Sample records for aspergillus niger isolated

  1. Extracellular ?-Mannanase Production by the Immobilization of the Locally Isolated Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MOUSTAFA Y. EL-NAGGAR; SAMY A. EL-ASSAR; AMANY S. YOUSSEF; NERMEEN A. EL-SERSY

    The production of ?-mannanase by the immobilization of the local Aspergillus niger strain isolated from the coconut fibres was studied. The fungal spores were entrapped in different gel materials. Alginate (1%) was the best gel matrix for ?- mannanase production, although alginate entrapment showed a relatively low ?-mannanase activity compared to free culture system. The entrapped cells in alginate were

  2. Molecular strategy to discriminate between two ochratoxin A producing Aspergillus niger aggregate species isolated from fresh and dried grapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabeh Melki Ben Fredj; Angélique Gautier; Yves Brygoo; Ahmed Mliki

    2009-01-01

    Abstact  \\u000a Aspergillus genus is an ubiquitous fungal group that colonizes a wide range of substrates. A total of 100 Tunisian fungal strains isolated\\u000a at harvest time from fresh and dried grapes were identified within the sectionNigri and tested for their ochratoxin A (OTA) producing abilities. Of the isolates, 45% were identified asAspergillus tubingensis, 34% asAspergillus niger, 12% asAspergillus japonicus and

  3. Isolation and properties of Aspergillus niger IBT-90 xylanase for bakery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irena Romanowska; Jacek Polak; Stanis?aw Bielecki

    2006-01-01

    Xylanase of low molecular weight (K II) was isolated from the fungus Aspergillus niger IBT-90 cultivated in medium with wheat bran. K II was purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate (20–80% saturation)\\u000a and gel filtration on Biogel P-10. This enzyme is most active in hydrolysis of birchwood xylan at 50°C and pH 5.5. Xylanase\\u000a K II has an ability to

  4. Isolation and characterization of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene ( gsd A) from Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Broek; Theo Goosen; Bert Wennekes; Henk Broek

    1995-01-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) were isolated from the fungusAspergillus niger. Sequence analysis of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gsdA) revealed an open reading frame of 1530 bp, encoding a protein of 58,951 kDa. The (gsdA) gene is interrupted by nine introns the most proximal of which is exceptionally large (348 bp). The region upstream of the ATG

  5. Molecular typing and in-vitro activity of azoles against clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asano, Moe; Kano, Rui; Makimura, Koichi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Twenty-three isolates of Aspergillus from Japanese transplant recipients were identified by phenotyping and subjected to detailed sequence analyses using the ITS regions and ?-tubulin (benA). Gene sequences derived from the ITS regions and benA of all Aspergillus isolates were compared with sequences in the GenBank database for species identification. Nineteen isolates were identified as A. fumigatus and 4 isolates as A. niger. The antifungal susceptibility of the isolates to itraconazole (ITZ), voriconazole (VCZ), and posaconazole (POS) was assessed using the E-test with a 48-h incubation. Almost all the clinical isolates of the Aspergillus species seemed to be more susceptible to VCZ and POS than to ITZ, whereas 1 clinical isolate of A. fumigatus was resistant to ITZ. Sequencing of the 14?-demethylase gene (cyp51A) of this isolate revealed a novel mutation (F332K) in the gene. PMID:21203794

  6. Induction, purification and molecular characterization of sulfhydryl oxidase from an Egyptian isolates of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Moubasher, H; Fahmi, A A; Abdur-Rahman, M

    2012-01-01

    The conditions for the sulfhydryl oxidase (SOX) production and activity from an Egyptian isolate of Aspergillus niger were optimized. Purification and determination of the kinetic properties (K(m) and V(max)) of the purified enzyme have been done. The possibility for the SOX induction using L-Cys (as a natural substrate) was studied to determine whether SOX could be produced as an inducible enzyme in addition to being a constitutive one (i.e. whether induction leads to increase SOX production and activity or not). The optimum temperature and pH for its activity were found to be 60 degrees C and 5.5, respectively. The activity of the induced intracellular SOX, was measured according to Ellman's method using the standard GSH oxidation where it reached 94% while that of non-induced one reached only 27.6%. This wide difference in activity between the induced and non-induced SOX indicates the successful L-Cys-induction of the SOX production (i.e. SOX from A. niger AUMC 4947 is an inducible enzyme). Molecular characterization of the pure SOX revealed that it is constituted of two 50-55 KDa subunits. K(m) and V(max) were found to be 6.0 mM and 100 microM/min/mg respectively. PMID:22834304

  7. Production of (R)-1-(4-Bromo-phenyl)-ethanol by locally isolated Aspergillus niger using ram horn peptone.

    PubMed

    Zilbeyaz, Kani; Kurbanoglu, Esabi B

    2008-04-01

    Aspergillus niger EBK-9 was isolated from soil sample. This isolate was evaluated for production of (R)-1-(4-Bromo-phenyl)-ethanol 2 from 1-(4-Bromo-phenyl)-ethanone 1. In this work, the production of the 2 was achieved via fermenter. Glucose, yeast extract and ram horn peptone as medium in fermenter for growth of A. niger was used. A. niger EBK-9 isolate was found to be an effective biocatalyst with excellent enantiomeric excess (>99%) and good conversion (100%) for the production of the 2 in batch culture. The 8.2 mmol/l product from 10 mmol substrate under the optimum conditions could be produced. The yield was calculated as 82%. Because of the easy availability of the fungus besides simple reaction conditions, this process and medium must be potentially useful for production of chiral alcohols. PMID:17531472

  8. Isolation and characterisation of a novel stress-inducible PDI-family gene from Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J Jeenes; R Pfaller; D. B Archer

    1997-01-01

    Current strategies to improve the secretion of heterologous proteins in Aspergillus niger include the manipulation of chaperones and foldases specific to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A family of ER-specific protein s which share active-site homology wit protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been identified from other systems, many of which are inducible by agents which cause malfolding of proteins in the

  9. Purification and biochemical characterisation of glucoamylase from a newly isolated Aspergillus niger: relation to starch processing.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Ahmad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-10-15

    Herein, we investigate a glucoamylase from newly isolated Aspergillus niger. The enzyme was purified, using fractionation, followed by anion-exchange chromatography and then characterised. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be ?62,000Da, using SDS-PAGE and 57151Da, based on mass spectrometry results. The pI of the protein, and optimum pH/temperature of enzyme activity were 4.4, 5 and 70°C, respectively and the kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax and kcat) were determined to be 0.33 (mgml(-1)), 0.095 (U?g(-1)min(-1)) and 158.3 (s(-1)) for soluble starch, respectively. The glucoamylase nature of the enzyme was also confirmed using TLC and a specific substrate. Metal ions Fe(3+), Al(3+) and Hg(2+) had the highest inhibitory effect, while Ag(2)(+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+) and Cd(2+) and EDTA showed no significant effect on the enzyme activity. In addition, thermal stability of the enzyme increased in the presence of starch and calcium ion. Based on the results, the purified glucoamylase appeared to be a newly isolated enzyme. PMID:24837950

  10. Production and characterization of alpha-amylase from Aspergillus niger JGI 24 isolated in Bangalore.

    PubMed

    Varalakshmi, K N; Kumudini, B S; Nandini, B N; Solomon, J; Suhas, R; Mahesh, B; Kavitha, A P

    2009-01-01

    Five fungal isolates were screened for the production of alpha-amylase using both solid-state and submerged fermentations. The best amylase producer among them, Aspergillus niger JGI 24, was selected for enzyme production by solid-state fermentation (SSF) on wheat bran. Different carbon and nitrogen supplements were used to enhance enzyme production and maximum amount of enzyme was obtained when SSF was carried out with soluble starch and beef extract (1% each) as supplements. Further attempts to enhance enzyme production by UV induced mutagenesis were carried out. Survival rate decreased with increase in duration of UV exposure. Partial purification of the enzyme using ammonium sulphate fractionation resulted in 1.49 fold increase in the enzyme activity. The enzyme showed a molecular weight of 43 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Metal ions Ca2+ and Co2+ increased the enzyme activity. The enzyme was optimally active at 30 degrees C and pH 9.5. PMID:19469283

  11. Response surface optimization for enhanced production of cellulases with improved functional characteristics by newly isolated Aspergillus niger HN-2.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Rawat, Rekha; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Fungi isolated from partially decayed wood log samples showing characteristic diversity for spore colour, colony morphology and arrangement of spores were assessed for cellulolytic enzyme production. Isolates showing a cellulolytic index of ?2.0 were assayed for filter paper (FP) cellulase and ?-glucosidase (BGL) production. Molecular characterization confirmed the identity of the selected cellulolytic isolate as a strain of Aspergillus niger (A. niger HN-2). Addition of 2 % (w/v) urea enhanced FP and BGL activity by about 20 and 60 %, respectively. Validation studies conducted at parameters (29 °C, pH 5.4, moisture content 72 % and 66 h) optimized through response surface methodology in a solid-state static tray fermentation resulted in FP, BGL, cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI), endoglucanase (EG), xylanase activity and protein content of 25.3 FPU/g ds, 750 IU/g ds, 13.2 IU/g ds, 190 IU/g ds, 2890 IU/g ds and 0.9 mg/ml, respectively. In comparison, A. niger N402 which is a model organism for growth and development studies, produced significantly lower FP, BGL, CBHI, EG, xylanase activity and protein content of 10.0 FPU/g ds, 100 IU/g ds, 2.3 IU/g ds, 50 IU/g ds, 500 IU/g ds and 0.75 mg/ml, respectively under the same process conditions as were used for A. niger HN-2. Process optimization led to nearly 1.8- and 2.2-fold increase in FP and BGL activity, respectively showing promise for cellulase production by A. niger HN-2 at a higher scale of operation. Zymogram analysis revealed two isoforms each for EG and cellobiohydrolase and three isoforms for BGL. Crude cellulase complex produced by A. niger HN-2 exhibited thermostability under acidic conditions showing potential for use in biofuel industry. PMID:24158534

  12. Utilization of ram horn peptone in the production of glucose oxidase by a local isolate Aspergillus niger OC-3.

    PubMed

    Canli, Ozden; Kurbanoglu, Esabi Basaran

    2011-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GO) is an enzyme that is used in many fields. In this study, ram horn peptone (RHP) was utilized as the nitrogen source and compared with other nitrogen sources in the production of GO by Aspergillus niger. To obtain higher GO activity, 14 A. niger strains were isolated from soil samples around Erzurum, Turkey. Among these strains, the isolate that was named A. niger OC-3 achieved the highest GO production. The production of GO was carried out in 100 mL scaled batch culture. The fermentation conditions such as initial pH, temperature, agitation speed, and time were investigated in order to improve GO production. The results showed that the cultivation conditions would significantly affect the formation of GO, and the utilization of the RHP achieved the highest enzyme production (48.6 U/mL) if compared to other nitrogen sources. On the other hand, the maximum biomass was obtained by using the fish peptone (7.2 g/L), while RHP yielded 6.4 g/L. These results suggest that RHP from waste ram horns could effectively be used in the production of GO by A. niger OC-3. PMID:21229465

  13. Studies on the production of phytase by a newly isolated strain of Aspergillus niger var teigham obtained from rotten wood-logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Purva Vats; U. C Banerjee

