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Sample records for aspartic endopeptidases

  1. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  2. Neutral endopeptidase modulates neurogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nadel, J A

    1991-06-01

    A noncholinergic, nonadrenergic nervous system has been described, involving the sensory nerves in the airways. Chemicals, dusts and other irritants stimulate these sensory nerves to release substance P and related neuropeptides. These neuropeptides have the remarkable ability to affect multiple cells in the airways and to provoke many responses including cough, mucus secretion, smooth muscle contraction, plasma extravasation and neutrophil adhesion. This series of effects is termed "neurogenic inflammation." An enzyme exists on the surfaces of all lung cells that contain receptors for these neuropeptides. This enzyme, neutral endopeptidase (NEP), by cleaving and thus inactivating the neuropeptides, limits the concentration of the neuropeptide that reaches the receptor on the cell surface. Thus, neurogenic inflammatory responses are normally mild and presumably protective in nature. However, when NEP is inhibited pharmacologically (with NEP inhibitors) or by cigarette smoke, respiratory viral infection, or by inhalation of the industrial pollutant toluene diisocyanate, neurogenic inflammatory responses are exaggerated. Delivery of exogenous human recombinant NEP inhibits neurogenic inflammation. Finally, evidence is provided that corticosteroids suppress neurogenic plasma extravasation and that this drug can upregulate NEP in human airway tissue. Neutral endopeptidase cleaves multiple peptides. Thus, its selectivity resides, at least in part, on its fixed location on the surfaces of specific cells where it can modulate effects of peptides exposed to the cells' surfaces. PMID:1889501

  3. Isolation and characterization of mammalian D-aspartyl endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Kinouchi, T; Nishio, H; Nishiuchi, Y; Tsunemi, M; Takada, K; Hamamoto, T; Kagawa, Y; Fujii, N

    2007-01-01

    The accumulation of D-isomers of aspartic acid (D-Asp) in proteins during aging has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), cataracts and arteriosclerosis. Here, we identified a specific lactacystin-sensitive endopeptidase that cleaves the D-Asp-containing protein and named it D-aspartyl endopeptidase (DAEP). DAEP has a multi-complex structure (MW: 600 kDa) and is localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane. However, DAEP activity was not detected in E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and C. elegans. A specific inhibitor for DAEP, i-DAEP: (benzoyl-L-Arg-L-His-[D-Asp]-CH(2)Cl; MW: 563.01), was newly synthesized and inhibited DAEP activity (IC(50), 3 microM), a factor of ten greater than lactacystin on DAEP. On the other hand, i-DAEP did not inhibit either the 20S or 26S proteasome. And we identified succinate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase 1 as components of DAEP by affinity label using biotinylated i-DAEP. In the long life span of mammals, DAEP may serve as a scavenger against accumulation of racemized proteins in aging. Insights into DAEP will provide the foundation for developing treatments of diseases, such as AD, in which accumulation of D-Asp-containing proteins are implicated. PMID:17021656

  4. Major acid endopeptidases of the blood-feeding monogenean Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Heteronchoinea: Diplozoidae).

    PubMed

    Jedličková, Lucie; Dvořáková, Hana; Kašný, Martin; Ilgová, Jana; Potěšil, David; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Mikeš, Libor

    2016-04-01

    In parasitic flatworms, acid endopeptidases are involved in crucial processes, including digestion, invasion, interactions with the host immune system, etc. In haematophagous monogeneans, however, no solid information has been available about the occurrence of these enzymes. Here we aimed to identify major cysteine and aspartic endopeptidase activities in Eudiplozoon nipponicum, an invasive haematophagous parasite of common carp. Employing biochemical, proteomic and molecular tools, we found that cysteine peptidase activities prevailed in soluble protein extracts and excretory/secretory products (ESP) of E. nipponicum; the major part was cathepsin L-like in nature supplemented with cathepsin B-like activity. Significant activity of the aspartic cathepsin D also occurred in soluble protein extracts. The degradation of haemoglobin in the presence of ESP and worm protein extracts was completely inhibited by a combination of cysteine and aspartic peptidase inhibitors, and diminished by particular cathepsin L, B and D inhibitors. Mass spectrometry revealed several tryptic peptides in ESP matching to two translated sequences of cathepsin L genes, which were amplified from cDNA of E. nipponicum and bioinformatically annotated. The dominance of cysteine peptidases of cathepsin L type in E. nipponicum resembles the situation in, e.g. fasciolid trematodes. PMID:26888494

  5. Poststatin, a new inhibitor of prolyl endopeptidase. V. Endopeptidase inhibitory activity of poststatin analogues.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, M; Muraoka, Y; Nagai, M; Aoyagi, T; Takeuchi, T

    1996-09-01

    Thirty analogues of poststatin were synthesized, and their inhibitory activities against prolyl endopeptidase, human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin B were measured. The alpha-ketone was essential and the S configuration was preferable to the R configuration in the beta-substituted-beta-amino-alpha-oxopropionic acid moiety of poststatin analogues for endopeptidase inhibitory activity. The analogue in which the D-leucine residue of poststatin was replaced by L-leucine showed strong inhibitory activity to cathepsin B. Introduction of an aromatic group into the P4 position and proline into the P2 position increased inhibitory activity to elastase. Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-homophenylalanyl-(RS)- 3-amino-2-oxovaleryl-D-leucyl-L-valine was about 6 times more active to prolyl endopeptidase than natural poststatin. PMID:8931723

  6. Sulfated chitooligosaccharides as prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Je, Jae-Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Kim, Bokyung; Park, Tae-Kyu; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2007-12-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26) is a proline-specific endopeptidase with a serine-type mechanism, which digests small peptide-like hormones, neuroactive peptides, and various cellular factors. PEP has been involved in neurodegenerative disorders, therefore, the discovery of PEP inhibitors can revert memory loss caused by amnesic compounds. In this study, we prepared hetero-chitooligosaccharides (COSs) with different molecular sizes using ultrafiltration (UF) membrane reactor system from hetero-chitosan with different degrees of deacetylation (DD; 90%, 75% and 50% deacetylation), and synthesized sulfated COSs (SCOSs). PEP inhibitory activities of SCOSs were evaluated and the results showed that 50% deacetylated SCOSs (50-SCOSs) exhibited higher inhibitory activities than those of 90% and 75% deacetylated SCOSs (90-SCOSs and 75-SCOSs). Among the 50-SCOSs (50-SCOS I, 5000-10,000Da; 50-SCOS II, 1000-5000Da; 50-SCOS III, below 1000Da), 50-SCOS II possessed the highest inhibitory activity and IC(50) value was 0.38mg/ml. Kinetics studies with 50-SCOS II indicated a competitive enzyme inhibition with a K(i) value of 0.78mg/ml. It was concluded that the 50-SCOS II may be useful for PEP inhibitor and for developing a new type PEP inhibitor from carbohydrate based materials. PMID:17714777

  7. Endopeptidase-Mediated Beta Lactam Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Dörr, Tobias; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    In many bacteria, inhibition of cell wall synthesis leads to cell death and lysis. The pathways and enzymes that mediate cell lysis after exposure to cell wall-acting antibiotics (e.g. beta lactams) are incompletely understood, but the activities of enzymes that degrade the cell wall (‘autolysins’) are thought to be critical. Here, we report that Vibrio cholerae, the cholera pathogen, is tolerant to antibiotics targeting cell wall synthesis. In response to a wide variety of cell wall- acting antibiotics, this pathogen loses its rod shape, indicative of cell wall degradation, and becomes spherical. Genetic analyses revealed that paradoxically, V. cholerae survival via sphere formation required the activity of D,D endopeptidases, enzymes that cleave the cell wall. Other autolysins proved dispensable for this process. Our findings suggest the enzymes that mediate cell wall degradation are critical for determining bacterial cell fate - sphere formation vs. lysis – after treatment with antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. PMID:25884840

  8. Induced-fit Mechanism for Prolyl Endopeptidase

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Min; Chen, Changqing; Davies, David R.; Chiu, Thang K.

    2010-11-15

    Prolyl peptidases cleave proteins at proline residues and are of importance for cancer, neurological function, and type II diabetes. Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) cleaves neuropeptides and is a drug target for neuropsychiatric diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous structural analyses showing little differences between native and substrate-bound structures have suggested a lock-and-key catalytic mechanism. We now directly demonstrate from seven structures of Aeromonus punctata PEP that the mechanism is instead induced fit: the native enzyme exists in a conformationally flexible opened state with a large interdomain opening between the {beta}-propeller and {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase domains; addition of substrate to preformed native crystals induces a large scale conformational change into a closed state with induced-fit adjustments of the active site, and inhibition of this conformational change prevents substrate binding. Absolute sequence conservation among 28 orthologs of residues at the active site and critical residues at the interdomain interface indicates that this mechanism is conserved in all PEPs. This finding has immediate implications for the use of conformationally targeted drug design to improve specificity of inhibition against this family of proline-specific serine proteases.

  9. Asparaginyl endopeptidase cleaves TDP-43 in brain.

    PubMed

    Herskowitz, Jeremy H; Gozal, Yair M; Duong, Duc M; Dammer, Eric B; Gearing, Marla; Ye, Keqiang; Lah, James J; Peng, Junmin; Levey, Allan I; Seyfried, Nicholas T

    2012-08-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein involved in RNA splicing and a major protein component in ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Under disease conditions, TDP-43 redistributes to the cytoplasm where it can be phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and proteolytically cleaved. Enzymes responsible for TDP-43 proteolytic processing in brain remain largely unreported. Using a MS approach, we identified two truncated TDP-43 peptides, terminating C-terminal to asparagines 291 (N291) and 306 (N306). The only documented mammalian enzyme capable of cleaving C-terminal to asparagine is asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP). TDP-43-immunoreactive fragments (~35 and 32 kDa) predicted to be generated by AEP cleavage at N291 and N306 were observed by Western blot analyses of postmortem frontotemporal lobar degeneration brain tissue and cultured human cells over-expressing TDP-43. Studies in vitro determined that AEP can directly cleave TDP-43 at seven sites, including N291 and N306. Western blots of brain homogenates isolated from AEP-null mice and wild-type littermate controls revealed that TDP-43 proteolytic fragments were substantially reduced in the absence of AEP in vivo. Taken together, we conclude that TDP-43 is cleaved by AEP in brain. Moreover, these data highlight the utility of combining proteomic strategies in vitro and in vivo to provide insight into TDP-43 biology that will fuel the design of more detailed models of disease pathogenesis. PMID:22718532

  10. Expression of Barley Endopeptidase B in Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Saarelainen, R.; Mantyla, A.; Nevalainen, H.; Suominen, P.

    1997-01-01

    The gene for barley endopeptidase B (EPB) has been expressed in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei from the cbh1 promoter. The EPB signal sequence allowed secretion of over 90% of the recombinant protein. Yields reached about 500 mg of immunoreactive protein per liter and exceeded values for any other protein derived from a higher eukaryotic organism produced in T. reesei. PMID:16535756

  11. Characterization of PHEX endopeptidase catalytic activity: identification of parathyroid-hormone-related peptide107-139 as a substrate and osteocalcin, PPi and phosphate as inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, G; Tenenhouse, H S; Desgroseillers, L; Crine, P

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in the PHEX gene (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome) are responsible for X-linked hypophosphataemia, and studies in the Hyp mouse model of the human disease implicate the gene product in the regulation of renal phosphate (P(i)) reabsorption and bone mineralization. Although the mechanism for PHEX action is unknown, structural homologies with members of the M13 family of endopeptidases suggest a function for PHEX protein in the activation or degradation of peptide factors involved in the control of renal P(i) transport and matrix mineralization. To determine whether PHEX has endopeptidase activity, we generated a recombinant soluble, secreted form of human PHEX (secPHEX) and tested the activity of the purified protein with several peptide substrates, including a variety of bone-related peptides. We found that parathyroid-hormone-related peptide(107-139) is a substrate for secPHEX and that the enzyme cleaves at three positions within the peptide, all located at the N-terminus of aspartate residues. Furthermore, we show that osteocalcin, PP(i) and P(i), all of which are abundant in bone, are inhibitors of secPHEX activity. Inhibition of secPHEX activity by osteocalcin was abolished in the presence of Ca(2+). We suggest that PHEX activity and mineralization may be controlled in vivo by PP(i)/P(i) and Ca(2+) and, in the latter case, the regulation requires the participation of osteocalcin. PMID:11311133

  12. Enzymatic and Structural Characterization of the Major Endopeptidase in the Venus Flytrap Digestion Fluid.

    PubMed

    Risør, Michael W; Thomsen, Line R; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Nielsen, Tania A; Thøgersen, Ida B; Lukassen, Marie V; Rossen, Litten; Garcia-Ferrer, Irene; Guevara, Tibisay; Scavenius, Carsten; Meinjohanns, Ernst; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Enghild, Jan J

    2016-01-29

    Carnivorous plants primarily use aspartic proteases during digestion of captured prey. In contrast, the major endopeptidases in the digestive fluid of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) are cysteine proteases (dionain-1 to -4). Here, we present the crystal structure of mature dionain-1 in covalent complex with inhibitor E-64 at 1.5 Å resolution. The enzyme exhibits an overall protein fold reminiscent of other plant cysteine proteases. The inactive glycosylated pro-form undergoes autoprocessing and self-activation, optimally at the physiologically relevant pH value of 3.6, at which the protective effect of the pro-domain is lost. The mature enzyme was able to efficiently degrade a Drosophila fly protein extract at pH 4 showing high activity against the abundant Lys- and Arg-rich protein, myosin. The substrate specificity of dionain-1 was largely similar to that of papain with a preference for hydrophobic and aliphatic residues in subsite S2 and for positively charged residues in S1. A tentative structure of the pro-domain was obtained by homology modeling and suggested that a pro-peptide Lys residue intrudes into the S2 pocket, which is more spacious than in papain. This study provides the first analysis of a cysteine protease from the digestive fluid of a carnivorous plant and confirms the close relationship between carnivorous action and plant defense mechanisms. PMID:26627834

  13. Regulation of airway neurogenic inflammation by neutral endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, G U; Bellofiore, S; Geppetti, P

    1998-12-01

    Airway neurogenic inflammation is caused by tachykinins released from peripheral nerve endings of sensory neurons within the airways, and is characterized by plasma protein extravasation, airway smooth muscle contraction and increased secretion of mucus. Tachykinins are degraded and inactivated by neutral endopeptidase (NEP), a membrane-bound metallopeptidase, which is located mainly at the surface of airway epithelial cells, but is also present in airway smooth muscle cells, submucosal gland cells and fibroblasts. The key role of NEP in limiting and regulating the neurogenic inflammation provoked by different stimuli has been demonstrated in a large series of studies published in recent years. It has also been shown that a variety of factors, which are relevant for airway diseases, including viral infections, allergen exposure, inhalation of cigarette smoke and other respiratory irritants, is able to reduce NEP activity, thus enhancing the effects of tachykinins within the airways. On the basis of these observations, the reduction of neutral endopeptidase activity may be regarded as a factor that switches neurogenic airway responses from their physiological and protective functions to a detrimental role that increases and perpetuates airway inflammation. However, further studies are needed to assess the role of neutral endopeptidase down regulation in the pathogenesis of asthma and other inflammatory airway diseases. PMID:9877509

  14. Human recombinant endopeptidase PHEX has a strict S1' specificity for acidic residues and cleaves peptides derived from fibroblast growth factor-23 and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo; Couture, Constance; Hirata, Izaura Y; Juliano, Maria A; Loisel, Thomas P; Crine, Philippe; Juliano, Luiz; Boileau, Guy; Carmona, Adriana K

    2003-01-01

    The PHEX gene (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome) encodes a protein (PHEX) with structural homologies to members of the M13 family of zinc metallo-endopeptidases. Mutations in the PHEX gene are responsible for X-linked hypophosphataemia in humans. However, the mechanism by which loss of PHEX function results in the disease phenotype, and the endogenous PHEX substrate(s) remain unknown. In order to study PHEX substrate specificity, combinatorial fluorescent-quenched peptide libraries containing o -aminobenzoic acid (Abz) and 2,4-dinitrophenyl (Dnp) as the donor-acceptor pair were synthesized and tested as PHEX substrates. PHEX showed a strict requirement for acidic amino acid residues (aspartate or glutamate) in S(1)' subsite, with a strong preference for aspartate. Subsites S(2)', S(1) and S(2) exhibited less defined specificity requirements, but the presence of leucine, proline or glycine in P(2)', or valine, isoleucine or histidine in P(1) precluded hydrolysis of the substrate by the enzyme. The peptide Abz-GFSDYK(Dnp)-OH, which contains the most favourable residues in the P(2) to P(2)' positions, was hydrolysed by PHEX at the N-terminus of aspartate with a k(cat)/ K(m) of 167 mM(-1) x s(-1). In addition, using quenched fluorescence peptides derived from fibroblast growth factor-23 and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein sequences flanked by Abz and N -(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine, we showed that these physiologically relevant proteins are potential PHEX substrates. Finally, our results clearly indicate that PHEX does not have neprilysin-like substrate specificity. PMID:12678920

  15. Insulin Aspart (rDNA Origin) Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... unless it is used in an external insulin pump. In patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin aspart ... also can be used with an external insulin pump. Before using insulin aspart in a pump system, ...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of...

  1. Asparagine endopeptidase is required for normal kidney physiology and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gail; Matthews, Stephen P; Reinheckel, Thomas; Fleming, Stewart; Watts, Colin

    2011-05-01

    Although protein recapture and catabolism is known as a key function of kidney proximal tubular cells (PTCs), to date, no single protease has been shown to be required. Asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) is an unusually specific endosomal and lysosomal cysteine protease, expressed at high levels in the PTCs of the mammalian kidney. We report that mice lacking AEP accumulate a discrete set of proteins in their PTC endosomes and lysosomes, which indicates a defect in the normal catabolism of proteins captured from the filtrate. Moreover, the mice develop progressive kidney pathology, including hyperplasia of PTCs, interstitial fibrosis, development of glomerular cysts, and renal pelvis dilation. By 6 mo of age, the glomerular filtration rate in AEP-null mice dropped by almost a factor of 2, and the mice developed proteinuria. We also show that EGF receptor levels are significantly higher in AEP-null PTCs, which likely explains the hyperplasia, and we show that chemical inhibition of AEP activity suppresses down-regulation of the EGF receptor in vitro. Thus, AEP is required for normal protein catabolism by PTCs, and its loss induces proliferative and other abnormalities in the murine kidney, at least in part through defective regulation of the EGF receptor. PMID:21292981

  2. Aspartate protects Lactobacillus casei against acid stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aspartate on the acid tolerance of L. casei. Acid stress induced the accumulation of intracellular aspartate in L. casei, and the acid-resistant mutant exhibited 32.5 % higher amount of aspartate than that of the parental strain at pH 4.3. Exogenous aspartate improved the growth performance and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus casei during acid stress. When cultivated in the presence of 50 mM aspartate, the biomass of cells increased 65.8 % compared with the control (without aspartate addition). In addition, cells grown at pH 4.3 with aspartate addition were challenged at pH 3.3 for 3 h, and the survival rate increased 42.26-fold. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the aspartate-supplemented cells exhibited higher intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular NH4 (+) content, H(+)-ATPase activity, and intracellular ATP pool. In addition, higher contents of intermediates involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle were observed in cells in the presence of aspartate. The increased contents of many amino acids including aspartate, arginine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine in aspartate-added cells may contribute to the regulation of pHi. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of argG and argH increased during acid stress, and the addition of aspartate induced 1.46- and 3.06-fold higher expressions of argG and argH, respectively, compared with the control. Results presented in this manuscript suggested that aspartate may protect L. casei against acid stress, and it may be used as a potential protectant during the production of probiotics. PMID:23292549

  3. Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium chabaudi: a neutral endopeptidase in parasite extracts and plasma of infected animals.

    PubMed

    Bernard, F; Mayer, R; Picard, I; Deguercy, A; Monsigny, M; Schrevel, J

    1987-08-01

    By using a sensitive fluorometric method with Val-Leu-Gly-Arg-3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (VLGR-AEC) as a substrate, two endopeptidase activities were identified in two fractions of Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration from soluble P. berghei and P. chabaudi extracts. Controls with normal mouse erythrocytes, with leukocytes, and with reticulocyte enriched blood and different washing procedures during the preparation of soluble P. berghei extracts showed that the MW greater than 200 kDa fraction was a contaminant from erythrocytes and exhibited an optimal pH activity of 8.2. In contrast, the fraction 130 kDa was related to P. berghei and P. chabaudi and exhibited an optimal pH activity of 7.4. The two enzyme activities were compared with eight different substrates. The parasite endopeptidase showed a strong activity with Val-Leu-Gly-Lys-AEC (VLGK-AEC) and Ser-Gly-Lys-AEC (SGK-AEC) as substrates; in contrast, the mouse host endopeptidase poorly cleaved the VLGK-AEC and did not cleave SGK-AEC. Presence of the hydrophobic benzyl group on serine reduced the hydrolizing properties of P. berghei endopeptidase: the reverse was observed with host endopeptidase. The hydrolysis of the N-polyhydroxyalcanoyl-VLGK-AEC substrate by the parasite neutral endopeptidase strongly increased with the schizogonic stage, as shown with synchronized P. chabaudi in mice. By its physiological pH and specificity the release of this enzyme in mouse plasma during the infection could be of interest in a peptidyl-drug strategy. PMID:3301390

  4. Neuropeptide-degrading endopeptidase activity of locust (Schistocerca gregaria) synaptic membranes.

    PubMed

    Isaac, R E

    1988-11-01

    Locust adipokinetic hormone (AKH, pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp-Gly-Thr-NH2) was used as the substrate to measure neuropeptide-degrading endopeptidase activity in neutral membranes from ganglia of the locust Schistocerca gregaria. Initial hydrolysis of AKH at neural pH by peptidases of washed neural membranes generated pGlu-Leu-Asn and Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp-Gly-Thr-NH2 as primary metabolites, demonstrating that degradation was initiated by cleavage of the Asn-Phe bond. Amastatin protected the C-terminal fragment from further metabolism by aminopeptidase activity without inhibiting AKH degradation. The same fragments were generated on incubation of AKH with purified pig kidney endopeptidase 24.11, and enzyme known to cleave peptide bonds that involve the amino group of hydrophobic amino acids. Phosphoramidon (10 microM), a selective inhibitor of mammalian endopeptidase 24.11, partially inhibited the endopeptidase activity of locust neural membranes. This phosphoramidon-sensitive activity was shown to enriched in a synaptic membrane preparation with around 80% of the activity being inhibited by 10 microM-phosphoramidon (IC50 = 0.2 microM). The synaptic endopeptidase was also inhibited by 1 mM-EDTA, 1 mM-1,10-phenanthroline and 1 microM-thiorphan, and the activity was maximal between pH 7.3 and 8.0. Localization of the phosphoramidon-sensitive enzyme in synaptic membranes is consistent with a physiological role for this endopeptidase in the metabolism of insect peptides at the synapse. PMID:3063256

  5. Activation of Asparaginyl Endopeptidase Leads to Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Alzheimer Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Tung, Yunn Chyn; Liu, Fei; Iqbal, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibrillary pathology of abnormally hyperphosphorylated Tau is a key lesion of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, and its density in the brain directly correlates with dementia. The phosphorylation of Tau is regulated by protein phosphatase 2A, which in turn is regulated by inhibitor 2, I2PP2A. In acidic conditions such as generated by brain ischemia and hypoxia, especially in association with hyperglycemia as in diabetes, I2PP2A is cleaved by asparaginyl endopeptidase at Asn-175 into the N-terminal fragment (I2NTF) and the C-terminal fragment (I2CTF). Both I2NTF and I2CTF are known to bind to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A and inhibit its activity. Here we show that the level of activated asparaginyl endopeptidase is significantly increased, and this enzyme and I2PP2A translocate, respectively, from neuronal lysosomes and nucleus to the cytoplasm where they interact and are associated with hyperphosphorylated Tau in Alzheimer disease brain. Asparaginyl endopeptidase from Alzheimer disease brain could cleave GST-I2PP2A, except when I2PP2A was mutated at the cleavage site Asn-175 to Gln. Finally, an induction of acidosis by treatment with kainic acid or pH 6.0 medium activated asparaginyl endopeptidase and consequently produced the cleavage of I2PP2A, inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, and hyperphosphorylation of Tau, and the knockdown of asparaginyl endopeptidase with siRNA abolished this pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings suggest the involvement of brain acidosis in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, and asparaginyl endopeptidase-I2PP2A-protein phosphatase 2A-Tau hyperphosphorylation pathway as a therapeutic target. PMID:23640887

  6. LysK CHAP endopeptidase domain is required for lysis of live staphylococcal cells.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LysK is a staphylococcal bacteriophage endolysin composed of three domains, an N-terminal cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases (CHAP) endopeptidase domain (cleaves between D-alanine of the stem peptide and glycine of the cross-bridge peptide) a mid-protein amidase 2 domain (N-ace...

  7. Early, Real-Time Medical Diagnosis of Botulism by Endopeptidase-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Osnat; Feldberg, Liron; Gura, Sigalit; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Guri, Alex; Zimhony, Oren; Shapiro, Eli; Beth-Din, Adi; Stein, Dana; Ozeri, Eyal; Barnea, Ada; Turgeman, Amram; Ben David, Alon; Schwartz, Arieh; Elhanany, Eytan; Diamant, Eran; Yitzhaki, Shmuel; Zichel, Ran

    2015-12-15

    Botulinum toxin was detected in patient serum using Endopeptidase-mass-spectrometry assay, although all conventional tests provided negative results. Antitoxin was administered, resulting in patient improvement. Implementing this highly sensitive and rapid assay will improve preparedness for foodborne botulism and deliberate exposure. PMID:26420800

  8. Purification and biochemical characterization of a vacuolar serine endopeptidase induced by glucose starvation in maize roots.

    PubMed Central

    James, F; Brouquisse, R; Suire, C; Pradet, A; Raymond, P

    1996-01-01

    An endopeptidase (designated RSIP, for root-starvation-induced protease) was purified to homogeneity from glucose-starved maize roots. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 59 kDa by SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions and 62 kDa by gel filtration on a Sephacryl S-200 column. The isoelectric point of RSIP was 4.55. The purified enzyme was stable, with no auto-proteolytic activity. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by proteinaceous trypsin inhibitors, di-isopropylfluorophosphate, 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin and PMSF, suggesting that the enzyme is a serine protease. The maximum proteolytic activity against different protein substrates occurred at pH 6.5. With the exception of succinyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-4-methylcoumarin, no hydrolysis was detected with synthetic tryptic, chymotryptic or peptidylglutamate substrates. The determination of the cleavage sites in the oxidized B-Chain of insulin showed specificity for hydrophobic residues at the P2 and P3 positions, indicating that RSIP is distinct from other previously characterized maize endopeptidases. Both subcellular fractionation and immuno-detection in situ indicated that RSIP is localized in the vacuole of the root cells. RSIP is the first vacuolar serine endopeptidase to be identified. Glucose starvation induced RSIP: after 4 days of starvation, RSIP was estimated to constitute 80% of total endopeptidase activity in the root tip. These results suggest that RSIP is implicated in vacuolar autophagic processes triggered by carbon limitation. PMID:8947499

  9. Nitrification of Aspartate by Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, H. J.; Schmidt, E. L.

    1971-01-01

    Heterotrophic conversion of l-aspartic acid to nitrification products by Aspergillus flavus was studied in a replacement incubation system. Numerous amino acids supported nitrification; aspartate and glutamate were about equivalent as the best sources of nitrate. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to the incubation system substantially enhanced nitrate formation for all nitrifiable amino acids except aspartic acid, but the basis for the bicarbonate effect is obscure. The yield of nitrate from l-aspartate was not approached by forms of aspartic acid resulting from substitution on the beta carbon, the amino nitrogen, or the gamma carboxyl group or by aspartate presented as the d-configuration. There was no relationship between nitrate formation and the occurrence of such possible intermediates as nitrite, bound hydroxylamine, ammonia, aspergillic acid, and beta-nitropropionic acid. Uniformly labeled 14C-l-aspartate that was nitrified in replacement incubation led to no accumulation of label in possible nitrification products in the culture filtrate. Label was found in components of the mycelium after acid hydrolysis, with heaviest accumulation in what appeared to be glucosamine and an unidentified compound, possibly acetylglucosamine. Detectable label was redistributed into serine, glycine, and threonine. Images PMID:5549699

  10. Insulin Aspart (rDNA Origin) Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid with particles that will settle on standing) to inject subcutaneously ( ... it is colored, cloudy, thickened, or contains solid particles. If you are using insulin aspart suspension, the ...

  11. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jaslyn E. M. M.; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Gysel, Kira; Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Sørensen, Kasper K.; Jensen, Knud J.; Stougaard, Jens; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickaël

    2015-03-01

    The crystal and solution structures of the T. thermophilus NlpC/P60 d, l-endopeptidase as well as the co-crystal structure of its N-terminal LysM domains bound to chitohexaose allow a proposal to be made regarding how the enzyme recognizes peptidoglycan. LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering solution studies of this endopeptidase revealed the presence of a homodimer. The structure of the two LysM domains co-crystallized with N-acetyl-chitohexaose revealed a new intermolecular binding mode that may explain the differential interaction between LysM domains and short or long chitin oligomers. By combining the structural information with the three-dimensional model of peptidoglycan, a model suggesting how protein dimerization enhances the recognition of peptidoglycan is proposed.

  12. Glycyl endopeptidase from papaya latex: partial purification and use for production of fish gelatin hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-12-15

    An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in combination with ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation was applied to fractionate glycyl endopeptidase from the papaya latex of Red Lady and Khack Dum cultivars. ATPS containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 and 6000) and salts ((NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) at different concentrations were used. Glycyl endopeptidase with high purification fold (PF) and yield was found in the salt-rich bottom phase of ATPS with 10%PEG 6000-10% (NH4)2SO4. When ATPS fraction from Red Lady cultivar was further precipitated with 40-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4, PF of 2.1-fold with 80.23% yield was obtained. Almost all offensive odorous compounds, particularly benzyl isothiocyanate, were removed from partially purified glycyl endopeptidase (PPGE). The fish gelatin hydrolysates prepared using PPGE showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and less odour, compared with those of crude extract (CE). Thus antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate with negligible undesirable odour could be prepared with the aid of PPGE. PMID:25038693

  13. Dataset of cocoa aspartic protease cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Voigt, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The data provide information in support of the research article, "The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors" (Janek et al., 2016) [1]. Three different protein substrates were partially digested with the aspartic protease isolated from cocoa beans and commercial pepsin, respectively. The obtained peptide fragments were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) and identified using the MASCOT server. The N- and C-terminal ends of the peptide fragments were used to identify the corresponding in-vitro cleavage sites by comparison with the amino acid sequences of the substrate proteins. The same procedure was applied to identify the cleavage sites used by the cocoa aspartic protease during cocoa fermentation starting from the published amino acid sequences of oligopeptides isolated from fermented cocoa beans. PMID:27508221

  14. Structural basis of murein peptide specificity of a gamma-D-glutamyl-l-diamino acid endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingping; Sudek, Sebastian; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D; Geierstanger, Bernhard; Jones, David H; Krishna, S Sri; Spraggon, Glen; Bursalay, Badry; Abdubek, Polat; Acosta, Claire; Ambing, Eileen; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L; Carlton, Dennis; Caruthers, Jonathan; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C; Duan, Lian; Elias, Ylva; Elsliger, Marc-André; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Slawomir K; Hale, Joanna; Han, Gye Won; Haugen, Justin; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K; Klock, Heath E; Knuth, Mark W; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Morse, Andrew T; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L; Trout, Christina V; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; White, Aprilfawn; Wolf, Guenter; Zubieta, Chloe; Hodgson, Keith O; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A

    2009-02-13

    The crystal structures of two homologous endopeptidases from cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Nostoc punctiforme were determined at 1.05 and 1.60 A resolution, respectively, and contain a bacterial SH3-like domain (SH3b) and a ubiquitous cell-wall-associated NlpC/P60 (or CHAP) cysteine peptidase domain. The NlpC/P60 domain is a primitive, papain-like peptidase in the CA clan of cysteine peptidases with a Cys126/His176/His188 catalytic triad and a conserved catalytic core. We deduced from structure and sequence analysis, and then experimentally, that these two proteins act as gamma-D-glutamyl-L-diamino acid endopeptidases (EC 3.4.22.-). The active site is located near the interface between the SH3b and NlpC/P60 domains, where the SH3b domain may help define substrate specificity, instead of functioning as a targeting domain, so that only muropeptides with an N-terminal L-alanine can bind to the active site. PMID:19217401

  15. Inhibition of Streptomyces griseus metallo-endopeptidase II (SGMPII) by active-site-directed inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumazaki, T; Ishii, S; Yokosawa, H

    1994-03-01

    Inactivation of Streptomyces griseus metallo-endopeptidase II (SGMPII) by ClCH2CO-DL-(N-OH)Leu-OCH3 and by ClCH2CO-DL-(N-OH)Leu-Ala-Gly-NH2 was studied kinetically. These reagents cause irreversible inhibition of the enzyme in a pseudo-first order reaction, and the inhibition reaction exhibits saturation kinetics. The second-order rate constants for inactivation of SGMPII by ClCH2CO-DL-(N-OH)Leu-OCH3 and by ClCH2CO-DL-(N-OH)Leu-Ala-Gly-NH2 were measured to be 0.12 and 8.9 M-1.s-1, respectively. The order of affinities of metallo-endopeptidases towards these irreversible inhibitors is thermolysin > SGMPII > Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase. A competitive inhibitor of SGMPII, L-Val-L-Trp, protects the enzyme against inactivation by ClCH2CO-DL-(N-OH)Leu-Ala-Gly-NH2 in a competitive manner. Furthermore, the pH profile of the inactivation closely resembles that for the hydrolysis of synthetic peptide substrates by the enzyme. These findings suggest that these reagents bind reversibly and react irreversibly at the active site of the enzyme. PMID:8056768

  16. Antidepressant activity of aspartic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Petrov, V I; Sergeev, V S; Onishchenko, N V; Piotrovskii, L B

    2001-04-01

    Antidepressant activity of N-phenyl(benzyl)amino derivatives of aspartic acid was studied on various experimental models of depression. IEM-1770 (30 mg/kg) and IEM-1944 (20 mg/kg) exhibited antidepressant activity after single injection in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Antidepressant effect of 14-day administration of these compounds and reference drugs maprotiline (10 mg/kg) and citalopram (10 mg/kg) was confirmed on the model of learned helplessness. PMID:11550022

  17. Amino acid sequence of rabbit kidney neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (enkephalinase) deduced from a complementary DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Devault, A; Lazure, C; Nault, C; Le Moual, H; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M; Kahn, P; Powell, J; Mallet, J; Beaumont, A

    1987-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11) is a major constituent of kidney brush border membranes. It is also present in the brain where it has been shown to be involved in the inactivation of opioid peptides, methionine- and leucine-enkephalins. For this reason this enzyme is often called 'enkephalinase'. In order to characterize the primary structure of the enzyme, oligonucleotide probes were designed from partial amino acid sequences and used to isolate clones from kidney cDNA libraries. Sequencing of the cDNA inserts revealed the complete primary structure of the enzyme. Neutral endopeptidase consists of 750 amino acids. It contains a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain (27 amino acids), a single membrane-spanning segment (23 amino acids) and an extracellular domain that comprises most of the protein mass. The comparison of the primary structure of neutral endopeptidase with that of thermolysin, a bacterial Zn-metallopeptidase, indicates that most of the amino acid residues involved in Zn coordination and catalytic activity in thermolysin are found within highly honmologous sequences in neutral endopeptidase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:2440677

  18. Immobilization of Procerain B, a Cysteine Endopeptidase, on Amberlite MB-150 Beads

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhay Narayan; Singh, Sushant; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Proteases are involved in several crucial biological processes and reported to have important physiological functions. They also have multifarious applications in different industries. The immobilized form of the enzyme further improves its industrial applicability. Here, we report covalent immobilization of a novel cysteine endopeptidase (procerain B) on amberlite MB-150 beads through glutaraldehyde by Schiff base linkage. The immobilized product was examined extensively by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The characterization of the immobilized product showed broader pH and thermal optima compared to the soluble form of the enzyme. The immobilized form of procerain B also showed lower Km (180.27±6 µM) compared to the soluble enzyme using azocasein as substrate. Further, immobilized procerain B retains 38.6% activity till the 10th use, which strongly represents its industrial candidature. PMID:23776589

  19. Effects of mechanical wounding on Carica papaya cysteine endopeptidases accumulation and activity.

    PubMed

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Dibiani, Rachid; Baulard, Céline; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2006-05-30

    The mechanical wounding impact on the Carica papaya latex protein pattern was investigated by analyzing three latexes. A first one commercially available, a second harvested from unripe but fully grown fruits, both obtained from regularly tapped fruits. A third one was collected from similar fruits but wounded for the first time. The results demonstrated both quantitative and qualitative changes in the protein content and in the enzymatic activity. Repeated wounding results in either, accumulation or activation (or both of them) of papain, chymopapain and caricain. Furthermore, new cysteine protease activity was found to transiently accumulate in the latex collected from newly wounded fruits. The possible implication of this enzymatic material in the papaya cysteine endopeptidases pro-forms activation is discussed. PMID:16580724

  20. Destructive processing by asparagine endopeptidase limits presentation of a dominant T cell epitope in MBP.

    PubMed

    Manoury, Bénédicte; Mazzeo, Daniela; Fugger, Lars; Viner, Nick; Ponsford, Mary; Streeter, Heather; Mazza, Graziella; Wraith, David C; Watts, Colin

    2002-02-01

    Little is known about the processing of putative human autoantigens and why tolerance is established to some T cell epitopes but not others. Here we show that a principal human HLA-DR2-restricted epitope--amino acids 85-99 of myelin basic protein, MBP(85-99)--contains a processing site for the cysteine protease asparagine endopeptidase (AEP). Presentation of this epitope by human antigen-presenting cells is inversely proportional to the amount of cellular AEP activity: inhibition of AEP in living cells greatly enhances presentation of the MBP(85-99) epitope, whereas overexpression of AEP diminishes presentation. These results indicate that central tolerance to this encephalitogenic MBP epitope may not be established because destructive processing limits its display in the thymus. Consistent with this hypothesis, AEP is expressed abundantly in thymic antigen-presenting cells. PMID:11812994

  1. The Asparaginyl Endopeptidase Legumain Is Essential for Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Khatri, Harsh P.; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase) is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals. PMID:24747977

  2. Heterologous expression and pro-peptide supported refolding of the high specific endopeptidase Lys-C.

    PubMed

    Stressler, Timo; Eisele, Thomas; Meyer, Susanne; Wangler, Julia; Hug, Thomas; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Fischer, Lutz

    2016-02-01

    The high specific lysyl endopeptidase (Lys-C; EC 3.4.21.50) is often used for the initial fragmentation of polypeptide chains during protein sequence analysis. However, due to its specificity it could be a useful tool for the production of tailor-made protein hydrolysates with for example bioactive or techno functional properties. Up to now, the high price makes this application nearly impossible. In this work, the increased expression for Escherichia coli optimized Lys-C was investigated. The cloned sequence had a short artificial N-terminal pro-peptide (MGSK). The expression of MGSK-Lys-C was tested using three expression vectors and five E. coli host strains. The highest expression rate was obtained for the expression system consisting of the host strain E. coli JM109 and the rhamnose inducible expression vector pJOE. A Lys-C activity of 9340 ± 555 nkatTos-GPK-pNA/Lculture could be achieved under optimized cultivation conditions after chemical refolding. Furthermore, the influence of the native pre-N-pro peptide of Lys-C from Lysobacter enzymogenes ssp. enzymogenes ATCC 27796 on Lys-C refolding was investigated. The pre-N-pro peptide was expressed recombinantly in E. coli JM109 using the pJOE expression vector. The optimal concentration of the pre-N-pro peptide in the refolding procedure was 100 μg/mLrefolding buffer and the Lys-C activity could be increased to 541,720 nkatTos-GPK-pNA/Lculture. With the results presented, the expensive lysyl endopeptidase can be produced in high activity and high amounts and the potential of Lys-C for tailor-made protein hydrolysates with bioactive (e.g. antihypertensive) and/or techno functional (e.g. foaming, emulsifying) properties can be investigated in future time studies. PMID:26431800

  3. Structural basis for type VI secreted peptidoglycan dl-endopeptidase function, specificity and neutralization in Serratia marcescens

    SciTech Connect

    Srikannathasan, Velupillai; English, Grant; Bui, Nhat Khai; Trunk, Katharina; O’Rourke, Patrick E. F.; Rao, Vincenzo A.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Coulthurst, Sarah J. Hunter, William N.

    2013-12-01

    Crystal structures of type VI secretion system-associated immunity proteins, a peptidoglycan endopeptidase and a complex of the endopeptidase and its cognate immunity protein are reported together with assays of endopeptidase activity and functional assessment. Some Gram-negative bacteria target their competitors by exploiting the type VI secretion system to extrude toxic effector proteins. To prevent self-harm, these bacteria also produce highly specific immunity proteins that neutralize these antagonistic effectors. Here, the peptidoglycan endopeptidase specificity of two type VI secretion-system-associated effectors from Serratia marcescens is characterized. These small secreted proteins, Ssp1 and Ssp2, cleave between γ-d-glutamic acid and l-meso-diaminopimelic acid with different specificities. Ssp2 degrades the acceptor part of cross-linked tetratetrapeptides. Ssp1 displays greater promiscuity and cleaves monomeric tripeptides, tetrapeptides and pentapeptides and dimeric tetratetra and tetrapenta muropeptides on both the acceptor and donor strands. Functional assays confirm the identity of a catalytic cysteine in these endopeptidases and crystal structures provide information on the structure–activity relationships of Ssp1 and, by comparison, of related effectors. Functional assays also reveal that neutralization of these effectors by their cognate immunity proteins, which are called resistance-associated proteins (Raps), contributes an essential role to cell fitness. The structures of two immunity proteins, Rap1a and Rap2a, responsible for the neutralization of Ssp1 and Ssp2-like endopeptidases, respectively, revealed two distinct folds, with that of Rap1a not having previously been observed. The structure of the Ssp1–Rap1a complex revealed a tightly bound heteromeric assembly with two effector molecules flanking a Rap1a dimer. A highly effective steric block of the Ssp1 active site forms the basis of effector neutralization. Comparisons with Ssp2–Rap2

  4. Human endopeptidase (THOP1) is localized on chromosome 19 within the linkage region for the late-onset Alzheimer disease AD2 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Meckelein, B.; Abraham, C.R.; De Silva, H.A.R.

    1996-01-15

    A cDNA encoding the rat endopeptidase 24.15 was used to determine the chromosomal localization of the respective human gene. Hybridization to DNA from human-rodent somatic cell hybrids assigned the human gene to chromosome 19. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes localized the human endopeptidase 24.15 to 19q13.3. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Membrane peptidases on human osteoblast-like cells in culture: hydrolysis of calcitonin and hormonal regulation of endopeptidase-24.11.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, S; Caswell, A M; Kenny, A J; Turner, A J

    1993-01-01

    Five membrane peptidase activities have been identified on cultured human osteoblast-like cells. These consisted of the four exopeptidases aminopeptidase-A, aminopeptidase-N, aminopeptidase-W and carboxypeptidase-M, and the endopeptidase, endopeptidase-24.11. The presence of endopeptidase-24.11 was confirmed immunochemically by immunofluorescent staining and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The inclusion of phosphoramidon partially inhibited the hydrolysis of human calcitonin by a membrane fraction prepared from osteoblast-like cell membranes, thus implicating endopeptidase-24.11 in its inactivation. Another metallopeptidase also contributed substantially to calcitonin hydrolysis. Purified porcine endopeptidase-24.11 (1 microgram) was shown to hydrolyse calcitonin with a half-life of 23 min, which compared to a half-life of 0.5 min for substance P under similar conditions. Sequence data revealed that the initial site of hydrolysis of calcitonin was between residues Lys18 and Phe19. The expression of endopeptidase-24.11 by cultured osteoblast-like cells was shown to be modified by various agents: expression was decreased by phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (160 nM for 48 h) and increased in the presence of calcitonin (1.5 nM for 48 h) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.01-1 microM for 72 h). Images Figure 1 PMID:8439284

  6. Purification and characterization of four new cysteine endopeptidases from fruits of Bromelia pinguin L. grown in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Payrol, Juan Abreu; Obregón, Walter D; Trejo, Sebastián A; Caffini, Néstor O

    2008-02-01

    Bromelia pinguin L. is a plant broadly distributed in Central America and Caribbean islands. The fruits have been used in traditional medicine as anthelmintic, probably owed to the presence of a mixture of cysteine endopeptidases, initially termed pinguinain. This work deals with the purification and characterization of the four main components of that mixture, two of them showing acid pI and the other two alkaline pI. Molecular masses (SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF), N-terminal sequence and the reactivity and kinetic parameters versus synthetic substrates (p-nitrophenyl-N-alpha-CBZ-amino acid esters, PFLNA, Z-Arg-Arg-p-NA, and Z-Phe-Arg-p-NA) of the studied peptidases are given, as well as the N-terminal sequences of the enzymes and the homology degree with other plant endopeptidases. PMID:17932734

  7. The Albicidin Resistance Factor AlbD Is a Serine Endopeptidase That Hydrolyzes Unusual Oligoaromatic-Type Peptides.

    PubMed

    Vieweg, Laura; Kretz, Julian; Pesic, Alexander; Kerwat, Dennis; Grätz, Stefan; Royer, Monique; Cociancich, Stéphane; Mainz, Andi; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2015-06-24

    The para-aminobenzoic acid-containing peptide albicidin is a pathogenicity factor synthesized by Xanthomonas albilineans in infections of sugar cane. Albicidin is a nanomolar inhibitor of the bacterial DNA gyrase with a strong activity against various Gram-negative bacteria. The bacterium Pantoea dispersa expresses the hydrolase AlbD, conferring natural resistance against albicidin. We show that AlbD is a novel type of endopeptidase that catalyzes the cleavage of albicidin at a peptide backbone amide bond, thus abolishing its antimicrobial activity. Additionally, we determined the minimal cleavage motif of AlbD with substrates derived by chemical synthesis. Our results clearly identify AlbD as a unique endopeptidase that is the first member of a new subfamily of peptidases. Our findings provide the molecular basis for a natural detoxification mechanism, potentially rendering a new tool in biological chemistry approaches. PMID:26057615

  8. Development and characterization of novel potent and stable inhibitors of endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15.

    PubMed Central

    Shrimpton, C N; Abbenante, G; Lew, R A; Smith, I

    2000-01-01

    Solid-phase synthesis was used to prepare a series of modifications to the selective and potent inhibitor of endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15 (EP24.15), N-[1(R, S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Tyr-p-aminobenzoate (cFP), which is degraded at the Ala-Tyr bond, thus severely limiting its utility in vivo. Reducing the amide bond between the Ala and Tyr decreased the potency of the inhibitor to 1/1000. However, the replacement of the second alanine residue immediately adjacent to the tyrosine with alpha-aminoisobutyric acid gave a compound (JA-2) that was equipotent with cFP, with a K(i) of 23 nM. Like cFP, JA-2 inhibited the closely related endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 1/20 to 1/30 as potently as it did EP24.15, and did not inhibit the other thermolysin-like endopeptidases angiotensin-converting enzyme, endothelin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase. The biological stability of JA-2 was investigated by incubation with a number of membrane and soluble sheep tissue extracts. In contrast with cFP, JA-2 remained intact after 48 h of incubation with all tissues examined. Further modifications to the JA-2 compound failed to improve the potency of this inhibitor. Hence JA-2 is a potent, EP24.15-preferential and biologically stable inhibitor, therefore providing a valuable tool for further assessing the biological functions of EP24.15. PMID:10620512

  9. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Genes Encoding Lytic Endopeptidases L1 and L5 from Lysobacter sp. Strain XL1

    PubMed Central

    Lapteva, Y. S.; Zolova, O. E.; Shlyapnikov, M. G.; Tsfasman, I. M.; Muranova, T. A.; Stepnaya, O. A.; Kulaev, I. S.

    2012-01-01

    Lytic enzymes are the group of hydrolases that break down structural polymers of the cell walls of various microorganisms. In this work, we determined the nucleotide sequences of the Lysobacter sp. strain XL1 alpA and alpB genes, which code for, respectively, secreted lytic endopeptidases L1 (AlpA) and L5 (AlpB). In silico analysis of their amino acid sequences showed these endopeptidases to be homologous proteins synthesized as precursors similar in structural organization: the mature enzyme sequence is preceded by an N-terminal signal peptide and a pro region. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, endopeptidases AlpA and AlpB were assigned to the S1E family [clan PA(S)] of serine peptidases. Expression of the alpA and alpB open reading frames (ORFs) in Escherichia coli confirmed that they code for functionally active lytic enzymes. Each ORF was predicted to have the Shine-Dalgarno sequence located at a canonical distance from the start codon and a potential Rho-independent transcription terminator immediately after the stop codon. The alpA and alpB mRNAs were experimentally found to be monocistronic; transcription start points were determined for both mRNAs. The synthesis of the alpA and alpB mRNAs was shown to occur predominantly in the late logarithmic growth phase. The amount of alpA mRNA in cells of Lysobacter sp. strain XL1 was much higher, which correlates with greater production of endopeptidase L1 than of L5. PMID:22865082

  10. Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome

    PubMed Central

    O’Donoghue, Anthony J.; Knudsen, Giselle M.; Beekman, Chapman; Perry, Jenna A.; Johnson, Alexander D.; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Craik, Charles S.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the deaths of millions of bats in North America. This psychrophilic fungus proliferates at low temperatures and targets hibernating bats, resulting in their premature arousal from stupor with catastrophic consequences. Despite the impact of white-nose syndrome, little is known about the fungus itself or how it infects its mammalian host. P. destructans is not amenable to genetic manipulation, and therefore understanding the proteins involved in infection requires alternative approaches. Here, we identify hydrolytic enzymes secreted by P. destructans, and use a novel and unbiased substrate profiling technique to define active peptidases. These experiments revealed that endopeptidases are the major proteolytic activities secreted by P. destructans, and that collagen, the major structural protein in mammals, is actively degraded by the secretome. A serine endopeptidase, hereby-named Destructin-1, was subsequently identified, and a recombinant form overexpressed and purified. Biochemical analysis of Destructin-1 showed that it mediated collagen degradation, and a potent inhibitor of peptidase activity was identified. Treatment of P. destructans-conditioned media with this antagonist blocked collagen degradation and facilitated the detection of additional secreted proteolytic activities, including aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases. These results provide molecular insights into the secretome of P. destructans, and identify serine endopeptidases that have the clear potential to facilitate tissue invasion and pathogenesis in the mammalian host. PMID:25944934

  11. Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Knudsen, Giselle M; Beekman, Chapman; Perry, Jenna A; Johnson, Alexander D; DeRisi, Joseph L; Craik, Charles S; Bennett, Richard J

    2015-06-16

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the deaths of millions of bats in North America. This psychrophilic fungus proliferates at low temperatures and targets hibernating bats, resulting in their premature arousal from stupor with catastrophic consequences. Despite the impact of white-nose syndrome, little is known about the fungus itself or how it infects its mammalian host. P. destructans is not amenable to genetic manipulation, and therefore understanding the proteins involved in infection requires alternative approaches. Here, we identify hydrolytic enzymes secreted by P. destructans, and use a novel and unbiased substrate profiling technique to define active peptidases. These experiments revealed that endopeptidases are the major proteolytic activities secreted by P. destructans, and that collagen, the major structural protein in mammals, is actively degraded by the secretome. A serine endopeptidase, hereby-named Destructin-1, was subsequently identified, and a recombinant form overexpressed and purified. Biochemical analysis of Destructin-1 showed that it mediated collagen degradation, and a potent inhibitor of peptidase activity was identified. Treatment of P. destructans-conditioned media with this antagonist blocked collagen degradation and facilitated the detection of additional secreted proteolytic activities, including aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases. These results provide molecular insights into the secretome of P. destructans, and identify serine endopeptidases that have the clear potential to facilitate tissue invasion and pathogenesis in the mammalian host. PMID:25944934

  12. Submicromolar Phosphinic Inhibitors of E. coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase

    PubMed Central

    Coudray, Laëtitia; Kantrowitz, Evan R.; Montchamp, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    The design, syntheses, and enzymatic activity of two submicromolar competitive inhibitors of aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) are described. The phosphinate inhibitors are analogs of N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA) but have a reduced charge at the phosphorus moiety. The mechanistic implications are discussed in terms of a possible cyclic transition-state during enzymatic catalysis. PMID:19097895

  13. Medial temporal N-acetyl aspartate in pediatric major depression

    PubMed Central

    MacMaster, Frank P.; Moore, Gregory J; Russell, Aileen; Mirza, Yousha; Taormina, S. Preeya; Buhagiar, Christian; Rosenberg, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The medial temporal cortex (MTC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric major depressive disorder (MDD). Eleven MDD-case control pairs underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. N-acetyl-aspartate was lower in left MTC (27%) in MDD patients versus controls. Lower N-acetyl-aspartate concentrations in MDD patients may reflect reduced neuronal viability. PMID:18703320

  14. Medial temporal N-acetyl-aspartate in pediatric major depression.

    PubMed

    MacMaster, Frank P; Moore, Gregory J; Russell, Aileen; Mirza, Yousha; Taormina, S Preeya; Buhagiar, Christian; Rosenberg, David R

    2008-10-30

    The medial temporal cortex (MTC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric major depressive disorder (MDD). Eleven MDD case-control pairs underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. N-acetyl-aspartate was lower in the left MTC (27%) in MDD patients versus controls. Lower N-acetyl-aspartate concentrations in MDD patients may reflect reduced neuronal viability. PMID:18703320

  15. Prolyl Endopeptidase (PREP) is Associated With Male Reproductive Functions and Gamete Physiology in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dotolo, Raffaele; Kim, Jung Dae; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease which has been implicated in many biological processes, such as the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, learning and memory, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. A small number of reports have also suggested PREP participation in both male and female reproduction-associated processes. In the present work, we examined PREP distribution in male germ cells and studied the effects of its knockdown (Prep(gt/gt)) on testis and sperm in adult mice. The protein is expressed and localized in elongating spermatids and luminal spermatozoa of wild type (wt) mice, as well as Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular cells. PREP is also expressed in the head and midpiece of epididymal spermatozoa, whereas the remaining tail region shows a weaker signal. Furthermore, testis weight, histology of seminiferous tubules, and epididymal sperm parameters were assessed in wt and Prep(gt/gt) mice: wild type testes have larger average tubule and lumen diameter; in addition, lumenal composition of seminiferous tubules is dissimilar between wt and Prep(gt/gt), as the percentage of spermiated tubules is much higher in wt. Finally, total sperm count, sperm motility, and normal morphology are also higher in wt than in Prep(gt/gt). These results show for the first time that the expression of PREP could be necessary for a correct reproductive function, and suggest that the enzyme may play a role in mouse spermatogenesis and sperm physiology. PMID:26332268

  16. Efficient backbone cyclization of linear peptides by a recombinant asparaginyl endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Harris, Karen S; Durek, Thomas; Kaas, Quentin; Poth, Aaron G; Gilding, Edward K; Conlan, Brendon F; Saska, Ivana; Daly, Norelle L; van der Weerden, Nicole L; Craik, David J; Anderson, Marilyn A

    2015-01-01

    Cyclotides are diverse plant backbone cyclized peptides that have attracted interest as pharmaceutical scaffolds, but fundamentals of their biosynthetic origin remain elusive. Backbone cyclization is a key enzyme-mediated step of cyclotide biosynthesis and confers a measure of stability on the resultant cyclotide. Furthermore, cyclization would be desirable for engineered peptides. Here we report the identification of four asparaginyl endopeptidases (AEPs), proteases implicated in cyclization, from the cyclotide-producing plant Oldenlandia affinis. We recombinantly express OaAEP1b and find it functions preferably as a cyclase by coupling C-terminal cleavage of propeptide substrates with backbone cyclization. Interestingly, OaAEP1b cannot cleave at the N-terminal site of O. affinis cyclotide precursors, implicating additional proteases in cyclotide biosynthesis. Finally, we demonstrate the broad utility of this enzyme by cyclization of peptides unrelated to cyclotides. We propose that recombinant OaAEP1b is a powerful tool for use in peptide engineering applications where increased stability of peptide products is desired. PMID:26680698

  17. A holin and an endopeptidase are essential for chitinolytic protein secretion in Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jaeger J.; Marlow, Victoria L.; Owen, Richard A.; Costa, Marília de Assis Alcoforado; Guo, Manman; Buchanan, Grant; Chandra, Govind; Trost, Matthias; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Palmer, Tracy; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria adapt to their environment and manipulate the biochemistry of hosts by secretion of effector molecules. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen associated with healthcare-acquired infections and is a prolific secretor of proteins, including three chitinases (ChiA, ChiB, and ChiC) and a chitin binding protein (Cbp21). In this work, genetic, biochemical, and proteomic approaches identified genes that were required for secretion of all three chitinases and Cbp21. A genetic screen identified a holin-like protein (ChiW) and a putative l-alanyl-d-glutamate endopeptidase (ChiX), and subsequent biochemical analyses established that both were required for nonlytic secretion of the entire chitinolytic machinery, with chitinase secretion being blocked at a late stage in the mutants. In addition, live-cell imaging experiments demonstrated bimodal and coordinated expression of chiX and chiA and revealed that cells expressing chiA remained viable. It is proposed that ChiW and ChiX operate in tandem as components of a protein secretion system used by gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25488919

  18. A Comprehensive Review of the Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Clinical Effects of the Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitor Racecadotril

    PubMed Central

    Eberlin, Marion; Mück, Tobias; Michel, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Racecadotril, via its active metabolite thiorphan, is an inhibitor of the enzyme neutral endopeptidase (NEP, EC 3.4.24.11), thereby increasing exposure to NEP substrates including enkephalins and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Upon oral administration racecadotril is rapidly and effectively converted into the active metabolite thiorphan, which does not cross the blood–brain-barrier. Racecadotril has mainly been tested in animal models and patients of three therapeutic areas. As an analgesic the effects of racecadotril across animal models were inconsistent. In cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension or congestive heart failure results from animal studies were promising, probably related to increased exposure to ANP, but clinical results have not shown substantial therapeutic benefit over existing treatment options in cardiovascular disease. In contrast, racecadotril was consistently effective in animal models and patients with various forms of acute diarrhea by inhibiting pathologic (but not basal) secretion from the gut without changing gastro-intestinal transit time or motility. This included studies in both adults and children. In direct comparative studies with loperamide in adults and children, racecadotril was at least as effective but exhibited fewer adverse events in most studies, particularly less rebound constipation. Several guidelines recommend the use of racecadotril as addition to oral rehydration treatment in children with acute diarrhea. PMID:22661949

  19. Isolation of prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory peptides from a sodium caseinate hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tzu-Yuan; Hung, Chuan-Chuan; Hsieh, You-Liang; Hsu, Kuo-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders, and the PEP inhibitors can restore the memory loss caused by amnesic compounds. In this study, we investigated the PEP inhibitory activity of the enzymatic hydrolysates from various food protein sources, and isolated and identified the PEP inhibitory peptides. The hydrolysate obtained from sodium caseinate using bromelain (SC/BML) displayed the highest inhibitory activity of 86.8% at 5 mg mL(-1) in the present study, and its IC50 value against PEP was 0.77 mg mL(-1). The F-5 fraction by RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography) from SC/BML showed the highest PEP inhibition rate of 88.4%, and 9 peptide sequences were identified. The synthetic peptides (1245.63-1787.94 Da) showed dose-dependent inhibition effects on PEP as competitive inhibitors with IC50 values between 29.8 and 650.5 μM. The results suggest that the peptides derived from sodium caseinate have the potential to be PEP inhibitors. PMID:26574880

  20. Generation of food-grade recombinant Lactobacillus casei delivering Myxococcus xanthus prolyl endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Martin, Maria Cruz; Redruello, Begoña; Del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Palanski, Brad A; Khosla, Chaitan; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2014-08-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases (PEP) (EC 3.4.21.26), a family of serine proteases with the ability to hydrolyze the peptide bond on the carboxyl side of an internal proline residue, are able to degrade immunotoxic peptides responsible for celiac disease (CD), such as a 33-residue gluten peptide (33-mer). Oral administration of PEP has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for CD, although delivery of the enzyme to the small intestine requires intrinsic gastric stability or advanced formulation technologies. We have engineered two food-grade Lactobacillus casei strains to deliver PEP in an in vitro model of small intestine environment. One strain secretes PEP into the extracellular medium, whereas the other retains PEP in the intracellular environment. The strain that secretes PEP into the extracellular medium is the most effective to degrade the 33-mer and is resistant to simulated gastrointestinal stress. Our results suggest that in the future, after more studies and clinical trials, an engineered food-grade Lactobacillus strain may be useful as a vector for in situ production of PEP in the upper small intestine of CD patients. PMID:24752841

  1. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition and the natriuretic peptide system: an evolving strategy in cardiovascular therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Mangiafico, Sarah; Costello-Boerrigter, Lisa C.; Andersen, Ingrid A.; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Burnett, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and heart failure (HF) are common diseases that, despite advances in medical therapy, continue to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, innovative therapeutic strategies are needed. Inhibition of the neutral endopeptidase (NEPinh) had been investigated as a potential novel therapeutic approach because of its ability to increase the plasma concentrations of the natriuretic peptides (NPs). Indeed, the NPs have potent natriuretic and vasodilator properties, inhibit the activity of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, lower sympathetic drive, and have antiproliferative and antihypertrophic effects. Such potentially beneficial effects can be theoretically achieved by the use of NEPinh. However, studies have shown that NEPinh alone does not result in clinically meaningful blood pressure-lowering actions. More recently, NEPinh has been used in combination with other cardiovascular agents, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and antagonists of the angiotensin receptor. Another future possible combination would be the use of NEPinh with NPs or their newly developed chimeric peptides. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the use and effects of NEPinh alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents for the treatment of human cardiovascular disease such as HF and hypertension. PMID:22942338

  2. Urinary neutral endopeptidase 24.11 activity: modulation by chronic salt loading.

    PubMed

    Aviv, R; Gurbanov, K; Hoffman, A; Blumberg, S; Winaver, J

    1995-03-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) 24.11 is a zinc-metallopeptidase involved in the metabolism of several biologically active peptides including enkephalin, atrial natriuretic peptide, bradykinin, and endothelin. The enzyme is found in abundant amounts in the brush border of renal proximal epithelial cells. A soluble form of NEP was previously identified in human urine with characteristics similar to the renal enzyme. The present study further characterized the excreted form of NEP activity in urine of normal rats using a sensitive two-stage enzymatic assay. The response of urinary NEP to known inhibitors such as phosphoramidon and thiorphan, and its dependence on pH and salt concentration was studied. In addition, we evaluated the effects of acute and chronic changes in salt balance, induced by i.v. saline infusion and drinking of saline solution, on urinary NEP and on the activity of the enzyme in isolated proximal tubules. Our findings demonstrated that abundant NEP activity was detected in the urine of normal rats. Furthermore, chronic salt loading, but not acute salt infusion, was associated with increased activity of NEP in urine and in isolated proximal tubules, suggesting that the enzyme may be regulated by salt balance. Finally, the data suggest that urinary NEP may be used as an index of enzyme activity in the kidney. PMID:7752584

  3. Breast cancer cell-associated endopeptidase EC 24.11 modulates proliferative response to bombesin.

    PubMed

    Burns, D M; Walker, B; Gray, J; Nelson, J

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the production, growth and inactivation of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-like peptides in human breast cancer cell lines. Radioimmunoassay detected GRP-like immunoreactivity (GRP-LI) in T47D breast cancer cells but not in the conditioned medium, indicating rapid clearance. No GRP-LI was found in the ZR-75-1 or MDA-MB-436 cells or their conditioned medium. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the GRP-LI in the T47D cells revealed a major peak, which co-eluted with GRP(18-27), and a minor more hydrophilic peak. In vitro stimulation of T47D cell growth by bombesin (BN) was enhanced to 138% of control levels (bombesin alone) by the addition of the selective endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.11 inhibitor phosphoramidon (0.1 ng ml(-1)). Fluorogenic analysis using whole cells confirmed low levels of this phosphoramidon-sensitive enzyme on the T47D cells. This enzyme, previously unreported in human breast cancer cells, significantly modulates both T47D growth and its response to BN-induced growth. PMID:9888460

  4. Expression and Secretion of Barley Cysteine Endopeptidase B and Cellobiohydrolase I in Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Nykanen, M.; Saarelainen, R.; Raudaskoski, M.; Nevalainen, K.; Mikkonen, A.

    1997-01-01

    Localization of expression and secretion of a heterologous barley cysteine endopeptidase (EPB) and the homologous main cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) in a Trichoderma reesei transformant expressing both proteins were studied. The transformant was grown on solid medium with Avicel cellulose and lactose to induce the cbh1 promoter for the synthesis of the native CBHI and the recombinant barley protein linked to a cbh1 expression cassette. Differences in localization of expression between the two proteins were clearly indicated by in situ hybridization, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. In young hyphae, native-size recombinant epb mRNA was localized to apical compartments. In older cultures, it was also seen in subapical compartments but not in hyphae from the colony center. The recombinant EPB had a higher molecular weight than the native barley protein, probably due to glycosylation and differential processing in the fungal host. As was found with its transcripts, recombinant EPB was localized in apical and subapical compartments of hyphae. The cbh1 mRNA and CBHI were both localized to all hyphae of a colony, which suggests that the endogenous CBHI was also secreted from these. In immunoelectron microscopy, the endoplasmic reticulum and spherical vesicles assumed to contribute to secretion were labeled by both CBHI and EPB antibodies while only CBHI was localized in elongated vesicles close to the plasma membrane and in hyphal walls. The results indicate that in addition to young apical cells, more mature hyphae in a colony may secrete proteins. PMID:16535755

  5. Efficient backbone cyclization of linear peptides by a recombinant asparaginyl endopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Karen S.; Durek, Thomas; Kaas, Quentin; Poth, Aaron G.; Gilding, Edward K.; Conlan, Brendon F.; Saska, Ivana; Daly, Norelle L.; van der Weerden, Nicole L.; Craik, David J.; Anderson, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclotides are diverse plant backbone cyclized peptides that have attracted interest as pharmaceutical scaffolds, but fundamentals of their biosynthetic origin remain elusive. Backbone cyclization is a key enzyme-mediated step of cyclotide biosynthesis and confers a measure of stability on the resultant cyclotide. Furthermore, cyclization would be desirable for engineered peptides. Here we report the identification of four asparaginyl endopeptidases (AEPs), proteases implicated in cyclization, from the cyclotide-producing plant Oldenlandia affinis. We recombinantly express OaAEP1b and find it functions preferably as a cyclase by coupling C-terminal cleavage of propeptide substrates with backbone cyclization. Interestingly, OaAEP1b cannot cleave at the N-terminal site of O. affinis cyclotide precursors, implicating additional proteases in cyclotide biosynthesis. Finally, we demonstrate the broad utility of this enzyme by cyclization of peptides unrelated to cyclotides. We propose that recombinant OaAEP1b is a powerful tool for use in peptide engineering applications where increased stability of peptide products is desired. PMID:26680698

  6. Cyclic peptides arising by evolutionary parallelism via asparaginyl-endopeptidase-mediated biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mylne, Joshua S; Chan, Lai Yue; Chanson, Aurelie H; Daly, Norelle L; Schaefer, Hanno; Bailey, Timothy L; Nguyencong, Philip; Cascales, Laura; Craik, David J

    2012-07-01

    The cyclic miniprotein Momordica cochinchinensis Trypsin Inhibitor II (MCoTI-II) (34 amino acids) is a potent trypsin inhibitor (TI) and a favored scaffold for drug design. We have cloned the corresponding genes and determined that each precursor protein contains a tandem series of cyclic TIs terminating with the more commonly known, and potentially ancestral, acyclic TI. Expression of the precursor protein in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that production of the cyclic TIs, but not the terminal acyclic TI, depends on asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) for maturation. The nature of their repetitive sequences and the almost identical structures of emerging TIs suggest these cyclic peptides evolved by internal gene amplification associated with recruitment of AEP for processing between domain repeats. This is the third example of similar AEP-mediated processing of a class of cyclic peptides from unrelated precursor proteins in phylogenetically distant plant families. This suggests that production of cyclic peptides in angiosperms has evolved in parallel using AEP as a constraining evolutionary channel. We believe this is evolutionary evidence that, in addition to its known roles in proteolysis, AEP is especially suited to performing protein cyclization. PMID:22822203

  7. Asparagine Endopeptidase Controls Anti-Influenza Virus Immune Responses through TLR7 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Maschalidi, Sophia; Hässler, Signe; Blanc, Fany; Sepulveda, Fernando E.; Tohme, Mira; Chignard, Michel; van Endert, Peter; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Descamps, Delphyne; Manoury, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by dendritic cells recognize nucleic acids derived from pathogens and play an important role in the immune responses against the influenza virus (IAV), a single-stranded RNA sensed by different receptors including TLR7. However, the importance of TLR7 processing in the development of anti-viral immune responses is not known. Here we report that asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) deficient mice are unable to generate a strong anti-IAV response, as demonstrated by reduced inflammation, cross presentation of cell-associated antigens and priming of CD8+ T cells following TLR7-dependent pulmonary infection induced by IAV. Moreover, AEP deficient lung epithelial- or myeloid-cells exhibit impaired TLR7 signaling due to defective processing of this receptor. Indeed, TLR7 requires a proteolytic cleavage by AEP to generate a C-terminal fragment competent for signaling. Thus, AEP activity is critical for TLR7 processing, opening new possibilities for the treatment of influenza and TLR7-dependent inflammatory diseases. PMID:22916010

  8. Asparagine endopeptidase controls anti-influenza virus immune responses through TLR7 activation.

    PubMed

    Maschalidi, Sophia; Hässler, Signe; Blanc, Fany; Sepulveda, Fernando E; Tohme, Mira; Chignard, Michel; van Endert, Peter; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Descamps, Delphyne; Manoury, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by dendritic cells recognize nucleic acids derived from pathogens and play an important role in the immune responses against the influenza virus (IAV), a single-stranded RNA sensed by different receptors including TLR7. However, the importance of TLR7 processing in the development of anti-viral immune responses is not known. Here we report that asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) deficient mice are unable to generate a strong anti-IAV response, as demonstrated by reduced inflammation, cross presentation of cell-associated antigens and priming of CD8(+) T cells following TLR7-dependent pulmonary infection induced by IAV. Moreover, AEP deficient lung epithelial- or myeloid-cells exhibit impaired TLR7 signaling due to defective processing of this receptor. Indeed, TLR7 requires a proteolytic cleavage by AEP to generate a C-terminal fragment competent for signaling. Thus, AEP activity is critical for TLR7 processing, opening new possibilities for the treatment of influenza and TLR7-dependent inflammatory diseases. PMID:22916010

  9. Hydrolysis of thymic humoral factor gamma 2 by neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11).

    PubMed Central

    Indig, F E; Pecht, M; Trainin, N; Burstein, Y; Blumberg, S

    1991-01-01

    A search for the natural substrates for neutral endopeptidase (NEP; EC 3.4.24.11) in the immune system led to investigation of the enzyme's action on thymic humoral factor gamma 2 (THF). The ectoenzyme rapidly and efficiently hydrolyses the Lys6-Phe7 bond of the octapeptide. The site of cleavage was confirmed by h.p.l.c. analysis, amino acid analysis and sequence determination of the products. Phosphoramidon (3.6 microM), a potent inhibitor of the enzyme, prevents this cleavage even during prolonged incubation. The high efficiency of hydrolysis of THF by NEP is similar to that reported for [Leu5]enkephalin, and the dipeptide Phe-Leu is the C-terminal product in the hydrolysis of both peptides. The presence of NEP, reportedly identified as the common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen (CALLA), in bone-marrow cells and other cells of the immune system raises the possibility that it may play a role in modulating the activity of peptides such as THF. PMID:1898375

  10. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Engagement Mediates Prolyl Endopeptidase Release from Airway Epithelia via Exosomes.

