesized by a simple wetness impregnation technique for the first time. > The inclusion of PNIPAAm had not greatly changed the basic ordered pore structure of the OMCs. > In vitro test of IBU release exhibited a temperature-responsive controlled release delivery.

  12. Direct tri-constituent co-assembly of highly ordered mesoporous carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tao; Sun, Weiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Huang, Niu; Liu, Yumin; Bu, Chenghao; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2012-12-01

    Controlling over ordered porosity by self-assembly is challenging in the area of materials science. Materials with highly ordered aperture are favorable candidates in catalysis and energy conversion device. Here we describe a facile process to synthesize highly ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by direct tri-constituent co-assembly method, which uses resols as the carbon precursor, tri-block copolymer F127 as the soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the inorganic precursor. The obtained products are characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorption-desorption measurement and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicate that the OMC possesses high surface areas of 1209 m2 g-1, homogeneous pore size of 4.6 nm and a large pore volume of 1.65 cm3 g-1. The advantages of high electrochemical active surface area and favorable accessible porosity of OMC benefit the catalysis of I3- to I-. As a result, the OMC counter electrode displays a remarkable property when it was applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For comparison, carbon black (CB) counter electrode and Pt counter electrode have also been prepared. When these different counter electrodes were applied for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the power-conversion efficiency (η) of the DSSCs with CB counter electrode are measured to be 5.10%, whereas the corresponding values is 6.39% for the DSSC with OMC counter electrode, which is comparable to 6.84% of the cell with Pt counter electrode under the same experimental conditions.

  13. Numerical optimization of targeted delivery of charged nanoparticles to the ostiomeatal complex for treatment of rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Si, Xiuhua April; Hasbany, James

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the prevalence of rhinosinusitis that affects 10%–15% of the population, current inhalation therapy shows limited efficacy. Standard devices deliver <5% of the drugs to the sinuses due to the complexity of nose structure, secluded location of the sinus, poor ventilation, and lack of control of particle motions inside the nasal cavity. Methods An electric-guided delivery system was developed to guide charged particles to the ostiomeatal complex (OMC). Its performance was numerically assessed in an MRI-based nose–sinus model. Key design variables related to the delivery device, drug particles, and patient breathing were determined using sensitivity analysis. A two-stage optimization of design variables was conducted to obtain the best performance of the delivery system using the Nelder-Mead algorithm. Results and discussion The OMC delivery system exhibited high sensitivity to the applied electric field and electrostatic charges carried by the particles. Through the synthesis of electric guidance and point drug release, the new delivery system eliminated particle deposition in the nasal valve and turbinate regions and significantly enhanced the OMC doses. An OMC delivery efficiency of 72.4% was obtained with the optimized design, which is one order of magnitude higher than the standard nasal devices. Moreover, optimization is imperative to achieve a sound delivery protocol because of the large number of design variables. The OMC dose increased from 45.0% in the baseline model to 72.4% in the optimized system. The optimization framework developed in this study can be easily adapted for the delivery of drugs to other sites in the nose such as the ethmoid sinus and olfactory region. PMID:26257521

  14. 46 CFR 56.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to those of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) or Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), if the valve shape...; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); or (iii) Other means specifically accepted by the Marine Safety Center....

  15. 46 CFR 56.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to those of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) or section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), if the valve shape...; see 46 CFR 56.01-2); or (iii) Other means specifically accepted by the Marine Safety Center....

  16. Role of Acid Sphingomyelinase in the Regulation of Social Behavior and Memory.

    PubMed

    Zoicas, Iulia; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is often associated with deficits in social and cognitive functioning. Mice transgenic for acid sphingomyelinase (t-ASM) were previously shown to have a depressive-like phenotype, which could be normalized by antidepressant treatment. Here, we investigated whether t-ASM mice show deficits in social behavior and memory performance, and whether these possible deficits might be normalized by amitriptyline treatment. Our results revealed that ASM overexpression altered the behavior of mice in a sex-dependent manner. As such, t-ASM female, but not male, mice showed an impaired social preference and a depressive- and anxiogenic-like phenotype, which could be normalized by amitriptyline treatment. Both male and female t-ASM mice showed unaltered preference for social novelty, novel object recognition, and social and object discrimination abilities. Amitriptyline treatment impaired novel object recognition and object discrimination abilities in female, but not in male, wild-type mice, while female t-ASM mice showed unaltered novel object recognition and object discrimination abilities. This study suggests that female t-ASM mice represent a model of depression with comorbid anxiety and social deficits, without memory impairments. It further suggests that ASM overexpression has a protective role against the detrimental effects of amitriptyline on female, but not on male, non-social (object) memory. PMID:27598773

  17. 46 CFR 56.25-20 - Bolting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... washers must comply with applicable standards and specifications listed in 46 CFR 56.60-1. Unless otherwise specified, bolting must be in accordance with ASME B16.5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56... heavy hexagon heads in accordance with ASME B18.2.1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 56.01-2)...

  18. 46 CFR 56.25-20 - Bolting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... washers must comply with applicable standards and specifications listed in 46 CFR 56.60-1. Unless otherwise specified, bolting must be in accordance with ASME B16.5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56... heavy hexagon heads in accordance with ASME B18.2.1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 56.01-2)...

  19. 46 CFR 56.25-20 - Bolting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... washers must comply with applicable standards and specifications listed in 46 CFR 56.60-1. Unless otherwise specified, bolting must be in accordance with ASME B16.5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56... heavy hexagon heads in accordance with ASME B18.2.1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 56.01-2)...

  20. Regulation of hematogenous tumor metastasis by acid sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Carpinteiro, Alexander; Becker, Katrin Anne; Japtok, Lukasz; Hessler, Gabriele; Keitsch, Simone; Požgajovà, Miroslava; Schmid, Kurt W; Adams, Constantin; Müller, Stefan; Kleuser, Burkhard; Edwards, Michael J; Grassmé, Heike; Helfrich, Iris; Gulbins, Erich

    2015-06-01

    Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells is the ultimate hallmark of malignancy and accounts for approximately 90% of human cancer deaths. We investigated the role of acid sphingomyelinase (Asm) in the hematogenous metastasis of melanoma cells. Intravenous injection of B16F10 melanoma cells into wild-type mice resulted in multiple lung metastases, while Asm-deficient mice (Smpd1(-/-) mice) were protected from pulmonary tumor spread. Transplanting wild-type platelets into Asm-deficient mice reinstated tumor metastasis. Likewise, Asm-deficient mice were protected from hematogenous MT/ret melanoma metastasis to the spleen in a mouse model of spontaneous tumor metastasis. Human and mouse melanoma cells triggered activation and release of platelet secretory Asm, in turn leading to ceramide formation, clustering, and activation of α5β1 integrins on melanoma cells finally leading to adhesion of the tumor cells. Clustering of integrins by applying purified Asm or C16 ceramide to B16F10 melanoma cells before intravenous injection restored trapping of tumor cells in the lung in Asm-deficient mice. This effect was revertable by arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptides, which are known inhibitors of integrins, and by antibodies neutralizing β1 integrins. These findings indicate that melanoma cells employ platelet-derived Asm for adhesion and metastasis. PMID:25851537