    2002-01-01

    A hyper-producing strain of Aspergillus niger var teigham was used for the production of phytase in shake flask and fermenter. This newly isolated strain maximally produced 184 nkat\\/ml phytase activity in minimal medium with a specific activity of 21367 nkat\\/mg protein. The optimum growth temperature of A. niger was 37°C while maximum enzyme activity was obtained when the organism was

  14. Isolation of a Aspergillus niger lipase from a solid culture medium with aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Marini, Analía; Imelio, Natalia; Picó, Guillermo; Romanini, Diana; Farruggia, Beatriz

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this work is to find the best conditions to isolate lipase from a solid culture medium of Aspergillus niger NRRL3 strains using aqueous two-phase systems formed with polyethylene glycol and potassium phosphate or polyethylene glycol and sodium citrate. We studied the partitioning of a commercial lyophilizate from A. niger. Also, the lipase enzymatic activity was studied in all the phases of the systems and the results indicate that citrate anion increases lipase activity. An analysis by fluorescence spectroscopy of the interaction between lipase and the bottom and top phases of the systems shows that the protein tryptophan-environments are modified by the presence of PEG and salts. Separation of the enzyme from the rest of the proteins that make up the lyophilized was achieved with good yield and separation factor by ATPS formed by PEG 1000/Pi at pH 7, PEG 2000/Ci at pH 5.2 and PEG 4000/Ci at pH 5.2. The above mentioned systems were used in order to isolate extracellular lipase from a strain of A. niger in submerged culture and solid culture. The best system for solid culture, with high purification factor (30.50), is the PEG 4000/Ci at pH 5.2. The enzyme was produced in a solid culture medium whose production is simple and recovered in a phase poor in polymer, bottom phase. An additional advantage is that the citrate produces less pollution than the phosphate. This methodology could be used as a first step for the isolation of the extracellular lipase from A. niger. PMID:21689997

  15. Lysine aminopeptidase of Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. J. W. Basten; Jaap Visser; Peter J. Schaap

    2001-01-01

    Conserved regions within the M1 family of metallo-aminopeptidases have been used to clone a zinc aminopeptidase from the industrially used fungus Aspergillus niger. The derived amino acid sequence of ApsA is highly similar to two yeast zinc aminopeptidases, LAPI and AAPI (53.3 and 50.9?verall similarity, respectively), two members of the M1 family of metallo-aminopeptidases. The encoding gene was successfully overexpressed

  16. Impact of some environmental factors on growth and production of ochratoxin A of/by Aspergillus tubingensis, A. niger, and A. carbonarius isolated from Moroccan grapes.

    PubMed

    Selouane, Atar; Bouya, Driss; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Decock, C; Bouseta, Amina

    2009-08-01

    The effects of temperature, water activity (aw), incubation time, and their combinations on radial growth and ochratoxin A (OTA) production of/by eight Aspergillus niger aggregate strains (six A. tubingensis and two A. niger) and four A. carbonarius isolated from Moroccan grapes were studied. Optimal conditions for the growth of most studied strains were shown to be at 25 degrees C and 0.95 aw. No growth was observed at 10 degrees C regardless of the water activity and isolates. The optimal temperature for OTA production was in the range of 25 degrees C-30 degrees C for A. carbonarius and 30 degrees C-37 degrees C for A. niger aggregate. The optimal aw for toxin production was 0.95-0.99 for A. carbonarius and 0.90-0.95 for A. niger aggregate. Mean OTA concentration produced by all the isolates of A. niger aggregate tested at all sampling times shows that maximum amount of OTA (0.24 microg/g) was produced at 37 degrees C and 0.90 aw. However, for A. carbonarius, mean maximum amounts of OTA (0.22 microg/g) were observed at 25 degrees C and 0.99 aw. Analysis of variance showed that the effects of all single factors (aw, isolate, temperature and incubation time) and their interactions on growth and OTA production were highly significant. PMID:19763414

  17. Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

    2011-07-01

    Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

  18. A tyrosinase inhibitor from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Vasantha, K Y; Murugesh, C S; Sattur, A P

    2014-10-01

    Tyrosinase, in the presence of oxygen, is the main culprit in post harvest browning of food products, resulting in the drop in its commercial value. In an effort to seek natural tyrosinase inhibitors for food applications, a screening programme was undertaken. Of the 26 fungal cultures isolated from soil samples of Agumbe forest, India, one isolate S16, identified as Aspergillus niger, gave an inhibition of 84 % against the enzyme. The inhibitor was isolated by following an enzyme inhibition assay guided purification protocol. The structure of the inhibitor was elucidated and found to be kojic acid. The IC50 of the Competitive inhibitor was found to be 8.8 ?g with a Ki of 0.085 mM. PMID:25328242

  19. Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    de Bekker, Charissa; Bruning, Oskar; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M; Wösten, Han A B

    2011-01-01

    Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

  20. Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

  1. Kitchens as a source of Aspergillus niger infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Loudon; A. P. Coke; J. P. Burnie; A. J. Shaw; B. A. Oppenheim; C. Q. Morris

    1996-01-01

    In this study we investigated the epidemiology of a cluster of cutaneous infections owing to Aspergillus niger, which occurred in neutropenic patients in a bone marrow transplant unit. Heavy environmental contamination with the mould was found in the ward kitchen adjacent to the unit. The clinical and environmental isolates were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), which showed

  2. Structure elucidation of metabolites of swertiamarin produced by Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Chang; Xue-Ming, Zhao; Chang-Xiao, Liu; Tie-Jun, Zhang

    2008-04-01

    The in vitro metabolism of swertiamarin was carried out in preparative scale using the fungus Aspergillus niger and the metabolites were isolated by semi-preparative HPLC combined with liquid-liquid extraction. Two metabolites, erythrocentaurin and one new compound were obtained and identified by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and high resolution MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of the novel metabolite was tested and compared with that of swertiamarin in a mice model.

  3. Degradation of homophthalic acid byAspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Karigar, C S; Banji, S H; Pujar, B G

    1993-09-01

    The fungusAspergillus niger degraded homophthalic acid through the involvement ofo-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and homogentisic acid as the metabolic intermediates. Isolation of intermediates was carried out by extracting the spent medium and by using inhibitor in replacement culture techniques. Metabolites were characterized by various physicochemical methods. Oxygen uptake studies and enzyme investigations also confirmed that the degradation of homophthalic acid follows through these intermediates in the fungus. PMID:23835751

  4. Mutagenesis and genetic characterisation of amylolytic Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Sobiya; Bajwa, Rukhsana; Shafique, Shazia

    2010-07-01

    Aspergillus niger FCBP-198 was genetically modified for its ability to reveal extra cellular alpha-amylase enzyme activity. From 76 efficient mutants isolated after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, An-UV-5.6 was selected as the most efficient UV mutant, with 76.41 units mL(-1) of alpha-amylase activity compared to wild (34.45 units mL(-1)). In case of ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), among 242 survivors, 74 were assayed quantitatively and An-Ch-4.7 was found to be the most competent, as it exhibited a three-fold increase in alpha-amylase activity (89.38 units mL(-1)) than the parental strain. Genetic relationships of the mutants of A. niger FCBP-198 were analysed with a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results obtained from the comparison between genotypes of A. niger FCBP-198 showed differences in the sizes and numbers of amplified fragments per primer for each isolate. The dendrogram showed that genotypes An-Ch-4.7 and An-Ch-4.2 were distinctly classified into one category, while the isolates An-UV-5.6, An-UV-5.1 and A. niger FCBP-198 have the nearest genetic relationship. The five isolates from A. niger FCBP-198 genotypes shared an average of 65% bands. PMID:19764004

  5. Galactosaminogalactan from cell walls of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed Central

    Bardalaye, P C; Nordin, J H

    1976-01-01

    A new heteropolysaccharide has been isolated by alkaline extraction of hyphal walls of Aspergillus niger NRRL 326 grown in surface culture. Its composition by weight, as determined by paper and gas chromatography and colorimetric analyses, is 70% galactose, 20% galactosamine, 6% glucose, and 1% acetyl. Two independent experiments have been used to ascertain copolymer structure: permeation chromatography in 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride, with controlled-pore glass columns of two fractionation ranges, and nitrous acid deaminative cleavage of galactosaminogalactan followed by reduction of fragments with [3H]borohydride and gel filtration chromatography. One of the tritiated fragments is tentatively identified as the disaccharide derivative galactopyranosyl 2,5-anhydrotalitol, on the basis of chromatographic properties and by kinetics of its acid hydrolysis. Smith degradation, methylation, deamination, and optical rotation studies indicate that the galactosaminogalactan consists of a linear array of hexopyranosyl units joined almost exclusively by alpha-(1 leads to 4) linkages. Hexosaminyl moieties are distributed randomly along the chains, which have an average degree of polymerization of about 100. The possible significance of this macromolecule in hyphal structure is considered. PMID:173713

  6. Cryptic species and azole resistance in the Aspergillus niger complex.

    PubMed

    Howard, Susan J; Harrison, Elizabeth; Bowyer, Paul; Varga, Janos; Denning, David W

    2011-10-01

    Aspergillus niger is a common clinical isolate. Multiple species comprise the Aspergillus section Nigri and are separable using sequence data. The antifungal susceptibility of these cryptic species is not known. We determined the azole MICs of 50 black aspergilli, 45 from clinical specimens, using modified EUCAST (mEUCAST) and Etest methods. Phylogenetic trees were prepared using the internal transcribed spacer, beta-tubulin, and calmodulin sequences to identify strains to species level and the results were compared with those obtained with cyp51A sequences. We attempted to correlate cyp51A mutations with azole resistance. Etest MICs were significantly different from mEUCAST MICs (P < 0.001), with geometric means of 0.77 and 2.79 mg/liter, respectively. Twenty-six of 50 (52%) isolates were itraconazole resistant by mEUCAST (MICs > 8 mg/liter), with limited cross-resistance to other azoles. Using combined beta-tubulin/calmodulin sequences, the 45 clinical isolates grouped into 5 clades, A. awamori (55.6%), A. tubingensis (17.8%), A. niger (13.3%), A. acidus (6.7%), and an unknown group (6.7%), none of which were morphologically distinguishable. Itraconazole resistance was found in 36% of the isolates in the A. awamori group, 90% of the A. tubingensis group, 33% of the A. niger group, 100% of the A. acidus group, and 67% of the unknown group. These data suggest that cyp51A mutations in section Nigri may not play as important a role in azole resistance as in A. fumigatus, although some mutations (G427S, K97T) warrant further study. Numerous cryptic species are found in clinical isolates of the Aspergillus section Nigri and are best reported as "A. niger complex" by clinical laboratories. Itraconazole resistance was common in this data set, but azole cross-resistance was unusual. The mechanism of resistance remains obscure. PMID:21768508

  7. pgaD encodes a new type of endopolygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Parenicova; H. C. M. Kester; J. A. E. Benen; J. Visser

    2000-01-01

    We isolated and characterized a new type of endopolygalacturonase (PG)-encoding gene, pgaD, from Aspergillus niger. The primary structure of PGD differs from that of other A. niger PGs by a 136 amino acid residues long N-terminal extension. Biochemical analysis demonstrated extreme processive behavior of the enzyme on oligomers longer than five galacturonate units. Furthermore, PGD is the only A. niger

  8. Characterization of a novel endopolygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger with unique kinetic properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucie Pa?enicová; Harry C. M. Kester; Jacques A. E. Benen; Jaap Visser

    2000-01-01

    We isolated and characterized a new type of endopolygalacturonase (PG)-encoding gene, pgaD, from Aspergillus niger. The primary structure of PGD differs from that of other A. niger PGs by a 136 amino acid residues long N-terminal extension. Biochemical analysis demonstrated extreme processive behavior of the enzyme on oligomers longer than five galacturonate units. Furthermore, PGD is the only A. niger

  9. Molecular characterization of a PDI-related gene prpA in Aspergillus niger var. awamori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huaming Wang; Michael Ward

    2000-01-01

    A gene (prpA) homologous to the protein disulfide isomerase gene was isolated from Aspergillus niger by Southern hybridization using the pdi1 gene isolated from Trichodermareesei as a DNA probe. The corresponding cDNA of the prpA gene has also been isolated from an A. niger var. awamori cDNA library. The prpA gene does not belong to any currently recognized family of

  10. Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

  11. Susceptibility testing of Aspergillus niger strains isolated from poultry to antifungal drugs--a comparative study of the disk diffusion, broth microdilution (M 38-A) and Etest methods.