    PubMed

    Szul, Tomasz; Bratcher, Preston E; Fraser, Kyle B; Kong, Michele; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Ingersoll, Sarah; Sztul, Elizabeth; Rangarajan, Sunil; Blalock, J Edwin; Xu, Xin; Gaggar, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Proteases are important regulators of pulmonary remodeling and airway inflammation. Recently, we have characterized the enzyme prolyl endopeptidase (PE), a serine peptidase, as a critical protease in the generation of the neutrophil chemoattractant tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) from collagen. However, PE has been characterized as a cytosolic enzyme, and the mechanism mediating PE release extracellularly remains unknown. We examined the role of exosomes derived from airway epithelia as a mechanism for PE release and the potential extracellular signals that regulate the release of these exosomes. We demonstrate a specific regulatory pathway of exosome release from airway epithelia and identify PE as novel exosome cargo. LPS stimulation of airway epithelial cells induces release of PE-containing exosomes, which is significantly attenuated by small interfering RNA depletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These differences were recapitulated upon intratracheal LPS administration in mice competent versus deficient for TLR4 signaling. Finally, sputum samples from subjects with cystic fibrosis colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrate elevated exosome content and increased PE levels. This TLR4-based mechanism highlights the first report of nonstochastic release of exosomes in the lung and couples TLR4 activation with matrikine generation. The increased quantity of these proteolytic exosomes in the airways of subjects with chronic lung disease highlights a new mechanism of injury and inflammation in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders. PMID:26222144

  11. Characterization of a novel acylaminoacyl peptidase with hexameric structure and endopeptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Szeltner, Zoltán; Kiss, András L; Domokos, Klarissza; Harmat, Veronika; Náray-Szabó, Gábor; Polgár, László

    2009-08-01

    We have overexpressed in E. coli, purified and investigated the kinetic, thermodynamic and biophysical properties of an acylaminoacyl peptidase (AAP), from the thermophile Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhAAP). It was shown that the electrostatic environment of the catalytic site of PhAAP substantially influenced the pH dependence of the specificity rate constant (k(cat)/K(m)). However, 0.3 M NaCl, which depressed the electrostatic effects, simplified the complex pH-rate profile. The rate of formation of the enzyme-substrate complex (k(1)) was obtained from a non-linear Arrhenius plot. The lack of substrate leaving group effects indicated that k(1) is the rate determining step in the catalysis. DSC and CD measurements demonstrated that PhAAP displayed a stable structure in the catalytically competent pH range. It was shown that PhAAP is not just an acylaminoacyl peptidase, but it also has an endopeptidase activity and so differs from the mammalian AAPs. Size exclusion chromatography with PhAAP revealed a hexameric structure, which is unique among the known members of the prolyl oligopeptidase family that includes AAPs and suggests that its cellular function may be different from that of the dimeric AAP also found in the same organism. PMID:19303951

  12. Generation of food-grade recombinant Lactobacillus casei delivering Myxococcus xanthus prolyl endopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Martin, Maria Cruz; Redruello, Begoña; del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Palanski, Brad A.; Khosla, Chaitan; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases (PEP), a family of serine proteases with the ability to hydrolyze the peptide bond on the carboxyl side of an internal proline residue, are able to degrade immunotoxic peptides responsible for celiac disease (CD), such as a 33-residue gluten peptide (33-mer). Oral administration of PEP has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for CD, although delivery of the enzyme to the small intestine requires intrinsic gastric stability or advanced formulation technologies. We have engineered two food-grade Lactobacillus casei strains to deliver PEP in an in vitro model of small intestine environment. One strain secretes PEP into the extracellular medium, whereas the other retains PEP in the intracellular environment. The strain that secretes PEP into the extracellular medium is the most effective to degrade the 33-mer and is resistant to simulated gastrointestinal stress. Our results suggest that in a future, after more studies and clinical trials, an engineered food-grade Lactobacillus strain may be useful as a vector for in situ production of PEP in the upper small intestine of CD patients. PMID:24752841

  13. Secreted Aspartic Proteinase Family of Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Zaugg, Christophe; Borg-von Zepelin, Margarete; Reichard, Utz; Sanglard, Dominique; Monod, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Medically important yeasts of the genus Candida secrete aspartic proteinases (Saps), which are of particular interest as virulence factors. Like Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis secretes in vitro one dominant Sap (Sapt1p) in a medium containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the sole source of nitrogen. Using the gene SAPT1 as a probe and under low-stringency hybridization conditions, three new closely related gene sequences, SAPT2 to SAPT4, encoding secreted proteinases were cloned from a C. tropicalis λEMBL3 genomic library. All bands identified by Southern blotting of EcoRI-digested C. tropicalis genomic DNA with SAPT1 could be assigned to a specific SAP gene. Therefore, the SAPT gene family of C. tropicalis is likely to contain only four members. Interestingly, the SAPT2 and SAPT3 gene products, Sapt2p and Sapt3p, which have not yet been detected in C. tropicalis cultures in vitro, were produced as active recombinant enzymes with the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression system. As expected, reverse transcriptase PCR experiments revealed a strong SAPT1 signal with RNA extracted from cells grown in BSA medium. However, a weak signal was obtained with all other SAPT genes under several conditions tested, showing that these SAPT genes could be expressed at a basic level. Together, these experiments suggest that the gene products Sapt2p, Sapt3p, and Sapt4p could be produced under conditions yet to be described in vitro or during infection. PMID:11119531

  14. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. PMID:25687923

  15. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, Mark W.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1990-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N2-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N2-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667896

  16. Sialorphin, a natural inhibitor of rat membrane-bound neutral endopeptidase that displays analgesic activity

    PubMed Central

    Rougeot, Catherine; Messaoudi, Michaël; Hermitte, Véronique; Rigault, Anne Gaëlle; Blisnick, Thierry; Dugave, Christophe; Desor, Didier; Rougeon, François

    2003-01-01

    Sialorphin is an exocrine and endocrine signaling mediator, which has been identified by a genomic approach. It is synthesized predominantly in the submandibular gland and prostate of adult rats in response to androgen steroids and is released locally and systemically in response to stress. We now demonstrate that the cell surface molecule to which sialorphin binds in vivo in the rat kidney is the membrane-anchored neutral endopeptidase (neprilysin; NEP, EC 3.4.24.11). NEP plays an important role in nervous and peripheral tissues, as it turns off several peptide-signaling events at the cell surface. We show that sialorphin prevents spinal and renal NEP from breaking down its two physiologically relevant substrates, substance P and Met-enkephalin in vitro. Sialorphin inhibited the breakdown of substance P with an IC50 of 0.4–1 μM and behaved as a competitive inhibitor. In vivo, i.v. sialorphin elicited potent antinociceptive responses in two behavioral rat models of injury-induced acute and tonic pain, the pin-pain test and formalin test. The analgesia induced by 100–200 μg/kg doses of sialorphin required the activation of μ- and δ-opioid receptors, consistent with the involvement of endogenous opioid receptors in enkephalinergic transmission. We conclude that sialorphin protects endogenous enkephalins released after nociceptive stimuli by inhibiting NEP in vivo. Sialorphin is a natural systemically active regulator of NEP activity. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that it is a physiological modulator of pain perception after injury and might be the progenitor of a new class of therapeutic molecules. PMID:12835417

  17. A Neuroprotective Brain-penetrating Endopeptidase Fusion Protein Ameliorates Alzheimer Disease Pathology and Restores Neurogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Brian; Verma, Inder; Desplats, Paula; Morvinski, Dinorah; Rockenstein, Ed; Adame, Anthony; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by widespread neurodegeneration throughout the association cortex and limbic system, deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the neuropil and around the blood vessels, and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. The endopeptidase neprilysin has been successfully used to reduce the accumulation of Aβ following intracranial viral vector delivery or ex vivo manipulated intracranial delivery. These therapies have relied on direct injections into the brain, whereas a clinically desirable therapy would involve i.v. infusion of a recombinant enzyme. We previously characterized a recombinant neprilysin that contained a 38-amino acid brain-targeting domain. Recombinant cell lines have been generated expressing this brain-targeted enzyme (ASN12). In this report, we characterize the ASN12 recombinant protein for pharmacology in a mouse as well as efficacy in two APPtg mouse models of AD. The recombinant ASN12 transited to the brain with a t½ of 24 h and accumulated to 1.7% of injected dose at 24 h following i.v. delivery. We examined pharmacodynamics in the tg2576 APPtg mouse with the prion promoter APP695 SWE mutation and in the Line41 mThy1 APP751 mutation mouse. Treatment of either APPtg mouse resulted in reduced Aβ, increased neuronal synapses, and improved learning and memory. In addition, the Line41 APPtg mice showed increased levels of C-terminal neuropeptide Y fragments and increased neurogenesis. These results suggest that the recombinant brain-targeted neprilysin, ASN12, may be an effective treatment for AD and warrant further investigation in clinical trials. PMID:24825898

  18. A study of prolyl endopeptidase in bovine serum and its relevance to the tissue enzyme.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, D F; O'Connor, B

    1998-01-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PE) belongs to a group of enzymes that specifically recognise the imino acid proline. The characterisation of bovine serum PE was undertaken so that its relationship to its tissue counterparts could be considered. Using various chromatographic methods, PE was partially purified from bovine serum. This preparation was deemed to be enzymatically pure, based on its failure to hydrolyse a wide range of fluorimetric substrates. A native molecular mass of 69.7 kDa was estimated for the enzyme. PE was optimally active at pH 8.0-8.5, demonstrated a preference for phosphate buffer and remained stable over a pH range of 5.0-9.0. A narrowly focused optimal assay temperature of 37 degrees C was evident. Functional reagent studies indicated that this enzyme was a serine protease with a cysteine residue located near or at the active site. The enzyme was also sensitive to heavy metal inhibition. Substrate specificity investigations revealed that the bioactive peptides angiotensin II, bradykinin, luliberin and substance P were hydrolysed by the enzyme preparation, but lower specificities were evident towards these peptides in comparison with the enzyme's tissue counterparts. Specific inhibitor studies, using a range of compounds previously untested against a single PE source, indicated that alpha-ketobenzothiazole was the most effective PE inhibitor, with an IC50 value of 41 pM. In conclusion, the results presented in this paper indicate that bovine serum PE shares many of the characteristics associated with its tissue counterparts, with the exception of its specificity towards certain bioactive peptides. PMID:9597757

  19. Fatty acids and glucose increase neutral endopeptidase activity in human microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Muangman, Pornprom; Spenny, Michelle L; Tamura, Richard N; Gibran, Nicole S

    2003-06-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP), a membrane-bound metallopeptidase enzyme that degrades neuropeptides, bradykinin, atrial natriuretic factor, enkephalins, and endothelin may regulate response to injury. We have previously demonstrated increased NEP localization and enzyme activity in diabetic wounds and skin compared with normal controls. We hypothesized that hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus may induce excessive NEP activity and thereby diminish normal response to injury. Human microvascular endothelial cells were treated with five different fatty acids (40 microM) with varying degrees of saturation, including oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and linolenic acid and/or glucose (40 mM) for 48 h. The effect of the antioxidative agents vitamin E and C on NEP enzyme activation was determined by treating the cultured cells with alpha-tocopherol succinate and/or L-ascorbic acid. Cell membrane preparations were assayed for NEP activity by incubation with glutaryl-Ala-Ala-Phe-4-methoxy-beta naphthylamide to generate a fluorescent degradation product methoxy 2 naphthylamine. High glucose or fatty acid concentration upregulated NEP activity. The highest NEP activity was observed with combined elevated glucose, linoleic acid, and oleic acid (P < 0.05). Antioxidant vitamin E and C treatment significantly reduced NEP enzyme activity after fatty acid exposure (P < 0.05). Thus, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus may increase endothelial cell NEP activity and thereby decrease early pro-inflammatory responses. The modulator effect of vitamin E and C on NEP membrane enzyme activity after exposure to fatty acid stimulation suggests that lipid oxidation may activate NEP. PMID:12785004

  20. Structural and mechanistic analysis of two prolyl endopeptidases: role of interdomain dynamics in catalysis and specificity.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lu; Mathews, Irimpan I; Khosla, Chaitan

    2005-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) are a unique class of serine proteases with considerable therapeutic potential for the treatment of celiac sprue. The crystal structures of two didomain PEPs have been solved in alternative configurations, thereby providing insights into the mode of action of these enzymes. The structure of the Sphingomonas capsulata PEP, solved and refined to 1.8-A resolution, revealed an open configuration of the active site. In contrast, the inhibitor-bound PEP from Myxococcus xanthus was crystallized (1.5-A resolution) in a closed form. Comparative analysis of the two structures highlights a critical role for the domain interface in regulating interdomain dynamics and substrate specificity. Structure-based mutagenesis of the M. xanthus PEP confirms an important role for several interfacial residues. A salt bridge between Arg-572 and Asp-196/Glu-197 appears to act as a latch for opening or closing the didomain enzyme, and Arg-572 and Ile-575 may also help secure the incoming peptide substrate to the open form of the enzyme. Arg-618 and Asp-145 are responsible for anchoring the invariant proline residue in the active site of this postproline-cleaving enzyme. A model is proposed for the docking of a representative substrate PQPQLPYPQPQLP in the active site, where the N-terminal substrate residues interact extensively with the catalytic domain, and the C-terminal residues stretch into the propeller domain. Given the promise of the M. xanthus PEP as an oral therapeutic enzyme for treating celiac sprue, our results provide a strong foundation for further optimization of the PEP's clinically useful features. PMID:15738423

  1. Structural studies on the zinc-endopeptidase light chain of tetanus neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, V; Vangelista, L; Schiavo, G; Tonello, F; Montecucco, C

    1995-04-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) blocks neuroexocytosis via a zinc-endopeptidase activity highly specific for vescicle-associated membrane protein(VAMP)/synaptobrevin. TeNT is the prototype of clostridial neurotoxins, a new family of metalloproteinases. They consist of three domains and the proteolytic activity is displayed by the 50-kDa light chain (L chain). The L chain was isolated here in the native state from bacterial filtrates of Clostridium tetani and its structure was studied via circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The secondary structure content (27% alpha-helix and 43% beta-sheet), estimated by far-ultraviolet CD measurements, was in reasonable agreement with that obtained by standard predictive methods (25% alpha-helix and 49% beta-sheet). Moreover, the hypothetical zinc-binding motif, encompassing residues His-Glu-Leu-Ile-His, was correctly predicted to be in alpha-helical conformation, as also expected on the basis of the geometrical requirements for a correct coordination of the zinc ion. Both near-ultraviolet CD and fluorescence data strongly suggest that the single Trp43 residue is buried and constrained in a hydrophobic environment, likely distant from the zinc ion located in the active-site cleft. The contribution of the bound zinc ion to the overall conformation of TeNT L chain was investigated by different and complementary techniques, including spectroscopic (far- and near-ultraviolet CD, fluorescence, second derivative absorption spectroscopy) as well as proteolytic probes. The results indicate that the zinc ion plays little, if any, role in determining the structural properties of the L chain molecule. Similarly, the metal-free apo-enzyme and the holo-protein share common stability features evaluated in respect to different physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature and urea concentration). These results parallel those obtained on thermolysin, a zinc-dependent neutral endoprotease from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus, where both

  2. An alkaline D-stereospecific endopeptidase with beta-lactamase activity from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Asano, Y; Ito, H; Dairi, T; Kato, Y

    1996-11-22

    We purified a novel extracellular D-stereospecific endopeptidase, alkaline D-peptidase (D-stereospecific peptide hydrolase, EC 3.4.11.-), to homogeneity from the culture broth of the soil bacterium Bacillus cereus strain DF4-B. The Mr of the enzyme was 37,952, and it was composed of a single polypeptide chain. The optimal pH for activity was approximately 10.3. The enzyme was strictly D-stereospecific toward oligopeptides composed of Dphenylalanine such as (D-Phe)3 and (D-Phe)4. The enzyme also acted to a lesser extent on (D-Phe)6, Boc-(D-Phe)4 (where Boc is tert-butoxycarbonyl), Boc-(D-Phe)4 methyl ester, Boc-(D-Phe)3 methyl ester, Boc-(D-Phe)2, (D-Phe)2, and others, but not upon their corresponding peptides composed of L-Phe, (D-Ala)n (n = 2-5), (D-Val)3, and (D-Leu)2. The mode of action of the enzyme was clarified with synthetic substrates ((D-Phe)2-D-Tyr and D-Tyr-(D-Phe)2) and eight stereoisomers of (Phe)3. The enzyme had beta-lactamase activity toward ampicillin and penicillin G, although carboxypeptidase DD and D-aminopeptidase activities were undetectable. The gene coding for alkaline D-peptidase (adp) was cloned into plasmid pUC118, and a 1164-base pair open reading frame consisting of 388 codons was identified as the adp gene. The predicted polypeptide was similar to carboxypeptidase DD from Streptomyces R61, penicillin-binding proteins from Streptomyces lactamdurans and Bacillus subtilis, and class C beta-lactamases. Thus, the enzyme was categorized as a new "penicillin-recognizing enzyme." PMID:8939979

  3. Pharmacologic Comparison of Clinical Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitors in a Rat Model of Acute Secretory Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Prinsen, Michael J.; Oliva, Jonathan; Campbell, Mary A.; Arnett, Stacy D.; Tajfirouz, Deena; Ruminski, Peter G.; Yu, Ying; Bond, Brian R.; Ji, Yuhua; Neckermann, Georg; Choy, Robert K. M.; de Hostos, Eugenio; Meyers, Marvin J.

    2016-01-01

    Racecadotril (acetorphan) is a neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor with known antidiarrheal activity in animals and humans; however, in humans, it suffers from shortcomings that might be improved with newer drugs in this class that have progressed to the clinic for nonenteric disease indications. To identify potentially superior NEP inhibitors with immediate clinical utility for diarrhea treatment, we compared their efficacy and pharmacologic properties in a rat intestinal hypersecretion model. Racecadotril and seven other clinical-stage inhibitors of NEP were obtained or synthesized. Enzyme potency and specificity were compared using purified peptidases. Compounds were orally administered to rats before administration of castor oil to induce diarrhea. Stool weight was recorded over 4 hours. To assess other pharmacologic properties, select compounds were orally administered to normal or castor oil–treated rats, blood and tissue samples collected at multiple time points, and active compound concentrations determined by mass spectroscopy. NEP enzyme activity was measured in tissue homogenates. Three previously untested clinical NEP inhibitors delayed diarrhea onset and reduced total stool output, with little or no effect on intestinal motility assessed by the charcoal meal test. Each was shown to be a potent, highly specific inhibitor of NEP. Each exhibited greater suppression of NEP activity in intestinal and nonintestinal tissues than did racecadotril and sustained this inhibition longer. These results suggest that newer clinical-stage NEP inhibitors originally developed for other indications may be directly repositioned for treatment of acute secretory diarrhea and offer advantages over racecadotril, such as less frequent dosing and potentially improved efficacy. PMID:26907621

  4. Purification and molecular characterization of glycylglycine endopeptidase produced by Staphylococcus capitis EPK1.

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, M; Fujiwara, T; Akiyama, T; Ohara, M; Komatsuzawa, H; Inoue, S; Suginaka, H

    1997-01-01

    A novel staphylolytic enzyme, ALE-1, acting on Staphylococcus aureus, was purified from a Staphylococcus capitis EPK1 culture supernatant. The optimal pH range for staphylolytic activity was 7 to 9. ALE-1 contains one Zn2+ atom per molecule. Analysis of peptidoglycan fragments released by ALE-1 indicated that the enzyme is a glycylglycine endopeptidase. The effects of various modulators were determined, and we found that o-phenanthroline, iodoacetic acid, diethylpyrocarbonate, and Cu2+ reduced the staphylolytic activity of ALE-1. beta-Casein, elastin, and pentaglycine were poor substrates for ALE-1. Molecular cloning data revealed that ALE-1 is composed of 362 amino acid residues and is synthesized as a precursor protein which is cleaved after Ala at position 35, thus producing a mature ALE-1 of 35.6 kDa. The primary structure of mature ALE-1 is very similar to the proenzyme form of lysostaphin. It has the modular design of an N-terminal domain of tandem repeats of a 13-amino-acid sequence fused to the active site containing C-terminal domain. Unlike lysostaphin, ALE-1 does not undergo processing of the N-terminal repeat domain in broth culture. ale-1 is encoded on the plasmid. Protein homology search suggested that ALE-1 and lysostaphin are members of the novel Zn2+ protease family with a homologous 38-amino-acid-long motif, Tyr-X-His-X(11)-Val-X(12/20)-Gly-X(5-6)-His. PMID:9023202

  5. Interaction of Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) with Streptomyces griseus metallo-endopeptidase II (SGMP II).

    PubMed

    Kumazaki, T; Kajiwara, K; Kojima, S; Miura, K; Ishii, S

    1993-10-01

    We have unexpectedly found that Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) and some other similar serine protease inhibitors produced by Streptomycetes strongly inhibit Streptomyces griseus metallo-endopeptidase II (SGMP II) [Kajiwara, K. et al. (1991) J. Biochem. 110, 350-354]. In order to elucidate the mode of their unusual interaction with SGMP II in more detail, we prepared twelve kinds of SSI analogues, in which one or two amino acid residues in the peptide segment from Thr64 to Val74 of wild-type SSI had been replaced or deleted by site-directed mutagenesis, and determined the dissociation constants of their complexes with SGMP II. Six analogues among them showed dissociation constants one order of magnitude lower than that of the wild type. Three had higher values. The results suggest that at least some residues in this segment are interacting with SGMP II in the complex. We also prepared an SSI mutant in which the disulfide bridge between Cys71 and Cys101 had been eliminated by replacing the two Cys residues with Ser residues. This mutated SSI inhibited SGMP II as strongly as the wild-type SSI did. While peptide bonds in the wild-type molecule did not suffer from the hydrolytic action of SGMP II except those at the amino-terminal fragile portion, the Pro72-Met73 bond of the mutant was specifically cleaved by the enzyme. This peptide bond, therefore, seems to play the role of the reactive site in the interaction of SSI with SGMP II. PMID:8276770

  6. The acylaminoacyl peptidase from Aeropyrum pernix K1 thought to be an exopeptidase displays endopeptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Kiss, András L; Hornung, Balázs; Rádi, Krisztina; Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Sztáray, Bálint; Juhász, Tünde; Szeltner, Zoltán; Harmat, Veronika; Polgár, László

    2007-04-27

    Mammalian acylaminoacyl peptidase, a member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family of serine peptidases, is an exopeptidase, which removes acylated amino acid residues from the N terminus of oligopeptides. We have investigated the kinetics and inhibitor binding of the orthologous acylaminoacyl peptidase from the thermophile Aeropyrum pernix K1 (ApAAP). Complex pH-rate profiles were found with charged substrates, indicating a strong electrostatic effect in the surroundings of the active site. Unexpectedly, we have found that oligopeptides can be hydrolysed beyond the N-terminal peptide bond, demonstrating that ApAAP exhibits endopeptidase activity. It was thought that the enzyme is specific for hydrophobic amino acids, in particular phenylalanine, in accord with the non-polar S1 subsite of ApAAP. However, cleavage after an Ala residue contradicted this notion and demonstrated that P1 residues of different nature may bind to the S1 subsite depending on the remaining peptide residues. The crystal structures of the complexes formed between the enzyme and product-like inhibitors identified the oxyanion-binding site unambiguously and demonstrated that the phenylalanine ring of the P1 peptide residue assumes a position different from that established in a previous study, using 4-nitrophenylphosphate. We have found that the substrate-binding site extends beyond the S2 subsite, being capable of binding peptides with a longer N terminus. The S2 subsite displays a non-polar character, which is unique among the enzymes of this family. The S3 site was identified as a hydrophobic region that does not form hydrogen bonds with the inhibitor P3 residue. The enzyme-inhibitor complexes revealed that, upon ligand-binding, the S1 subsite undergoes significant conformational changes, demonstrating the plasticity of the specificity site. PMID:17350041

  7. Pharmacologic Comparison of Clinical Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitors in a Rat Model of Acute Secretory Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Griggs, David W; Prinsen, Michael J; Oliva, Jonathan; Campbell, Mary A; Arnett, Stacy D; Tajfirouz, Deena; Ruminski, Peter G; Yu, Ying; Bond, Brian R; Ji, Yuhua; Neckermann, Georg; Choy, Robert K M; de Hostos, Eugenio; Meyers, Marvin J

    2016-05-01

    Racecadotril (acetorphan) is a neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor with known antidiarrheal activity in animals and humans; however, in humans, it suffers from shortcomings that might be improved with newer drugs in this class that have progressed to the clinic for nonenteric disease indications. To identify potentially superior NEP inhibitors with immediate clinical utility for diarrhea treatment, we compared their efficacy and pharmacologic properties in a rat intestinal hypersecretion model. Racecadotril and seven other clinical-stage inhibitors of NEP were obtained or synthesized. Enzyme potency and specificity were compared using purified peptidases. Compounds were orally administered to rats before administration of castor oil to induce diarrhea. Stool weight was recorded over 4 hours. To assess other pharmacologic properties, select compounds were orally administered to normal or castor oil-treated rats, blood and tissue samples collected at multiple time points, and active compound concentrations determined by mass spectroscopy. NEP enzyme activity was measured in tissue homogenates. Three previously untested clinical NEP inhibitors delayed diarrhea onset and reduced total stool output, with little or no effect on intestinal motility assessed by the charcoal meal test. Each was shown to be a potent, highly specific inhibitor of NEP. Each exhibited greater suppression of NEP activity in intestinal and nonintestinal tissues than did racecadotril and sustained this inhibition longer. These results suggest that newer clinical-stage NEP inhibitors originally developed for other indications may be directly repositioned for treatment of acute secretory diarrhea and offer advantages over racecadotril, such as less frequent dosing and potentially improved efficacy. PMID:26907621

  8. Crystallographic studies of aspartate racemase from Lactobacillus sakei NBRC 15893.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomomi; Yamauchi, Takae; Ishiyama, Makoto; Gogami, Yoshitaka; Oikawa, Tadao; Hata, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    Aspartate racemase catalyzes the interconversion between L-aspartate and D-aspartate and belongs to the PLP-independent racemases. The enzyme from the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus sakei NBRC 15893, isolated from kimoto, is considered to be involved in D-aspartate synthesis during the brewing process of Japanese sake at low temperatures. The enzyme was crystallized at 293 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using 25%(v/v) PEG MME 550, 5%(v/v) 2-propanol. The crystal belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 104.68, c = 97.29 Å, and diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution. Structure determination is under way. PMID:26249691

  9. Non-enzymic beta-decarboxylation of aspartic acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doctor, V. M.; Oro, J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the mechanism of nonenzymic beta-decarboxylation of aspartic acid in the presence of metal ions and pyridoxal. The results suggest that aspartic acid is first converted to oxalacetic acid by transamination with pyridoxal which in turn is converted to pyridoxamine. This is followed by decarboxylation of oxalacetic acid to form pyruvic acid which transaminates with pyridoxamine to form alanine. The possible significance of these results to prebiotic molecular evolution is briefly discussed.

  10. Identification, cDNA cloning and possible roles of seed-specific rice asparaginyl endopeptidase, REP-2.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hideki; Sutoh, Keita; Minamikawa, Takao

    2003-08-01

    We previously showed that two major cysteine endopeptidases, REP-1 and REP-2, were present in germinated rice ( Oryza sativa L.) seeds, and that REP-1 was the enzyme that digests seed storage proteins. The present study shows that REP-2 is an asparaginyl endopeptidase that acts as an activator of REP-1, and we separated it into two forms, REP-2alpha (39 kDa) and REP-2beta (40 kDa), using ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Although analysis of the amino terminals revealed that 10 amino acids of both forms were identical, their isoelectric points were different. SDS-PAGE/immunoblot analysis using an antiserum raised against legumain, an asparaginyl endopeptidase from jack bean, indicated that both forms were present in maturing and germinating rice seeds, and that their amounts transiently decreased in dry seeds. Northern blot analysis indicated that REP-2 mRNA was expressed in both maturing and germinating seeds. In germinating seeds, the mRNA was detected in aleurone layers but not in shoot and root tissues. Incubation of the de-embryonated seeds in 10(-6) M gibberellic acid induced the production of large amounts of REP-1, whereas REP-2beta levels declined rapidly. Southern blot analysis showed that there is one gene for REP-2 in the genome, indicating that both REP-2 enzymes are generated from a single gene. The structure of the gene was similar to that of beta-VPE and gamma-VPE isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:12684786

  11. Proteins of the kidney microvillar membrane. Reconstitution of endopeptidase in liposomes shows that it is a short-stalked protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A J; Fulcher, I S; McGill, K A; Kershaw, D

    1983-01-01

    Pig kidney microvillar proteins were extracted with octyl beta-glucoside and reconstituted in liposomes prepared from microvillar lipids of known composition. Four peptidases, namely endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11), aminopeptidases N (EC 3.4.11.2) and A (EC 3.4.11.7) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 3.4.14.5), were shown to be reconstituted. At lipid/protein ratios greater than 4:1, about half the detergent-solubilized protein and nearly all of the activity of the four peptidases were reconstituted. Dissolution of the liposomes with Triton X-100 did not increase the activity of any of these peptidases, a result consistent with an asymmetric, 'right-side-out', orientation of these enzymes. When purified, endopeptidase was subjected to the same procedure; the two amphipathic forms of the enzyme (the detergent form and the trypsin-treated detergent form) were fully reconstituted. The amphiphilic form, purified after toluene/trypsin treatment, failed to reconstitute. Electron microscopy of microvilli showed that the appearance of the surface particles was profoundly altered by treatment with papain. Before treatment, the microvilli were coated with particles of stalk lengths ranging from 2.5 to 9 nm. After papain treatment nearly all the particles had stalks of 2-3 nm. Reconstituted microvillar proteins in liposomes showed the same heterogeneity of stalk length. In contrast, liposomes containing reconstituted endopeptidase revealed a very homogeneous population of particles of stalk length 2 nm. Since the smallest dimension of a papain molecule is 3.7 nm, the ability of papain, and other proteinases of similar molecular size, to release microvillar enzymes is crucially affected by the length of the junctional peptide that constitutes the stalk of this type of membrane protein. Images Fig. 1. EXPLANATION OF PLATE 1 EXPLANATION OF PLATE 2 PMID:6349616

  12. Structural basis for type VI secreted peptidoglycan dl-endopeptidase function, specificity and neutralization in Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Srikannathasan, Velupillai; English, Grant; Bui, Nhat Khai; Trunk, Katharina; O’Rourke, Patrick E. F.; Rao, Vincenzo A.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Hunter, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Some Gram-negative bacteria target their competitors by exploiting the type VI secretion system to extrude toxic effector proteins. To prevent self-harm, these bacteria also produce highly specific immunity proteins that neutralize these antagonistic effectors. Here, the peptidoglycan endopeptidase specificity of two type VI secretion-system-associated effectors from Serratia marcescens is characterized. These small secreted proteins, Ssp1 and Ssp2, cleave between γ-d-glutamic acid and l-meso-diaminopimelic acid with different specificities. Ssp2 degrades the acceptor part of cross-linked tetratetrapeptides. Ssp1 displays greater promiscuity and cleaves monomeric tripeptides, tetrapeptides and pentapeptides and dimeric tetratetra and tetrapenta muropeptides on both the acceptor and donor strands. Functional assays confirm the identity of a catalytic cysteine in these endopeptidases and crystal structures provide information on the structure–activity relationships of Ssp1 and, by comparison, of related effectors. Functional assays also reveal that neutralization of these effectors by their cognate immunity proteins, which are called resistance-associated proteins (Raps), contributes an essential role to cell fitness. The structures of two immunity proteins, Rap1a and Rap2a, responsible for the neutralization of Ssp1 and Ssp2-like endopeptidases, respectively, revealed two distinct folds, with that of Rap1a not having previously been observed. The structure of the Ssp1–Rap1a complex revealed a tightly bound heteromeric assembly with two effector molecules flanking a Rap1a dimer. A highly effective steric block of the Ssp1 active site forms the basis of effector neutralization. Comparisons with Ssp2–Rap2a orthologues suggest that the specificity of these immunity proteins for neutralizing effectors is fold-dependent and that in cases where the fold is conserved sequence differences contribute to the specificity of effector–immunity protein interactions. PMID

  13. Development of a fluorescence internal quenching correction factor to correct botulinum neurotoxin type A endopeptidase kinetics using SNAPtide.

    PubMed

    Feltrup, Thomas M; Singh, Bal Ram

    2012-12-18

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which are highly toxic proteins responsible for botulism, are produced by different strains of Clostridium botulinum. These various strains of bacteria produce seven distinct serotypes, labeled A-G. Once inside cells, the zinc-dependent proteolytic light chain (LC) degrades specific proteins involved in acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions causing flaccid paralysis, specifically synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) for botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A). BoNT endopeptidase assays using short substrate homologues have been widely used and developed because of their ease of synthesis, detection limits, and cost. SNAPtide, a 13-amino acid fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptide, was used in this study as a SNAP-25 homologue for the endopeptidase kinetics study of BoNT/A LC. SNAPtide uses a fluorescein isothiocyanate/4-((4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)azo) benzoic acid (FITC/DABCYL) FRET pair to produce a signal upon substrate cleavage. Signal quenching can become an issue after cleavage since quencher molecules can quench cleaved fluorophore molecules in close proximity, reducing the apparent signal. This reduction in apparent signal provides an inherent error as SNAPtide concentrations are increased. In this study, fluorescence internal quenching (FIQ) correction factors were derived using an unquenched SNAPtide peptide to quantify the signal quenching over a range of SNAPtide concentrations and temperatures. The BoNT/A LC endopeptidase kinetics at the optimally active temperature (37 °C) using SNAPtide were studied and used to demonstrate the FIQ correction factors in this study. The FIQ correction factors developed provide a convenient method to allow for improved accuracy in determining and comparing BoNT/A LC activity and kinetics using SNAPtide over a broad range of concentrations and temperatures. PMID:23181535

  14. Induction of neutral endopeptidase activity in PC-3 cells by an aqueous extract of Epilobium angustifolium L. and oenothein B.

    PubMed

    Kiss, A; Kowalski, J; Melzig, M F

    2006-03-01

    An aqueous extract of Epilobium angustifolium and its main compound oenothein B (OeB), a dimeric macrocyclic ellagitannin, are specifically able to induce the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) in prostate cancer cells. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is not influenced. Additionally, a weak but statistically significant inhibition of cell proliferation is observed. Simultaneous treatment of the cells with arabinosylcytosine and the extract as well as the OeB, leads to an additional enhancement of NEP activity. Taking into account the role of this peptidase in prostate cancer progression, our results might offer a pharmacological explanation for the use of Epilobium in folk medicine. PMID:16492533

  15. [Aspartate aminotransferase--key enzyme in the human systemic metabolism].

    PubMed

    Otto-Ślusarczyk, Dagmara; Graboń, Wojciech; Mielczarek-Puta, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase is an organ-nonspecific enzyme located in many tissues of the human body where it catalyzes reversible reaction of transamination. There are two aspartate aminotransferase isoforms--cytoplasmic (AST1) and mitochondrial (AST2), that usually occur together and interact with each other metabolically. Both isoforms are homodimers containing highly conservative regions responsible for catalytic properties of enzyme. The common feature of all aspartate aminotransfeses is Lys - 259 residue covalent binding with prosthetic group - pyridoxal phosphate. The differences in the primary structure of AST isoforms determine their physico-chemical, kinetic and immunological properties. Because of the low concentration of L-aspartate (L-Asp) in the blood, AST is the only enzyme, which supply of this amino acid as a substrate for many metabolic processes, such as urea cycle or purine and pyrimidine nucleotides in the liver, synthesis of L-arginine in the kidney and purine nucleotide cycle in the brain and the skeletal muscle. AST is also involved in D-aspartate production that regulates the metabolic activity at the auto-, para- and endocrine level. Aspartate aminotransferase is a part of the malate-aspartate shuttle in the myocardium, is involved in gluconeogenesis in the liver and kidney, glyceroneogenesis in the adipose tissue, and synthesis of neurotransmitters and neuro-glial pathway in the brain. Recently, the significant role of AST in glutaminolysis - normal metabolic pathway in tumor cells, was demonstrated. The article is devoted the role of AST, known primarily as a diagnostic liver enzyme, in metabolism of various human tissues and organs. PMID:27117097

  16. In situ properties of Helicobacter pylori aspartate carbamoyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Burns, B P; Mendz, G L; Hazell, S L

    1997-11-01

    The kinetic and regulatory properties of aspartate carbamoyltransferase (ACTase) of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori were studied in situ in cell-free extracts. The presence of enzyme activity was established by identifying the end product as carbamoylaspartate using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Activity was measured in all strains studied, including recent clinical isolates. Substrate saturation curves determined employing radioactive tracer analysis or a microtiter colorimetric assay were hyperbolic for both carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate, and there was no evidence for substrate inhibition at higher concentrations of either substrate. The apparent Km were 0.6 and 11.6 mm for carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate, respectively. Optimal pH and temperature were determined as 8.0 and 45 degrees C. Activity was observed with the l- but not the d-isomer of aspartate. Succinate and maleate inhibited enzyme activity competitively with respect to aspartate. The carbamoyl phosphate analogues acetyl phosphate and phosphonoacetic acid inhibited activity in a competitive manner with respect to carbamoyl phosphate. With limiting carbamoyl phosphate purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, tripolyphosphate, pyrophosphate, and orthophosphate inhibited competitively at millimolar concentrations. Ribose and ribose 5-phosphate at 10 mm concentration showed 20 and 35% inhibition of enzyme activity, respectively. N-Phosphonoacetyl-l-aspartate (PALA) was the most potent inhibitor studied, with 50% inhibition of enzyme activity observed at 0.1 microM concentration. Inhibition by PALA was competitive with carbamoyl phosphate (Ki = 0.245 microM) and noncompetitive with aspartate. The kinetic and regulatory data on the activity of the H. pylori enzyme suggest it is a Class A ACTase, but with some interesting characteristics distinct from this class. PMID:9344472

  17. [The role of enkephalinase (neutral endopeptidase) in neurogenic inflammation of the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Djokić, T D

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the cholinergic and adrenergic nervous systems, a new noncholinergic and nonadrenergic nervous system has recently been described, involving the afferent sensory nerves in the airways. Many irritants (dusts, chemicals) stimulate these sensory nerves to release neuropeptides. Among these neuropeptides, the "tachykinins" exist in sensory nerves of airways (substance P, neurokinin A). These tachykinins have the ability to affect multiple cells in the airways and to provoke many responses including smooth muscle contraction, mucus secretion, plasma extravasation and neutrophil adhesion. This series of effects is termed "neurogenic inflammation". Using the respiratory tract as experimental model, it has been shown that: a) substance P (SP) is widely distributed in afferent fibers in the vagus, b) SP-immunoreactivity has been demonstrated in the epithelium, in airway smooth muscle, near blood vessels and submucosal glands, c) substance P and other tachykinins are released from sensory nerve terminals during stimulation electrically and by capsaicin, d) local administration of substance P mimics the effect of sensory nerve stimulation, e) smooth muscle contraction, gland secretion and plasma leakage, normally induced by nerve stimulation or noxious stimulus, are absent in tissues pretreated with the substance P depleting agent capsaicin or with tachykinin antagonists. These findings indicate that peptidergic nerve fibers are involved in the local regulation of tone of smooth muscle, regulation of blood flow, vascular permeability, and mucus secretion. We released that degradative mechanisms could play an important role in modulating tachykinin effects, just as acetylcholinesterase modulates effects of acetylcholine released from nerve terminals. We discovered that a membrane-bound enzyme called enkephalinase (also called neutral endopeptidase, EC 3, 4, 24, 11), located on specific cells that contain tachykinin receptors, modulate the action of tachykinins

  18. Role of angiotensin converting enzyme in the vascular effects of an endopeptidase 24.15 inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Telford, S E; Smith, A I; Lew, R A; Perich, R B; Madden, A C; Evans, R G

    1995-01-01

    1. We investigated the role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the cardiovascular effects of N-[1-(R,S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Tyr-p-aminobenzoate (cFP), a peptidase inhibitor selective for metalloendopeptidase (EP) E.C. 3.4.24.15. 2. In conscious rabbits, cFP (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) markedly slowed the degradation of [3H]-bradykinin, potentiated the depressor response to right atrial administration of bradykinin (10-1000 ng kg-1), and inhibited the pressor response to right atrial angiotensin I (10-100 ng kg-1). In each of these respects, the effects of cFP were indistinguishable from those of the ACE inhibitor, captopril (0.5 mg plus 10 mg kg-1h-1 i.v.). Furthermore, the effects of combined administration of cFP and captopril were indistinguishable from those of captopril alone. 3. In experimentally naive anaesthetized rats, cFP administration (9.3 mg kg-1, i.v.) was followed by a moderate but sustained fall in arterial pressure of 13 mmHg. However, in rats pretreated with bradykinin (50 micrograms kg-1) a more pronounced fall of 30 mmHg was observed. Captopril (5 mg kg-1) had similar hypotensive effects to those of cFP, and cFP had no effect when it was administered after captopril. 4. CFP displaced the binding of [125I]-351A (the p-hydroxybenzamidine derivative of lisinopril) from preparations of rat plasma ACE and solubilized lung membrane ACE (KD = 1.2 and 0.14 microM respectively), and inhibited rat plasma ACE activity (KI = 2.4 microM). Addition of phosphoramidon (10 microM), an inhibitor of a range of metalloendopeptidases, including neutral endopeptidase (E.C.3.4.24.11), markedly reduced the potency of cFP in these systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7620708

  19. Effect of Epilobium angustifolium L. extracts and polyphenols on cell proliferation and neutral endopeptidase activity in selected cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kiss, A; Kowalski, J; Melzig, M F

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Epilobium extracts and polyphenols to induce neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity and to inhibit the proliferation in cell lines with high NEP expression (SK-N-SH) and with low NEP expression (PC-3) was investigated. Epilobium extracts enhanced in a dose-depend manner NEP activity in both cell lines with additional inhibition of cell proliferation. The sensitivity of cells depended on basal enzyme activity. SK-N-SK cells were much more sensitive than PC-3 cells. Oenothein B enhanced NEP activity at a concentration of 5-40 microM while quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-O-(6"-gal-loyl) galactoside showed slight or no activity at a concentration of 100 microM. The comparison of activities of the extracts with oenothein B, a dimeric macrocyclic ellagitannin, suggests that the latter is mostly responsible for the observed effects. Taking into account the role of NEP in the homeostasis of signalling peptides, Epilobium angustifolium extracts may be a potential herbal remedy in diseases connected with the disturbed metabolism of signaling peptides caused by an unbalanced neutral endopeptidase activity. PMID:16454210

  20. Cloning and expression of a novel prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae and its application in beer stabilization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chao; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-01

    A novel prolyl endopeptidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Amino acid sequence analysis of the prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae (AO-PEP) showed that this enzyme belongs to a class serine peptide S28 family. Expression, purification and characterization of AO-PEP were analyzed. The optimum pH and temperature were pH 5.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme was activated and stabilized by metal ion Ca(2+) and inhibited by Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Al(3+), and Cu(2+). The K m and k cat values of the purified enzyme for different substrates were evaluated. The results implied that the recombinant AO-PEP possessed higher affinity for the larger substrate. A fed-batch strategy was developed for the high-cell-density fermentation and the enzyme activity reached 1,130 U/l after cultivation in 7 l fermentor. After addition of AO-PEP during the fermentation phase of beer brewing, demonstrated the potential application of AO-PEP in the non-biological stability of beer, which favor further industrial development of this new enzyme in beer stabilization, due to its reducing operational costs, as well as no beer losses unlike regeneration process and beer lost with regenerated polyvinylpolypyrrolidone system. PMID:25547787

  1. A systematic and mechanistic evaluation of aspartic acid as filler for directly compressed tablets containing trimethoprim and trimethoprim aspartate.

    PubMed

    ElShaer, Amr; Hanson, Peter; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2013-04-01

    The generally accepted paradigm of 'inert' and 'mono functional' excipient in dosage form has been recently challenged with the development of individual excipients capable of exhibiting multiple functions (e.g. binder-disintegrants, surfactant which affect P-gp function). The proposed study has been designed within the realm of multifunctionality and is the first and novel investigation towards evaluation of aspartic acid as a filler and disintegration enhancing agent for the delivery of biopharmaceutical class IV model drug trimethoprim. The study investigated powder characteristics using angle of repose, laser diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared tablets were characterised using Heckel analysis, disintegration time and tensile strength measurements. Although Heckel analysis revealed that both TMP and TMP aspartate salt have high elasticity, the salt form produced a stronger compact which was attributed to the formation of agglomerates. Aspartic acid was found to have high plasticity, but its incorporation into the formulations was found to have a negative impact on the compaction properties of TMP and its salt. Surface morphology investigations showed that mechanical interlocking plays a vital role in binding TMP crystals together during compaction, while the small particle size of TMP aspartate agglomerates was found to have significant impact on the tensile strength of the tablets. The study concluded that aspartic acid can be employed as filler and disintegrant and that compactability within tablets was independent of the surface charge of the excipients. PMID:23207325

  2. Identification of a candidate gene for the wheat endopeptidase Ep-D1 locus and two other STS markers linked to the eyespot resistance gene Pch1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is prone to strawbreaker foot rot (eye- spot), a fungal disease caused by Oculimacula yallundae and O. acuformis. The most effective source of genetic resistance is Pch1, a gene derived from Aegilops ventri- cosa. The endopeptidase isozyme marker allele Ep-D1b, linked to Pch1, has been shown t...

  3. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Coudray, Laëtitia; Pennebaker, Anne F.; Montchamp, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and evaluation of a series of novel inhibitors of aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) are reported. Several submicromolar phosphorus-containing inhibitors are described, but all-carboxylate compounds are inactive. Compounds were synthesized to probe the postulated cyclic transition-state of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. In addition, the associated role of the protonation state at the phosphorus acid moiety was evaluated using phosphinic and carboxylic acids. Although none of the synthesized inhibitors is more potent than N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA), the compounds provide useful mechanistic information, as well as the basis for the design of future inhibitors and/or prodrugs. PMID:19828320

  4. Proximal tubular injury in Chinese herbs nephropathy: monitoring by neutral endopeptidase enzymuria.

    PubMed

    Nortier, J L; Deschodt-Lanckman, M M; Simon, S; Thielemans, N O; de Prez, E G; Depierreux, M F; Tielemans, C L; Richard, C; Lauwerys, R R; Bernard, A M; Vanherweghem, J L

    1997-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is a 94 kDa ectoenzyme of the proximal tubule brush border, physiologically released into the urine with apical membrane fragments. As proximal tubular atrophy was a histological hallmark of Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN), this study firstly determined renal excretion of NEP in healthy control subjects (N = 31), in patients with CHN (N = 26) and in women having consumed Chinese herbs and whose renal function was normal but running the risk of developing CHN (N = 27). Another patient group consisted of female patients with glomerular diseases (N = 12). At the same time, measurements of urinary microproteins (Clara cell protein, retinol binding protein, beta 2-microglobulin and alpha 1-microglobulin) were performed, as indicators of tubular dysfunction. Cell damage was estimated by the excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). In the control group, the physiological NEP enzymuria was 43.1 micrograms/24 hr (geometric mean). In CHN patients, levels of urinary NEP were significantly decreased in those with moderate renal failure (26.7 micrograms/24 hr; N = 21; P < 0.05) and almost abolished in end-stage renal failure patients (4.35 micrograms/24 hr; N = 5; P < 0.05). In patients at risk as well as in patients with glomerular diseases, urinary NEP levels were not statistically different from those observed in control subjects (40.68 micrograms/24 hr and 48.5 micrograms/24 hr, respectively). Several degrees of tubular dysfunction and injury were noted in patients groups, as attested by increased urinary microproteins and NAG excretions. Considering the data from control and CHN patients, NEP enzymuria positively correlated with individual creatinine clearance values (r = 0.76; P = 0.0001) and negatively correlated with urinary microproteins levels (r = -0.55; P = 0.00001). Finally, NEP was regularly quantitated in the urine of 6 CHN patients for a period ranging from six months to two years and in 19 patients at risk during two years

  5. Comparative analysis of the substrate preferences of two post-proline cleaving endopeptidases, prolyl oligopeptidase and fibroblast activation protein α

    PubMed Central

    Jambunathan, Kalyani; Watson, Douglas S.; Endsley, Aaron N.; Kodukula, Krishna; Galande, Amit K.

    2012-01-01

    Post-proline cleaving peptidases are promising therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases, psychiatric conditions, metabolic disorders, and many cancers. Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP; E.C. 3.4.21.26) and fibroblast activation protein α (FAP; E.C. 3.4.24.B28) are two post-proline cleaving endopeptidases with very similar substrate specificities. Both enzymes are implicated in numerous human diseases, but their study is impeded by the lack of specific substrate probes. We interrogated a combinatorial library of proteolytic substrates and identified novel and selective substrates of POP and FAP. These new sequences will be useful as probes for fundamental biochemical study, scaffolds for inhibitor design, and triggers for controlled drug delivery. PMID:22750443

  6. cDNA Cloning and Molecular Modeling of Procerain B, a Novel Cysteine Endopeptidase Isolated from Calotropis procera

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhay Narayan; Yadav, Prity; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Procerain B, a novel cysteine protease (endopeptidase) isolated from Calotropis procera belongs to Asclepiadaceae family. Purification of the enzyme, biochemical characterization and potential applications are already published by our group. Here, we report cDNA cloning, complete amino acid sequencing and molecular modeling of procerain B. The derived amino acid sequence showed high sequence homology with other papain like plant cysteine proteases of peptidase C1A superfamily. The three dimensional structure of active procerain B was modeled by homology modeling using X-ray crystal structure of actinidin (PDB ID: 3P5U), a cysteine protease from the fruits of Actinidia arguta. The structural aspect of the enzyme is also discussed. PMID:23527269

  7. Improved detection of botulinum type E by rational design of a new peptide substrate for endopeptidase-mass spectrometry assay.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Osnat; Feldberg, Liron; Gura, Sigalit; Zichel, Ran

    2014-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic substances known to humans. Endopeptidase-mass spectrometry (Endopep-MS) is used as a specific and rapid in vitro assay to detect BoNTs. In this assay, immunocaptured toxin cleaves a serotype-specific peptide substrate, and the cleavage products are then detected by MS. To further improve the sensitivity of the assay, we report here the rational design of a new substrate peptide for the detection of botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E). Our strategy was based on previously reported structural interactions integrated with analysis method efficiency considerations. Integration of the newly designed substrate has led to a more than one order of magnitude increased sensitivity of the assay. PMID:24721293

  8. Regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced cellular response during chronic hypoxia in differentiated rat PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Millhorn, D E

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of chronic hypoxia on N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated cellular responses in differentiated PC12 cells. PC12 cells were differentiated by treatment with nerve growth factor. Patch-clamp analysis in differentiated PC12 cells showed that extracellularly applied N-methyl-D-aspartate induced an inward current that was abolished by the presence of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801. Results from Ca(2+) imaging experiments showed that N-methyl-D-aspartate induced an elevation in intracellular free Ca(2+) which was also abolished by MK-801. We also examined the effect of hypoxia on the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced current in nerve growth factor-treated cells. We found that the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced inward current and the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced elevation in intracellular free Ca(2+) were markedly attenuated by chronic hypoxia. We next examined the possibility that the reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate responsiveness was due to down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor levels. Northern blot and immunoblot analyses showed that both messenger RNA and protein levels for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 were markedly decreased during hypoxia. However, the messenger RNA for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2C was increased, whereas the protein level for subunit 2C did not change. Our results indicate that differentiated PC12 cells express functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and that chronic exposure to hypoxia attenuates the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced Ca(2+) accumulation in these cells via down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1. This mechanism may play an important role in protecting PC12 cells against hypoxic stress. PMID:11113364

  9. Radiochemical microassay for aspartate aminotransferase activity in the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, D.; Beattie, J.; Namboodiri, M.A.

    1988-07-01

    A radiochemical procedure for measuring aspartate aminotransferase activity in the nervous system is described. The method is based on the exchange of tritium atoms at positions 2 and 3 of L-2,3-(/sup 3/H)aspartate with water when this amino acid is transaminated in the presence of alpha-ketoglutarate to form oxaloacetate. The tritiated water is separated from the radiolabeled aspartate by passing the reaction mixture over a cation exchange column. Confirmation that the radioactivity in the product is associated with water was obtained by separating it by anion exchange HPLC and by evaporation. The product formation is linear with time up to 120 min and with tissue in the 0.05- to 10-micrograms range. The apparent Km for aspartate in the rat brain homogenate is found to be 0.83 mM and that for alpha-ketoglutarate to be 0.12 mM. Methods that further improve the sensitivity of the assay are also discussed.

  10. Modifications in endopeptidase and 20S proteasome expression and activities in cadmium treated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Djebali, Wahbi; Gallusci, Philippe; Polge, Cécile; Boulila, Latifa; Galtier, Nathalie; Raymond, Philippe; Chaibi, Wided; Brouquisse, Renaud

    2008-02-01

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) on cellular proteolytic responses were investigated in the roots and leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., var Ibiza) plants. Three-week-old plants were grown for 3 and 10 days in the presence of 0.3-300 microM Cd and compared to control plants grown in the absence of Cd. Roots of Cd treated plants accumulated four to fivefold Cd as much as mature leaves. Although 10 days of culture at high Cd concentrations inhibited plant growth, tomato plants recovered and were still able to grow again after Cd removal. Tomato roots and leaves are not modified in their proteolytic response with low Cd concentrations (< or =3 microM) in the incubation medium. At higher Cd concentration, protein oxidation state and protease activities are modified in roots and leaves although in different ways. The soluble protein content of leaves decreased and protein carbonylation level increased indicative of an oxidative stress. Conversely, protein content of roots increased from 30 to 50%, but the amount of oxidized proteins decreased by two to threefold. Proteolysis responded earlier in leaves than in root to Cd stress. Additionally, whereas cysteine- and metallo-endopeptidase activities, as well as proteasome chymotrypsin activity and subunit expression level, increased in roots and leaves, serine-endopeptidase activities increased only in leaves. This contrasted response between roots and leaves may reflect differences in Cd compartmentation and/or complexation, antioxidant responses and metabolic sensitivity to Cd between plant tissues. The up-regulation of the 20S proteasome gene expression and proteolytic activity argues in favor of the involvement of the 20S proteasome in the degradation of oxidized proteins in plants. PMID:17952456

  11. 40 CFR 721.10348 - Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aspartic acid, N,Nâ²-(iminodi... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10348 Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as aspartic acid,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10348 - Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aspartic acid, N,Nâ²-(iminodi... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10348 Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as aspartic acid,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10348 - Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aspartic acid, N,Nâ²-(iminodi... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10348 Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as aspartic acid,...

  14. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the putative NlpC/P60 endopeptidase, TTHA0266, from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jaslyn E. M. M.; Blaise, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    Autolysins belong to a protein family involved in peptidoglycan degradation and remodelling. Within this family, NlpC/P60 endopeptidases are involved in the hydrolysis of the peptide arm of peptidoglycan. In this work, the putative NlpC/P60 endopeptidase TTHA0266 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution and belonged to the hexagonal space group P61, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 71.19, c = 198.68 Å, γ = 120°. Selenomethionine-substituted protein was crystallized and the structure was solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion. PMID:24192372

  15. Production and characterization of two major Aspergillus oryzae secreted prolyl endopeptidases able to efficiently digest proline-rich peptides of gliadin.

    PubMed

    Eugster, Philippe J; Salamin, Karine; Grouzmann, Eric; Monod, Michel

    2015-12-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases are key enzymes in the digestion of proline-rich proteins. Fungal extracts rich in prolyl endopeptidases produced by a species such as Aspergillus oryzae used in food fermentation would be of particular interest for the development of an oral enzyme therapy product in patients affected by intolerance to gluten. Two major A. oryzae secreted prolyl endopeptidases of the MEROPS S28 peptidase family, AoS28A and AoS28B, were identified when this fungus was grown at acidic pH in a medium containing soy meal protein or wheat gliadin as the sole source of nitrogen. AoS28B was produced by 12 reference A. oryzae strains used in food fermentation. AoS28A was secreted by six of these 12 strains. This protease is the orthologue of the previously characterized Aspergillus fumigatus (AfuS28) and Aspergillus niger (AN-PEP) prolyl endopeptidases which are encoded by genes with a similar intron-exon structure. Large amounts of secreted AoS28A and AoS28B were obtained by gene overexpression in A. oryzae. AoS28A and AoS28B are endoproteases able to cleave N-terminally blocked proline substrates. Both enzymes very efficiently digested the proline-rich 33-mer of gliadin, the most representative immunotoxic peptide deriving from gliadin, with some differences in terms of specificity and optimal pH. Digestion of the gliadin peptide in short peptides with both enzymes was found to occur from its N terminus. PMID:26464108

  16. Occurrence of Free d-Amino Acids and Aspartate Racemases in Hyperthermophilic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Homma, Hiroshi; Long, Zhiqun; Imai, Kazuhiro; Iida, Toshii; Maruyama, Tadashi; Aikawa, Yuko; Endo, Isao; Yohda, Masafumi

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of free d-amino acids and aspartate racemases in several hyperthermophilic archaea was investigated. Aspartic acid in all the hyperthermophilic archaea was highly racemized. The ratio of d-aspartic acid to total aspartic acid was in the range of 43.0 to 49.1%. The crude extracts of the hyperthermophiles exhibited aspartate racemase activity at 70°C, and aspartate racemase homologous genes in them were identified by PCR. d-Enantiomers of other amino acids (alanine, leucine, phenylalanine, and lysine) in Thermococcus strains were also detected. Some of them might be by-products of aspartate racemase. It is proven that d-amino acids are produced in some hyperthermophilic archaea, although their function is unknown. PMID:10515953

  17. High levels of functional endopeptidase 24.11 (CD10) activity on human thymocytes: preferential expression on immature subsets.

    PubMed Central

    Mari, B; Breittmayer, J P; Guerin, S; Belhacene, N; Peyron, J F; Deckert, M; Rossi, B; Auberger, P

    1994-01-01

    Although it is now well established that cells of the immune system express most of the exopeptidases described so far, little information is available concerning the identification and the characterization of the peptidases associated with the surface of human thymocytes. In the present study we have focused on CD10 expression on thymocytes using both FACS and enzymatic analysis. Unfractionated intact human thymocytes were shown to express significant levels of CD10-specific enzymatic activity, as assessed by the hydrolysis of the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) substrate Suc-Ala-Ala-Phe-pNA and of D-Ala2-Leu-enkephalin, a typical NEP substrate. CD10 activity was abolished by specific NEP inhibitors, including thiorphan, retrothiorphan and phosphoramidon. Moreover, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that intact thymocytes and purified NEP hydrolysed thymopentin, a thymic factor known to induce the maturation of prothymocytes into thymocytes. Finally, CD 10/NEP was preferentially associated with CD3- CD3low and immature CD4- CD8- thymocytes. The data demonstrate for the first time that human thymocytes express functional NEP and suggest a role for this enzyme in the maturation of human thymocytes. PMID:7959879

  18. Gene Expression of Lytic Endopeptidases AlpA and AlpB from Lysobacter sp. XL1 in Pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Tsfasman, Irina M; Lapteva, Yulia S; Krasovskaya, Ludmila A; Kudryakova, Irina V; Vasilyeva, Natalia V; Granovsky, Igor E; Stepnaya, Olga A

    2015-01-01

    Development of an efficient expression system for (especially secreted) bacterial lytic enzymes is a complicated task due to the specificity of their action. The substrate for such enzymes is peptidoglycan, the main structural component of bacterial cell walls. For this reason, expression of recombinant lytic proteins is often accompanied with lysis of the producing bacterium. This paper presents data on the construction of an inducible system for expression of the lytic peptidases AlpA and AlpB from Lysobacter sp. XL1 in Pseudomonas fluorescens Q2-87, which provides for the successful secretion of these proteins into the culture liquid. In this system, the endopeptidase gene under control of the T7lac promoter was integrated into the bacterial chromosome, as well as the Escherichia coli lactose operon repressor protein gene. The T7 pol gene under lac promoter control, which encodes the phage T7 RNA polymerase, is maintained in Pseudomonas cells on the plasmids. Media and cultivation conditions for the recombinant strains were selected to enable the production of AlpA and AlpB by a simple purification protocol. Production of recombinant lytic enzymes should contribute to the development of new-generation antimicrobial drugs whose application will not be accompanied by selection of resistant microorganisms. PMID:26138026

  19. Temporal changes in neutral endopeptidase/CD10 immunoexpression in the cyclic and early pregnant canine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Payan-Carreira, R; Santos, C; Miranda, S; Pereira, R M L N; Santos, D; Pires, M A

    2014-10-01

    CD10 is a multifunctional transmembrane neutral endopeptidase (NEP) that is considered to be a reliable marker of ectopic human endometrial stroma. Available information on NEP/CD10 protein expression in animal endometria is scarce. This study focused on the immunolocalization of NEP/CD10 in the canine uterus and on its temporal changes during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy (Days 11 to 23 post-LH surge) in healthy females. NEP/CD10 expression was found in the canine endometrial stroma in all stages of the estrous cycle, showing cyclic differences both in intensity and in distribution pattern. A small population of negative stromal cells in subsurface position was also observed. This population shared some morphological characteristics with the human predecidual cells, which became positive in progesterone-associated stages of the cycle. In addition, positive immunolabeling was also observed in canine myometrial stroma. In early pregnancy, the basal glandular epithelia and the syncytium cords remained negative to this marker contrasting with the trophoblast and the lacunar epithelium. A weak to moderate intensity of immunolabeling was observed in the decidual cells, whereas stromal immunolabeling was more intense at the delimitation of the syncytium cords. In conclusion, CD10 is consistently expressed in the canine endometrial stroma and myometrium but not in the endometrial epithelia. The characteristic pattern seen in early pregnancy also suggests a role for this molecule in the process of embryo invasion at implantation. PMID:25082021

  20. Activity of neutral endopeptidase and aminopeptidase N in mouse thymic stromal cells which bind double-positive thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Small, M; Kaiser, M; Tse, W; Heimfeld, S; Blumberg, S

    1996-04-01

    The activity of two peptidases was determined in immortalized lines of thymic stromal cells. A line of total stromal cells (T-TG-St) was grown from transgenic mouse expressing temperature-sensitive SV40 T antigen under the control of the regulatory elements of the mouse major histocompatibility complex class I gene. From these cells we isolated a subset (DP-TG-St) that binds thymocytes which are mainly CD4+8+. We also assayed a clone of fetal thymic epithelial cells (BA/10) that binds CD4+8+ thymocytes. Both lines of double -positive cell-binding stroma exhibited strong activity of two peptidases, neutral endopeptidase (NEP; EC 3.4.24.11) and aminopeptidase N (APN; EC 3.4.11.2). In contrast, the activity of both enzymes was very low in the total thymic stromal line. Use of the specific inhibitors confirmed that these two enzymes were responsible for the activity observed but also suggested the presence of additional unidentified aminopeptidase(s) in the same stromal cells. The high activity of the two peptidases on stromal cells that bind thymocytes at the double-positive stage raises the possibility that they might contribute to the microenvironment of the developing thymocytes. PMID:8625997

  1. Bacteriocin Protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis Is a Peptidoglycan d-Isoglutamyl-l-lysine Endopeptidase*

    PubMed Central

    Kurushima, Jun; Hayashi, Ikue; Sugai, Motoyuki; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis strains are commensal bacteria in humans and other animals, and they are also the causative agent of opportunistic infectious diseases. Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced by certain E. faecalis clinical isolates, and it is active against other E. faecalis strains. Our genetic analyses demonstrated that the extracellular products of the bacL1 and bacA genes, which are encoded in the Bac41 operon, coordinately express the bacteriocin activity against E. faecalis. In this study, we investigated the molecular functions of the BacL1 and BacA proteins. Immunoblotting and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed that BacL1 and BacA are secreted without any processing. The coincidental treatment with the recombinant BacL1 and BacA showed complete bacteriocin activity against E. faecalis, but neither BacL1 nor BacA protein alone showed the bacteriocin activity. Interestingly, BacL1 alone demonstrated substantial degrading activity against the cell wall fraction of E. faecalis in the absence of BacA. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed that BacL1 has a peptidoglycan d-isoglutamyl-l-lysine endopeptidase activity via a NlpC/P60 homology domain. These results collectively suggest that BacL1 serves as a peptidoglycan hydrolase and, when BacA is present, results in the lysis of viable E. faecalis cells. PMID:24235140

  2. Decreased expression of messenger RNAs encoding endothelin receptors and neutral endopeptidase 24.11 in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Pekonen, F.; Nyman, T.; Ammälä, M.; Rutanen, E. M.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to compare the expression of mRNAs encoding endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelin receptors type A (ETA-R) and type B (ETB-R) and ET-1-degrading enzyme neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) in 15 endometrial cancer tissues and 13 normal endometrial tissues. The relative levels of ET-1 mRNA in endometrial cancer tissues did not differ from those in normal endometrium. Both ETA-R and ETB-R mRNA levels were significantly lower in endometrial cancer tissue than in normal endometrium (P < 0.001). The complete lack of NEP mRNA in endometrial cancer tissues was in marked contrast to results from normal endometrium (P < 0.001). In conclusion, differential expression of mRNAs encoding ET-R and NEP in normal endometrium and endometrial cancer suggests that ET action is altered in endometrial cancer compared with normal endometrium. Images Figure 2 PMID:7819049

  3. Crystal structure of truncated aspartate transcarbamoylase from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Lunev, Sergey; Bosch, Soraya S; Batista, Fernando de Assis; Wrenger, Carsten; Groves, Matthew R

    2016-07-01

    The de novo pyrimidine-biosynthesis pathway of Plasmodium falciparum is a promising target for antimalarial drug discovery. The parasite requires a supply of purines and pyrimidines for growth and proliferation and is unable to take up pyrimidines from the host. Direct (or indirect) inhibition of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis via dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH), the fourth enzyme of the pathway, has already been shown to be lethal to the parasite. In the second step of the plasmodial pyrimidine-synthesis pathway, aspartate and carbamoyl phosphate are condensed to N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate and inorganic phosphate by aspartate transcarbamoylase (PfATC). In this paper, the 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of PfATC is reported. The space group of the PfATC crystals was determined to be monoclinic P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 87.0, b = 103.8, c = 87.1 Å, α = 90.0, β = 117.7, γ = 90.0°. The presented PfATC model shares a high degree of homology with the catalytic domain of Escherichia coli ATC. There is as yet no evidence of the existence of a regulatory domain in PfATC. Similarly to E. coli ATC, PfATC was modelled as a homotrimer in which each of the three active sites is formed at the oligomeric interface. Each active site comprises residues from two adjacent subunits in the trimer with a high degree of evolutional conservation. Here, the activity loss owing to mutagenesis of the key active-site residues is also described. PMID:27380369

  4. Isolation and characterization of recombinant Drosophila Copia aspartic proteinase.

    PubMed

    Athauda, Senarath B P; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Shiba, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Kenji

    2006-11-01

    The wild type Copia Gag precursor protein of Drosophila melanogaster expressed in Escherichia coli was shown to be processed autocatalytically to generate two daughter proteins with molecular masses of 33 and 23 kDa on SDS/PAGE. The active-site motif of aspartic proteinases, Asp-Ser-Gly, was present in the 23 kDa protein corresponding to the C-terminal half of the precursor protein. The coding region of this daughter protein (152 residues) in the copia gag gene was expressed in E. coli to produce the recombinant enzyme protein as inclusion bodies, which was then purified and refolded to create the active enzyme. Using the peptide substrate His-Gly-Ile-Ala-Phe-Met-Val-Lys-Glu-Val-Asn (cleavage site: Phe-Met) designed on the basis of the sequence of the cleavage-site region of the precursor protein, the enzymatic properties of the proteinase were investigated. The optimum pH and temperature of the proteinase toward the synthetic peptide were 4.0 and 70 degrees C respectively. The proteolytic activity was increased with increasing NaCl concentration in the reaction mixture, the optimum concentration being 2 M. Pepstatin A strongly inhibited the enzyme, with a Ki value of 15 nM at pH 4.0. On the other hand, the active-site residue mutant, in which the putative catalytic aspartic acid residue was mutated to an alanine residue, had no activity. These results show that the Copia proteinase belongs to the family of aspartic proteinases including HIV proteinase. The B-chain of oxidized bovine insulin was hydrolysed at the Leu15-Tyr16 bond fairly selectively. Thus the recombinant Copia proteinase partially resembles HIV proteinase, but is significantly different from it in certain aspects. PMID:16813567

  5. Pediatric anti-N methyl D aspartate receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Suri, Vinit; Sharma, Sushma; Gupta, Rohan; Sogani, S K; Mediratta, Sunit; Jadhao, Nilesh

    2013-05-01

    Anti-N Methyl D Aspartate Receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE) is a recently defined disease, which is probably more under-recognized than rare. We report a case of anti-NMDARE in a 13-years-old girl, who presented with intractable seizures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of pediatric anti-NMDARE being reported from India. The need for a greater awareness of this disease and the subtle differences in clinical presentation between pediatric and adult patients are highlighted. PMID:24082929

  6. Structural and functional characterization of aspartate racemase from the acidothermophilic archaeon Picrophilus torridus.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Takayuki; Ito, Toshiya; Yamanaka, Yasuaki; Noguchi, Keiichi; Odaka, Masafumi; Sekine, Masae; Homma, Hiroshi; Yohda, Masafumi

    2016-07-01

    Functional and structural characterizations of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-independent aspartate racemase of the acidothermophilic archaeon Picrophilus torridus were performed. Picrophilus aspartate racemase exhibited high substrate specificity to aspartic acid. The optimal reaction temperature was 60 °C, which is almost the same as the optimal growth temperature. Reflecting the low pH in the cytosol, the optimal reaction pH of Picrophilus aspartate racemase was approximately 5.5. However, the activity at the putative cytosolic pH of 4.6 was approximately 6 times lower than that at the optimal pH of 5.5. The crystal structure of Picrophilus aspartate racemase was almost the same as that of other pyridoxal 5'-phosphate -independent aspartate racemases. In two molecules of the dimer, one molecule contained a tartaric acid molecule in the catalytic site; the structure of the other molecule was relatively flexible. Finally, we examined the intracellular existence of D-amino acids. Unexpectedly, the proportion of D-aspartate to total aspartate was not very high. In contrast, both D-proline and D-alanine were observed. Because Picrophilus aspartate racemase is highly specific to aspartate, other amino acid racemases might exist in Picrophilus torridus. PMID:27094682

  7. New aspartic proteinase of Ulysses retrotransposon from Drosophila virilis.

    PubMed

    Volkov, D A; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D

    2004-06-01

    This work is focused on the investigation of a proteinase of Ulysses mobile genetic element from Drosophila virilis. The primary structure of this proteinase is suggested based on comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of aspartic proteinases from retroviruses and retrotransposons. The corresponding cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The protein accumulated in inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein (12 kD) was subjected to refolding and purified by affinity chromatography on pepstatin-agarose. Proteolytic activity of the protein was determined using oligopeptide substrates melittin and insulin B-chain. It was found that the maximum of the proteolytic activity is displayed at pH 5.5 as for the majority of aspartic proteinases. We observed that hydrolysis of B-chain of insulin was totally inhibited by pepstatin A in the micromolar concentration range. The molecular weight of the monomer of the Ulysses proteinase was determined by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry. PMID:15236611

  8. A Single Aspartate Coordinates Two Catalytic Steps in Hedgehog Autoprocessing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jian; Owen, Timothy; Xia, Ke; Callahan, Brian; Wang, Chunyu

    2016-08-31

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is driven by the cholesterol-modified Hh ligand, generated by autoprocessing of Hh precursor protein. Two steps in Hh autoprocessing, N-S acyl shift and transesterification, must be coupled for efficient Hh cholesteroylation and downstream signal transduction. In the present study, we show that a conserved aspartate residue, D46 of the Hh autoprocessing domain, coordinates these two catalytic steps. Mutagenesis demonstrated that D46 suppresses non-native Hh precursor autoprocessing and is indispensable for transesterification with cholesterol. NMR measurements indicated that D46 has a pKa of 5.6, ∼2 units above the expected pKa of aspartate, due to a hydrogen-bond between protonated D46 and a catalytic cysteine residue. However, the deprotonated form of D46 side chain is also essential, because a D46N mutation cannot mediate cholesteroylation. On the basis of these data, we propose that the proton shuttling of D46 side chain mechanistically couples the two steps of Hh cholesteroylation. PMID:27529645

  9. Cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema in mice is associated with prolyl endopeptidase, an enzyme involved in collagen breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Koelink, Pim J.; Henricks, Paul A. J.; Jackson, Patricia L.; Nijkamp, Frans P.; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Folkerts, Gert

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the neutrophil chemoattractant proline-glycine-proline (PGP), derived from the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, plays an important role in neutrophil recruitment to the lung. PGP formation is a multistep process involving neutrophils, metalloproteinases (MMPs), and prolyl endopeptidase (PE). This cascade of events is now investigated in the development of lung emphysema. A/J mice were whole body exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 wk. After 20 wk or 8 wk after smoking cessation, animals were killed, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were collected to analyze the neutrophilic airway inflammation, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, the PE activity, and the PGP levels. Lung tissue degradation was assessed by measuring the mean linear intercept. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the peptide l-arginine-threonine-arginine (RTR), which binds to PGP sequences, on the smoke-induced neutrophil influx in the lung after 5 days of smoke exposure. Neutrophilic airway inflammation was induced by cigarette smoke exposure. MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, PE activity, and PGP levels were elevated in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. PE was highly expressed in epithelial and inflammatory cells (macrophages and neutrophils) in lung tissue of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. After smoking cessation, the neutrophil influx, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, the PE activity, and the PGP levels were decreased or reduced to normal levels. Moreover, RTR inhibited the smoke-induced neutrophil influx in the lung after 5 days' smoke exposure. In the present murine model of cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema, it is demonstrated for the first time that all relevant components (neutrophils, MMP-8, MMP-9, PE) involved in PGP formation from collagen are upregulated in the airways. Together with MMPs, PE may play an important role in the formation of PGP and thus in the pathophysiology of lung emphysema. PMID:21112944

  10. IrAE – an asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) in the gut of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Daniel; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Dvořák, Jan; Sajid, Mohammed; Franta, Zdeněk; Schneider, Eric L.; Craik, Charles S.; Vancová, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Bogyo, Matthew; Sexton, Kelly B.; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Kopáček, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Ticks are ectoparasitic blood-feeders and important vectors for pathogens including arboviruses, rickettsiae, spirochetes and protozoa. As obligate blood-feeders, one possible strategy to retard disease transmission is disruption of the parasite’s ability to digest host proteins. However, the constituent peptidases in the parasite gut and their potential interplay in the digestion of the blood meal are poorly understood. We have characterized a novel asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus (termed IrAE), which is the first such characterization of a clan CD family C13 cysteine peptidase (protease) in arthropods. By RT-PCR of different tissues, IrAE mRNA was only expressed in the tick gut. Indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy localized IrAE in the digestive vesicles of gut cells and within the peritrophic matrix. IrAE was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris and reacted with a specific peptidyl fluorogenic substrate, and acyloxymethyl ketone and aza-asparagine Michael acceptor inhibitors. IrAE activity was unstable at pH ≥ 6.0 and was shown to have a strict specificity for asparagine at P1 using a positional scanning synthetic combinatorial library. The enzyme hydrolyzed protein substrates with a pH optimum of 4.5, consistent with the pH of gut cell digestive vesicles. Thus, IrAE cleaved the major protein of the blood meal, hemoglobin, to a predominant peptide of 4 kDa. Also, IrAE trans-processed and activated the zymogen form of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B1 – an enzyme contributing to hemoglobin digestion in the gut of that bloodfluke. The possible functions of IrAE in the gut digestive processes of I. ricinus are compared with those suggested for other hematophagous parasites. PMID:17336985

  11. Prognostic significance of the combined expression of neutral endopeptidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients after surgery resection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianyong; Guo, XiaoDong; Qiu, Baoan; Li, Zhiyan; Xia, Nianxin; Yang, Yingxiang; Liu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the expression of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) proteins, and the clinical significance of the two proteins in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCC). Methods Expression patterns and subcellular localizations of NEP and DPP IV proteins in 186 primary IHCC and 60 noncancerous liver tissue specimens were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Both the expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins in IHCC tissues were significantly higher than those in noncancerous liver tissues (both P<0.001). Of 186 patients with IHCC, 128 (68.82%) highly expressed both NEP and DPP IV proteins. In addition, the coexpression of NEP and DPP IV proteins was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (P=0.009), positive lymph node metastasis (P=0.016) and distant metastasis (P=0.013), and the presence of recurrence (P=0.027). Moreover, Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that IHCC patients with high NEP expression, high DPP IV expression, and combined overexpression of NEP and DPP IV proteins all had poorer overall survival and early recurrence after surgery. Furthermore, Cox analysis suggested that NEP expression, DPP IV expression, and combined expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins were all independent prognostic markers for overall survival and recurrence-free survival in patients with IHCC. Conclusion Our data suggest, for the first time, that both the expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins may be upregulated in human IHCC tissues and the combined expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins may play important roles in progression and prognosis of patients with IHCC. PMID:24570591

  12. Autoradiographic comparison of the distribution of the neutral endopeptidase enkephalinase and of. mu. and delta opioid receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, G.; Hamel, E.; Fournie-Zaluski, M.C.; Roques, B.P.

    1986-03-01

    The neutral endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.11, also designated enkephalinase, has been visualized by in vitro autoradiography using the tritiated inhibitor (/sup 3/H)-N-((2RS)-3-hydroxyaminocarbonyl-2-benzyl-1-oxopropyl)glycine, ((/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly). Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly corresponding to 85% of the total binding to brain slices was inhibited by 1 ..mu..M thiorphan, a selective inhibitor of enkephalinase, but remained unchanged in the presence of captopril, a selective inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Very high levels of (/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly binding were found in the choroid plexus and the substantia nigra. High levels were present in the caudate putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord. The distribution of enkephalinase was compared to that of ..mu.. and delta opioid receptors, selectively labeled with (/sup 3/H)Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-MePhe-glycinol and (/sup 3/H)Try-D-Thr-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr, respectively. In the caudate putamen, (/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly binding overlapped the clustered ..mu.. sites but appeared more closely related to the diffusely distributed delta sites. The association of enkephalinase with delta and ..mu.. opioid receptors in these areas is consistent with the observed role of the enzyme in regulating the effects of opioid peptides in striatal dopamine release and analgesia, respectively. Except for the choroid plexus and the cerebellum, the close similarity observed in numerous rat brain areas between the distribution of enkephalinase and that of ..mu.. and/ or delta opioid binding sites could account for most of the pharmacological effects elicited by enkephalinase inhibitors.