    PubMed

    Tokarzewski, S; Zió?kowska, G; Nowakiewicz, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of Aspergillus niger strains isolated from birds to available antifungal drugs using different in vitro assays--classical disk diffusion, Etest and broth microdilution NCCLS/CLSI M 38-A. The study material consisted of about 2.000 swabs and samples from different species of birds. A. niger (n=10) was accounted for 6.81% of the total pool of strains isolated. Determinations were made for 13 antifungal drugs using the disk diffusion method. The A. niger exhibited high susceptibility to enilconazole, terbinafine, voriconazole, tioconazole and ketoconazole, low susceptibility to clotrimazole, miconazole and nystatin, and resistance to amphotericin B, itraconazole, pimaricin, fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 9 antifungal drugs using the micromethod of duplicate serial dilutions in a liquid medium. A. niger strains were most susceptible to enilconazole and voriconazole. MIC ranged from 0.0625 to 0.5 microg/ml for enilconazole, with MIC90-0.5 microg/ml and MIC50-0.125 microg/ml. The corresponding values for voriconazole were 0.25-1 microg/ml, 1 microg/ml and 0.5 microg/ml. MIC for amphotericin B and terbinafine ranged from 0.5 to 4 microg/ml, while the values for the remaining drugs were highly varied. MIC was measured by the gradient diffusion method using Etest for 5 antifungal drugs: amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole. By far the highest susceptibility was obtained in the case of voriconazole, with MIC ranging from 0.0625 to 1 microg/ml. MIC for amphotericin B ranged from 0.25 to 4 microg/ml, for itraconazole and ketoconazole ranging from 0.5 to 16 microg/ml. Methods available for this purpose are not always applicable in field conditions. The present results indicate that the Etest technique, due to its high percentage of agreement with the M 38-A microdilution method, should find application in medical and veterinary practice. PMID:22708367

  12. Identification and cloning of a second phytase gene (phyB) from Aspergillus niger (ficuum).

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, K C; Montalbano, B G; Mullaney, E J; Dischinger, H C; Ullah, A H

    1993-08-31

    An Aspergillus niger (ficuum) genomic DNA lambda EMBL3 library was probed with a 354-bp DNA fragment obtained by polymerase chain reaction of A. niger DNA with oligonucleotides based on partial amino acid sequence of a pH 2.5 optimum acid phosphatase. A clone containing a 1605 bp segment (phyB) encoding the 479 amino acid enzyme was isolated and found to contain four exons. Global alignment revealed 23.5% homology to Aspergillus niger phytase (PhyA); four regions of extensive homology were identified. Some of these regions may contain catalytic sites for phosphatase function. PMID:7916610

  13. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

  14. Isolation, characterization, and molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding a novel phytase from Aspergillus niger 113 and high expression in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Yao, Quan-Hong; Peng, Ri-He; Li, Xian; Fan, Hui-Qin; Guo, Mei-Jin; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2004-05-31

    Phytases catalyze the release of phosphate from phytic acid. Phytase-producing microorganisms were selected by culturing the soil extracts on agar plates containing phytic acid. Two hundred colonies that exhibited potential phytase activity were selected for further study. The colony showing the highest phytase activity was identified as Aspergillus niger and designated strain 113. The phytase gene from A. niger 113 (phyI1) was isolated, cloned, and characterized. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence identity between phyI1 and phyA from NRRL3135 were 90% and 98%, respectively. The identity between phyI1 and phyA from SK-57 was 89% and 96%. A synthetic phytase gene, phyI1s, was synthesized by successive PCR and transformed into the yeast expression vector carrying a signal peptide that was designed and synthesized using P. pastoris biased codon. For the phytase expression and secretion, the construct was integrated into the genome of P. pastoris by homologous recombination. Over-expressing strains were selected and fermented. It was discovered that ~4.2 g phytase could be purified from one liter of culture fluid. The activity of the resulting phytase was 9.5 U/mg. Due to the heavy glycosylation, the expressed phytase varied in size (120, 95, 85, and 64 kDa), but could be deglycosylated to a homogeneous 64 kDa species. An enzymatic kinetics analysis showed that the phytase had two pH optima (pH 2.0 and pH 5.0) and an optimum temperature of 60 degrees C. PMID:15469708

  15. Isolation and growth characterization of chlorate and/or bromate resistant mutants generated by spontaneous and induced foreword mutations at several gene loci in aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Ghassan J. M.; Al-Najjar, Heyam E.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed her mainly to evaluate the contribution of newly employed bromate selection system, in obtaining new Aspergillus niger nitrate/nitrite assimilation defective mutants, through Ultraviolet treatment (UV), 1, 2, 7, 8-Diepoxyoctane (DEO), phenols mixture (Phx)) and spontaneous treatments. The newly employed bromate selection system was able to specify only two putative novel mutant types designated brn (bromate resistant but chlorate sensitive (RS) strain, which may specify nitrite specific transporter) and cbrn mutants (bromate resistant and chlorate resistant strain, which may specify nitrate/nitrite bispecific system). The most relevant and innovative findings of this research work involve the isolation of the RR ( cbrn) mutants (a new type of nitrate assimilation defective mutants), that could be useful for studying the bispecific nitrate /nitrite transporter system. The majority of obtained bromate resistant mutants (93.3% of the total mutants obtained by all treatments) were of the brn type, whereas the remaining percentage (6.76%) was given to cbrn strains. The highest percentages of brn mutant strains (48% and 58.6% of the total RS strains) were obtained with UA after spontaneous and Phx treatment, whereas Trp has generated 29% and 42% of RS strains after UV and DEO treatments, respectively. The obtained ratios of cbrn mutants were higher (i.e. in the range of 8.4%-11.64% of the total bromate mutants) with chemical treatments, especially when U.A or Pro was serving as sole N-sources at 25ºC rather than 37ºC. A 69% mutants` yield of Aspergillus niger mutant strains representing nine gene loci ( niaD, cnx-6 loci , nrt and nirA) were selected on the bases of chlorate (600 mM) toxicity. All chlorate resistant mutants were completely sensitive to bromate (250 mM). The niaD mutants showed the highest percentage (73.97%) of chlorate resistant mutants obtained with all tested treatments. The UV treatment has generated the highest ratio (86.9%) of niaD mutants, whereas, the least (61%) was obtained with Phx treatment. The highest percentage of cnx mutants (32%) was obtained with Phx treatment. The DEO treatment as compared to other tested treatments was the best to use for obtaining the highest ratios of either nrt (13.8%) mutants or nirA (1.9%) mutants. PMID:24031593

  16. Heterogeneity of Aspergillus niger microcolonies in liquid shaken cultures.

    PubMed

    de Bekker, Charissa; van Veluw, G Jerre; Vinck, Arman; Wiebenga, L Ad; Wösten, Han A B

    2011-02-01

    The fungus Aspergillus niger forms (sub)millimeter microcolonies within a liquid shaken culture. Here, we show that such microcolonies are heterogeneous with respect to size and gene expression. Microcolonies of strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the promoter of the glucoamlyase gene glaA or the ferulic acid esterase gene faeA were sorted on the basis of diameter and fluorescence using the Complex Object Parametric Analyzer and Sorter (COPAS) technology. Statistical analysis revealed that the liquid shaken culture consisted of two populations of microcolonies that differ by 90 ?m in diameter. The population of small microcolonies of strains expressing GFP from the glaA or faeA promoter comprised 39% and 25% of the culture, respectively. Two populations of microcolonies could also be distinguished when the expression of GFP in these strains was analyzed. The population expressing a low level of GFP consisted of 68% and 44% of the culture, respectively. We also show that mRNA accumulation is heterogeneous within microcolonies of A. niger. Central and peripheral parts of the mycelium were isolated with laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC), and RNA from these samples was used for quantitative PCR analysis. This analysis showed that the RNA content per hypha was about 45 times higher at the periphery than in the center of the microcolony. Our data imply that the protein production of A. niger can be improved in industrial fermentations by reducing the heterogeneity within the culture. PMID:21169437

  17. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. O. Aderemi; E. Abu; B. K. Highina

    In this investigation, glucose was produced from rice straw using cells of Aspergillus niger, isolated from maize grain. Glucose yield was found to increase from 43 to 87% as the rice straw particle size decreased from 425 to 75 µm, while the optimal temperature and pH were found within the range of 45 - 50°C and 4.5 - 5 respectively.

  18. Characterization of a novel endopolygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger with unique kinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Parenicová, L; Kester, H C; Benen, J A; Visser, J

    2000-02-11

    We isolated and characterized a new type of endopolygalacturonase (PG)-encoding gene, pgaD, from Aspergillus niger. The primary structure of PGD differs from that of other A. niger PGs by a 136 amino acid residues long N-terminal extension. Biochemical analysis demonstrated extreme processive behavior of the enzyme on oligomers longer than five galacturonate units. Furthermore, PGD is the only A. niger PG capable of hydrolyzing di-galacturonate. It is tentatively concluded that the enzyme is composed of four subsites. The physiological role of PGD is discussed. PMID:10675564

  19. Isolation and structures of new cyclomyltaylane and ent-chamigrane-type sesquiterpenoids from the liverwort Reboulia hemishaerica and their biotransformation by the fungus Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Mai; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Noma, Yoshiaki; Asakawaa, Yoshinori

    2006-07-01

    Reboulia hemisphaerica, the thalloid liverwort, contained four new cyclomyltaylane- and two new ent-beta-chamigrane-type sesquiterpenoids of which the absolute stereostructures were established by a combination of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and the modified Mosher's method. Cyclomyltaylan-5alpha-ol and ent-beta-chamigren-1alpha-ol were biotransformed by the fungus Aspergillus niger to afford new oxygenated matabolites. Their structures were also elucidated in the same manner as described above. PMID:16819219

  20. Bioaccumulation potential of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus for removal of heavy metals from paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, B; Shivakumar, C K; Krishnappa, M

    2012-11-01

    In the present study Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus isolated from paper mill effluent showed tolerance and accumulation of toxic metals Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr and Cu from synthetic medium and paper mill effluent. Physico-chemical and heavy metals characterization of industrially treated paper mill effluent showed insignificant reduction in BOD, hardness, TDS and heavy metals as compared to permissible limits of BIS and WHO. A. niger and A. flavus were treated with synthetic medium containing 100-1000 mg l(-1) of six heavy metals. A. niger was able to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, 500 mg l(-1) Cu, 250 mg l(-1) Zn and 100 mg l(-1) Cr, Ni respectively. No growth of A. niger was observed in 100 mg l-(-1) of Cd. A. flavus was capable to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, Zn and Ni, 100mg l(-1) Cu. A. flavus growth was completely inhibited in 100 mg l(-1) of Cd and Cr. The Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb reduction were found significant (p < 0.05) in the paper effluent inoculated with A. niger and A. flavus biomass compared to industrial treated effluent. A. niger and A. flavus accumulated maximum of Pb (75.82%) followed by Zn (49.40%) > Cu (45.34%) > Ni (25.20%), while only 41% Cr was accumulated by A. nigerfrom 100 mg l(-1) of Cr solution. PMID:23741802

  1. Characterization of four new antifungal yanuthones from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lene M; Holm, Dorte K; Knudsen, Peter B; Nielsen, Kristian F; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Mortensen, Uffe H; Larsen, Thomas O

    2015-03-01

    Four new yanuthone analogs (1-4) were isolated from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of UHPLC-DAD-HRMS data and one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Labeling studies with (13)C8-6-methylsalicylic acid identified three class I yanuthones originating from the polyketide 6-methylsalicylic acid (yanuthone K, L and M (1-3)) and a class II yanuthone, which was named yanuthone X2 (4). The four new compounds were tested toward the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans and all displayed antifungal activity. Yanuthone X2 represents the first example of a bioactive class II yanuthone, demonstrating the pharmaceutical potential of this class. PMID:25293978

  2. Growth and hydrolase profiles can be used as characteristics to distinguish Aspergillus niger and other black aspergilli.

    PubMed

    Meijer, M; Houbraken, J A M P; Dalhuijsen, S; Samson, R A; de Vries, R P

    2011-06-30

    Wild type Aspergillus niger isolates from different biotopes from all over the world were compared to each other and to the type strains of other black Aspergillus species with respect to growth and extracellular enzyme profiles. The origin of the A. niger isolate did not result in differences in growth profile with respect to monomeric or polymeric carbon sources. Differences were observed in the growth rate of the A. niger isolates, but these were observed on all carbon sources and not specific for a particular carbon source. In contrast, carbon source specific differences were observed between the different species. Aspergillus brasiliensis is the only species able to grow on D-galactose, and A. aculeatus had significantly better growth on Locus Bean gum than the other species. Only small differences were found in the extracellular enzyme profile of the A. niger isolates during growth on wheat bran, while large differences were observed in the profiles of the different black aspergilli. In addition, differences were observed in temperature profiles between the black Aspergillus species, but not between the A. niger isolates, demonstrating no isolate-specific adaptations to the environment.These data indicate that the local environment does not result in stable adaptations of A. niger with respect to growth profile or enzyme production, but that the potential is maintained irrespective of the environmental parameters. It also demonstrates that growth, extracellular protein and temperature profiles can be used for species identification within the group of black aspergilli. PMID:21892240

  3. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger without Bronchial Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideaki Hoshino; Shigeru Tagaki; Hayato Kon; Takashi Shibusa; Hirotsugu Takabatake; Akihisa Fujita; Kyuichiroh Sekine; Shosaku Abe

    1999-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a dry cough and pulmonary infiltrates. Chest radiograph and CT revealed mucoid impaction and consolidations. Peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE were observed. Aspergillus niger was cultured repeatedly from her sputum, but A. fumigatus was not detected. Immediate skin test and specific IgE (RAST) to Aspergillus antigen were positive. Precipitating

  4. Screening a strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of fermentation conditions for degradation of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-11-01

    Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment. PMID:25401962

  5. Screening a Strain of Aspergillus niger and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 †

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment. PMID:25401962

  6. Aspergillus niger absorbs copper and zinc from swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Price, M S; Classen, J J; Payne, G A

    2001-03-01

    Wastewater from swine confined-housing operations contains elevated levels of copper and zinc due to their abundance in feed. These metals may accumulate to phytotoxic levels in some agricultural soils of North Carolina due to land application of treated swine effluent. We evaluated fungi for their ability to remove these metals from wastewater and found Aspergillus niger best suited for this purpose. A. niger was able to grow on plates amended with copper at a level five times that inhibitory to the growth of Saccharomyes cerevisiae. We also found evidence for internal absorption as the mechanism used by A. niger to detoxify its environment of copper, a property of the fungus that has not been previously exploited for metal bioremediation. In this report, we show that A. niger is capable of removing 91% of the copper and 70% of the zinc from treated swine effluent. PMID:11211074

  7. Optimization of extraction of ?-endoglucanase from the fermented bran of Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Subhosh Chandra; Buddolla Viswanath; B. Rajasekhar Reddy

    2010-01-01

    A local isolate of Aspergillus niger was cultivated under optimal growth conditions on wheat bran in solid state fermentation. ?-endoglucanase from fermented\\u000a bran was separately extracted with different solvents to test recovery of enzyme. Among solvents tested, distilled water served\\u000a the best leachate. Conditions were further optimized with this leachate. Two washes of fermented bran with the leachate for\\u000a 30

  8. Application of immobilized tannase from Aspergillus niger for the removal of tannin from myrobalan juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Srivastava; Rita Kar

    2010-01-01

    Tannase produced optimally on an agroresidue by an Aspergillus niger isolate under submerged fermentation immobilized on sodium alginate beads with 93.6% efficiency was applied for tannin removal\\u000a from myrobalan\\/aonla (Phyllanthus emblica) juice. The pH and temperature optima of the immobilized enzyme were found to be 5.4 and 40°C while the corresponding values\\u000a of the soluble enzyme were 5.8 and 35°C.

  9. Production of inulinase using tap roots of dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) by Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naveen Kango

    2008-01-01

    Various inulin containing vegetal substrates were evaluated for inulinase production by an indigenous isolate, Aspergillus niger NK-126. Highest inulinase activity was observed with dandelion tap root extract (52.3IU\\/ml). The enzyme activity was fourfold higher than that observed in media containing pure chicory inulin (12.3IU\\/ml). The fungus showed good growth on a medium containing 40% (v\\/v) of dandelion tap root extract

  10. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  11. Extracellular phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Gunashree, B S; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-07-01

    Phytase, that is extensively used as a feed additive is capable of hydrolyzing phytic acid, an antinutrient found in about 60-80 % of all the plant commodities. This enzyme improves the bioavailability of essential minerals such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), P, Zn(2+), Fe(3+), that are bound to phytic acid. An extracellular phytase from a local fungal isolate, Aspergillus niger CFR 335 was purified to homogeneity through a three-step column chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex anion exchanger. An active fraction of the enzyme was obtained with NaCl gradient of 2.5 M in DEAE Sephadex column. The enzyme was purified up to 16 fold with a yield of 28.5 %. Substrate specificity studies revealed a highest specific activity of 32.6?±?3.1 U/mg for sodium phytate with the Km value of 0.08?±?0.1 mM. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 66 kDa with an optimum temperature of 30 °C and pH 4.5. Up to 80 % of the activity was retained even after storing the enzyme for 6 months at 4 °C. PMID:26139925

  12. Fractionation of ?-Glucosidases and Related Extracellular Enzymes from Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Li, L.-h.; King, K. W.

    1963-01-01

    Industrial concentrates from Aspergillus niger culture filtrates were fractionated by ion-exchange and adsorption chromatography. Several other types of hydrolases were completely removed. Eight partially purified components were obtained. Using specific activity as an estimate of purification, one aryl-?-glucosidase was purified 35-fold. Another component showed 147-fold purification using a viscosimetric assay with carboxymethylcellulose as substrate. The aryl-?-glucosidase was distinctly more thermolabile than the carboxymethylcellulase. PMID:13930396

  13. Fed-batch biotransformation of ?-ionone by Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Larroche; C. Cruely; J.-B. Gros

    1995-01-01

    Aspergillus niger IFO 8541 was found to be an efficient biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ß-ionone into hydroxy and oxo derivatives. The reaction had to be carried out with an inoculum made of about 4 × 107 fresh spores\\/l and with a preliminary growth period giving at least 3 g\\/l biomass. The fungus developed in the form of pellets when

  14. Production of l -asparaginase, an anticancer agent, from Aspergillus niger using agricultural waste in solid state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abha Mishra

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the production of high levels of l-asparaginase from a new isolate of Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation (SSF) using agrowastes from three leguminous crops (bran of Cajanus cajan, Phaseolus mungo, and Glycine max). When used as the sole source for growth in SSF, bran of G. max showed maximum enzyme production followed by that of P.

  15. Diagnostic significance of Aspergillus species isolated from respiratory samples in an adult pneumology ward.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Takayoshi; Izumikawa, Koichi; Tashiro, Masato; Takazono, Takahiro; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Yamamoto, Kazuko; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Seki, Masafumi; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yasuoka, Akira; Kohno, Shigeru

    2011-08-01

    Although the diagnostic significance of isolating Aspergillus spp. from respiratory cultures has been studied in immunocompromised hosts with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), little is known of such infections in immunocompetent patients with other forms of aspergillosis. In this study of adult pneumology ward patients, we examined the association between Aspergillus spp. and disease prevalence. Laboratory records from April 1998 to March 2009 were reviewed to identify patients with Aspergillus spp. in respiratory samples. Correlations between the isolated species and clinical characteristics of patients were evaluated. During the study period, 165 Aspergillus spp. isolates were detected in the respiratory cultures of 139 patients. Of these patients, 62 (45%) were colonized with Aspergillus spp. and displayed no clinical symptoms of aspergillosis, while 77 (55%) had a form of pulmonary aspergillosis, characterized as either chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) (48%), aspergilloma (29%), IPA (13%), or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) (10%). The dominant species were Aspergillus fumigatus (41%), A. niger (32%), and A. versicolor (12%). A. fumigatus was most commonly isolated in patients with IPA, aspergilloma, and CNPA, whereas A. niger was the dominant species in colonized patients and those with ABPA. Isolation of an Aspergillus spp. from respiratory samples does not confirm it as the etiologic pathogen because airway colonization by Aspergillus spp. is a common feature in several chronic lung diseases. Repeated isolation of the identical Aspergillus species and detection of anti-Aspergillus antibodies and/or Aspergillus antigens in sera are needed to determine the isolate represents the etiologic agent of disease. PMID:21208028

  16. Bioremediation of CCA-C treated wood by Aspergillus niger fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Kartal; T. Kakitani; Y. Imamura

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove copper, chromium, and arsenic from waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative. The removal of heavy metals by A. niger was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, A. niger was cultivated in carbohydrates media in order to produce large quantities of oxalic