  13. Purification, Cloning and Immuno-Biochemical Characterization of a Fungal Aspartic Protease Allergen Rhi o 1 from the Airborne Mold Rhizopus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Gaurab; Saha, Bodhisattwa; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Pandey, Naren; Saha, Sudipto; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Background Fungal allergy is considered as serious health problem worldwide and is increasing at an alarming rate in the industrialized areas. Rhizopus oyzae is a ubiquitously present airborne pathogenic mold and an important source of inhalant allergens for the atopic population of India. Here, we report the biochemical and immunological features of its 44 kDa sero-reactive aspartic protease allergen, which is given the official designation ‘Rhi o 1’. Method The natural Rhi o 1 was purified by sequential column chromatography and its amino acid sequence was determined by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Based on its amino acid sequence, the cDNA sequence was identified, cloned and expressed to produce recombinant Rhi o 1. The allergenic activity of rRhi o 1 was assessed by means of its IgE reactivity and histamine release ability. The biochemical property of Rhi o 1 was studied by enzyme assay. IgE-inhibition experiments were performed to identify its cross-reactivity with the German cockroach aspartic protease allergen Bla g 2. For precise characterization of the cross-reactive epitope, we used anti-Bla g 2 monoclonal antibodies for their antigenic specificity towards Rhi o 1. A homology based model of Rhi o 1 was built and mapping of the cross-reactive conformational epitope was done using certain in silico structural studies. Results The purified natural nRhi o 1 was identified as an endopeptidase. The full length allergen cDNA was expressed and purified as recombinant rRhi o 1. Purified rRhi o 1 displayed complete allergenicity similar to the native nRhi o 1. It was recognized by the serum IgE of the selected mold allergy patients and efficiently induced histamine release from the sensitized PBMC cells. This allergen was identified as an active aspartic protease functional in low pH. The Rhi o 1 showed cross reactivity with the cockroach allergen Bla g 2, as it can inhibit IgE binding to rBla g 2 up to certain level. The rBla g 2 was also found

  14. Molecular-Scale Study of Aspartate Adsorption on Goethite and Competition with Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanli; Wang, Shengrui; Xu, Yisheng; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Jingyang

    2016-03-15

    Knowledge of the interfacial interactions between aspartate and minerals, especially its competition with phosphate, is critical to understanding the fate and transport of amino acids in the environment. Adsorption reactions play important roles in the mobility, bioavailability, and degradation of aspartate and phosphate. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to investigate the interfacial structures and their relative contributions in single-adsorbate and competition systems. Our results suggest three dominant mechanisms for aspartate: bidentate inner-sphere coordination involving both α- and γ-COO(-), outer-sphere complexation via electrostatic attraction and H-bonding between aspartate NH2 and goethite surface hydroxyls. The interfacial aspartate is mainly governed by pH and is less sensitive to changes of ionic strength and aspartate concentration. The phosphate competition significantly reduces the adsorption capacity of aspartate on goethite. Whereas phosphate adsorption is less affected by the presence of aspartate, including the relative contributions of diprotonated monodentate, monoprotonated bidentate, and nonprotonated bidentate structures. The adsorption process facilitates the removal of bioavailable aspartate and phosphate from the soil solution as well as from the sediment pore water and the overlying water. PMID:26870876

  15. Biosynthesis of D-aspartate in mammals: the rat and human homologs of mouse aspartate racemase are not responsible for the biosynthesis of D-aspartate.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Satsuki; Katane, Masumi; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Yuusuke; Saitoh, Yasuaki; Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Sekine, Masae; Homma, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    D-Aspartate (D-Asp) has important physiological functions, and recent studies have shown that substantial amounts of free D-Asp are present in a wide variety of mammalian tissues and cells. Biosynthesis of D-Asp has been observed in several cultured rat cell lines, and a murine gene (glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase 1-like 1, Got1l1) that encodes Asp racemase, a synthetic enzyme that produces D-Asp from L-Asp, was proposed recently. The product of this gene is homologous to mammalian glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT). Here, we tested the hypothesis that rat and human homologs of mouse GOT1L1 are involved in Asp synthesis. The following two approaches were applied, since the numbers of attempts were unsuccessful to prepare soluble GOT1L1 recombinant proteins. First, the relationship between the D-Asp content and the expression levels of the mRNAs encoding GOT1L1 and D-Asp oxidase, a primary degradative enzyme of D-Asp, was examined in several rat and human cell lines. Second, the effect of knockdown of the Got1l1 gene on D-Asp biosynthesis during culture of the cells was determined. The results presented here suggest that the rat and human homologs of mouse GOT1L1 are not involved in D-Asp biosynthesis. Therefore, D-Asp biosynthetic pathway in mammals is still an urgent issue to be resolved. PMID:25646960

  16. Characterization of new L,D-endopeptidase gene product CwlK (previous YcdD) that hydrolyzes peptidoglycan in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Yao, Yang; Kitajima, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Sekiguchi, Junichi

    2007-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis has various cell wall hydrolases, however, the functions and hydrolase activities of some enzymes are still unknown. B. subtilis CwlK (YcdD) exhibits high sequence similarity with the peptidoglycan hydrolytic L,D-endopeptidase (PLY500) of Listeria monocytogenes phage and CwlK has the VanY motif which is a D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase (Pfam: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/Pfam/). The beta-galactosidase activity observed on cwlK-lacZ fusion indicated that the cwlK gene was expressed during the vegetative growth phase, and Western blotting suggested that CwlK seems to be localized in the membrane. Truncated CwlK fused with a histidine-tag (h-DeltaCwlK) was produced in Escherichia coli and purified on a nickel column. The h-DeltaCwlK protein hydrolyzed the peptidoglycan of B. subtilis, and the optimal pH, temperature and NaCl concentration for h-DeltaCwlK were pH 6.5, 37 degrees C, and 0 M, respectively. Interestingly, h-DeltaCwlK could hydrolyze the linkage of L-alanine-D-glutamic acid in the stem of the peptidoglycan, however, this enzyme could not hydrolyze the linkage of D-alanine-D-alanine, suggesting that CwlK is an L,D-endopeptidase not a D,D-carboxypeptidase. CwlK could not hydrolyze polyglutamate from B. natto or peptidoglycan of Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report describing the characterization of an L,D-endopeptidase in B. subtilis and also the first report in bacteria of the characterization of a PLY500 family protein encoded in chromosomal DNA. PMID:17588176

  17. Hybridization of glutamate aspartate transaminase. Investigation of subunit interaction.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, B; Martinez-Carrion, M

    1975-10-01

    Glutamate aspartate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.1) is a dimeric enzyme with identical subunits with each active site containing pyridoxal 5'-phosphate linked via an internal Shiff's base to a lysine residue. It is not known if these sites interact during catalysis but negative cooperativity has been reported for binding of the coenzyme (Arrio-Dupont, M. (1972), Eur. J. Biochem. 30, 307). Also nonequivalence of its subunits in binding 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (Harris, H.E., and Bayley, P. M. (1975), Biochem. J. 145, 125), in modification of only a single tyrosine with full loss of activity (Christen, P., and Riordan, J.F. (1970), Biochemistry 9, 3025), and following modification with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (Cournil, I., and Arrio-Dupont, M. (1973), Biochemie 55, 103) has been reported. However, steady-state and transient kinetic methods as well as direct titration of the active site chromophore with substrates and substrate analogs have not revealed any cooperative phenomena (Braunstein, A. E. (1973), Enzymes, 3rd Ed. 9, 379). It was therefore decided that a more direct approach should be used to clarify the quistion of subunit interaction during the covalent phase of catalysis. To this end a hybrid method was devised in which a hybrid transaminase was prepared which contained one subunit with a functional active site while the other subunit has the internal Shiff's base reduced with NaBH4. The specific activities and amount of "actively bound" pyridoxal 5'-phosphate are both in a 2:1 ratio for the native and hybrid forms. Comparison of the steady-state kinetic properties of the hybrid and native enzyme forms shows that both forms gave parallel double reciprocal plots which is characteristic of the Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism of transamination. The Km values for the substrates L-aspartic acid and alpha-ketoglutaric acid are nearly identical while the Vmax value for the hybrid is one-half the value of the native transaminase. It therefore appears that

  18. Poststatin, a new inhibitor of prolyl endopeptidase, produced by Streptomyces viridochromogenes MH534-30F3. I. Taxonomy, production, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, T; Nagai, M; Ogawa, K; Kojima, F; Okada, M; Ikeda, T; Hamada, M; Takeuchi, T

    1991-09-01

    Poststatin, a new inhibitor of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) was discovered in the fermentation broth of Streptomyces viridochromogenes MH534-30F3. It was purified by Diaion HP-20, Sephadex LH-20 and YMC-gel (ODS-A) column chromatography and then isolated as a colorless powder. Poststatin has the molecular formula C26H47N5O7. The IC50 value of poststatin against the PEP of partially purified porcine kidney was 0.03 microgram/ml. It has low acute toxicity. No deaths occured after iv injection of 250 mg/kg of this agent to mice. PMID:1938617

  19. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in human healthy and inflamed dental pulps.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Fioroni, M; Rubini, C; Tripodi, D; Perinetti, G; Piattelli, A

    2001-06-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) seems to be an important mediator of inflammatory processes. Its role in the progression and detection of inflammatory periodontal disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. In the present study AST activity was analyzed in normal healthy human dental pulps, in reversible pulpitis, and in irreversible pulpitis. Enzymatic AST activity showed that the control values for the healthy pulps were 4.8 +/- 0.7 units/mg of pulp tissue. In reversible pulpitis specimens the AST activity increased to 7.98 +/- 2.1 units/mg of pulp tissue. In irreversible pulpitis specimens the values decreased to 2.28 +/- 1.7 units/mg of pulp tissue. Differences between the groups (control versus reversible pulpitis and reversible pulpitis versus irreversible pulpitis) were statistically significant (p = 0.0015). These results could point to a role of AST in the early events that lead to development of pulpal inflammation. PMID:11487132

  20. Divergent allosteric patterns verify the regulatory paradigm for aspartate transcarbamylase.

    PubMed

    Wales, M E; Madison, L L; Glaser, S S; Wild, J R

    1999-12-17

    The native Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase, E.C. 2.1.3.2) provides a classic allosteric model for the feedback inhibition of a biosynthetic pathway by its end products. Both E. coli and Erwinia herbicola possess ATCase holoenzymes which are dodecameric (2(c3):3(r2)) with 311 amino acid residues per catalytic monomer and 153 and 154 amino acid residues per regulatory (r) monomer, respectively. While the quaternary structures of the two enzymes are identical, the primary amino acid sequences have diverged by 14 % in the catalytic polypeptide and 20 % in the regulatory polypeptide. The amino acids proposed to be directly involved in the active site and nucleotide binding site are strictly conserved between the two enzymes; nonetheless, the two enzymes differ in their catalytic and regulatory characteristics. The E. coli enzyme has sigmoidal substrate binding with activation by ATP, and inhibition by CTP, while the E. herbicola enzyme has apparent first order kinetics at low substrate concentrations in the absence of allosteric ligands, no ATP activation and only slight CTP inhibition. In an apparently important and highly conserved characteristic, CTP and UTP impose strong synergistic inhibition on both enzymes. The co-operative binding of aspartate in the E. coli enzyme is correlated with a T-to-R conformational transition which appears to be greatly reduced in the E. herbicola enzyme, although the addition of inhibitory heterotropic ligands (CTP or CTP+UTP) re-establishes co-operative saturation kinetics. Hybrid holoenzymes assembled in vivo with catalytic subunits from E. herbicola and regulatory subunits from E. coli mimick the allosteric response of the native E. coli holoenzyme and exhibit ATP activation. The reverse hybrid, regulatory subunits from E. herbicola and catalytic subunits from E. coli, exhibited no response to ATP. The conserved structure and diverged functional characteristics of the E. herbicola enzyme provides an opportunity

  1. AGC1/2, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carriers.

    PubMed

    Amoedo, N D; Punzi, G; Obre, E; Lacombe, D; De Grassi, A; Pierri, C L; Rossignol, R

    2016-10-01

    In this review we discuss the structure and functions of the aspartate/glutamate carriers (AGC1-aralar and AGC2-citrin). Those proteins supply the aspartate synthesized within mitochondrial matrix to the cytosol in exchange for glutamate and a proton. A structure of an AGC carrier is not available yet but comparative 3D models were proposed. Moreover, transport assays performed by using the recombinant AGC1 and AGC2, reconstituted into liposome vesicles, allowed to explore the kinetics of those carriers and to reveal their specific transport properties. AGCs participate to a wide range of cellular functions, as the control of mitochondrial respiration, calcium signaling and antioxydant defenses. AGC1 might also play peculiar tissue-specific functions, as it was found to participate to cell-to-cell metabolic symbiosis in the retina. On the other hand, AGC1 is involved in the glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in neurons and AGC gene or protein alterations were discovered in rare human diseases. Accordingly, a mice model of AGC1 gene knock-out presented with growth delay and generalized tremor, with myelinisation defects. More recently, AGC was proposed to play a crucial role in tumor metabolism as observed from metabolomic studies showing that the asparate exported from the mitochondrion by AGC1 is employed in the regeneration of cytosolic glutathione. Therefore, given the central role of AGCs in cell metabolism and human pathology, drug screening are now being developed to identify pharmacological modulators of those carriers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou. PMID:27132995

  2. Synthesis of 6-phosphofructose aspartic acid and some related Amadori compounds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alexandar L; Behrman, Edward J

    2016-08-01

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of 6-phosphofructose-aspartic acid, an intermediate in the metabolism of fructose-asparagine by Salmonella. We also report improved syntheses of fructose-asparagine itself and of fructose-aspartic acid. PMID:27258673

  3. Structural Analysis of the Ligand-Binding Domain of the Aspartate Receptor Tar from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mise, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    The Escherichia coli cell-surface aspartate receptor Tar mediates bacterial chemotaxis toward an attractant, aspartate (Asp), and away from a repellent, Ni(2+). These signals are transmitted from the extracellular region of Tar to the cytoplasmic region via the transmembrane domain. The mechanism by which extracellular signals are transmitted into the cell through conformational changes in Tar is predicted to involve a piston displacement of one of the α4 helices of the homodimer. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of Tar activity by an attractant, the three-dimensional structures of the E. coli Tar periplasmic domain with and without bound aspartate, Asp-Tar and apo-Tar, respectively, were determined. Of the two ligand-binding sites, only one site was occupied, and it clearly showed the electron density of an aspartate. The slight changes in conformation and the electrostatic surface potential around the aspartate-binding site were observed. In addition, the presence of an aspartate stabilized residues Phe-150' and Arg-73. A pistonlike displacement of helix α4b' was also induced by aspartate binding as predicted by the piston model. Taken together, these small changes might be related to the induction of Tar activity and might disturb binding of the second aspartate to the second binding site in E. coli. PMID:27292793

  4. Citrin and aralar1 are Ca(2+)-stimulated aspartate/glutamate transporters in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, L; Pardo, B; Lasorsa, F M; del Arco, A; Kobayashi, K; Iijima, M; Runswick, M J; Walker, J E; Saheki, T; Satrústegui, J; Palmieri, F

    2001-09-17

    The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier catalyzes an important step in both the urea cycle and the aspartate/malate NADH shuttle. Citrin and aralar1 are homologous proteins belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family with EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motifs in their N-terminal domains. Both proteins and their C-terminal domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, reconstituted into liposomes and shown to catalyze the electrogenic exchange of aspartate for glutamate and a H(+). Overexpression of the carriers in transfected human cells increased the activity of the malate/aspartate NADH shuttle. These results demonstrate that citrin and aralar1 are isoforms of the hitherto unidentified aspartate/glutamate carrier and explain why mutations in citrin cause type II citrullinemia in humans. The activity of citrin and aralar1 as aspartate/glutamate exchangers was stimulated by Ca(2+) on the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the Ca(2+)-binding domains of these proteins are localized. These results show that the aspartate/glutamate carrier is regulated by Ca(2+) through a mechanism independent of Ca(2+) entry into mitochondria, and suggest a novel mechanism of Ca(2+) regulation of the aspartate/malate shuttle. PMID:11566871

  5. Properties of Copolymers of Aspartic Acid and Aliphatic Dicarboxylic Acids Prepared by Reactive Extrusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspartic acid may be prepared chemically or by the fermentation of carbohydrates. Currently, low molecular weight polyaspartic acids are prepared commercially by heating aspartic acid at high temperatures (greater than 220 degrees C) for several hours in the solid state. In an effort to develop a ...

  6. Response to atrial natriuretic peptide, endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor and C-ANP receptor ligand in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, M R; Settle, S L; Kirk, J E; Taylor, S A; Moore, K P; Unwin, R J

    1992-09-01

    1. The present studies compared the renal and hypotensive response to (a) exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (99-126), (b) an endopeptidase-24.11 inhibitor (candoxatrilat) and (c) an antagonist of ANP clearance receptors (SC 46542) in conscious rats. 2. Infusion of low-dose-ANP (100 ng kg-1 min-1) produced a gradual increase in urinary sodium and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) excretion without significant change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or fractional lithium clearance (FeLi). There was a significant fall in blood pressure. 3. Infusion of high-dose ANP (300 ng kg-1 min-1) produced a brisk, 3 fold increase in urinary sodium and cyclic GMP excretion along with a rise in GFR, but had no significant effect on FeLi compared to the control group. The renal response was accompanied by a pronounced fall in blood pressure. 4. Candoxatrilat or SC 46542, alone, had no significant effect on sodium excretion compared to control animals. Both compounds enhanced the natriuretic and cyclic GMP responses to a low-dose ANP infusion (100 ng kg-1 min-1) to levels similar to, or greater than, those observed with the high-dose ANP (300 ng kg-1 min-1). However, unlike high-dose ANP, these renal effects were not accompanied by a significant change in GFR and neither compound potentiated the hypotensive effect of the low-dose ANP infusion. Only candoxatrilat when given with ANP produced a marked rise in FeLi.5. Similarly, combined administration of candoxatrilat and SC 46542 (without exogenous ANP) induced an increase in sodium and cyclic GMP excretion comparable to high-dose ANP but did so without a significant increase in GFR and with a significantly smaller fall in blood pressure. Interestingly, there was no increase in FeLi with the combination of the two compounds, suggesting that the major contribution to sodium excretion came from SC 46542.6. Both candoxatrilat and SC 46542 increased sodium and cyclic GMP excretion in the rat A-V fistula model

  7. Improving the In Vivo Profile of Minigastrin Radiotracers: A Comparative Study Involving the Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitor Phosphoramidon.

    PubMed

    Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Nock, Berthold A; Lymperis, Emmanouil; Krenning, Eric P; de Jong, Marion; Maina, Theodosia

    2016-02-01

    Minigastrin radiotracers, such as [(111)In-DOTA]MG0 ([(111)In-DOTA-DGlu(1)]minigastrin), have been considered for diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy of CCK2R-positive human tumors, such as medullary thyroid carcinoma. However, the high kidney retention assigned to the pentaGlu(2-6) repeat in the peptide sequence has compromised their clinical applicability. On the other hand, truncated des(Glu)(2-6)-analogs, such as [(111)In-DOTA]MG11 ([(111)In-DOTA-DGlu(10),desGlu(2-6)]minigastrin), despite their low renal uptake, show poor bioavailability and tumor targeting. [(111)In]CP04 ([(111)In-DOTA-DGlu(1-6)]minigastrin) acquired by Glu(2-6)/DGlu(2-6) substitution showed promising tumor-to-kidney ratios in rodents. In the present study, we compare the biological profiles of [(111)In]CP04, [(111)In-DOTA]MG11, and [(111)In-DOTA]MG0 during in situ neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibition, recently shown to improve the bioavailability of several peptide radiotracers. After coinjection of the NEP inhibitor, phosphoramidon (PA), the stability of [(111)In]CP04 and [(111)In-DOTA]MG0 in peripheral mouse blood increased, with an exceptional >14-fold improvement monitored for [(111)In-DOTA]MG11. In line with these findings, PA treatment increased the uptake of [(111)In]CP04 (8.5 ± 0.4%ID/g to 16.0 ± 2.3%ID/g) and [(111)In-DOTA]MG0 (11.9 ± 2.2%ID/g to 17.2 ± 0.9%ID/g) in A431-CCK2R(+) tumors at 4 hours postinjection, whereas the respective increase for [(111)In-DOTA]MG11 was >6-fold (2.5 ± 0.9%ID/g to 15.1 ± 1.7%ID/g). Interestingly, kidney uptake remained lowest for [(111)In-DOTA]MG11, but unfavorably increased by PA treatment for [(111)In-DOTA]MG0. Thus, overall, the most favorable in vivo profile was displayed by [(111)In-DOTA]MG11 during NEP inhibition, highlighting the need to validate this promising concept in the clinic. PMID:26844849

  8. Effect of an inhaled neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, phosphoramidon, on baseline airway calibre and bronchial responsiveness to bradykinin in asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Crimi, N.; Polosa, R.; Pulvirenti, G.; Magrì, S.; Santonocito, G.; Prosperini, G.; Mastruzzo, C.; Mistretta, A.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Bradykinin is a potent vasoactive peptide which has been proposed as an important inflammatory mediator in asthma since it provokes potent bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. Little is known at present about the potential role of lung peptidases in modulating bradykinin-induced airway dysfunction in vivo in man. The change in bronchial reactivity to bradykinin was therefore investigated after treatment with inhaled phosphoramidon, a potent neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor, in a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised study of 10 asthmatic subjects. METHODS--Subjects attended on six separate occasions at the same time of day during which concentration-response studies with inhaled bradykinin and histamine were carried out, without treatment and after each test drug. Subjects received nebulised phosphoramidon sodium salt (10(-5) M, 3 ml) or matched placebo for 5-7 minutes using an Inspiron Mini-neb nebuliser 5 minutes before the bronchoprovocation test with bradykinin or histamine. Agonists were administered in increasing concentrations as an aerosol generated from a starting volume of 3 ml in a nebuliser driven by compressed air at 8 1/min. Changes in airway calibre were measured as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and responsiveness as the provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20). RESULTS--Phosphoramidon administration caused a transient fall in FEV1 from baseline, FEV1 values decreasing 6.3% and 5.3% on the bradykinin and histamine study days, respectively. When compared with placebo, phosphoramidon elicited a small enhancement of the airways response to bradykinin, the geometric mean PC20 value (range) decreasing from 0.281 (0.015-5.575) to 0.136 (0.006-2.061) mg/ml. In contrast, NEP blockade failed to alter the airways response to a subsequent inhalation with histamine, the geometric mean (range) PC20 histamine value of 1.65 (0.17-10.52) mg/ml after placebo being no different from that of 1.58 (0

  9. epr, which encodes glycylglycine endopeptidase resistance, is homologous to femAB and affects serine content of peptidoglycan cross bridges in Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, M; Fujiwara, T; Ohta, K; Komatsuzawa, H; Ohara, M; Suginaka, H

    1997-01-01

    Staphylococcus capitis EPK1 produces a glycylglycine endopeptidase, ALE-1 (M. Sugai, T. Fujiwara, T. Akiyama, M. Ohara, H. Komatsuzawa, S. Inoue, and H. Suginaka, J. Bacteriol. 179:1193-1202, 1997), which hydrolyzes interpeptide pentaglycine chains of cell wall peptidoglycan of S. aureus. Characterizations of the enzyme activity and cloning of ale-1 revealed that ALE-1 is very similar to prolysostaphin produced by S. simulans bv. staphylolyticus. Strain EPK1 is resistant to lysis by ALE-1 and by lysostaphin. A gene that renders the cells resistant to glycylglycine endopeptidase (epr) was found 322 bp upstream of and in the opposite orientation to ale-1. The deduced amino acid sequence of epr showed similarities to FemA and FemB, which have been characterized as factors essential for methicillin resistance of S. aureus. Inactivation of either femA or femB causes decreased resistance to methicillin, increased resistance to lysostaphin, and decreased glycine content in the interpeptide chains of peptidoglycan. Therefore, femAB is suggested to be involved in the addition of glycine to pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursor. S. aureus with epr on a multicopy plasmid had phenotypes similar to those of femAB mutants except that it did not alter resistance level to methicillin. These results suggest that epr and femAB belong to the protein family involved in adding amino acids to the pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursor and that epr is involved in the addition of serine to the pentapeptide. PMID:9209049

  10. Cleavage specificity of Enterococcus faecalis EnpA (EF1473), a peptidoglycan endopeptidase related to the LytM/lysostaphin family of metallopeptidases.

    PubMed

    de Roca, François Reste; Duché, Caroline; Dong, Shengli; Rincé, Alain; Dubost, Lionel; Pritchard, David G; Baker, John R; Arthur, Michel; Mesnage, Stéphane

    2010-05-14

    Enterococcus faecalis EnpA (EF1473) is a 1721-residue predicted protein encoded by prophage 03 that displays similarity to the staphylolytic glycyl-glycyl endopeptidases lysostaphin and LytM. We purified a catalytically active fragment of the protein, EnpA(C), comprising residues 1374-1505 and showed that the recombinant polypeptide efficiently cleaved cross-linked muropeptides generated by muramidases, but was poorly active in intact sacculi. Analysis of the products of digestion of purified dimers by mass spectrometry indicated that EnpA(C) cleaves the D-Ala-L-Ala bond formed by the D,D-transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins in the last cross-linking step of peptidoglycan synthesis. Synthetic D was identified as the minimum substrate of EnpA(C) indicating that interaction of the enzyme with the donor peptide stem of cross-linked dimers is sufficient for its activity. Peptidoglycan was purified from various bacterial species and digested with mutanolysin and EnpA(C) to assess enzyme specificity. EnpA(C) did not cleave direct cross-links, but tolerated extensive variation in cross-bridges with respect to both their length (one to five residues) and their amino acid sequence. Recognition of the donor stem of cross-linked dimers could account for the substrate specificity of EnpA(C), which is significantly broader in comparison to endopeptidases belonging to the lysostaphin family. PMID:20347848

  11. Protection against ionising radiation and synergism with thiols by zinc aspartate.

    PubMed

    Floersheim, G L; Floersheim, P

    1986-06-01

    Pre-treatment with zinc aspartate protected mice against the lethal effects of radiation and raised the LD50 from 8 Gy to 12.2 Gy. Zinc chloride and zinc sulphate were clearly less active. The radioprotective effect of zinc aspartate was equivalent to cysteamine and slightly inferior to S,2-aminoethylisothiourea (AET). Zinc aspartate displayed a similar therapeutic index to the thiols but could be applied at an earlier time before irradiation. Synergistic effects occurred with the combined administration of zinc aspartate and thiols. By giving zinc aspartate with cysteamine, the LD50 was increased to 13.25 Gy and, by combining it in the optimal protocol with AET, to 17.3 Gy. The radioprotection by zinc and its synergism with thiols is explained by the stabilisation of thiols through the formation of zinc complexes. PMID:3518853

  12. Age-Related Changes in D-Aspartate Oxidase Promoter Methylation Control Extracellular D-Aspartate Levels and Prevent Precocious Cell Death during Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Punzo, Daniela; Errico, Francesco; Cristino, Luigia; Sacchi, Silvia; Keller, Simona; Belardo, Carmela; Luongo, Livio; Nuzzo, Tommaso; Imperatore, Roberta; Florio, Ermanno; De Novellis, Vito; Affinito, Ornella; Migliarini, Sara; Maddaloni, Giacomo; Sisalli, Maria Josè; Pasqualetti, Massimo; Pollegioni, Loredano; Maione, Sabatino; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Usiello, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    The endogenous NMDA receptor (NMDAR) agonist D-aspartate occurs transiently in the mammalian brain because it is abundant during embryonic and perinatal phases before drastically decreasing during adulthood. It is well established that postnatal reduction of cerebral D-aspartate levels is due to the concomitant onset of D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) activity, a flavoenzyme that selectively degrades bicarboxylic D-amino acids. In the present work, we show that d-aspartate content in the mouse brain drastically decreases after birth, whereas Ddo mRNA levels concomitantly increase. Interestingly, postnatal Ddo gene expression is paralleled by progressive demethylation within its putative promoter region. Consistent with an epigenetic control on Ddo expression, treatment with the DNA-demethylating agent, azacitidine, causes increased mRNA levels in embryonic cortical neurons. To indirectly evaluate the effect of a putative persistent Ddo gene hypermethylation in the brain, we used Ddo knock-out mice (Ddo(-/-)), which show constitutively suppressed Ddo expression. In these mice, we found for the first time substantially increased extracellular content of d-aspartate in the brain. In line with detrimental effects produced by NMDAR overstimulation, persistent elevation of D-aspartate levels in Ddo(-/-) brains is associated with appearance of dystrophic microglia, precocious caspase-3 activation, and cell death in cortical pyramidal neurons and dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. This evidence, along with the early accumulation of lipufuscin granules in Ddo(-/-) brains, highlights an unexpected importance of Ddo demethylation in preventing neurodegenerative processes produced by nonphysiological extracellular levels of free D-aspartate. PMID:26961959

  13. An Essential Role of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Cell Proliferation Is to Enable Aspartate Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Birsoy, Kıvanç; Wang, Tim; Chen, Walter W; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Abu-Remaileh, Monther; Sabatini, David M

    2015-07-30

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enables many metabolic processes, but why its inhibition suppresses cell proliferation is unclear. It is also not well understood why pyruvate supplementation allows cells lacking ETC function to proliferate. We used a CRISPR-based genetic screen to identify genes whose loss sensitizes human cells to phenformin, a complex I inhibitor. The screen yielded GOT1, the cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, loss of which kills cells upon ETC inhibition. GOT1 normally consumes aspartate to transfer electrons into mitochondria, but, upon ETC inhibition, it reverses to generate aspartate in the cytosol, which partially compensates for the loss of mitochondrial aspartate synthesis. Pyruvate stimulates aspartate synthesis in a GOT1-dependent fashion, which is required for pyruvate to rescue proliferation of cells with ETC dysfunction. Aspartate supplementation or overexpression of an aspartate transporter allows cells without ETC activity to proliferate. Thus, enabling aspartate synthesis is an essential role of the ETC in cell proliferation. PMID:26232224

  14. Flap Dynamics in Aspartic Proteases: A Computational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mahanti, Mukul; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Nilsson, Ulf J; Söderhjelm, Pär

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in biochemistry and drug design have placed proteases as one of the critical target groups for developing novel small-molecule inhibitors. Among all proteases, aspartic proteases have gained significant attention due to their role in HIV/AIDS, malaria, Alzheimer's disease, etc. The binding cleft is covered by one or two β-hairpins (flaps) which need to be opened before a ligand can bind. After binding, the flaps close to retain the ligand in the active site. Development of computational tools has improved our understanding of flap dynamics and its role in ligand recognition. In the past decade, several computational approaches, for example molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, coarse-grained simulations, replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) and metadynamics, have been used to understand flap dynamics and conformational motions associated with flap movements. This review is intended to summarize the computational progress towards understanding the flap dynamics of proteases and to be a reference for future studies in this field. PMID:26872937

  15. Supermacroporous chemically cross-linked poly(aspartic acid) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Gyarmati, Benjámin; Mészár, E Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Lóránd; Deli, Mária A; László, Krisztina; Szilágyi, András

    2015-08-01

    Chemically cross-linked poly(aspartic acid) (PASP) gels were prepared by a solid-liquid phase separation technique, cryogelation, to achieve a supermacroporous interconnected pore structure. The precursor polymer of PASP, polysuccinimide (PSI) was cross-linked below the freezing point of the solvent and the forming crystals acted as templates for the pores. Dimethyl sulfoxide was chosen as solvent instead of the more commonly used water. Thus larger temperatures could be utilized for the preparation and the drawback of increase in specific volume of water upon freezing could be eliminated. The morphology of the hydrogels was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and interconnectivity of the pores was proven by the small flow resistance of the gels. Compression tests also confirmed the interconnected porous structure and the complete re-swelling and shape recovery of the supermacroporous PASP hydrogels. The prepared hydrogels are of interest for several biomedical applications as scaffolding materials because of their cytocompatibility, controllable morphology and pH-responsive character. PMID:25922304

  16. A Deficiency in Aspartate Biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2 Causes Slow Milk Coagulation†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Yu, Weizhu; Coolbear, Tim; O’Sullivan, Dan; McKay, Larry L.

    1998-01-01

    A mutant of fast milk-coagulating (Fmc+) Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2, designated L. lactis KB4, was identified. Although possessing the known components essential for utilizing casein as a nitrogen source, which include functional proteinase (PrtP) activity and oligopeptide, di- and tripeptide, and amino acid transport systems, KB4 exhibited a slow milk coagulation (Fmc−) phenotype. When the amino acid requirements of L. lactis C2 were compared with those of KB4 by use of a chemically defined medium, it was found that KB4 was unable to grow in the absence of aspartic acid. This aspartic acid requirement could also be met by aspartate-containing peptides. The addition of aspartic acid to milk restored the Fmc+ phenotype of KB4. KB4 was found to be defective in pyruvate carboxylase and thus was deficient in the ability to form oxaloacetate and hence aspartic acid from pyruvate and carbon dioxide. The results suggest that when lactococci are propagated in milk, aspartate derived from casein is unable to meet fully the nutritional demands of the lactococci, and they become dependent upon aspartate biosynthesis. PMID:9572935

  17. The initial step in the archaeal aspartate biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by a monofunctional aspartokinase

    PubMed Central

    Faehnle, Christopher R.; Liu, Xuying; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Viola, Ronald E.

    2006-01-01

    The activation of the β-carboxyl group of aspartate catalyzed by aspartokinase is the commitment step to amino-acid biosynthesis in the aspartate pathway. The first structure of a microbial aspartokinase, that from Methanococcus jannaschii, has been determined in the presence of the amino-acid substrate l-­aspartic acid and the nucleotide product MgADP. The enzyme assembles into a dimer of dimers, with the interfaces mediated by both the N- and C-terminal domains. The active-site functional groups responsible for substrate binding and specificity have been identified and roles have been proposed for putative catalytic functional groups. PMID:17012784

  18. Solution Structure of IseA, an Inhibitor Protein of dl-Endopeptidases from Bacillus subtilis, Reveals a Novel Fold with a Characteristic Inhibitory Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Ryoichi; Fukui, Sadaharu; Kobayashi, Naoya; Sekiguchi, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, LytE, LytF, CwlS, and CwlO are vegetative autolysins, dl-endopeptidases in the NlpC/P60 family, and play essential roles in cell growth and separation. IseA (YoeB) is a proteinaceous inhibitor against the dl-endopeptidases, peptidoglycan hydrolases. Overexpression of IseA caused significantly long chained cell morphology, because IseA inhibits the cell separation dl-endopeptidases post-translationally. Here, we report the first three-dimensional structure of IseA, determined by NMR spectroscopy. The structure includes a single domain consisting of three α-helices, one 310-helix, and eight β-strands, which is a novel fold like a “hacksaw.” Noteworthy is a dynamic loop between β4 and the 310-helix, which resembles a “blade.” The electrostatic potential distribution shows that most of the surface is positively charged, but the region around the loop is negatively charged. In contrast, the LytF active-site cleft is expected to be positively charged. NMR chemical shift perturbation of IseA interacting with LytF indicated that potential interaction sites are located around the loop. Furthermore, the IseA mutants D100K/D102K and G99P/G101P at the loop showed dramatic loss of inhibition activity against LytF, compared with wild-type IseA, indicating that the β4–310 loop plays an important role in inhibition. Moreover, we built a complex structure model of IseA-LytF by docking simulation, suggesting that the β4–310 loop of IseA gets stuck deep in the cleft of LytF, and the active site is occluded. These results suggest a novel inhibition mechanism of the hacksaw-like structure, which is different from known inhibitor proteins, through interactions around the characteristic loop regions with the active-site cleft of enzymes. PMID:23091053

  19. Solution structure of IseA, an inhibitor protein of DL-endopeptidases from Bacillus subtilis, reveals a novel fold with a characteristic inhibitory loop.

    PubMed

    Arai, Ryoichi; Fukui, Sadaharu; Kobayashi, Naoya; Sekiguchi, Junichi

    2012-12-28

    In Bacillus subtilis, LytE, LytF, CwlS, and CwlO are vegetative autolysins, DL-endopeptidases in the NlpC/P60 family, and play essential roles in cell growth and separation. IseA (YoeB) is a proteinaceous inhibitor against the DL-endopeptidases, peptidoglycan hydrolases. Overexpression of IseA caused significantly long chained cell morphology, because IseA inhibits the cell separation DL-endopeptidases post-translationally. Here, we report the first three-dimensional structure of IseA, determined by NMR spectroscopy. The structure includes a single domain consisting of three α-helices, one 3(10)-helix, and eight β-strands, which is a novel fold like a "hacksaw." Noteworthy is a dynamic loop between β4 and the 3(10)-helix, which resembles a "blade." The electrostatic potential distribution shows that most of the surface is positively charged, but the region around the loop is negatively charged. In contrast, the LytF active-site cleft is expected to be positively charged. NMR chemical shift perturbation of IseA interacting with LytF indicated that potential interaction sites are located around the loop. Furthermore, the IseA mutants D100K/D102K and G99P/G101P at the loop showed dramatic loss of inhibition activity against LytF, compared with wild-type IseA, indicating that the β4-3(10) loop plays an important role in inhibition. Moreover, we built a complex structure model of IseA-LytF by docking simulation, suggesting that the β4-3(10) loop of IseA gets stuck deep in the cleft of LytF, and the active site is occluded. These results suggest a novel inhibition mechanism of the hacksaw-like structure, which is different from known inhibitor proteins, through interactions around the characteristic loop regions with the active-site cleft of enzymes. PMID:23091053

  20. Synthetic inhibitors of endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15: potency and stability in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Lew, R. A.; Tomoda, F.; Evans, R. G.; Lakat, L.; Boublik, J. H.; Pipolo, L. A.; Smith, A. I.

    1996-01-01

    1. The role of the metalloendopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15 (EP 24.15) in peptide metabolism in vivo is unknown, in part reflecting the lack of a stable enzyme inhibitor. The most commonly used inhibitor, N-[1-(R,S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Tyr-p-aminobenzoate (cFP-AAY-pAB, Ki = 16 nM), although selective in vitro, is rapidly degraded in the circulation to cFP-Ala-Ala, an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. This metabolite is thought to be generated by neutral endopeptidase (NEP; EC 3.4.24.11), as the Ala-Tyr bond of cFP-AAY-pAB is cleaved by NEP in vitro. In the present study, we have examined the role of NEP in the metabolism of cFP-AAY-pAB in vivo, and have tested a series of inhibitor analogues, substituted at the second alanine, for both potency and stability relative to the parent compound. 2. Analogues were screened for inhibition of fluorescent substrate cleavage by recombinant rat testes EP 24.15. D-Ala or Asp substitution abolished inhibitory activity, while Val-, Ser- and Leu-substituted analogues retained activity, albeit at a reduced potency. A relative potency order of Ala (1) > Val (0.3) > Ser (0.16) > Leu (0.06) was observed. Resistance to cleavage by NEP was assessed by incubation of the analogues with rabbit kidney membranes. The parent compound was readily degraded, but the analogues were twice (Ser) and greater than 10 fold (Leu and Val) more resistant to cleavage. 3. Metabolism of cFP-AAY-pAB and the Val-substituted analogue was also examined in conscious rabbits. A bolus injection of cFP-AAY-pAB (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) significantly reduced the blood pressure response to angiotensin I, indicating ACE inhibition. Pretreatment with NEP inhibitors, SCH 39370 or phosphoramidon, slowed the loss of cFP-AAY-pAB from the plasma, but did not prevent inhibition of ACE. Injection of 1 mg kg-1 inhibitor resulted in plasma concentrations at 10 s of 23.5 microM (cFP-AAY-pAB) and 18.0 microM (cFP-AVY-pAB), which fell 100 fold over 5 min. Co-injection of

  1. Insulin degludec aspart: One-year real world experience

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This retrospective analysis describes the use of insulin degludec aspart (IDegAsp) in India. Material and Methods: All subjects who had received IDegAsp for 52 weeks at two endocrine centers were included in this study. Results: Forty-eight subjects (40 men), with mean age of 54.33 ± 9.63 years and mean duration of diabetes of 6.33 ± 2.96 years, started IDegAsp as insulin of initiation (16), as an intensification regime (4), as de-escalation from basal-bolus therapy (16), or as switch from premixed insulin (12). The dose of IDegAsp fell from 43.17 ± 21.18 U/day or 0.56 ± 0.23 U/kg to 37.75 ± 17.13U/day (0.51 ± 0.12 U/kg) at 24 weeks and 41.41 ± 15.33 U/day (0.56 ± 0.17 U/kg) at 52 weeks. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), which was 9.52 ± 1.27% at the start of therapy, fell to 7.51 ± 0.46% at 26 weeks and to 7.48 ± 0.40% at 52 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose fell from 154.08 ± 33.30 mg% to 108.58 ± 22.26 mg% at 26 weeks and 102.17 ± 12.79 mg% at 52 weeks. Of the 48 subjects, 39 (81.25%) achieved a target of HbA1c <7.0% at both 26 and 52 weeks. No episode of hypoglycemia was reported in the 4 weeks preceding the analysis. Conclusion: This communication highlights the efficacy, safety, and tolerability, while providing insight into the usage patterns of IDegAsp. PMID:27186556

  2. Effects of a Proline Endopeptidase on the Detection and Quantitation of Gluten by Antibody-Based Methods during the Fermentation of a Model Sorghum Beer.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rakhi; Fiedler, Katherine L; Cho, Chung Y; Cheng, Raymond; Stutts, Whitney L; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of a proline endopeptidase (PEP) in hydrolyzing gluten and its putative immunopathogenic sequences was examined using antibody-based methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Based on the results of the antibody-based methods, fermentation of wheat gluten containing sorghum beer resulted in a reduction in the detectable gluten concentration. The addition of PEP further reduced the gluten concentration. Only one sandwich ELISA was able to detect the apparent low levels of gluten present in the beers. A competitive ELISA using a pepsin-trypsin hydrolysate calibrant was unreliable because the peptide profiles of the beers were inconsistent with that of the hydrolysate calibrant. Analysis by MS indicated that PEP enhanced the loss of a fragment of an immunopathogenic 33-mer peptide in the beer. However, Western blot results indicated partial resistance of the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins to the action of PEP, questioning the ability of PEP in digesting all immunopathogenic sequences present in gluten. PMID:26548701

  3. MMP-type endopeptidase activity in the cornea. Its evolution during organ culture storage at the Eye Bank. Effect of hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Isnard, N; Sabatier, P; Robert, A M; Robert, L; Renard, G

    2005-09-01

    About 46% of total corneas obtained from donors in the French Eye Bank cannot be grafted for several reasons as loss of endothelium or other. Corneal cells express proteolytic enzymes, essentially matrix metallo-proteinase MMP-2 and MMP-9. In presence of hyaluronan and some other GAG-s their activity increases as could be shown on keratocyte cultures. Hyaluronan concentration increases during in vitro preservation and can represent a serious hazard for corneal conservation. The control of MMP-release and activation might well be one of the factors involved in graft deterioration. We could show however that only a slight fraction (< or =12%) of total, relatively high endopeptidase activity of the cornea is released in the media during storing. It appears therefore that most of the proteolytic activity determined in corneal extracts remains confined to the stroma and might not represent an important risk for preservation, at least for the endothelium. PMID:16085120

  4. N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Activation May Contribute to Glufosinate Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Activation May Contribute to Glufosinate Neurotoxicity Glufosinate (GLF) at high levels in mammals causes convulsions through a mechanism that is not completely understood. The structural similarity of GLF to glutamate (GLU) implicates the glutamate...

  5. Supporting aspartate biosynthesis is an essential function of respiration in proliferating cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Lucas B.; Gui, Dan Y.; Hosios, Aaron M.; Bush, Lauren N.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial respiration is important for cell proliferation, however the specific metabolic requirements fulfilled by respiration to support proliferation have not been defined. Here we show that a major role of respiration in proliferating cells is to provide electron acceptors for aspartate synthesis. This finding is consistent with the observation that cells lacking a functional respiratory chain are auxotrophic for pyruvate, which serves as an exogenous electron acceptor. Further, the pyruvate requirement can be fulfilled with an alternative electron acceptor, alpha-ketobutyrate, which provides cells neither carbon nor ATP. Alpha-ketobutyrate restores proliferation when respiration is inhibited, suggesting that an alternative electron acceptor can substitute for respiration to support proliferation. We find that electron acceptors are limiting for producing aspartate, and supplying aspartate enables proliferation of respiration deficient cells in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors. Together, these data argue a major function of respiration in proliferating cells is to support aspartate synthesis. PMID:26232225

  6. Supporting Aspartate Biosynthesis Is an Essential Function of Respiration in Proliferating Cells.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Lucas B; Gui, Dan Y; Hosios, Aaron M; Bush, Lauren N; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Vander Heiden, Matthew G

    2015-07-30

    Mitochondrial respiration is important for cell proliferation; however, the specific metabolic requirements fulfilled by respiration to support proliferation have not been defined. Here, we show that a major role of respiration in proliferating cells is to provide electron acceptors for aspartate synthesis. This finding is consistent with the observation that cells lacking a functional respiratory chain are auxotrophic for pyruvate, which serves as an exogenous electron acceptor. Further, the pyruvate requirement can be fulfilled with an alternative electron acceptor, alpha-ketobutyrate, which provides cells neither carbon nor ATP. Alpha-ketobutyrate restores proliferation when respiration is inhibited, suggesting that an alternative electron acceptor can substitute for respiration to support proliferation. We find that electron acceptors are limiting for producing aspartate, and supplying aspartate enables proliferation of respiration deficient cells in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors. Together, these data argue a major function of respiration in proliferating cells is to support aspartate synthesis. PMID:26232225

  7. Purification and characterization of an acidic amino acid specific endopeptidase of Streptomyces griseus obtained from a commercial preparation (Pronase).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, N; Tsuruyama, S; Nagata, K; Hirayama, K; Noda, K; Makisumi, S

    1988-09-01

    A protease was purified 163-fold from Pronase, a commercial product from culture filtrate of Streptomyces griseus, by a series of column chromatographies on CM-Toyopearl (Fractogel), Sephadex G-50, hydroxyapatite, and Z-Gly-D-Phe-AH-Sepharose 4B using Boc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Glu-pNA as a substrate. The final preparation was homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and gel isoelectric focusing. Studies on the substrate specificity with peptide p-nitroanilides revealed that this protease preferentially hydrolyzed peptide bonds on the carbonyl-terminal side of either glutamic acid or aspartic acid. It was most active at pH 8.8 for the hydrolysis of Boc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Glu-pNA. The molecular weight of the protease was estimated to be 20,000 by gel filtration on Sepharose 6B using 6 M guanidine hydrochloride as an eluent, and 22,000 by SDS-PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 8.4. The enzyme was inactivated by diisopropyl phosphofluoridate (DFP) but not by p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) or EDTA. PMID:3149277

  8. Analysis of a Delivery Device Conversion for Insulin Aspart: Potential Clinical Impact in Veterans.

    PubMed

    Moorman Spangler, Caitlin M; Greck, Beth D; Killian, Jancy H

    2016-04-01

    In Brief Insulin therapies using a wide variety of delivery devices are available to accommodate individual patients' needs. In this study of veterans with diabetes, converting from insulin aspart delivered with vials and syringes to insulin aspart delivered via a pen device resulted in no significant change in A1C. Although insulin pen delivery devices offer benefits, providers should thoroughly consider all potential reasons for uncontrolled diabetes before modifying a patient's insulin delivery method. PMID:27092019

  9. Aspartic Peptidases of Human Pathogenic Trypanosomatids: Perspectives and Trends for Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Santos, L.O.; Garcia-Gomes, A.S.; Catanho, M.; Sodré, C.L.; Santos, A.L.S.; Branquinha, M.H.; d’Avila-Levy, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspartic peptidases are proteolytic enzymes present in many organisms like vertebrates, plants, fungi, protozoa and in some retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These enzymes are involved in important metabolic processes in microorganisms/virus and play major roles in infectious diseases. Although few studies have been performed in order to identify and characterize aspartic peptidase in trypanosomatids, which include the etiologic agents of leishmaniasis, Chagas’ disease and sleeping sickness, some beneficial properties of aspartic peptidase inhibitors have been described on fundamental biological events of these pathogenic agents. In this context, aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs) used in the current chemotherapy against HIV (e.g., amprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir) were able to inhibit the aspartic peptidase activity produced by different species of Leishmania. Moreover, the treatment of Leishmania promastigotes with HIV PIs induced several perturbations on the parasite homeostasis, including loss of the motility and arrest of proliferation/growth. The HIV PIs also induced an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species and the appearance of irreversible morphological alterations, triggering parasite death pathways such as programed cell death (apoptosis) and uncontrolled autophagy. The blockage of physiological parasite events as well as the induction of death pathways culminated in its incapacity to adhere, survive and escape of phagocytic cells. Collectively, these results support the data showing that parasites treated with HIV PIs have a significant reduction in the ability to cause in vivo infection. Similarly, the treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi cells with pepstatin A showed a significant inhibition on both aspartic peptidase activity and growth as well as promoted several and irreversible morphological changes. These studies indicate that aspartic peptidases can be promising targets in

  10. Insulin Aspart in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus: 15 Years of Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Kjeld; Bohl, Mette; Schioldan, Anne Grethe

    2016-01-01

    Limiting excessive postprandial glucose excursions is an important component of good overall glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that insulin aspart, which is structurally identical to regular human insulin except for the replacement of a single proline amino acid with an aspartic acid residue, has a more physiologic time-action profile (i.e., reaches a higher peak and reaches that peak sooner) than regular human insulin. As expected with this improved pharmacokinetic profile, insulin aspart demonstrates a greater glucose-lowering effect compared with regular human insulin. Numerous randomized controlled trials and a meta-analysis have also demonstrated improved postprandial control with insulin aspart compared with regular human insulin in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, as well as efficacy and safety in children, pregnant patients, hospitalized patients, and patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Studies have demonstrated that step-wise addition of insulin aspart is a viable intensification option for patients with type 2 diabetes failing on basal insulin. Insulin aspart has shown a good safety profile, with no evidence of increased receptor binding, mitogenicity, stimulation of anti-insulin antibodies, or hypoglycemia compared with regular human insulin. In one meta-analysis, there was evidence of a lower rate of nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with regular human insulin and, in a trial that specifically included patients with a history of recurrent hypoglycemia, a significantly lower rate of severe hypoglycemic episodes. The next generation of insulin aspart (faster-acting insulin aspart) is being developed with a view to further improving on these pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:26607485

  11. Three-dimensional structure of a pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme, mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, G C; Eichele, G; Jansonius, J N

    1980-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies to 2.8-A resolution have yielded the three-dimensional structure of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.1), an isologous alpha 2 dimer (Mr = 2 x 45,000). The subunits are rich in secondary structure and contain two domains, one of which anchors the coenzyme, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Each active site lies between the subunits and is composed of residues from both of them. PMID:6930651

  12. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules : III. Genotypic and Tissue Expression of Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa and Other Species.

    PubMed

    Farnham, M W; Griffith, S M; Miller, S S; Vance, C P

    1990-12-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N(2)-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N(2)-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. PMID:16667896

  13. Lowered circulating aspartate is a metabolic feature of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guoxiang; Zhou, Bingsen; Zhao, Aihua; Qiu, Yunping; Zhao, Xueqing; Garmire, Lana; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Yu, Herbert; Yen, Yun; Jia, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Distinct metabolic transformation is essential for cancer cells to sustain a high rate of proliferation and resist cell death signals. Such a metabolic transformation results in unique cellular metabolic phenotypes that are often reflected by distinct metabolite signatures in tumor tissues as well as circulating blood. Using a metabolomics platform, we find that breast cancer is associated with significantly (p = 6.27E-13) lowered plasma aspartate levels in a training group comprising 35 breast cancer patients and 35 controls. The result was validated with 103 plasma samples and 183 serum samples of two groups of primary breast cancer patients. Such a lowered aspartate level is specific to breast cancer as it has shown 0% sensitivity in serum from gastric (n = 114) and colorectal (n = 101) cancer patients. There was a significantly higher level of aspartate in breast cancer tissues (n = 20) than in adjacent non-tumor tissues, and in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line than in MCF-10A cell lines, suggesting that the depleted level of aspartate in blood of breast cancer patients is due to increased tumor aspartate utilization. Together, these findings suggest that lowed circulating aspartate is a key metabolic feature of human breast cancer. PMID:26452258

  14. A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. with modified control of aspartate kinase by threonine.

    PubMed

    Heremans, B; Jacobs, M

    1997-04-01

    Mutagenesis and subsequent selection of Arabidopsis thaliana plantlets on a growth inhibitory concentration of lysine has led to the isolation of lysine-resistant mutants. The ability to grown on 2 mM lysine has been used to isolate mutants that may contain an aspartate kinase with altered regulatory-feedback properties. One of these mutants (RL 4) was characterized by a relative enhancement of soluble lysine. The recessive monogenic nuclear transmission of the resistance trait was established. It was associated with an aspartate kinase less sensitive to feedback inhibition by threonine. Two mutants (RLT 40 and RL 4) in Arabidopsis, characterized by an altered regulation of aspartate kinase, were crossed to assess the effects of the simultaneous presence of these different aspartate kinase forms. A double mutant (RLT40 x RL4) was isolated and characterized by two feedback-desensitized isozymes of aspartate kinase to, respectively, lysine and threonine but no threonine and/or lysine overproduction was observed. Genetical analysis of this unique double aspartate kinase mutant indicated that both mutations were located on chromosome 2, but their loci (ak1 and ak2) were found to be unlinked. PMID:9241437

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of procirsin, an active aspartic protease precursor from Cirsium vulgare (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Lufrano, Daniela; Faro, Rosário; Castanheira, Pedro; Parisi, Gustavo; Veríssimo, Paula; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra; Simões, Isaura; Faro, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Typical aspartic proteinases from plants of the Astereaceae family like cardosins and cyprosins are well-known milk-clotting enzymes. Their effectiveness in cheesemaking has encouraged several studies on other Astereaceae plant species for identification of new vegetable rennets. Here we report on the cloning, expression and characterization of a novel aspartic proteinase precursor from the flowers of Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. The isolated cDNA encoded a protein product with 509 amino acids, termed cirsin, with the characteristic primary structure organization of plant typical aspartic proteinases. The pro form of cirsin was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to be active without autocatalytically cleaving its pro domain. This contrasts with the acid-triggered autoactivation by pro-segment removal described for several recombinant plant typical aspartic proteinases. Recombinant procirsin displayed all typical proteolytic features of aspartic proteinases as optimum acidic pH, inhibition by pepstatin, cleavage between hydrophobic amino acids and strict dependence on two catalytic Asp residues for activity. Procirsin also displayed a high specificity towards κ-casein and milk-clotting activity, suggesting it might be an effective vegetable rennet. The findings herein described provide additional evidences for the existence of different structural arrangements among plant typical aspartic proteinases. PMID:22727116

  16. A Cooperative Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase without Regulatory Subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, K.; Kantrowitz, E

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the isolation, kinetic characterization, and X-ray structure determination of a cooperative Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) without regulatory subunits. The native ATCase holoenzyme consists of six catalytic chains organized as two trimers bridged noncovalently by six regulatory chains organized as three dimers, c{sub 6}r{sub 6}. Dissociation of the native holoenzyme produces catalytically active trimers, c{sub 3}, and nucleotide-binding regulatory dimers, r{sub 2}. By introducing specific disulfide bonds linking the catalytic chains from the upper trimer site specifically to their corresponding chains in the lower trimer prior to dissociation, a new catalytic unit, c{sub 6}, was isolated consisting of two catalytic trimers linked by disulfide bonds. Not only does the c{sub 6} species display enhanced enzymatic activity compared to the wild-type enzyme, but the disulfide bonds also impart homotropic cooperativity, never observed in the wild-type c3. The c{sub 6} ATCase was crystallized in the presence of phosphate and its X-ray structure determined to 2.10 {angstrom} resolution. The structure of c{sub 6} ATCase liganded with phosphate exists in a nearly identical conformation as other R-state structures with similar values calculated for the vertical separation and planar angles. The disulfide bonds linking upper and lower catalytic trimers predispose the active site into a more active conformation by locking the 240s loop into the position characteristic of the high-affinity R state. Furthermore, the elimination of the structural constraints imposed by the regulatory subunits within the holoenzyme provides increased flexibility to the c{sub 6} enzyme, enhancing its activity over the wild-type holoenzyme (c{sub 6}r{sub 6}) and c{sub 3}. The covalent linkage between upper and lower catalytic trimers restores homotropic cooperativity so that a binding event at one or so active sites stimulates binding at the other sites. Reduction

  17. L-aspartic acid transport by cat erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.; Preston, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    Cat and dog red cells are unusual in that they have no Na/K ATPase and contain low K and high Na intracellularly. They also show significant Na dependent L-aspartate (L-asp) transport. The authors have characterized this system in cat RBCs. The influx of /sup 3/H-L-asp (typically 2..mu..M) was measured in washed RBCs incubated for 60 s at 37/sup 0/C in medium containing 140 mM NaCl, 5 mM Kcl, 2 mM CaCl/sub 2/, 15 mM MOPS pH 7.4, 5 mM glucose, and /sup 14/C-PEG as a space marker. The cells were washed 3 times in the medium immediately before incubation which was terminated by centrifuging the RBCs through a layer of dibutylphthalate. Over an L-asp concentration range of 0.5-1000..mu..M, influx obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a small added linear diffusion component. The Kt and Jmax of the saturable component were 5.40 +/- 0.34 ..mu..M and 148.8 +/- 7.2 ..mu..mol 1. cell/sup -1/h/sup -1/ respectively. Replacement of Na with Li, K, Rb, Cs or choline reduce influx to diffusion. With the addition of asp analogues (4/sup +/M L-asp, 40/sup +/M inhibitor), the following sequence of inhibition was observed (range 80% to 40% inhib.): L-glutamate > L-cysteine sulfonate > D-asp > L-cysteic acid > D-glutamate. Other amino acids such as L-alanine, L-proline, L-lysine, L-cysteine, and taurine showed no inhibition (<5%). These data suggest that cat red cells contain a high-affinity Na dependent transport system for L-asp, glutamate, and closely related analogues which resembles that found in the RBCs of other carnivores and in neural tissues.

  18. Substrate Specificity of the Aspartate:Alanine Antiporter (AspT) of Tetragenococcus halophilus in Reconstituted Liposomes*

    PubMed Central

    Sasahara, Ayako; Nanatani, Kei; Enomoto, Masaru; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Abe, Keietsu

    2011-01-01

    The aspartate:alanine antiporter (AspT) of the lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus is a member of the aspartate:alanine exchanger (AAEx) transporter family. T. halophilus AspT catalyzes the electrogenic exchange of l-aspartate1− with l-alanine0. Although physiological functions of AspT were well studied, l-aspartate1−:l-alanine0 antiport mechanisms are still unsolved. Here we report that the binding sites of l-aspartate and l-alanine are independently present in AspT by means of the kinetic studies. We purified His6-tagged T. halophilus AspT and characterized its kinetic properties when reconstituted in liposomes (Km = 0.35 ± 0.03 mm for l-aspartate, Km = 0.098 ± 0 mm for d-aspartate, Km = 26 ± 2 mm for l-alanine, Km = 3.3 ± 0.2 mm for d-alanine). Competitive inhibition by various amino acids of l-aspartate or l-alanine in self-exchange reactions revealed that l-cysteine selectively inhibited l-aspartate self-exchange but only weakly inhibited l-alanine self-exchange. Additionally, l-serine selectively inhibited l-alanine self-exchange but barely inhibited l-aspartate self-exchange. The aspartate analogs l-cysteine sulfinic acid, l-cysteic acid, and d-cysteic acid competitively and strongly inhibited l-aspartate self-exchange compared with l-alanine self-exchange. Taken together, these kinetic data suggest that the putative binding sites of l-aspartate and l-alanine are independently located in the substrate translocation pathway of AspT. PMID:21719707

  19. Substrate specificity of the aspartate:alanine antiporter (AspT) of Tetragenococcus halophilus in reconstituted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Ayako; Nanatani, Kei; Enomoto, Masaru; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Abe, Keietsu

    2011-08-19

    The aspartate:alanine antiporter (AspT) of the lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus is a member of the aspartate:alanine exchanger (AAEx) transporter family. T. halophilus AspT catalyzes the electrogenic exchange of L-aspartate(1-) with L-alanine(0). Although physiological functions of AspT were well studied, L-aspartate(1-):L-alanine(0) antiport mechanisms are still unsolved. Here we report that the binding sites of L-aspartate and L-alanine are independently present in AspT by means of the kinetic studies. We purified His(6)-tagged T. halophilus AspT and characterized its kinetic properties when reconstituted in liposomes (K(m) = 0.35 ± 0.03 mm for L-aspartate, K(m) = 0.098 ± 0 mm for D-aspartate, K(m) = 26 ± 2 mm for L-alanine, K(m) = 3.3 ± 0.2 mm for D-alanine). Competitive inhibition by various amino acids of L-aspartate or L-alanine in self-exchange reactions revealed that L-cysteine selectively inhibited L-aspartate self-exchange but only weakly inhibited L-alanine self-exchange. Additionally, L-serine selectively inhibited L-alanine self-exchange but barely inhibited L-aspartate self-exchange. The aspartate analogs L-cysteine sulfinic acid, L-cysteic acid, and D-cysteic acid competitively and strongly inhibited L-aspartate self-exchange compared with L-alanine self-exchange. Taken together, these kinetic data suggest that the putative binding sites of L-aspartate and L-alanine are independently located in the substrate translocation pathway of AspT. PMID:21719707

  20. Active-site Arg --> Lys substitutions alter reaction and substrate specificity of aspartate aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Vacca, R A; Giannattasio, S; Graber, R; Sandmeier, E; Marra, E; Christen, P

    1997-08-29

    Arg386 and Arg292 of aspartate aminotransferase bind the alpha and the distal carboxylate group, respectively, of dicarboxylic substrates. Their substitution with lysine residues markedly decreased aminotransferase activity. The kcat values with L-aspartate and 2-oxoglutarate as substrates under steady-state conditions at 25 degrees C were 0.5, 2.0, and 0.03 s-1 for the R292K, R386K, and R292K/R386K mutations, respectively, kcat of the wild-type enzyme being 220 s-1. Longer dicarboxylic substrates did not compensate for the shorter side chain of the lysine residues. Consistent with the different roles of Arg292 and Arg386 in substrate binding, the effects of their substitution on the activity toward long chain monocarboxylic (norleucine/2-oxocaproic acid) and aromatic substrates diverged. Whereas the R292K mutation did not impair the aminotransferase activity toward these substrates, the effect of the R386K substitution was similar to that on the activity toward dicarboxylic substrates. All three mutant enzymes catalyzed as side reactions the beta-decarboxylation of L-aspartate and the racemization of amino acids at faster rates than the wild-type enzyme. The changes in reaction specificity were most pronounced in aspartate aminotransferase R292K, which decarboxylated L-aspartate to L-alanine 15 times faster (kcat = 0.002 s-1) than the wild-type enzyme. The rates of racemization of L-aspartate, L-glutamate, and L-alanine were 3, 5, and 2 times, respectively, faster than with the wild-type enzyme. Thus, Arg --> Lys substitutions in the active site of aspartate aminotransferase decrease aminotransferase activity but increase other pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent catalytic activities. Apparently, the reaction specificity of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes is not only achieved by accelerating the specific reaction but also by preventing potential side reactions of the coenzyme substrate adduct. PMID:9268327

  1. Structural view of the regulatory subunit of aspartate kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingzhu; Yu, Kun; Yan, Liming; Li, Yuanyuan; Chen, Cheng; Li, Xuemei

    2011-09-01

    The aspartate kinase (AK) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) catalyzes the biosynthesis of aspartate family amino acids, including lysine, threonine, isoleucine and methionine. We determined the crystal structures of the regulatory subunit of aspartate kinase from Mtb alone (referred to as MtbAKβ) and in complex with threonine (referred to as MtbAKβ-Thr) at resolutions of 2.6 Å and 2.0 Å, respectively. MtbAKβ is composed of two perpendicular non-equivalent ACT domains [aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase, and TyrA (prephenate dehydrogenase)] per monomer. Each ACT domain contains two α helices and four antiparallel β strands. The structure of MtbAKβ shares high similarity with the regulatory subunit of the aspartate kinase from Corynebacterium glutamicum (referred to as CgAKβ), suggesting similar regulatory mechanisms. Biochemical assays in our study showed that MtbAK is inhibited by threonine. Based on crystal structure analysis, we discuss the regulatory mechanism of MtbAK. PMID:21976064

  2. Interaction between L-aspartate and the brucite [Mg(OH)2]-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Charlene F.; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Pelletier, Manuel; Razafitianamaharavo, Angélina; Hazen, Robert M.

    2015-04-01

    The interaction of biomolecules at the mineral-water interface could have played a prominent role in the emergence of more complex organic species in life's origins. Serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal vents may have acted as a suitable environment for this process to occur, although little is known about biomolecule-mineral interactions in this system. We used batch adsorption experiments and surface complexation modeling to study the interaction of L-aspartate onto a thermodynamically stable product of serpentinization, brucite [Mg(OH)2], over a wide range of initial aspartate concentrations at four ionic strengths governed by [Mg2+] and [Ca2+]. We observed that up to 1.0 μmol of aspartate adsorbed per m2 of brucite at pH ∼ 10.2 and low Mg2+ concentrations (0.7 × 10-3 M), but surface adsorption decreased at high Mg2+ concentrations (5.8 × 10-3 M). At high Ca2+ concentrations (4.0 × 10-3 M), aspartate surface adsorption doubled (to 2.0 μmol m-2), with Ca2+ adsorption at 29.6 μmol m-2. We used the extended triple-layer model (ETLM) to construct a quantitative thermodynamic model of the adsorption data. We proposed three surface reactions involving the adsorption of aspartate (HAsp-) and/or Ca2+ onto brucite:

  3. Efficient aspartic acid production by a psychrophile-based simple biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Takahisa; Hamada, Mai; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Kato, Junichi

    2015-10-01

    We previously constructed a Psychrophile-based Simple bioCatalyst (PSCat) reaction system, in which psychrophilic metabolic enzymes are inactivated by heat treatment, and used it here to study the conversion of aspartic acid from fumaric acid mediated by the activity of aspartate ammonia-lyase (aspartase). In Escherichia coli, the biosynthesis of aspartic acid competes with that of L-malic acid produced from fumaric acid by fumarase. In this study, E. coli aspartase was expressed in psychrophilic Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10 heat treated at 50 °C for 15 min. The resultant PSCat could convert fumaric acid to aspartic acid without the formation of L-malic acid because of heat inactivation of psychrophilic fumarase activity. Furthermore, alginate-immobilized PSCat produced high yields of aspartic acid and could be re-used nine times. The results of our study suggest that PSCat can be applied in biotechnological production as a new approach to increase the yield of target compounds. PMID:26254042

  4. Kinetic studies of the uptake of aspartate aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase into mitochondria in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Marra, E; Passarella, S; Casamassima, E; Perlino, E; Doonan, S; Quagliariello, E

    1985-01-01

    Kinetic measurements of the uptake of native mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase into mitochondria in vitro were carried out. The uptake of both the enzymes is essentially complete in 1 min and shows saturation characteristics. The rate of uptake of aspartate aminotransferase into mitochondria is decreased by malate dehydrogenase, and vice versa. The inhibition is exerted by isoenzyme remaining outside the mitochondria rather than by isoenzyme that has been imported. The thiol compound beta-mercaptoethanol decreases the rate of uptake of the tested enzymes; inhibition is a result of interaction of beta-mercaptoethanol with the mitochondria and not with the enzymes themselves. The rate of uptake of aspartate aminotransferase is inhibited non-competitively by malate dehydrogenase, but competitively by beta-mercaptoethanol. The rate of uptake of malate dehydrogenase is inhibited non-competitively by aspartate aminotransferase and by beta-mercaptoethanol. beta-Mercaptoethanol prevents the inhibition of the rate of uptake of malate dehydrogenase by aspartate aminotransferase. These results are interpreted in terms of a model system in which the two isoenzymes have separate but interacting binding sites within a receptor in the mitochondrial membrane system. PMID:4015628

  5. Uptake and metabolism of (14C)-aspartate by developing kernels of maize (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Muhitch, M.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Pulse-chase experiments were performed to determine the metabolic fate of (14C)-aspartate in the pedicel region and subsequent uptake into the endosperm. Kernels were removed from the cob, leaving the pedicel attached but removing glumes, palea, and lemma. The basal tips were incubated in (14C)-aspartate for 0.5 h, followed by a 2 h chase period with unlabeled aspartate. In contrast to a previous study in which 70% of the 14C from aspartate was recovered in the organic acid fraction (Lyznik, et al., Phytochemistry 24: 425, 1985), only 20 to 25% of the radioactivity found in the 2 h chase period. While a small amount of the 14C transiently appeared in alanine at the beginning of the chase period, the most heavily labeled non-fed amino acid was glutamine, which accounted for 21% of the radioactivity within the pedicel amino acid fraction by 0.5 h into the chase period. There was no evidence for asparagine synthesis within the pedicel region of the kernel. 14C recovered from the endosperm in the form of amino acids were aspartate (60%), glutamine (20%), glutamate (15%), and alanine (5%). These results suggest that some of the maternally supplied amino acids undergo metabolic conversion to other amino acids before being taken up by the endosperm.

  6. Serum Insulin Aspart Concentrations Following High-Dose Insulin Aspart Administered Directly into the Duodenum of Healthy Subjects: An Open-Labeled, Single-Blinded, and Uncontrolled Exploratory Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ihlo, Charlotte A.; Aksglæde, Karin Bak; Laursen, Torben; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2009-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to determine the bioavailability of high-dose insulin aspart administered directly into the duodenum of healthy subjects. Methods In a pilot study, four subjects each received four escalating doses of a 1-ml solution of insulin aspart (100, 300, 600, and 1000 IU, respectively) directly into the duodenum. In the following main study, eight subjects each received two identical doses of insulin aspart of 1000 IU, in 4- and 8-ml solutions, respectively, directly into the duodenum. Subjects in the main study also received an intravenous and a subcutaneous injection of 4 to 6 IU of insulin aspart. Results A considerable number of samples and, in some cases, consecutive samples revealed significantly increased concentrations of serum insulin aspart. Despite the significant serum insulin aspart concentrations, no significant changes of plasma glucose were measured. Moreover, no significant suppression of endogenous insulin secretion was detected, as assessed by the levels of serum human insulin. Conclusions Administration of high-dose insulin aspart directly into the duodenum of healthy subjects resulted in significantly increased serum insulin aspart concentrations in a high number of consecutive samples using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, no significant changes in the levels of plasma glucose or serum human insulin were observed. Thus, the study did not provide any evidence of biological activity of the original insulin aspart molecule after high-dose administration directly into the duodenum. PMID:20144435

  7. Investigation of neutral endopeptidases (EC 3.4.24.11) and of neutral proteinases (EC 3.4.24.4) using a new sensitive two-stage enzymatic reaction.

    PubMed

    Indig, F E; Ben-Meir, D; Spungin, A; Blumberg, S

    1989-09-25

    A sensitive two-stage enzymatic reaction for mammalian and bacterial metalloendopeptidases has been developed using the substrate 3-carboxypropanoyl-alanyl-alanyl-leucine-4-nitroanilide supplemented with Streptomyces griseus amino-peptidase. Neutral endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.11 from bovine kidney hydrolyzes the substrate (pH 7.5, 25 degrees C) with a catalytic efficiency (kcat = 1.2 x 10(2) s-1, Km = 0.15 mM) of the highest ever reported for the enzyme acting on synthetic chromophoric and fluorogenic substrates. Thermolysin hydrolyzes the substrate at a faster rate (kcat = 1.2 x 10(3) s-1) but the overall efficiency is diminished by a higher Km (4.2 mM). Suspensions of human neutrophil cells and culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus have been assayed sensitively for their neutral endopeptidases and neutral proteinase activities, respectively. The assay provides a convenient tool for the kinetic investigation of neutral endopeptidases and neutral proteinases and for assessing their function in biological systems. PMID:2507355

  8. Analysis of the peptidoglycan hydrolase complement of Lactobacillus casei and characterization of the major γ-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Regulski, Krzysztof; Courtin, Pascal; Meyrand, Mickael; Claes, Ingmar J J; Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; Hols, Pascal; Guillot, Alain; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG) is the major component of Gram positive bacteria cell wall and is essential for bacterial integrity and shape. Bacteria synthesize PG hydrolases (PGHs) which are able to cleave bonds in their own PG and play major roles in PG remodelling required for bacterial growth and division. Our aim was to identify the main PGHs in Lactobacillus casei BL23, a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties.The PGH complement was first identified in silico by amino acid sequence similarity searches of the BL23 genome sequence. Thirteen PGHs were detected with different predicted hydrolytic specificities. Transcription of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. A proteomic analysis combining the use of SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS revealed the main seven PGHs synthesized during growth of L. casei BL23. Among these PGHs, LCABL_02770 (renamed Lc-p75) was identified as the major one. This protein is the homolog of p75 (Msp1) major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which was shown to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. We identified its hydrolytic specificity on PG and showed that it is a γ-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase. It has a marked specificity towards PG tetrapeptide chains versus tripeptide chains and for oligomers rather than monomers. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that Lc-p75 localizes at cell septa in agreement with its role in daughter cell separation. It is also secreted under an active form as detected in zymogram. Comparison of the muropeptide profiles of wild type and Lc-p75-negative mutant revealed a decrease of the amount of disaccharide-dipeptide in the mutant PG in agreement with Lc-p75 activity. As a conclusion, Lc-p75 is the major L. casei BL23 PGH with endopeptidase specificity and a key role in daughter cell separation. Further studies will aim at investigating the role of Lc-p75 in the anti-inflammatory potential of L. casei BL23. PMID:22384208

  9. N-phosphonacetyl-L-isoasparagine a Potent and Specific Inhibitor of E. coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase†

    PubMed Central

    Eldo, Joby; Cardia, James P.; O’Day, Elizabeth M.; Xia, Jiarong; Tsurata, Hiro; Kantrowitz, Evan R.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of a new inhibitor, N-phosphonacetyl-L-isoasparagine (PALI), of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) is reported, as well as structural studies of the enzyme·PALI complex. PALI was synthesized in 7 steps from β-benzyl L-aspartate. The KD of PALI was 2 μM. Kinetics and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments showed that PALI can induce the cooperative transition of ATCase from the T to the R state. The X-ray structure of the enzyme·PALI complex showed 22 hydrogen bonding interactions between the enzyme and PALI. The kinetic characterization and crystal structure of the ATCase·PALI complex also provides detailed information regarding the importance of the α-carboxylate for the binding of the substrate aspartate. PMID:17004708

  10. Action of aspartate on the /sup 32/Pi incorporation into phospholipids of cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    de Scarnati, O.C.; Sato, M.; De Robertis, E.