  17. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemdan, R.; et al.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl ? pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  18. Cloning and Expression of Gumboro VP2 Antigen in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Mohammad; Yakhchali, Bagher; Ghamarian, Abdolreza; Enayati, Somayeh; Khodabandeh, Mahvash; Khalaj, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) causes a highly immunosuppressive disease in chickens and is a pathogen of major economic importance to the poultry industry worldwide. The VP2 protein is the major host-protective immunogen of IBDV and has been considered as a potential subunit vaccine against the disease. VP2 coding sequence was cloned in an inducible fungal vector and the protein was expressed in Aspergillus niger (A. niger). Methods Aiming at a high level of expression, a multicopy AMA1-pyrG-based episomal construct driven by a strong inducible promoter, glaA, was prepared and used in transformation of A. niger pyrG-protoplasts. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis was carried out to confirm the expression of the protein. Results A number of pyrG + positive transformants were isolated and the presence of expression cassette was confirmed. Western blot analysis of one of these recombinant strains using monospecific anti-VP2 antibodies demonstrated the successful expression of the protein. The recombinant protein was also detected by serum obtained from immunized chicken. Conclusion In the present study, we have generated a recombinant A. niger strain expressing VP2 protein intracellulary. This recombinant strain of A. niger may have potential applications in oral vaccination against IBDV in poultry industry. PMID:23626875

  19. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

  20. Effect of vanillin concentration, pH and incubation temperature on Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A López-Malo; S. M Alzamora; A Argaiz

    1997-01-01

    The effects of incubation temperature (10–30°C), pH (3.0–4.0) and vanillin concentration (350–1200ppm) on the growth ofAspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceusandAspergillus parasiticuswere evaluated using potato–dextrose agar adjusted to water activity (aw) 0.98. The radial growth rates after a lag period followed zero-order kinetics with constants that varied from 0 (no growth) to 0.63mmh?1. The lag period depended on vanillin concentration,

  1. Optimization of extraction of ?-endoglucanase from the fermented bran of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Chandra, M Subhosh; Viswanath, Buddolla; Reddy, B Rajasekhar

    2010-10-01

    A local isolate of Aspergillus niger was cultivated under optimal growth conditions on wheat bran in solid state fermentation. ?-endoglucanase from fermented bran was separately extracted with different solvents to test recovery of enzyme. Among solvents tested, distilled water served the best leachate. Conditions were further optimized with this leachate. Two washes of fermented bran with the leachate for 30 min each under shaking conditions in a ratio of 1 g of wheat bran: 4 ml of distilled water together yielded maximum recovery of 16.7 U/g of wheat bran. PMID:22815584

  2. Microbial transformations of S-naproxen by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142.

    PubMed

    He, A; Rosazza, J P N

    2003-06-01

    Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142 was used to catalyze the biotransformation of S(-)-naproxen (1) to three major metabolites that were isolated by solvent extraction, purified chromatographically, and characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Metabolites were identified as O-desmethylnaproxen (2), 7-hydroxynaproxen (3) and 7-hydroxy-O-desmethyinaproxen (4). The kinetics of naproxen biotransformation to 2 and 4 was established over an 84 h period to show that naproxen was completely metabolized at 36 h, the major metabolite was O-desmethylnaproxen at 24 h, and the 7-hydroxy-O-desmethylnaproxen that was formed after 24 h. PMID:12857008

  3. Production of glucose oxidase using Aspergillus niger and corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Kona, R P; Qureshi, N; Pai, J S

    2001-06-01

    Glucose oxidase production was optimized using an isolated strain of Aspergillus niger and an economical nutrient source, corn steep liquor (CSL). The culture produced 580 +/- 30 units/ml of the enzyme using 70 g/l sucrose as the carbon source. Using CSL as the sole nutrient source enzyme synthesis was increased to 640 +/- 36 units/ml. None of the nitrogen sources (nitrates of calcium, sodium, ammonium, potassium and yeast extract, malt extract, and peptone) was beneficial to the enzyme synthesis. Aeration and agitation enhanced enzyme synthesis to 850 +/- 45 units/ml. Glucose oxidase has numerous applications in food industry and clinical fields. PMID:11333029

  4. Lethal effects of Aspergillus niger against mosquitoes vector of filaria, malaria, and dengue: a liquid mycoadulticide.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus. It has caused a disease called black mold on certain fruits and vegetables. The culture filtrates released from the A. niger ATCC 66566 were grown in Czapek dox broth (CDB) then filtered with flash chromatograph and were used for the bioassay after a growth of thirty days. The result demonstrated these mortalities with LC(50), LC(90), and LC(99) values of Culex quinquefasciatus 0.76, 3.06, and 4.75, Anopheles stephensi 1.43, 3.2, and 3.86, and Aedes aegypti 1.43, 2.2, and 4.1 ?l/cm(2), after exposure of seven hours. We have calculated significant LT(90) values of Cx. quinquefasciatus 4.5, An. stephensi 3.54, and Ae. aegypti 6.0 hrs, respectively. This liquid spray of fungal culture isolate of A. niger can reduce malaria, dengue, and filarial transmission. These results significantly support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond chemical adulticides. PMID:22629156

  5. Phytase activity in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, E J; Daly, C B; Sethumadhavan, K; Rodriquez, E; Lei, X G; Ullah, A H

    2000-09-01

    Extracellular phytase from Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was characterized and their genes were cloned and sequenced. Based on their banding pattern in SDS-PAGE all phytases were found to be glycosylated and have similar molecular mass. A correlation between lower optimum pH (4.0) and a higher optimum temperature (70 degrees C) was found in these enzymes. All enzymes characterized displayed a lower specific activity for phytic acid and were more susceptible to proteolytic degradation than the Aspergillus niger phytase that is now commercially available. DNA sequencing established almost no sequence variation in any of the genes and no correlation is evident between a specific amino acid sequence and any physicochemical and catalytic properties of the enzymes. Despite two of the isolates having identical deduced amino acid sequence, characterization of the enzymes encoded by these two identical genes revealed differences in both pH and temperature optimum. This suggests that differences in pH and temperature optimum in these four isolates of A. fumigatus may be due in part to subtle differences in posttranslational modification. PMID:10973795

  6. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspe...

  7. Two-stage statistical medium optimization for augmented cellulase production via solid-state fermentation by newly isolated Aspergillus niger HN-1 and application of crude cellulase consortium in hydrolysis of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Babbar, Neha; Miglani, Kanupriya; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh; Nanda, Dhiraj Kumar

    2013-12-26

    Cellulolytic enzyme production by newly isolated Aspergillus niger HN-1 was statistically optimized using Plackett-Burman and central composite design (CCD). Optimum concentrations of 2, 0.40, 0.01, and 0.60 g L (-1) for KH2PO4, urea, trace elements solution, and CaCl2·2H2O, respectively, were suggested by Design-Expert software. The two-stage optimization process led to a 3- and 2-fold increases in the filter paper cellulase (FP) and ?-glucosidase activities, respectively. FP, ?-glucosidase, endoglucanase, exopolygalaturonase, cellobiohydrolase, xylanase, ?-l-arabinofuranosidase, ?-xylosidase, and xylan esterase activities of 36.7 ± 1.54 FPU gds(-1), 252.3 ± 7.4 IU gds(-1), 416.3 ± 22.8 IU gds(-1), 111.2 ± 5.4 IU gds(-1), 8.9 ± 0.50 IU gds(-1), 2593.5 ± 78.9 IU gds(-1), 79.4 ± 4.3 IU gds(-1), 180.8 ± 9.3 IU gds(-1), and 288.7 ± 11.8 IU gds(-1), respectively, were obtained through solid-state fermentation during the validation studies. Hydrolysis of alkali-treated rice straw with crude cellulases resulted in about 84% glucan to glucose, 89% xylan to xylose, and 91% arabinan to arabinose conversions, indicating potential for biomass hydrolysis by the crude cellulase consortium obtained in this study. PMID:24328069

  8. Type III polyketide synthase is involved in the biosynthesis of protocatechuic acid in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yangyong; Xiao, Jing; Pan, Li

    2014-11-01

    Genomic studies have shown that not only plants but also filamentous fungi contain type III polyketide synthases. To study the function of type III polyketide synthase (AnPKSIII) in Aspergillus niger, a deletion strain (delAnPKSIII) and an overexpression strain (oeAnPKSIII) were constructed in A. niger MA169.4, a derivative of the wild-type (WT) A. niger ATCC 9029 that produces large quantities of gluconic acid. Alterations in the metabolites were analyzed by HPLC when the extract of the overexpression strain was compared with extracts of the WT and deletion strains. Protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3.2 mg/l) was isolated and identified as the main product of AnPKSIII when inductively expressed in A. niger MA169.4. The molecular weight of PCA was 154.1 (m/z 153.1 [M-H](-)), was detected by ESI-MS in the negative ionization mode, and (1)H and (13)C NMR data confirmed its structure. PMID:25048233

  9. Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

  10. [Protoplast mutagenesis for improving beta-glucosidase production of Aspergillus niger].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunli; Wu, Gaihong; Chen, Chang; Chen, Shulin

    2009-12-01

    The aims of this research were to isolate a Aspergillus niger strain with higher beta-glucosidase activity. We utilized the beta-glucosidase producing strain Aspergillus niger CGMCC 3.316 as the original strain to first obtain a mutant 3-3M through ultraviolet irradiation. Then we studied the conditions of protoplast release and regeneration for strain 3-3M. We treated the protoplasts of strain 3-3M via ultraviolet irradiation and obtained another isolated mutant 60B-3D. The strain 60B-3D showed much higher beta-glucosidase production than the original strain and 3-3M strain. The beta-glucosidase activity of strain 60B-3D was 23.4 IU/mL, with an improvement of 39% compared with the original strain, and 23% compared with strain 3-3M. We also studied the fermentation process of strain 60B-3D, and compared it with the original strain and strain 3-3M. We found the strain 60B-3D exhibited an improvement in xylanase production. The comparison results also showed that the strain 60B-3D secreted more protein. These results were beneficial for producing beta-glucosidase through this productive mutant. PMID:20352969

  11. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

    2010-10-01

    Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  12. Phosphinothricin resistance in Aspergillus niger and its utility as a selectable transformation marker.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Manmeet; Punekar, Narayan S

    2008-07-01

    Aspergillus niger is moderately susceptible to inhibition by phosphinothricin (PPT)-a potent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase. This growth inhibition was relieved by L-glutamine. PPT inhibited A. niger glutamine synthetase in vitro (K(I), 54 microM) and the inhibition was competitive with L-glutamate. The bar gene, imparting resistance to PPT, was successfully exploited as a dominant marker to transform this fungus. Very high PPT concentrations were required in the overlay for selection. Apart from bar transformants, colonies spontaneously resistant to PPT were frequently encountered on selection media. Reasons for such spontaneous resistance, albeit of moderate growth phenotype, were sought using one such isolate (SRPPT). The SRPPT isolate showed a 2-3-fold decrease in its glutamate uptake rate. Elevated external glutamate levels further suppressed the PPT-induced growth inhibition. Cellular entry of PPT could be through the L-glutamate uptake system thereby accounting for the observed spontaneous resistant phenotype. These results were useful in the fine-tuning of bar-selection in A. niger. PMID:18479949

  13. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883

  14. Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger Using Date-Based Medium Fortified with Whey and Additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Mehyar; K. S. Delaimy; S. A. Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    The ability of Aspergillus niger to produce citric acid from dates was evaluated. Two strains of A. niger (ATCC 6275 and 9642) were grown in media containing different concentrations of date extract or molasses fortified with whey, methanol and tricalcium phosphate. The fermentation experiments were conducted at 25° C for 12 days and samples were withdrawn at different time intervals

  15. Effective lead selection for improved protein production in Aspergillus niger based on integrated genomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise I. Jacobs; Maurien M. A. Olsthoorn; Isabelle Maillet; Michiel Akeroyd; Stefaan Breestraat; Serge Donkers; Cees A. M. J. J. van den Hondel; Rolf Kooistra; Thomas Lapointe; Hildegard Menke; Rogier Meulenberg; Marijke Misset; Wally H. Müller; Arthur Ram; Sabrina Rodriguez; Marc S. Roelofs; Johannes A. Roubos; Arie J. Verkleij; Herman J. Pel; Hein Stam; Cees M. J. Sagt

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited for industrial production of enzymes and organic acids. An integrated genomics approach was developed to determine cellular responses of A. niger to protein production in well-controlled fermentations. Different protein extraction methods in combination with automated sample processing and protein identification allowed quantitative analysis of 898 proteins. Three different enzyme overproducing strains were

  16. Homologue expression of a ?-xylosidase from native Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Amaro-Reyes, A; García-Almendárez, B E; Vázquez-Mandujano, D G; Amaya-Llano, S; Castaño-Tostado, E; Guevara-González, R G; Loera, O; Regalado, C

    2011-09-01

    Xylan constitutes the second most abundant source of renewable organic carbon on earth and is located in the cell walls of hardwood and softwood plants in the form of hemicellulose. Based on its availability, there is a growing interest in production of xylanolytic enzymes for industrial applications. ?-1,4-xylan xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37) hydrolyses from the nonreducing end of xylooligosaccharides arising from endo-1,4-?-xylanase activity. This work reports the partial characterization of a purified ?-xylosidase from the native strain Aspergillus niger GS1 expressed by means of a fungal system. A gene encoding ?-xylosidase, xlnD, was successfully cloned from a native A. niger GS1 strain. The recombinant enzyme was expressed in A. niger AB4.1 under control of A. nidulans gpdA promoter and trpC terminator. ?-xylosidase was purified by affinity chromatography, with an apparent molecular weight of 90 kDa, and showed a maximum activity of 4,280 U mg protein(-1) at 70°C, pH 3.6. Half-life was 74 min at 70°C, activation energy was 58.9 kJ mol(-1), and at 50°C optimum stability was shown at pH 4.0-5.0. ?-xylosidase kept residual activity >83% in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT), ?-mercaptoethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and Zn(2+). Production of a hemicellulolytic free xylosidase showed some advantages in applications, such as animal feed, enzymatic synthesis, and the fruit-juice industry where the presence of certain compounds, high temperatures, and acid media is unavoidable in the juice-making process. PMID:21116681

  17. Comparison of the properties of glucoamylases from Rhizopus niveus and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Pazur, J H; Liu, B L; Miskiel, F J

    1990-02-01

    Some properties of the glucoamylase from Rhizopus niveus have been determined and compared with the comparable properties of the glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger. The enzymes from these organisms possess the following common properties: quantitative conversion of starch to glucose, molecular weights in the range 95,500 to 97,500, and glycoprotein structures with many oligosaccharide side chains attached to the protein moieties of the enzymes. Differences in the glucoamylases exist in electrophoretic mobility, amino acid composition, nature of carbohydrate units, and types of glycosidic linkages. Lysine, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, tyrosine, and phenylalanine differ in the two glucoamylases by 25 to 50%. Whereas the enzyme from R. niveus contains mannose and glucosamine, in the N-acetyl form, as the carbohydrate constituents, the enzyme from A. niger contains mannose, glucose, and galactose. The carbohydrate chains of the R. niveus enzyme are linked by O-glycosidic and N-glycosidic linkages to the protein, while those of the A. niger enzyme are linked by O-glycosidic linkages only. Antibodies directed against the two glucosamylases have been isolated by affinity chromatography and found to be specific for the carbohydrate units of the glucoamylases. Cross reactions did not occur between the glucoamylases and the purified antibodies. PMID:2106901

  18. Molecular detection of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species isolated from coffee beans in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Moslem, M A; Mashraqi, A; Abd-Elsalam, K A; Bahkali, A H; Elnagaer, M A

    2010-01-01

    Ten fungal isolates from coffee beans were morphologically identified as Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonari-us (N = 5, 3, and 2, respectively). Only one isolate, morphologically identified as A. niger, was unable to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). This may be a new species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. OTA levels in all the other isolates were above the limit of detection (0.15 mg/kg). Based on microsatellite-primed PCR (MP-PCR) profiles, using three microsatellite primers, three main groups were obtained by UPGMA cluster analysis: A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius. A clear-cut association was found between the MP-PCR genotype and the ability to produce OTA. Using the primer pairs OCRA1/OCRA2, a single fragment of about 400 bp was amplified only when genomic DNA from the A. ochraceus isolates was used. PMID:21128209

  19. Biochemical and molecular characterization of secreted ?-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Scott-Craig, John S; Borrusch, Melissa S; Banerjee, Goutami; Harvey, Christopher M; Walton, Jonathan D

    2011-12-16

    ?-Linked xylose is a major component of xyloglucans in the cell walls of higher plants. An ?-xylosidase (AxlA) was purified from a commercial enzyme preparation from Aspergillus niger, and the encoding gene was identified. The protein is a member of glycosyl hydrolase family 31. It was active on p-nitrophenyl-?-d-xyloside, isoprimeverose, xyloglucan heptasaccharide (XXXG), and tamarind xyloglucan. When expressed in Pichia pastoris, AxlA had activity comparable to the native enzyme on pNP?X and IP despite apparent hyperglycosylation. The pH optimum of AxlA was between 3.0 and 4.0. AxlA together with ?-glucosidase depolymerized xyloglucan heptasaccharide. A combination of AxlA, ?-glucosidase, xyloglucanase, and ?-galactosidase in the optimal proportions of 51:5:19:25 or 59:5:11:25 could completely depolymerize tamarind XG to free Glc or Xyl, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first characterization of a secreted microbial ?-xylosidase. Secreted ?-xylosidases appear to be rare in nature, being absent from other tested commercial enzyme mixtures and from the genomes of most filamentous fungi. PMID:22033931

  20. A two-step bioconversion process for vanillin production from ferulic acid combining Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Lesage-Meessen; Michel Delattre; Mireille Haon; Jean-François Thibault; Benoit Colonna Ceccaldi; Pascal Brunerie; Marcel Asther

    1996-01-01

    A two-step bioconversion process of ferulic acid to vanillin was elaborated combining two filamentous fungi, Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. In the first step, A. niger transformed ferulic acid to vanillic acid and in the second step vanillic acid was reduced to vanillin by P. cinnabarinus. Ferulic acid metabolism by A. niger occurred essentially via the propenoic chain degradation to

  1. Flavone Biotransformation by Aspergillus niger and the Characterization of Two Newly Formed Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Assawah, Suzan W.; El-Sharkawy, Saleh H.; Abdel-Salam, Amal

    2008-01-01

    Aspergillus niger isolated from Allium sativum was used at large scale fermentation (150 mg flavone/200 ml medium) to obtain suitable amounts of the products, efficient for identification. Then spectral analysis (UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR) and mass spectrometry were performed for the two products, which contributed to the identification process. The metabolite (1) was identified as 2'-hydroxydihydrochalcone, and the metabolite (2) was identified as 2'-hydroxyphenylmethylketone, which were more active than flavone itself. Antioxidant activities of the two isolated metabolites were tested compared with ascorbic acid. Antioxidant activity of metabolite (1) was recorded 64.58% which represented 79% of the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid, and metabolite (2) was recorded 54.16% (67% of ascorbic acid activity). However, the antioxidant activity of flavone was recorded 37.50% which represented 46% of ascorbic acid activity. The transformed products of flavone have antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans, with MIC was recorded 250 µg/ml for metabolite (2) against all three organism and 500, 300, and 300 µg/ml for metabolite (1) against tested microorganisms (P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Klebsiella pneumonia, Fusarium moniliforme, A. flavus, Saccharomyces cerviceae, Kluveromyces lactis and C. albicans) at this order. PMID:23990746

  2. Molecular identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species isolated from rice and their toxin-producing ability.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, D; Zainal Abidin, M A; Tan, Y H; Kamaruzaman, S

    2011-01-01

    Thirty milled rice samples were collected from retailers in 4 provinces of Malaysia. These samples were evaluated for Aspergillus spp. infection by direct plating on malt extract salt agar (MESA). All Aspergillus holomorphs were isolated and identified using nucleotide sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 of rDNA. Five anamorphs (Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae, A. tamarii, A. fumigatus and A. niger) and 5 teleomorphs (Eurotium rubrum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. cristatum and E. tonophilum) were identified. The PCR-sequencing based technique for sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 is a fast technique for identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species, although it doesn't work flawlessly for differentiation of Eurotium species. All Aspergillus and Eurotium isolates were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin and ochratoxin A (OTA) by HPLC and TLC techniques. Only A. flavus isolate UPM 89 was able to produce aflatoxins B1 and B2. PMID:22168015

  3. Production and characterization of extracellular protease of mutant Aspergillus niger AB 100 grown on fish scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barnali Ray Basu; Ajit K. Banik; Manas Das

    2008-01-01

    Fish scale, the chief waste material of fish processing industries was processed and tested for production of extracellular\\u000a protease by mutant Aspergillus niger AB100. Protease production by A. niger AB100 was greatly enhanced in presence of processed fish scale powder. Where as among the three complex nutrients tested, soya\\u000a bean meal shows maximum stimulatory effect over protease production (2,776 ?mol\\/ml\\/min) when

  4. Bimutation breeding of Aspergillus niger strain for enhancing ?-mannanase production by solid-state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minchen Wu; Cunduo Tang; Jianfang Li; Huimin Zhang; Jing Guo

    2011-01-01

    A parent strain Aspergillus niger LW-1 was mutated by the compound mutagenesis of vacuum microwave (VMW) and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). A mutant strain, designated as A. niger E-30, with high- and stable-yield ?-mannanase was obtained through a series of screening. The ?-mannanase activity of the mutant strain E-30, cultivated on the basic fermentation medium at 32°C for 96h, reached

  5. Exploration of Regional Agrowastes for the Production of Pectinase by Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarvamangala R. Patil; Agasar Dayanand

    2006-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate locally available pectin rich agrowastes, viz. lemon peel, sorghum stem and sunflower head, as substrates for the production of pec- tinase by Aspergillus niger DMF 27 and A. niger DMF 45 in submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) systems, respectively. The maximum amount of endo- (4.8 U\\/g) and exopectinases (17.2

  6. Optimization of Aspergillus niger Fermentation for the Production of Glucose Oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandip B. Bankar; Mahesh V. Bule; Rekha S. Singhal; Laxmi Ananthanarayan

    2009-01-01

    A number of nutritional factors influencing glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4) production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 545 were studied. The synthesis of glucose oxidase by A. niger was investigated in two steps using submerged fermentation at 30?±?2 °C and 180 rpm for 96 h. Primarily, nutritional components\\u000a were selected by one-factor-at-a-time method, and the significance of each component with respect to glucose oxidase