    1982-02-01

    The effect of L-aspartate on the /sup 32/Pi incorporation of phospholipids, was studied on slices of rat cerebral cortex. This amino acid produced an inhibitory effect in concentrations 0.01-10 mM, which was more evident at 120 min. This effect was not stereospecific and did not imply a change in Pi uptake and in nucleotides approximating P precursors. The inhibition was present in PS, PC, PE and to a lesser extent in Pi. On liver slices 1 mM L-aspartate had the opposite effect, stimulating the incorporation of /sup 32/Pi into total phospholipids. Our results suggest that the effect of L-aspartate is by a non-specific mechanism, probably not mediated by a receptor.

  11. Selective permeability of rat liver mitochondria to purified aspartate aminotransferases in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Marra, E; Doonan, S; Saccone, C; Quagliariello, E

    1977-01-01

    1. A method was devised to allow determination of intramitochondrial aspartate amino-transferase activity in suspensions of intact mitochondria. 2. Addition of purified rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase to suspensions of rat liver mitochondria caused an apparent increase in the intramitochondrial enzyme activity. No increase was observed when the mitochondria were preincubated with the purified cytoplasmic isoenzyme. 3. These results suggest that mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, but not the cytoplasmic isoenzyme, is able to pass from solution into the matrix of intact rat liver mitochondria in vitro. 4. This system may provide a model for studies of the little-understood processes by which cytoplasmically synthesized components are incorporated into mitochondria in vivo. PMID:883959

  12. Adsorption of L-aspartate to rutile (α-TiO 2): Experimental and theoretical surface complexation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, Caroline M.; Jonsson, Christopher L.; Estrada, Charlene; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Cleaves, H. James, II; Hazen, Robert M.

    2010-04-01

    Interactions between aqueous amino acids and mineral surfaces influence many geochemical processes from biomineralization to the origin of life. However, the specific reactions involved and the attachment mechanisms are mostly unknown. We have studied the adsorption of L-aspartate on the surface of rutile (α-TiO 2, pH PPZC = 5.4) in NaCl(aq) over a wide range of pH, ligand-to-solid ratio and ionic strength, using potentiometric titrations and batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption is favored below pH 6 with a maximum of 1.2 μmol of adsorbed aspartate per m 2 of rutile at pH 4 in our experiments. The adsorption decreases at higher pH because the negatively charged aspartate molecule is repelled by the negatively charged rutile surface above pH PPZC. At pH values of 3-5, aspartate adsorption increases with decreasing ionic strength. The adsorption of aspartate on rutile is very similar to that previously published for glutamate ( Jonsson et al., 2009). An extended triple-layer model was used to provide a quantitative thermodynamic characterization of the aspartate adsorption data. Two reaction stoichiometries identical in reaction stoichiometry to those for glutamate were needed. At low surface coverages, aspartate, like glutamate, may form a bridging-bidentate surface species binding through both carboxyl groups, i.e. "lying down" on the rutile surface. At high surface coverages, the reaction stoichiometry for aspartate was interpreted differently compared to glutamate: it likely involves an outer-sphere or hydrogen bonded aspartate surface species, as opposed to a partly inner-sphere complex for glutamate. Both the proposed aspartate species are qualitatively consistent with previously published ATR-FTIR spectroscopic results for aspartate on amorphous titanium dioxide. The surface complexation model for aspartate was tested against experimental data for the potentiometric titration of aspartate in the presence of rutile. In addition, the model correctly

  13. Aspartate Embedding Depth Affects pHLIP’s Insertion pKa

    PubMed Central

    Fendos, Justin; Barrera, Francisco N.; Engelman, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    We have used the pHLIP® (pH Low Insertion Peptide) peptide family to study the role of aspartate embedding depth in pH-dependent transmembrane peptide insertion. pHLIP binds to the surface of a lipid bilayer as a largely unstructured monomer at neutral pH. When pH is lowered, pHLIP inserts spontaneously across the membrane as a spanning α-helix. pHLIP insertion is reversible when pH is adjusted back to a neutral value. One of the critical events facilitating pHLIP insertion is the protonation of aspartates in the spanning domain of the peptide: the negative side chains of these residues convert to uncharged, polar forms, facilitating insertion by altering the hydrophobicity of the spanning domain. To further examine this protonation mechanism, we created pHLIP sequence variants in which the position of the two spanning aspartates (D14, D25) was moved up or down in the sequence. We hypothesized that aspartate depth in the inserted state would directly affect the proton affinity of the acidic side chains, altering the pKa of pH-dependent insertion. To this end, we also mutated the arginine at position 11 to see if arginine snorkeling modulates the insertion pKa by affecting aspartate depth. Our results indicate both types of mutations change the insertion pKa, supporting the idea that aspartate depth is a participating parameter in determining pH dependence. We also show that pHLIP’s resistance to aggregation can be altered with our mutations, identifying a new criterion for improving pHLIP performance in vivo when targeting acidic disease tissues such as cancer and inflammation. PMID:23721379

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the periplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar and its complex with aspartate

    SciTech Connect

    Mise, Takeshi; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Samatey, Fadel A.; Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2014-08-27

    The periplasmic domain of the E. coli aspartate receptor Tar was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized with and without bound ligand. The crystals obtained diffracted to resolutions of 1.58 and 1.95 Å, respectively. The cell-surface receptor Tar mediates bacterial chemotaxis toward an attractant, aspartate (Asp), and away from a repellent, Ni{sup 2+}. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of Tar activity by its ligands, the Escherichia coli Tar periplasmic domain with and without bound aspartate (Asp-Tar and apo-Tar, respectively) were each crystallized in two different forms. Using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 2.10 and 2.40 Å, respectively. Alternatively, using sodium chloride as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 1.95 and 1.58 Å, respectively. Crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 adopted space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, while those of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 adopted space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and C2, respectively.

  15. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Qatar cohort of the A1chieve study

    PubMed Central

    Daghash, Mohamed Hasan; Raja, Jabbar Mubarak; Milad, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background: The A1chieve, a multicentric (28 countries), 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726) in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Qatar. Results: A total of 91 patients were enrolled in the study. Two insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Study patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 88), insulin detemir (n = 2), and other insulin combinations (n = 1). At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA1c: 10.9%) and insulin users (mean HbA1c: 9.1%) groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, all the study groups showed improvement in HbA1c (insulin naïve: −1.8%, insulin users: −1.3%). Major hypoglycaemia did not occur in the study patients. SADRs were reported in 1.4% of insulin users. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia. PMID:24404484

  16. Proton transfer pathways in an aspartate-water cluster sampled by a network of discrete states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidelbach, Marco; Betz, Fridtjof; Mäusle, Raquel Maya; Imhof, Petra

    2016-08-01

    Proton transfer reactions are complex transitions due to the size and flexibility of the hydrogen-bonded networks along which the protons may "hop". The combination of molecular dynamics based sampling of water positions and orientations with direct sampling of proton positions is an efficient way to capture the interplay of these degrees of freedom in a transition network. The energetically most favourable pathway in the proton transfer network computed for an aspartate-water cluster shows the pre-orientation of water molecules and aspartate side chains to be a pre-requisite for the subsequent concerted proton transfer to the product state.

  17. Chemotactic responses of Escherichia coli to small jumps of photoreleased L-aspartate.

    PubMed

    Jasuja, R; Keyoung, J; Reid, G P; Trentham, D R; Khan, S

    1999-03-01

    Computer-assisted motion analysis coupled to flash photolysis of caged chemoeffectors provides a means for time-resolved analysis of bacterial chemotaxis. Escherichia coli taxis toward the amino acid attractant L-aspartate is mediated by the Tar receptor. The physiology of this response, as well as Tar structure and biochemistry, has been studied extensively. The beta-2, 6-dinitrobenzyl ester of L-aspartic acid and the 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl ether of 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-tris-sulfonic acid were synthesized. These compounds liberated L-aspartate and the fluorophore 8-hydroxypyrene 1,3,6-tris-sulfonic acid (pyranine) upon irradiation with near-UV light. Photorelease of the fluorophore was used to define the amplitude and temporal stability of the aspartate jumps employed in chemotaxis experiments. The dependence of chemotactic adaptation times on aspartate concentration, determined in mixing experiments, was best fit by two Tar aspartate-binding sites. Signal processing (excitation) times, amplitudes, and adaptive recovery of responses elicited by aspartate jumps producing less than 20% change in receptor occupancy were characterized in photorelease assays. Aspartate concentration jumps in the nanomolar range elicited measurable responses. The response threshold and sensitivity of swimming bacteria matched those of bacteria tethered to glass by a single flagellum. Stimuli of similar magnitude, delivered either by rapid mixing or photorelease, evoked responses of similar strength, as assessed by recovery time measurements. These times remained proportional to change in receptor occupancy close to threshold, irrespective of prior occupancy. Motor excitation responses decayed exponentially with time. Rates of excitation responses near threshold ranged from 2 to 7 s-1. These values are consistent with control of excitation signaling by decay of phosphorylated pools of the response regulator protein, CheY. Excitation response rates increased slightly with stimulus size

  18. Retrograde transport of (/sup 3/H)-D-aspartate label by cochlear and vestibular efferent neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, D.W.; Schwarz, I.E.

    1988-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)-D-aspartic acid was injected into the inner ear of rats. After a six hour survival time, labeled cells were found at all locations known to contain efferent cochlear or vestibular neurons. Most labeled neurons were found in the ipsilateral lateral superior olivary nucleus (LSO), although both ventral nuclei of the trapezoid body (VTB), group E, and the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (CPR) just adjacent to the ascending limb of the facial nerve also contained labeled cells. Because not all efferent neurons in the rat could be previously shown to be cholinergic, aspartate and glutamate are efferent transmitter candidates.

  19. CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 regulates fetal lung growth and maturation in utero by potentiating endogenous bombesin-like peptides.

    PubMed Central

    King, K A; Hua, J; Torday, J S; Drazen, J M; Graham, S A; Shipp, M A; Sunday, M E

    1993-01-01

    Bombesin-like peptides (BLPs) are mitogens for bronchial epithelial cells and small cell lung carcinomas, and increase fetal lung growth and maturation in utero and in organ cultures. BLPs are hydrolyzed by the enzyme CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (CD10/NEP) which is expressed in bronchial epithelium and functions to inhibit BLP-mediated growth of small cell lung carcinomas. To determine whether CD10/NEP regulates peptide-mediated lung development, we administered a specific CD10/NEP inhibitor, SCH32615, to fetal mice in utero from gestational days e15-17. Fetal lung tissues were evaluated on e18 for: (a) growth using [3H]thymidine incorporation into nuclear DNA; and (b) maturation using: [3H]-choline incorporation into surfactant phospholipids, electron microscopy for type II pneumocytes, and Northern blot analyses for surfactant apoproteins A, B, and C. Inhibition of CD10/NEP stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA (70% above baseline, P < 0.005), [3H]choline incorporation into surfactant phospholipids (38% above baseline, P < 0.005), increased numbers of type II pneumocytes (36% above baseline, P = 0.07), and fivefold higher surfactant protein A transcripts (P < 0.05). CD10/NEP-mediated effects were completely blocked by the specific bombesin receptor antagonist, [D-Phe12, Leu14]bombesin. These observations suggest that CD10/NEP regulates fetal lung growth and maturation mediated by endogenous BLPs. Images PMID:8486767

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae Endopeptidase O (PepO) Elicits a Strong Innate Immune Response in Mice via TLR2 and TLR4 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Kang, Lihua; Yao, Hua; He, Yujuan; Wang, Xiaofang; Xu, Wenchun; Song, Zhixin; Yin, Yibing; Zhang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between virulence factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae and innate immune receptors elicits host responses through specific signaling pathways during infection. Insights into the signaling events may provide a better knowledge of the starting events for host-pathogen interaction. Here we demonstrated a significant induction of innate immune response elicited by recombinant S. pneumoniae endopeptidase O (rPepO), a newer pneumococcal virulence protein, both in vivo and in vitro. Intratracheal instillation of rPepO protein resulted in significant increase of cytokines production and neutrophils infiltration in mouse lungs. TLR2 or TLR4 deficient mice subjected to rPepO treatment showed decreased cytokines production, reduced neutrophils infiltration and intensified tissue injury as compared with WT mice. Upon stimulation, cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL1, and CXCL10 were produced by peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs) in a TLR2 and TLR4 dependent manner. rPepO-induced cytokines production was markedly decreased in TLR2 or TLR4 deficient PEMs. Further study revealed that cytokines induction relied on the rapid phosphorylation of p38, Akt and p65, not the activation of ERK or JNK. While in TLR2 or TLR4 deficient PEMs the activation of p65 was undetectable. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that the newer pneumococcal virulence protein PepO activates host innate immune response partially through TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways. PMID:26973817

  1. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity. PMID:25345487

  2. The assignment of a Thinopyrum distichum (Thunb.) Löve-derived translocation to the long arm of wheat chromosome 7D using endopeptidase polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Marais, G F; Marais, A S

    1990-02-01

    Endopeptidase zymograms of the translocation line 'Indis' revealed the presence of several major and minor bands that had differential expression in coleoptile and seed tissues. While 'Indis' lacks Ep-D1a, which is present in the parental cultivar 'Inia 66', it also may not express any of the Th. distichum bands. The 'Indis' zymogram was found to be identical to that of an isogenic line of 'Inia 66' possessing Lr19. Since the absence of an Ep-D1a product appears to be linked to the 7DL translocation, it is possible to use the null condition as a marker for both the Lr19 or 'Indis' translocations. The 'Indis' translocation also did not show recombination with the cn-D1 chlorophyl mutant on 7DL, confirming that a part of 7D was involved. The results of a telocentric mapping experiment involving the 7D telosomes indicated that in 'Indis' a chromosome segment from Th. distichum replaced a large section of 7DL of 'Inia 66'. PMID:24226216

  3. House dust mites possess a polymorphic, single domain putative peptidoglycan d,l endopeptidase belonging to the NlpC/P60 Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Vivian H.; Stewart, Geoffrey A.; Chang, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    A 14 kDa protein homologous to the γ-d-glutamyl-l-diamino acid endopeptidase members of the NlpC/P60 Superfamily has been described in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae but it is not clear whether other species produce homologues. Bioinformatics revealed homologous genes in other Sarcopteformes mite species (Psoroptes ovis and Blomia tropicalis) but not in Tetranychus urticae and Metaseiulus occidentalis. The degrees of identity (similarity) between the D. pteronyssinus mature protein and those from D. farinae, P. ovis and B. tropicalis were 82% (96%), 77% (93%) and 61% (82%), respectively. Phylogenetic studies showed the mite proteins were monophyletic and shared a common ancestor with both actinomycetes and ascomycetes. The gene encoding the D. pteronyssinus protein was polymorphic and intronless in contrast to that reported for D. farinae. Homology studies suggest that the mite, ascomycete and actinomycete proteins are involved in the catalysis of stem peptide attached to peptidoglycan. The finding of a gene encoding a P60 family member in the D. pteronyssinus genome together with the presence of a bacterial promotor suggests an evolutionary link to one or more prokaryotic endosymbionts. PMID:26566476

  4. Substrate specificity of an elongation-specific peptidoglycan endopeptidase and its implications for cell wall architecture and growth of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Tobias; Cava, Felipe; Lam, Hubert; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2013-09-01

    The bacterial cell wall consists of peptidoglycan (PG), a sturdy mesh of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides. This rigid structure constrains cell shape and size, yet is sufficiently dynamic to accommodate insertion of newly synthesized PG, which was long hypothesized, and recently demonstrated, to require cleavage of the covalent peptide cross-links that couple previously inserted material. Here, we identify several genes in Vibrio cholerae that collectively are required for growth - particularly elongation - of this pathogen. V. cholerae encodes three putative periplasmic proteins, here denoted ShyA, ShyB, and ShyC, that contain both PG binding and M23 family peptidase domains. While none is essential individually, the absence of both ShyA and ShyC results in synthetic lethality, while the absence of ShyA and ShyB causes a significant growth deficiency. ShyA is a D,d-endopeptidase able to cleave most peptide chain cross-links in V. cholerae's PG. PG from a ∆shyA mutant has decreased average chain length, suggesting that ShyA may promote removal of short PG strands. Unexpectedly, ShyA has little activity against muropeptides containing pentapeptides, which typically characterize newly synthesized material. ShyA's substrate-dependent activity may contribute to selection of cleavage sites in PG, whose implications for the process of side-wall growth are discussed. PMID:23834664

  5. Asparagine endopeptidase is not essential for class II MHC antigen presentation but is required for processing of cathepsin L in mice.

    PubMed

    Maehr, René; Hang, Howard C; Mintern, Justine D; Kim, You-Me; Cuvillier, Armelle; Nishimura, Mikio; Yamada, Kenji; Shirahama-Noda, Kanae; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2005-06-01

    Class II MHC molecules survey the endocytic compartments of APCs and present antigenic peptides to CD4 T cells. In this context, lysosomal proteases are essential not only for the generation of antigenic peptides but also for proteolysis of the invariant chain to allow the maturation of class II MHC molecules. Recent studies with protease inhibitors have implicated the asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) in class II MHC-restricted Ag presentation. We now report that AEP-deficient mice show no differences in processing of the invariant chain or maturation of class II MHC products compared with wild-type mice. In the absence of AEP, presentation to primary T cells of OVA and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, two Ags that contain asparagine residues within or in proximity to the relevant epitopes was unimpaired. Cathepsin (Cat) L, a lysosomal cysteine protease essential for the development to CD4 and NK T cells, fails to be processed into its mature two-chain form in AEP-deficient cells. Despite this, the numbers of CD4 and NK T cells are normal, showing that the single-chain form of Cat L is sufficient for its function in vivo. We conclude that AEP is essential for processing of Cat L but not for class II MHC-restricted Ag presentation. PMID:15905550

  6. Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), IL-1β secretion, and asparagine endopeptidase are critical factors for alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and bacterial killing.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Delphyne; Le Gars, Mathieu; Balloy, Viviane; Barbier, Diane; Maschalidi, Sophia; Tohme, Mira; Chignard, Michel; Ramphal, Reuben; Manoury, Bénédicte; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-31

    A deficit in early clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is crucial in nosocomial pneumonia and in chronic lung infections. Few studies have addressed the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are early pathogen associated molecular pattern receptors, in pathogen uptake and clearance by alveolar macrophages (AMs). Here, we report that TLR5 engagement is crucial for bacterial clearance by AMs in vitro and in vivo because unflagellated P. aeruginosa or different mutants defective in TLR5 activation were resistant to AM phagocytosis and killing. In addition, the clearance of PAK (a wild-type P. aeruginosa strain) by primary AMs was causally associated with increased IL-1β release, which was dramatically reduced with PAK mutants or in WT PAK-infected primary TLR5(-/-) AMs, demonstrating the dependence of IL-1β production on TLR5. We showed that this IL-1β production was important in endosomal pH acidification and in inducing the killing of bacteria by AMs through asparagine endopeptidase (AEP), a key endosomal cysteine protease. In agreement, AMs from IL-1R1(-/-) and AEP(-/-) mice were unable to kill P. aeruginosa. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that TLR5 engagement plays a major role in P. aeruginosa internalization and in triggering IL-1β formation. PMID:22307620

  7. Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), IL-1β secretion, and asparagine endopeptidase are critical factors for alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and bacterial killing

    PubMed Central

    Descamps, Delphyne; Le Gars, Mathieu; Balloy, Viviane; Barbier, Diane; Maschalidi, Sophia; Tohme, Mira; Chignard, Michel; Ramphal, Reuben; Manoury, Bénédicte; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    A deficit in early clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is crucial in nosocomial pneumonia and in chronic lung infections. Few studies have addressed the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are early pathogen associated molecular pattern receptors, in pathogen uptake and clearance by alveolar macrophages (AMs). Here, we report that TLR5 engagement is crucial for bacterial clearance by AMs in vitro and in vivo because unflagellated P. aeruginosa or different mutants defective in TLR5 activation were resistant to AM phagocytosis and killing. In addition, the clearance of PAK (a wild-type P. aeruginosa strain) by primary AMs was causally associated with increased IL-1β release, which was dramatically reduced with PAK mutants or in WT PAK-infected primary TLR5−/− AMs, demonstrating the dependence of IL-1β production on TLR5. We showed that this IL-1β production was important in endosomal pH acidification and in inducing the killing of bacteria by AMs through asparagine endopeptidase (AEP), a key endosomal cysteine protease. In agreement, AMs from IL-1R1−/− and AEP−/− mice were unable to kill P. aeruginosa. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that TLR5 engagement plays a major role in P. aeruginosa internalization and in triggering IL-1β formation. PMID:22307620

  8. Functional up-regulation of endopeptidase neurolysin during post-acute and early recovery phases of experimental stroke in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Wangler, Naomi J; Yang, Li; Shah, Kaushik; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Abbruscato, Thomas J; Karamyan, Vardan T

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we provide evidence for the first time that membrane-bound endopeptidase neurolysin is up-regulated in different parts of mouse brain affected by focal ischemia-reperfusion in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. Radioligand binding, enzymatic and immunoblotting experiments in membrane preparations of frontoparietal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus isolated from the ischemic hemisphere of mouse brain 24 h after reperfusion revealed statistically significant increase (≥ twofold) in quantity and activity of neurolysin compared with sham-operated controls. Cerebellar membranes isolated from the ischemic hemisphere served as negative control supporting the observations that up-regulation of neurolysin occurs in post-ischemic brain regions. This study also documents sustained functional up-regulation of neurolysin in frontoparietal cortical membranes for at least 7 days after stroke, which appears not to be transcriptionally or translationally regulated, but rather depends on translocation of cytosolic neurolysin to the membranes and mitochondria. Considering diversity of endogenous neurolysin substrates (neurotensin, bradykinin, angiotensins I/II, substance P, hemopressin, dynorphin A(1-8), metorphamide, somatostatin) and the well-documented role of these peptidergic systems in pathogenesis of stroke, resistance to ischemic injury and/or post-stroke brain recovery, our findings suggest that neurolysin may play a role in processes modulating the brain's response to stroke and its recovery after stroke. PMID:24164478

  9. Neutral endopeptidase-resistant C-type natriuretic peptide variant represents a new therapeutic approach for treatment of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3-related dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Daniel J; Dvorak-Ewell, Melita; Bullens, Sherry; Lorget, Florence; Bell, Sean M; Peng, Jeff; Castillo, Sianna; Aoyagi-Scharber, Mika; O'Neill, Charles A; Krejci, Pavel; Wilcox, William R; Rimoin, David L; Bunting, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of human dwarfism, is caused by an activating autosomal dominant mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 gene. Genetic overexpression of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a positive regulator of endochondral bone growth, prevents dwarfism in mouse models of ACH. However, administration of exogenous CNP is compromised by its rapid clearance in vivo through receptor-mediated and proteolytic pathways. Using in vitro approaches, we developed modified variants of human CNP, resistant to proteolytic degradation by neutral endopeptidase, that retain the ability to stimulate signaling downstream of the CNP receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor B. The variants tested in vivo demonstrated significantly longer serum half-lives than native CNP. Subcutaneous administration of one of these CNP variants (BMN 111) resulted in correction of the dwarfism phenotype in a mouse model of ACH and overgrowth of the axial and appendicular skeletons in wild-type mice without observable changes in trabecular and cortical bone architecture. Moreover, significant growth plate widening that translated into accelerated bone growth, at hemodynamically tolerable doses, was observed in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys that had received daily subcutaneous administrations of BMN 111. BMN 111 was well tolerated and represents a promising new approach for treatment of patients with ACH. PMID:25650377

  10. Cloning and expression of genes of aspartate-family amino acid aiosynthesis from medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four of the amino acids that must be acquired in the human diet, lysine, threonine, methionine and isoleucine, are derived from a common precursor, aspartate, and are produced in a branched, highly-regulated, biosynthetic pathway. Moreover, the common dietary sources of plant proteins, cereals grain...

  11. Threonine Overproduction in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing a Mutant Desensitized Aspartate Kinase of Escherichia coli1

    PubMed Central

    Shaul, Orit; Galili, Gad

    1992-01-01

    In higher plants, the synthesis of the essential amino acid threonine is regulated primarily by the sensitivity of the first enzyme in its biosynthetic pathway, aspartate kinase, to feedback inhibition by threonine and lysine. We aimed to study the potential of increasing threonine accumulation in plants by means of genetic engineering. This was addressed by the expression of a mutant, desensitized aspartate kinase derived from Escherichia coli either in the cytoplasm or in the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum cv Samsun NN) plants. Both types of transgenic plants exhibited a significant overproduction of free threonine. However, threonine accumulation was higher in plants expressing the bacterial enzyme in the chloroplast, indicating that compartmentalization of aspartate kinase within this organelle was important, although not essential. Threonine overproduction in leaves was positively correlated with the level of the desensitized enzyme. Transgenic plants expressing the highest leaf aspartate kinase activity also exhibited a slight increase in the levels of free lysine and isoleucine, both of which share a common biosynthetic pathway with threonine, but showed no significant change in the level of other free amino acids. The present study proposes a new molecular biological approach to increase the limiting content of threonine in higher plants. PMID:16653099

  12. Genome-wide identification, evolutuionary and expression analysis of aspartic proteases gene superfamily in grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspartic proteases (APs) are a large family of proteolytic enzymes in vertebrates, plants, yeast, nematodes, parasites, fungi, and viruses. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes, such as plant senescence, stress response, programmed cell death, and reproduction. Prior to the pr...

  13. A Green Polymerization of Aspartic Acid for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The green polymerization of aspartic acid carried out during an organic-inorganic synthesis laboratory course for undergraduate students is described. The procedure is based on work by Donlar Corporation, a Peru, Illinois-based company that won a Green Chemistry Challenge Award in 1996 in the Small Business category for preparing thermal…

  14. Identification of a small molecule [beta]-secretase inhibitor that binds without catalytic aspartate engagement

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Thomas G.; Hills, Ivory D.; Nomland, Ashley A.; de León, Pablo; Allison, Timothy; McGaughey, Georgia; Colussi, Dennis; Tugusheva, Katherine; Haugabook, Sharie J.; Espeseth, Amy S.; Zuck, Paul; Graham, Samuel L.; Stachel, Shawn J.

    2010-09-02

    A small molecule inhibitor of beta-secretase with a unique binding mode has been developed. Crystallographic determination of the enzyme-inhibitor complex shows the catalytic aspartate residues in the active site are not engaged in inhibitor binding. This unprecedented binding mode in the field of aspartyl protease inhibition is described.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  20. Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia in a Patient with Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Postherpetic Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Jorge; Igartua Laraudogoitia, Jon; Montes Ros, Milagrosa

    2016-07-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a neuroimmunologic disorder that has been increasingly diagnosed during the past 5 years. It provokes a predictable syndrome treated with several immunomodulatory agents, such as corticosteroids and/or biologics. We managed a child with this disease who developed Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia as a direct infectious complication of the use of rituximab. PMID:27093160

  1. Discovery of MK-8718, an HIV Protease Inhibitor Containing a Novel Morpholine Aspartate Binding Group.

    PubMed

    Bungard, Christopher J; Williams, Peter D; Ballard, Jeanine E; Bennett, David J; Beaulieu, Christian; Bahnck-Teets, Carolyn; Carroll, Steve S; Chang, Ronald K; Dubost, David C; Fay, John F; Diamond, Tracy L; Greshock, Thomas J; Hao, Li; Holloway, M Katharine; Felock, Peter J; Gesell, Jennifer J; Su, Hua-Poo; Manikowski, Jesse J; McKay, Daniel J; Miller, Mike; Min, Xu; Molinaro, Carmela; Moradei, Oscar M; Nantermet, Philippe G; Nadeau, Christian; Sanchez, Rosa I; Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Shipe, William D; Singh, Sanjay K; Truong, Vouy Linh; Vijayasaradhi, Sivalenka; Wiscount, Catherine M; Vacca, Joseph P; Crane, Sheldon N; McCauley, John A

    2016-07-14

    A novel HIV protease inhibitor was designed using a morpholine core as the aspartate binding group. Analysis of the crystal structure of the initial lead bound to HIV protease enabled optimization of enzyme potency and antiviral activity. This afforded a series of potent orally bioavailable inhibitors of which MK-8718 was identified as a compound with a favorable overall profile. PMID:27437081

  2. Insights into the behaviour of biomolecules on the early Earth: The concentration of aspartate by layered double hydroxide minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, Brian; Erastova, Valentina; Geatches, Dawn L.; Clark, Stewart J.; Greenwell, H. Christopher; Fraser, Donald G.

    2016-03-01

    The role of mineral surfaces in concentrating and facilitating the polymerisation of simple protobiomolecules during the Hadean and Archean has been the subject of much research in order to constrain the conditions that may have led to the origin of life on early Earth. Here we examine the adsorption of the amino acid aspartate on layered double hydroxide minerals, and use a combined computer simulation - experimental spectroscopy approach to gain insight into the resulting structures of the host-aspartate material. We show that the uptake of aspartate occurs in alkaline solution by anion exchange of the dianion form of aspartate, rather than by surface adsorption. Anion exchange only occurs at values of pH where a significant population of aspartate has the amino group deprotonated, and is then highly efficient up to the mineral anion exchange capacity.

  3. DNA interaction with octahedral and square planar Ni(II) complexes of aspartic-acid Schiff-bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallam, S. A.; Orabi, A. S.; Abbas, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Ni(II) complexes of (S,E)-2-(2-OHbenzilydene)aspartic acid; (S,E)-2-(2,3-diOHbenzilydene)aspartic acid-; (S,E)-2-(2,4-diOH-benzilydene)aspartic acid; (S,E)-2-(2,5-diOHbenzilydene)aspartic acid and (S,E)-2-((2-OHnaphthalene-1-yl)methylene)aspartic acid Schiff-bases have been synthesized by template method in ethanol or ammonia media. They were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, magnetic moment, UV, IR and 1H nmr spectra as well as thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DTA). The Schiff-bases are dibasic tridentate or tetradentate donors and the complexes have square planar and octahedral structures. The complexes decompose in two or three steps where kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the decomposition steps were computed. The interactions of the formed complexes with FM-DNA were monitored by UV and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  4. Does aspartic acid racemization constrain the depth limit of the subsurface biosphere?

    PubMed

    Onstott, T C; Magnabosco, C; Aubrey, A D; Burton, A S; Dworkin, J P; Elsila, J E; Grunsfeld, S; Cao, B H; Hein, J E; Glavin, D P; Kieft, T L; Silver, B J; Phelps, T J; van Heerden, E; Opperman, D J; Bada, J L

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of the subsurface biosphere have deduced average cellular doubling times of hundreds to thousands of years based upon geochemical models. We have directly constrained the in situ average cellular protein turnover or doubling times for metabolically active micro-organisms based on cellular amino acid abundances, D/L values of cellular aspartic acid, and the in vivo aspartic acid racemization rate. Application of this method to planktonic microbial communities collected from deep fractures in South Africa yielded maximum cellular amino acid turnover times of ~89 years for 1 km depth and 27 °C and 1-2 years for 3 km depth and 54 °C. The latter turnover times are much shorter than previously estimated cellular turnover times based upon geochemical arguments. The aspartic acid racemization rate at higher temperatures yields cellular protein doubling times that are consistent with the survival times of hyperthermophilic strains and predicts that at temperatures of 85 °C, cells must replace proteins every couple of days to maintain enzymatic activity. Such a high maintenance requirement may be the principal limit on the abundance of living micro-organisms in the deep, hot subsurface biosphere, as well as a potential limit on their activity. The measurement of the D/L of aspartic acid in biological samples is a potentially powerful tool for deep, fractured continental and oceanic crustal settings where geochemical models of carbon turnover times are poorly constrained. Experimental observations on the racemization rates of aspartic acid in living thermophiles and hyperthermophiles could test this hypothesis. The development of corrections for cell wall peptides and spores will be required, however, to improve the accuracy of these estimates for environmental samples. PMID:24289240

  5. Structural Insights into the Activation and Inhibition of Histo-Aspartic Protease from Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaumik, Prasenjit; Xiao, Huogen; Hidaka, Koushi; Gustchina, Alla; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Yada, Rickey Y.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2012-09-17

    Histo-aspartic protease (HAP) from Plasmodium falciparum is a promising target for the development of novel antimalarial drugs. The sequence of HAP is highly similar to those of pepsin-like aspartic proteases, but one of the two catalytic aspartates, Asp32, is replaced with histidine. Crystal structures of the truncated zymogen of HAP and of the complex of the mature enzyme with inhibitor KNI-10395 have been determined at 2.1 and 2.5 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. As in other proplasmepsins, the propeptide of the zymogen interacts with the C-terminal domain of the enzyme, forcing the N- and C-terminal domains apart, thereby separating His32 and Asp215 and preventing formation of the mature active site. In the inhibitor complex, the enzyme forms a tight domain-swapped dimer, not previously seen in any aspartic proteases. The inhibitor is found in an unprecedented conformation resembling the letter U, stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Surprisingly, the location and conformation of the inhibitor are similar to those of the fragment of helix 2 comprising residues 34p-38p in the prosegments of the zymogens of gastric aspartic proteases; a corresponding helix assumes a vastly different orientation in proplasmepsins. Each inhibitor molecule is in contact with two molecules of HAP, interacting with the carboxylate group of the catalytic Asp215 of one HAP protomer through a water molecule, while also making a direct hydrogen bond to Glu278A' of the other protomer. A comparison of the shifts in the positions of the catalytic residues in the inhibitor complex presented here with those published previously gives further hints regarding the enzymatic mechanism of HAP.

  6. Taurine attenuates D-[3H]aspartate release evoked by depolarization in ischemic corticostriatal slices.

    PubMed

    Molchanova, Svetlana M; Oja, Simo S; Saransaari, Pirjo

    2006-07-12

    Taurine is thought to be protective in ischemia due to its neuroinhibitory effects. The present aim was to assess the ability of taurine to attenuate glutamate release evoked by ischemia and to determine which component of this release is affected. The release of preloaded D-[(3)H]aspartate (a non-metabolized analog of glutamate) from superfused murine corticostriatal slices was used as index of glutamate release. Preincubation of corticostriatal slices with 10 mM taurine reduced the D-[(3)H]aspartate release evoked by either chemical ischemia (0.5 mM NaCN in glucose-free medium) or oxygen-glucose deprivation. The taurine uptake inhibitor guanidinoethanesulfonate (5 mM), the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (0.1 mM) and the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (0.1 mM) did not block the taurine effect. To determine which component of ischemia-induced glutamate release is affected by taurine, three pathways of this release were pharmacologically modeled. Unlabeled D-aspartate (0.5 mM) and hypo-osmotic medium (NaCl reduced by 50 mM) evoked D-[(3)H]aspartate release via homoexchange and hypo-osmotic release pathways, respectively. Taurine did not influence these pathways. However, it suppressed the synaptic release of D-[(3)H]aspartate evoked by the voltage-gated sodium channel opener veratridine (0.1 mM). Taurine thus reduces glutamate release under ischemic conditions by affecting the depolarization-evoked component. PMID:16781687

  7. Does aspartic acid racemization constrain the depth limit of the subsurface biosphere?

    SciTech Connect

    Onstott, T. C.; Aubrey, A.D.; Kieft, T L; Silver, B J; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Van Heerden, E.; Opperman, D. J.; Bada, J L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of the subsurface biosphere have deduced average cellular doubling times of hundreds to thousands of years based upon geochemical models. We have directly constrained the in situ average cellular protein turnover or doubling times for metabolically active micro-organisms based on cellular amino acid abundances, D/L values of cellular aspartic acid, and the in vivo aspartic acid racemization rate. Application of this method to planktonic microbial communities collected from deep fractures in South Africa yielded maximum cellular amino acid turnover times of ~89 years for 1 km depth and 27 C and 1 2 years for 3 km depth and 54 C. The latter turnover times are much shorter than previously estimated cellular turnover times based upon geochemical arguments. The aspartic acid racemization rate at higher temperatures yields cellular protein doubling times that are consistent with the survival times of hyperthermophilic strains and predicts that at temperatures of 85 C, cells must replace proteins every couple of days to maintain enzymatic activity. Such a high maintenance requirement may be the principal limit on the abundance of living micro-organisms in the deep, hot subsurface biosphere, as well as a potential limit on their activity. The measurement of the D/L of aspartic acid in biological samples is a potentially powerful tool for deep, fractured continental and oceanic crustal settings where geochemical models of carbon turnover times are poorly constrained. Experimental observations on the racemization rates of aspartic acid in living thermophiles and hyperthermophiles could test this hypothesis. The development of corrections for cell wall peptides and spores will be required, however, to improve the accuracy of these estimates for environmental samples.

  8. Does Aspartic Acid Racemization Constrain the Depth Limit of the Subsurface Biosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, T C.; Magnabosco, C.; Aubrey, A. D.; Burton, A. S.; Dworkin, J. P.; Elsila, J. E.; Grunsfeld, S.; Cao, B. H.; Hein, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Kieft, T. L.; Silver, B. J.; Phelps, T. J.; Heerden, E. Van; Opperman, D. J.; Bada, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the subsurface biosphere have deduced average cellular doubling times of hundreds to thousands of years based upon geochemical models. We have directly constrained the in situ average cellular protein turnover or doubling times for metabolically active micro-organisms based on cellular amino acid abundances, D/L values of cellular aspartic acid, and the in vivo aspartic acid racemization rate. Application of this method to planktonic microbial communities collected from deep fractures in South Africa yielded maximum cellular amino acid turnover times of approximately 89 years for 1 km depth and 27 C and 1-2 years for 3 km depth and 54 C. The latter turnover times are much shorter than previously estimated cellular turnover times based upon geochemical arguments. The aspartic acid racemization rate at higher temperatures yields cellular protein doubling times that are consistent with the survival times of hyperthermophilic strains and predicts that at temperatures of 85 C, cells must replace proteins every couple of days to maintain enzymatic activity. Such a high maintenance requirement may be the principal limit on the abundance of living micro-organisms in the deep, hot subsurface biosphere, as well as a potential limit on their activity. The measurement of the D/L of aspartic acid in biological samples is a potentially powerful tool for deep, fractured continental and oceanic crustal settings where geochemical models of carbon turnover times are poorly constrained. Experimental observations on the racemization rates of aspartic acid in living thermophiles and hyperthermophiles could test this hypothesis. The development of corrections for cell wall peptides and spores will be required, however, to improve the accuracy of these estimates for environmental samples.

  9. Insulin degludec and insulin aspart: novel insulins for the management of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, Stephen; Javed, Zeeshan; Fulcher, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus require insulin as disease progresses to attain or maintain glycaemic targets. Basal insulin is commonly prescribed initially, alone or with one or more rapid-acting prandial insulin doses, to limit mealtime glucose excursions (a basal–bolus regimen). Both patients and physicians must balance the advantages of improved glycaemic control with the risk of hypoglycaemia and increasing regimen complexity. The rapid-acting insulin analogues (insulin aspart, insulin lispro and insulin glulisine) all have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics and clinical efficacy/safety profiles. However, there are important differences in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of basal insulins (insulin glargine, insulin detemir and insulin degludec). Insulin degludec is an ultra-long-acting insulin analogue with a flat and stable glucose-lowering profile, a duration of action exceeding 30 h and less inter-patient variation in glucose-lowering effect than insulin glargine. In particular, the chemical properties of insulin degludec have allowed the development of a soluble co-formulation with prandial insulin aspart (insulin degludec/insulin aspart) that provides basal insulin coverage for at least 24 h with additional mealtime insulin for one or two meals depending on dose frequency. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have shown that the distinct, long basal glucose-lowering action of insulin degludec and the prandial glucose-lowering effect of insulin aspart are maintained in the co-formulation. Evidence from pivotal phase III clinical trials indicates that insulin degludec/insulin aspart translate into sustained glycaemic control with less hypoglycaemia and the potential for a simpler insulin regimen with fewer daily injections. PMID:26568812

  10. Insulin degludec and insulin aspart: novel insulins for the management of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Atkin, Stephen; Javed, Zeeshan; Fulcher, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus require insulin as disease progresses to attain or maintain glycaemic targets. Basal insulin is commonly prescribed initially, alone or with one or more rapid-acting prandial insulin doses, to limit mealtime glucose excursions (a basal-bolus regimen). Both patients and physicians must balance the advantages of improved glycaemic control with the risk of hypoglycaemia and increasing regimen complexity. The rapid-acting insulin analogues (insulin aspart, insulin lispro and insulin glulisine) all have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics and clinical efficacy/safety profiles. However, there are important differences in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of basal insulins (insulin glargine, insulin detemir and insulin degludec). Insulin degludec is an ultra-long-acting insulin analogue with a flat and stable glucose-lowering profile, a duration of action exceeding 30 h and less inter-patient variation in glucose-lowering effect than insulin glargine. In particular, the chemical properties of insulin degludec have allowed the development of a soluble co-formulation with prandial insulin aspart (insulin degludec/insulin aspart) that provides basal insulin coverage for at least 24 h with additional mealtime insulin for one or two meals depending on dose frequency. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have shown that the distinct, long basal glucose-lowering action of insulin degludec and the prandial glucose-lowering effect of insulin aspart are maintained in the co-formulation. Evidence from pivotal phase III clinical trials indicates that insulin degludec/insulin aspart translate into sustained glycaemic control with less hypoglycaemia and the potential for a simpler insulin regimen with fewer daily injections. PMID:26568812

  11. Intramolecular signal transmission in enterobacterial aspartate transcarbamylases II. Engineering co-operativity and allosteric regulation in the aspartate transcarbamylase of Erwinia herbicola.

    PubMed

    Cunin, R; Rani, C S; Van Vliet, F; Wild, J R; Wales, M

    1999-12-17

    The aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) from Erwinia herbicola differs from the other investigated enterobacterial ATCases by its absence of homotropic co-operativity toward the substrate aspartate and its lack of response to ATP which is an allosteric effector (activator) of this family of enzymes. Nevertheless, the E. herbicola ATCase has the same quaternary structure, two trimers of catalytic chains with three dimers of regulatory chains ((c3)2(r2)3), as other enterobacterial ATCases and shows extensive primary structure conservation. In (c3)2(r2)3 ATCases, the association of the catalytic subunits c3 with the regulatory subunits r2 is responsible for the establishment of positive co-operativity between catalytic sites for the binding of aspartate and it dictates the pattern of allosteric response toward nucleotide effectors. Alignment of the primary sequence of the regulatory polypeptides from the E. herbicola and from the paradigmatic Escherichia coli ATCases reveals major blocks of divergence, corresponding to discrete structural elements in the E. coli enzyme. Chimeric ATCases were constructed by exchanging these blocks of divergent sequence between these two ATCases. It was found that the amino acid composition of the outermost beta-strand of a five-stranded beta-sheet in the effector-binding domain of the regulatory polypeptide is responsible for the lack of co-operativity and response to ATP of the E. herbicola ATCase. A novel structural element involved in allosteric signal recognition and transmission in this family of ATCases was thus identified. PMID:10600394

  12. Structures of a bifunctional cell wall hydrolase CwlT containing a novel bacterial lysozyme and an NlpC/P60 DL-endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingping; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W; Miller, Mitchell D; Lesley, Scott A; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Wilson, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    Tn916-like conjugative transposons carrying antibiotic resistance genes are found in a diverse range of bacteria. Orf14 within the conjugation module encodes a bifunctional cell wall hydrolase CwlT that consists of an N-terminal bacterial lysozyme domain (N-acetylmuramidase, bLysG) and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 domain (γ-d-glutamyl-l-diamino acid endopeptidase) and is expected to play an important role in the spread of the transposons. We determined the crystal structures of CwlT from two pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 (SaCwlT) and Clostridium difficile 630 (CdCwlT). These structures reveal that NlpC/P60 and LysG domains are compact and conserved modules, connected by a short flexible linker. The LysG domain represents a novel family of widely distributed bacterial lysozymes. The overall structure and the active site of bLysG bear significant similarity to other members of the glycoside hydrolase family 23 (GH23), such as the g-type lysozyme (LysG) and Escherichia coli lytic transglycosylase MltE. The active site of bLysG contains a unique structural and sequence signature (DxxQSSES+S) that is important for coordinating a catalytic water. Molecular modeling suggests that the bLysG domain may recognize glycan in a similar manner to MltE. The C-terminal NlpC/P60 domain contains a conserved active site (Cys-His-His-Tyr) that appears to be specific to murein tetrapeptide. Access to the active site is likely regulated by isomerism of a side chain atop the catalytic cysteine, allowing substrate entry or product release (open state), or catalysis (closed state). PMID:24051416

  13. CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 in developing human fetal lung. Patterns of expression and modulation of peptide-mediated proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Sunday, M E; Hua, J; Torday, J S; Reyes, B; Shipp, M A

    1992-01-01

    The cell membrane-associated enzyme CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (CD10/NEP) functions in multiple organ systems to downregulate responses to peptide hormones. Recently, CD10/NEP was found to hydrolyze bombesin-like peptides (BLP), which are mitogens for normal bronchial epithelial cells and small cell lung carcinomas. Growth of BLP-responsive small cell lung carcinomas was potentiated by CD10/NEP inhibition, implicating CD10/NEP in regulation of BLP-mediated tumor growth. BLP are also likely to participate in normal lung development because high BLP levels are found in fetal lung, and bombesin induces proliferation and maturation of human fetal lung in organ cultures and murine fetal lung in utero. To explore potential roles for CD10/NEP in regulating peptide-mediated human fetal lung development, we have characterized temporal and cellular patterns of CD10/NEP expression and effects of CD10/NEP inhibition in organ cultures. Peak CD10/NEP transcript levels are identified at 11-13 wk gestation by Northern blots and localized to epithelial cells and mesenchyme of developing airways by in situ hybridization. CD10/NEP immunostaining is most intense in undifferentiated airway epithelium. In human fetal lung organ cultures, inhibition of CD10/NEP with either phosphoramidon or SCH32615 increases thymidine incorporation by 166-182% (P < 0.025). The specific BLP receptor antagonist, [Leu13-psi(CH2NH)Leu14]bombesin abolishes these effects on fetal lung growth, suggesting that CD10/NEP modulates BLP-mediated proliferation. CD10/NEP expression in the growing front of airway epithelium and the effects of CD10/NEP inhibitors in lung explants implicate the enzyme in the regulation of peptide-mediated fetal lung growth. Images PMID:1469102

  14. Expression of an enzymically active glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored form of neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11) in Cos-1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, S; Lanctôt, C; Boileau, G; Crine, P

    1994-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11, NEP) is a type-II integral membrane protein found in a wide variety of cell types. We previously produced a secreted form of the enzyme by deletion of the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains and in-frame fusion of the cleavable signal peptide of pro-opiomelanocortin [Lemay, Waksman, Roques, Crine and Boileau (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 15620-15623]. Here we have used this secreted form of NEP and fused to it the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor attachment signal of decay-accelerating factor to produce a GPI-anchored form. Expression of this chimeric form in Cos-1 cells resulted in cell-surface activity. This activity could be released from the cell surface by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and radiolabelling studies showed that the protein could incorporate [3H]ethanolamine, indicating that the enzyme was GPI-anchored. The Km value, using [D-Ala2,Leu5]enkephalin as substrate, of GPI-anchored NEP (62 +/- 5 microM) was comparable with that of wild-type NEP (70 +/- 4 microM), as were the sensitivities to the inhibitors phosphoramidon and thiorphan. However, pulse-chase studies showed that the biosynthesis and cell-surface delivery of GPI-anchored NEP was delayed compared with that of the wild-type transmembrane form of NEP. These results suggest a lower rate of biosynthesis and/or cellular transport for GPI-anchored NEP compared with its transmembrane counterpart. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8166636

  15. Abundance of Cysteine Endopeptidase Dionain in Digestive Fluid of Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) Is Regulated by Different Stimuli from Prey through Jasmonates

    PubMed Central

    Libiaková, Michaela; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Slováková, L'udmila; Pavlovič, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The trap of the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) catches prey by very rapid closure of its modified leaves. After the rapid closure secures the prey, repeated mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs by struggling prey and the generation of action potentials (APs) result in secretion of digestive fluid. Once the prey's movement stops, the secretion is maintained by chemical stimuli released from digested prey. We investigated the effect of mechanical and chemical stimulation (NH4Cl, KH2PO4, further N(Cl) and P(K) stimulation) on enzyme activities in digestive fluid. Activities of β-D-glucosidases and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidases were not detected. Acid phosphatase activity was higher in N(Cl) stimulated traps while proteolytic activity was higher in both chemically induced traps in comparison to mechanical stimulation. This is in accordance with higher abundance of recently described enzyme cysteine endopeptidase dionain in digestive fluid of chemically induced traps. Mechanical stimulation induced high levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA) but jasmonic acid (JA) and its isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile) accumulated to higher level after chemical stimulation. The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) did not change significantly. The external application of JA bypassed the mechanical and chemical stimulation and induced a high abundance of dionain and proteolytic activity in digestive fluid. These results document the role of jasmonates in regulation of proteolytic activity in response to different stimuli from captured prey. The double trigger mechanism in protein digestion is proposed. PMID:25153528

  16. UK-414,495, a selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase, potentiates pelvic nerve-stimulated increases in female genital blood flow in the anaesthetized rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Wayman, CP; Baxter, D; Turner, L; Van Der Graaf, PH; Naylor, AM

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Female sexual arousal consists of a number of physiological responses resulting from increased genital blood. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y and to a lesser extent nitric oxide are neurotransmitters found in the vasculature of the genitalia. Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) modulates the activity of neuropeptides including VIP. The aim of this study was to investigate the control of genital blood flow by VIP and endogenous neuropeptides using a selective NEP inhibitor [UK-414,495, ((R)-2-({1-[(5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) carbamoyl]cyclopentyl}methyl) valeric acid)]. Experimental approach: Vaginal and clitoral blood flow (VBF and CBF) were monitored using laser Doppler in terminally anaesthetized New Zealand rabbits. Increases in VBF and CBF were induced by either electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve or by i.v. infusion of VIP. Key results: Stimulation of the pelvic nerve increased VBF and CBF, compared with basal flow. Increases were mimicked by infusion of exogenous VIP. UK-414,495 dose-dependently potentiated pelvic nerve-stimulated increases in VBF (EC50= 37 ± 9 nM; 3.6 × IC50 rabbit NEP). Nerve-stimulated increases in VBF and CBF were both enhanced after UK-414,495. UK-414,495 increased the amplitude and duration of VIP-induced increases in VBF. UK-414,495 had no effect on basal VBF or cardiovascular parameters. Conclusions and implications: Inhibition of NEP potentiates pelvic nerve-stimulated increases in genital blood flow. This suggests that the endogenous neurotransmitter mediating genital blood flow is a substrate for NEP (most likely VIP). NEP inhibitors may restore sexual arousal in women adversely affected by female sexual arousal disorder. This article is commented on by Angulo, pp. 48–50 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00693.x PMID:20412068

  17. Induced synthesis of P450 aromatase and 17β-estradiol by D-aspartate in frog brain.

    PubMed

    Burrone, Lavinia; Santillo, Alessandra; Pinelli, Claudia; Baccari, Gabriella Chieffi; Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena

    2012-10-15

    D-Aspartic acid is an endogenous amino acid occurring in the endocrine glands as well as in the nervous system of various animal phyla. Our previous studies have provided evidence that D-aspartate plays a role in the induction of estradiol synthesis in gonads. Recently, we have also demonstrated that D-aspartic acid induces P450 aromatase mRNA expression in the frog (Pelophylax esculentus) testis. P450 aromatase is the key enzyme in the estrogen synthetic pathway and irreversibly converts testosterone into 17β-estradiol. In this study, we firstly investigated the immunolocalisation of P450 aromatase in the brain of P. esculentus, which has never previously been described in amphibians. Therefore, to test the hypothesis that d-aspartate mediates a local synthesis of P450 aromatase in the frog brain, we administered D-aspartate in vivo to male frogs and then assessed brain aromatase expression, sex hormone levels and sex hormone receptor expression. We found that D-aspartate enhances brain aromatase expression (mRNA and protein) through the CREB pathway. Then, P450 aromatase induces 17β-estradiol production from testosterone, with a consequent increase of its receptor. Therefore, the regulation of d-aspartate-mediated P450 aromatase expression could be an important step in the control of neuroendocrine regulation of the reproductive axis. Accordingly, we found that the sites of P450 aromatase immunoreactivity in the frog brain correspond to the areas known to be involved in neurosteroid synthesis. PMID:22771744

  18. Molecular cloning and enzymological characterization of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate independent aspartate racemase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus litoralis DSM 5473.

    PubMed

    Washio, Tsubasa; Kato, Shiro; Oikawa, Tadao

    2016-09-01

    We succeeded in expressing the aspartate racemase homolog gene from Thermococcus litoralis DSM 5473 in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) and found that the gene encodes aspartate racemase. The aspartate racemase gene consisted of 687 bp and encoded 228 amino acid residues. The purified enzyme showed aspartate racemase activity with a specific activity of 1590 U/mg. The enzyme was a homodimer with a molecular mass of 56 kDa and did not require pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme. The enzyme showed aspartate racemase activity even at 95 °C, and the activation energy of the enzyme was calculated to be 51.8 kJ/mol. The enzyme was highly thermostable, and approximately 50 % of its initial activity remained even after incubation at 90 °C for 11 h. The enzyme showed a maximum activity at a pH of 7.5 and was stable between pH 6.0 and 7.0. The enzyme acted on L-cysteic acid and L-cysteine sulfinic acid in addition to D- and L-aspartic acids, and was strongly inhibited by iodoacetic acid. The site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme showed that the essential cysteine residues were conserved as Cys83 and Cys194. D-Forms of aspartic acid, serine, alanine, and valine were contained in T. litoralis DSM 5473 cells. PMID:27438592

  19. N-methyl-D-aspartate and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate seizures and CA1 hippocampal damage induced by dendrotoxin-K in rats.

    PubMed

    Bagetta, G; Iannone, M; Palma, E; Nisticò, G; Dolly, J O

    1996-04-01

    The epileptogenic and neurodegenerative effects of dendrotoxin K, from Dendroaspis polylepis, a specific blocker of a non-inactivating, voltage-sensitive K+ channel, were studied after focal injection into one dorsal hippocampus in rats. Administration of 35 pmol dendrotoxin K elicited motor seizures and bilateral electrocortical discharges after a latent period (5.3 +/- 2.1 min), in all of the treated animals (n = 6). At 24 h, histological examination of brain (n = 5) coronal sections (10 microns; n = 6 per brain) detected bilateral damage to the hippocampal formation which extended 300 microns rostral and caudal to the injection tract. Quantitation of the damage revealed significant bilateral neuronal cell loss in the CA1 and CA4 pyramidal cell layer relative to the corresponding brain regions of rats (n = 3) injected with bovine serum albumin (105 pmol), which per se was ineffective in all respects. Dendrotoxin K (35 pmol) also caused a significant loss of CA3 pyramidal neurons and dentate gyrus granule cells ipsilateral to the site of toxin injection. In one out of six rats, a lower dose (3.5 pmol) of dendrotoxin K produced convulsive behaviour and electrocortical seizures but after a longer latency and these were accompanied by significant neuronal loss in the CA1, CA3 and CA4 pyramidal cell layer ipsilateral to the injected side. The lowest dose (0.35 pmol; n = 6 rats) of dendrotoxin K used failed to induce seizures and did not cause hippocampal damage (n = 6 rats). Systemic (i.p.) treatment with dizocilpine maleate (3 mg/kg) or LY 274614 (5 mg/kg i.p.), two N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists (given 15 min beforehand), prevented dendrotoxin K (35 pmol)-induced motor seizures and electrocortical epileptogenic discharges in 100% of the animals (n = 6 per group) treated. Similarly, these antagonists minimized the damage typically produced in the rat hippocampus, with no significant neuronal loss being observed. By contrast, NBQX (30 mg/kg, i.p. given 15

  20. Solvent-Free Polymerization of L-Aspartic Acid in the Presence of D-Sorbitol to Obtain Water Soluble or Network Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    L-aspartic acid was thermally polymerized in the presence of D-sorbitol with the goal of synthesizing new, higher molecular weight water soluble and absorbent copolymers. No reaction occurred when aspartic acid alone was heated at 170 or 200 degrees C. In contrast, heating sorbitol and aspartic ac...

  1. Pragmatic use of insulin degludec/insulin aspart co-formulation: A multinational consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Latif, Zafar A; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Galvez, Guillermo Gonzalez; Malik, Rached; Pathan, Md Faruque; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) is a modern coformulation of ultra-long-acting basal insulin degludec, with rapid-acting insulin aspart. IDegAsp provides effective, safe, well-tolerated glycemic control, with a low risk of hypoglycemia while allowing flexibility in meal patterns and timing of administration. This consensus statement describes a pragmatic framework to identify patients who may benefit from IDegAsp therapy. It highlights the utility of IDegAsp in type 2 diabetic patients who are insulin-naive, suboptimally controlled on basal or premixed insulin, or dissatisfied with basal-bolus regimens. It also describes potential IDegAsp usage in type 1 diabetic patients. PMID:27366723

  2. Pragmatic use of insulin degludec/insulin aspart co-formulation: A multinational consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Latif, Zafar A.; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Galvez, Guillermo Gonzalez; Malik, Rached; Pathan, Md Faruque; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) is a modern coformulation of ultra-long-acting basal insulin degludec, with rapid-acting insulin aspart. IDegAsp provides effective, safe, well-tolerated glycemic control, with a low risk of hypoglycemia while allowing flexibility in meal patterns and timing of administration. This consensus statement describes a pragmatic framework to identify patients who may benefit from IDegAsp therapy. It highlights the utility of IDegAsp in type 2 diabetic patients who are insulin-naive, suboptimally controlled on basal or premixed insulin, or dissatisfied with basal–bolus regimens. It also describes potential IDegAsp usage in type 1 diabetic patients. PMID:27366723

  3. Membrane topology of the electrogenic aspartate-alanine antiporter AspT of Tetragenococcus halophilus.

    PubMed

    Nanatani, Kei; Ohonishi, Fumito; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Tasuku; Abe, Keietsu

    2005-03-01

    AspT is an electrogenic aspartate:alanine exchange protein that represents the vectorial component of a proton-motive metabolic cycle found in some strains of Tetragenococcus halophilus. AspT is the sole member of a new family, the Aspartate: Alanine Exchanger (AAE) family, in secondary transporters, according to the computational classification proposed by Saier et al. (http://www.biology.ucsd.edu/~msaier/transport/). We analyzed the topology of AspT biochemically, by using fusion methods in combination with alkaline phosphatase or beta-lactamase. These results suggested that AspT has a unique topology; 8 TMS, a large cytoplasmic loop (183 amino acids) between TMS5 and TMS6, and N- and C-termini that both face the periplasm. These results demonstrated a unique 2D-structure of AspT as the novel AAE family. PMID:15670744

  4. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Roger Kelsey

    2016-10-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune syndrome that presents with personality changes, autonomic dysfunction, and neurologic deterioration. Most patients with this syndrome progress from psychosis to seizure to catatonia, often associated with abnormal movements, autonomic instability, and hypoventilation. First-line treatment constitutes resection of the associated neoplasm, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange. Second-line treatment includes rituximab and cyclophosphamide. A case of confirmed anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is presented that illustrates the diagnostic and treatment challenges associated with this syndrome and underscores the nursing implications of medical management during immunosuppression. This case study recommends surface cooling and a pharmaceutical regimen for management of autonomic storming, which is a hallmark of this disorder. PMID:27579962

  5. Crystallographic Snapshots of the Complete Catalytic Cycle of the Unregulated Aspartate Transcarbamoylase from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    K Harris; G Cockrell; D Puleo; E Kantrowitz

    2011-12-31

    Here, we report high-resolution X-ray structures of Bacillus subtilis aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), an enzyme that catalyzes one of the first reactions in pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Structures of the enzyme have been determined in the absence of ligands, in the presence of the substrate carbamoyl phosphate, and in the presence of the bisubstrate/transition state analog N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. Combining the structural data with in silico docking and electrostatic calculations, we have been able to visualize each step in the catalytic cycle of ATCase, from the ordered binding of the substrates, to the formation and decomposition of the tetrahedral intermediate, to the ordered release of the products from the active site. Analysis of the conformational changes associated with these steps provides a rationale for the lack of cooperativity in trimeric ATCases that do not possess regulatory subunits.

  6. Crystallographic snapshots of the complete catalytic cycle of the unregulated aspartate transcarbamoylase from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Katharine M; Cockrell, Gregory M; Puleo, David E; Kantrowitz, Evan R

    2011-08-01

    Here, we report high-resolution X-ray structures of Bacillus subtilis aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), an enzyme that catalyzes one of the first reactions in pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Structures of the enzyme have been determined in the absence of ligands, in the presence of the substrate carbamoyl phosphate, and in the presence of the bisubstrate/transition state analog N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. Combining the structural data with in silico docking and electrostatic calculations, we have been able to visualize each step in the catalytic cycle of ATCase, from the ordered binding of the substrates, to the formation and decomposition of the tetrahedral intermediate, to the ordered release of the products from the active site. Analysis of the conformational changes associated with these steps provides a rationale for the lack of cooperativity in trimeric ATCases that do not possess regulatory subunits. PMID:21663747

  7. The N-terminal region of mature mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase can direct cytosolic dihydrofolate reductase into mitochondria in vitro.

    PubMed

    Giannattasio, S; Azzariti, A; Marra, E; Quagliariello, E

    1994-06-30

    Two fused genes were constructed which encode for two chimeric proteins in which either 10 or 191 N-terminal amino acids of mature mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase had been attached to the entire polypeptide chain of cytosolic dihydrofolate reductase. The precursor and mature form of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, dihydrofolate reductase and both chimeric proteins were synthesized in vitro and their import into isolated mitochondria was studied. Both chimeric proteins were taken up by isolated organelles, where they became protease resistant, thus indicating the ability of the N-terminal portion of the mature moiety of the precursor of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase to direct cytosolic dihydrofolate reductase into mitochondria. PMID:8024546

  8. Toxicity of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway intermediate carbamyl aspartate in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbough, C L; Bochner, B R

    1985-01-01

    Growth of Salmonella typhimurium pyrC or pyrD auxotrophs was severely inhibited in media that caused derepressed pyr gene expression. No such inhibition was observed with derepressed pyrA and pyrB auxotrophs. Growth inhibition was not due to the depletion of essential pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway intermediates or substrates. This result and the pattern of inhibition indicated that the accumulation of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway intermediate carbamyl aspartate was toxic. This intermediate is synthesized by the sequential action of the first two enzymes of the pathway encoded by pyrA and pyrB and is a substrate for the pyrC gene product. It should accumulate to high levels in pyrC or pyrD mutants when expression of the pyrA and pyrB genes is elevated. The introduction of either a pyrA or pyrB mutation into a pyrC strain eliminated the observed growth inhibition. Additionally, a direct correlation was shown between the severity of growth inhibition of a pyrC auxotroph and the levels of the enzymes that synthesize carbamyl aspartate. The mechanism of carbamyl aspartate toxicity was not identified, but many potential sites of growth inhibition were excluded. Carbamyl aspartate toxicity was shown to be useful as a phenotypic trait for classifying pyrimidine auxotrophs and may also be useful for positive selection of pyrA or pyrB mutants. Finally, we discuss ways of overcoming growth inhibition of pyrC and pyrD mutants under derepressing conditions. PMID:3894327

  9. Age estimation in forensic sciences: Application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Ohtani, S; Yamamoto, T; Druid, H; Spalding, S L

    2009-11-02

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster, since the age at death, birth date and year of death, as well as gender, can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this paper we analyze teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that above-ground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) which have been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel and ten of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2=0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 0.6 {+-} 04 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 {+-} 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

  10. Synthesis and proteinase inhibitory properties of diphenyl phosphonate analogues of aspartic and glutamic acids.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R; Walker, B; Walker, B J

    1998-07-01

    The synthesis of diphenyl phosphonate analogues of aspartic and glutamic acid, and their inhibitory activity against S. aureus V8 protease and granzyme B, is described. The study has revealed difficulties with protecting group compatibility in the synthesis of these analogues. Two analogues, Acetyl. AspP (OPh)2 and Acetyl.GluP (OPh)2 were found to function as irreversible inactivators of V8 proteinase, yet exhibit no activity against granzyme B. PMID:9873408

  11. Crystal Structures of the Histo-Aspartic Protease (HAP) from Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaumik, Prasenjit; Xiao, Huogen; Parr, Charity L.; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Yada, Rickey Y.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2009-08-07

    The structures of recombinant histo-aspartic protease (HAP) from malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum as apoenzyme and in complex with two inhibitors, pepstatin A and KNI-10006, were solved at 2.5-, 3.3-, and 3.05-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. In the apoenzyme crystals, HAP forms a tight dimer not seen previously in any aspartic protease. The interactions between the monomers affect the conformation of two flexible loops, the functionally important 'flap' (residues 70-83) and its structural equivalent in the C-terminal domain (residues 238-245), as well as the orientation of helix 225-235. The flap is found in an open conformation in the apoenzyme. Unexpectedly, the active site of the apoenzyme contains a zinc ion tightly bound to His32 and Asp215 from one monomer and to Glu278A from the other monomer, with the coordination of Zn resembling that seen in metalloproteases. The flap is closed in the structure of the pepstatin A complex, whereas it is open in the complex with KNI-10006. Although the binding mode of pepstatin A is significantly different from that in other pepsin-like aspartic proteases, its location in the active site makes unlikely the previously proposed hypothesis that HAP is a serine protease. The binding mode of KNI-10006 is unusual compared with the binding of other inhibitors from the KNI series to aspartic proteases. The novel features of the HAP active site could facilitate design of specific inhibitors used in the development of antimalarial drugs.

  12. The Pathway of Product Release from the R State of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Kimberly R.; Kantrowitz, Evan R.

    2010-01-01

    The pathway of product release from the R state of aspartate transcarbamoylase has been determined here by solving the crystal structure of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) locked in the R-quaternary structure by specific introduction of disulfide bonds. ATCase displays ordered substrate binding and product release, remaining in the R state until substrates are exhausted. The structure reported here represents ATCase in the R state bound to the final product molecule, phosphate. This structure has been difficult to obtain previously because the enzyme relaxes back to the T state after the substrates are exhausted. Hence cocrystallizing the wild-type enzyme with phosphate results in a T-state structure. In this structure of the enzyme trapped in the R state with specific disulfide bonds, we observe two phosphate molecules per active site. The position of the first phosphate corresponds to the position of the phosphate of carbamoyl phosphate and the position of the phosphonate of N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. However, the second, more weakly bound phosphate, is bound in a positively charged pocket more accessible to the surface than the other phosphate. The second phosphate appears to be on the path that phosphate would have to take to exit the active site. Our results suggest that phosphate dissociation and carbamoyl phosphate binding can occur simultaneously and the dissociation of phosphate may actually promote the binding of carbamoyl phosphate for more efficient catalysis. PMID:20620149

  13. Aspartate beta-decarboxylase from Alcaligenes faecalis: carbon-13 kinetic isotope effect and deuterium exchange experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.M.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1985-03-26

    The authors have measured the /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect at pH 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 6.5 and in D/sub 2/O at pH 5.0 and the rate of D-H exchange of the alpha and beta protons of aspartic acid in D/sub 2/O at pH 5.0 for the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme aspartate beta-decarboxylase from Alcaligenes faecalis. The /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect, with a value of 1.0099 +/- 0.0002 at pH 5.0, is less than the intrinsic isotope effect for the decarboxylation step, indicating that the decarboxylation step is not entirely rate limiting. The authors have been able to estimate probable values of the relative free energies of the transition states of the enzymatic reaction up to and including the decarboxylation step from the /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect and the rate of D-H exchange of alpha-H. The pH dependence of the kinetic isotope effect reflects the pKa of the pyridine nitrogen of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate but not that of the imine nitrogen. A mechanism is proposed for the exchange of aspartate beta-H that is consistent with the stereochemistry suggested earlier.

  14. Vibrational Spectroscopy and Phonon-Related Properties of the L-Aspartic Acid Anhydrous Monoclinic Crystal.

    PubMed

    Silva, A M; Costa, S N; Sales, F A M; Freire, V N; Bezerra, E M; Santos, R P; Fulco, U L; Albuquerque, E L; Caetano, E W S

    2015-12-10

    The infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectra of the monoclinic P21 l-aspartic acid anhydrous crystal were recorded and interpreted with the help of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The effect of dispersive forces was taken into account, and the optimized unit cells allowed us to obtain the vibrational normal modes. The computed data exhibits good agreement with the measurements for low wavenumbers, allowing for a very good assignment of the infrared and Raman spectral features. The vibrational spectra of the two lowest energy conformers of the l-aspartic molecule were also evaluated using the hybrid B3LYP functional for the sake of comparison, showing that the molecular calculations give a limited description of the measured IR and Raman spectra of the l-aspartic acid crystal for wavenumbers below 1000 cm(-1). The results obtained reinforce the need to use solid-state calculations to describe the vibrational properties of molecular crystals instead of calculations for a single isolated molecule picture even for wavenumbers beyond the range usually associated with lattice modes (200 cm(-1) < ω < 1000 cm(-1)). PMID:26623495

  15. Structural Insights into a Novel Class of Aspartate Aminotransferase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgAspAT) is a PLP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the production of L-aspartate and α-ketoglutarate from L-glutamate and oxaloacetate in L-lysine biosynthesis. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of CgAspAT and compare it with those of other aspartate aminotransferases (AspATs) from the aminotransferase class I, we determined the crystal structure of CgAspAT. CgAspAT functions as a dimer, and the CgAspAT monomer consists of two domains, the core domain and the auxiliary domain. The PLP cofactor is found to be bound to CgAspAT and stabilized through unique residues. In our current structure, a citrate molecule is bound at the active site of one molecule and mimics binding of the glutamate substrate. The residues involved in binding of the PLP cofactor and the glutamate substrate were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, compared with other AspATs from aminotransferase subgroup Ia and Ib, CgAspAT exhibited unique binding sites for both cofactor and substrate; moreover, it was found to have unusual structural features in the auxiliary domain. Based on these structural differences, we propose that CgAspAT does not belong to either subgroup Ia or Ib, and can be categorized into a subgroup Ic. The phylogenetic tree and RMSD analysis also indicates that CgAspAT is located in an independent AspAT subgroup. PMID:27355211

  16. Density functional theory study on the interaction between keto-9H guanine and aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patrina Thompson; Hill, Glake A

    2012-05-01

    A theoretical study was performed using density functional theory (DFT) to investigate hydrogen bonding interactions in signature complexes formed between keto-9H guanine (Gua) and aspartic acid (Asp) at neutral pH. Optimized geometries, binding energies and the theoretical IR spectra of guanine, aspartic acid and their corresponding complexes (Gua-Asp) were calculated using the B3LYP method and the 6-31+G(d) basis set. Stationary points found to be at local minima on the potential energy surface were verified by second derivative harmonic vibrational frequency calculations at the same level of theory. AIM theory was used to analyze the hydrogen bonding characteristics of these DNA base complex systems. Our results show that the binding motif for the most stable complex is strikingly similar to a Watson-Crick motif observed in the guanine-cytosine base pair. We have found a range of hydrogen bonding interactions between guanine and aspartic acid in the six complexes. This was further verified by theoretical IR spectra of ω(C-H--O-H) cm(-1) stretches for the Gua-Asp complexes. The electron density plot indicates strong hydrogen bonding as shown by the 2p(z) dominant HOMO orbital character. PMID:21877157

  17. Developmental changes in aspartate-family amino acid biosynthesis in pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.R.; Cato, L.W.; Stephens, B.W.; Reeves, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Isolated chloroplasts are known to synthesize the asp-derived amino acids (ile, hse, lys and thr) from ({sup 14}C)asp (Mills et al, 1980, Plant Physiol. 65, 1166). Now, we have studied the influence of tissue age on essential amino acid biosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum) plastids. Chloroplasts from the younger (third and fourth) leaves of 12 day old plants, were 2-3 times more active in synthesizing lys and thr from ({sup 14}C)asp than those from older (first or second) leaves. We also examined two key pathway enzymes (aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase); with each enzyme,a activity in younger leaves was about 2 times that in plastids from older tissue. Both lys- and thr-sensitive forms of aspartate kinase are known in plants; in agreement with earlier work, we found that lys-sensitive activity was about 4 times higher in the younger tissues, while the thr-sensitive activity changed little during development (Davies and Miflin, 1977, Plant Sci. Lett. 9, 323). Recently the role of aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase in controlling asp-family amino acid synthesis has been questioned (Giovanelli et al, 1989, Plant Physiol. 90, 1584); we hope that measurements of amino acid levels in chloroplasts as well as further enzyme studies will help us to better understand the regulation of asp-family amino acid synthesis.