  7. Antifungal activity of strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a semolina ecosystem against Penicillium roqueforti, Aspergillus niger and Endomyces fibuliger contaminating bakery products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Valerio; Mara Favilla; Palmira De Bellis; Angelo Sisto; Silvia de Candia; Paola Lavermicocca

    2009-01-01

    Thirty samples of Italian durum wheat semolina and whole durum wheat semolina, generally used for the production of Southern Italy's traditional breads, were subjected to microbiological analysis in order to explore their lactic acid bacteria (LAB) diversity and to find strains with antifungal activity. A total of 125 presumptive LAB isolates (Gram-positive and catalase-negative) were characterized by repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR

  8. Production of Proteolytic Enzymes by a Keratin-Degrading Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Silva, Lucas André Dedavid E; Tichota, Deise Michele; Daroit, Daniel Joner; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Brandelli, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    A fungal isolate with capability to grow in keratinous substrate as only source of carbon and nitrogen was identified as Aspergillus niger using the sequencing of the ITS region of the rDNA. This strain produced a slightly acid keratinase and an acid protease during cultivation in feather meal. The peak of keratinolytic activity occurred in 48?h and the maximum proteolytic activity in 96?h. These enzymes were partly characterized as serine protease and aspartic protease, respectively. The effects of feather meal concentration and initial pH on enzyme production were evaluated using a central composite design combined with response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were determined as pH 5.0 for protease and 7.8 for keratinase and 20?g/L of feather meal, showing that both models were predictive. Production of keratinases by A. niger is a less-exploited field that might represent a novel and promising biotechnological application for this microorganism. PMID:22007293

  9. Cloning, characterization and overexpression of the phytase-encoding gene (phyA) of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    van Hartingsveldt, W; van Zeijl, C M; Harteveld, G M; Gouka, R J; Suykerbuyk, M E; Luiten, R G; van Paridon, P A; Selten, G C; Veenstra, A E; van Gorcom, R F

    1993-05-15

    Phytase catalyzes the hydrolysis of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) to myo-inositol and inorganic phosphate. A gene (phyA) of Aspergillus niger NRRL3135 coding for extracellular, glycosylated phytase was isolated using degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotides deduced from phytase amino acid (aa) sequences. Nucleotide (nt) sequence analysis of the cloned region revealed the presence of an open reading frame coding for 467 aa and interrupted once by an intron of 102 bp in the 5' part of the gene. The start codon is followed by a sequence coding for a putative signal peptide. Expression of phyA is controlled at the level of mRNA accumulation in response to inorganic phosphate levels. After cell growth in low-phosphate medium, a transcript of about 1.8 kb was visualized. Transcription of phyA initiates at at least seven start points within a region located 45-25 nt upstream from the start codon. In transformants of A. niger, expression of multiple copies of phyA resulted in up to more than tenfold higher phytase levels than in the wild-type strain. PMID:8387447

  10. Cellulase production from Aspergillus niger MS82: effect of temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Muhammad; Siddiqi, Roquya; Ahmad, Aqeel; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed

    2009-09-01

    Fungal cellulases are well-studied enzymes and are used in various industrial processes. Much of the knowledge of enzymatic depolymerization of cellulosic material has come from Trichoderma cellulase system. Species of Trichoderma can produce substantial amounts of endoglucanase and exoglucanase but very low levels of b-glucosidase. This deficiency necessitates screening of fungi for cellulytic potential. A number of indigenously isolated fungi were screened for cellulytic potential. In the present study, the kinetics of cellulase production from an indigenous strain of Aspergillus niger MS82 is reported. Product formation parameters of endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase (Qp + Y(p/s)) indicate that A.niger MS82 is capable of producing moderate to high levels of both endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase when grown on different carbon containing natural substrates, for example, grass, corncob, bagasse along side purified celluloses. Furthermore, it was observed that the production of endoglucanase reaches its maximum during exponential phase of growth, while b-glucosidase during the Stationary phase. Enzyme production by solid-state fermentation was also investigated and found to be promising.Highest production of cellulase was noted at pH 4.0 at 35 degrees C under submerged conditions. Growth and enzyme production was affected by variations in temperature and pH. PMID:19552887

  11. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on nutrient intake and weight gain of Red Sokoto goat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Belewu; A. A. Yahaya

    2008-01-01

    Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea-butter cake (SBC) were determined. Twenty five Red Sokoto goats in a completely randomized design model with 56 d periods consumed diet A (control, without SBC), B (15% Aspergillus treated SBC), C (15% untreated SBC), D (7.5% Aspergillus treated SBC) and

  12. Citric Acid Fermentation by Aspergillus niger on Low Sugar Concentrations and Cotton Waste

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Hildegard; Guvrin, Rumia; Henis, Yigal

    1981-01-01

    The possible use of cotton waste as a carbohydrate source of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger was examined. No citric acid was produced when A. niger was grown on cotton waste as a sole carbon source. In two-stage fermentations, however, mycelium obtained from surface cultures in cotton waste medium yielded more citric acid when transferred to sucrose-containing media than when directly inoculated to sucrose-containing media. It is concluded that cotton waste can be used for saving sucrose and for increasing yields of citric acid fermentation by A. niger. PMID:16345802

  13. The molecular and genetic basis of conidial pigmentation in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Thomas R; Park, Joohae; Arentshorst, Mark; van Welzen, Anne Marie; Lamers, Gerda; Vankuyk, Patricia A; Damveld, Robbert A; van den Hondel, Cees A M; Nielsen, Kristian F; Frisvad, Jens C; Ram, Arthur F J

    2011-05-01

    A characteristic hallmark of Aspergillus niger is the formation of black conidiospores. We have identified four loci involved in spore pigmentation of A. niger by using a combined genomic and classical complementation approach. First, we characterized a newly isolated color mutant, colA, which lacked pigmentation resulting in white or colorless conidia. Pigmentation of the colA mutant was restored by a gene (An12g03950) which encodes a putative 4'phosphopantetheinyl transferase protein (PptA). 4'Phosphopantetheinyl transferase activity is required for the activation of Polyketide Synthases (PKSs) and/or Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthases (NRPSs). The loci whose mutation resulted in fawn, olive, and brown color phenotypes were identified by complementation. The fawn phenotype was complemented by a PKS protein (FwnA, An09g05730), the ovlA mutant by An14g05350 (OlvA) and the brnA mutant by An14g05370 (BrnA), the respective homologs of alb1/pksP, ayg1 and abr1 in A. fumigatus. Targeted disruption of the pptA, fwnA, olvA and brnA genes confirmed the complementation results. Disruption of the pptA gene abolished synthesis of all polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides, while the naphtho-?-pyrone subclass of polyketides were specifically dependent on fwnA, and funalenone on fwnA, olvA and brnA. Thus, secondary metabolite profiling of the color mutants revealed a close relationship between polyketide synthesis and conidial pigmentation in A. niger. PMID:21277986

  14. Unfolding and Refolding of Aspergillus Niger PhyB Phytase: Role of Disulfide Bridges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Role of disulfide bridges in folding of Aspergillus niger phytase pH 2.5-optimum (PhyB) was investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Guanidinium chloride (GuCl) at 1.0 M unfolded phytase; however, its removal by dialysis refolded the protein. Thiol reagent, tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphin...

  15. Biosorption and solubilization of copper oxychloride fungicide by Aspergillus niger and the influence of calcium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed M. Gharieb

    2002-01-01

    The biosorption of copper oxychloride fungicide particulates(~1 µm diameter), at concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 ppm active ingredient (ai), by pelleted mycelium of Aspergillus niger grown on Czapek Dox medium was evaluated. The concentration of the fungicide adsorbed to the mycelium, remaining suspended or solubilized in the medium, was determined by analysis of its copper content (CuF)using atomic absorption

  16. Gram-scale production of a basidiomycetous laccase in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Mekmouche, Yasmina; Zhou, Simeng; Cusano, Angela M; Record, Eric; Lomascolo, Anne; Robert, Viviane; Simaan, A Jalila; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Ullah, Sana; Chaspoul, Florence; Tron, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We report on the expression in Aspergillus niger of a laccase gene we used to produce variants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Grams of recombinant enzyme can be easily obtained. This highlights the potential of combining this generic laccase sequence to the yeast and fungal expression systems for large-scale productions of variants. PMID:23867099

  17. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6?U/gds and 38?U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7?U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2?:?1?:?1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2?U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

  18. Value addition of vegetable wastes by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus niger for use in aquafeed industry.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, N; Imelda-Joseph; Raj, R Paul

    2010-11-01

    Vegetable waste typically has high moisture content and high levels of protein, vitamins and minerals. Its value as an agricultural feed can be enhanced through solid-state fermentation (SSF). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of the products derived by SSF of a mixture of dried vegetable waste powder and oil cake mixture (soybean flour, wheat flour, groundnut oil cake and sesame oil cake at 4:3:2:1 ratio) using fungi Aspergillus niger S(1)4, a mangrove isolate, and A. niger NCIM 616. Fermentation was carried out for 9 days at 35% moisture level and neutral pH. Significant (p<0.05) increase in crude protein and amino acids were obtained in both the trials. The crude fat and crude fibre content showed significant reduction at the end of fermentation. Nitrogen free extract (NFE) showed a gradual decrease during the fermentation process. The results of the study suggest that the fermented product obtained on days 6 and 9 in case of A. niger S(1)4 and A. niger NCIM 616 respectively contained the highest levels of crude protein. PMID:20100652

  19. Atypical regioselective biohydrolysis on steroidal oxiranes by Aspergillus niger whole cells: some stereochemical features.

    PubMed

    Bisogno, Fabricio R; Orden, Alejandro A; Pranzoni, Celeste Aguirre; Cifuente, Diego A; Giordano, Oscar S; Kurina Sanz, Marcela

    2007-07-01

    5,6-Epoxycholestan-3beta-ol derivatives were hydrolyzed in a diastereoconvergent manner by growing and resting cells of several strains of Aspergillus niger, particularly A. niger ATCC 11394. These strains displayed opposite regioselectivity toward each isomer in an alpha and beta epoxide mixture, thus, the nucleophilic attack took place at the less substituted and the most substituted carbon atom on each diasteromer, respectively. These biocatalysts opened trisubstituted oxiranes but were unable to hydrolyze the disubstituted oxiranes in the tested sterol derivatives. These findings suggest that A. niger strains possess another hydrolytic ability different from the commercial A. niger epoxide hydrolase (EH) that did not accept this kind of steroidal oxiranes as substrates. PMID:17572462

  20. The cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding phytase (phy) and pH 2.5-optimum acid phosphatase (aph) from Aspergillus niger var. awamori.