  18. Intersubunit communication in the dihydroorotase-aspartate transcarbamoylase complex of Aquifex aeolicus.

    PubMed

    Evans, Hedeel Guy; Fernando, Roshini; Vaishnav, Asmita; Kotichukkala, Mahalakshmi; Heyl, Deborah; Hachem, Fatme; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Edwards, Brian F P; Evans, David R

    2014-01-01

    Aspartate transcarbamoylase and dihydroorotase, enzymes that catalyze the second and third step in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, are associated in dodecameric complexes in Aquifex aeolicus and many other organisms. The architecture of the dodecamer is ideally suited to channel the intermediate, carbamoyl aspartate from its site of synthesis on the ATC subunit to the active site of DHO, which catalyzes the next step in the pathway, because both reactions occur within a large, internal solvent-filled cavity. Channeling usually requires that the reactions of the enzymes are coordinated so that the rate of synthesis of the intermediate matches its rate of utilization. The linkage between the ATC and DHO subunits was demonstrated by showing that the binding of the bisubstrate analog, N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate to the ATC subunit inhibits the activity of the distal DHO subunit. Structural studies identified a DHO loop, loop A, interdigitating between the ATC domains that would be expected to interfere with domain closure essential for ATC catalysis. Mutation of the DHO residues in loop A that penetrate deeply between the two ATC domains inhibits the ATC activity by interfering with the normal reciprocal linkage between the two enzymes. Moreover, a synthetic peptide that mimics that part of the DHO loop that binds between the two ATC domains was found to be an allosteric or noncompletive ATC inhibitor (K(i) = 22 μM). A model is proposed suggesting that loop A is an important component of the functional linkage between the enzymes. PMID:24353170

  19. Magnitude of malate-aspartate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide shuttle activity in intact respiring tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Greenhouse, W V; Lehninger, A L

    1977-11-01

    Measurements of respiration, CO2 and lactate production, and changes in the levels of various key metabolites of the glycolytic sequence and tricarboxylic acid cycle were made on five lines of rodent ascites tumor cells (two strains of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, Krebs II carcinoma, AS-30D carcinoma, and L1210 cells) incubated aerobically in the presence of uniformly labeled D-[14C]glucose. From these data, as well as earlier evidence demonstrating that the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) shuttle in these cells requires a transaminase step and is thus identified as the malate-aspartate shuttle (W.V.V. Greenhouse and A.L. Lehninger, Cancer Res., 36: 1392-1396, 1976), metabolic flux diagrams were constructed for the five cell lines. These diagrams show the relative rates of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport, and the malate-aspartate shuttle in these tumors. Large amounts of cytosolic NADH were oxidized by the mitochondrial respiratory chain via the NADH shuttle, comprising anywhere from about 20 to 80% of the total flow of reducing equivalents to oxygen in these tumors. Calculations of the sources of energy for adenosine triphosphate synthesis indicated that on the average about one-third of the respiratory adenosine triphosphate is generated by electron flow originating from cytosolic NADH via the malate-aspartate shuttle. PMID:198130

  20. Occurrence of the malate-aspartate shuttle in various tumor types.

    PubMed

    Greenhouse, W V; Lehninger, A L

    1976-04-01

    The activity of the malate-aspartate shuttle for the reoxidation of cytoplasmic reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by mitochondria was assessed in six lines of rodent ascites tumor cells (two strains of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Krebs II carcinoma, Novikoff hepatoma, AS-30D hepatoma, and L1210 mouse leukemia). All the tumor cells examined showed mitochondrial reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH, as evidenced by the accumulation of pyruvate when the cells were incubated aerobically with L-lactate. Reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH thus generated was completely inhibited by the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate. The involvement of the respiratory chain in the reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH was demonstrated by the action of cyanide, rotenone, and antimycin A, which strongly inhibited the formation of pyruvate from added L-lactate. Compounds that inhibit the carrier-mediated entry of malate into mitochondria, such as butylmalonate, benzenetricarboxylate, and iodobenzylmalonate, also inhibited the accumulation of pyruvate from added L-lactate by the tumor cells. The maximal rate of the malate-aspartate shuttle was established by addtion of arsenite to inhibit the mitochondrial oxidation of the pyruvate formed from added lactate. The capacity of the various tumor lines for the reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH via the malate-aspartate shuttle approaches 20% of the total respiratory rate of the cells and thus appears to be sufficient to account for the mitochondrial reoxidation of that fraction of glycolytic NADH not reoxidized by pyruvate and lactate dehydrognenase in the cytoplasm. PMID:177206

  1. The (unusual) aspartic acid in the metal coordination sphere of the prokaryotic zinc finger domain.

    PubMed

    D'Abrosca, Gianluca; Russo, Luigi; Palmieri, Maddalena; Baglivo, Ilaria; Netti, Fortuna; de Paola, Ivan; Zaccaro, Laura; Farina, Biancamaria; Iacovino, Rosa; Pedone, Paolo Vincenzo; Isernia, Carla; Fattorusso, Roberto; Malgieri, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of choices of protein ligands and coordination geometries leads to diverse Zn(II) binding sites in zinc-proteins, allowing a range of important biological roles. The prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc finger domain (originally found in the Ros protein from Agrobacterium tumefaciens) tetrahedrally coordinates zinc through two cysteine and two histidine residues and it does not adopt a correct fold in the absence of the metal ion. Ros is the first structurally characterized member of a family of bacterial proteins that presents several amino acid changes in the positions occupied in Ros by the zinc coordinating residues. In particular, the second position is very often occupied by an aspartic acid although the coordination of structural zinc by an aspartate in eukaryotic zinc fingers is very unusual. Here, by appropriately mutating the protein Ros, we characterize the aspartate role within the coordination sphere of this family of proteins demonstrating how the presence of this residue only slightly perturbs the functional structure of the prokaryotic zinc finger domain while it greatly influences its thermodynamic properties. PMID:27238756

  2. Specificity of Aspartate Aminotransferases from Leguminous Plants for 4-Substituted Glutamic Acids 1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Harry C.; Dekker, Eugene E.

    1989-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase) was partially purified from extracts of germinating seeds of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), soybean (Glycine max), and Sophora japonica. The ability of these enzyme preparations, as well as aspartate aminotransferase purified from pig heart cytosol, to use 4-substituted glutamic acids as amino group donors and their corresponding 2-oxo acids as amino group acceptors in the aminotransferase reaction was measured. All 4-substituted glutamic acid analogs tested were poorer substrates than was glutamate or 2-oxoglutarate. 2-Oxo-4-methyleneglutarate was least effective (lowest relative Vm/Km) as a substrate for the enzyme from peanuts and honey locust, which are the two species studied that accumulate 4-methyleneglutamic acid and 4-methyleneglutamine. Of the different aminotransferases tested, the enzyme from honey locust was the least active with 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-methylglutarate, the corresponding amino acid of which also accumulates in that species. These results suggest that transamination of 2-oxo-4-substituted glutaric acids is not involved in the biosynthesis of the corresponding 4-substituted glutamic acids in these species. Rather, accumulation of certain 4-substituted glutamic acids in these instances may be, in part, the result of the inefficacy of their transamination by aspartate aminotransferase. PMID:16666674

  3. Characterization of Aspartate Kinase from Corynebacterium pekinense and the Critical Site of Arg169

    PubMed Central

    Min, Weihong; Li, Huiying; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Chunlei; Liu, Jingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Aspartate kinase (AK) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of aspartate-derived amino acids. Recombinant AK was efficiently purified and systematically characterized through analysis under optimal conditions combined with steady-state kinetics study. Homogeneous AK was predicted as a decamer with a molecular weight of ~48 kDa and a half-life of 4.5 h. The enzymatic activity was enhanced by ethanol and Ni2+. Moreover, steady-state kinetic study confirmed that AK is an allosteric enzyme, and its activity was inhibited by allosteric inhibitors, such as Lys, Met, and Thr. Theoretical results indicated the binding mode of AK and showed that Arg169 is an important residue in substrate binding, catalytic domain, and inhibitor binding. The values of the kinetic parameter Vmax of R169 mutants, namely, R169Y, R169P, R169D, and R169H AK, with l-aspartate as the substrate, were 4.71-, 2.25-, 2.57-, and 2.13-fold higher, respectively, than that of the wild-type AK. Furthermore, experimental and theoretical data showed that Arg169 formed a hydrogen bond with Glu92, which functions as the entrance gate. This study provides a basis to develop new enzymes and elucidate the corresponding amino acid production. PMID:26633359

  4. A Ty1 Reverse Transcriptase Active-Site Aspartate Mutation Blocks Transposition but Not Polymerization†

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Ozcan; Gabriel, Abram

    2001-01-01

    Reverse transcriptases (RTs) are found in a wide variety of mobile genetic elements including viruses, retrotransposons, and infectious organellar introns. An invariant triad of aspartates is thought to be required for the catalytic function of RTs. We generated RT mutants in the yeast retrotransposon Ty1, changing each of these active-site aspartates to asparagine or glutamate. All but one of the mutants lacked detectable polymerase activity. The novel exception, D211N, retained near wild-type in vitro polymerase activity within virus-like particles but failed to carry out in vivo transposition. For this mutant, minus-strand synthesis is impaired and formation of the plus-strand strong-stop intermediate is eliminated. Intragenic second-site suppressor mutations of the transposition defect map to the RNase H domain of the enzyme. Our results demonstrate that one of the three active-site aspartates in a retrotransposon RT is not catalytically critical. This implies a basic difference in the polymerase active-site geometry of Ty1 and human immunodeficiency virus RT and shows that subtle mutations in one domain can cause dramatic functional effects on a distant domain of the same enzyme. PMID:11413300

  5. Uptake of aspartate aminotransferase into mitochondria in vitro depends on the transmembrane pH gradient.

    PubMed Central

    Passarella, S; Marra, E; Doonan, S; Languino, L R; Saccone, C; Quagliariello, E

    1982-01-01

    1. The effects of various inhibitors of electron transport and of oxidative phosphorylation and the effects of ionophores on the uptake of native aspartate aminotransferase into mitochondria were investigated. 2. Both antimycin and cyanide completely inhibited the uptake of the enzyme. On the other hand, uptake was stimulated to ATP and by oligomycin; however, the stimulation by ATP is inhibited by oligomycin. 3. The effects of ionophores of the valinomycin type in media containing K+ ions depended on the conditions used. Valinomycin alone stimulated the uptake of the enzyme, but in the presence of phosphate ions uptake was abolished. Nonactin was without effect at a low K+ concentration, but was stimulatory at 100 mM-KCl. Gramicidin also stimulated the uptake process. 4. Nigericin completely abolished uptake of aspartate aminotransferase into mitochondria. 5. The uptake of te enzyme was decreased by 18% in the absence of inhibitors or ionophores when the external pH was increased from 6.9 to 7.6. 6. These results indicate that ATP is not directly involved in the uptake of aspartate aminotransferase into mitochondria, neither is there a requirement for a cation gradient. Rather the uptake depends on the maintenance of a pH gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane. PMID:7092821

  6. Molecular cloning, recombinant expression and partial characterization of the aspartate transcarbamoylase from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Mejias-Torres, Ida A; Zimmermann, Barbara H

    2002-02-01

    A cDNA coding for a monofunctional aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) was isolated from a Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite cDNA library using a complementation method. The calculated molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence was 46.8 kDa, with a predicted pI of 7.1. Size exclusion chromatography/laser-light scattering showed a single, monodisperse peak with molecular mass of 144 kDa. Amino acid sequence alignments revealed that active site residues of the Escherichia coli ATCase catalytic chain were conserved in the T. gondii sequence, and the latter shared 26-33% overall sequence identity with other ATCases. A recombinant enzyme was overexpressed in E. coli, and was purified with a yield of approximately 0.8 mg l(-1) culture. The temperature dependence of the recombinant enzyme was similar to that of native ATCase in T. gondii extracts. The K(m)'s for aspartate and carbamoyl phosphate were 7.82 mM, and 67.6 microM, respectively. The V(max) was 23900 micromol h(-1) mg(-1). Pyrimidine nucleotides had no significant effect on the enzyme's activity. N-phosphonoacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA) inhibited the enzyme with K(i)=0.38 microM. The T. gondii ATCases contained two additional sequences of approximately 24 residues each, which are not found in other ATCases. One of these sequences was susceptible to proteolysis by elastase. PMID:11814571

  7. Structural Insights into a Novel Class of Aspartate Aminotransferase from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgAspAT) is a PLP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the production of L-aspartate and α-ketoglutarate from L-glutamate and oxaloacetate in L-lysine biosynthesis. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of CgAspAT and compare it with those of other aspartate aminotransferases (AspATs) from the aminotransferase class I, we determined the crystal structure of CgAspAT. CgAspAT functions as a dimer, and the CgAspAT monomer consists of two domains, the core domain and the auxiliary domain. The PLP cofactor is found to be bound to CgAspAT and stabilized through unique residues. In our current structure, a citrate molecule is bound at the active site of one molecule and mimics binding of the glutamate substrate. The residues involved in binding of the PLP cofactor and the glutamate substrate were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, compared with other AspATs from aminotransferase subgroup Ia and Ib, CgAspAT exhibited unique binding sites for both cofactor and substrate; moreover, it was found to have unusual structural features in the auxiliary domain. Based on these structural differences, we propose that CgAspAT does not belong to either subgroup Ia or Ib, and can be categorized into a subgroup Ic. The phylogenetic tree and RMSD analysis also indicates that CgAspAT is located in an independent AspAT subgroup. PMID:27355211

  8. The Pathway of Product Release from the R State of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, K.; Kantrowitz, E

    2010-01-01

    The pathway of product release from the R state of aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase; EC 2.1.3.2, aspartate carbamoyltransferase) has been determined here by solving the crystal structure of Escherichia coli ATCase locked in the R quaternary structure by specific introduction of disulfide bonds. ATCase displays ordered substrate binding and product release, remaining in the R state until substrates are exhausted. The structure reported here represents ATCase in the R state bound to the final product molecule, phosphate. This structure has been difficult to obtain previously because the enzyme relaxes back to the T state after the substrates are exhausted. Hence, cocrystallizing the wild-type enzyme with phosphate results in a T-state structure. In this structure of the enzyme trapped in the R state with specific disulfide bonds, we observe two phosphate molecules per active site. The position of the first phosphate corresponds to the position of the phosphate of carbamoyl phosphate (CP) and the position of the phosphonate of N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. However, the second, more weakly bound phosphate is bound in a positively charged pocket that is more accessible to the surface than the other phosphate. The second phosphate appears to be on the path that phosphate would have to take to exit the active site. Our results suggest that phosphate dissociation and CP binding can occur simultaneously and that the dissociation of phosphate may actually promote the binding of CP for more efficient catalysis.

  9. Crystal structure and molecular mechanism of an aspartate/glutamate racemase from Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuhua; Gao, Fei; Ma, Yinliang; Liu, Shuang; Cui, Yaqi; Yuan, Zenglin; Kang, Xianjiang

    2016-04-01

    EcL-DER, the aspartate/glutamate racemase from the pathogen Escherichia coli O157, exhibits racemase activity for l-aspartate and l-glutamate. This study reports the crystal structures of apo-EcL-DER, the EcL-DER-l-aspartate and the EcL-DER-d-aspartate complexes. The EcL-DER structure contains two domains, forming pseudo-mirror symmetry in the active site. A unique catalytic pair consisting of Thr(83) and Cys(197) exists in the active site. The characteristic conformations of l-Asp and d-Asp in the active site provide a straight structural evidence for the racemization mechanism of EcL-DER. In addition, the diversity of catalytic pairs implies that PLP-independent amino acid racemases adopt various catalytic mechanisms and are classified into different subgroups. PMID:27001440

  10. Potent New Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Endopeptidase Developed by Synthesis-Based Computer-Aided Molecular Design

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Vummenthala, Anuradha; Mishra, Rajesh K.; Park, Jewn Giew; Wang, Shaohua; Davis, Jon; Millard, Charles B.; Schmidt, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNTA) causes a life-threatening neuroparalytic disease known as botulism. Current treatment for post exposure of BoNTA uses antibodies that are effective in neutralizing the extracellular toxin to prevent further intoxication but generally cannot rescue already intoxicated neurons. Effective small-molecule inhibitors of BoNTA endopeptidase (BoNTAe) are desirable because such inhibitors potentially can neutralize the intracellular BoNTA and offer complementary treatment for botulism. Previously we reported a serotype-selective, small-molecule BoNTAe inhibitor with a Kiapp value of 3.8±0.8 µM. This inhibitor was developed by lead identification using virtual screening followed by computer-aided optimization of a lead with an IC50 value of 100 µM. However, it was difficult to further improve the lead from micromolar to even high nanomolar potency due to the unusually large enzyme-substrate interface of BoNTAe. The enzyme-substrate interface area of 4,840 Å2 for BoNTAe is about four times larger than the typical protein-protein interface area of 750–1,500 Å2. Inhibitors must carry several functional groups to block the unusually large interface of BoNTAe, and syntheses of such inhibitors are therefore time-consuming and expensive. Herein we report the development of a serotype-selective, small-molecule, and competitive inhibitor of BoNTAe with a Ki value of 760±170 nM using synthesis-based computer-aided molecular design (SBCAMD). This new approach accounts the practicality and efficiency of inhibitor synthesis in addition to binding affinity and selectivity. We also report a three-dimensional model of BoNTAe in complex with the new inhibitor and the dynamics of the complex predicted by multiple molecular dynamics simulations, and discuss further structural optimization to achieve better in vivo efficacy in neutralizing BoNTA than those of our early micromolar leads. This work provides new insight into structural modification

  11. Omapatrilat, an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitor, Attenuates Early Atherosclerosis in Diabetic and in Nondiabetic Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor–Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Zohar; Dvir, Ayana; Shaish, Aviv; Trestman, Svetlana; Cohen, Hofit; Levkovietz, Hana; Rhachmani, Rita; Harats, Dror

    2003-01-01

    Omapatrilat inhibits both angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP). ACE inhibitors have been shown to inhibit atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice and in several other animal models but failed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor– deficient mice despite effective inhibition of the reninangiotensin- aldosterone system. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of omapatrilat on atherogenesis in diabetic and nondiabetic LDL receptor–deficient mice. LDL receptor–deficient male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 11 each). Diabetes was induced in 2 groups by low-dose STZ, the other 2 groups served as nondiabetic controls. Omapatrilat (70 mg/kg/day) was administered to one of the diabetic and to one of the nondiabetic groups. The diabetic and the nondiabetic mice were sacrificed after 3 and 5 weeks, respectively. The aortae were examined and the atherosclerotic plaque area was measured. The atherosclerotic plaque area was significantly smaller in the omapatrilat-treated mice, both diabetic and nondiabetic, as compared to nontreated controls. The mean plaque area of omapatrilattreated nondiabetic mice was 9357 ± 7293 μm2, versus 71977 ± 34610 μm2 in the nontreated mice (P = .002). In the diabetic animals, the plaque area was 8887 ± 5386 μm2 and 23220 ± 10400 μm2, respectively for treated and nontreated mice (P = .001). Plasma lipids were increased by omapatrilat: Meanplasma cholesterol in treated mice, diabetic and nondiabetic combined, was 39.31 ± 6.00 mmol/L, versus 33.12 ± 7.64 mmol/L in the nontreated animals (P = .008). The corresponding combined mean values of triglycerides were 4.83 ± 1.93 versus 3.00 ± 1.26 mmol/L (P = .02). Omapatrilat treatment did not affect weight or plasma glucose levels. Treatment with omapatrilat inhibits atherogenesis in diabetic as well as nondiabetic LDL receptor–deficient mice despite an increase in plasma lipids, suggesting a direct effect on the arterial

  12. Endopeptidase 3.4.24.11 converts N-1-(R,S)carboxy-3-phenylpropyl-Ala-Ala-Phe-p-carboxyanilide into a potent inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C H; Yamamoto, T; Walsh, D M; Allsop, D

    1993-01-01

    It was reported recently that N-1-(R,S)carboxy-3-phenylpropyl-Ala-Ala-Phe-p-carboxyanilide (CPP-A-A-F-pAB), an inhibitor of endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 (E-24.15), also inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) from rabbit lung. We have found that this compound is without effect on ACE purified from pig kidney, at a concentration some 1000-fold greater than the Ki reported for inhibition of the enzyme from lung. However, preincubation of CPP-A-A-F-pAB with neutral endopeptidase 3.4.24.11 (E-24.11) does result in potent inhibitory effects on ACE. We have shown this to be due to formation of a fragment, CPP-A-A, the structure of which is closely related to ACE inhibitors such as enalaprilat. CPP-A-A was found to be a potent inhibitor of pig ACE. Under the conditions used it had an IC50 value of 1.6 x 10(-8) M, compared with the value obtained for captopril of 7.5 x 10(-10) M. These results have important implications for studies of E-24.15 when using CPP-A-A-F-pAB in vivo or in crude tissue extracts where E-24.11 might also be present. PMID:8379924

  13. An Aspartic Protease of the Scabies Mite Sarcoptes scabiei Is Involved in the Digestion of Host Skin and Blood Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Wajahat; Viberg, Linda T.; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functions such as tissue invasion and migration, digestion, moulting and reproduction in a number of parasitic organisms. We investigated whether aspartic proteases may play role in scabies mite digestive processes. Methodology/Principle Findings We demonstrated the presence of aspartic protease activity in whole scabies mite extract. We then identified a scabies mite aspartic protease gene sequence and produced recombinant active enzyme. The recombinant scabies mite aspartic protease was capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not collagen III or laminin. This is consistent with the location of the scabies mites in the upper epidermis of human skin. Conclusions/Significance The development of novel therapeutics for scabies is of increasing importance given the evidence of emerging resistance to current treatments. We have shown that a scabies mite aspartic protease plays a role in the digestion of host skin and serum molecules, raising the possibility that interference with the function of the enzyme may impact on mite survival. PMID:24244770

  14. The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 1 gene expression is regulated by CREB in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Menga, Alessio; Iacobazzi, Vito; Infantino, Vittoria; Avantaggiati, Maria Laura; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 1 is an essential mitochondrial transporter that exchanges intramitochondrial aspartate and cytosolic glutamate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is expressed in brain, heart and muscle and is involved in important biological processes, including myelination. However, the signals that regulate the expression of this transporter are still largely unknown. In this study we first identify a CREB binding site within the aspartate/glutamate carrier gene promoter that acts as a strong enhancer element in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. This element is regulated by active, phosphorylated CREB protein and by signal pathways that modify the activity of CREB itself and, most noticeably, by intracellular Ca2+ levels. Specifically, aspartate/glutamate carrier gene expression is induced via CREB by forskolin while it is inhibited by the PKA inhibitor, H89. Furthermore, the CREB-induced activation of gene expression is increased by thapsigargin, which enhances cytosolic Ca2+, while it is inhibited by BAPTA-AM that reduces cytosolic Ca2+ or by STO-609, which inhibits CaMK-IV phosphorylation. We further show that CREB-dependent regulation of aspartate/glutamate carrier gene expression occurs in neuronal cells in response to pathological (inflammation) and physiological (differentiation) conditions. Since this carrier is necessary for neuronal functions and is involved in myelinogenesis, our results highlight that targeting of CREB activity and Ca2+ might be therapeutically exploited to increase aspartate/glutamate carrier gene expression in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25597433

  15. Distribution and evolution of the serine/aspartate racemase family in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Uda, Kouji; Abe, Keita; Dehara, Yoko; Mizobata, Kiriko; Sogawa, Natsumi; Akagi, Yuki; Saigan, Mai; Radkov, Atanas D; Moe, Luke A

    2016-02-01

    Free D-amino acids have been found in various invertebrate phyla, while amino acid racemase genes have been identified in few species. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the distribution, function, and evolution of amino acid racemases in invertebrate animals. We searched the GenBank databases, and found 11 homologous serine racemase genes from eight species in eight different invertebrate phyla. The cloned genes were identified based on their maximum activity as Acropora millepora (Cnidaria) serine racemase (SerR) and aspartate racemase (AspR), Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) SerR, Capitella teleta (Annelida) SerR, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) SerR and AspR, Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes) SerR, Milnesium tardigradum (Tardigrada) SerR, Penaeus monodon (Arthropoda) SerR and AspR and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata) AspR. We found that Acropora, Aplysia, Capitella, Crassostrea and Penaeus had two amino acid racemase paralogous genes and these paralogous genes have evolved independently by gene duplication at their recent ancestral species. The transcriptome analyses using available SRA data and enzyme kinetic data suggested that these paralogous genes are expressed in different tissues and have different functions in vivo. Phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that animal SerR and AspR are not separated by their particular racemase functions and form a serine/aspartate racemase family cluster. Our results revealed that SerR and AspR are more widely distributed among invertebrates than previously known. Moreover, we propose that the triple serine loop motif at amino acid positions 150-152 may be responsible for the large aspartate racemase activity and the AspR evolution from SerR. PMID:26352274

  16. A novel mechanism for resistance to the antimetabolite N-phosphonoacetyl-L-aspartate by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Burns, B P; Mendz, G L; Hazell, S L

    1998-11-01

    The mechanism of resistance to N-phosphonoacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA), a potent inhibitor of aspartate carbamoyltransferase (which catalyzes the first committed step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis), in Helicobacter pylori was investigated. At a 1 mM concentration, PALA had no effects on the growth and viability of H. pylori. The inhibitor was taken up by H. pylori cells and the transport was saturable, with a Km of 14.8 mM and a Vmax of 19.1 nmol min-1 microliters of cell water-1. By 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, both PALA and phosphonoacetate were shown to have been metabolized in all isolates of H. pylori studied. A main metabolic end product was identified as inorganic phosphate, suggesting the presence of an enzyme activity which cleaved the carbon-phosphorus (C-P) bonds. The kinetics of phosphonate group cleavage was saturable, and there was no evidence for substrate inhibition at higher concentrations of either compound. C-P bond cleavage activity was temperature dependent, and the activity was lost in the presence of the metal chelator EDTA. Other cleavages of PALA were observed by 1H NMR spectroscopy, with succinate and malate released as main products. These metabolic products were also formed when N-acetyl-L-aspartate was incubated with H. pylori lysates, suggesting the action of an aspartase. Studies of the cellular location of these enzymes revealed that the C-P bond cleavage activity was localized in the soluble fraction and that the aspartase activity appeared in the membrane-associated fraction. The results suggested that the two H. pylori enzymes transformed the inhibitor into noncytotoxic products, thus providing the bacterium with a mechanism of resistance to PALA toxicity which appears to be unique. PMID:9791105

  17. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) Detection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing-Jiu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2006-01-01

    The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) in serum can help people diagnose body tissues especially the heart and the liver are injured or not. This article provides a comprehensive review of research activities that concentrate on AST/GOT and ALT/GPT detection techniques due to their clinical importance. The detection techniques include colorimetric, spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, chromatography, fluorescence and UV absorbance, radiochemical, and electrochemical techniques. We devote the most attention on experimental principle. In some methods a few representative devices and important conclusions are presented.

  18. The bifunctional active site of s-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Roles of the active site aspartates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Markham, G D

    1999-11-12

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthetase catalyzes the biosynthesis of AdoMet in a unique enzymatic reaction. Initially the sulfur of methionine displaces the intact tripolyphosphate chain (PPP(i)) from ATP, and subsequently PPP(i) is hydrolyzed to PP(i) and P(i) before product release. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli AdoMet synthetase shows that the active site contains four aspartate residues. Aspartate residues Asp-16* and Asp-271 individually provide the sole protein ligand to one of the two required Mg(2+) ions (* denotes a residue from a second subunit); aspartates Asp-118 and Asp-238* are proposed to interact with methionine. Each aspartate has been changed to an uncharged asparagine, and the metal binding residues were also changed to alanine, to assess the roles of charge and ligation ability on catalytic efficiency. The resultant enzyme variants all structurally resemble the wild type enzyme as indicated by circular dichroism spectra and are tetramers. However, all have k(cat) reductions of approximately 10(3)-fold in AdoMet synthesis, whereas the MgATP and methionine K(m) values change by less than 3- and 8-fold, respectively. In the partial reaction of PPP(i) hydrolysis, mutants of the Mg(2+) binding residues have >700-fold reduced catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)), whereas the D118N and D238*N mutants are impaired less than 35-fold. The catalytic efficiency for PPP(i) hydrolysis by Mg(2+) site mutants is improved by AdoMet, like the wild type enzyme. In contrast AdoMet reduces the catalytic efficiency for PPP(i) hydrolysis by the D118N and D238*N mutants, indicating that the events involved in AdoMet activation are hindered in these methionyl binding site mutants. Ca(2+) uniquely activates the D271A mutant enzyme to 15% of the level of Mg(2+), in contrast to the approximately 1% Ca(2+) activation of the wild type enzyme. This indicates that the Asp-271 side chain size is a discriminator between the activating ability of Ca(2+) and the

  19. Prevalence of serum N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor autoantibodies in refractory psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Katherine; Lally, John; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Bloomfield, Michael A. P.; MacCabe, James H.; Gaughran, Fiona; Howes, Oliver D.

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) autoantibodies have been reported in people with acute psychosis. We hypothesised that their presence may be implicated in the aetiology of treatment-refractory psychosis. We sought to ascertain the point prevalence of NMDA-R antibody positivity in patients referred to services for treatment-refractory psychosis. We found that 3 (7.0%) of 43 individuals had low positive NMDA-R antibody titres. This suggests that NMDA-R autoantibodies are unlikely to account for a large proportion of treatment-refractory psychosis. PMID:25431428

  20. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: review of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Helen; Byrne, Susan; Barrett, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kieran C.; Cotter, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a form of encephalitis occurring primarily in women and associated with antibodies against NR1 or NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. As a potentially treatable differential for symptoms and signs seen in neurology and psychiatric clinics, clinicians practising across the lifespan should be aware of this form of encephalitis. Common clinical features include auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, behavioural change (frequently with agitation), impaired consciousness, motor disturbance (ranging from dyskinesia to catatonia), seizures, and autonomic dysfunction. We present a review of the literature on the disorder, including its clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis. PMID:26191419

  1. Effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade on breathing pattern in newborn cat.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, P; Pierrefiche, O; Foutz, A S; Denavit-Saubié, M

    1990-11-01

    We gave newborn kittens the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker MK-801 systemically while recording their breathing patterns by the barometric method. Unlike pentobarbital, MK-801 at an anaesthetic dose increased the relative length of inspiration within the respiratory cycle. The section of both vagus nerves under MK-801 produced apneustic breathing, whereas vagotomy under pentobarbital had no such effect. We conclude that the central inspiratory-termination mechanism mediated through NMDA receptors and the vagally-mediated mechanism that independently 'switches off' inspiration are both functional at birth. PMID:2148125

  2. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis in a young Lebanese girl.

    PubMed

    Safadieh, Layal; Dabbagh, Omar

    2013-10-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a recently recognized autoimmune neurologic disorder that presents with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms in previously healthy children. A 4-year-old Lebanese girl presented with new-onset behavioral changes, orofacial dyskinesias, fluctuation in consciousness, inability to walk, and mutism. Antibodies directed against NMDA receptors were detected in the patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Prompt treatment with a single course of intravenous immunoglobulin resulted in early complete recovery. This is the first case report of a Middle Eastern child affected with this condition. PMID:22992990

  3. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis, an Underappreciated Disease in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Lasoff, Daniel R.; Corbett-Detig, Jimmy; Sell, Rebecca; Nolan, Matthew; Wardi, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) Encephalitis is a novel disease discovered within the past 10 years. Antibodies directed at the NMDAR cause the patient to develop a characteristic syndrome of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Patients go on to develop autonomic dysregulation and often have prolonged hospitalizations and intensive care unit stays. There is little literature in the emergency medicine community regarding this disease process, so we report on a case we encountered in our emergency department to help raise awareness of this disease process. PMID:27330659

  4. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the West India cohort of the A1chieve study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sunil M.; Jindal, Sushil; Malve, Harshad; Shetty, Raman; Bhoraskar, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Background: The A1chieve, a multicentric (28 countries), 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726) in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from West India. Results: A total of 4192 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 2846), insulin detemir (n = 596), insulin aspart (n = 517), basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 140) and other insulin combinations (n = 83). At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA1c: 8.8%) and insulin user (mean HbA1c: 9.1%) groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA1c (insulin naïve: −1.6%, insulin users: −1.7%). SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia. PMID:24404488

  5. The Prolonged Intake of L-Arginine-L-Aspartate Reduces Blood Lactate Accumulation and Oxygen Consumption During Submaximal Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Burtscher, Martin; Brunner, Fritz; Faulhaber, Martin; Hotter, Barbara; Likar, Rudolf

    2005-01-01

    L-arginine-L-aspartate is widely used by athletes for its potentially ergogenic properties. However, only little information on its real efficacy is available from controlled studies. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of prolonged supplementation with L-arginine-L-aspartate on metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal exercise in healthy athletes by a double blind placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen healthy male volunteers (22 ± 3 years) performed incremental cycle spiroergometry up to 150 watts before and after intake of L-arginine-L-aspartate (3 grams per day) or placebo for a period of 3 weeks. After intake of L-arginine-L-aspartate, blood lactate at 150 watts dropped from 2.8 ± 0.8 to 2.0 ± 0.9 mmol·l-1 (p < 0.001) and total oxygen consumption during the 3-min period at 150 watts from 6.32 ± 0.51 to 5.95 ± 0.40 l (p = 0.04) compared to placebo (2.7 ± 1.1 to 2.7 ± 1.4 mmol·l-1; p = 0.9 and 6.07 ± 0.51 to 5.91 ± 0.50 l; p = 0.3). Additionally, L-arginine-L-aspartate supplementation effected an increased fat utilisation at 50 watts. L-arginine and L-aspartate seem to have induced synergistic metabolic effects. L-arginine might have reduced lactic acid production by the inhibition of glycolysis and L-aspartate may have favoured fatty acid oxidation. Besides, the results indicate improved work efficiency after L-arginine-L-aspartate intake. The resulting increases of submaximal work capacity and exercise tolerance may have important implications for athletes as well as patients. Key Points Amino acids are among the most common nutritional supplements taken by athletes. They are involved in numerous metabolic pathways that affect exercise metabolism. Three weeks of L-arginine-L-aspartate supplementation resulted in lower blood lactate concentrations and oxygen consumption, diminished glucose and enhanced fat oxidation, and reduced heart rate and ventilation during submaximal cycle exercise. This implies increased submaximal work capacity and

  6. Binding of C5-dicarboxylic substrate to aspartate aminotransferase: implications for the conformational change at the transaldimination step.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Goto, Masaru; Miyahara, Ikuko; Ikushiro, Hiroko; Hirotsu, Ken; Hayashi, Hideyuki

    2005-06-14

    The mechanism for the reaction of aspartate aminotransferase with the C4 substrate, l-aspartate, has been well established. The binding of the C4 substrate induces conformational change in the enzyme from the open to the closed form, and the entire reaction proceeds in the closed form of the enzyme. On the contrary, little is known about the reaction with the C5 substrate, l-glutamate. In this study, we analyzed the pH-dependent binding of 2-methyl-l-glutamate to the enzyme and showed that the interaction between the amino group of 2-methyl-l-glutamate and the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate aldimine is weak compared to that between 2-methyl-l-aspartate and the aldimine. The structures of the Michaelis complexes of the enzyme with l-aspartate and l-glutamate were modeled on the basis of the maleate and glutarate complex structures of the enzyme. The result showed that l-glutamate binds to the open form of the enzyme in an extended conformation, and its alpha-amino group points in the opposite direction of the aldimine, while that of l-aspartate is close to the aldimine. These models explain the observations for 2-methyl-l-glutamate and 2-methyl-l-aspartate. The crystal structures of the complexes of aspartate aminotransferase with phosphopyridoxyl derivatives of l-glutamate, d-glutamate, and 2-methyl-l-glutamate were solved as the models for the external aldimine and ketimine complexes of l-glutamate. All the structures were in the closed form, and the two carboxylate groups and the arginine residues binding them are superimposable on the external aldimine complex with 2-methyl-l-aspartate. Taking these facts altogether, it was strongly suggested that the binding of l-glutamate to aspartate aminotransferase to form the Michaelis complex does not induce a conformational change in the enzyme, and that the conformational change to the closed form occurs during the transaldimination step. The hydrophobic residues of the entrance of the active site, including Tyr70, are

  7. Multifunctional Environmental Smart Fertilizer Based on l-Aspartic Acid for Sustained Nutrient Release.

    PubMed

    Lü, Shaoyu; Feng, Chen; Gao, Chunmei; Wang, Xinggang; Xu, Xiubin; Bai, Xiao; Gao, Nannan; Liu, Mingzhu

    2016-06-22

    Fertilizer is one of the most important elements of modern agriculture. However, conventional fertilizer, when applied to crops, is vulnerable to losses through volatilization, leaching, nitrification, or other means. Such a loss limits crop yields and pollutes the environment. In an effort to enhance nutrient use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution, an environmental smart fertilizer was reported in the current study. Poly(aspartic acid) and a degradable macro-cross-linker based on l-aspartic acid were synthesized and introduced into the fertilizer as a superabsorbent to improve the fertilizer degradability and soil moisture-retention capacity. Sustained release behavior of the fertilizer was achieved in soil. Cumulative release of nitrogen and phosphorus was 79.8% and 64.4% after 30 days, respectively. The water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil with the superabsorbent are obviously higher than those of the control soil without superabsorbent. For the sample of 200 g of soil with 1.5 g of superabsorbent, the water-holding capacity is 81.8%, and the water-retention capacity remains 22.6% after 23 days. All of the current results in this study indicated that the as-prepared fertilizer has a promising application in sustainable modern agriculture. PMID:27244106

  8. Expression and purification of a functional recombinant aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lihui; Zhao, Haijian; Wang, Daguang; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Chuanbao; Xiao, Fei

    2014-07-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST; E.C. 2.6.1.1), a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme, preferentially promotes the mutual transformation of aspartate and α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and glutamate. It plays a key role in amino acid metabolism and has been widely recommended as a biomarker of liver and heart damage. Our study aimed to evaluate the extensive preparation of AST and its application in quality control in clinical laboratories. We describe a scheme to express and purify the 6His-AST fusion protein. An optimized sequence coding AST was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain for protein expression. Ideally, the fusion protein has a volumetric productivity achieving 900 mg/l cultures. After affinity chromatography, the enzyme activity of purified AST reached 150,000 U/L. Commutability assessment between the engineered AST and standard AST from Roche suggested that the engineered AST was the better candidate for the reference material. Moreover, the AST showed high stability during long-term storage at -20ºC. In conclusion, the highly soluble 6His-tagged AST can become a convenient tool for supplying a much better and cheaper standard or reference material for the clinical laboratory. PMID:24722375

  9. Structural Insights into the Tetrameric State of Aspartate-β-semialdehyde Dehydrogenases from Fungal Species.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinqin; Mu, Zhixia; Zhao, Rong; Dahal, Gopal; Viola, Ronald E; Liu, Tao; Jin, Qi; Cui, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Aspartate-β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes the second reaction in the aspartate pathway, a pathway required for the biosynthesis of one fifth of the essential amino acids in plants and microorganisms. Microarray analysis of a fungal pathogen T. rubrum responsible for most human dermatophytoses identified the upregulation of ASADH (trASADH) expression when the fungus is exposed to human skin, underscoring its potential as a drug target. Here we report the crystal structure of trASADH, revealing a tetrameric ASADH with a GAPDH-like fold. The tetramerization of trASADH was confirmed by sedimentation and SAXS experiments. Native PAGE demonstrated that this ASADH tetramerization is apparently universal in fungal species, unlike the functional dimer that is observed in all bacterial ASADHs. The helical subdomain in dimeric bacteria ASADH is replaced by the cover loop in archaeal/fungal ASADHs, presenting the determinant for this altered oligomerization. Mutations that disrupt the tetramerization of trASADH also abolish the catalytic activity, suggesting that the tetrameric state is required to produce the active fungal enzyme form. Our findings provide a basis to categorize ASADHs into dimeric and tetrameric enzymes, adopting a different orientation for NADP binding and offer a structural framework for designing drugs that can specifically target the fungal pathogens. PMID:26869335

  10. Chiral Three-Dimensional Microporous Nickel Aspartate with Extended Ni-O-Ni Bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Anokhina,E.; Go, Y.; Lee, Y.; Vogt, T.; Jacobson, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the course of our investigation aimed at the preparation of homochiral coordination polymers using readily available in optically pure form ligands and building blocks of condensed metal polyhedra, we recently reported a one-dimensional nickel aspartate compound [Ni{sub 2}O(L-Asp)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (1) based on helical chains with extended Ni-O-Ni bonding. Here we report a new nickel aspartate [Ni{sub 2.5}(OH)(L-Asp){sub 2}]{center_dot}6.55H{sub 2}O (2) with a three-dimensional Ni-O-Ni connectivity that forms at a higher pH and is based on the same helices as in 1 which are connected by additional nickel octahedra to generate a chiral open framework with one-dimensional channels with minimum van der Waals dimensions of 8 x 5 Angstroms. The crystal structure of 2 was determined by synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction on a 10 x 10 x 240 {micro}m crystal.

  11. Structural Insights into the Tetrameric State of Aspartate-β-semialdehyde Dehydrogenases from Fungal Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinqin; Mu, Zhixia; Zhao, Rong; Dahal, Gopal; Viola, Ronald E.; Liu, Tao; Jin, Qi; Cui, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Aspartate-β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes the second reaction in the aspartate pathway, a pathway required for the biosynthesis of one fifth of the essential amino acids in plants and microorganisms. Microarray analysis of a fungal pathogen T. rubrum responsible for most human dermatophytoses identified the upregulation of ASADH (trASADH) expression when the fungus is exposed to human skin, underscoring its potential as a drug target. Here we report the crystal structure of trASADH, revealing a tetrameric ASADH with a GAPDH-like fold. The tetramerization of trASADH was confirmed by sedimentation and SAXS experiments. Native PAGE demonstrated that this ASADH tetramerization is apparently universal in fungal species, unlike the functional dimer that is observed in all bacterial ASADHs. The helical subdomain in dimeric bacteria ASADH is replaced by the cover loop in archaeal/fungal ASADHs, presenting the determinant for this altered oligomerization. Mutations that disrupt the tetramerization of trASADH also abolish the catalytic activity, suggesting that the tetrameric state is required to produce the active fungal enzyme form. Our findings provide a basis to categorize ASADHs into dimeric and tetrameric enzymes, adopting a different orientation for NADP binding and offer a structural framework for designing drugs that can specifically target the fungal pathogens. PMID:26869335

  12. The Aspartate-Less Receiver (ALR) Domains: Distribution, Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Joshua J.; Han, Lanlan; Peterson, Francis C.; Volkman, Brian F.; Silvaggi, Nicholas R.; Ulijasz, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Two-component signaling systems are ubiquitous in bacteria, Archaea and plants and play important roles in sensing and responding to environmental stimuli. To propagate a signaling response the typical system employs a sensory histidine kinase that phosphorylates a Receiver (REC) domain on a conserved aspartate (Asp) residue. Although it is known that some REC domains are missing this Asp residue, it remains unclear as to how many of these divergent REC domains exist, what their functional roles are and how they are regulated in the absence of the conserved Asp. Here we have compiled all deposited REC domains missing their phosphorylatable Asp residue, renamed here as the Aspartate-Less Receiver (ALR) domains. Our data show that ALRs are surprisingly common and are enriched for when attached to more rare effector outputs. Analysis of our informatics and the available ALR atomic structures, combined with structural, biochemical and genetic data of the ALR archetype RitR from Streptococcus pneumoniae presented here suggest that ALRs have reorganized their active pockets to instead take on a constitutive regulatory role or accommodate input signals other than Asp phosphorylation, while largely retaining the canonical post-phosphorylation mechanisms and dimeric interface. This work defines ALRs as an atypical REC subclass and provides insights into shared mechanisms of activation between ALR and REC domains. PMID:25875291

  13. Membrane topology of aspartate:alanine antiporter AspT from Comamonas testosteroni.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Takashi; Nanatani, Kei; Nishitani, Kei; Yagi, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Fumito; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Uchida, Takafumi; Nakajima, Tasuku; Abea, Keietsu

    2007-01-01

    We cloned the aspT gene encoding the L-aspartate:L-alanine antiporter AspTCt in Comamonas testosteroni genomic DNA. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that C. testosteroni has an asp operon containing aspT upstream of the l-aspartate 4-decarboxylase gene, and that the gene order of the asp operon of C. testosteroni is the inverse of that of Tetragenococcus halophilus. We used proteoliposomes to confirm the transport processes of AspTCt. To elucidate the two-dimensional structure of AspTCt, we analysed its membrane topology by means of alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) and beta-lactamase (BlaM) fusion methods. The fusion analyses revealed that AspTCt has seven transmembrane segments (TMs), a large cytoplasmic loop containing approximately 200 amino acid residues between TM4 and TM5, a cytoplasmic N-terminus, and a periplasmic C-terminus. These results suggest that the orientation of the N-terminus of AspTCt differs from that of tetragenococcal AspT, even though these two AspT orthologues catalyse the same transport reactions. PMID:17158863

  14. 7-hydroxycalamenene Effects on Secreted Aspartic Proteases Activity and Biofilm Formation of Candida spp.

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mariana M. B.; Almeida, Catia A.; Chaves, Francisco C. M.; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 7-hydroxycalamenenene-rich essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of Croton cajucara (red morphotype) have been described as active against bacteria, protozoa, and fungi species. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 7-hydroxycalamenenene against Candida albicans and nonalbicans species. Materials and Methods: C. cajucara EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and its major compound, 7-hydroxycalamenene, was purified using preparative column chromatography. The anti-candidal activity was investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and secreted aspartic proteases (SAP) and biofilm inhibition assays. Results: 7-hydroxycalamenene (98% purity) displayed anti-candidal activity against all Candida species tested. Higher activity was observed against Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans, showing MIC values ranging from 39.06 μg/ml to 78.12 μg/ml. The purified 7-hydroxycalamenene was able to inhibit 58% of C. albicans ATCC 36801 SAP activity at MIC concentration (pH 7.0). However, 7-hydroxycalamenene demonstrated poor inhibitory activity on C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm formation even at the highest concentration tested (2500 μg/ml). Conclusion: The bioactive potential of 7-hydroxycalamenene against planktonic Candida spp. further supports its use for the development of antimicrobials with anti-candidal activity. SUMMARY Croton cajucara Benth. essential oil provides high amounts of 7-hydroxycalamenene7-Hydroxycalameneneisolated from C. cajucarais active against Candida spp7-Hydroxycalameneneinhibits C. albicans aspartic protease activity7-Hydroxycalamenene was not active against C. albicans biofilm formation. Figure PMID:27019560

  15. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolases and PAA biodegradation: current knowledge and impact on applications.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Tomohiro

    2016-02-01

    Thermally synthesized poly(aspartic acid) (tPAA) is a bio-based, biocompatible, biodegradable, and water-soluble polymer that has a high proportion of β-Asp units and equivalent moles of D- and L-Asp units. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolase-1 and hydrolase-2 are tPAA biodegradation enzymes purified from Gram-negative bacteria. PAA hydrolase-1 selectively cleaves amide bonds between β-Asp units via an endo-type process, whereas PAA hydrolase-2 catalyzes the exo-type hydrolysis of the products of tPAA hydrolysis by PAA hydrolase-1. The novel reactivity of PAA hydrolase-1 makes it a good candidate for a biocatalyst in β-peptide synthesis. This mini-review gives an overview of PAA hydrolases with emphasis on their biochemical and functional properties, in particular, PAA hydrolase-1. Functionally related enzymes, such as poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases and β-aminopeptidases, are compared to PAA hydrolases. This mini-review also provides findings that offer an insight into the catalytic mechanisms of PAA hydrolase-1 from Pedobacter sp. KP-2. PMID:26695157

  16. [Aspartic Acid Generated in the Process of Chlorination Disinfection By-product Dichloroacetonitrile].

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun-sheng; Li, Nai-jun; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Meng-qing

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a method was developed for the determination of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) in drinking water by liquid- liquid micro-extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry ( LLE-GC/MS), which used 1,2-dibromopropane as the internal standard and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the extractant for high accuracy. The aspartic acid was used as the precursor of the DCAN formation during chlorination and the influencing factors were evaluated. The formation mechanism of DCAN was also discussed. The results showed that the DCAN amount increased with the increase of pH value under the neutral and acidic conditions, however, the amount of DCAN decreased with the increase of pH value under the alkali condition. And the final amount of DCAN under the alkali condition was much less than that under the neutral and acidic conditions. It was also found that the DCAN amount increased with the increase of chlorine addition, while the temperature in the range of 10-30°C had little influence on the DCAN formation. The formation process of the DCAN from aspartic acid by chlorination included seven steps, such as substitution, decarboxylation, oxidation, etc and ultimately formed DCAN. PMID:27506037

  17. D-Aspartate Induces Proliferative Pathways in Spermatogonial GC-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Santillo, Alessandra; Falvo, Sara; Chieffi, Paolo; Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena; Senese, Rosalba; Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella

    2016-02-01

    D-aspartate (D-Asp) is an endogenous amino acid present in vertebrate tissues, with particularly high levels in the testis. In vivo studies indicate that D-Asp indirectly stimulates spermatogenesis through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Moreover, in vitro studies have demonstrated that D-Asp up-regulates testosterone production in Leydig cells by enhancing expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. In this study, a cell line derived from immortalized type-B mouse spermatogonia retaining markers of mitotic germ cells (GC-1) was employed to explore more direct involvement of D-Asp in spermatogenesis. Activity and protein expression of markers of cell proliferation were determined at intervals during incubation in D-Asp-containing medium. D-Asp induced phosphorylation of ERK and Akt proteins, stimulated expression of PCNA and Aurora B, and enhanced mRNA synthesis and protein expression of P450 aromatase and protein expression of Estrogen Receptor β (ERβ). These results are the first demonstration of a direct effect of D-Asp on spermatogonial mitotic activity. Considering that spermatogonia express the NR1 subunit of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartic Acid receptor (NMDAR), we suggest that their response to D-Asp depends on NMDAR-mediated activation of the ERK and Akt pathways and is further enhanced by activation of the P450 aromatase/ERβ pathway. PMID:26189884

  18. Histidine to aspartate phosphotransferase activity of nm23 proteins: phosphorylation of aldolase C on Asp-319.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, P D; Vu, N D

    2000-01-01

    nm23 genes have been implicated in the suppression of tumour metastasis and cell motility; however, the biochemical mechanisms for these suppressions are not known. We have previously described the transfer of phosphate from the catalytic histidine residues of nm23 proteins to an aspartic or a glutamic residue on one or more 43 kDa proteins in detergent extracts of bovine brain membranes. To gain a better understanding of this transferase activity, we partly purified this 43 kDa protein and identified aldolases A and C as the major 43 kDa proteins present in the preparation. Aldolase was purified from brain cytosol; its phosphorylation by rat liver nm23 proteins and by recombinant human nm23-H1 was examined. The site of phosphorylation was identified as Asp-319 on aldolase C. The equivalent residue on aldolase A, a glutamic residue, was not phosphorylated. Aldolase C was rapidly phosphorylated by wild-type nm23-H1 but was not phosphorylated, or was phosphorylated very slowly, by either nm23-H1(P96S) or nm23-H1(S120G), mutants of nm23-H1 that do not suppress cell motility. This is the first identification of a protein that is phosphorylated on an aspartic residue by nm23 proteins. The sequence around Asp-319 of aldolase C has some similarities to those around the histidine residues on ATP-citrate lyase and succinic thiokinase that are phosphorylated by nm23 proteins. PMID:10698688

  19. Enhancing doxorubicin efficacy through inhibition of aspartate transaminase in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong

    2016-05-13

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines are identified to overexpress aspartate transaminase (GOT1), which can potentially control the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH synthesis and enhances tumor growth. In this study, the impact of GOT1 on the efficacy of doxorubicin was investigated. Following doxorubicin administration, TNBC cells acquire metabolic alteration, causing increased glutamine flux for the synthesis of aspartate which can be converted into OAA by GOT1. Subsequently, this OAA is converted into malate and then pyruvate, maintaining the NADP(+)/NADPH ratio which neutralize doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Repression of GOT1 using the shRNAs for GOT1 resulted in doxorubicin-induced formation of ROS, thereby increasing doxorubicin sensitivity. The enhanced efficacy of doxorubicin by simultaneous repression of GOT1 was also indicated in an in vivo tumor model of TNBC. These results demonstrate that targeting GOT1 in TNBCs may provide a novel therapeutic approach for improving the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with these refractory tumors. PMID:27086848

  20. Coupling Substrate and Ion Binding to Extracellular Gate of a Sodium-Dependent Aspartate Transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Boudker,O.; Ryan, R.; Yernool, D.; Shimamoto, K.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Secondary transporters are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the movement of substrate molecules across the lipid bilayer by coupling substrate transport to one or more ion gradients, thereby providing a mechanism for the concentrative uptake of substrates. Here we describe crystallographic and thermodynamic studies of Glt{sub Ph}, a sodium (Na{sup +})-coupled aspartate transporter, defining sites for aspartate, two sodium ions and D,L-threo-{beta}-benzyloxyaspartate, an inhibitor. We further show that helical hairpin 2 is the extracellular gate that controls access of substrate and ions to the internal binding sites. At least two sodium ions bind in close proximity to the substrate and these sodium-binding sites, together with the sodium-binding sites in another sodium-coupled transporter, LeuT, define an unwound {alpha}-helix as the central element of the ion-binding motif, a motif well suited to the binding of sodium and to participation in conformational changes that accompany ion binding and unbinding during the transport cycle.

  1. Prodynorphine opioid peptides and aspartate aminotransferase studied in spinal cord and sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Sweetnam, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    An objective of this research was to obtain evidence for the synthesis and release of newly discovered opioid peptides, such as dynorphin, in spinal cord and sensory neurons. Several specific antisera were used to visualize dynorphin and related peptides in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons in dissociated cell culture. Antisera specific for the midportion of the dynorphin molecule revealed a subpopulation of spinal cord neurons with dense immunoreactive dynorphin in cell perikarya, but none in their associated neurites. Antisera specific for either the amino or carboxy terminal sequences of the molecule produced intense immunoreactivity in both cell perikarya and neurites of spinal neurons. These data suggest the cleavage products of dynorphin and not the complete molecule are possible neurotransmitters in the spinal cord. Additional evidence in support of this hypothesis was derived from radioimmunoassays of these cells and their culture medium following depolarization induced by elevated extracellular potassium. Antisera against aspartate aminotransferase revealed no differentially elevated immunoreactive aspartate aminotransferase in tissue sections of spinal cord or dorsal root ganglia.

  2. Conserved aspartate residues and phosphorylation in signal transduction by the chemotaxis protein CheY.

    PubMed Central

    Bourret, R B; Hess, J F; Simon, M I

    1990-01-01

    The CheY protein is phosphorylated by CheA and dephosphorylated by CheZ as part of the chemotactic signal transduction pathway in Escherichia coli. Phosphorylation of CheY has been proposed to occur on an aspartate residue. Each of the eight aspartate residues of CheY was replaced by using site-directed mutagenesis. Substitutions at Asp-12, Asp-13, or Asp-57 resulted in loss of chemotaxis. Most of the mutant CheY proteins were still phosphorylated by CheA but exhibited modified biochemical properties, including reduced ability to accept phosphate from CheA, altered phosphate group stability, and/or resistance to CheZ-mediated dephosphorylation. The properties of CheY proteins bearing a substitution at position 57 were most aberrant, consistent with the hypothesis that Asp-57 is the normal site of acyl phosphate formation. Evidence for an alternate site of phosphorylation in the Asp-57 mutants is presented. Phosphorylated CheY is believed to cause tumbling behavior. However, a dominant mutant CheY protein that was not phosphorylated in vitro caused tumbling in vivo in the absence of CheA. This phenotype suggests that the role of phosphorylation in the wild-type CheY protein is to stabilize a transient conformational change that can generate tumbling behavior. Images PMID:2404281

  3. Molecular Mechanisms Elicited by d-Aspartate in Leydig Cells and Spermatogonia

    PubMed Central

    Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena; Santillo, Alessandra; Falvo, Sara; Longobardi, Salvatore; Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    A bulk of evidence suggests that d-aspartate (d-Asp) regulates steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in vertebrate testes. This review article focuses on intracellular signaling mechanisms elicited by d-Asp possibly via binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in both Leydig cells, and spermatogonia. In Leydig cells, the amino acid upregulates androgen production by eliciting the adenylate cyclase-cAMP and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. d-Asp treatment enhances gene and protein expression of enzymes involved in the steroidogenic cascade. d-Asp also directly affects spermatogonial mitotic activity. In spermatogonial GC-1 cells, d-Asp induces phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT serine-threonine kinase proteins, and stimulates expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and aurora kinase B (AURKB). Further stimulation of spermatogonial GC-1 cell proliferation might come from estradiol/estrogen receptor β (ESR2) interaction. d-Asp modulates androgen and estrogen levels as well as the expression of their receptors in the rat epididymis by acting on mRNA levels of Srd5a1 and Cyp19a1 enzymes, hence suggesting involvement in spermatozoa maturation. PMID:27428949

  4. Molecular Mechanisms Elicited by d-Aspartate in Leydig Cells and Spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena; Santillo, Alessandra; Falvo, Sara; Longobardi, Salvatore; Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    A bulk of evidence suggests that d-aspartate (d-Asp) regulates steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in vertebrate testes. This review article focuses on intracellular signaling mechanisms elicited by d-Asp possibly via binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in both Leydig cells, and spermatogonia. In Leydig cells, the amino acid upregulates androgen production by eliciting the adenylate cyclase-cAMP and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. d-Asp treatment enhances gene and protein expression of enzymes involved in the steroidogenic cascade. d-Asp also directly affects spermatogonial mitotic activity. In spermatogonial GC-1 cells, d-Asp induces phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT serine-threonine kinase proteins, and stimulates expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and aurora kinase B (AURKB). Further stimulation of spermatogonial GC-1 cell proliferation might come from estradiol/estrogen receptor β (ESR2) interaction. d-Asp modulates androgen and estrogen levels as well as the expression of their receptors in the rat epididymis by acting on mRNA levels of Srd5a1 and Cyp19a1 enzymes, hence suggesting involvement in spermatozoa maturation. PMID:27428949

  5. Treatment of pyruvate carboxylase deficiency with high doses of citrate and aspartate.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A; Kahler, S G; Kishnani, P S; Artigas-Lopez, M; Pappu, A S; Steiner, R; Millington, D S; Van Hove, J L

    1999-12-01

    A patient with severe pyruvate carboxylase deficiency presented at age 11 weeks with metabolic decompensation after routine immunization. She was comatose, had severe lactic acidemia (22 mM) and ketosis, low aspartate and glutamate, elevated citrulline and proline, and mild hyperammonemia. Head magnetic resonance imaging showed subdural hematomas and mild generalized brain atrophy. Biotin-unresponsive pyruvate carboxylase deficiency was diagnosed. To provide oxaloacetate, she was treated with high-dose citrate (7.5 mol/kg(-1)/day(-1)), aspartate (10 mmol/kg(-1)/day(-1)), and continuous drip feeding. Lactate and ketones diminished dramatically, and plasma amino acids normalized, except for arginine, which required supplementation. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), glutamine remained low and lysine elevated, showing the treatment had not normalized brain chemistry. Metabolic decompensations, triggered by infections or fasting, diminished after the first year. They were characterized by severe lactic and ketoacidosis, hypernatremia, and a tendency to hypoglycemia. At age 3(1/2) years she has profound mental retardation, spasticity, and grand mal and myoclonic seizures only partially controlled by anticonvulsants. The new treatment regimen has helped maintain metabolic control, but the neurological outcome is still poor. PMID:10588840

  6. Elaboration of a fragment library hit produces potent and selective aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Bharani; Bhansali, Pravin; Viola, Ronald E

    2015-10-15

    Aspartate-β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) lies at the first branch point in the aspartate metabolic pathway which leads to the biosynthesis of several essential amino acids and some important metabolites. This pathway is crucial for many metabolic processes in plants and microbes like bacteria and fungi, but is absent in mammals. Therefore, the key microbial enzymes involved in this pathway are attractive potential targets for development of new antibiotics with novel modes of action. The ASADH enzyme family shares the same substrate binding and active site catalytic groups; however, the enzymes from representative bacterial and fungal species show different inhibition patterns when previously screened against low molecular weight inhibitors identified from fragment library screening. In the present study several approaches, including fragment based drug discovery (FBDD), inhibitor docking, kinetic, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been used to guide ASADH inhibitor development. Elaboration of a core structure identified by FBDD has led to the synthesis of low micromolar inhibitors of the target enzyme, with high selectivity introduced between the Gram-negative and Gram-positive orthologs of ASADH. This new set of structures open a novel direction for the development of inhibitors against this validated drug-target enzyme. PMID:26404410

  7. Fumarate permeation in normal and acidotic rat kidney mitochondria: fumarate/malate and fumarate/aspartate translocators.

    PubMed

    Atlante, A; Gagliardi, S; Passarella, S

    1998-02-24

    In order to gain some insight into the fate of fumarate synthesised in the cytosol in the purine nucleotide cycle and in amino acid catabolism, the capability of both rat kidney mitochondria and acidotic rat kidney mitochondria to take up either externally synthesised, via adenylsuccinate lyase, or added fumarate in exchange with intramitochondrial malate or aspartate was tested by means of both spectrophotometric and isotopic techniques. The appearance of either malate or aspartate caused by the presence of fumarate was revealed outside normal and acidotic mitochondria by using specific substrate detecting systems. Consistently, externally added fumarate was found to cause efflux of either [14C]-malate or [14C]-aspartate from loaded mitochondria. The occurrence in rat kidney mitochondria of two separate translocators, i.e., fumarate/malate and fumarate/aspartate carriers, is shown in the light of saturation kinetics and the different inhibitor sensitivity. The fumarate/aspartate antiporters found in normal and acidotic mitochondria appear to differ from each other. PMID:9500979

  8. Use of protease sensitivity to probe the conformations of newly synthesised mutant forms of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Azzariti, A; Giannattasio, S; Doonan, S; Merafina, R S; Marra, E; Quagliariello, E

    1995-10-24

    Sensitivity to digestion with pronase has been used to show that the precursor form of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, the form lacking the N-terminal presequence, that with a deletion of the first 9 residues and mutants of the mature enzyme in which residue Cys-166 is mutated to alanine or serine, all retain unfolded conformations after synthesis in a reticulocyte lysate. In the presence of lysed mitochondria the various forms of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase retained their susceptibilities to pronase in a way that mirrored the efficiencies with which they are imported into intact mitochondria. The results are interpreted as showing that the presequence of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is not uniquely required for interaction with cytosolic factors required to maintain the newly synthesised protein in a form competent for interacting with, and being imported into, mitochondria. PMID:7488044

  9. RC1339/APRc from Rickettsia conorii is a novel aspartic protease with properties of retropepsin-like enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rui; Huesgen, Pitter; Riley, Sean P; Wlodawer, Alexander; Faro, Carlos; Overall, Christopher M; Martinez, Juan J; Simões, Isaura

    2014-08-01

    Members of the species Rickettsia are obligate intracellular, gram-negative, arthropod-borne pathogens of humans and other mammals. The life-threatening character of diseases caused by many Rickettsia species and the lack of reliable protective vaccine against rickettsioses strengthens the importance of identifying new protein factors for the potential development of innovative therapeutic tools. Herein, we report the identification and characterization of a novel membrane-embedded retropepsin-like homologue, highly conserved in 55 Rickettsia genomes. Using R. conorii gene homologue RC1339 as our working model, we demonstrate that, despite the low overall sequence similarity to retropepsins, the gene product of rc1339 APRc (for Aspartic Protease from Rickettsia conorii) is an active enzyme with features highly reminiscent of this family of aspartic proteases, such as autolytic activity impaired by mutation of the catalytic aspartate, accumulation in the dimeric form, optimal activity at pH 6, and inhibition by specific HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Moreover, specificity preferences determined by a high-throughput profiling approach confirmed common preferences between this novel rickettsial enzyme and other aspartic proteases, both retropepsins and pepsin-like. This is the first report on a retropepsin-like protease in gram-negative intracellular bacteria such as Rickettsia, contributing to the analysis of the evolutionary relationships between the two types of aspartic proteases. Additionally, we have also shown that APRc is transcribed and translated in R. conorii and R. rickettsii and is integrated into the outer membrane of both species. Finally, we demonstrated that APRc is sufficient to catalyze the in vitro processing of two conserved high molecular weight autotransporter adhesin/invasion proteins, Sca5/OmpB and Sca0/OmpA, thereby suggesting the participation of this enzyme in a relevant proteolytic pathway in rickettsial life-cycle. As a novel bona fide member

  10. RC1339/APRc from Rickettsia conorii Is a Novel Aspartic Protease with Properties of Retropepsin-Like Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Rui; Huesgen, Pitter; Riley, Sean P.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Faro, Carlos; Overall, Christopher M.; Martinez, Juan J.; Simões, Isaura

    2014-01-01

    Members of the species Rickettsia are obligate intracellular, gram-negative, arthropod-borne pathogens of humans and other mammals. The life-threatening character of diseases caused by many Rickettsia species and the lack of reliable protective vaccine against rickettsioses strengthens the importance of identifying new protein factors for the potential development of innovative therapeutic tools. Herein, we report the identification and characterization of a novel membrane-embedded retropepsin-like homologue, highly conserved in 55 Rickettsia genomes. Using R. conorii gene homologue RC1339 as our working model, we demonstrate that, despite the low overall sequence similarity to retropepsins, the gene product of rc1339 APRc (for Aspartic Protease from Rickettsia conorii) is an active enzyme with features highly reminiscent of this family of aspartic proteases, such as autolytic activity impaired by mutation of the catalytic aspartate, accumulation in the dimeric form, optimal activity at pH 6, and inhibition by specific HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Moreover, specificity preferences determined by a high-throughput profiling approach confirmed common preferences between this novel rickettsial enzyme and other aspartic proteases, both retropepsins and pepsin-like. This is the first report on a retropepsin-like protease in gram-negative intracellular bacteria such as Rickettsia, contributing to the analysis of the evolutionary relationships between the two types of aspartic proteases. Additionally, we have also shown that APRc is transcribed and translated in R. conorii and R. rickettsii and is integrated into the outer membrane of both species. Finally, we demonstrated that APRc is sufficient to catalyze the in vitro processing of two conserved high molecular weight autotransporter adhesin/invasion proteins, Sca5/OmpB and Sca0/OmpA, thereby suggesting the participation of this enzyme in a relevant proteolytic pathway in rickettsial life-cycle. As a novel bona fide member

  11. Effects of the abused solvent toluene on recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, S L; Mirshahi, T; Thomas, B; Balster, R L; Woodward, J J

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that toluene, which is commonly abused, depresses neuronal activity and causes behavioral effects in both animals and man similar to those observed for ethanol. In this study, the oocyte expression system was used to test the hypothesis that toluene, like ethanol, inhibits the function of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Oocytes were injected with mRNA for specific N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or non-NMDA subunits and currents were recorded using conventional two-electrode voltage clamp. To enhance the low water solubility of toluene, drug solutions were prepared by mixing toluene with alkamuls (ethoxylated castor oil) at a 1:1 ratio (v:v) and diluting this mixture to the appropriate concentration with barium-containing normal frog Ringer solution. Alkamuls, up to 0.1%, had no significant effects on membrane leak currents or on NMDA-induced currents. Toluene, up to approximately 9 mM, had only minor effects on membrane leak currents but dose-dependently inhibited NMDA-mediated currents in oocytes. The inhibition of NMDA receptor currents by toluene was rapid, reversible and the potency for toluene's effects was subunit dependent. The NR1/2B subunit combination was the most sensitive with an IC50 value for toluene-induced inhibition of 0.17 mM. The NR1/2A and NR1/2C receptors were 6- and 12-fold less sensitive with IC50 values of 1.4 and 2.1 mM, respectively. In contrast, toluene up to approximately 9 mM did not inhibit kainate-induced currents in oocytes expressing GluR1, GluR1(+)R2 or GluR6 subunits. These results suggest that some of the effects of toluene on neuronal activity and behavior may be mediated by inhibition of NMDA receptors. PMID:9655877

  12. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis in a patient with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing-Jing; Lv, He; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Juan; Hao, Hong-Jun; Gao, Feng; Huang, Yi-Ning

    2016-07-01

    We described a female patient with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis occurring sequentially with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). The 19-year-old patient initially presented a diencephalic syndrome with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG) and brain lesions which involving bilateral medial temporal lobes and periependymal surfaces of the third ventricle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten months later, the patient developed cognitive impairment, psychiatric symptoms and dyskinesia with left basal ganglia lesions on brain MRI. Meanwhile, the anti-NMDAR antibodies were positive in the patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid, while the screening tests for an ovarian teratoma and other tumors were all negative. Hence, the patient was diagnosed NMOSD and anti-NMDAR encephalitis followed by low-dose rituximab treatment with a good response. This case was another evidence for demyelinating syndromes overlapping anti-NMDAR encephalitis in Chinese patients. PMID:27456878

  13. Purification and characterization of aspartate N-acetyltransferase: A critical enzyme in brain metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinzhe; Zhao, Mojun; Parungao, Gwenn G; Viola, Ronald E

    2016-03-01

    Canavan disease (CD) is a neurological disorder caused by an interruption in the metabolism of N-acetylaspartate (NAA). Numerous mutations have been found in the enzyme that hydrolyzes NAA, and the catalytic activity of aspartoacylase is significantly impaired in CD patients. Recent studies have also supported an important role in CD for the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of NAA in the brain. However, previous attempts to study this enzyme had not succeeded in obtaining a soluble, stable and active form of this membrane-associated protein. We have now utilized fusion constructs with solubilizing protein partners to obtain an active and soluble form of aspartate N-acetyltransferase. Characterization of the properties of this enzyme has set the stage for the development of selective inhibitors that can lower the elevated levels of NAA that are observed in CD patients and potentially serve as a new treatment therapy. PMID:26550943

  14. Measuring N-acetyl aspartate synthesis in vivo using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Su; Yang, Jehoon; Shen, Jun

    2008-01-01

    N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) is an important marker of neuronal function and viability that can be measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In this paper, we proposed a method to measure NAA synthesis using proton MRS with infusion of uniformly 13C-labeled glucose, and demonstrated its feasibility in an in vivo study of the rat brain. The rate of 13C-label incorporation into the acetyl group of NAA was measured using a localized, long echo-time proton MRS method. Signals from the 13C satellites of the main NAA methyl protons at 2.02 ppm were continuously monitored for 10 hours. Quantification of the data based on a linear kinetic model showed that NAA synthesis rate in isoflurane-anesthetized rats was 0.19 ± 0.02 µmol/g/h (mean ± standard deviation, n = 12). PMID:18486230

  15. Two-Photon-Induced Selective Decarboxylation of Aspartic Acids D85 and D212 in Bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Martin; Rhinow, Daniel; Linne, Uwe; Hampp, Norbert

    2012-10-18

    The interest in microbial opsins stems from their photophysical properties, which are superior to most organic dyes. Microbial rhodopsins like bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from Halobacterium salinarum have an astonishingly high cross-section for two-photon-absorption (TPA), which is of great interest for technological applications such as data storage. Irradiation of BR with intense laser pulses at 532 nm leads to formation of a bathochromic photoproduct, which is further converted to a photochemical species absorbing in the UV range. As demonstrated earlier, the photochemical conversions are induced by resonant TPA. However, the molecular basis of these conversions remained unresolved. In this work we use mass spectroscopy to demonstrate that TPA of BR leads to selective decarboxylation of two aspartic acids in the vicinity of the retinal chromphore. These photochemical conversions are the basis of permanent two-photon data storage in BR and are of critical importance for application of microbial opsins in optogenetics. PMID:26292239

  16. Targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors for treatment of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong-Yi; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Neuropathic pain remains a major clinical problem and a therapeutic challenge because existing analgesics are often ineffective and can cause serious side effects. Increased N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity contributes to central sensitization in certain types of neuropathic pain. NMDAR antagonists can reduce hyperalgesia and allodynia in animal models of neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury and diabetic neuropathy. Clinically used NMDAR antagonists, such as ketamine and dextromethorphan, are generally effective in patients with neuropathic pain, such as complex regional pain syndrome and painful diabetic neuropathy. However, patients with postherpetic neuralgia respond poorly to NMDAR antagonists. Recent studies on identifying NMDAR-interacting proteins and molecular mechanisms of increased NMDAR activity in neuropathic pain could facilitate the development of new drugs to attenuate abnormal NMDAR activity with minimal impairment of the physiological function of NMDARs. Combining NMDAR antagonists with other analgesics could also lead to better management of neuropathic pain without causing serious side effects. PMID:21686074

  17. Expansion of the aspartate beta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase family: the first structure of a fungal ortholog.

    PubMed

    Arachea, Buenafe T; Liu, Xuying; Pavlovsky, Alexander G; Viola, Ronald E

    2010-02-01

    The enzyme aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes a critical transformation that produces the first branch-point intermediate in an essential microbial amino-acid biosynthetic pathway. The first structure of an ASADH isolated from a fungal species (Candida albicans) has been determined as a complex with its pyridine nucleotide cofactor. This enzyme is a functional dimer, with a similar overall fold and domain organization to the structurally characterized bacterial ASADHs. However, there are differences in the secondary-structural elements and in cofactor binding that are likely to cause the lower catalytic efficiency of this fungal enzyme. Alterations in the dimer interface, through deletion of a helical subdomain and replacement of amino acids that participate in a hydrogen-bonding network, interrupt the intersubunit-communication channels required to support an alternating-site catalytic mechanism. The detailed functional information derived from this new structure will allow an assessment of ASADH as a possible target for antifungal drug development. PMID:20124701

  18. Expansion of the aspartate [beta]-semialdehyde dehydrogenase family: the first structure of a fungal ortholog

    SciTech Connect

    Arachea, B.T.; Liu, X.; Pavlovsky, A.G.; Viola, R.E.

    2010-08-13

    The enzyme aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes a critical transformation that produces the first branch-point intermediate in an essential microbial amino-acid biosynthetic pathway. The first structure of an ASADH isolated from a fungal species (Candida albicans) has been determined as a complex with its pyridine nucleotide cofactor. This enzyme is a functional dimer, with a similar overall fold and domain organization to the structurally characterized bacterial ASADHs. However, there are differences in the secondary-structural elements and in cofactor binding that are likely to cause the lower catalytic efficiency of this fungal enzyme. Alterations in the dimer interface, through deletion of a helical subdomain and replacement of amino acids that participate in a hydrogen-bonding network, interrupt the intersubunit-communication channels required to support an alternating-site catalytic mechanism. The detailed functional information derived from this new structure will allow an assessment of ASADH as a possible target for antifungal drug development.

  19. Glutamate and aspartate are decreased in the skin in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, S.; Yamauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    We measured the levels of amino acids in biopsied skin from eight patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and seven controls. The most conspicuous changes in ALS patients were as follows. First, the contents of the acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate were significantly decreased in ALS, and were negatively and significantly associated with the duration of illness. Second, the levels of the collagen-associated amino acids hydroxyproline, proline, glycine, alanine, and hydroxylysine were significantly decreased in ALS, and correlated inversely with the duration of illness. These results suggest that there are abnormalities of acidic amino acids and collagen-associated amino acids in the skin of patients with ALS. These changes may underlie the pathogenesis of ALS.

  20. Cumulative effects of mutations in newly synthesised mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase on uptake into mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Marra, E; Azzariti, A; Giannattasio, S; Doonan, S; Quagliariello, E

    1995-09-14

    Mutant genes were constructed which coded for the precursor form of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in which residue cysteine 166 was mutated to either serine or alanine and for forms of the protein lacking both the presequence and residues 1-9 of the mature protein but carrying the same cysteine mutations. The protein products of all of these mutant genes were imported into mitochondria that had been added to the expression system but with varying degrees of efficiency. The results showed that the effects of mutation of cysteine 166 and of deletion of residues 1-9 of the mature protein on sequestration into mitochondria were essentially cumulative, suggesting that these parts of the protein are involved in distinct steps on the recognition/uptake pathway. PMID:7677759

  1. Chronic periodic lateralised epileptic discharges and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Eisuke; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Murata, Yoshiko; Taniguchi, Go; Sone, Daichi; Watanabe, Masako

    2014-06-01

    Periodic lateralised epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) are uncommon transient electroencephalographic findings accompanied by acute brain lesions. A small proportion of PLEDs persist for more than three months and are called "chronic" PLEDs, the pathophysiology of which is still debated. Herein, we report a man with right hemispheric PLEDs which lasted for more than 14 months and mild left hemispatial neglect after he experienced status epilepticus. Although MRI was normal, positron emission tomography revealed right temporo-parieto-occipital hypometabolism, which coincided with the source area of PLEDs estimated by magnetoencephalography. In addition, levels of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies and granzyme B were found to be high in the cerebrospinal fluid. Following two courses of steroid pulse therapy, the patient's left spatial neglect improved and the PLEDs were partially resolved. These findings suggest that the chronic PLEDs present in this case were an interictal phenomenon and that their pathophysiology involved autoimmune processes. PMID:24777148

  2. Pyruvate carboxylation enables growth of SDH-deficient cells by supporting aspartate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cardaci, Simone; Zheng, Liang; MacKay, Gillian; van den Broek, Niels J F; MacKenzie, Elaine D; Nixon, Colin; Stevenson, David; Tumanov, Sergey; Bulusu, Vinay; Kamphorst, Jurre J; Vazquez, Alexei; Fleming, Stewart; Schiavi, Francesca; Kalna, Gabriela; Blyth, Karen; Strathdee, Douglas; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-10-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a heterotetrameric nuclear-encoded complex responsible for the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Loss-of-function mutations in any of the SDH genes are associated with cancer formation. However, the impact of SDH loss on cell metabolism and the mechanisms enabling growth of SDH-defective cells are largely unknown. Here, we generated Sdhb-ablated kidney mouse cells and used comparative metabolomics and stable-isotope-labelling approaches to identify nutritional requirements and metabolic adaptations to SDH loss. We found that lack of SDH activity commits cells to consume extracellular pyruvate, which sustains Warburg-like bioenergetic features. We further demonstrated that pyruvate carboxylation diverts glucose-derived carbons into aspartate biosynthesis, thus sustaining cell growth. By identifying pyruvate carboxylase as essential for the proliferation and tumorigenic capacity of SDH-deficient cells, this study revealed a metabolic vulnerability for potential future treatment of SDH-associated malignancies. PMID:26302408

  3. In vitro testing of thiolated poly(aspartic acid) from ophthalmic formulation aspects.

    PubMed

    Budai-Szű Cs, Mária; Horvát, Gabriella; Gyarmati, Benjámin; Szilágyi, Barnabás Áron; Szilágyi, András; Csihi, Tímea; Berkó, Szilvia; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Mori, Michela; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Caramella, Carla; Csányi, Erzsébet

    2016-08-01

    Ocular drug delivery formulations must meet anatomical, biopharmaceutical, patient-driven and regulatory requirements. Mucoadhesive polymers can serve as a better alternative to currently available ophthalmic formulations by providing improved bioavailability. If all requirements are addressed, a polymeric formulation resembling the tear film of the eye might be the best solution. The optimum formulation must not have high osmotic activity, should provide appropriate surface tension, pH and refractive index, must be non-toxic and should be transparent and mucoadhesive. We would like to highlight the importance of in vitro polymer testing from a pharmaceutical aspect. We, therefore, carried out physical-chemical investigations to verify the suitability of certain systems for ophthalmic formulations. In this work, in situ gelling, mucoadhesive thiolated poly(aspartic acid)s were tested from ophthalmic formulation aspects. The results of preformulation measurements indicate that these polymers can be used as potential carriers in ophthalmic drug delivery. PMID:26556306

  4. Structure of unligated aspartate carbamoyltransferase of Escherichia coli at 2.6-A resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Ke, H M; Honzatko, R B; Lipscomb, W N

    1984-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the allosteric enzyme aspartate carbamoyltransferase (EC 2.1.3.2) has been refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 0.24 at 2.6-A resolution in the space group P321, where a and b are 122.1 A and c is 142.2 A. This structure is isomorphous to the form of the enzyme complexed to the allosteric inhibitor cytidine triphosphate. All sources of sequence information have been evaluated against the electron density. The corrected amino acid sequences of the catalytic and regulatory proteins have been incorporated in the model, and three regions in the active site are described: (i) near arginine-105, histidine-134, and arginine-167, (ii) near lysine-232 and arginine-229, and (iii) near lysine-83 and lysine-84. PMID:6377306

  5. Structural Model of the R State of Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase with Substrates Bound

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Eldo, Joby; Kantrowitz, Evan R.

    2009-01-01

    The allosteric enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) exists in two conformational states. The enzyme, in the absence of substrates is primarily in the low-activity T state, is converted to the high-activity R state upon substrate binding, and remains in the R state until substrates are exhausted. These conformational changes have made it difficult to obtain structural data on R-state active-site complexes. Here we report the R-state structure of ATCase with the substrate Asp and the substrate analogue phosphonactamide (PAM) bound. This R-state structure represents the stage in the catalytic mechanism immediately before the formation of the covalent bond between the nitrogen of the amino group of Asp and the carbonyl carbon of carbamoyl phosphate. The binding mode of the PAM is similar to the binding mode of the phosphonate moiety of N-(phosphonoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA), the carboxylates of Asp interact with the same residues that interact with the carboxylates of PALA, although the position and orientations are shifted. The amino group of Asp is 2.9 Å away from the carbonyl oxygen of PAM, positioned correctly for the nucleophilic attack. Arg105 and Leu267 in the catalytic chain interact with PAM and Asp and help to position the substrates correctly for catalysis. This structure fills a key gap in the structural determination of each of the steps in the catalytic cycle. By combining these data with previously determined structures we can now visualize the allosteric transition through detailed atomic motions that underlie the molecular mechanism. PMID:17603076

  6. Structural Model of the R State of Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase with Substrates Bound

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,J.; Eldo, J.; Kantrowitz, E.

    2007-01-01

    The allosteric enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) exists in two conformational states. The enzyme, in the absence of substrates is primarily in the low-activity T state, is converted to the high-activity R state upon substrate binding, and remains in the R state until substrates are exhausted. These conformational changes have made it difficult to obtain structural data on R-state active-site complexes. Here we report the R-state structure of ATCase with the substrate Asp and the substrate analog phosphonoactamide (PAM) bound. This R-state structure represents the stage in the catalytic mechanism immediately before the formation of the covalent bond between the nitrogen of the amino group of Asp and the carbonyl carbon of carbamoyl phosphate. The binding mode of the PAM is similar to the binding mode of the phosphonate moiety of N-(phosphonoacetyl)-l-aspartate (PALA), the carboxylates of Asp interact with the same residues that interact with the carboxylates of PALA, although the position and orientations are shifted. The amino group of Asp is 2.9 {angstrom} away from the carbonyl oxygen of PAM, positioned correctly for the nucleophilic attack. Arg105 and Leu267 in the catalytic chain interact with PAM and Asp and help to position the substrates correctly for catalysis. This structure fills a key gap in the structural determination of each of the steps in the catalytic cycle. By combining these data with previously determined structures we can now visualize the allosteric transition through detailed atomic motions that underlie the molecular mechanism.

  7. Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors increases paraoxon-induced apoptosis in cultured neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xuan; Tian Feng; Okagaki, Peter; Marini, Ann M. . E-mail: amarini@usuhs.mil

    2005-10-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds, used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents, are potent neurotoxins. We examined the neurotoxic effect of paraoxon (O,O-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphate), an organophosphate compound, and the role of NMDA receptors as a mechanism of action in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Paraoxon is neurotoxic to cultured rat cerebellar granule cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cerebellar granule cells are less sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of paraoxon on day in vitro (DIV) 4 than neurons treated on DIV 8. Surprisingly, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801, enhances paraoxon-mediated neurotoxicity suggesting that NMDA receptors may play a protective role. Pretreatment with a subtoxic concentration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) [100 {mu}M] protects about 40% of the vulnerable neurons that would otherwise die from paraoxon-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, addition of a neuroprotective concentration of NMDA 3 h after treatment with paraoxon provides the same level of protection. Because paraoxon-mediated neuronal cell death is time-dependent, we hypothesized that apoptosis may be involved. Paraoxon increases apoptosis about 10-fold compared to basal levels. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor (Boc-D-FMK) and the caspase-9-specific inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) protect against paraoxon-mediated apoptosis, paraoxon-stimulated caspase-3 activity and neuronal cell death. MK-801 increases, whereas NMDA blocks paraoxon-induced apoptosis and paraoxon-stimulated caspase-3 activity. These results suggest that activation of NMDA receptors protect neurons against paraoxon-induced neurotoxicity by blocking apoptosis initiated by paraoxon.

  8. D-Aspartate drinking solution alleviates pain and cognitive impairment in neuropathic mice.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Enza; Luongo, Livio; Guida, Francesca; Marabese, Ida; Romano, Rosaria; Iannotta, Monica; Rossi, Francesca; D'Aniello, Antimo; Stella, Luigi; Marmo, Federica; Usiello, Alessandro; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Maione, Sabatino; de Novellis, Vito

    2016-07-01

    D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is a free D-amino acid detected in multiple brain regions and putative precursor of endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) acting as agonist at NMDA receptors. In this study, we investigated whether D-Asp (20 mM) in drinking solution for 1 month affects pain responses and pain-related emotional, and cognitive behaviour in a model of neuropathic pain induced by the spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve in mice. SNI mice developed mechanical allodynia and motor coordination impairment 30 days after SNI surgery. SNI mice showed cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression-like behaviour, reduced sociability in the three chamber sociability paradigm, increased expression of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor and Homer 1a in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The expression of (post synaptic density) PSD-95 and Shank 1was instead unaffected in the mPFC of the SNI mice. Treatment with D-Asp drinking solution, started right after the SNI (day 0), alleviated mechanical allodynia, improved cognition and motor coordination and increased social interaction. D-Asp also restored the levels of extracellular D-Asp, Homer 1a and NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor to physiological levels and reduced Shank1 and PSD-95 protein levels in the mPFC. Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant used also to alleviate neuropathic pain in humans, reverted mechanical allodynia and cognitive impairment, and unlike D-Asp, was effective in reducing depression and anxiety-like behaviour in the SNI mice and increased PSD protein level. Altogether these findings demonstrate that D-Asp improves sensorial, motor and cognitive-like symptoms related to chronic pain possibly through glutamate neurotransmission normalization in neuropathic mice. PMID:27115160

  9. Identification and Validation of Aspartic Acid Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase as a New Anti-Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Target

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jianzhou; Yang, Yanhui; Xiao, Chunling; Guan, Yan; Hao, Xueqin; Deng, Qi; Lu, Zhongyang

    2015-01-01

    Aspartic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) lies at the first branch point in the essential aspartic acid biosynthetic pathway that is found in bacteria and plants but is absent from animals. Mutations in the asadh gene encoding ASADH produce an inactive enzyme, which is lethal. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the hypothesis that ASADH represents a new anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) target. An asadh promoter-replacement mutant MTB, designated MTB::asadh, in which asadh gene expression is regulated by pristinamycin, was constructed to investigate the physiological functions of ASADH in the host bacteria. Bacterial growth was evaluated by monitoring OD600 and ASADH expression was analyzed by Western blotting. The results showed that the growth and survival of MTB::asadh was completely inhibited in the absence of the inducer pristinamycin. Furthermore, the growth of the mutant was rigorously dependent on the presence of the inducer in the medium. The starved mutant exhibited a marked reduction (approximately 80%) in the cell wall materials compared to the wild-type, in addition to obvious morphological differences that were apparent in scanning electron microscopy studies; however, with the addition of pristinamycin, the cell wall contents and morphology similar to those of the wild-type strain were recovered. The starved mutant also exhibited almost no pathogenicity in an in vitro model of infection using mouse macrophage J774A.1 cells. The mutant showed a concentration-dependent recovery of pathogenicity with the addition of the inducer. These findings implicate ASADH as a promising target for the development of novel anti-MTB drugs. PMID:26437401

  10. Stability of Glutamate-Aspartate Cardioplegia Additive Solution in Polyolefin IV Bags

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Steven D.; Kim, Stephanie E.; Hughes, Susan E.; Gilbert, Justine M.; Ciancaglini, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Glutamate-aspartate cardioplegia additive solution (GACAS) is used to enhance myocardial preservation and left ventricular function during some cardiac surgeries. This study was designed to evaluate the stability of compounded GACAS stored in sterile polyolefin intravenous (IV) bags. The goal is to extend the default USP beyond-use date (BUD) and reduce unnecessary inventory waste. Methods: GACAS was compounded and packaged in sterile polyolefin 250 mL IV bags. The concentration was 232 mM for each amino acid. The samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C-8°C) and analyzed at 0, 1, and 2 months. At each time point, the samples were evaluated by pH measurement and visual inspection for color, clarity, and particulates. The samples were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for potency and degradation products. Due to the lack of ultraviolet (UV) chromophores of glutamate and aspartate, the samples were derivatized by ortho-phthalaldehyde prior to HPLC analysis. Results: The time zero samples of GACAS passed the physical, chemical, and microbiological tests. Over 2 months of storage, there was no significant change in pH or visual appearance for any of the stability samples. The HPLC results also indicated that the samples retained 101% to 103% of the label claim strengths for both amino acids. Conclusion: The physical and chemical stability of extemporaneously prepared GACAS has been confirmed for up to 2 months in polyolefin IV bags stored under refrigeration. With proper sterile compounding practice and microbiology testing, the BUD of this product can be extended to 2 months. PMID:26405344

  11. A Histidine Aspartate Ionic Lock Gates the Iron Passage in Miniferritins from Mycobacterium smegmatis*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sunanda Margrett; Chandran, Anu V.; Vijayabaskar, Mahalingam S.; Roy, Sourav; Balaram, Hemalatha; Vishveshwara, Saraswathi; Vijayan, Mamannamana; Chatterji, Dipankar

    2014-01-01

    Dps (DNA-binding protein from starved cells) are dodecameric assemblies belonging to the ferritin family that can bind DNA, carry out ferroxidation, and store iron in their shells. The ferritin-like trimeric pore harbors the channel for the entry and exit of iron. By representing the structure of Dps as a network we have identified a charge-driven interface formed by a histidine aspartate cluster at the pore interface unique to Mycobacterium smegmatis Dps protein, MsDps2. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to generate mutants to disrupt the charged interactions. Kinetics of iron uptake/release of the wild type and mutants were compared. Crystal structures were solved at a resolution of 1.8–2.2 Å for the various mutants to compare structural alterations vis à vis the wild type protein. The substitutions at the pore interface resulted in alterations in the side chain conformations leading to an overall weakening of the interface network, especially in cases of substitutions that alter the charge at the pore interface. Contrary to earlier findings where conserved aspartate residues were found crucial for iron release, we propose here that in the case of MsDps2, it is the interplay of negative-positive potentials at the pore that enables proper functioning of the protein. In similar studies in ferritins, negative and positive patches near the iron exit pore were found to be important in iron uptake/release kinetics. The unique ionic cluster in MsDps2 makes it a suitable candidate to act as nano-delivery vehicle, as these gated pores can be manipulated to exhibit conformations allowing for slow or fast rates of iron release. PMID:24573673

  12. Memantine delayed N-methyl-D-aspartate -induced convulsions in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Ashish; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2015-02-01

    Memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane) is a moderate-affinity uncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In this study, we have explored the effect of memantine against N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced seizures in neonatal rats. Here, we evaluated various behavioral seizure abnormalities in neonatal rats (Sprague-Dawley; postnatal day 9) after an intraperitoneal administration of NMDA. Further, we explored whether an acute administration of memantine could protect these neonates against different phases of convulsions induced by NMDA. In a separate study, we have compared the effect of levetiracetam in the same animal model. Exogenous administration of NMDA (30 mg/kg., i.p.) in neonatal rats resulted in arrest of activity, emprosthotonos curvature (trunk is bent forward by the entire muscles), myoclonic jerks, and forelimb/hindlimb clonus. The clonus phase in neonates was followed by loss of righting reflex and continuous seizures (for more than 5 min) suggesting status epilepticus, tonic extension, and death. Pretreatment of memantine hydrochloride (10-30 mg/kg., i.p.) dose-dependently delayed the onset of different phases of convulsions induced by NMDA. Memantine at the highest dose was found to be ataxic in rat neonates, while lower doses were free of any observed behavioral signs of toxicity. Levetiracetam (25 mg/kg., i.p.) when administered 30 min before the NMDA challenge blocked only the jerk phase and did not affect other phases of NMDA-induced convulsions. These data indicated that memantine and other safer uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists may be protective in the management of neonatal seizures. PMID:25196574

  13. Characterization of aspartate transcarbamylase activity from gonads of the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria.

    PubMed

    Etchian, Olivier Assoi; Pellerin, Jocelyne

    2003-04-01

    Aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase, EC 2.1.3.2) has been shown to be a good index of the reproductive cycle in marine molluscs. However, this enzyme has never been studied in the soft shell clam Mya arenaria. The characteristics of gonadal ATCase of the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria were therefore determined since we need powerful tools to assess the degree of effects of endocrine disruptors in this species at risk. Enzyme kinetic values observed at pH 8.3 were significantly lower than those measured at pH 9.4. The optimal conditions for the enzyme assays were reached in the presence of a 10 mM of substrate concentration and at pH 9.2 for 60 min at 37 degrees C. We have found that the enzyme was heat sensitive, markedly activated by DMSO and DMF, but no effect was observed with ethanol, ATP or CTP. However, clam ATCase activity was partly inhibited by the addition of CuSO(4) and PHMB to the medium, an inhibition that could be attributed to the presence of SH sites in cysteine residues localized in the catalytic site of this enzyme. All these results will be very useful in the near future to study the gametogenetic process of Mya arenaria, since little is known about the factors that control the physiological process of reproduction in this bivalve of ecological and economic importance. Studies of variations of the activity of aspartate transcarbamylase will also be useful as a potential biomarker to evaluate the disruption of gametogenesis in clams exposed to endocrine disruptors in situ. PMID:12670788

  14. Comparison of a Multiple Daily Insulin Injection Regimen (Glargine or Detemir Once Daily Plus Prandial Insulin Aspart) and Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (Aspart) in Short-Term Intensive Insulin Therapy for Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wen-shan; Li, Li; Wen, Jun-ping; Pan, Rong-fang; Sun, Rui-xia; Wang, Jing; Xian, Yu-xin; Cao, Cai-xia; Gao, Yan-yan

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To examine the potential differences between multiple daily injection (MDI) regimens based on new long-acting insulin analogues (glargine or detemir) plus prandial insulin aspart and continuous subcutaneous insulin aspart infusion (CSII) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Methods. Patients (n = 119) with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes of a duration exceeding five years were randomly assigned into three groups: Group A treated with CSII using insulin aspart; Group B treated with glargine-based MDI and Group C treated with detemir-based MDI. Results. Good glycemic control was achieved by patients in Group A in a significantly shorter duration than patients in Groups B and C. Total daily insulin, basal insulin dose and dose per kg body weight in Group A were significantly less than those in Groups B and C. Daily blood glucose fluctuation in Group A was significantly less than that in Groups B and C. There were no differences between Groups B and C. Conclusions. Aspart-based CSII may achieve good blood glucose control with less insulin doses over a shorter period compared with glargine or detemir-based MDI. No differences between glargine- and detemir-based MDI were detected in poorly controlled subjects with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23737776

  15. Quantification of the novel N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor ligand [11C]GMOM in man.

    PubMed

    van der Doef, Thalia F; Golla, Sandeep Sv; Klein, Pieter J; Oropeza-Seguias, Gisela M; Schuit, Robert C; Metaxas, Athanasios; Jobse, Ellen; Schwarte, Lothar A; Windhorst, Albert D; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Berckel, Bart Nm; Boellaard, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    [(11)C]GMOM (carbon-11 labeled N-(2-chloro-5-thiomethylphenyl)-N'-(3-[(11)C]methoxy-phenyl)-N'-methylguanidine) is a PET ligand that binds to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor with high specificity and affinity. The purpose of this first in human study was to evaluate kinetics of [(11)C]GMOM in the healthy human brain and to identify the optimal pharmacokinetic model for quantifying these kinetics, both before and after a pharmacological dose of S-ketamine. Dynamic 90 min [(11)C]GMOM PET scans were obtained from 10 subjects. In six of the 10 subjects, a second PET scan was performed following an S-ketamine challenge. Metabolite corrected plasma input functions were obtained for all scans. Regional time activity curves were fitted to various single- and two-tissue compartment models. Best fits were obtained using a two-tissue irreversible model with blood volume parameter. The highest net influx rate (Ki) of [(11)C]GMOM was observed in regions with high N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor density, such as hippocampus and thalamus. A significant reduction in the Ki was observed for the entire brain after administration of ketamine, suggesting specific binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. This initial study suggests that the [(11)C]GMOM could be used for quantification of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. PMID:26661185

  16. Quantification of the novel N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor ligand [11C]GMOM in man

    PubMed Central

    van der Doef, Thalia F; Klein, Pieter J; Oropeza-Seguias, Gisela M; Schuit, Robert C; Metaxas, Athanasios; Jobse, Ellen; Schwarte, Lothar A; Windhorst, Albert D; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Berckel, Bart NM; Boellaard, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    [11C]GMOM (carbon-11 labeled N-(2-chloro-5-thiomethylphenyl)-N′-(3-[11C]methoxy-phenyl)-N′-methylguanidine) is a PET ligand that binds to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor with high specificity and affinity. The purpose of this first in human study was to evaluate kinetics of [11C]GMOM in the healthy human brain and to identify the optimal pharmacokinetic model for quantifying these kinetics, both before and after a pharmacological dose of S-ketamine. Dynamic 90 min [11C]GMOM PET scans were obtained from 10 subjects. In six of the 10 subjects, a second PET scan was performed following an S-ketamine challenge. Metabolite corrected plasma input functions were obtained for all scans. Regional time activity curves were fitted to various single- and two-tissue compartment models. Best fits were obtained using a two-tissue irreversible model with blood volume parameter. The highest net influx rate (Ki) of [11C]GMOM was observed in regions with high N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor density, such as hippocampus and thalamus. A significant reduction in the Ki was observed for the entire brain after administration of ketamine, suggesting specific binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. This initial study suggests that the [11C]GMOM could be used for quantification of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. PMID:26661185

  17. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented. PMID:27327567

  18. Methylmercury-mediated inhibition of 3H-D-aspartate transport in cultured astrocytes is reversed by the antioxidant catalase.

    PubMed

    Allen, J W; Mutkus, L A; Aschner, M

    2001-05-25

    Astrocytes are essential for removal of glutamate from the extracellular space in the central nervous system. The neurotoxic heavy metal methylmercury potently and specifically inhibits the transport of glutamate in cultured astrocytes by an unknown mechanism. Glutamate transport in astrocytes is also inhibited by reactive oxygen species. A glutamate-induced transporter current is inhibited both by reactive oxygen species and thiol oxidizing agents. These observations suggest that oxidation of the transporter might mediate methylmercury-induced inhibition of glutamate transport. In the present study, we examined the ability of thiol reducing or oxidizing agents to inhibit transport of 3H-D-aspartate, a glutamate analog, in primary cultures of neonatal rat astrocytes. To assess if methylmercury-mediated inhibition of 3H-aspartate transport was due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species, we tested the ability of Trolox, alpha-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), or catalase to attenuate the methylmercury-induced inhibition of aspartate uptake. Neither the thiol reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT), nor the thiol oxidizing agent 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic) acid (DTNB) had any effect on 3H-aspartate transport suggesting that the thiol redox state does not alter transporter function. In contrast, the antioxidant catalase (1000 U/ml) significantly attenuated methylmercury-induced inhibition of 3H-aspartate uptake, suggesting that excess reactive oxygen species, specifically H2O2, inhibit the function of an astrocytic excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT1). Prolonged exposure (6 h) to inhibitors of glutamate transport significantly decreased EAAT1 mRNA levels suggesting that transporter expression is related to function. This study suggests that methylmercury-induced overproduction of H2O2 is a mechanism for inhibition of glutamate transport and transporter expression in cultured astrocytes. PMID:11376598

  19. A multinuclear NMR relaxation study of the interaction of divalent metal ions with L-aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Khazaeli, S; Viola, R E

    1984-09-01

    Carbon-13 spin-lattice relaxation times, T1, have been measured for aqueous solutions of L-aspartic acid, L-alanine, O-phospho-L-serine, and 2-mercapto-L-succinic acid in the presence of the paramagnetic metal ions, Cu2+ and Mn2+, and Mg2+ as a diamagnetic control, at ambient temperature and neutral pH. Nitrogen-15, oxygen-17 and proton relaxation times were also obtained for L-aspartic acid and phosphorus-31 relaxation times for O-phospho-L-serine under similar conditions. The structures of these complexes in solution were determined from the various metal ion-nuclei distances calculated from the paramagnetically-induced relaxation. These results indicate that the Cu2+ interaction with L-aspartic acid is through alpha-amino and beta-carboxyl groups while Mn2+ coordinates most strongly through alpha- and beta-carboxyl groups, with the possibility of a weak interaction through the amino group. An examination of the coordination of these divalent metal ions to an analog of L-aspartic acid in which the beta-carboxyl group is replaced by a phosphate group (O-phospho-L-serine) indicated that Cu2+ coordination is now probably through the alpha-amino and phosphate groups, while this analog is a monodentate ligand for Mn2+ coordinating through the phosphate group. Removal of the beta-carboxyl group (L-alanine) also results in Cu2+ coordination through the alpha-carboxyl and alpha-amino groups, and the same ligand interactions are observed with Mn2+. Replacement of the alpha-amino group of L-aspartic acid with an -SH group (2-mercapto-L-succinate) is sufficient to eliminate any specific coordination with either Cu2+ or Mn2+. PMID:6491655

  20. Role of the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction in furnishing aspartate nitrogen for urea synthesis: studies in perfused rat liver with 15N.

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, Itzhak; Horyn, Oksana; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Lazarow, Adam; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Nissim, Ilana; Yudkoff, Marc

    2003-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine: (i) the role of the reductive amination of alpha-ketoglutarate via the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction in furnishing mitochondrial glutamate and its transamination into aspartate; (ii) the relative incorporation of perfusate 15NH4Cl, [2-15N]glutamine or [5-15N]glutamine into carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate-N and, thereby, [15N]urea isotopomers; and (iii) the extent to which perfusate [15N]aspartate is taken up by the liver and incorporated into [15N]urea. We used a liver-perfusion system containing a physiological mixture of amino acids and ammonia similar to concentrations in vivo, with 15N label only in glutamine, ammonia or aspartate. The results demonstrate that in perfusions with a physiological mixture of amino acids, approx. 45 and 30% of total urea-N output was derived from perfusate ammonia and glutamine-N respectively. Approximately two-thirds of the ammonia utilized for carbamoyl phosphate synthesis was derived from perfusate ammonia and one-third from glutamine. Perfusate [2-15N]glutamine, [5-15N]glutamine or [15N]aspartate provided 24, 10 and 10% respectively of the hepatic aspartate-N pool, whereas perfusate 15NH4Cl provided approx. 37% of aspartate-N utilized for urea synthesis, secondary to the net formation of [15N]glutamate via the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction. The results suggest that the mitochondrial glutamate formed via the reductive amination of alpha-ketoglutarate may have a key role in ammonia detoxification by the following processes: (i) furnishing aspartate-N for ureagenesis; (ii) serving as a scavenger for excess ammonia; and (iii) improving the availability of the mitochondrial [glutamate] for synthesis of N -acetylglutamate. In addition, the current findings suggest that the formation of aspartate via the mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase reaction may play an important role in the synthesis of cytosolic argininosuccinate. PMID:12935293

  1. Substitution of apolar residues in the active site of aspartate aminotransferase by histidine. Effects on reaction and substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Vacca, R A; Christen, P; Malashkevich, V N; Jansonius, J N; Sandmeier, E

    1995-01-15

    In an attempt to change the reaction and substrate specificity of aspartate aminotransferase, several apolar active-site residues were substituted in turn with a histidine residue. Aspartate aminotransferase W140H (of Escherichia coli) racemizes alanine seven times faster (Kcat' = 2.2 x 10(-4) s-1) than the wild-type enzyme, while the aminotransferase activity toward L-alanine was sixfold decreased. X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the structural changes brought about by the mutation are limited to the immediate environment of H140. In contrast to the tryptophan side chain in the wild-type structure, the imidazole ring of H140 does not form a stacking interaction with the coenzyme pyridine ring. The angle between the two ring planes is about 50 degrees. Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate dissociates 50 times more rapidly from the W140H mutant than from the wild-type enzyme. A model of the structure of the quinonoid enzyme substrate intermediate indicates that H140 might assist in the reprotonation of C alpha of the amino acid substrate from the re side of the deprotonated coenzyme-substrate adduct in competition with si-side reprotonation by K258. In aspartate aminotransferase I17H (of chicken mitochondria), the substituted residue also lies on the re side of the coenzyme. This mutant enzyme slowly decarboxylates L-aspartate to L-alanine (Kcat' = 8 x 10(-5) s-1). No beta-decarboxylase activity is detectable in the wild-type enzyme. In aspartate aminotransferase V37H (of chicken mitochondria), the mutated residue lies besides the coenzyme in the plane of the pyridine ring; no change in reaction specificity was observed. All three mutations, i.e. W140-->H, I17-->H and V37--H, decreased the aminotransferase activity toward aromatic amino acids by 10-100-fold, while decreasing the activity toward dicarboxylic substrates only moderately to 20%, 20% and 60% of the activity of the wild-type enzymes, respectively. In all three mutant enzymes, the decrease in aspartate

  2. Linking Functional Domains of the Human Insulin Receptor with the Bacterial Aspartate Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Leland; Morgan, David O.; Koshland, Daniel E.; Clauser, Eric; Moe, Gregory R.; Bollag, Gideon; Roth, Richard A.; Rutter, William J.

    1986-11-01

    A hybrid receptor has been constructed that is composed of the extracellular domain of the human insulin receptor fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the bacterial aspartate chemoreceptor. This hybrid protein can be expressed in rodent (CHO) cells and displays several functional features comparable to wild-type insulin receptor. It is localized to the cell surface, binds insulin with high affinity, forms oligomers, and is recognized by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies. Although most of the expressed protein accumulates as a 180-kDa proreceptor, some processed 135-kDa receptor can be detected on the cell surface by covalent cross-linking. Expression of the hybrid receptor inhibits the insulin-activated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by CHO cells. Thus, this hybrid is partially functional and can be processed; however, it is incapable of native transmembrane signaling. The results indicate that the intact domains of different types of receptors can retain some of the native features in a hybrid molecule but specific requirements will need to be satisfied for transmembrane signaling.

  3. Dissecting Enzyme Regulation by Multiple Allosteric Effectors: Nucleotide Regulation of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase†

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Hsiao, Jennifer J.; Gryncel, Kimberly R.; Kantrowitz, Evan R.; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Li, Genyuan; Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-01-01

    The enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase, EC 2.1.3.2 of Escherichia coli), which catalyzes the committed step of pyrimidine biosynthesis, is allosterically regulated by all four ribonucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) in a nonlinear manner. Here, we dissect this regulation using the recently developed approach of random sampling–high-dimensional model representation (RS–HDMR). ATCase activity was measured in vitro at 300 random NTP concentration combinations, each involving (consistent with in vivo conditions) all four NTPs being present. These data were then used to derive a RS–HDMR model of ATCase activity over the full four-dimensional NTP space. The model accounted for 90% of the variance in the experimental data. Its main elements were positive ATCase regulation by ATP and negative by CTP, with the negative effects of CTP dominating the positive ones of ATP when both regulators were abundant (i.e., a negative cooperative effect of ATP × CTP). Strong sensitivity to both ATP and CTP concentrations occurred in their physiological concentration ranges. UTP had only a slight effect, and GTP had almost none. These findings support a predominant role of CTP and ATP in ATCase regulation. The general approach provides a new paradigm for dissecting multifactorial regulation of biological molecules and processes. PMID:18454556

  4. Metal Ion Involvement in the Allosteric Mechanism of Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase

    PubMed Central

    Cockrell, Gregory M.; Kantrowitz, Evan R.

    2012-01-01

    E. coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) allosterically regulates pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. The enzyme is inhibited by CTP and can be further inhibited by UTP, although UTP alone has little or no influence on activity; however, the mechanism for the synergistic inhibition is still unknown. In order to determine how UTP is able to synergistically inhibit ATCase in the presence of CTP, we determined a series of X-ray structures of ATCase•nucleotide complexes. Analysis of the X-ray structures revealed that (1) CTP and dCTP bind in a very similar fashion, (2) UTP, in the presence of dCTP or CTP, binds at a site that does not overlap the CTP/dCTP site, (3) the triphosphates of the two nucleotides are parallel to each other with a metal ion, in this case Mg2+, coordinated between the β and γ phosphates of the two nucleotides. Kinetic experiments showed that the presence of a metal ion such as Mg2+ is required for synergistic inhibition. Together these results explain how the binding of UTP can enhance the binding of CTP and why UTP binds more tightly in the presence of CTP. A mechanism for the synergistic inhibition of ATCase is proposed in which the presence of UTP stabilizes the T state even more than CTP alone. These results also call into question many of the past kinetic and binding experiments of ATCase with nucleotides as the presence of metal contamination was not considered important. PMID:22906065

  5. PSD-93 MEDIATES TYROSINE-PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuko; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Su, Qingning; Johns, Roger A

    2009-01-01

    Src family protein kinases (SFKs)-mediated tyrosine-phosphorylation regulates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor synaptic function. Some members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins bind to both SFKs and NMDA receptors, but it is unclear whether the MAGUK family of proteins is required for SFKs-mediated tyrosine-phosphorylation of the NMDA receptors. Here, we showed by co-immunoprecipitation that PSD-93, a member of the MAGUK family of proteins, interacts with the NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B as well as with Fyn, a member of the SFKs, in mouse cerebral cortex. Using a biochemical fractionation approach to isolate subcellular compartments revealed that the expression of Fyn, but not of other members of the SFKs (Lyn, Src, and Yes), was significantly decreased in synaptosomal membrane fractions derived from the cerebral cortex of PSD-93 knockout mice. Interestingly, we found that PSD-93 disruption causes reduction of tyrosine-phosphorylated NR2A and NR2B in the same fraction. Moreover, PSD-93 deletion markedly blocked the SFKs-mediated increase in tyrosine-phosphorylated NR2A and NR2B through the protein kinase C pathway after induction with 4β-PMA in cultured cortical neurons. Our findings indicate that PSD-93 appears to mediate tyrosine-phosphorylation of the NMDA receptors and synaptic localization of Fyn. PMID:18423999

  6. Biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, a newly identified kynurenine aminotransferase-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H.; Cai, T.; Tagle, D. A.; Li, J.

    2011-10-01

    Mammalian mAspAT (mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase) is recently reported to have KAT (kynurenine aminotransferase) activity and plays a role in the biosynthesis of KYNA (kynurenic acid) in rat, mouse and human brains. This study concerns the biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mAspAT. In this study, mouse mAspAT cDNA was amplified from mouse brain first stand cDNA and its recombinant protein was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. Sixteen oxo acids were tested for the co-substrate specificity of mouse mAspAT and 14 of them were shown to be capable of serving as co-substrates for the enzyme. Structural analysis of mAspAT by macromolecular crystallography revealed that the cofactor-binding residues of mAspAT are similar to those of other KATs. The substrate-binding residues of mAspAT are slightly different from those of other KATs. Our results provide a biochemical and structural basis towards understanding the overall physiological role of mAspAT in vivo and insight into controlling the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  7. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis mediates loss of intrinsic activity measured by functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Brier, Matthew R; Day, Gregory S; Snyder, Abraham Z; Tanenbaum, Aaron B; Ances, Beau M

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous brain activity is required for the development and maintenance of normal brain function. Many disease processes disrupt the organization of intrinsic brain activity, but few pervasively reduce the amplitude of resting state blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI fluctuations. We report the case of a female with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, longitudinally studied during the course of her illness to determine the contribution of NMDAR signaling to spontaneous brain activity. Resting state BOLD fMRI was measured at the height of her illness and 18 weeks following discharge from hospital. Conventional resting state networks were defined using established methods. Correlation and covariance matrices were calculated by extracting the BOLD time series from regions of interest and calculating either the correlation or covariance quantity. The intrinsic activity was compared between visits, and to expected activity from 45 similarly aged healthy individuals. Near the height of the illness, the patient exhibited profound loss of consciousness, high-amplitude slowing of the electroencephalogram, and a severe reduction in the amplitude of spontaneous BOLD fMRI fluctuations. The patient's neurological status and measures of intrinsic activity improved following treatment. We conclude that NMDAR-mediated signaling plays a critical role in the mechanisms that give rise to organized spontaneous brain activity. Loss of intrinsic activity is associated with profound disruptions of consciousness and cognition. PMID:27025853

  8. Predicting Three-Dimensional Conformations of Peptides Constructed of Only Glycine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, and Valine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akifumi; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    The GADV hypothesis is a form of the protein world hypothesis, which suggests that life originated from proteins (Lacey et al. 1999; Ikehara 2002; Andras 2006). In the GADV hypothesis, life is thought to have originated from primitive proteins constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine ([GADV]-proteins). In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) conformations of randomly generated short [GADV]-peptides were computationally investigated using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations (Sugita and Okamoto 1999). Because the peptides used in this study consisted of only 20 residues each, they could not form certain 3D structures. However, the conformational tendencies of the peptides were elucidated by analyzing the conformational ensembles generated by REMD simulations. The results indicate that secondary structures can be formed in several randomly generated [GADV]-peptides. A long helical structure was found in one of the hydrophobic peptides, supporting the conjecture of the GADV hypothesis that many peptides aggregated to form peptide multimers with enzymatic activity in the primordial soup. In addition, these results indicate that REMD simulations can be used for the structural investigation of short peptides.

  9. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination. PMID:26005789

  10. An aspartic proteinase gene family in the filamentous fungus Botrytis cinerea contains members with novel features.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Arjen; Dekkers, Ester; Kay, John; Phylip, Lowri H; van Kan, Jan A L

    2004-07-01

    Botrytis cinerea, an important fungal plant pathogen, secretes aspartic proteinase (AP) activity in axenic cultures. No cysteine, serine or metalloproteinase activity could be detected. Proteinase activity was higher in culture medium containing BSA or wheat germ extract, as compared to minimal medium. A proportion of the enzyme activity remained in the extracellular glucan sheath. AP was also the only type of proteinase activity in fluid obtained from B. cinerea-infected tissue of apple, pepper, tomato and zucchini. Five B. cinerea genes encoding an AP were cloned and denoted Bcap1-5. Features of the encoded proteins are discussed. BcAP1, especially, has novel characteristics. A phylogenetic analysis was performed comprising sequences originating from different kingdoms. BcAP1 and BcAP5 did not cluster in a bootstrap-supported clade. BcAP2 clusters with vacuolar APs. BcAP3 and BcAP4 cluster with secreted APs in a clade that also contains glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteinases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. All five Bcap genes are expressed in liquid cultures. Transcript levels of Bcap1, Bcap2, Bcap3 and Bcap4 are subject to glucose and peptone repression. Transcripts from all five Bcap genes were detected in infected plant tissue, indicating that at least part of the AP activity in planta originates from the pathogen. PMID:15256589

  11. Aspartic acid racemization dating of Holocene brachiopods and bivalves from the southern Brazilian shelf, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour Wood, Susan L.; Krause, Richard A.; Kowalewski, Michał; Wehmiller, John; Simões, Marcello G.

    2006-09-01

    The extent of racemization of aspartic acid (Asp) has been used to estimate the ages of 9 shells of the epifaunal calcitic brachiopod Bouchardia rosea and 9 shells of the infaunal aragonitic bivalve Semele casali. Both taxa were collected concurrently from the same sites at depths of 10 m and 30 m off the coast of Brazil. Asp D/L values show an excellent correlation with radiocarbon age at both sites and for both taxa ( r2Site 9 B. rosea = 0.97, r2Site 1 B. rosea = 0.997, r2Site 9 S. casali = 0.9998, r2Site 1 S. casali = 0.93). The Asp ratios plotted against reservoir-corrected AMS radiocarbon ages over the time span of multiple millennia can thus be used to develop reliable and precise geochronologies not only for aragonitic mollusks (widely used for dating previously), but also for calcitic brachiopods. At each collection site, Bouchardia specimens display consistently higher D/L values than specimens of Semele. Thermal differences between sites are also notable and in agreement with theoretical expectations, as extents of racemization for both taxa are greater at the warmer, shallower site than at the cooler, deeper one. In late Holocene marine settings, concurrent time series of aragonitic and calcitic shells can be assembled using Asp racemization dating, and parallel multi-centennial to multi-millennial records can be developed simultaneously for multiple biomineral systems.

  12. Insulin degludec and insulin degludec/insulin aspart in Ramadan: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to document the utility and safety of insulin degludec (IDeg) and insulin degludec aspart (IDegAsp) in persons with type 2 diabetes, observing the Ramadan fast. An observational study was conducted at a single center, in the real world setting, on six persons who either switched to IDeg or IDegAsp a month before Ramadan or changed time of administration of IDegAsp at the onset of Ramadan, to keep the fast in a safe manner. Subjects were kept under regular monitoring and surveillance before, during, and after Ramadan, and counseled in an opposite manner. Four persons, who shifted from premixed insulin to IDegAsp, experienced a 12–18% dose reduction after 14 days. At the onset of Ramadan, the Suhur dose was reduced by 30%, and this remained unchanged during the fasting month. The Iftar dose had to be increased by 4 units. One person who shifted from neutral protamine hagedorn to IDeg demonstrated a 25% dose reduction at 20 days, without any further change in insulin requirement during Ramadan. One person who changed time of injection of IDegAsp from morning to night reported no change in dosage. No episode of major hypoglycemia was reported. IDeg and IDegAsp are effective, safe, and well-tolerated means of achieving glycemic control in persons with type 2 diabetes who wish to fast. PMID:27366727

  13. Effect of acute potassium-magnesium aspartate supplementation on ammonia concentrations during and after resistance training.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, J L; Potteiger, J A; Evans, B W; Ozmun, J C

    1995-06-01

    This study examined the effects of aspartate supplementation (ASP) on plasma ammonia concentrations ([NH4+]) during and after a resistance training workout (RTW). Twelve male weight trainers were randomly administered ASP or vitamin C in a crossover, double blind protocol, each trial separated by 1 wk. ASP and vitamin C were given over a 2-hr period beginning 5 hr prior to the RTW. The RTW consisted of bench, incline, shoulder, and triceps presses, and biceps curls at 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM). After the RTW a bench press test (BPT) to failure at 65% of 1-RM was used to assess performance. [NH4+] was determined preexercise, 20 and 40 min midworkout, immediately postexercise, and 15 min postexercise. Treatment-by-time ANOVAs, paired t tests, and contrast comparisons were used to identify mean differences. No significant differences were observed between treatments for [NH4+] or BPT. [NH4+] increased significantly from Pre to immediately postexercise for both the ASP and vitamin C trials. Acute ASP supplementation does not reduce [NH4+] during and after a high intensity RTW in weight trained subjects. PMID:7670449

  14. Comparison of Prothrombin Time and Aspartate Aminotransferase in Predicting Hepatotoxicity After Acetaminophen Overdose.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michael; O'Connor, Ayrn D; Padilla-Jones, Angela; Gerkin, Richard D

    2016-03-01

    Despite decades of experience with acetaminophen (APAP) overdoses, it remains unclear whether elevated hepatic transaminases or coagulopathy develop first. Furthermore, comparison of the predictive value of these two variables in determining hepatic toxicity following APAP overdoses has been poorly elucidated. The primary objective of this study is to determine the test characteristics of the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the prothrombin time (PT) in patients with APAP toxicity. A retrospective chart review of APAP overdoses treated with IV N-acetylcysteine at a tertiary care referral center was performed. Of the 304 subjects included in the study, 246 with an initial AST less than 1000 were analyzed to determine predictors of hepatic injury, defined as an AST exceeding 1000 IU/L. The initial AST >50 was 79.5 % sensitive and 82.6 % specific for predicting hepatic injury. The corresponding negative and positive predictive values were 95.5 and 46.3 %, respectively. In contrast, an initial abnormal PT had a sensitivity of 82.1 % and a specificity of 63.6 %. The negative and positive predictive values for initial PT were 94.9 and 30.2 %, respectively. Although the two tests performed similarly for predicting a composite endpoint of death or liver transplant, neither was a useful predictor. Initial AST performed better than the initial PT for predicting hepatic injury in this series of patients with APAP overdose. PMID:26341088

  15. Allosteric Regulation of Catalytic Activity: Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase versus Yeast Chorismate Mutase

    PubMed Central

    Helmstaedt, Kerstin; Krappmann, Sven; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2001-01-01

    Allosteric regulation of key metabolic enzymes is a fascinating field to study the structure-function relationship of induced conformational changes of proteins. In this review we compare the principles of allosteric transitions of the complex classical model aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from Escherichia coli, consisting of 12 polypeptides, and the less complicated chorismate mutase derived from baker's yeast, which functions as a homodimer. Chorismate mutase presumably represents the minimal oligomerization state of a cooperative enzyme which still can be either activated or inhibited by different heterotropic effectors. Detailed knowledge of the number of possible quaternary states and a description of molecular triggers for conformational changes of model enzymes such as ATCase and chorismate mutase shed more and more light on allostery as an important regulatory mechanism of any living cell. The comparison of wild-type and engineered mutant enzymes reveals that current textbook models for regulation do not cover the entire picture needed to describe the function of these enzymes in detail. PMID:11528003

  16. Selective Impairment of Spatial Cognition Caused by Autoantibodies to the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric H; Volpe, Bruce T; Mackay, Meggan; Aranow, Cynthia; Watson, Philip; Kowal, Czeslawa; Storbeck, Justin; Mattis, Paul; Berlin, RoseAnn; Chen, Huiyi; Mader, Simone; Huerta, Tomás S; Huerta, Patricio T; Diamond, Betty

    2015-07-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experience cognitive abnormalities in multiple domains including processing speed, executive function, and memory. Here we show that SLE patients carrying antibodies that bind DNA and the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), termed DNRAbs, displayed a selective impairment in spatial recall. Neural recordings in a mouse model of SLE, in which circulating DNRAbs penetrate the hippocampus, revealed that CA1 place cells exhibited a significant expansion in place field size. Structural analysis showed that hippocampal pyramidal cells had substantial reductions in their dendritic processes and spines. Strikingly, these abnormalities became evident at a time when DNRAbs were no longer detectable in the hippocampus. These results suggest that antibody-mediated neurocognitive impairments may be highly specific, and that spatial cognition may be particularly vulnerable to DNRAb-mediated structural and functional injury to hippocampal cells that evolves after the triggering insult is no longer present. PMID:26286205

  17. Constitutive Activation of the N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor via Cleft-spanning Disulfide Bonds*

    PubMed Central

    Blanke, Marie L.; VanDongen, Antonius M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Although the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays a critical role in the central nervous system, many questions remain regarding the relationship between its structure and functional properties. In particular, the involvement of ligand-binding domain closure in determining agonist efficacy, which has been reported in other glutamate receptor subtypes, remains unresolved. To address this question, we designed dual cysteine point mutations spanning the NR1 and NR2 ligand-binding clefts, aiming to stabilize these domains in closed cleft conformations. Two mutants, E522C/I691C in NR1 (EI) and K487C/N687C in NR2 (KN) were found to exhibit significant glycine- and glutamate-independent activation, respectively, and co-expression of the two subunits produced a constitutively active channel. However, both individual mutants could be activated above constitutive levels in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that cleft closure does not completely prevent agonist association. Interestingly, whereas the NR2 KN disulfide was found to potentiate channel gating and M3 accessibility, NR1 EI exhibited the opposite phenotype, suggesting that the EI disulfide may trap the NR1 ligand-binding domain in a lower efficacy conformation. Furthermore, both mutants affected agonist sensitivity at the opposing subunit, suggesting that closed cleft stabilization may contribute to coupling between the subunits. These results support a correlation between cleft stability and receptor activation, providing compelling evidence for the Venus flytrap mechanism of glutamate receptor domain closure. PMID:18450751

  18. Development of a mouse model of infantile spasms induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiu-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Tomonoh, Yuko; Hu, Lin-Yan; Ju, Jun; Hirose, Shinichi; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Using N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) injection, we attempt to develop a mouse model for infantile spasms (IS). Experiments were performed in postnatal 11- to 13-day-old C57 and Balbc mice. In the pilot experiment, mice were injected with different doses of NMDA (7, 15, and 30 mg/kg) to determine the optimal age and convulsant doses of NMDA. In further experiment optimal age mice were divided into five groups: group A, control group that received intraperitoneal injection of physiological saline; group B, convulsion group that was given intraperitoneal NMDA; group C, pretreatment group that received adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) injection (100 IU/kg) 30 min before NMDA administration; group D, electroencephalogram (EEG) group that received EEG recording, group E, performance group that received motor and learning test at different time point after NMDA administration. The behaviors of each group were observed continuously for 3h, the latency and the total numbers of spasms were recorded. Pilot experiments showed that a 15 mg/kg dose of NMDA could induce typical spasm-like seizures in P13 C57 mice, NMDA administration caused anxiety and deficits in motor and cognitive functions at early time and that large doses of ACTH reduced the number of seizures and rating scale (P<0.05). The NMDA mouse model has the following characteristics: age dependency, spasm-like seizures, cognitive impairment and response to ACTH, which fulfills the criteria of an IS model. PMID:26600368

  19. Molecular docking and enzymatic evaluation to identify selective inhibitors of aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Luniwal, Amarjit; Wang, Lin; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Erhardt, Paul W.; Viola, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes that have gained resistance against antibiotics pose a major emerging threat to human health. New targets must be identified that will guide the development of new classes of antibiotics. The selective inhibition of key microbial enzymes that are responsible for the biosynthesis of essential metabolites can be an effective way to counter this growing threat. Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenases (ASADHs) produce an early branch point metabolite in a microbial biosynthetic pathway for essential amino acids and for quorum sensing molecules. In this study, molecular modeling and docking studies were performed to achieve two key objectives that are important for the identification of new selective inhibitors of ASADH. First, virtual screening of a small library of compounds was used to identify new core structures that could serve as potential inhibitors of the ASADHs. Compounds have been identified from diverse chemical classes that are predicted to bind to ASADH with high affinity. Next, molecular docking studies were used to prioritize analogs within each class for synthesis and testing against representative bacterial forms of ASADH from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae. These studies have led to new micromolar inhibitors of ASADH, demonstrating the utility of this molecular modeling and docking approach for the identification of new classes of potential enzyme inhibitors. PMID:22464683

  20. Molecular docking and enzymatic evaluation to identify selective inhibitors of aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Luniwal, Amarjit; Wang, Lin; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Erhardt, Paul W; Viola, Ronald E

    2012-05-01

    Microbes that have gained resistance against antibiotics pose a major emerging threat to human health. New targets must be identified that will guide the development of new classes of antibiotics. The selective inhibition of key microbial enzymes that are responsible for the biosynthesis of essential metabolites can be an effective way to counter this growing threat. Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenases (ASADHs) produce an early branch point metabolite in a microbial biosynthetic pathway for essential amino acids and for quorum sensing molecules. In this study, molecular modeling and docking studies were performed to achieve two key objectives that are important for the identification of new selective inhibitors of ASADH. First, virtual screening of a small library of compounds was used to identify new core structures that could serve as potential inhibitors of the ASADHs. Compounds have been identified from diverse chemical classes that are predicted to bind to ASADH with high affinity. Next, molecular docking studies were used to prioritize analogs within each class for synthesis and testing against representative bacterial forms of ASADH from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae. These studies have led to new micromolar inhibitors of ASADH, demonstrating the utility of this molecular modeling and docking approach for the identification of new classes of potential enzyme inhibitors. PMID:22464683

  1. Pyruvate carboxylation enables growth of SDH-deficient cells by supporting aspartate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cardaci, Simone; Zheng, Liang; MacKay, Gillian; van den Broek, Niels J.F.; MacKenzie, Elaine D.; Nixon, Colin; Stevenson, David; Tumanov, Sergey; Bulusu, Vinay; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Vazquez, Alexei; Fleming, Stewart; Schiavi, Francesca; Kalna, Gabriela; Blyth, Karen; Strathdee, Douglas; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a hetero-tetrameric nuclear-encoded complex responsible for the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Loss-of-function mutations in any of the SDH genes are associated with cancer formation. However, the impact of SDH loss on cell metabolism and the mechanisms enabling growth of SDH-defective cells are largely unknown. Here, we generated Sdhb-ablated kidney mouse cells and employed comparative metabolomics and stable isotope-labelling approaches to identify nutritional requirements and metabolic adaptations to SDH loss. We found that lack of SDH activity commits cells to consume extracellular pyruvate, which sustains Warburg-like bioenergetic features. We further demonstrated that pyruvate carboxylation diverts glucose-derived carbons into aspartate biosynthesis, thus sustaining cell growth. By identifying pyruvate carboxylase as an essential gene for the proliferation and tumorigenic capacity of SDH-deficient cells, this study revealed a metabolic vulnerability for potential future treatment of SDH-associated malignancies. PMID:26302408

  2. Extracellular matrix-like surfactant polymers containing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eric H; Ruegsegger, Mark A; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Marchant, Roger E

    2004-08-01

    We report on a novel series of biomimetic polymers exhibiting interfacial properties similar to the extracellular matrix. A series of well-defined surfactant polymers were synthesized by simultaneously incorporating arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide, dextran oligosaccharide, and hexyl ligands with controlled feed ratios onto a poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) backbone. The peptide sequence was H-GSSSGRGDSPA-NH(2) (Pep) having a hydrophilic extender at the amino terminus and capped carboxy terminus. The peptide-to-dextran (Pep:Dex) ratios were varied to create surfactants having 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mol-% peptide relative to dextran. The surfactants were characterized by IR, NMR and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for composition and surface active properties. AFM confirmed full surface coverage of PVAm(Pep)(100%) on graphite, and supported the mechanism of interdigitation of hexyl ligands between surfactant molecules within a specified range of hexyl chain densities. the attachment and growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells on the PVAm(Pep)(100%) surface was identical to the fibronectin positive control. Cell adhesion decreased dramatically with decreasing peptide density on the surfactant polymers. Molecular model of a peptide surfactant polymer, consisting of poly(vinyl amine) backbone with peptide, dextran oligosaccharide and hexyl branches coupled to the polymer chain. PMID:15468270

  3. Minocycline provides neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglia.

    PubMed

    Tikka, T M; Koistinaho, J E

    2001-06-15

    Glutamate excitotoxicity to a large extent is mediated through activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-gated ion channels in several neurodegenerative diseases and ischemic stroke. Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative with antiinflammatory effects, inhibits IL-1beta-converting enzyme and inducible nitric oxide synthase up-regulation in animal models of ischemic stroke and Huntington's disease and is therapeutic in these disease animal models. Here we report that nanomolar concentrations of minocycline protect neurons in mixed spinal cord cultures against NMDA excitotoxicity. NMDA treatment alone induced microglial proliferation, which preceded neuronal death, and administration of extra microglial cells on top of these cultures enhanced the NMDA neurotoxicity. Minocycline inhibited all these responses to NMDA. Minocycline also prevented the NMDA-induced proliferation of microglial cells and the increased release of IL-1beta and nitric oxide in pure microglia cultures. Finally, minocycline inhibited the NMDA-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in microglial cells, and a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor, but not a p44/42 MAPK inhibitor, reduced the NMDA toxicity. Together, these results suggest that microglial activation contributes to NMDA excitotoxicity and that minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, represents a potential therapeutic agent for brain diseases. PMID:11390507

  4. A New Branch in the Family: Structure of Aspartate-[beta]-semialdehyde Dehydrogenase from Methanococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Faehnle, Christopher R.; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; Viola, Ronald E.

    2010-07-13

    The structure of aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) from Methanococcus jannaschii has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution using multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) phasing of a selenomethionine-substituted derivative to define a new branch in the family of ASADHs. This new structure has a similar overall fold and domain organization despite less than 10% conserved sequence identity with the bacterial enzymes. However, the entire repertoire of functionally important active site amino acid residues is conserved, suggesting an identical catalytic mechanism but with lower catalytic efficiency. A new coenzyme-binding conformation and dual NAD/NADP coenzyme specificity further distinguish this archaeal branch from the bacterial ASADHs. Several structural differences are proposed to account for the dramatically enhanced thermostability of this archaeal enzyme. Finally, the intersubunit communication channel connecting the active sites in the bacterial enzyme dimer has been disrupted in the archaeal ASADHs by amino acid changes that likely prevent the alternating sites reactivity previously proposed for the bacterial ASADHs.

  5. Insulin degludec and insulin degludec/insulin aspart in Ramadan: A single center experience.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to document the utility and safety of insulin degludec (IDeg) and insulin degludec aspart (IDegAsp) in persons with type 2 diabetes, observing the Ramadan fast. An observational study was conducted at a single center, in the real world setting, on six persons who either switched to IDeg or IDegAsp a month before Ramadan or changed time of administration of IDegAsp at the onset of Ramadan, to keep the fast in a safe manner. Subjects were kept under regular monitoring and surveillance before, during, and after Ramadan, and counseled in an opposite manner. Four persons, who shifted from premixed insulin to IDegAsp, experienced a 12-18% dose reduction after 14 days. At the onset of Ramadan, the Suhur dose was reduced by 30%, and this remained unchanged during the fasting month. The Iftar dose had to be increased by 4 units. One person who shifted from neutral protamine hagedorn to IDeg demonstrated a 25% dose reduction at 20 days, without any further change in insulin requirement during Ramadan. One person who changed time of injection of IDegAsp from morning to night reported no change in dosage. No episode of major hypoglycemia was reported. IDeg and IDegAsp are effective, safe, and well-tolerated means of achieving glycemic control in persons with type 2 diabetes who wish to fast. PMID:27366727

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Rondón, Netxibeth; Esquiva, Gema; Germain, Francisco; de la Villa, Pedro; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell degeneration underlies the pathophysiology of diseases affecting the retina and optic nerve. Several studies have previously evidenced the anti-apoptotic properties of the bile constituent, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, in diverse models of photoreceptor degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced damage in the rat retina using a functional and morphological approach. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid was administered intraperitoneally before and after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Three days after insult, full-field electroretinograms showed reductions in the amplitudes of the positive and negative-scotopic threshold responses, scotopic a- and b-waves and oscillatory potentials. Quantitative morphological evaluation of whole-mount retinas demonstrated a reduction in the density of retinal ganglion cells. Systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuated the functional impairment induced by NMDA, which correlated with a higher retinal ganglion cell density. Our findings sustain the efficacy of tauroursodeoxycholic acid administration in vivo, suggesting it would be a good candidate for the pharmacological treatment of degenerative diseases coursing with retinal ganglion cell loss. PMID:26379056

  7. Cutoff in potency implicates alcohol inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Peoples, R W; Weight, F F

    1995-01-01

    As the number of carbon atoms in an aliphatic n-alcohol is increased from one to five, intoxicating potency, lipid solubility, and membrane lipid disordering potency all increase in a similar exponential manner. However, the potency of aliphatic n-alcohols for producing intoxication reaches a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then decreases. The molecular basis of this "cutoff" effect is not understood, as it is not correlated with either the lipid solubility or the membrane disordering potency of the alcohols, which continue to increase exponentially. Since it has been suggested that inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by alcohols may play a role in alcohol intoxication, we investigated whether a series of aliphatic n-alcohols would exhibit a cutoff in potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors. We found that although potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors increased exponentially for alcohols with one to five carbon atoms, potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors reached a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then abruptly disappeared. This cutoff for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors is consistent with an interaction of the alcohols with a hydrophobic pocket on the receptor protein. In addition, the similarity of the cutoffs for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors and alcohol intoxication suggests that the cutoff for NMDA receptor inhibition may contribute to the cutoff for alcohol intoxication, which is consistent with an important role of NMDA receptors in alcohol intoxication. PMID:7708732

  8. Aspartate-assisted immune stimulation: its importance in antitumor and antiviral protection.

    PubMed

    Chany, C; Cerutti, I

    1986-08-15

    Immune stimulators such as Corynebacterium parvum (CP) are useful for antitumoral and antiviral therapy. However, the immune trigger cannot be reactivated without adversely affecting the disease. We have tried to amplify the results yielded by a single injection of CP by using either interleukin-2 (IL2) or aspartate salts (ASP). In the present report, we show that IL2 has no detectable clinical effect. In contrast, the addition of an ASP salt increases the antiviral and antitumoral protection afforded by the CP-induced trigger. Moreover, treatment using only ASP slightly protects against tumor development and significantly increases antiviral resistance during experimental encephalomyocarditis (EMC) infection. This ASP-assisted CP immune stimulation improves antitumoral resistance even when ascitic tumors have already developed. In the latter case, tumor regression can even be detected. Since ASP increases T-cell cytotoxicity in vitro and aggravates spontaneous T-cell lymphomas in AKR mice, the involvement of T-cell-mediated immunity may explain antitumoral and antiviral effects. We propose the use of this therapeutic model for human cancer therapy, and possibly for treating AIDS. PMID:2426209

  9. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in the pulp of teeth treated for 6 months with fixed orthodontic appliances

    PubMed Central

    Latkauskiene, Dalia; Racinskaite, Vilma; Skucaite, Neringa; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the pulp of teeth treated with fixed appliances for 6 months, and compare it with AST activity measured in untreated teeth. Methods The study sample consisted of 16 healthy subjects (mean age 25.7 ± 4.3 years) who required the extraction of maxillary premolars for orthodontic reasons. Of these, 6 individuals had a total of 11 sound teeth extracted without any orthodontic treatment (the control group), and 10 individuals had a total of 20 sound teeth extracted after 6 months of orthodontic alignment (the experimental group). Dental pulp samples were extracted from all control and experimental teeth, and the AST activity exhibited by these samples was determined spectrophotometrically at 20℃. Results Mean AST values were 25.29 × 10-5 U/mg (standard deviation [SD] 9.95) in the control group and 27.54 × 10-5 U/mg (SD 31.81) in the experimental group. The difference between these means was not statistically significantly (p = 0.778), and the distribution of the AST values was also similar in both groups. Conclusions No statistically significant increase in AST activity in the pulp of mechanically loaded teeth was detected after 6 months of orthodontic alignment, as compared to that of teeth extracted from individuals who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. This suggests that time-related regenerative processes occur in the dental pulp. PMID:26445721

  10. RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein containing a tract of 13 consecutive aspartates

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, P.; Weber, S.; Prakash, L.

    1985-01-01

    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA, for induced mutagenesis, and for sporulation. The authors have mapped the transcripts and determined the nucleotide sequence of the cloned RAD6 gene. The RAD6 gene encodes two transcripts of 0.98 and 0.86 kilobases which differ only in their 3' termini. The transcribed region contains an open reading frame of 516 nucleotides. The rad6-1 and rad6-3 mutant alleles, which the authors have cloned and sequenced, introduce amber and ochre nonsense mutations, respectively into the open reading frame, proving that it encodes the RAD6 protein. The RAD6 protein predicted by the nucleotide sequence is 172 amino acids long, has a molecular weight of 19,704, and contains 23.3% acidic and 11.6% basic residues. Its most striking feature is the highly acidic carboxyl terminus: 20 of the 23 terminal amino acids are acidic, including 13 consecutive aspartates. RAD6 protein thus resembles high mobility group proteins HMG-1 and HMG-2, which each contain a carboxyl-proximal tract of acidic amino acids. 48 references, 6 figures.

  11. Structural constraints on protein self-processing in l-aspartate-α-decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Schmitzberger, Florian; Kilkenny, Mairi L.; Lobley, Carina M.C.; Webb, Michael E.; Vinkovic, Mladen; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Witty, Michael; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y.; Smith, Alison G.; Abell, Chris; Blundell, Tom L.

    2003-01-01

    Aspartate decarboxylase, which is translated as a pro-protein, undergoes intramolecular self-cleavage at Gly24–Ser25. We have determined the crystal structures of an unprocessed native precursor, in addition to Ala24 insertion, Ala26 insertion and Gly24→Ser, His11→Ala, Ser25→Ala, Ser25→Cys and Ser25→Thr mutants. Comparative analyses of the cleavage site reveal specific conformational constraints that govern self-processing and demonstrate that considerable rearrangement must occur. We suggest that Thr57 Oγ and a water molecule form an ‘oxyanion hole’ that likely stabilizes the proposed oxyoxazolidine intermediate. Thr57 and this water molecule are probable catalytic residues able to support acid–base catalysis. The conformational freedom in the loop preceding the cleavage site appears to play a determining role in the reaction. The molecular mechanism of self-processing, presented here, emphasizes the importance of stabilization of the oxyoxazolidine intermediate. Comparison of the structural features shows significant similarity to those in other self-processing systems, and suggests that models of the cleavage site of such enzymes based on Ser→Ala or Ser→Thr mutants alone may lead to erroneous interpretations of the mechanism. PMID:14633979

  12. Cauliflower mosaic virus produces an aspartic proteinase to cleave its polyproteins.

    PubMed

    Torruella, M; Gordon, K; Hohn, T

    1989-10-01

    Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), a plant pararetrovirus, produces polyproteins from its adjacent genes for the coat protein (ORF IV) and for enzymatic functions (ORF V). The N-terminal domain of the latter gene includes a sequence showing homology to the active site of other retroviral and acid proteases. We have now shown that this domain does indeed produce a functional aspartic protease that can process both the polyproteins. Mutations in the putative active site abolished virus infectivity. In transient expression studies in protoplasts, the N-terminal domain of ORF V was able to free active CAT enzyme from a precursor containing an N-terminal fusion of a portion of ORF IV. The junction between the two domains of this artificial polyprotein comprised sequences from the ORF IV product that had previously been shown to include a proteolytic processing site. The protease mutants were not able to free active CAT enzyme from this precursor. Direct analysis of cleavage at the same site in the ORF IV product using proteins expressed in Escherichia coli revealed the expected products. In vitro translation of a synthetic transcript covering ORF V was used to study the autocatalytic cleavage of the ORF product. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the 80 kd initial translation product was processed to yield a N-terminal doublet of polypeptides of 22 and 20 kd apparent mol. wt, which cover the protease domain. The mutants in the active site were not processed. PMID:2684630

  13. Dysregulation of synaptic and extrasynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors induced by amyloid-β.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Cong; Zhao, Jie; Li, Shao

    2013-12-01

    The toxicity of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is strongly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has a high incidence in the elderly worldwide. Recent evidence showed that alteration in the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) plays a key role in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, the activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDARs has distinct consequences for plasticity, gene regulation, neuronal death, and Aβ production. This review focuses on the dysregulation of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDARs induced by Aβ. On one hand, Aβ downregulates the synaptic NMDAR response by promoting NMDAR endocytosis, leading to either neurotoxicity or neuroprotection. On the other hand, Aβ enhances the activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs by decreasing neuronal glutamate uptake and inducing glutamate spillover, subsequently causing neurotoxicity. In addition, selective enhancement of synaptic activity by low doses of NMDA, or reduction of extrasynaptic activity by memantine, a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist, halts Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Therefore, future neuroprotective drugs for AD should aim at both the enhancement of synaptic activity and the disruption of extrasynaptic NMDAR-dependent death signaling. PMID:24136243

  14. PsoP1, a milk-clotting aspartic peptidase from the basidiomycete fungus Piptoporus soloniensis.

    PubMed

    El-Baky, Hassan Abd; Linke, Diana; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf Günter

    2011-09-28

    The first enzyme of the basidiomycete Piptoporus soloniensis, a peptidase (PsoP1), was characterized after isolation from submerged cultures, purification by fractional precipitation, and preparative native-polyarylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The native molecular mass of PsoP1 was 38 kDa with an isoelectric point of 3.9. Similar to chymosin from milk calves, PsoP1 showed a maximum milk-clotting activity (MCA) at 35-40 °C and was most stable at pH 6 and below 40 °C. The complete inhibition by pepstatin A identified this enzyme as an aspartic peptidase. Electrospray ionization-tandem MS showed an amino acid partial sequence that was more homologous to mammalian milk clotting peptidases than to the chymosin substitute from a fungal species, such as the Zygomycete Mucor miehei. According to sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE patterns, the peptidase cleaved κ-casein in a way similar to chymosin and hydrolyzed β-casein slowly, as it would be expected from an efficient chymosin substitute. PMID:21888369

  15. Intramolecular cyclization of aspartic acid residues assisted by three water molecules: a density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    Aspartic acid (Asp) residues in peptides and proteins (l-Asp) are known to undergo spontaneous nonenzymatic reactions to form l-β-Asp, d-Asp, and d-β-Asp residues. The formation of these abnormal Asp residues in proteins may affect their three-dimensional structures and hence their properties and functions. Indeed, the reactions have been thought to contribute to aging and pathologies. Most of the above reactions of the l-Asp residues proceed via a cyclic succinimide intermediate. In this paper, a novel three-water-assisted mechanism is proposed for cyclization of an Asp residue (forming a gem-diol precursor of the succinimide) by the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) density functional theory calculations carried out for an Asp-containing model compound (Ace-Asp-Nme, where Ace = acetyl and Nme = NHCH3). The three water molecules act as catalysts by mediating ‘long-range’ proton transfers. In the proposed mechanism, the amide group on the C-terminal side of the Asp residue is first converted to the tautomeric iminol form (iminolization). Then, reorientation of a water molecule and a conformational change occur successively, followed by the nucleophilic attack of the iminol nitrogen on the carboxyl carbon of the Asp side chain to form the gem-diol species. A satisfactory agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental energetics.

  16. Kinetic properties and thermal stabilities of mutant forms of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Azzariti, A; Vacca, R A; Giannattasio, S; Merafina, R S; Marra, E; Doonan, S

    1998-07-28

    Kinetic properties and thermal stabilities of the precursor form of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, the mature form lacking 9 amino acids from the N-terminus, and forms of the mature protein in which cysteine-166 had been mutated to serine or alanine were compared with those of the mature enzyme. The precursor and the cysteine mutants showed moderately impaired catalytic properties consistent with decreased ability to undergo transition from the open to the closed conformation which is an integral part of the mechanism of action of the enzyme. The deletion mutant had a kcat only 2% of that of the mature enzyme but also much reduced Km values for both substrates. In addition it showed enhanced reactivity of cysteine-166 with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate), which is characteristic of the closed form of the enzyme, with no enhancement of reactivity in the presence of substrates. This is taken to show that the deletion mutant adopts a conformation that is significantly different from that of the mature enzyme particularly in respect of the small domain. The deletion mutant was found to be more resistant to thermal inactivation over a range of temperatures than were the other forms of the enzyme consistent with its having a more tightly packed small domain. PMID:9675237

  17. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of β-alanine and N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of β-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  18. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of β-alanine and N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of β-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  19. Preoperative Aspartate Aminotransferase to White Blood Cell Count Ratio Predicting Postoperative Outcomes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liao, Weijia; Wang, Yongqin; Liao, Yan; He, Songqing; Jin, Junfei

    2016-04-01

    Effective biomarkers for predicting prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after hepatectomy is urgently needed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of the preoperative peripheral aspartate aminotransferase to white blood cell count ratio (AWR) for the prognostication of patients with HCC.Clinical data of 396 HCC patients who underwent radical hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the low-AWR group (AWR ≤5.2) and the high-AWR group (AWR >5.2); univariate analysis, Kaplan-Meier method analysis, and the multivariate analysis by Cox regression were conducted, respectively.The results showed that AWR was associated with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), tumor size, Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) stage, portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in HCC. AWR > 5.2, AFP > 100 ng/mL, size of tumor >6 cm, number of multiple tumors, B-C of BCLC stage, PVTT, and distant metastasis were predictors of poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Except for recurrence, which was an independent predictor for OS only, AWR >5.2, size of tumor >6 cm, and PVTT were independent predictors of both DFS and OS.We concluded that preoperative AWR > 5.2 was an adverse predictor of DFS and OS in HCC after hepatectomy, AWR might be a novel prognostic biomarker in HCC after curative resection. PMID:27057915

  20. Lithium citrate reduces excessive intra-cerebral N-acetyl aspartate in Canavan disease.

    PubMed

    Assadi, Mitra; Janson, Christopher; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Goldfarb, Olga; Suri, Neeti; Bilaniuk, Larissa; Leone, Paola

    2010-07-01

    Our group has previously reported the first clinical application of lithium in a child affected by Canavan disease. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of lithium on N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) as well as other end points in a larger cohort. Six patients with clinical, laboratory and genetic confirmation of Canavan disease were recruited and underwent treatment with lithium. The battery of safety and efficacy testing performed before and after sixty days of treatment included Gross Motor Function Testing (GMFM), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Proton Magnetic Spectroscopy (H-MRS) as well as blood work. The medication was safe without any clinical or laboratory evidence for toxicity. Parental reports indicated improvement in alertness and social interactions. GMFM did not show statistically significant improvement in motor development. H-MRS documented an overall drop in NAA which was statistically significant in the basal ganglia. T1 measurements recorded on MRI studies suggested a mild improvement in myelination in the frontal white matter after treatment. Diffusion Tensor Imaging was available in two patients and suggested micro-structural improvement in the corpus callosum. The results suggest that lithium administration may be beneficial in patients with Canavan disease. PMID:20034825

  1. Arginine-Glycine-Aspartate-Binding Integrins as Therapeutic and Diagnostic Targets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cui-Cui; Qu, Xian-Jun; Gao, Zu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)-binding integrins, including αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6, αvβ8, α5β1, αIIbβ3, and α8β1, recognize the tripeptide motif RGD in their ligands. RGD-binding integrins are involved in various cell functions, including cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and motility that are critically important to both health and disease. The diagnostic and therapeutic value of some RGD-binding integrin inhibitors are either clinically proven or at different stages of development. In this review, we first summarized the structure and signaling characteristics of RGD-binding integrins. We then discussed the functions of RGD-binding integrins and their association with human disease. Finally, we recapitulated the research efforts and clinical trials of targeting RGD-binding integrins for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. This comprehensive review of the current advances in RGD-binding integrins could assist scientists and clinicians in gaining a complete understanding of this group of molecules. It can also contribute to the design of new projects to further advance this field of research and to better apply the research results to benefit patients in clinical practice. PMID:24621642

  2. Liposome reconstitution and modulation of recombinant N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor channels by membrane stretch

    PubMed Central

    Kloda, Anna; Lua, Linda; Hall, Rhonda; Adams, David J.; Martinac, Boris

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the heteromeric N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels composed of NR1a and NR2A subunits were expressed, purified, reconstituted into liposomes, and characterized by using the patch clamp technique. The protein exhibited the expected electrophysiological profile of activation by glutamate and glycine and internal Mg2+ blockade. We demonstrated that the mechanical energy transmitted to membrane-bound NMDA receptor channels can be exerted directly by tension developed in the lipid bilayer. Membrane stretch and application of arachidonic acid potentiated currents through NMDA receptor channels in the presence of intracellular Mg2+. The correlation of membrane tension induced by either mechanical or chemical stimuli with the physiological Mg2+ block of the channel suggests that the synaptic transmission can be altered if NMDA receptor complexes experience local changes in bilayer thickness caused by dynamic targeting to lipid microdomains, electrocompression, or chemical modification of the cell membranes. The ability to study gating properties of NMDA receptor channels in artificial bilayers should prove useful in further study of structure–function relationships and facilitate discoveries of new therapeutic agents for treatment of glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity or analgesic therapies. PMID:17242368

  3. Sigma-1 and N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptors: A Partnership with Beneficial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pabba, Mohan; Sibille, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptors (σ-1R) are interorganelle signaling molecules, which have been implicated in synaptic plasticity, primarily by enhancing the function of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). On the other hand, excessive influx of calcium via activated NMDAR can cause excitotoxicity. Yet, despite their NMDAR-enhancing role, multiple lines of evidence suggest that σ-1Rs are involved in neuroprotection. The mechanism underlying these intriguing opposing effects is not known. Recent studies now suggest the possibility that σ-1Rs could exert neuroprotective effects via targeted disruption of protein-protein interactions between NMDARs and their associated intracellular signaling machinery, specifically the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). This targeted disruption of protein-protein interactions between NMDARs and nNOS results in lower levels of nitric oxide generation, thus having a neuroprotective effect. Here, we briefly summarize aspects of σ-1R-mediated enhancement of NMDAR function and possible neuroprotection. In-depth mechanistic understanding of σ-1R modulation of NMDAR function, which preserves Ca2+ homoeostasis while limiting excitotoxicity would provide valuable information for designing novel as well as improving prevailing therapeutic strategies.

  4. Clinical analysis on anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis cases: Chinese experience

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoqin; Fan, Chunqiu; Wu, Jian; Ye, Jing; Zhan, Shuqin; Song, Haiqing; Liu, Aihua; Su, Yingying; Jia, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of autoimmune encephalitis which was just identified, the clinical manifestations of the anti-N methyl-D aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis are complex, diverse and in severe condition. The immunotherapy has shown good effect on the treatment but in generally, the diagnosis and treatment are still in the experience accumulation stage. More clinical research in different population is necessary, for example, in the Chinese population. This study was completed in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis patients who were diagnosed in Beijing Xuan Wu Hospital (China) during the time from 2011 to 2013. Total 33 patients were involved with the average age of 29.7 years old when the diseases were onset. With diverse clinical manifestations, most patients displayed positively by NMDAR antibody test and 63.6% of them were associated with elevated CSF-lgA. Patients also showed abnormal MRI and EEG. Only three patients had teratomas. With hormone therapy, gamma globulin treatment or plasma exchange, more than three quarters of patients fully recovered and the others had moderate symptoms. Based on our results, we suggest that NMDAR antibody test would be helpful to make a timely diagnosis and to administer immunotherapy. PMID:26770517

  5. Effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists on different measures of motion sickness in cats.

    PubMed

    Lucot, J B

    1998-11-15

    Because N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists prevent cisplatin-induced emesis and NMDA receptors are in both emetic pathways and structures associated with the final common pathway for vomiting, they have the potential to be broad-spectrum antiemetics. This was evaluated by determining their effects on motion sickness in cats. The measures included the number vomiting, the number of symptom points, which reflect activity early in the final common path and the duration of the retch/vomit sequence, which reflects activity late in the path. Dextrorphan, ketamine and dextromethorphan decreased the number vomiting with the same rank order of potency as at NMDA receptors. Additional studies with 1,3-dio-tolylguaninidine (DTG) and haloperidol ruled out a role for sigma receptors. The NMDA antagonists produced a nonsignificant dose-dependent decrease in symptoms and had no effects on the duration of vomiting. They also produced motor abnormalities at the highest doses. The competitive antagonist LY 233053 also decreased the number vomiting without altering the duration. It produced a nonsignificant non-dose-dependent decrease in symptoms and had no effects on gross motor output. The results are consistent with a broad spectrum of antiemetic efficacy with at least a part of its action in the early to middle portions of the final common pathway for vomiting. Additional actions on the vestibular nuclei are possible. PMID:10052568

  6. Structures of a bi-functional Kunitz-type STI family inhibitor of serine and aspartic proteases: Could the aspartic protease inhibition have evolved from a canonical serine protease-binding loop?

    PubMed

    Guerra, Yasel; Valiente, Pedro A; Pons, Tirso; Berry, Colin; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    Bi-functional inhibitors from the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) family are glycosylated proteins able to inhibit serine and aspartic proteases. Here we report six crystal structures of the wild-type and a non-glycosylated mutant of the bifunctional inhibitor E3Ad obtained at different pH values and space groups. The crystal structures show that E3Ad adopts the typical β-trefoil fold of the STI family exhibiting some conformational changes due to pH variations and crystal packing. Despite the high sequence identity with a recently reported potato cathepsin D inhibitor (PDI), three-dimensional structures obtained in this work show a significant conformational change in the protease-binding loop proposed for aspartic protease inhibition. The E3Ad binding loop for serine protease inhibition is also proposed, based on structural similarity with a novel non-canonical conformation described for the double-headed inhibitor API-A from the Kunitz-type STI family. In addition, structural and sequence analyses suggest that bifunctional inhibitors of serine and aspartic proteases from the Kunitz-type STI family are more similar to double-headed inhibitor API-A than other inhibitors with a canonical protease-binding loop. PMID:27329566

  7. R76 in transmembrane domain 3 of the aspartate:alanine transporter AspT is involved in substrate transport.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satomi; Nanatani, Kei; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-01-01

    The L-aspartate:L-alanine antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus (AspT) possesses an arginine residue (R76) within the GxxxG motif in the central part of transmembrane domain 3 (TM3)-a residue that has been estimated to transport function. In this study, we carried out amino acid substitutions of R76 and used proteoliposome reconstitution for analyzing the transport function of each substitution. Both l-aspartate and l-alanine transport assays showed that R76K has higher activity than the AspT-WT (R76), whereas R76D and R76E have lower activity than the AspT-WT. These results suggest that R76 is involved in AspT substrate transport. PMID:26849958

  8. A novel aspartic acid protease gene from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus): cloning, characterization and relation to postharvest chilling stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Soler, Alain; Cruz de Carvalho, Maria H

    2013-11-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding a putative aspartic acid protease (AcAP1) was isolated for the first time from the flesh of pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit. The deduced sequence of AcAP1 showed all the common features of a typical plant aspartic protease phytepsin precursor. Analysis of AcAP1 gene expression under postharvest chilling treatment in two pineapple varieties differing in their resistance to blackheart development revealed opposite trends. The resistant variety showed an up-regulation of AcAP1 precursor gene expression whereas the susceptible showed a down-regulation in response to postharvest chilling treatment. The same trend was observed regarding specific AP enzyme activity in both varieties. Taken together our results support the involvement of AcAP1 in postharvest chilling stress resistance in pineapple fruits. PMID:23838125

  9. A double-suicide autopsy case of potassium poisoning by intravenous administration of potassium aspartate after intake of some psychopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Hasegawa, K; Suzuki, O

    2011-07-01

    We report a curious double-suicide autopsy case of both male and female who died of potassium poisoning by intravenous administration of concentrated potassium aspartate solution. The plasma concentrations of potassium of the male and female subjects were as high as 49.7 and 62.8 mEq/L, respectively. In addition to the high concentrations of potassium, toxic levels of phenobarbital, promethazine and chlorpromazine, and relatively low levels of etizolam and brotizolam were also detected from whole blood and urine specimens of both cadavers. Twenty empty plastic bottles (10-mL capacity) labeled 'ASPARA® Potassium Injection 10 mEq' were found at the suicide spot. To our knowledge, this is the first description for suicidal death by potassium aspartate; in all of the previous literature, they used potassium chloride intravenously or per os. PMID:20670988

  10. Single exposure to cocaine impairs aspartate uptake in the pre-frontal cortex via dopamine D1-receptor dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Stutz, Bernardo; Martins, Robertta Silva; Dos Santos Pereira, Maurício; Pecinalli, Ney Roner; Santos, Luis E; Taveira-da-Silva, Rosilane; Lowe, Jennifer; de Freitas, Isis Grigorio; de Melo Reis, Ricardo Augusto; Manhães, Alex C; Kubrusly, Regina C C

    2016-08-01

    Dopamine and glutamate play critical roles in the reinforcing effects of cocaine. We demonstrated that a single intraperitoneal administration of cocaine induces a significant decrease in [(3)H]-d-aspartate uptake in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC). This decrease is associated with elevated dopamine levels, and requires dopamine D1-receptor signaling (D1R) and adenylyl cyclase activation. The effect was observed within 10min of cocaine administration and lasted for up to 30min. This rapid response is related to D1R-mediated cAMP-mediated activation of PKA and phosphorylation of the excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3. We also demonstrated that cocaine exposure increases extracellular d-aspartate, l-glutamate and d-serine in the PFC. Our data suggest that cocaine activates dopamine D1 receptor signaling and PKA pathway to regulate EAATs function and extracellular EAA level in the PFC. PMID:27208619

  11. A case of non-paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl d-aspartate receptor encephalitis presenting as a neuropsychiatric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kunc, Marek; Ahmed, Fayyaz

    2014-01-01

    N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis can often be a paraneoplastic manifestation of occult malignancy such as ovarian teratoma and rarely teratoma of mediastinum or testis and small cell lung carcinoma. We report a case of non-paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antibody–positive autoimmune encephalitis in a young patient who presented with neuropsychiatric features and made a very good recovery following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids. The case highlights the need for increased vigilance for the condition in young females with or without a previous psychiatric history and emphasises the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the management of this challenging disorder with a good prognosis. PMID:27489663

  12. Discriminative stimulus effects of magnesium chloride: substitution studies with monoamine uptake inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kantak, K M; Edwards, M A; Wilcox, K M; Kitchel, E

    1997-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that magnesium chloride may have discriminative stimulus effects that partially overlap with those of noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists as well as certain monoamine uptake inhibitors. In our study, rats were trained to discriminate 100 mg/kg magnesium chloride from saline and its discriminative stimulus effects were characterized with respect to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and monoamine transporter functions in substitution tests. The discriminative stimulus effects of magnesium chloride were acquired within a moderate number of training sessions and showed dose-related substitution after either subcutaneous (3-300 mg/kg) or intracerebroventricular (0.3-300 microg) administration. The intracerebroventricular administration of magnesium chloride was over 4000 times more potent than its s.c. administration. The monoamine uptake inhibitors cocaine, GBR 12909, talsupram and citalopram fully substituted (> or =90% magnesium-appropriate responses) for magnesium chloride in the majority of subjects tested and the group averages reached a maximum of 72 to 82% responses on the magnesium-appropriate lever. Based on relative potency analysis, the rank order of potency of these four drugs for producing magnesium-appropriate responses was talsupram = cocaine > citalopram = GBR 12909. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists dizocilpine, phencyclidine and NPC 17742 engendered maximum group averages of 49 to 65% responses on the magnesium-appropriate lever. The results suggest that the centrally mediated discriminative stimulus effects of magnesium chloride may be more directly related to interactions with monoamine neurotransmitter functions than to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade. PMID:9336325

  13. Topology of AspT, the aspartate:alanine antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus, determined by site-directed fluorescence labeling.

    PubMed

    Nanatani, Kei; Fujiki, Takashi; Kanou, Kazuhiko; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko; Umeyama, Hideaki; Ye, Liwen; Wang, Xicheng; Nakajima, Tasuku; Uchida, Takafumi; Maloney, Peter C; Abe, Keietsu

    2007-10-01

    The gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-aspartate (Asp) with release of L-alanine (Ala) and CO(2). The decarboxylation reaction consists of two steps: electrogenic exchange of Asp for Ala catalyzed by an aspartate:alanine antiporter (AspT) and intracellular decarboxylation of the transported Asp catalyzed by an L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylase (AspD). AspT belongs to the newly classified aspartate:alanine exchanger family (transporter classification no. 2.A.81) of transporters. In this study, we were interested in the relationship between the structure and function of AspT and thus analyzed the topology by means of the substituted-cysteine accessibility method using the impermeant, fluorescent, thiol-specific probe Oregon Green 488 maleimide (OGM) and the impermeant, nonfluorescent, thiol-specific probe [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl]methanethiosulfonate bromide. We generated 23 single-cysteine variants from a six-histidine-tagged cysteineless AspT template. A cysteine position was assigned an external location if the corresponding single-cysteine variant reacted with OGM added to intact cells, and a position was assigned an internal location if OGM labeling required cell lysis. The topology analyses revealed that AspT has a unique topology; the protein has 10 transmembrane helices (TMs), a large hydrophilic cytoplasmic loop (about 180 amino acids) between TM5 and TM6, N and C termini that face the periplasm, and a positively charged residue (arginine 76) within TM3. Moreover, the three-dimensional structure constructed by means of the full automatic modeling system indicates that the large hydrophilic cytoplasmic loop of AspT possesses a TrkA_C domain and a TrkA_C-like domain and that the three-dimensional structures of these domains are similar to each other even though their amino acid sequences show low similarity. PMID:17660287

  14. Crystal structure of Clostridium acetobutylicum Aspartate kinase (CaAK): An important allosteric enzyme for amino acids production.

    PubMed

    Manjasetty, Babu A; Chance, Mark R; Burley, Stephen K; Panjikar, Santosh; Almo, Steven C

    2014-09-01

    Aspartate kinase (AK) is an enzyme which is tightly regulated through feedback control and responsible for the synthesis of 4-phospho-L-aspartate from L-aspartate. This intermediate step is at an important branch point where one path leads to the synthesis of lysine and the other to threonine, methionine and isoleucine. Concerted feedback inhibition of AK is mediated by threonine and lysine and varies between the species. The crystal structure of biotechnologically important Clostridium acetobutylicum aspartate kinase (CaAK; E.C. 2.7.2.4; Mw=48,030Da; 437aa; SwissProt: Q97MC0) has been determined to 3Å resolution. CaAK acquires a protein fold similar to the other known structures of AKs despite the low sequence identity (<30%). It is composed of two domains: an N-terminal catalytic domain (kinase) domain and a C-terminal regulatory domain further comprised of two small domains belonging to the ACT domain family. Pairwise comparison of 12 molecules in the asymmetric unit helped to identify the bending regions which are in the vicinity of ATP binding site involved in domain movements between the catalytic and regulatory domains. All 12 CaAK molecules adopt fully open T-state conformation leading to the formation of three tetramers unique among other similar AK structures. On the basis of comparative structural analysis, we discuss tetramer formation based on the large conformational changes in the catalytic domain associated with the lysine binding at the regulatory domains. The structure described herein is homologous to a target in wide-spread pathogenic (toxin producing) bacteria such as Clostridium tetani (64% sequence identity) suggesting the potential of the structure solved here to be applied for modeling drug interactions. CaAK structure may serve as a guide to better understand and engineer lysine biosynthesis for the biotechnology industry. PMID:25170437

  15. Altered Levels of Zinc and N-methyl-D-aspartic Acid Receptor Underlying Multiple Organ Dysfunctions After Severe Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanghuan; Yu, Xiaojun; Wang, Dian; Xu, Xiaohu; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe trauma can cause secondary multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. Oxidative stress and/or excitatory neurotoxicity are considered as the final common pathway in nerve cell injuries. Zinc is the cofactor of the redox enzyme, and the effect of the excitatory neurotoxicity is related to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR). Material/Methods We investigated the levels of zinc and brainstem NMDAR in a rabbit model of severe trauma. Zinc and serum biochemical profiles were determined. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect brainstem N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1 (NR1), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2A (NR2A), and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B (NR2B) expression. Results Brain and brainstem Zn levels increased at 12 h, but serum Zn decreased dramatically after the trauma. NR1 in the brainstem dorsal regions increased at 6 h after injury and then decreased. NR2A in the dorsal regions decreased to a plateau at 12 h after trauma. The levels of NR2B were lowest in the death group in the brainstem. Serum zinc was positively correlated with NR2A and 2B and negatively correlated with zinc in the brain. Correlations were also found between the brainstem NR2A and that of the dorsal brainstem, as well as between brainstem NR2A and changes in NR2B. There was a negative correlation between zinc and NR2A. Conclusions Severe trauma led to an acute reduction of zinc enhancing oxidative stress and the changes of NMDAR causing the neurotoxicity of the nerve cells. This may be a mechanism for the occurrence of MODS or death after trauma. PMID:26335029

  16. N-Linked Glycosyl Auxiliary-Mediated Native Chemical Ligation on Aspartic Acid: Application towards N-Glycopeptide Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hua; Le Mai Hoang, Kim; Vu, Minh Duy; Pasunooti, Kalyan; Liu, Chuan-Fa; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2016-08-22

    A practical approach towards N-glycopeptide synthesis using an auxiliary-mediated dual native chemical ligation (NCL) has been developed. The first NCL connects an N-linked glycosyl auxiliary to the thioester side chain of an N-terminal aspartate oligopeptide. This intermediate undergoes a second NCL with a C-terminal thioester oligopeptide. Mild cleavage provides the desired N-glycopeptide. PMID:27444333

  17. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antibody Mediated Neurologic Relapse Post Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Sarah; Walsh, Aoibhinn; King, Mary D; Lynch, Bryan; Webb, David; Twomey, Eilish; Ronan Leahy, T; Butler, Karina; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Despite the advent of antiviral therapy, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains a devastating condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Neurologic relapse after initial improvement is generally attributed to herpes simplex virus reactivation. In 2013, inflammation caused by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies was reported in association with cases of neurologic relapse after herpes simplex encephalitis. We present 3 such cases and discuss diagnostic and management dilemmas. PMID:27171680

  18. Brain infection with Staphylococcus aureus leads to high extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Dahlberg, Daniel; Mariussen, Espen; Goverud, Ingeborg Løstegaard; Antal, Ellen-Ann; Tønjum, Tone; Maehlen, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcal brain infections may cause mental deterioration and epileptic seizures, suggesting interference with normal neurotransmission in the brain. We injected Staphylococcus aureus into rat striatum and found an initial 76% reduction in the extracellular level of glutamate as detected by microdialysis at 2 hr after staphylococcal infection. At 8 hr after staphylococcal infection, however, the extracellular level of glutamate had increased 12-fold, and at 20 hr it had increased >30-fold. The extracellular level of aspartate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) also increased greatly. Extracellular Zn(2+) , which was estimated at ∼2.6 µmol/liter in the control situation, was increased by 330% 1-2.5 hr after staphylococcal infection and by 100% at 8 and 20 hr. The increase in extracellular glutamate, aspartate, and GABA appeared to reflect the degree of tissue damage. The area of tissue damage greatly exceeded the area of staphylococcal infiltration, pointing to soluble factors being responsible for cell death. However, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 ameliorated neither tissue damage nor the increase in extracellular neuroactive amino acids, suggesting the presence of neurotoxic factors other than glutamate and aspartate. In vitro staphylococci incubated with glutamine and glucose formed glutamate, so bacteria could be an additional source of infection-related glutamate. We conclude that the dramatic increase in the extracellular concentration of neuroactive amino acids and zinc could interfere with neurotransmission in the surrounding brain tissue, contributing to mental deterioration and a predisposition to epileptic seizures, which are often seen in brain abscess patients. PMID:25043715

  19. Endothelin-1 stimulates the release of preloaded ( sup 3 H)D-aspartate from cultured cerebellar granule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.W.; Lee, C.Y.; Chuang, D.M. )

    1990-03-16

    We have recently reported that endothelin-1 (ET) induces phosphoinositide hydrolysis in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells. Here we found that ET in a dose-dependent manner (1-30 nM) stimulated the release of preloaded ({sup 3}H)D-aspartate from granule cells. The ET-induced aspartate release was completely blocked in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}, but was unaffected by 1 mM Co{sup 2+} or 1 microM dihydropyridine derivatives (nisoldipine and nimodipine). At higher concentration (10 microM) of nisoldipine and nimodipine, the release was partially inhibited. Short-term pretreatment of cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) potentiated the ET-induced aspartate release, while long-term pretreatment with PDBu attenuated the release. Long-term exposure of cells to pertussis toxin (PTX), on the other hand, potentiated the ET-induced effects. Our results suggest that ET has a neuromodulatory function in the central nervous system.

  20. SIRT3-dependent GOT2 acetylation status affects the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle activity and pancreatic tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Zhou, Lisha; Shi, Qian; Zhao, Yuzheng; Lin, Huaipeng; Zhang, Mengli; Zhao, Shimin; Yang, Yi; Ling, Zhi-Qiang; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue; Ye, Dan

    2015-04-15

    The malate-aspartate shuttle is indispensable for the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria to maintain a high rate of glycolysis and to support rapid tumor cell growth. The malate-aspartate shuttle is operated by two pairs of enzymes that localize to the mitochondria and cytoplasm, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (GOT), and malate dehydrogenases (MDH). Here, we show that mitochondrial GOT2 is acetylated and that deacetylation depends on mitochondrial SIRT3. We have identified that acetylation occurs at three lysine residues, K159, K185, and K404 (3K), and enhances the association between GOT2 and MDH2. The GOT2 acetylation at these three residues promotes the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria and changes the mitochondrial NADH/NAD(+) redox state to support ATP production. Additionally, GOT2 3K acetylation stimulates NADPH production to suppress ROS and to protect cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, GOT2 3K acetylation promotes pancreatic cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. Finally, we show that GOT2 K159 acetylation is increased in human pancreatic tumors, which correlates with reduced SIRT3 expression. Our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism by which GOT2 acetylation stimulates the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle activity and oxidative protection. PMID:25755250

  1. Free D-aspartate regulates neuronal dendritic morphology, synaptic plasticity, gray matter volume and brain activity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Errico, F; Nisticò, R; Di Giorgio, A; Squillace, M; Vitucci, D; Galbusera, A; Piccinin, S; Mango, D; Fazio, L; Middei, S; Trizio, S; Mercuri, N B; Teule, M A; Centonze, D; Gozzi, A; Blasi, G; Bertolino, A; Usiello, A

    2014-01-01

    D-aspartate (D-Asp) is an atypical amino acid, which is especially abundant in the developing mammalian brain, and can bind to and activate N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In line with its pharmacological features, we find that mice chronically treated with D-Asp show enhanced NMDAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and basal cerebral blood volume in fronto-hippocampal areas. In addition, we show that both chronic administration of D-Asp and deletion of the gene coding for the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) trigger plastic modifications of neuronal cytoarchitecture in the prefrontal cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus and promote a cytochalasin D-sensitive form of synaptic plasticity in adult mouse brains. To translate these findings in humans and consistent with the experiments using Ddo gene targeting in animals, we performed a hierarchical stepwise translational genetic approach. Specifically, we investigated the association of variation in the gene coding for DDO with complex human prefrontal phenotypes. We demonstrate that genetic variation predicting reduced expression of DDO in postmortem human prefrontal cortex is mapped on greater prefrontal gray matter and activity during working memory as measured with MRI. In conclusion our results identify novel NMDAR-dependent effects of D-Asp on plasticity and physiology in rodents, which also map to prefrontal phenotypes in humans. PMID:25072322

  2. Application of repeated aspartate tags to improving extracellular production of Escherichia coli L-asparaginase isozyme II.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Min, Won-Ki; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Asparaginase isozyme II from Escherichia coli is a popular enzyme that has been used as a therapeutic agent against acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here, fusion tag systems consisting of the pelB signal sequence and various lengths of repeated aspartate tags were devised to highly express and to release active asparaginase isozyme II extracellularly in E. coli. Among several constructs, recombinant asparaginase isozyme II fused with the pelB signal sequence and five aspartate tag was secreted efficiently into culture medium at 34.6 U/mg cell of specific activity. By batch fermentation, recombinant E. coli produced 40.8 U/ml asparaginase isozyme II in the medium. In addition, deletion of the gspDE gene reduced extracellular production of asparaginase isozyme II, indicating that secretion of recombinant asparaginase isozyme II was partially ascribed to the recognition by the general secretion machinery. This tag system composed of the pelB signal peptide, and repeated aspartates can be applied to extracellular production of other recombinant proteins. PMID:26320714

  3. Immobilization of Escherichia coli Cells Containing Aspartase Activity with Polyurethane and Its Application for l-Aspartic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Fusee, Murray C.; Swann, Wayne E.; Calton, Gary J.

    1981-01-01

    Whole cells of Escherichia coli containing aspartase activity were immobilized by mixing a cell suspension with a liquid isocyanate-capped polyurethane prepolymer (Hypol). The immobilized cell preparation was used to convert ammonium fumarate to l-aspartic acid. Properties of the immobilized E. coli cells containing aspartase were investigated with a batch reactor. A 1.67-fold increase in the l-aspartic acid production rate was observed at 37°C as compared to 25°C operating temperature. The pH optimum was broad, ranging from 8.5 to 9.2. Increasing the concentration of ammonium fumarate to 1.5 M from 1.0 M negatively affected the reaction rate. l-Aspartic acid was produced at an average rate of 2.18 × 10−4 mol/min per g (wet weight) of immobilized E. coli cells with a 37°C substrate solution consisting of 1.0 M ammonium fumarate with 1 mM Mg2+ (pH 9.0). PMID:16345865

  4. Solubilization, partial purification, and reconstitution of glutamate- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated cation channels from brain synaptic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ly, A.M.; Michaelis, E.K. )

    1991-04-30

    L-Glutamate-activated cation channel proteins from rat brain synaptic membranes were solubilized, partially purified, and reconstituted into liposomes. Optimal conditions for solubilization and reconstitution included treatment of the membranes with nonionic detergents in the presence of neutral phospholipids plus glycerol. Quench-flow procedures were developed to characterize the rapid kinetics of ion flux induced by receptor agonists. ({sup 14}C)Methylamine, a cation that permeates through the open channel of both vertebrate and invertebrate glutamate receptors, was used to measure the activity of glutamate receptor-ion channel complexes in reconstituted liposomes. L-Glutamate caused an increase in the rate of ({sup 14}C)methylamine influx into liposomes reconstituted with either solubilized membrane proteins or partially purified glutamate-binding proteins. Of the major glutamate receptor agonists, only N-methyl-D-aspartate activated cation fluxes in liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins. In liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate- or glutamate-induced influx of NA{sup +} led to a transient increase in the influx of the lipid-permeable anion probe S{sup 14}CN{sup {minus}}. These results indicate the functional reconstitution of N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive glutamate receptors and the role of the {approximately}69-kDa protein in the function of these ion channels.

  5. Aspartate separation of the scotopic threshold response (STR) from the photoreceptor a-wave of the cat and monkey ERG.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, K; Gieser, J; Sieving, P A

    1988-11-01

    We recorded ERG responses at the cornea of cat and monkey and identified the initial negative wave elicited by very dim stimuli as the scotopic threshold response (STR) comparable to that previously recognized by intraretinal recordings of cat. The STR, but not the photoreceptor a-wave, was eliminated by intravitreal aspartate in both cat and monkey, which demonstrated that the STR origin was post-photoreceptoral. Intraretinal recordings before and after aspartate confirmed that the a-wave of cat with bright light was fast-PIII from photoreceptors, and further showed that there was minimal or no extracellular activity recordable near the photoreceptors with very dim stimuli after aspartate. This study showed practical ways to separate the STR from the photoreceptor a-wave in corneal records, by the range of stimulus intensity (STR with dim stimuli; photoreceptor a-wave with bright stimuli) and by response latency (STR, long latency; photoreceptor a-wave, short latency). These recordings provide the first evidence that the monkey has an STR, and that it is post-photoreceptoral like the STR of cat. Further, this provides support to consider that the corneal negative STR wave of the human ERG with dim light may also be post-photoreceptoral. PMID:3182196

  6. SIRT3-dependent GOT2 acetylation status affects the malate–aspartate NADH shuttle activity and pancreatic tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Zhou, Lisha; Shi, Qian; Zhao, Yuzheng; Lin, Huaipeng; Zhang, Mengli; Zhao, Shimin; Yang, Yi; Ling, Zhi-Qiang; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue; Ye, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The malate–aspartate shuttle is indispensable for the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria to maintain a high rate of glycolysis and to support rapid tumor cell growth. The malate–aspartate shuttle is operated by two pairs of enzymes that localize to the mitochondria and cytoplasm, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (GOT), and malate dehydrogenases (MDH). Here, we show that mitochondrial GOT2 is acetylated and that deacetylation depends on mitochondrial SIRT3. We have identified that acetylation occurs at three lysine residues, K159, K185, and K404 (3K), and enhances the association between GOT2 and MDH2. The GOT2 acetylation at these three residues promotes the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria and changes the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox state to support ATP production. Additionally, GOT2 3K acetylation stimulates NADPH production to suppress ROS and to protect cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, GOT2 3K acetylation promotes pancreatic cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. Finally, we show that GOT2 K159 acetylation is increased in human pancreatic tumors, which correlates with reduced SIRT3 expression. Our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism by which GOT2 acetylation stimulates the malate–aspartate NADH shuttle activity and oxidative protection. PMID:25755250

  7. The crystal structure of the secreted aspartic protease 1 from Candida parapsilosis in complex with pepstatin A

    SciTech Connect

    Dostál, Jiří; Brynda, Jiří; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Sieglová, Irena; Pichová, Iva; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2010-09-01

    Opportunistic pathogens of the genus Candida cause infections representing a major threat to long-term survival of immunocompromised patients. Virulence of the Candida pathogens is enhanced by production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes and secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) are therefore studied as potential virulence factors and possible targets for therapeutic drug design. Candida parapsilosis is less invasive than C. albicans, however, it is one of the leading causative agents of yeast infections. We report three-dimensional crystal structure of Sapp1p from C. parapsilosis in complex with pepstatin A, the classical inhibitor of aspartic proteases. The structure of Sapp1p was determined from protein isolated from its natural source and represents the first structure of Sap from C. parapsilosis. Overall fold and topology of Sapp1p is very similar to the archetypic fold of monomeric aspartic protease family and known structures of Sap isoenzymes from C. albicans and Sapt1p from C. tropicalis. Structural comparison revealed noticeable differences in the structure of loops surrounding the active site. This resulted in differential character, shape, and size of the substrate binding site explaining divergent substrate specificities and inhibitor affinities. Determination of structures of Sap isoenzymes from various species might contribute to the development of new Sap-specific inhibitors.

  8. Developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor expression in the rat spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegenga, S. L.; Kalb, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons undergo experience-dependent development during a critical period in early postnatal life. It has been suggested that the repertoire of glutamate receptor subunits differs between young and mature motor neurons and contributes to this activity-dependent development. In the present study we examined the expression patterns of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor subunits during the postnatal maturation of the spinal cord. Young motor neurons express much higher levels of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 than do adult motor neurons. Although there are eight potential splice variants of NR1, only a subgroup is expressed by motor neurons. With respect to NR2 receptor subunits, young motor neurons express NR2A and C, while adult motor neurons express only NR2A. Young motor neurons express kainate receptor subunits GluR5, 6 and KA2 but we are unable to detect these or any other kainate receptor subunits in the adult spinal cord. Other spinal cord regions display a distinct pattern of developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptor subunit expression in comparison to motor neurons. Our findings indicate a precise spatio-temporal regulation of individual subunit expression in the developing spinal cord. Specific combinations of subunits in developing neurons influence their excitable properties and could participate in the emergence of adult neuronal form and function.

  9. Pyruvate kinase and aspartate-glutamate carrier distributions reveal key metabolic links between neurons and glia in retina

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Ken J.; Du, Jianhai; Sloat, Stephanie R.; Contreras, Laura; Linton, Jonathan D.; Turner, Sally J.; Sadilek, Martin; Hurley, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships between neurons and glia must adapt to structures, functions, and metabolic roles of the tissues they are in. We show here that Müller glia in retinas have specific enzyme deficiencies that can enhance their ability to synthesize Gln. The metabolic cost of these deficiencies is that they impair the Müller cell’s ability to metabolize Glc. We show here that the cells can compensate for this deficiency by using metabolites produced by neurons. Müller glia are deficient for pyruvate kinase (PK) and for aspartate/glutamate carrier 1 (AGC1), a key component of the malate-aspartate shuttle. In contrast, photoreceptor neurons express AGC1 and the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase, which is commonly associated with aerobic glycolysis in tumors, proliferating cells, and some other cell types. Our findings reveal a previously unidentified type of metabolic relationship between neurons and glia. Müller glia compensate for their unique metabolic adaptations by using lactate and aspartate from neurons as surrogates for their missing PK and AGC1. PMID:25313047

  10. Measurement of aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chu; Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is used as both food and a renewable energy resource. Physiological parameters, such as the amino acid aspartic acid, can indicate the growth status of oilseed rape. Traditional detection methods are laborious, time consuming, costly, and not usable in the field. Here, we investigate near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a fast and non-destructive detection method of aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. Different spectral pre-processing methods were compared for optimal prediction performance. The variable selection methods were applied for relevant variable selection, including successive projections algorithm (SPA), Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE) and random frog (RF). The selected effective wavelengths (EWs) were used as input by multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM). The best predictive performance was achieved by SPA-LS-SVM (Raw) model using 22 EWs, and the prediction results were Rp = 0.9962 and RMSEP = 0.0339 for the prediction set. The result indicated that NIR combined with LS-SVM is a powerful new method to detect aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. PMID:27441244

  11. Transmembrane Signaling by the Aspartate Receptor: Engineered Disulfides Reveal Static Regions of the Subunit Interface†

    PubMed Central

    Chervitz, Stephen A.; Lin, Christina M.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Ligand binding to the periplasmic domain of the transmembrane aspartate receptor generates an intramolecular conformational change which spans the bilayer and ultimately signals the cytoplasmic CheA histidine kinase, thereby triggering chemotaxis. The receptor is a homodimer stabilized by the interface between its two identical subunits: the present study investigates the role of the periplasmic and transmembrane regions of this interface in the mechanism of transmembrane signaling. Free cysteines and disulfide bonds are engineered into selected interfacial positions, and the resulting effects on the transmembrane signal are assayed by monitoring in vitro regulation of kinase activity. Three of the 14 engineered cysteine pairs examined, as well as six of the 14 engineered disulfides, cause perturbations of the interface structure which essentially destroy transmembrane regulation of the kinase. The remaining 11 cysteine pairs, and eight engineered disulfides covalently linking the two subunits at locations spanning positions 18–75, are observed to retain significant transmembrane kinase regulation. The eight functional disulfides positively identify adjacent faces of the two N-terminal helices in the native receptor dimer and indicate that large regions of the periplasmic and transmembrane subunit interface remain effectively static during the transmembrane signal. The results are consistent with a model in which the subunit interface plays a structural role, while the second membrane-spanning helix transmits the ligand-induced signal across the bilayer to the kinase binding domain. The effects of engineered cysteines and disulfides on receptor methylation in vitro are also measured, enabling direct comparison of the in vitro methylation and phosphorylation assays. PMID:7626643

  12. D-aspartate acts as a signaling molecule in nervous and neuroendocrine systems

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Nobutoshi; Shi, Ting; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2013-01-01

    D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is an endogenous amino acid in the central nervous and reproductive systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. High concentrations of D-Asp are found in distinct anatomical locations, suggesting that it has specific physiological roles in animals. Many of the characteristics of D-Asp have been documented, including its tissue and cellular distribution, formation and degradation, as well as the responses elicited by D-Asp application. D-Asp performs important roles related to nervous system development and hormone regulation; in addition, it appears to act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule. Recent studies have shown that D-Asp fulfills many, if not all, of the definitions of a classical neurotransmitter—that the molecule’s biosynthesis, degradation, uptake, and release take place within the presynaptic neuron, and that it triggers a response in the postsynaptic neuron after its release. Accumulating evidence suggests that these criteria are met by a heterogeneous distribution of enzymes for D-Asp’s biosynthesis and degradation, an appropriate uptake mechanism, localization within synaptic vesicles, and a postsynaptic response via an ionotropic receptor. Although D-Asp receptors remain to be characterized, the postsynaptic response of D-Asp has been studied and several L-glutamate receptors are known to respond to D-Asp. In this review we discuss the current status of research on D-Asp in neuronal and neuroendocrine systems, and highlight results that support D-Asp’s role as a signaling molecule. PMID:22872108

  13. Recombinant expression, purification and crystallographic studies of the mature form of human mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiuping; Wang, Jia; Chang, Haiyang; Zhou, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAspAT) was recognized as a moonlighting enzyme because it has not only aminotransferase activity but also a high-affinity long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) binding site. This enzyme plays a key role in amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis of kynurenic acid and transport of the LCFA. Therefore, it is important to study the structure-function relationships of human mAspAT protein. In this work, the mature form of human mAspAT was expressed to a high level in Escherichia coli periplasmic space using pET-22b vector, purified by a combination of immobilized metal-affinity chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. Optimal activity of the enzyme occurred at a temperature of 47.5ºC and a pH of 8.5. Crystals of human mAspAT were grown using the hanging-drop vapour diffusion method at 277K with 0.1 M HEPES pH 6.8 and 25%(v/v) Jeffamine(®) ED-2001 pH 6.8. The crystals diffracted to 2.99 Å and belonged to the space group P1 with the unit-cell parameters a =56.7, b = 76.1, c = 94.2 Å, α =78.0, β =85.6, γ = 78.4º. Elucidation of mAspAT structure can provide a molecular basis towards understanding catalysis mechanism and substrate binding site of enzyme. PMID:26902786

  14. Thiolactomycin inhibits D-aspartate oxidase: a novel approach to probing the active site environment.

    PubMed

    Katane, Masumi; Saitoh, Yasuaki; Hanai, Toshihiko; Sekine, Masae; Furuchi, Takemitsu; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Nakagome, Izumi; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Hirono, Shuichi; Homma, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    D-Aspartate oxidase (DDO) and D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) are flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-containing flavoproteins that catalyze the oxidative deamination of D-amino acids. While several functionally and structurally important amino acid residues have been identified in the DAO protein, little is known about the structure-function relationships of DDO. In the search for a potent DDO inhibitor as a novel tool for investigating its structure-function relationships, a large number of biologically active compounds of microbial origin were screened for their ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of mouse DDO. We discovered several compounds that inhibited the activity of mouse DDO, and one of the compounds identified, thiolactomycin (TLM), was then characterized and evaluated as a novel DDO inhibitor. TLM reversibly inhibited the activity of mouse DDO with a mixed type of inhibition more efficiently than meso-tartrate and malonate, known competitive inhibitors of mammalian DDOs. The selectivity of TLM was investigated using various DDOs and DAOs, and it was found that TLM inhibits not only DDO, but also DAO. Further experiments with apoenzymes of DDO and DAO revealed that TLM is most likely to inhibit the activities of DDO and DAO by competition with both the substrate and the coenzyme, FAD. Structural models of mouse DDO/TLM complexes supported this finding. The binding mode of TLM to DDO was validated further by site-directed mutagenesis of an active site residue, Arg-237. Collectively, our findings show that TLM is a novel, active site-directed DDO inhibitor that will be useful for elucidating the molecular details of the active site environment of DDO. PMID:20603179

  15. Genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analysis of the aspartic protease gene superfamily in grape

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aspartic proteases (APs) are a large family of proteolytic enzymes found in almost all organisms. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes, such as senescence, stress responses, programmed cell death, and reproduction. Prior to the present study, no grape AP gene(s) had been reported, and their research on woody species was very limited. Results In this study, a total of 50 AP genes (VvAP) were identified in the grape genome, among which 30 contained the complete ASP domain. Synteny analysis within grape indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape AP family. Additional analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several grape AP genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grape and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic relationships of the 30 VvAPs with the complete ASP domain and their Arabidopsis orthologs, as well as their gene and protein features were analyzed and their cellular localization was predicted. Moreover, expression profiles of VvAP genes in six different tissues were determined, and their transcript abundance under various stresses and hormone treatments were measured. Twenty-seven VvAP genes were expressed in at least one of the six tissues examined; nineteen VvAPs responded to at least one abiotic stress, 12 VvAPs responded to powdery mildew infection, and most of the VvAPs responded to SA and ABA treatments. Furthermore, integrated synteny and phylogenetic analysis identified orthologous AP genes between grape and Arabidopsis, providing a unique starting point for investigating the function of grape AP genes. Conclusions The genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analyses of grape AP genes provide a framework for future analysis of AP genes in defining their roles during stress response. Integrated synteny and phylogenetic analyses provide novel insight into the

  16. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1β from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1β-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure. PMID:26133372

  17. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in experimentally induced asymptomatic vitamin B6 deficiency in chicks.

    PubMed

    Massé, P G; Vuilleumier, J P; Weiser, H

    1991-01-01

    Forty-five male Lohmann chicks were grown up to 6 weeks of age. The experimental diet containing a high protein level (30%) was aimed at increasing the metabolic need for PN. Microbiological analysis on the basal ration revealed a marginal content of 4.7 mumol PN/kg. The vitamin B6 status was assessed at the end of the experiment according to the basal activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) in plasma and in erythrocytes, and the in vitro stimulated activity with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). None of the deficient chicks had any clinical signs attributable to malfunction of the nervous system, and they grew as well as those receiving the control diet. Vitamin B6 deficiency was biochemically confirmed by a significant depression of AspAT activity in plasma (p less than 0.001) and in erythrocytes (p less than 0.01). The addition of PLP in vitro enhanced the catalytic activity of the plasma enzyme, but had negligible effect on the erythrocyte enzyme. The degree of stimulation in vitro of the apoenzyme of AspAT not only depends on the endogenous vitamin B6 content, but also on the basal activity of the enzyme. A 15-day repletion period with a daily oral dose (50 mumol PN) did not result in a complete restoration of the enzyme activity, indicating that the availability of apoenzyme had been curtailed. This experiment demonstrated that chicks fed a high protein corn-soyamin diet with a limited amount of PN but containing Saccharomyces yeast showed no nervous signs or perosis, but significant metabolic disturbances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2058999

  18. Comparative analysis of aspartic acid racemization methods using whole-tooth and dentin samples.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ayaka; Ohtani, Susumu; Saitoh, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2012-11-30

    One way to estimate biological age is to use the aspartic acid (Asp) racemization method. Although this method has been performed mostly using enamel and dentin, we investigated whether an entire tooth can be used for age estimation. This study used 12 pairs of canines extracted from both sides of the mandible of 12 individuals of known age. From each pair, one tooth was used as a dentin sample and the other as a whole-tooth sample. Amino acids were extracted from each sample, and the integrated peak areas of D-Asp and L-Asp were determined using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Statistical analysis was performed using the D/L-Asp ratio. Furthermore, teeth from two unidentified bodies, later identified as Japanese and Brazilian, were examined in the same manner. Results showed that the D/L ratios of whole-tooth samples were higher overall than those of dentin samples. The correlation coefficient between the D/L ratios of dentin samples and their age was r=0.98, and that of the whole-tooth samples was r=0.93. The difference between estimated age and actual chronological age was -0.116 and -6.86 years in the Japanese and Brazilian cases, respectively. The use of whole teeth makes the racemization technique easier and can standardize the sampling site. Additionally, using only a few tooth samples per analysis made it possible to reanalyze known-age samples. Although the difficulty in obtaining a proper control sample has prevented racemization from being widely used, the method described here not only ensures the availability of a control tooth, but also enables the teeth to be used for other purposes such as DNA analysis. The use of a whole tooth will increase the application of the racemization technique for age determination. PMID:22989598

  19. A glutamate/aspartate switch controls product specificity in a protein arginine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Debler, Erik W; Jain, Kanishk; Warmack, Rebeccah A; Feng, You; Clarke, Steven G; Blobel, Günter; Stavropoulos, Pete

    2016-02-23

    Trypanosoma brucei PRMT7 (TbPRMT7) is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that strictly monomethylates various substrates, thus classifying it as a type III PRMT. However, the molecular basis of its unique product specificity has remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of TbPRMT7 in complex with its cofactor product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy) at 2.8 Å resolution and identify a glutamate residue critical for its monomethylation behavior. TbPRMT7 comprises the conserved methyltransferase and β-barrel domains, an N-terminal extension, and a dimerization arm. The active site at the interface of the N-terminal extension, methyltransferase, and β-barrel domains is stabilized by the dimerization arm of the neighboring protomer, providing a structural basis for dimerization as a prerequisite for catalytic activity. Mutagenesis of active-site residues highlights the importance of Glu181, the second of the two invariant glutamate residues of the double E loop that coordinate the target arginine in substrate peptides/proteins and that increase its nucleophilicity. Strikingly, mutation of Glu181 to aspartate converts TbPRMT7 into a type I PRMT, producing asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using a histone H4 peptide showed that the Glu181Asp mutant has markedly increased affinity for monomethylated peptide with respect to the WT, suggesting that the enlarged active site can favorably accommodate monomethylated peptide and provide sufficient space for ADMA formation. In conclusion, these findings yield valuable insights into the product specificity and the catalytic mechanism of protein arginine methyltransferases and have important implications for the rational (re)design of PRMTs. PMID:26858449

  20. D-Aspartic acid: an endogenous amino acid with an important neuroendocrine role.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, Antimo

    2007-02-01

    D-Aspartic acid (d-Asp), an endogenous amino acid present in vertebrates and invertebrates, plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system, as well as in the development of the nervous system. During the embryonic stage of birds and the early postnatal life of mammals, a transient high concentration of d-Asp takes place in the brain and in the retina. d-Asp also acts as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator. Indeed, this amino acid has been detected in synaptosomes and in synaptic vesicles, where it is released after chemical (K(+) ion, ionomycin) or electric stimuli. Furthermore, d-Asp increases cAMP in neuronal cells and is transported from the synaptic clefts to presynaptic nerve cells through a specific transporter. In the endocrine system, instead, d-Asp is involved in the regulation of hormone synthesis and release. For example, in the rat hypothalamus, it enhances gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and induces oxytocin and vasopressin mRNA synthesis. In the pituitary gland, it stimulates the secretion of the following hormones: prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), and growth hormone (GH) In the testes, it is present in Leydig cells and is involved in testosterone and progesterone release. Thus, a hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads pathway, in which d-Asp is involved, has been formulated. In conclusion, the present work is a summary of previous and current research done on the role of d-Asp in the nervous and endocrine systems of invertebrates and vertebrates, including mammals. PMID:17118457

  1. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Newly Recognized Inflammatory Brain Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Nadia; Daengsuwan, Tassalapa; Dalmau, Josep; Jones, Kevin; deVeber, Gabrielle; Kobayashi, Jeffrey; Laxer, Ronald M.; Benseler, Susanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a newly recognized anti-neuronal antibody-mediated inflammatory brain disease causing severe psychiatric and neurological deficits in previously healthy children. The aim of this study was to report characteristic clinical features and outcomes of children diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Methods Consecutive children presenting with newly acquired psychiatric and/or neurologic deficits consistent with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and evidence of CNS inflammation were screened over a 12-month period. Children were included in the study if they had confirmatory evidence of anti-NMDAR antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Details of clinical presentation and results of investigations were reported. Type and duration of treatment and outcomes at last follow-up were documented. Results Seven children were screened and three children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were identified. All patients presented with neurological or psychiatric (‘neuropsychiatric’) abnormalities, seizures, speech disorder, sleep disturbance, and fluctuating level of consciousness. The two older patients also had more prominent psychiatric features, while the younger child had significant autonomic instability and prominent involuntary movement disorder. None had an underlying tumor. Immunosuppressive therapies resulted in near or complete recovery; however, two of the patients had early relapse requiring re-treatment. Conclusion Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is an important cause of neuropsychiatric deficits in children that must be included in the differential diagnosis of CNS vasculitis and other inflammatory brain diseases. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for neurologic recovery. PMID:21547896

  2. Regulation of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase synthesis by guanosine tetraphosphate and pyrimidine ribonucleoside triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Turnbough, C L

    1983-02-01

    The effects of guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) and pyrimidine ribonucleoside triphosphates on Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) synthesis were examined. To determine the effect of ppGpp, a stringent (relA+) and relaxed (relA) isogenic pair of E. coli K-12 strains was starved for isoleucine, and the residual rate of synthesis of this enzyme was measured. It was necessary to starve the strains for uracil before the isoleucine limitation to maintain similar, low levels of UTP, the putative pyrimidine effector of ATCase synthesis. The isoleucine starvation of the stringent strain caused an immediate 10-fold increase in the intracellular concentration of ppGpp, which was coincident with the cessation of the synthesis of the enzyme. The elevated level of ppGpp then decayed until it reached an intracellular concentration similar to that found in unstarved cells. Enzyme synthesis resumed at this time. In the relaxed strain, the intracellular concentration of ppGpp did not increase upon isoleucine starvation and synthesis of the enzyme was not repressed. These experiments strongly indicated that ppGpp acts as a negative effector of ATCase synthesis. The repression of ATCase synthesis by ppGpp was demonstrated directly by using a Salmonella typhimurium (relA) in vitro coupled transcription-translation system with a lambda specialized transducing phage carrying the E. coli K-12 operon encoding the subunits of this enzyme (pyrBI) as a source of DNA. This in vitro system was also used to measure the effects of UTP and CTP on ATCase synthesis. Increasing the concentration of UTP in the in vitro reaction mixture resulted in strong repression of this synthesis, whereas increasing the CTP concentration did not affect synthesis significantly. Possible mechanisms for the regulation of pyr gene expression, including attenuation control, are discussed. PMID:6337130

  3. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors strongly regulate postsynaptic activity levels during optic nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kolls, Brad J; Meyer, Ronald L

    2013-10-01

    During development, neuronal activity is used as a cue to guide synaptic rearrangements to refine connections. Many studies, especially in the visual system, have shown that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) plays a key role in mediating activity-dependent refinement through long-term potentiation (LTP)-like processes. Adult goldfish can regenerate their optic nerve and utilize neuronal activity to generate precise topography in their projection onto tectum. Although the NMDAr has been implicated in this process, its precise role in regeneration has not been extensively studied. In examining NMDAr function during regeneration, we found salient differences compared with development. By using field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) recordings, the contribution of the NMDAr at the primary optic synapse was measured. In contrast to development, no increase in NMDAr function was detectable during synaptic refinement. Unlike development, LTP could not be reliably elicited during regeneration. Unexpectedly, we found that NMDAr exerted a major effect on regulating ongoing tectal (postsynaptic) activity levels during regeneration. Blocking NMDAr strongly suppressed spontaneous activity during regeneration but had no significant effect in the normal projection. This difference could be attributed to an occlusion effect of strong optic drive in the normal projection, which dominated ongoing tectal activity. During regeneration, this optic drive is largely absent. Optic nerve stimulation further indicated that the NMDAr had little effect on the ability of optic fibers to evoke early postsynaptic impulse activity but was important for late network activity. These results indicate that, during regeneration, the NMDAr may play a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of ongoing activity and network excitability. PMID:23873725

  4. A glutamate/aspartate switch controls product specificity in a protein arginine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Debler, Erik W.; Jain, Kanishk; Warmack, Rebeccah A.; Feng, You; Clarke, Steven G.; Blobel, Günter; Stavropoulos, Pete

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei PRMT7 (TbPRMT7) is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that strictly monomethylates various substrates, thus classifying it as a type III PRMT. However, the molecular basis of its unique product specificity has remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of TbPRMT7 in complex with its cofactor product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy) at 2.8 Å resolution and identify a glutamate residue critical for its monomethylation behavior. TbPRMT7 comprises the conserved methyltransferase and β-barrel domains, an N-terminal extension, and a dimerization arm. The active site at the interface of the N-terminal extension, methyltransferase, and β-barrel domains is stabilized by the dimerization arm of the neighboring protomer, providing a structural basis for dimerization as a prerequisite for catalytic activity. Mutagenesis of active-site residues highlights the importance of Glu181, the second of the two invariant glutamate residues of the double E loop that coordinate the target arginine in substrate peptides/proteins and that increase its nucleophilicity. Strikingly, mutation of Glu181 to aspartate converts TbPRMT7 into a type I PRMT, producing asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using a histone H4 peptide showed that the Glu181Asp mutant has markedly increased affinity for monomethylated peptide with respect to the WT, suggesting that the enlarged active site can favorably accommodate monomethylated peptide and provide sufficient space for ADMA formation. In conclusion, these findings yield valuable insights into the product specificity and the catalytic mechanism of protein arginine methyltransferases and have important implications for the rational (re)design of PRMTs. PMID:26858449

  5. Improving the refolding efficiency for proinsulin aspart inclusion body with optimized buffer compositions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chun; Li, Xiunan; Gao, Qiang; Dong, Changqing; Liu, Yongdong; Su, Zhiguo

    2016-06-01

    Successfully recovering proinsulin's native conformation from inclusion body is the crucial step to guarantee high efficiency for insulin's manufacture. Here, two by-products of disulfide-linked oligomers and disulfide-isomerized monomers were clearly identified during proinsulin aspart's refolding through multiple analytic methods. Arginine and urea are both used to assist in proinsulin refolding, however the efficacy and possible mechanism was found to be different. The oligomers formed with urea were of larger size than with arginine. With the urea concentrations increasing from 2 M to 4 M, the content of oligomers decreased greatly, but simultaneously the refolding yield at the protein concentration of 0.5 mg/mL decreased from 40% to 30% due to the increase of disulfide-isomerized monomers. In contrast, with arginine concentrations increasing up to 1 M, the refolding yield gradually increased to 50% although the content for oligomers also decreased. Moreover, it was demonstrated that not redox pairs but only oxidant was necessary to facilitate the native disulfide bonds formation for the reduced denatured proinsulin. An oxidative agent of selenocystamine could increase the yield up to 80% in the presence of 0.5 M arginine. Further study demonstrated that refolding with 2 M urea instead of 0.5 M arginine could achieve similar yield as protein concentration is slightly reduced to 0.3 mg/mL. In this case, refolded proinsulin was directly purified through one-step of anionic exchange chromatography, with a recovery of 32% and purity up to 95%. All the results could be easily adopted in insulin's industrial manufacture for improving the production efficiency. PMID:26826314

  6. Examining the Amine Functionalization in Dicarboxylates: Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Theoretical Studies of Aspartate and Glutamate

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Shihu; Hou, Gao-Lei; Kong, Xiangyu; Valiev, Marat; Wang, Xue B.

    2014-06-30

    Aspartate (Asp2-) and Glutamate (Glu2-), two doubly charged conjugate bases of the corresponding amino acids were investigated using low temperature negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) and ab-initio calculations. The effect of amine functionalization was studied by a direct comparison to the parent dicarboxylate species (-CO2–(CH2)n–CO2-, DCn2-) -- succinate (DC22-) and propionate (DC32-). Experimentally the addition of amine group for n = 2 case (DC22-, Asp2-) significantly improves the stability of the resultant Asp2- dianionic species, albeit that NIPES shows only a small increase in adiabatic electron detachment energy (ADE) (+0.05eV). In contrast, for n = 3 (DC32-, Glu2-), much larger ADE increase is observed (+0.15eV). Similar results are obtained through ab-initio calculations. The latter indicates that increased stability of Asp2- can be attributed to the lowering of the energy of singlet dianion state due to hydrogen bonding effects. The effect of the amino group on the doublet monoanion state is more complicated, and results in the weakening of the binding of the adjacent carboxylate group due to electronic structure resonance effects. This conclusion is confirmed by the analysis of NIPES results that show enhanced production of near zero kinetic energy electrons observed experimentally for amine-functionalized species.

  7. Arcaine uncovers dual interactions of polyamines with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, I.J. )

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated the interaction between the polyamines spermine and spermidine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by using (+)-(3H)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclohepten-5,10-im ine maleate ((3H)MK801) binding to well washed rat brain membranes. The actions of arcaine, agmatine, diethylenetriamine and 1,8-octanediamine as polyamine antagonists were compared to use as tools in this study. Arcaine was found to be the antagonist of choice due to its greater potency. Several divalent cations, including Ba++, Ca++ and Sr++, but not Zn++, decreased the apparent potency of arcaine. These cations enhance (3H)MK801 binding in a similar fashion to spermidine and spermine suggesting that they may share a common site and mechanism of action. Moreover, arcaine competitively reduced the enhancement of (3H)MK801 binding produced by Sr++ did not alter the inhibition produced by higher concentrations of this cation, a phenomenon that also occurs with spermidine. The distinct arcaine sensitivity of the two separate phases of the concentration-response curves of both spermidine and Sr++ suggests two separate mechanisms underlying the action of spermidine-like drugs on the NMDA receptor. Further investigation of the increase in (3H)MK801 binding produced by spermidine revealed that spermidine increased the equilibrium affinity of this ligand by 2-fold without significantly altering the density of binding sites. In contrast, polyamine induced increases in the dissociation of (3H)MK801 required higher polyamine concentrations than necessary to increase ligand binding and were relatively insensitive to arcaine. These findings suggest that polyamines do not activate or promote the activation of the NMDA receptor, but instead enhance (3H)MK801 binding by allosterically increasing ligand affinity.

  8. Aspartate 74 as a primary determinant in acetylcholinesterase governing specificity to cationic organophosphonates.

    PubMed

    Hosea, N A; Radić, Z; Tsigelny, I; Berman, H A; Quinn, D M; Taylor, P

    1996-08-20

    Through site-specific mutagenesis, we examined the determinants on acetylcholinesterase which govern the specificity and reactivity of three classes of substrates: enantiomeric alkyl phosphonates, trifluoromethyl acetophenones, and carboxyl esters. By employing cationic and uncharged pairs of enantiomeric alkyl methylphosphonyl thioates of known absolute stereochemistry, we find that an aspartate residue near the gorge entrance (D74) is responsible for the enhanced reactivity of the cationic organophosphonates. Removal of the charge with the mutation D74N causes a near equal reduction in the reaction rate constants for the Rp and Sp enantiomers and exerts a greater influence on the cationic organophosphonates than on the charged trimethylammonio trifluoromethyl acetophenone and acetylthiocholine. This pattern of reactivity suggests that the orientation of the leaving group for both enantiomers is directed toward the gorge exit and in apposition to Asp 74. Replacement of tryptophan 86 with alanine in the choline subsite also diminishes the reaction rates for cationic organophosphonates, although to a lesser extent than with the D74N mutation, while not affecting the reactions with the uncharged compounds. Hence, reaction with cationic OPs depends to a lesser degree on Trp 86 than on Asp 74. Docking of Sp and Rp cycloheptyl methylphosphonyl thiocholines and thioethylates in AChE as models of the reversible complex and transition state using molecular dynamics affords structural insight into the spatial arrangement of the substituents surrounding phosphorus prior to and during reaction. The leaving group of the Rp and Sp enantiomers, regardless of charge, is directed to the gorge exit and toward Asp 74, an orientation unique to tetrahedral ligands. PMID:8718893

  9. Aspartate-β-hydroxylase induces epitope-specific T cell responses in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tomimaru, Yoshito; Mishra, Sasmita; Safran, Howard; Charpentier, Kevin P; Martin, William; De Groot, Anne S; Gregory, Stephen H; Wands, Jack R

    2015-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a poor prognosis due to high recurrence rate. Aspartate-β-hydroxylase (ASPH) is a highly conserved transmembrane protein, which is over expressed in HCC and promotes a malignant phenotype. The capability of ASPH protein-derived HLA class I and II peptides to generate antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) immune responses is unknown. Therefore, these studies aim to define the epitope specific components required for a peptide based candidate vaccine. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) generated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HCC patients were loaded with ASPH protein. Helper CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were co-incubated with the DCs; T cell activation was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoinformatics tools were used to predict HLA class I- and class II-restricted ASPH sequences, and the corresponding peptides were synthesized. The immunogenicity of each peptide in cultures of human PBMCs was determined by IFN-γ ELISpot assay. ASPH protein-loaded DCs activated both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells contained within the PBMC population derived from HCC patients. Furthermore, the predicted HLA class I- and class II-restricted ASPH peptides were significantly immunogenic. Both HLA class I- and class II-restricted peptides derived from ASPH induce T cell activation in HCC. We observed that ASPH protein and related peptides were highly immunogenic in patients with HCC and produce the type of cellular immune responses required for generation of anti-tumor activity. PMID:25629522

  10. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis: diagnosis, optimal management, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Andrea P; Grebenciucova, Elena; Lukas, Rimas V

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDA-R) encephalitis is a new autoimmune disorder, often paraneoplastic in nature, presenting with complex neuropsychiatric symptoms. Diagnosed serologically, this disorder is often responsive to immunosuppressant treatment. The objective of this review is to educate clinicians on the challenges of diagnosis and management of this disorder. Materials and methods A review of the relevant literature on clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and recommended management was conducted using a PubMed search. Examination of the results identified articles published between 2007 and 2014. Results The literature highlights the importance of recognizing early common signs and symptoms, which include hallucinations, seizures, altered mental status, and movement disorders, often in the absence of fever. Although the presence of blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid autoantibodies confirms diagnosis, approximately 15% of patients have only positive cerebrospinal fluid titers. Antibody detection should prompt a search for an underlying teratoma or other underlying neoplasm and the initiation of first-line immunosuppressant therapy: intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, or plasmapheresis, or a combination thereof. Second-line treatment with rituximab or cyclophosphamide should be implemented if no improvement is noted after 10 days. Complications can include behavioral problems (eg, aggression and insomnia), hypoventilation, catatonia, and autonomic instability. Those patients who can be managed outside an intensive care unit and whose tumors are identified and removed typically have better rates of remission and functional outcomes. Conclusion There is an increasing need for clinicians of different specialties, including psychiatrists, neurologists, oncologists, neurooncologists, immunologists, and intensivists to become familiar with this disorder and its potential complications. Remission can be optimized with

  11. Rapid model exploration for complex hierarchical data: application to pharmacokinetics of insulin aspart.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Robert J B; Hovorka, Roman; Murphy, Helen R; Lunn, David

    2015-10-15

    We consider situations, which are common in medical statistics, where we have a number of sets of response data, from different individuals, say, potentially under different conditions. A parametric model is defined for each set of data, giving rise to a set of random effects. Our goal here is to efficiently explore a range of possible 'population' models for the random effects, to select the most appropriate model. The range of possible models is potentially vast, because the random effects may depend on observed covariates, and there may be multiple credible ways of partitioning their variability. Here, we consider pharmacokinetic (PK) data on insulin aspart, a fast acting insulin analogue used in the treatment of diabetes. PK models are typically nonlinear (in their parameters), often complex and sometimes only available as a set of differential equations, with no closed-form solution. Fitting such a model for just a single individual can be a challenging task. Fitting a joint model for all individuals can be even harder, even without the complication of an overarching model selection objective. We describe a two-stage approach that decouples the population model for the random effects from the PK model applied to the response data but nevertheless fits the full, joint, hierarchical model, accounting fully for uncertainty. This allows us to repeatedly reuse results from a single analysis of the response data to explore various population models for the random effects. This greatly expedites not only model exploration but also cross-validation for the purposes of model criticism. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26013427

  12. Regulation of airway contractility by plasminogen activators through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Taher; Yarovoi, Serge; Fanne, Rami Abu; Akkawi, Sa'ed; Jammal, Mahmud; Allen, Timothy Craig; Idell, Steven; Cines, Douglas B; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2010-12-01

    Reactive airway disease is mediated by smooth muscle contraction initiated through several agonist-dependent pathways. Activation of type 1 N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R1s) by plasminogen activators (PAs) has been linked to control of vascular tone, but their effect on airway smooth muscle contractility has not previously been studied to our knowledge. We observed that NMDA-R1s are expressed by human airway smooth muscle cells and constitutively inhibit the contraction of isolated rat tracheal rings in response to acetylcholine (Ach). Both tissue-type PA (tPA) and urokinase-type PA (uPA) bind to NMDA-R1 and reverse this effect, thereby enhancing Ach-induced tracheal contractility. Tracheal contractility initiated by Ach is reduced in rings isolated from tPA(-/-) and uPA(-/-) mice compared with their wild-type counterparts. The procontractile effect of uPA or tPA was mimicked and augmented by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, l-NAME. uPA and tPA further enhanced the contractility of rings denuded of epithelium, an effect that was inhibited by the NMDA-R antagonist, MK-801. Binding of PAs to NMDA-R1 and the subsequent activation of the receptor were inhibited by PA inhibitor type 1, by a PA inhibitor type 1-derived hexapeptide that recognizes the tPA and uPA docking domains, as well as by specific mutations within the docking site of tPA. These studies identify involvement of PAs and NMDA-R1 in airway contractility, and define new loci that could lead to the development of novel interventions for reactive airway disease. PMID:20097831

  13. Comments on the paper: 'Optical reflectance, optical refractive index and optical conductivity measurements of nonlinear optics for L-aspartic acid nickel chloride single crystal'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Naik, Suvidha G.; Dhavskar, Kiran T.

    2016-02-01

    We argue that the 'L-aspartic acid nickel chloride' crystal reported by the authors of the title paper (Optics Communications, 291 (2013) 304-308) is actually the well-known diaqua(L-aspartato)nickel(II) hydrate crystal.

  14. Muscarinic receptor stimulation of D-aspartate uptake into human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells is attenuated by hypoosmolarity.

    PubMed

    Foster, Daniel J; Heacock, Anne M; Fisher, Stephen K

    2010-04-01

    In addition to its function as an excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate plays a major role as an osmolyte within the central nervous system (CNS). Accordingly, mechanisms that regulate glutamate release and uptake are of physiological importance not only during conditions in which cell volume remains constant but also when cells are subjected to hypoosmotic stress. In the present study, the ability of muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs) to regulate the uptake of glutamate (monitored as D-aspartate) into human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells under isotonic or hypotonic conditions has been examined. In isotonic media, agonist activation of mAChRs resulted in a significant increase (250-300% of control) in the uptake of D-aspartate and, concurrently, a cellular redistribution of the excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) to the plasma membrane. mAChR-mediated increases in d-aspartate uptake were potently blocked by the EAAT3 inhibitor l-beta-threo-benzyl-aspartate. In hypotonic media, the ability of mAChR activation to facilitate D-aspartate uptake was significantly attenuated (40-50%), and the cellular distribution of EAAT3 was disrupted. Reduction of mAChR-stimulated D-aspartate uptake under hypoosmotic conditions could be fully reversed upon re-exposure of the cells to isotonic media. Under both isotonic and hypotonic conditions, mAChR-mediated increases in D-aspartate uptake depended on cytoskeletal integrity, protein kinase C and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activities, and the availability of intracellular Ca2+. In contrast, dependence on extracellular Ca2+ was observed only under isotonic conditions. The results suggest that, although the uptake of D-aspartate into SH-SY5Y cells is enhanced after mAChR activation, this process is markedly attenuated by hypoosmolarity. PMID:20080957

  15. The Crystal Structure of the Pseudomonas dacunhae Aspartate-[beta]-Decarboxylase Dodecamer Reveals an Unknown Oligomeric Assembly for a Pyridoxal-5′-Phosphate-Dependent Enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Santiago; Sundararaju, Bakthavatsalam; Huang, Christina; Khristoforov, Roman; Momany, Cory; Phillips, Robert S.

    2010-09-01

    The Pseudomonas dacunhae L-aspartate-{beta}-decarboxylase (ABDC, aspartate 4-decarboxylase, aspartate 4-carboxylyase, E.C. 4.1.1.12) is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the {beta}-decarboxylation of L-aspartate to produce L-alanine and CO{sub 2}. This catalytically versatile enzyme is known to form functional dodecamers at its optimal pH and is thought to work in conjunction with an L-Asp/L-Ala antiporter to establish a proton gradient across the membrane that can be used for ATP biosynthesis. We have solved the atomic structure of ABDC to 2.35 {angstrom} resolution using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing. The structure reveals that ABDC oligomerizes as a homododecamer in an unknown mode among PLP-dependent enzymes and has highest structural homology with members of the PLP-dependent aspartate aminotransferase subfamily. The structure shows that the ABDC active site is very similar to that of aspartate aminotransferase. However, an additional arginine side chain (Arg37) was observed flanking the re-side of the PLP ring in the ABDC active site. The mutagenesis results show that although Arg37 is not required for activity, it appears to be involved in the ABDC catalytic cycle.

  16. Immobilization by Polyurethane of Pseudomonas dacunhae Cells Containing l-Aspartate β-Decarboxylase Activity and Application to l-Alanine Production

    PubMed Central

    Fusee, Murray C.; Weber, Jennifer E.

    1984-01-01

    Whole cells of Pseudomonas dacunhae containing l-aspartate β-decarboxylase activity were immobilized by mixing a cell suspension with a liquid isocyanate-capped polyurethane prepolymer (Hypol; W. R. Grace & Co., Lexington, Mass.). The immobilized cell preparation was used to convert l-aspartic acid to l-alanine. Properties of the immobilized P. dacunhae cells containing aspartate β-decarboxylase activity were investigated with batch reactors. Retention of enzyme activity was observed to be as much as 100% when cell lysis was allowed to occur before immobilization. The pH and temperature optima were determined to be 5.5 and 45°C, respectively. Immobilized P. dacunhael-aspartate β-decarboxylase activity was stabilized by the addition of 0.1 mM pyridoxal-5-phosphate and 0.1 mM α-ketoglutaric acid to a 1.7 M ammonium aspartate (pH 5.5) substrate solution. Under conditions of semicontinuous use in a batch reactor, a 2.5% loss in immobilized l-aspartate β-decarboxylase activity was observed over a 31-day period. PMID:16346636

  17. A Cooperative Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase without Regulatory Subunits†‡

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Kimberly R.; Kantrowitz, Evan R.

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the isolation, kinetic characterization, and X-ray structure determination of a cooperative E. coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) without regulatory subunits. The native ATCase holoenzyme consists of six catalytic chains organized as two trimers bridged non-covalently by six regulatory chains organized as three dimers, c6r6. Dissociation of the native holoenzyme produces catalytically active trimers, c3, and nucleotide-binding regulatory dimers, r2. By introducing specific disulfide bonds linking the catalytic chains from the upper trimer site specifically to their corresponding chains in the lower trimer prior to dissociation, a new catalytic unit, c6, was isolated consisting of two catalytic trimers linked by disulfide bonds. Not only does the c6 species display enhanced enzymatic activity compared to the wild-type enzyme, but the disulfide bonds also impart homotropic cooperativity, never observed in the wild-type c3. The c6 ATCase was crystallized in the presence of phosphate and its X-ray structure determined to 2.10 Å resolution. The structure of c6 ATCase liganded with phosphate exists in a nearly identical conformation as other R-state structures with similar values calculated for the vertical separation and planar angles. The disulfide bonds linking upper and lower catalytic trimers predispose the active site into a more active conformation by locking the 240’s loop into the position characteristic of the high-affinity R state. Furthermore, the elimination of the structural constraints imposed by the regulatory subunits within the holoenzyme provides increased flexibility to the c6 enzyme enhancing its activity over the wild-type holoenzyme (c6r6) and c3. The covalent linkage between upper and lower catalytic trimers restores homotropic cooperativity so that a binding event at one or so active sites stimulates binding at the other sites. Reduction of the disulfide bonds in the c6 ATCase results in c3 catalytic subunits that display

  18. The value of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in cardiovascular disease risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Stephen F; Kai, Joe; Guha, Indra Neil; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, reflecting liver disease severity, has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the AST/ALT ratio improves established risk prediction tools in a primary care population. Methods Data were analysed from a prospective cohort of 29 316 UK primary care patients, aged 25–84 years with no history of CVD at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to derive 10-year multivariate risk models for the first occurrence of CVD based on two established risk prediction tools (Framingham and QRISK2), with and without including the AST/ALT ratio. Overall, model performance was assessed by discriminatory accuracy (AUC c-statistic). Results During a total follow-up of 120 462 person-years, 782 patients (59% men) experienced their first CVD event. Multivariate models showed that elevated AST/ALT ratios were significantly associated with CVD in men (Framingham: HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.79; QRISK2: HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.89) but not in women (Framingham: HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.43; QRISK2: HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.35). Including the AST/ALT ratio with all Framingham risk factors (AUC c-statistic: 0.72, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.74) or QRISK2 risk factors (AUC c-statistic: 0.73, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.74) resulted in no change in discrimination from the established risk prediction tools. Limiting analysis to those individuals with raised ALT showed that discrimination could improve by 5% and 4% with Framingham and QRISK2 risk factors, respectively. Conclusions Elevated AST/ALT ratio is significantly associated with increased risk of developing CVD in men but not women. However, the ratio does not confer any additional benefits over established CVD risk prediction tools in the general population, but may have clinical utility in certain subgroups. PMID:26322236

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Insulin Aspart and Glucagon in Type 1 Diabetes during Closed-Loop Operation

    PubMed Central

    Haidar, Ahmad; Duval, Claire; Legault, Laurent; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2013-01-01

    Background We assessed the pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous insulin aspart and glucagon during closed-loop operation and their relationship with body composition variables. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data collected from closed-loop experiments in 15 type 1 diabetes patients (age 47.1 ± 12.3 years, body mass index 25.9 ± 4.6 kg/m2, glycated hemoglobin 7.9% ± 0.7%). Patients received an evening meal accompanied with prandial insulin bolus and stayed in the clinical facility until the next morning. Glucose levels were regulated by dual-hormone closed-loop delivery. Insulin and glucagon were delivered using two subcutaneous infusion pumps installed on the abdominal wall. Plasma insulin and glucagon were measured every 10–30 min. Percentage of body fat, percentage of fat in the abdominal area, and mass of abdominal fat were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results A pharmacokinetic model estimated time-to-peak plasma concentrations [tmax insulin 51 (19) min, tmax glucagon 19 (4) min, mean (standard deviation)], metabolic clearance rate [MCR insulin 0.019 (0.015–0.026) liter/kg/min, MCR glucagon 0.012 (0.010–0.014) liter/kg/min, median (interquartile range)], and the background plasma concentrations [Ib insulin 10.2 (6.3–15.2) mU/liter, Ib glucagon 50 (45–56) pg/ml, median (interquartile range)]. tmax correlated positively between insulin and glucagon (r = 0.7; p = .007) while MCR correlated negatively (r = -0.7; p = .015). In this small sample size, tmax, MCR, and Ib of insulin and glucagon did not correlate with percentage of body fat, percentage of fat in the abdominal area, or total mass of abdominal fat. Conclusions Insulin and glucagon pharmacokinetics might be related during closed-loop operation. Our data suggest that slower absorption of insulin is associated with slower absorption of glucagon. Body composition does not seem to influence insulin and glucagon pharmacokinetics. PMID:24351176

  20. Bacteriorhodopsin wildtype and variant aspartate-96 → aspargine as reversible holographic media

    PubMed Central

    Hampp, Norbert; Bräuchle, Christoph; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    1990-01-01

    Air dried films of purple membranes (PM) from Halobacterium halobium containing the photochromic protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) were prepared and the BR-photocycle of this material analyzed. The absorption maxima of the initial state B (λmax = 570 nm) and the photochemical intermediate M (λmax = 412 nm), which is the longest living intermediate in suspension (τ ≈ 10 ms), were spectrally well separated. Light-induced population gratings between B and M were used for reversible holographic recording in these dry PM films. The resolution (>5,000 lines/mm) of PM films was comparable to the corresponding values of conventional photochromic recording materials. The longterm stability toward photochemical degradation of PM films is excellent (> 100.000 recording cycles). The spectral bandwidth (400-680 nm) of such films covers nearly the whole visible spectrum. Both the photochemical transition from B → M with wavelengths in the green-red range and from M → B with blue light were utilized for holographic recording. The latter possibility (M → B) seems to be advantageous for several applications because the holographic grating is only formed during reconstruction. Higher reading intensities lead to higher population of the M-state and result in an increase of the fringe contrast instead of decreasing it. New possibilities for the further development of holographic media based on bacteriorhodopsin are raised by the availability of PM variants with modified optical properties. By the use of the variant BR-326, which differs from the wildtype PM by a single amino acid exchange (aspartate-96 → asparagine), the sensitivity of PM films is increased by ∼50% from 12 cm2/J to 19 cm2/J for recording with 568 nm. The sensitivity for recording with 413 nm (33 cm2/J) is not influenced by the amino acid exchange. The observed diffraction efficiency η of PM films with BR-326 is twice that of BR-wildtype (BR-WT) films and is in the range of conventional organic

  1. Investigations on CXCL13 in Anti–N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Leypoldt, Frank; Höftberger, Romana; Titulaer, Maarten J.; Armangue, Thaís; Gresa-Arribas, Nuria; Jahn, Holger; Rostásy, Kevin; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Meyer, Thomas; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Graus, Francesc; Dalmau, Josep

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Anti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe but treatable autoimmune encephalitis affecting mainly young adults and children. The lack of suitable biomarkers of disease activity makes treatment decisions and identification of relapses challenging. OBJECTIVE To determine the levels of the B-cell–attracting C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13) in serum samples and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and whether they can be used as biomarkers of treatment response and outcome. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study of 167 patients consecutively diagnosed as having anti-NMDAR encephalitis between May 1, 2008, and January 31, 2013. Concentration of CXCL13 was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all available patients’ samples (272 CSF and 55 serum samples). Samples from 25 patients with noninflammatory neurological disorders and 9 with neuroborreliosis served as controls. Expression of CXCL13 in the brain biopsy of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis was determined by immunohistochemistry. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Percentage of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and elevated CXCL13 in CSF. RESULTS Compared with control individuals, 70% of patients with early-stage anti-NMDAR encephalitis had increased CXCL13 in CSF (>7 pg/mL; P < .001) but none in serum samples (>1047 pg/mL; P > .99). High concentration of CSF CXCL13 was associated with the presence of prodromal fever or headache (P = .01), limited response to therapy (P = .003), clinical relapses (P = .03), and intrathecal NMDAR-antibody synthesis (P < .001). Among patients with monophasic disease assessed 2 to 6 months after starting treatment, 10 of 15 with limited treatment response vs 0 of 13 with favorable response had increased CSF CXCL13 (specificity, 100%; 95% CI, 75–100 and sensitivity, 67%; 95% CI, 38–88; P = .02). Six of 12 patients had elevated CSF CXCL13 at relapse including 3 with

  2. Occurrence of D-aspartic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid in rat neuroendocrine tissues and their role in the modulation of luteinizing hormone and growth hormone release.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, A; Di Fiore, M M; Fisher, G H; Milone, A; Seleni, A; D'Aniello, S; Perna, A F; Ingrosso, D

    2000-04-01

    Using two specific and sensitive fluorometric/HPLC methods and a GC-MS method, alone and in combination with D-aspartate oxidase, we have demonstrated for the first time that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), in addition to D-aspartate (D-Asp), is endogenously present as a natural molecule in rat nervous system and endocrine glands. Both of these amino acids are mostly concentrated at nmol/g levels in the adenohypophysis, hypothalamus, brain, and testis. The adenohypophysis maximally showed the ability to accumulate D-Asp when the latter is exogenously administered. In vivo experiments, consisting of the i.p. injection of D-Asp, showed that D-Asp induced both growth hormone and luteinizing hormone (LH) release. However, in vitro experiments showed that D-Asp was able to induce LH release from adenohypophysis only when this gland was co-incubated with the hypothalamus. This is because D-Asp also induces the release of GnRH from the hypothalamus, which in turn is directly responsible for the D-Asp-induced LH secretion from the pituitary gland. Compared to D-Asp, NMDA elicits its hormone release action at concentrations approximately 100-fold lower than D-Asp. D-AP5, a specific NMDA receptor antagonist, inhibited D-Asp and NMDA hormonal activity, demonstrating that these actions are mediated by NMDA receptors. NMDA is biosynthesized from D-Asp by an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent enzyme, which we tentatively denominated as NMDA synthase. PMID:10744627

  3. Endopeptidase Cleavage Generates a Functionally Distinct Isoform of C1q/Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Protein-12 (CTRP12) with an Altered Oligomeric State and Signaling Specificity*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhikui; Lei, Xia; Seldin, Marcus M.; Wong, G. William

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived adipokines are an important class of secreted metabolic regulators that mediate tissue cross-talk to control systemic energy balance. We recently described C1q/TNF-related protein-12 (CTRP12), a novel insulin-sensitizing adipokine that regulates glucose metabolism in liver and adipose tissue. However, the biochemical properties of CTRP12 and its naturally occurring cleaved isoform have not been characterized. Here, we show that CTRP12 is a secreted hormone subjected to multiple functionally relevant posttranslational modifications at highly conserved residues. For example, Asn39 is glycosylated, whereas Cys85 mediates the assembly of higher order oligomeric structure. Endopeptidase cleavage at Lys91 generates a cleaved globular gCTRP12 isoform, the expression of which is increased by insulin. PCSK3/furin was identified as the major proprotein convertase expressed by adipocytes that mediates the endogenous cleavage of CTRP12. Cleavage at Lys91 is context-dependent: mutation of the charged Arg93 to Ala on the P2′ position enhanced cleavage, and triple mutations (K90A/K91A/R93A) abolished cleavage. Importantly, the two isoforms of CTRP12 differ in oligomeric structures and are functionally distinct. The full-length protein forms trimers and larger complexes, and the cleaved isoform consisted of predominantly dimers. Whereas full-length fCTRP12 strongly activated Akt signaling in H4IIE hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, gCTRP12 preferentially activated MAP kinase (ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK) signaling. Further, only fCTRP12 improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. These results reveal a novel mechanism controlling signaling specificity and function of a hormone via cleavage-dependent alteration in oligomeric state. PMID:22942287

  4. Metabolism and excretion of the once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide in healthy male subjects and its in vitro degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV and neutral endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Malm-Erjefält, Monika; Bjørnsdottir, Inga; Vanggaard, Jan; Helleberg, Hans; Larsen, Uffe; Oosterhuis, Berend; van Lier, Jan Jaap; Zdravkovic, Milan; Olsen, Anette K

    2010-11-01

    Liraglutide is a novel once-daily human glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analog in clinical use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. To study metabolism and excretion of [(3)H]liraglutide, a single subcutaneous dose of 0.75 mg/14.2 MBq was given to healthy males. The recovered radioactivity in blood, urine, and feces was measured, and metabolites were profiled. In addition, [(3)H]liraglutide and [(3)H]GLP-1(7-37) were incubated in vitro with dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) to compare the metabolite profiles and characterize the degradation products of liraglutide. The exposure of radioactivity in plasma (area under the concentration-time curve from 2 to 24 h) was represented by liraglutide (≥89%) and two minor metabolites (totaling ≤11%). Similarly to GLP-1, liraglutide was cleaved in vitro by DPP-IV in the Ala8-Glu9 position of the N terminus and degraded by NEP into several metabolites. The chromatographic retention time of DPP-IV-truncated liraglutide correlated well with the primary human plasma metabolite [GLP-1(9-37)], and some of the NEP degradation products eluted very close to both plasma metabolites. Three minor metabolites totaling 6 and 5% of the administered radioactivity were excreted in urine and feces, respectively, but no liraglutide was detected. In conclusion, liraglutide is metabolized in vitro by DPP-IV and NEP in a manner similar to that of native GLP-1, although at a much slower rate. The metabolite profiles suggest that both DPP-IV and NEP are also involved in the in vivo degradation of liraglutide. The lack of intact liraglutide excreted in urine and feces and the low levels of metabolites in plasma indicate that liraglutide is completely degraded within the body. PMID:20709939

  5. Procollagen C-endopeptidase Enhancer Protein 2 (PCPE2) Reduces Atherosclerosis in Mice by Enhancing Scavenger Receptor Class B1 (SR-BI)-mediated High-density Lipoprotein (HDL)-Cholesteryl Ester Uptake.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Ricquita D; Blesso, Christopher N; Zabalawi, Manal; Fulp, Brian; Gerelus, Mark; Zhu, Xuewei; Lyons, Erica W; Nuradin, Nebil; Francone, Omar L; Li, Xiang-An; Sahoo, Daisy; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G

    2015-06-19

    Studies in human populations have shown a significant correlation between procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer protein 2 (PCPE2) single nucleotide polymorphisms and plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations. PCPE2, a 52-kDa glycoprotein located in the extracellular matrix, enhances the cleavage of C-terminal procollagen by bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1). Our studies here focused on investigating the basis for the elevated concentration of enlarged plasma HDL in PCPE2-deficient mice to determine whether they protected against diet-induced atherosclerosis. PCPE2-deficient mice were crossed with LDL receptor-deficient mice to obtain LDLr(-/-), PCPE2(-/-) mice, which had elevated HDL levels compared with LDLr(-/-) mice with similar LDL concentrations. We found that LDLr(-/-), PCPE2(-/-) mice had significantly more neutral lipid and CD68+ infiltration in the aortic root than LDLr(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, in light of their elevated HDL levels, the extent of aortic lipid deposition in LDLr(-/-), PCPE2(-/-) mice was similar to that reported for LDLr(-/-), apoA-I(-/-) mice, which lack any apoA-I/HDL. Furthermore, LDLr(-/-), PCPE2(-/-) mice had reduced HDL apoA-I fractional clearance and macrophage to fecal reverse cholesterol transport rates compared with LDLr(-/-) mice, despite a 2-fold increase in liver SR-BI expression. PCPE2 was shown to enhance SR-BI function by increasing the rate of HDL-associated cholesteryl ester uptake, possibly by optimizing SR-BI localization and/or conformation. We conclude that PCPE2 is atheroprotective and an important component of the reverse cholesterol transport HDL system. PMID:25947382

  6. Aspartate Rescues S-phase Arrest Caused by Suppression of Glutamine Utilization in KRas-driven Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Deven; Menon, Deepak; Bernfeld, Elyssa; Mroz, Victoria; Kalan, Sampada; Loayza, Diego; Foster, David A

    2016-04-22

    During G1-phase of the cell cycle, normal cells respond first to growth factors that indicate that it is appropriate to divide and then later in G1 to the presence of nutrients that indicate sufficient raw material to generate two daughter cells. Dividing cells rely on the "conditionally essential" amino acid glutamine (Q) as an anaplerotic carbon source for TCA cycle intermediates and as a nitrogen source for nucleotide biosynthesis. We previously reported that while non-transformed cells arrest in the latter portion of G1 upon Q deprivation, mutant KRas-driven cancer cells bypass the G1 checkpoint, and instead, arrest in S-phase. In this study, we report that the arrest of KRas-driven cancer cells in S-phase upon Q deprivation is due to the lack of deoxynucleotides needed for DNA synthesis. The lack of deoxynucleotides causes replicative stress leading to activation of the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR)-mediated DNA damage pathway, which arrests cells in S-phase. The key metabolite generated from Q utilization was aspartate, which is generated from a transaminase reaction whereby Q-derived glutamate is converted to α-ketoglutarate with the concomitant conversion of oxaloacetate to aspartate. Aspartate is a critical metabolite for both purine and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. This study identifies the molecular basis for the S-phase arrest caused by Q deprivation in KRas-driven cancer cells that arrest in S-phase in response to Q deprivation. Given that arresting cells in S-phase sensitizes cells to apoptotic insult, this study suggests novel therapeutic approaches to KRas-driven cancers. PMID:26921316

  7. Lactating Porcine Mammary Tissue Catabolizes Branched-Chain Amino Acids for Glutamine and Aspartate Synthesis1–3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Knabe, Darrell A.; Kim, Sung Woo; Lynch, Christopher J.; Hutson, Susan M.; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-01-01

    The uptake of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) from plasma by lactating porcine mammary gland substantially exceeds their output in milk, whereas glutamine output is 125% greater than its uptake from plasma. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that BCAA are catabolized for glutamine synthesis in mammary tissue. Mammary tissue slices from sows on d 28 of lactation were incubated at 37°C for 1 h in Krebs buffer containing 0.5 or 2 mmol/L l-[1-14C]– or l-[U-14C]–labeled leucine, isoleucine, or valine. Rates of BCAA transport and degradation in mammary tissue were high, with ∼60% of transaminated BCAA undergoing oxidative decarboxylation and the remainder being released as branched-chain α-ketoacids (BCKA). Most (∼70%) of the decarboxylated BCAA were oxidized to CO2. Rates of net BCAA transamination were similar to rates of glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, asparagine, and alanine synthesis. Consistent with the metabolic data, mammary tissue expressed BCAA aminotransferase (BCAT), BCKA decarboxylase, glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate-oxaloacetate aminotransferase, glutamate-pyruvate aminotransferase, and asparagine synthetase, but no phosphate-activated glutaminase, activity. Western blot analysis indicated relatively high levels of mitochondrial and cytosolic isoforms of BCAT, as well as BCKA dehydrogenase and GS proteins in mammary tissue. Our results demonstrate that glutamine and aspartate (abundant amino acids in milk protein) were the major nitrogenous products of BCAA catabolism in lactating porcine mammary tissue and provide a biochemical basis to explain an enrichment of glutamine and aspartate in sow milk. PMID:19549750

  8. Rescue of Na+ Affinity in Aspartate 928 Mutants of Na+,K+-ATPase by Secondary Mutation of Glutamate 314*

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Rikke; Einholm, Anja P.; Andersen, Jens P.; Vilsen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase binds Na+ at three transport sites denoted I, II, and III, of which site III is Na+-specific and suggested to be the first occupied in the cooperative binding process activating phosphorylation from ATP. Here we demonstrate that the asparagine substitution of the aspartate associated with site III found in patients with rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism or alternating hemiplegia of childhood causes a dramatic reduction of Na+ affinity in the α1-, α2-, and α3-isoforms of Na+,K+-ATPase, whereas other substitutions of this aspartate are much less disruptive. This is likely due to interference by the amide function of the asparagine side chain with Na+-coordinating residues in site III. Remarkably, the Na+ affinity of site III aspartate to asparagine and alanine mutants is rescued by second-site mutation of a glutamate in the extracellular part of the fourth transmembrane helix, distant to site III. This gain-of-function mutation works without recovery of the lost cooperativity and selectivity of Na+ binding and does not affect the E1-E2 conformational equilibrium or the maximum phosphorylation rate. Hence, the rescue of Na+ affinity is likely intrinsic to the Na+ binding pocket, and the underlying mechanism could be a tightening of Na+ binding at Na+ site II, possibly via movement of transmembrane helix four. The second-site mutation also improves Na+,K+ pump function in intact cells. Rescue of Na+ affinity and Na+ and K+ transport by second-site mutation is unique in the history of Na+,K+-ATPase and points to new possibilities for treatment of neurological patients carrying Na+,K+-ATPase mutations. PMID:25713066

  9. Key features determining the specificity of aspartic proteinase inhibition by the helix-forming IA3 polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Wyatt, David M; Phylip, Lowri H; Bur, Daniel; Harrison, Rebecca J; Berry, Colin; Kay, John

    2007-03-01

    The 68-residue IA(3) polypeptide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essentially unstructured. It inhibits its target aspartic proteinase through an unprecedented mechanism whereby residues 2-32 of the polypeptide adopt an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation upon contact with the active site of the enzyme. This potent inhibitor (K(i) < 0.1 nm) appears to be specific for a single target proteinase, saccharopepsin. Mutagenesis of IA(3) from S. cerevisiae and its ortholog from Saccharomyces castellii was coupled with quantitation of the interaction for each mutant polypeptide with saccharopepsin and closely related aspartic proteinases from Pichia pastoris and Aspergillus fumigatus. This identified the charged K18/D22 residues on the otherwise hydrophobic face of the amphipathic helix as key selectivity-determining residues within the inhibitor and implicated certain residues within saccharopepsin as being potentially crucial. Mutation of these amino acids established Ala-213 as the dominant specificity-governing feature in the proteinase. The side chain of Ala-213 in conjunction with valine 26 of the inhibitor marshals Tyr-189 of the enzyme precisely into a position in which its side-chain hydroxyl is interconnected via a series of water-mediated contacts to the key K18/D22 residues of the inhibitor. This extensive hydrogen bond network also connects K18/D22 directly to the catalytic Asp-32 and Tyr-75 residues of the enzyme, thus deadlocking the inhibitor in position. In most other aspartic proteinases, the amino acid at position 213 is a larger hydrophobic residue that prohibits this precise juxtaposition of residues and eliminates these enzymes as targets of IA(3). The exquisite specificity exhibited by this inhibitor in its interaction with its cognate folding partner proteinase can thus be readily explained. PMID:17145748

  10. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of Rhizobium meliloti aminotransferase genes: an aspartate aminotransferase required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation is atypical.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, R J; Rastogi, V K

    1993-01-01

    In Rhizobium meliloti, an aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) encoded within a 7.3-kb HindIII fragment was previously shown to be required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation and aspartate catabolism (V. K. Rastogi and R.J. Watson, J. Bacteriol. 173:2879-2887, 1991). A gene coding for an aromatic aminotransferase located within an 11-kb HindIII fragment was found to complement the AspAT deficiency when overexpressed. The genes encoding these two aminotransferases, designated aatA and tatA, respectively, have been localized by subcloning and transposon Tn5 mutagenesis. Sequencing of the tatA gene revealed that it encodes a protein homologous to an Escherichia coli aromatic aminotransferase and most of the known AspAT enzymes. However, sequencing of the aatA gene region revealed two overlapping open reading frames, neither of which encoded an enzyme with homology to the typical AspATs. Polymerase chain reaction was used to selectively generate one of the candidate sequences for subcloning. The cloned fragment complemented the original nitrogen fixation and aspartate catabolism defects and was shown to encode an AspAT with the expected properties. Sequence analysis showed that the aatA protein has homology to AspATs from two thermophilic bacteria and the eukaryotic tyrosine aminotransferases. These aminotransferases form a distinct class in which only 13 amino acids are conserved in comparison with the well-known AspAT family. DNA homologous to the aatA gene was found to be present in Agrobacterium tumefaciens and other rhizobia but not in Klebsiella pneumoniae or E. coli. Images PMID:8096210

  11. J-Modulation in ID NMR 1H Spectrum of Taurine and Aspartate Using Spin-Echo Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oturak, Halil; Sağlam, Adnan; Bahçeli, Semiha

    1999-05-01

    This study reports on a theoretical calculation of Hahn's spin-echo experiment in case of a model A2B2 spin system with a strongly coupling character and gives the experimental results of one-dimension 1H high-resolution NMR spectra of taurine and aspartate. The calculated amplitudes of the spin-echoes for two different proton groups of taurine are given. Using results of our calculations for taurine, the computer simulations of J-modulation are implemented. It is shown that the agreement be-tween the experimental and simulated spectra is good.

  12. Psychotic symptoms in anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis: A case report and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pawan; Sagar, Rajesh; Patra, Bichitrananda; Saini, Lokesh; Gulati, Sheffali; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop

    2016-08-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, only recently first described, is an increasingly well-recognized inflammatory encephalitis that is seen in children and adults. An 11-year old girl admitted to the psychiatry ward with a presentation of acute psychosis was diagnosed with NMDA receptor encephalitis following neurology referral and was treated accordingly. This case highlights psychiatric manifestations in encephalitis and the need for the psychiatrist to have high index of suspicion when atypical symptoms (e.g., dyskinesia, seizure, fever etc.) present in acutely psychotic patients. PMID:27520914

  13. Removal of an N-terminal peptide from mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase abolishes its interactions with mitochondria in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donovan, K M; Doonan, S; Marra, E; Passarella, S; Quagliariello, E

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase from rat liver with trypsin leads to specific cleavage of the bonds between residues 26 and 27, and residues 31 and 32. The proteolysed enzyme has only a small residual catalytic activity, but retains a conformation similar to that of the native form as judged by accessibility and reactivity of cysteine residues. Proteolysis abolishes the ability of the enzyme either to bind to mitochondria or to be imported into the organelles. This suggests that the N-terminal segment of the native enzyme is essential for both of these functions, at least in the model system used to study the import process. PMID:4026799

  14. Catalysis of the Oligomerization of O-Phospho-Serine, Aspartic Acid, or Glutamic Acid by Cationic Micelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehler, Christof; Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of relatively concentrated aqueous solutions of O-phospho-serine (50 mM), aspartic acid (100 mM) or glutamic acid (100 mM) with carbonyldiimidazole leads to the formation of an activated intermediate that oligomerizes efficiently. When the concentration of amino acid is reduced tenfold, few long oligomers can be detected. Positively-charged cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide micelles concentrate the negatively-charged activated intermediates of the amino acids at their surfaces and catalyze efficient oligomerization even from dilute solutions.

  15. Catalysis of the Oligomerization of O-Phospho-Serine, Aspartic Acid, or Glutamic Acid by Cationic Micelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohler, Christof; Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of relatively concentrated aqueous solutions of 0-phospho-serine (50 mM), aspartic acid (100 mM) or glutamic acid (100 mM) with carbonyldiimidazole leads to the formation of an activated intermediate that oligomerizes efficiently. When the concentration of amino acid is reduced tenfold, few long oligomers can be detected. Positively-charged cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide micelles concentrate the negatively-charged activated intermediates of the amino acids at their surfaces and catalyze efficient oligomerization even from dilute solutions.

  16. Modulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity alters the subunit assembly in native N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Ferrani-Kile, Karima; Leslie, Steven W

    2005-07-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is crucial for development and neuroplasticity as well as excitotoxicity. The biochemical basis of the disassembly and reassembly of NMDA receptor has never been reported. Using coimmunoprecipitation, Western blotting, and mass spectrometry, we show that inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases triggers disassembly of NR1, NR2A, and NR2B in cortical NMDA receptor complexes. Furthermore, the disassembly of the NMDA receptor subunits is immediate, dose-dependent, and reversible and seems to occur through mechanisms linked to Src kinases. Together, these results define a novel role for tyrosine phosphatases in the complex mechanism of NMDA receptor regulation. PMID:15837820

  17. Human N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antibodies alter memory and behaviour in mice

    PubMed Central

    Planagumà, Jesús; Leypoldt, Frank; Mannara, Francesco; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Martín-García, Elena; Aguilar, Esther; Titulaer, Maarten J.; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Jain, Ankit; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Lakadamyali, Melike; Graus, Francesc; Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that associates with prominent memory and behavioural deficits. Patients’ antibodies react with the N-terminal domain of the GluN1 (previously known as NR1) subunit of NMDAR causing in cultured neurons a selective and reversible internalization of cell-surface receptors. These effects and the frequent response to immunotherapy have suggested an antibody-mediated pathogenesis, but to date there is no animal model showing that patients’ antibodies cause memory and behavioural deficits. To develop such a model, C57BL6/J mice underwent placement of ventricular catheters connected to osmotic pumps that delivered a continuous infusion of patients’ or control cerebrospinal fluid (flow rate 0.25 µl/h, 14 days). During and after the infusion period standardized tests were applied, including tasks to assess memory (novel object recognition in open field and V-maze paradigms), anhedonic behaviours (sucrose preference test), depressive-like behaviours (tail suspension, forced swimming tests), anxiety (black and white, elevated plus maze tests), aggressiveness (resident-intruder test), and locomotor activity (horizontal and vertical). Animals sacrificed at Days 5, 13, 18, 26 and 46 were examined for brain-bound antibodies and the antibody effects on total and synaptic NMDAR clusters and protein concentration using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. These experiments showed that animals infused with patients’ cerebrospinal fluid, but not control cerebrospinal fluid, developed progressive memory deficits, and anhedonic and depressive-like behaviours, without affecting other behavioural or locomotor tasks. Memory deficits gradually worsened until Day 18 (4 days after the infusion stopped) and all symptoms resolved over the next week. Accompanying brain tissue studies showed progressive increase of brain-bound human antibodies, predominantly in the hippocampus (maximal

  18. Effect of Reactor Turbulence on the Binding-Protein-Mediated Aspartate Transport System in Thin Wastewater Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Eighmy, T. Taylor; Bishop, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    This research documents an effect of reactor turbulence on the ability of gram-negative wastewater biofilm bacteria to actively transport l-aspartate via a binding-protein-mediated transport system. Biofilms which were not preadapted to turbulence and which possessed two separate and distinct aspartate transport systems (systems 1 and 2) were subjected to a turbulent flow condition in a hydrodynamically defined closed-loop reactor system. A shear stress treatment of 3.1 N · m−2 for 10 min at a turbulent Reynolds number (Re = 11,297) inactivated the low-affinity, high-capacity binding-protein-mediated transport system (system 2) and resolved the high-affinity, low-capacity membrane-bound proton symport system (system 1). The Kt and Vmax values for the resolved system were statistically similar to Kt and Vmax values for system 1 when system 2 was inactivated either by osmotic shock or arsenate, two treatments which are known to inactivate binding-protein-mediated transport systems. We hypothesize that shear stress disrupts system 2 by deforming the outer membranes of the firmly adhered gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16346830

  19. Mechanism of concerted inhibition of alpha2beta2-type hetero-oligomeric aspartate kinase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ayako; Tomita, Takeo; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2010-08-27

    Aspartate kinase (AK) is the first and committed enzyme of the biosynthetic pathway producing aspartate family amino acids, lysine, threonine, and methionine. AK from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgAK), a bacterium used for industrial fermentation of amino acids, including glutamate and lysine, is inhibited by lysine and threonine in a concerted manner. To elucidate the mechanism of this unique regulation in CgAK, we determined the crystal structures in several forms: an inhibitory form complexed with both lysine and threonine, an active form complexed with only threonine, and a feedback inhibition-resistant mutant (S301F) complexed with both lysine and threonine. CgAK has a characteristic alpha(2)beta(2)-type heterotetrameric structure made up of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits. Comparison of the crystal structures between inhibitory and active forms revealed that binding inhibitors causes a conformational change to a closed inhibitory form, and the interaction between the catalytic domain in the alpha subunit and beta subunit (regulatory subunit) is a key event for stabilizing the inhibitory form. This study shows not only the first crystal structures of alpha(2)beta(2)-type AK but also the mechanism of concerted inhibition in CgAK. PMID:20573952

  20. [Two cases of autoimmune encephalitis with antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Mataam, K; Ilboudo, J-C; Gazaigne, L; Wafo, E; Angenard, F

    2012-05-01

    We report here two cases of autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. The primary cause was an ovarian teratoma in one case. The outcomes were good. The first case was a late diagnosis, despite a typical clinical presentation. The clinical presentation of this disease remains unknown, especially in the intensive care unit. The treatment was recently codified and transformed the prognosis of this encephalitis. The second case was early treated in the course of the disease, due to the experience related to the previous case. In case of unexplained acute or subacute encephalitis or psychiatric-like disorders without prior medical history, the determination of the level of expression of antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and other antineuroreceptors antibodies can help to identify this diagnosis. The initial picture of the disease, its variability and the unawareness of the recent reports on this encephalitis may lead to a wrong diagnosis and inappropriate management. PMID:22475576

  1. Development of anti-scale poly(aspartic acid-citric acid) dual polymer systems for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Nayunigari, Mithil Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Kokkarachedu, Varaprasad; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2014-01-01

    The formation of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate scale poses major problems in heat exchangers and water cooling systems, thereby affecting the performance of these types of equipment. In order to inhibit these scale formations, new types of biodegradable water soluble single polymer and dual poly(aspartic acid-citric acid) polymers were developed and tested. The effectiveness of single polymer and four different compositions of poly aspartic acid and citric acid dual polymer systems as scale inhibitors were evaluated. Details of the synthesis, thermal stability, scale inhibition and the morphological characterization of single and dual polymers are presented in this scientific paper. It was found that the calcium sulphate scale inhibition rate was in the range 76.06-91.45%, while the calcium carbonate scale inhibition rate observed was in the range 23.37-30.0% at 65-70 °C. The finding suggests that the water soluble dual polymers are very effective in sulphate scale inhibition in comparison of calcium carbonate scale inhibition. PMID:25189837

  2. D-Aspartate Modulates Nociceptive-Specific Neuron Activity and Pain Threshold in Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain Condition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boccella, Serena; Vacca, Valentina; Errico, Francesco; Marinelli, Sara; Squillace, Marta; Di Maio, Anna; Vitucci, Daniela; Palazzo, Enza; De Novellis, Vito; Maione, Sabatino; Pavone, Flaminia; Usiello, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is a free D-amino acid found in the mammalian brain with a temporal-dependent concentration based on the postnatal expression of its metabolizing enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). D-Asp acts as an agonist on NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Accordingly, high levels of D-Asp in knockout mice for Ddo gene (Ddo−/−) or in mice treated with D-Asp increase NMDAR-dependent processes. We have here evaluated in Ddo−/− mice the effect of high levels of free D-Asp on the long-term plastic changes along the nociceptive pathway occurring in chronic and acute pain condition. We found that Ddo−/− mice show an increased evoked activity of the nociceptive specific (NS) neurons of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (L4–L6) and a significant decrease of mechanical and thermal thresholds, as compared to control mice. Moreover, Ddo gene deletion exacerbated the nocifensive responses in the formalin test and slightly reduced pain thresholds in neuropathic mice up to 7 days after chronic constriction injury. These findings suggest that the NMDAR agonist, D-Asp, may play a role in the regulation of NS neuron electrophysiological activity and behavioral responses in physiological and pathological pain conditions. PMID:25629055

  3. A cautionary tale of structure-guided inhibitor development against an essential enzyme in the aspartate-biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, Alexander G; Thangavelu, Bharani; Bhansali, Pravin; Viola, Ronald E

    2014-12-01

    The aspartate pathway is essential for the production of the amino acids required for protein synthesis and of the metabolites needed in bacterial development. This pathway also leads to the production of several classes of quorum-sensing molecules that can trigger virulence in certain microorganisms. The second enzyme in this pathway, aspartate β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH), is absolutely required for bacterial survival and has been targeted for the design of selective inhibitors. Fragment-library screening has identified a new set of inhibitors that, while they do not resemble the substrates for this reaction, have been shown to bind at the active site of ASADH. Structure-guided development of these lead compounds has produced moderate inhibitors of the target enzyme, with some selectivity observed between the Gram-negative and Gram-positive orthologs of ASADH. However, many of these inhibitor analogs and derivatives have not yet achieved the expected enhanced affinity. Structural characterization of these enzyme-inhibitor complexes has provided detailed explanations for the barriers that interfere with optimal binding. Despite binding in the same active-site region, significant changes are observed in the orientation of these bound inhibitors that are caused by relatively modest structural alterations. Taken together, these studies present a cautionary tale for issues that can arise in the systematic approach to the modification of lead compounds that are being used to develop potent inhibitors. PMID:25478842

  4. Adaptation of the behaviour of an aspartic proteinase inhibitor by relocation of a lysine residue by one helical turn.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Wyatt, David M; Phylip, Lowri H; Berry, Colin; Bur, Daniel; Kay, John

    2006-08-01

    In addition to self-inhibition of aspartic proteinase zymogens by their intrinsic proparts, the activity of certain members of this enzyme family can be modulated through active-site occupation by extrinsic polypeptides such as the small IA3 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The unprecedented mechanism by which IA3 helicates to inhibit its sole target aspartic proteinase locates an i, i+4 pair of charged residues (Lys18+Asp22) on an otherwise-hydrophobic face of the amphipathic helix. The nature of these residues is not crucial for effective inhibition, but re-location of the lysine residue by one turn (+4 residues) in the helical IA3 positions its side chain in the mutant IA3-proteinase complex in an orientation essentially identical to that of the key lysine residue in zymogen proparts. The binding of the extrinsic mutant IA3 shows pH dependence reminiscent of that required for the release of intrinsic zymogen proparts so that activation can occur. PMID:16895485

  5. Calcium signaling in brain mitochondria: interplay of malate aspartate NADH shuttle and calcium uniporter/mitochondrial dehydrogenase pathways.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Laura; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2009-03-13

    Ca2+ signaling in mitochondria has been mainly attributed to Ca2+ entry to the matrix through the Ca2+ uniporter and activation of mitochondrial matrix dehydrogenases. However, mitochondria can also sense increases in cytosolic Ca2+ through a mechanism that involves the aspartate-glutamate carriers, extramitochondrial Ca2+ activation of the NADH malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS). Both pathways are linked through the shared substrate alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG). Here we have studied the interplay between the two pathways under conditions of Ca2+ activation. We show that alphaKG becomes limiting when Ca2+ enters in brain or heart mitochondria, but not liver mitochondria, resulting in a drop in alphaKG efflux through the oxoglutarate carrier and in a drop in MAS activity. Inhibition of alphaKG efflux and MAS activity by matrix Ca2+ in brain mitochondria was fully reversible upon Ca2+ efflux. Because of their differences in cytosolic calcium concentration requirements, the MAS and Ca2+ uniporter-mitochondrial dehydrogenase pathways are probably sequentially activated during a Ca2+ transient, and the inhibition of MAS at the center of the transient may provide an explanation for part of the increase in lactate observed in the stimulated brain in vivo. PMID:19129175

  6. A specific blend of intact protein rich in aspartate has strong postprandial glucose attenuating properties in rats.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Robert; Severijnen, Chantal; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Bouritius, Hetty; van Wijk, Nick; van Laere, Katrien; van der Beek, Eline M

    2008-09-01

    Three studies were carried out to help define an optimal protein blend for use in a nutritional product for diabetic patients. To this end, we tested the effects of coinfusions of combinations of different types of carbohydrates and proteins on the postprandial glycemic plasma response in healthy rats. Expt. 1 compared the effects of administering different forms of soy protein (intact protein, its hydrolysate, or an equivalent amount of the same amino acids), all in combination with a fixed amount of glucose (Glu), on postprandial Glu and insulin plasma concentrations. Intact soy protein (SI) had stronger insulinogenic properties compared with its hydrolysate but was equally potent in reducing the postprandial Glu response. In Expt. 2, we compared the effect of replacing 50% of the SI with the whey-derived protein alpha-lactalbumin when coingested with maltodextrin as the carbohydrate source. Only the specific aspartate-rich blend of SI and alpha-lactalbumin significantly improved the postprandial Glu response. In Expt. 3, we studied the effect of using the blend of SI and alpha-lactalbumin combined with a slowly digestible carbohydrate. The protein blend was still capable of significantly decreasing the postprandial Glu response even when a slow-release carbohydrate source was included. Combining this aspartate-rich protein blend with a slow-release carbohydrate might therefore lead to a low-glycemic nutritional product beneficial for dietary management in diabetic patients. PMID:18716162

  7. Phylobiochemical Characterization of Class-Ib Aspartate/Prephenate Aminotransferases Reveals Evolution of the Plant Arogenate Phenylalanine Pathway[W

    PubMed Central

    Dornfeld, Camilla; Weisberg, Alexandra J.; K C, Ritesh; Dudareva, Natalia; Jelesko, John G.; Maeda, Hiroshi A.

    2014-01-01

    The aromatic amino acid Phe is required for protein synthesis and serves as the precursor of abundant phenylpropanoid plant natural products. While Phe is synthesized from prephenate exclusively via a phenylpyruvate intermediate in model microbes, the alternative pathway via arogenate is predominant in plant Phe biosynthesis. However, the molecular and biochemical evolution of the plant arogenate pathway is currently unknown. Here, we conducted phylogenetically informed biochemical characterization of prephenate aminotransferases (PPA-ATs) that belong to class-Ib aspartate aminotransferases (AspAT Ibs) and catalyze the first committed step of the arogenate pathway in plants. Plant PPA-ATs and succeeding arogenate dehydratases (ADTs) were found to be most closely related to homologs from Chlorobi/Bacteroidetes bacteria. The Chlorobium tepidum PPA-AT and ADT homologs indeed efficiently converted prephenate and arogenate into arogenate and Phe, respectively. A subset of AspAT Ib enzymes exhibiting PPA-AT activity was further identified from both Plantae and prokaryotes and, together with site-directed mutagenesis, showed that Thr-84 and Lys-169 play key roles in specific recognition of dicarboxylic keto (prephenate) and amino (aspartate) acid substrates. The results suggest that, along with ADT, a gene encoding prephenate-specific PPA-AT was transferred from a Chlorobi/Bacteroidetes ancestor to a eukaryotic ancestor of Plantae, allowing efficient Phe and phenylpropanoid production via arogenate in plants today. PMID:25070637

  8. A Novel Aspartic Proteinase-Like Gene Expressed in Stratified Epithelia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Rhiemeier, Verena; Breitenbach, Ute; Richter, Karl Hartmut; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Vogt, Ingeborg; Hartenstein, Bettina; Fürstenberger, Gerhard; Mauch, Cornelia; Hess, Jochen; Angel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Homeostasis of stratified epithelia, such as the epidermis of the skin, is a sophisticated process that represents a tightly controlled balance between proliferation and differentiation. Alterations of this balance are associated with common human diseases including cancer. Here, we report the cloning of a novel cDNA sequence, from mouse back skin, that is induced by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and codes for a hitherto unknown aspartic proteinase-like protein (Taps). Taps represents a potential AP-1 target gene because TPA-induced expression in epidermal keratinocytes critically depends on c-Fos, and co-treatment with dexamethasone, a potent inhibitor of AP-1-mediated gene regulation, resulted in impaired activation of Taps expression. Taps mRNA and protein are restricted to stratified epithelia in mouse embryos and adult tissues, implicating a crucial role for this aspartic proteinase-like gene in differentiation and homeostasis of multilayered epithelia. During chemically induced carcinogenesis, transient elevation of Taps mRNA and protein levels was detected in benign skin tumors. However, its expression is negatively associated with dedifferentiation and malignant progression in squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Similar expression was observed in squamous skin tumors of patients, suggesting that detection of Taps levels represents a novel strategy to discriminate the progression state of squamous skin cancers. PMID:16565508

  9. The dissociative anaesthetics, ketamine and phencyclidine, selectively reduce excitation of central mammalian neurones by N-methyl-aspartate.

    PubMed Central

    Anis, N. A.; Berry, S. C.; Burton, N. R.; Lodge, D.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of two dissociative anaesthetics, ketamine and phencyclidine, with the responses of spinal neurones to the electrophoretic administration of amino acids and acetylcholine was studied in decerebrate or pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats and rats. Both ketamine and phencyclidine selectively blocked excitation by N-methyl-aspartate (NMA) with little effect on excitation by quisqualate and kainate. Ketamine reduced responses to L-aspartate somewhat more than those of L-glutamate; the sensitivity of responses to these two putative transmitters was between that to NMA on one hand and that to quisqualate or kainate on the other. On Renshaw cells, ketamine and phencyclidine reduced responses to acetylcholine less than those to NMA but more than those to quisqualate or kainate. Dorsal root-evoked synaptic excitation of Renshaw cells was reduced to a greater extent than that following ventral root excitation. Intravenous ketamine, 2.5-20 mg/kg, and phencyclidine, 0.2-0.5 mg/kg, also selectively blocked excitation of neurones by NMA. Ketamine showed no consistent or selective effect on inhibition of spinal neurones by electrophoretically administered glycine or gamma-aminobutyricacid (GABA). The results suggest that reduction of synaptic excitation mediated via NMA receptors contributes to the anaesthetic/analgesic properties of these two dissociative anaesthetics. PMID:6317114

  10. Effects of ammonia and beta-methylene-DL-aspartate on the oxidation of glucose and pyruvate by neurons and astrocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, S M; Cooper, A J; Hertz, L

    1988-10-01

    Both ammonia and beta-methylene-DL-aspartate (beta-MA), an irreversible inhibitor of aspartate aminotransferase activity and thus of the malate-aspartate shuttle, were found previously to decrease oxidative metabolism in cerebral cortex slices. In the present work, the possibility that ammonia and beta-MA affect energy metabolism by a common mechanism (i.e., via inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle) was investigated using primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. Incubation of astrocytes for 30 min with 5 mM beta-MA resulted in a decreased production of 14CO2 from [U-14C]glucose, but did not affect 14CO2 production from [2-14C]pyruvate. Conversely, incubation of astrocytes with 3 mM ammonium chloride resulted in decreased 14CO2 production from [2-14C]pyruvate, but 14CO2 production from [U-14C]glucose was not significantly affected. Ammonium chloride had no significant effect on 14CO2 production from either [U-14C]glucose or [2-14]pyruvate by neurons. However, incubation of neurons with beta-MA or beta-MA plus ammonium chloride resulted in a approximately 45% decrease of 14CO2 production from both [U-14C]glucose and [2-14C]pyruvate. A 2-h incubation of astrocytes with beta-MA resulted in no change in ATP levels, but a 35% decrease in phosphocreatine. Similar treatment of neurons resulted in greater than 50% decrease in ATP, but had little effect on phosphocreatine. beta-MA also caused a decrease in glutamate and aspartate content of neurons, but not of astrocytes. The different metabolic responses of neurons and astrocytes towards beta-MA were probably not due to a differential inhibition of aspartate aminotransferase which was inhibited by approximately 45% in astrocytes and by approximately 55% in neurons. PMID:3138386

  11. Inhibitors of endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme lead to an amplification of the morphological changes and an upregulation of the substance P system in a muscle overuse model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously observed, in studies on an experimental overuse model, that the tachykinin system may be involved in the processes of muscle inflammation (myositis) and other muscle tissue alterations. To further evaluate the significance of tachykinins in these processes, we have used inhibitors of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), substances which are known to terminate the activity of various endogenously produced substances, including tachykinins. Methods Injections of inhibitors of NEP and ACE, as well as the tachykinin substance P (SP), were given locally outside the tendon of the triceps surae muscle of rabbits subjected to marked overuse of this muscle. A control group was given NaCl injections. Evaluations were made at 1 week, a timepoint of overuse when only mild inflammation and limited changes in the muscle structure are noted in animals not treated with inhibitors. Both the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles were examined morphologically and with immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Results A pronounced inflammation (myositis) and changes in the muscle fiber morphology, including muscle fiber necrosis, occurred in the overused muscles of animals given NEP and ACE inhibitors. The morphological changes were clearly more prominent than for animals subjected to overuse and NaCl injections (NaCl group). A marked SP-like expression, as well as a marked expression of the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) was found in the affected muscle tissue in response to injections of NEP and ACE inhibitors. The concentration of SP in the muscles was also higher than that for the NaCl group. Conclusions The observations show that the local injections of NEP and ACE inhibitors led to marked SP-like and NK-1R immunoreactions, increased SP concentrations, and an amplification of the morphological changes in the tissue. The injections of the inhibitors thus led to a more marked myositis process and an upregulation of

  12. Development of novel radiogallium-labeled bone imaging agents using oligo-aspartic acid peptides as carriers.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Ishizaki, Atsushi; Takai, Kenichiro; Kitamura, Yoji; Kiwada, Tatsuto; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Odani, Akira

    2013-01-01

    (68)Ga (T 1/2 = 68 min, a generator-produced nuclide) has great potential as a radionuclide for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Because poly-glutamic and poly-aspartic acids have high affinity for hydroxyapatite, to develop new bone targeting (68)Ga-labeled bone imaging agents for PET, we used 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) as a chelating site and conjugated aspartic acid peptides of varying lengths. Subsequently, we compared Ga complexes, Ga-DOTA-(Asp)n (n = 2, 5, 8, 11, or 14) with easy-to-handle (67)Ga, with the previously described (67)Ga-DOTA complex conjugated bisphosphonate, (67)Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. After synthesizing DOTA-(Asp)n by a Fmoc-based solid-phase method, complexes were formed with (67)Ga, resulting in (67)Ga-DOTA-(Asp)n with a radiochemical purity of over 95% after HPLC purification. In hydroxyapatite binding assays, the binding rate of (67)Ga-DOTA-(Asp)n increased with the increase in the length of the conjugated aspartate peptide. Moreover, in biodistribution experiments, (67)Ga-DOTA-(Asp)8, (67)Ga-DOTA-(Asp)11, and (67)Ga-DOTA-(Asp)14 showed high accumulation in bone (10.5 ± 1.5, 15.1 ± 2.6, and 12.8 ± 1.7% ID/g, respectively) but were barely observed in other tissues at 60 min after injection. Although bone accumulation of (67)Ga-DOTA-(Asp)n was lower than that of (67)Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP, blood clearance of (67)Ga-DOTA-(Asp)n was more rapid. Accordingly, the bone/blood ratios of (67)Ga-DOTA-(Asp)11 and (67)Ga-DOTA-(Asp)14 were comparable with those of (67)Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. In conclusion, these data provide useful insights into the drug design of (68)Ga-PET tracers for the diagnosis of bone disorders, such as bone metastases. PMID:24391942

  13. Inhibitory effect of taurine on veratridine-evoked D-[3H]aspartate release from murine corticostriatal slices: involvement of chloride channels and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Molchanova, Svetlana M; Oja, Simo S; Saransaari, Pirjo

    2007-01-26

    We have previously shown that the inhibitory neuromodulator taurine attenuates the release of preloaded D-[3H]aspartate from murine corticostriatal slices evoked by ischemic conditions or by application of the sodium channel agonist veratridine. The release of D-[3H]aspartate (a non-metabolized analog of glutamate) was used as an index of glutamate release. The aim of the present study was to reveal the molecular mechanisms responsible for this inhibitory effect of taurine. It was shown that 10 mM taurine suppresses D-[3H]aspartate release evoked by 0.1 mM veratridine, but does not affect the high-K+ -(50 mM) or ouabain- (0.1 mM) evoked release. Taurine had no effect in Ca2+ -free medium when the synaptic exocytosis of D-[3H]aspartate was inhibited. Nor did it suppress the release from slices preloaded with the competitive glutamate uptake blocker DL-threo-beta-hydroxyaspartate (THBA), which inhibits D-[3H]aspartate release mediated by the reverse action of glutamate transporters. Omission of Cl- from the incubation medium reduced the effect of taurine, signifying the involvement of a Cl- channel. The glycine receptor antagonist strychnine and the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline did not block the taurine effect, although picrotoxin, a less specific blocker of agonist-gated chloride channels, completely prevented the effect of taurine on veratridine-induced D-[3H]aspartate release. The respiratory chain blocker rotenone or mitochondrial protonophore carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) in combination with the mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor oligomycin, which inhibits the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, also reduced the effect of taurine. The results obtained in the present study show that taurine acts specifically on the release of preloaded D-[3H]aspartate evoked by veratridine, but not on that evoked by other depolarizing agents, and affects the release mediated both by synaptic exocytosis and the reverse action of glutamate transporter. Taurine

  14. Mismatch responses and deviance detection in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction and developmental models of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Harms, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    Reductions in the size of the mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential component elicited in response to unexpected stimuli, are arguably the most robust neurophysiological findings in schizophrenia. Several studies have now demonstrated that 'true' human-like deviance detection mismatch responses (MMRs) can be generated in the rodent brain and therefore that animal models can be used to examine the neurobiology of schizophrenia-like MMR impairments and investigate the efficacy of new treatments in addressing underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Two broad categories of animal models have been examined for schizophrenia-like MMRs: models involving N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction, and models involving an insult or exposure during development. While these models have been shown to exhibit reductions in MMRs, it is still unclear whether or not these reductions involve changes to neural adaptation to repetitive stimuli or whether they reflect impairments in the response to unexpected deviations in regular patterns. PMID:26159809

  15. Synthesis, characterization and application of a novel chemical sand-fixing agent-poly(aspartic acid) and its composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Fang; Fang, Li; Tan, Tianwei

    2007-09-01

    A novel sand-fixing agent-poly(aspartic acid) and its composites were synthesized to improve sand particles compressive strength and anti-wind erosion properties. The relationship between the concentration of sand-fixing agent and the sand-fixing properties was studied by three kinds of aging tests. Some composites were choose to improve the sand-fixing property and the composition of 40% xanthan gum and 60% ethyl cellulose were chosen to compare sand-fixing property with lignosulfonate. The results showed that the sand-fixing and water-retaining properties of xanthan gum and ethyl cellulose composites were better than that of lignosulfonate. The biodegradability experiment showed that the PASP and its composites were environment-friendly products and the field test showed that the PASP composites could improve wind erosion disturbance. PMID:17291645

  16. Evidence for spinal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor involvement in prolonged chemical nociception in the rat.

    PubMed

    Haley, Jane E; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2016-08-15

    We used in vivo electrophysiology and a model of more persistent nociceptive inputs to monitor spinal cord neuronal activity in anaesthetised rats to reveal the pharmacology of enhanced pain signalling. The study showed that all responses were blocked by non-selective antagonism of glutamate receptors but a selective and preferential role of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the prolonged plastic responses was clearly seen. The work lead to many publications, initially preclinical but increasingly from patient studies, showing the importance of the NMDA receptor in central sensitisation within the spinal cord and how this could relate to persistent pain states. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. PMID:26892026

  17. The use of the D-, L- aspartic ratio in decalcified collagen from human dentin as an estimator of human age.

    PubMed

    Pilin, A; Cabala, R; Pudil, F; Bencko, V

    2001-09-01

    Among the methods dealing with the age estimation, the evaluation of the ratio of the D-, L- form of the aspartic acid in tissues with a low metabolic turnover is considered to be the most precise. We introduced demineralization of the dentin with 0.5 M EDTA adjusted to pH = 7.4. The advantage of such a procedure is that after demineralization we obtained pure insoluble protein (collagen) and soluble noncollagenous proteins in one step. In this study we analyzed insoluble collagen. The amino acids obtained after the hydrolysis were derivatized into TFA isopropyl esters and analyzed by gas chromatography on Chirasil L-Val capillary column. We analyzed human dentin from the lower canines. The correlation coefficient was 0.93 for our set of 71 persons. The result concurred with those of other scientists. PMID:11569570

  18. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dextromethorphan selectively reduces temporal summation of second pain in man.

    PubMed

    Price, D D; Mao, J; Frenk, H; Mayer, D J

    1994-11-01

    Oral doses of dextromethorphan (DM), a common cough suppressant and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and their vehicle control were given on a double-blind basis to normal volunteer human subjects who rated intensities of first and second pain in response to repeated painful electric shocks and repeated 52 degrees C heat pulses. Doses of 30 and 45 mg, but not 15 mg, were effective in attenuating temporal summation of second pain, a psychophysical correlate of temporal summation of C afferent-mediated responses of dorsal horn nociceptive neurons, termed 'wind-up'. By contrast, neither first nor second pain evoked by the first stimulus in a train of stimuli were affected by any of these doses of DM. These results further confirm temporal summation of second pain as a psychophysical correlate of wind-up by providing evidence that DM selectively reduces temporal summation of second pain, as has been shown for wind-up. PMID:7892014

  19. Chlorogenic acid increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation when heating fructose alone or with aspartic acid at two pH levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zou, Yueyu; Wu, Taigang; Huang, Caihuan; Pei, Kehan; Zhang, Guangwen; Lin, Xiaohua; Bai, Weibin; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic acid that ubiquitously exists in fruits. This work aims to investigate whether and how CGA influences HMF formation during heating fructose alone, or with an amino acid. The results showed that that CGA increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation. At pH 5.5 and 7.0, the addition of 5.0 μmol/ml CGA increased HMF formation by 49.4% and 25.2%, respectively when heating fructose alone, and by 9.0% and 16.7%, respectively when heating fructose with aspartic acid. CGA significantly increased HMF formation by promoting 3-deoxosone formation, and its conversion to HMF by inhibiting HMF elimination, especially in the Maillard reaction system. A comparison of the catalytic capacity of CGA with its six analogous compounds showed that both its di-hydroxyphenyl and carboxyl groups function in increasing HMF formation. PMID:26213045

  20. Recognition of the folded conformation of plant hormone (auxin, IAA) conjugates with glutamic and aspartic acids and their amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolić, S.; Kveder, M.; Klaić, B.; Magnus, V.; Kojić-Prodić, B.

    2001-01-01

    The molecular structure of the endogenous plant hormone (auxin) conjugate, N-(indol-3-ylacetyl)- L-glutamic acid, is deduced by comparison with N2-(indol-3-ylacetyl)glutamine (IAA-Gln), N2-(indol-3-ylacetyl)asparagine (IAA-Asn) and N-(indol-3-ylacetyl)- L-aspartic acid using X-ray structure analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy (NOE measurements) and molecular modelling. The significance of the overall molecular shape, and of the resulting amphiphilic properties, of the compounds studied are discussed in terms of possible implications for trafficking between cell compartments. Both in the solid state and in solution, the molecules are in the hair-pin (folded) conformation in which the side chain is folded over the indole ring. While extended conformations can be detected by molecular dynamics simulations, they are so short-lived that any major influence on the biological properties of the compounds studied is unlikely.

  1. Neurosteroid-like Inhibitors of N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor: Substituted 2-Sulfates and 2-Hemisuccinates of Perhydrophenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Slavikova, Barbora; Chodounska, Hana; Nekardova, Michaela; Vyklicky, Vojtech; Ladislav, Marek; Hubalkova, Pavla; Krausova, Barbora; Vyklicky, Ladislav; Kudova, Eva

    2016-05-26

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) display a critical role in various diseases of the central nervous system. The activity of NMDARs can be modulated by neurosteroids. Herein, we report a structure-activity relationship study for perhydrophenanthrene analogues possessing a framework that mimics the steroidal ring system. This study comprises the design, synthesis, and assessment of the biological activity of a library of perhydrophenanthrene 2-sulfates and 2-hemisuccinates (1-10). Their ability to modulate NMDAR-induced currents was tested on recombinant GluN1/GluN2B receptors. Our results demonstrate that such structural optimization leads to compounds that are inhibitors of NMDARs. Notably, compound 9 (IC50 = 15.6 μM) was assessed as a more potent inhibitor of NMDAR-induced currents than the known endogenous neurosteroid, pregnanolone sulfate (IC50 = 24.6 μM). PMID:27064517

  2. The brain as immunoprecipitator of serum autoantibodies against N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Gomez, Esther; Kästner, Anne; Steiner, Johann; Schneider, Anja; Hettling, Bilke; Poggi, Giulia; Ostehr, Kristin; Uhr, Manfred; Asif, Abdul R; Matzke, Mike; Schmidt, Ulrike; Pfander, Viktoria; Hammer, Christian; Schulz, Thomas F; Binder, Lutz; Stöcker, Winfried; Weber, Frank; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies (AB) against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 (NMDAR1) are highly seroprevalent in health and disease. Symptomatic relevance may arise upon compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, it remained unknown whether circulating NMDAR1 AB appear in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Of n = 271 subjects with CSF-serum pairs, 26 were NMDAR1 AB seropositive, but only 1 was CSF positive. Contrariwise, tetanus AB (non-brain-binding) were present in serum and CSF of all subjects, with CSF levels higher upon BBB dysfunction. Translational mouse experiments proved the hypothesis that the brain acts as an 'immunoprecipitator'; simultaneous injection of NMDAR1 AB and the non-brain-binding green fluorescent protein AB resulted in high detectability of the former in brain and the latter in CSF. PMID:26505629

  3. Structural basis for an atypical active site of an L-aspartate/glutamate-specific racemase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Woo; Chang, Jeong Ho; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2015-12-21

    We determined the crystal structure of EcL-DER to elucidate protein function and substrate specificity. Unlike other asp/glu racemases, EcL-DER has an unbalanced pair of catalytic residues, Thr83/Cys197, at the active site that is crucial for L- to D-unidirectional racemase activity. EcL-DER exhibited racemase activity for both L-glutamate and L-aspartate, but had threefold higher activity for L-glutamate. Based on the structure of the EcL-DER(C197S) mutant in complex with L-glutamate, we determined the binding mode of the L-glutamate substrate in EcL-DER and provide a structural basis for how the protein utilizes L-glutamate as a main substrate. The unidirectionality, despite an equilibrium constant of unity, can be understood in terms of the Haldane relationship. PMID:26555188

  4. In vivo differentiation of N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate from N-acetyl aspartate at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Edden, Richard A E; Pomper, Martin G; Barker, Peter B

    2007-06-01

    A method is described that allows the in vivo differentiation of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) from N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate (NAAG) by in vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 Tesla (3T). The method, which is based on MEGA-point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) editing, selectively targets the aspartyl spin system of one species while deliberately removing the other species from the spectrum. This allows quantitative measurements of NAA and NAAG without the need for fitting of unresolved peaks. White matter concentrations of NAA (6.7 +/- 0.3 mM) and NAAG (2.2 +/- 0.3 mM) were measured in 10 healthy volunteers to demonstrate the method. PMID:17534922

  5. Preparation of γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane cross-linked poly(aspartic acid) superabsorbent hydrogels without organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hongyu; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Shenyu; Tan, Tianwei; Cao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Poly(aspartic acid) (PASP) hydrogel is a type of biodegradable and biocompatible polymer with high water absorbing ability. Traditionally, the production of PASP hydrogel is expensive, complex, environmentally unfriendly, and consumes a large amount of organic solvents, e.g. dimethylformamide or dimethylsulfoxide. This study introduces a one-step synthesis of PASP resin, in which the organic phase was replaced by distilled water and γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was used as the cross-linker. Absorbent ability and characteristics were determined by swelling ratio, FTIR, (13)C SSNMR, and SEM. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation and animal skin irritation tests showed the hydrogel has body-friendly properties. Preparing PASP hydrogel in aqueous solution is promising and finds its use in many applications. PMID:26499167

  6. Structure and Functional Characterization of Human Aspartate Transcarbamoylase, the Target of the Anti-tumoral Drug PALA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramos, Alba; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Grande-García, Araceli; Moreno-Morcillo, María; Ramón-Maiques, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    CAD, the multienzymatic protein that initiates and controls de novo synthesis of pyrimidines in animals, associates through its aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) domain into particles of 1.5 MDa. Despite numerous structures of prokaryotic ATCases, we lack structural information on the ATCase domain of CAD. Here, we report the structure and functional characterization of human ATCase, confirming the overall similarity with bacterial homologs. Unexpectedly, human ATCase exhibits cooperativity effects that reduce the affinity for the anti-tumoral drug PALA. Combining structural, mutagenic, and biochemical analysis, we identified key elements for the necessary regulation and transmission of conformational changes leading to cooperativity between subunits. Mutation of one of these elements, R2024, was recently found to cause the first non-lethal CAD deficit. We reproduced this mutation in human ATCase and measured its effect, demonstrating that this arginine is part of a molecular switch that regulates the equilibrium between low- and high-affinity states for the ligands. PMID:27265852

  7. The relationship between Gulf war illness, brain N-acetyl aspartate and post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Michael W.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Neylan, Thomas C.; Hlavin, Jennifer; Ramage, Erin R.; McCoy, Daniel; Studholme, Colin; Cardenas, Valerie; Marmar, Charles; Truran, Diana; Chu, Philip W.; Kornak, John; Furlong, Clement E.; McCarthy, Charles

    2012-01-01

    A previous study (1) suggested that individuals with Gulf War Illness (GWI) had reduced quantities of the neuronal marker N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) in the basal ganglia and pons. This study aimed to determine whether NAA is reduced in these regions and to investigate correlations with other possible causes of GWI, such as psychological response to stress in a large cohort of Gulf war veterans. Individuals underwent tests to determine their physical and psychological health and to identify veterans with (n=81) and without (n=97) GWI. When concentrations of NAA and ratios of NAA to creatine- and choline-containing metabolites were measured in the basal ganglia and pons, no significant differences were found between veterans with or without GWI, suggesting that GWI is not associated with reduced NAA in these regions. Veterans with GWI had significantly higher rates of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), supporting the idea that GWI symptoms are stress-related. PMID:21882779

  8. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase catalyzes in vivo racemization of Aspartate-25 in mammalian histone H2B.

    PubMed

    Young, Glen W; Hoofring, Sarah A; Mamula, Mark J; Doyle, Hester A; Bunick, Gerard J; Hu, Yonglin; Aswad, Dana W

    2005-07-15

    Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) has been implicated in the repair or metabolism of proteins containing atypical L-isoaspartyl peptide bonds. The repair hypothesis is supported by previous studies demonstrating in vitro repair of isoaspartyl peptides via formation of a succinimide intermediate. Utilization of this mechanism in vivo predicts that PIMT modification sites should exhibit significant racemization as a side reaction to the main repair pathway. We therefore studied the D/L ratio of aspartic acid at specific sites in histone H2B, a known target of PIMT in vivo. Using H2B from canine brain, we found that Asp25 (the major PIMT target site in H2B) was significantly racemized, exhibiting d/l ratios as high as 0.12, whereas Asp51, a comparison site, exhibited negligible racemization (D/L < or = 0.01). Racemization of Asp25 was independent of animal age over the range of 2-15 years. Using H2B from 2-3-week mouse brain, we found a similar D/L ratio (0.14) at Asp25 in wild type mice, but substantially less racemization (D/L = 0.035) at Asp25 in PIMT-deficient mice. These findings suggest that PIMT functions in the repair, rather than the metabolic turnover, of isoaspartyl proteins in vivo. Because PIMT has numerous substrates in cells, these findings also suggest that D-aspartate may be more common in cellular proteins than hitherto imagined and that its occurrence, in some proteins at least, is independent of animal age. PMID:15908425

  9. N-methyl-D-aspartate preconditioning improves short-term motor deficits outcome after mild traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tayana; Constantino, Leandra C; Mendonça, Bruna P; Pereira, Josimar G; Herculano, Bruno; Tasca, Carla I; Boeck, Carina R

    2010-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes impairment of fine motor functions in humans and nonhuman mammals that often persists for months after the injury occurs. Neuroprotective strategies for prevention of the sequelae of TBI and understanding the molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways are related to the glutamatergic system. It has been suggested that cellular damage subsequent to TBI is mediated by the excitatory neurotransmitters, glutamate and aspartate, through the excessive activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Thus, preconditioning with a low dose of NMDA was used as a strategy for protection against locomotor deficits observed after TBI in mice. Male adult mice CF-1 were preconditioned with NMDA (75 mg/kg) 24 hr before the TBI induction. Under anesthesia with O(2)/N(2)O (33%: 66%) inhalation, the animals were subjected to the experimental model of trauma that occurs by the impact of a 25 g weight on the skull. Sensorimotor gating was evaluated at 1.5, 6, or 24 hr after TBI induction by using footprint and rotarod tests. Cellular damage also was assessed 24 hr after occurrence of cortical trauma. Mice preconditioned with NMDA were protected against all motor deficits revealed by footprint tests, but not those observed in rotarod tasks. Although mice showed motor deficits after TBI, no cellular damage was observed. These data corroborate the hypothesis that glutamatergic excitotoxicity, especially via NMDA receptors, contributes to severity of trauma. They also point to a putative neuroprotective mechanism induced by a sublethal dose of NMDA to improve motor behavioral deficits after TBI. PMID:19998488

  10. Effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate on Liver Injury Due to Acute Ethyl Alcohol Intoxication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Durgun, HM; Ozhasenekler, A; Dursun, R; Basarali, MK; Turkcu, G; Orak, M; Ustundag, M; Guloglu, C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Ethyl alcohol is a substance that is widely used worldwide and known to exert toxic effects on liver. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA) on the toxicity of a single dose of ethyl alcohol in rats. Subjects and Method: We used 32 randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–250 g. The rats were grouped into four groups with each group containing eight rats: Group 1: the control group, Group 2: the ethyl alcohol group, Group 3: the LOLA group and Group 4: the ethyl alcohol+LOLA group. Ethyl alcohol was administered orally through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 6 g/kg after diluting with distilled water. One hour after ethyl alcohol administration, LOLA was administered to pre-specified groups orally through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 200 mg/kg after diluting with distilled water. Liver tissue and blood samples were obtained from all rats 24 hours later to study total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels in liver samples, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), TAC, TOS and OSI levels in blood samples. Results: Serum TAC, TOS and OSI levels were higher in the groups that were administered ethyl alcohol. In addition, tissue TAC level was higher and TOS and OSI levels were lower in groups that were given ethyl alcohol. No significant changes were observed in serum and tissue TAC, TOS, OSI, ALT and AST levels in the LOLA administered groups. Conclusion: This study showed that LOLA was not biochemically effective and exerts no oxidative stress reducing activity in liver injury due to acute ethyl alcohol toxicity. PMID:26426168

  11. N-terminal extension of the yeast IA3 aspartic proteinase inhibitor relaxes the strict intrinsic selectivity.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Phylip, Lowri H; Bur, Daniel; Wyatt, David M; Berry, Colin; Kay, John

    2007-07-01

    Yeast IA(3) aspartic proteinase inhibitor operates through an unprecedented mechanism and exhibits a remarkable specificity for one target enzyme, saccharopepsin. Even aspartic proteinases that are very closely similar to saccharopepsin (e.g. the vacuolar enzyme from Pichia pastoris) are not susceptible to significant inhibition. The Pichia proteinase was selected as the target for initial attempts to engineer IA(3) to re-design the specificity. The IA(3) polypeptides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces castellii differ considerably in sequence. Alterations made by deletion or exchange of the residues in the C-terminal segment of these polypeptides had only minor effects. By contrast, extension of each of these wild-type and chimaeric polypeptides at its N-terminus by an MK(H)(7)MQ sequence generated inhibitors that displayed subnanomolar potency towards the Pichia enzyme. This gain-in-function was completely reversed upon removal of the extension sequence by exopeptidase trimming. Capture of the potentially positively charged aromatic histidine residues of the extension by remote, negatively charged side-chains, which were identified in the Pichia enzyme by modelling, may increase the local IA(3) concentration and create an anchor that enables the N-terminal segment residues to be harboured in closer proximity to the enzyme active site, thus promoting their interaction. In saccharopepsin, some of the counterpart residues are different and, consistent with this, the N-terminal extension of each IA(3) polypeptide was without major effect on the potency of interaction with saccharopepsin. In this way, it is possible to convert IA(3) polypeptides that display little affinity for the Pichia enzyme into potent inhibitors of this proteinase and thus broaden the target selectivity of this remarkable small protein. PMID:17608726

  12. The effect of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate and N-acetyl-aspartate on white matter oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, Karolina; Hamilton, Nicola B; Wade, Anna; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur; Attwell, David

    2009-06-01

    Elevations of the levels of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are associated with myelin loss in the leucodystrophies Canavan's disease and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease. NAAG and NAA can activate and antagonize neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and also act on group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. Oligodendrocytes and their precursors have recently been shown to express NMDA receptors, and activation of these receptors in ischaemia leads to the death of oligodendrocyte precursors and the loss of myelin. This raises the possibility that the failure to develop myelin, or demyelination, occurring in the leucodystrophies could reflect an action of NAAG or NAA on oligodendrocyte NMDA receptors. However, since the putative subunit composition of NMDA receptors on oligodendrocytes differs from that of neuronal NMDA receptors, the effects of NAAG and NAA on them are unknown. We show that NAAG, but not NAA, evokes an inward membrane current in cerebellar white matter oligodendrocytes, which is reduced by NMDA receptor block (but not by block of metabotropic glutamate receptors). The size of the current evoked by NAAG, relative to that evoked by NMDA, was much smaller in oligodendrocytes than in neurons, and NAAG induced a rise in [Ca(2+)](i) in neurons but not in oligodendrocytes. These differences in the effect of NAAG on oligodendrocytes and neurons may reflect the aforementioned difference in receptor subunit composition. In addition, as a major part of the response in oligodendrocytes was blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX), much of the NAAG-evoked current in oligodendrocytes is a secondary consequence of activating neuronal NMDA receptors. Six hours exposure to 1 mM NAAG did not lead to the death of cells in the white matter. We conclude that an action of NAAG on oligodendrocyte NMDA receptors is unlikely to be a major contributor to white matter damage in the leucodystrophies. PMID:19383832

  13. Role of aspartate 400, arginine 262, and arginine 401 in the catalytic mechanism of human coproporphyrinogen oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Jason R.; Stacey, Julie A.; Morgenthaler, Justin B.; Friesen, Jon A.; Lash, Timothy D.; Jones, Marjorie A.

    2007-01-01

    Coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO) is the sixth enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing two sequential oxidative decarboxylations of propionate moieties on coproporphyrinogen-III forming protoporphyrinogen-IX through a monovinyl intermediate, harderoporphyrinogen. Site-directed mutagenesis studies were carried out on three invariant amino acids, aspartate 400, arginine 262, and arginine 401, to determine residue contribution to substrate binding and/or catalysis by human recombinant CPO. Kinetic analyses were performed on mutant enzymes incubated with three substrates, coproporphyrinogen-III, harderoporphyrinogen, or mesoporphyrinogen-VI, in order to determine catalytic ability to perform the first and/or second oxidative decarboxylation. When Asp400 was mutated to alanine no divinyl product was detected, but the production of a small amount of monovinyl product suggested the Km value for coproporphyrinogen-III did not change significantly compared to the wild-type enzyme. Upon mutation of Arg262 to alanine, CPO was again a poor catalyst for the production of a divinyl product, with a catalytic efficiency <0.01% compared to wild-type, including a 15-fold higher Km for coproporphyrinogen-III. The efficiency of divinyl product formation for mutant enzyme Arg401Ala was ∼3% compared to wild-type CPO, with a threefold increase in the Km value for coproporphyrinogen-III. These data suggest Asp400, Arg262, and Arg401 are active site amino acids critical for substrate binding and/or catalysis. Possible roles for arginine 262 and 401 include coordination of carboxylate groups of coproporphyrinogen-III, while aspartate 400 may initiate deprotonation of substrate, resulting in an oxidative decarboxylation. PMID:17242372

  14. Substrate-dependent utilization of the glycerol 3-phosphate or malate/aspartate redox shuttles by Ehrlich ascites cells.

    PubMed Central

    Grivell, A R; Korpelainen, E I; Williams, C J; Berry, M N

    1995-01-01

    The rate of transfer of reducing equivalents from cytoplasm to mitochondria has been examined in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells incubated in the presence of lactate. The flux of reducing equivalents was determined from the rate of metabolism of reduced intermediates that are oxidized within the cytosol. The magnitude of the flux of reducing equivalents was dependent on both the concentration of added lactate and the presence of carbohydrate. The rate of flux was twice as great in the presence of glucose and four times as high when glucose and lactate were added together as when lactate was the only added substrate. Fructose was less effective than glucose in stimulating reducing equivalent flux. In the presence of glucose or fructose, there was a substantial accumulation of hexose phosphates, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glycerol 3-phosphate. Rotenone, an inhibitor of NADH dehydrogenase, and amino-oxyacetate, which inhibits the malate/aspartate shuttle, were powerful suppressors of reducing equivalent flux from lactate as sole substrate, but were much less potent in the presence of carbohydrate. Antimycin substantially inhibited reducing equivalent flux from all combinations of added substrates, consistent with its ability to block oxidation of reducing equivalents transferred by both the malate/aspartate and glycerol 3-phosphate shuttles. The glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle represents around 80% of the maximum total observed activity but is active only while glycolytic intermediates are present to provide the necessary substrates of the shuttle. This Ehrlich ascites cell line has an essentially similar total reducing equivalent shuttle capacity to that of isolated hepatocytes. PMID:7654209

  15. Propofol effectively inhibits lithium-pilocarpine- induced status epilepticus in rats via downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Henglin; Wang, Zhuoqiang; Mi, Weidong; Zhao, Cong; Liu, Yanqin; Wang, Yongan; Sun, Haipeng

    2012-01-01

    Status epilepticus was induced via intraperitoneal injection of lithium-pilocarpine. The inhibitory effects of propofol on status epilepticus in rats were judged based on observation of behavior, electroencephalography and 24-hour survival rate. Propofol (12.5–100 mg/kg) improved status epilepticus in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced the number of deaths within 24 hours of lithium-pilocarpine injection. Western blot results showed that, 24 hours after induction of status epilepticus, the levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A and 2B subunits were significantly increased in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Propofol at 50 mg/kg significantly suppressed the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit levels, but not the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A subunit levels. The results suggest that propofol can effectively inhibit status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine. This effect may be associated with downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression after seizures. PMID:25737709

  16. Brief Report: High Frequency of Biochemical Markers for Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism: No Association with the Mitochondrial Aspartate/Glutamate Carrier "SLC25A12" Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, Catarina; Coutinho, Ana M.; Diogo, Luisa; Grazina, Manuela; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa; Ataide, Assuncao; Almeida, Joana; Borges, Luis; Oliveira, Catarina; Oliveira, Guiomar; Vicente, Astrid M.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we confirm the previously reported high frequency of biochemical markers of mitochondrial dysfunction, namely hyperlactacidemia and increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, in a significant fraction of 210 autistic patients. We further examine the involvement of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier gene ("SLC25A12") in…

  17. Heat-initiated prebiotic formation of peptides from glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in aqueous environment and clay suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Chandra Kala; Lata, Hem; Pathak, Hari Datt; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2009-04-01

    The effect of heat on the reaction system of glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in the aqueous environment as well as in montmorillonite clay suspension with or without divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Ni2+) has been investigated at 85°C±5°C for varying periods under prebiotic drying and wetting conditions. The resulting products were analysed and characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Peptide formation appears to depend on the duration of heat effect, nature of reactant amino acids and, to some extent, on montmorillonite clay incorporated with divalent cations. In the glycine/aspartic acid system, oligomerization of glycine was limited up to trimer level (Gly)3 along with the formation of glycyl-aspartic acid, while linear and cyclic peptides of aspartic acid were not formed, whereas the glycine/valine system preferentially elongated homo-oligopeptide of glycine up to pentamer level (Gly)5 along with formation of hetero-peptides (Gly-Val and Val-Gly). These studies are relevant in the context of the prebiotic origin of proteins and the role of clay and metal ions in condensation and oligomerization of amino acids. The length of the bio-oligomer chain depends upon the reaction conditions. However, condensation into even a small length seems significant, as the same process would have taken millions of years in the primitive era of the Earth, leading to the first proteins.

  18. Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor downregulates inflammasome activity and liver inflammation via a β-arrestin-2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Ahmad; Hoque, Rafaz; Ouyang, Xinshou; Farooq, Ahsan; Ghani, Ayaz; Ahsan, Kaimul; Guerra, Mateus; Mehal, Wajahat Zafar

    2014-10-01

    Activation of the cytosolic inflammasome machinery is responsible for acute and chronic liver inflammation, but little is known about its regulation. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor families are heterotetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by a range of metabolites, including aspartate, glutamate, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the brain NMDA receptors are present on neuronal and nonneuronal cells and regulate a diverse range of functions. We tested the role of the NMDA receptor and aspartate in inflammasome regulation in vitro and in models of acute hepatitis and pancreatitis. We demonstrate that the NMDA receptor is present on Kupffer cells, and their activation on primary mouse and human cells limits inflammasome activation by downregulating NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 and procaspase-1. The NMDA receptor pathway is active in vivo, limits injury in acute hepatitis, and can be therapeutically further activated by aspartate providing protection in acute inflammatory liver injury. Downregulation of inflammasome activation by NMDA occurs via a β-arrestin-2 NF-kβ and JNK pathway and not via Ca(2+) mobilization. We have identified the NMDA receptor as a regulator of inflammasome activity in vitro and in vivo. This has identified a new area of immune regulation associated by metabolites that may be relevant in a diverse range of conditions, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and total parenteral nutrition-induced immune suppression. PMID:25104498

  19. Pivotal role for aspartate-80 in the regulation of dopamine D2 receptor affinity for drugs and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Neve, K A; Cox, B A; Henningsen, R A; Spanoyannis, A; Neve, R L

    1991-06-01

    An aspartate residue corresponding to aspartate-80 of dopamine D2 receptors is strictly conserved among receptors that couple to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Mutation of this residue alters the function of several classes of neurotransmitter receptors. Dopamine D2 receptors couple to the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gi to inhibit adenylyl cyclase (ATP-pyrophosphate-lyase, cyclizing; EC 4.6.1.1). Like other Gi-coupled receptors, the binding of agonists and some antagonists to D2 receptors is sensitive to pH and sodium. In the present report, we demonstrate that substitution of an alanine or glutamate residue for aspartate-80 severely impairs inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by D2 receptors and also abolishes or decreases the regulation of the affinity of D2 receptors for agonists and substituted benzamide antagonists by sodium and pH. Our data support the hypothesis that the conformation of D2 receptors is maintained by interactions of monovalent cations with aspartate-80. The regulation of D2 receptors by this interaction has important consequences for the affinity of D2 receptors for ligands and for signa