    PubMed

    Piddington, C S; Houston, C S; Paloheimo, M; Cantrell, M; Miettinen-Oinonen, A; Nevalainen, H; Rambosek, J

    1993-10-29

    The genes encoding phytase (EC 3.1.3.8) and pH 2.5-optimum acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) have been cloned and sequenced from Aspergillus niger var. awamori. The translated nucleotide sequences yielded polypeptides of 467 and 479 amino acids (aa) for phytase and acid phosphatase, respectively. The genes were isolated using oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes based on the aa sequences of the purified proteins. Recombinant A. niger var. awamori strains carrying additional copies of the gene sequences demonstrated elevated enzyme activities. PMID:8224894

  1. Clinical and immunological reactions to Aspergillus niger among workers at a biotechnology plant.

    PubMed Central

    Topping, M D; Scarisbrick, D A; Luczynska, C M; Clarke, E C; Seaton, A

    1985-01-01

    The workforce at a biotechnology plant producing citric acid by fermentation of molasses with a strain of Aspergillus niger was studied. A combination of a respiratory questionnaire and clinical assessment identified 18 subjects (4.9% of the workforce) with work related bronchospasm. In nine of these evidence of sensitisation to A niger was obtained by skin prick tests and radioallergosorbent test (RAST) using as an antigen an extract of the A niger culture fluid from the process. Of the 325 subjects without work related bronchospasm, only nine (2.7%) had a positive prick test. There were no subjects with symptoms of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Investigation into the source of the antigen showed that whereas, in some areas of the plant, A niger spores were present, in others there were no detectable spores. In these areas, however, extracts of filters from air samplers were shown by RAST inhibition to contain A niger antigens, indicating that the culture fluid was generating airborne antigen. RAST inhibition studies showed that the A niger culture fluid used in the process contained antigens that were not present in a commercially available A niger extract, thus emphasising the importance in this type of investigation of using antigens prepared from material to which the workers are exposed. PMID:3986142

  2. Optimization of ?-amylase production from Aspergillus Niger using spoiled starch rich vegetables by response surface methodology and Genetic Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satish Babu Rajulapati; Panduranga Vundavilli

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of process variables for the improvement of ?-amylase production in the specially made starch medium from spoiled starch rich vegetables by the cultivation of Aspergillus Niger was performed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm. Cultivation of Aspergillus Niger was conducted in submerged fermentation in the starch medium. Initially, the effect of incubation time (12–72 hours), pH (4–8),

  3. Enzymatic resolution of racemic phenyloxirane by a novel epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger SQ6 and its fed-batch fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanbin Liu; Qian Sha; Sheng Wu; Jianjun Wang; Liu Yang; Wanru Sun

    2006-01-01

    A microorganism with the ability to catalyze the resolution of racemic phenyloxirane was isolated and identified as Aspergillus niger SQ-6. Chiral capillary electrophoresis was successfully applied to separate both phenyloxirane and phenylethanediol. The\\u000a epoxide hydrolase (EH) involved in this resolution process was (R)-stereospecific and constitutively expressed. When whole cells were used during the biotransformation process, the optimum\\u000a temperature and pH

  4. Influence of pectin and glucose on growth and polygalacturonase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roselei Claudete Fontana; Suzielle Salvador; Mauricio Moura da Silveira

    2005-01-01

    The solid-state production of endo- and exo-polygalacturonases (PG) by Aspergillus niger was studied in a media containing wheat bran, salts, and different citric pectin and\\/or glucose concentrations. Kinetic analysis\\u000a of the process indicated that the formation of PG and the growth of A. niger are associated processes. By increasing citric pectin from 0 to 16% (w\\/w), the maximum A. niger

  5. [Investigation of acid proteinase and phospholipase activity as virulence factors in clinical Aspergillus spp. isolates].

    PubMed

    B?r?nci, Asuman; B?lg?n, Kemal; Tanriverd? Çayci, Yeliz

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus spp. are widespread in nature and cause severe infections especially in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus complex is the most common species that causes infections in humans; however Aspergillus niger complex and Aspergillus flavus complex are the emerging agents that are isolated frequently from clinical specimens more recently. Besides the host factors such as immunosuppression, hematologic malignancy and corticosteroid use, fungal virulence factors such as elastase, acid protease and phospholipase enzymes are considered among the factors that affect the development of invasive aspergillosis. The aim of this study was to detect the acid proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activities in 30 A.fumigatus complex, nine A.flavus complex and four A.niger complex strains isolated from clinical specimens. Acid proteinase and phospholipase activities of the isolates were investigated by using bovine serum albumin agar (BSA), and egg yolk agar plates, respectively. Acid proteinase and phospholipase activity was detected in 76.7% (23/30) and 93.3% (28/30) of A.fumigatus complex isolates, respectively. None of the nine A.flavus complex isolates exhibited acid proteinase or phospholipase activity. Acid proteinase activity was not detected in any of the A.niger complex isolates (n= 4), however phospholipase activity was detected in one (25%) isolate. All of the acid proteinase positive A.fumigatus complex strains (n= 23) were also positive for phospholipase activity. In conclusion, further larger scale multicenter studies supported by clinical data, are needed to enlighten the roles of acid proteinase and phospholipase in the pathogenesis of infections due to Aspergillus spp. PMID:25052116

  6. Plasmid vectors for protein production, gene expression and molecular manipulations in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Storms, Reginald; Zheng, Yun; Li, Hongshan; Sillaots, Susan; Martinez-Perez, Amalia; Tsang, Adrian

    2005-05-01

    We constructed three sets of plasmids for use in Aspergillus niger. These plasmids were assembled using various combinations of a series of modular DNA cassettes that included a selectable marker, pyrG, derived from Aspergillus nidulans; two promoter regions for directing protein expression; a cassette derived from the AMA1 replicator sequence to support autonomous replication; and a reporter gene based on the A. niger lacA gene. One set included integrating and autonomously replicating plasmids for the expression of homologous and heterologous proteins. The second was a set of autonomously replicating plasmids, with a secreted beta-galactosidase encoding reporter gene, for studying gene regulation events. The third set included pyrG-derived gene-blaster cassettes suitable for genome manipulation by targeted gene replacement. PMID:15848224

  7. Comparing phosphorus mobilization strategies using Aspergillus niger for the mineral dissolution of three phosphate rocks.

    PubMed

    Schneider, K D; van Straaten, P; de Orduña, R Mira; Glasauer, S; Trevors, J; Fallow, D; Smith, P S

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiencies are limiting crop production in agricultural soils worldwide. Locally available sources of raw phosphate rock (PR) are being recognized for their potential role in soil fertility improvement. Phosphorus bioavailability is essential for the efficiency of PRs and can be increased by acid treatments. The utilization of organic acid producing micro-organisms, notably Aspergillus niger, presents a sustainable alternative to the use of strong inorganic acids, but acid production of A. niger strongly depends on the mineral content of the growth media. This study compared the phosphorus mobilization efficiency of two biological treatments, namely addition of acidic cell-free supernatants from A. niger cultivations to PRs and the direct cultivation of A. niger with PRs. The results show that addition of PR to cultivations leads to significant differences in the profile of organic acids produced by A. niger. Additions of PR, especially igneous rocks containing high amounts of iron and manganese, lead to reduced citric acid concentrations. In spite of these differences, phosphorus mobilization was similar between treatments, suggesting that the simpler direct cultivation method was not inferior. In addition to citric acid, it is suggested that oxalic acid contributes to PR solubilization in direct cultivations with A. niger, which would benefit farmers in developing countries where conventional fertilizers are not adequately accessible. PMID:19709342

  8. Application of immobilized tannase from Aspergillus niger for the removal of tannin from myrobalan juice.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anita; Kar, Rita

    2010-10-01

    Tannase produced optimally on an agroresidue by an Aspergillus niger isolate under submerged fermentation immobilized on sodium alginate beads with 93.6% efficiency was applied for tannin removal from myrobalan/aonla (Phyllanthus emblica) juice. The pH and temperature optima of the immobilized enzyme were found to be 5.4 and 40°C while the corresponding values of the soluble enzyme were 5.8 and 35°C. Maximum tannin removal of 73.6% was obtained at 40°C and 150 rpm in 180 min with 36.6 U/ml of immobilized enzyme while the same amount of the soluble enzyme removed 45.2% of tannin at 37°C and 150 rpm in the same time period. The immobilized beads could be used repeatedly till 7th cycle with 77% efficiency. When preserved at 6°C the beads retained 71.7% of enzyme activity after 60 days. Reduction in vitamin C content, which is responsible for antioxidant property of the fruit, was minimum at only 2% during the treatment. PMID:22815571

  9. Characterization And Application Of Tannase Produced By Aspergillus Niger ITCC 6514.07 On Pomegranate Rind.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anita; Kar, Rita

    2009-10-01

    Extracellular tannase and gallic acid were produced optimally under submerged fermentation at 37 (0)C, 72 h, pH 5.0, 10 %(v/v) inoculum and 4 %(w/v) of the agroresidue pomegranate rind (PR) powder by an Aspergillus niger isolate. Tannic acid (1 %) stimulated the enzyme production by 245.9 % while with 0.5 % glucose, increase was marginal. Tannase production was inhibited by gallic acid and nitrogen sources such as NH4NO3, NH4Cl, KNO3, asparatic acid, urea and EDTA. The partially purified enzyme showed temperature and pH optima of 35 (0)C and 6.2 respectively which shifted to 40 (0)C and 5.8 on immobilization in alginate beads. Activity of the enzyme was inhibited by Zn(+2), Ca(+), Mn(+2), Mg(+2), Ba(+2)and Ag(+). The immobilized enzyme removed 68.8 % tannin from juice of aonla/myrobalan (Phyllanthus emblica), a tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and other essential nutrients. The enzymatic treatment of the juice with minimum reduction in vitamin C is encouraging as non enzymatic treatments of myrobalan juice results in vitamin C removal. PMID:24031425

  10. Characterization And Application Of Tannase Produced By Aspergillus Niger ITCC 6514.07 On Pomegranate Rind

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anita; Kar, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular tannase and gallic acid were produced optimally under submerged fermentation at 37 0C, 72 h, pH 5.0, 10 %(v/v) inoculum and 4 %(w/v) of the agroresidue pomegranate rind (PR) powder by an Aspergillus niger isolate. Tannic acid (1 %) stimulated the enzyme production by 245.9 % while with 0.5 % glucose, increase was marginal. Tannase production was inhibited by gallic acid and nitrogen sources such as NH4NO3, NH4Cl, KNO3, asparatic acid, urea and EDTA. The partially purified enzyme showed temperature and pH optima of 35 0C and 6.2 respectively which shifted to 40 0C and 5.8 on immobilization in alginate beads. Activity of the enzyme was inhibited by Zn+2, Ca+, Mn+2, Mg+2, Ba+2and Ag+. The immobilized enzyme removed 68.8 % tannin from juice of aonla/myrobalan (Phyllanthus emblica), a tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and other essential nutrients. The enzymatic treatment of the juice with minimum reduction in vitamin C is encouraging as non enzymatic treatments of myrobalan juice results in vitamin C removal. PMID:24031425

  11. Biosynthesis, purification and characterization of endoglucanase from a xylanase producing strain Aspergillus niger B03

    PubMed Central

    Dobrev, Georgi Todorov; Zhekova, Boriana Yordanova

    2012-01-01

    An extracellular endoglucanase was isolated from the culture liquid of xylanase producing strain Aspergillus niger B03. The enzyme was purified to a homogenous form, using consecutive ultrafiltration, anion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. Endoglucanase was a monomer protein with a molecular weight of 26,900 Da determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 28,800 Da determined by gel filtration. The optimal pH and temperature values for the enzyme action were 3.5 and 65 °C respectively. Endoglucanase was stable at 40 °C, pH 3.0 for 210 min. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was determined with carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, and different glycosides. Endoglucanase displayed maximum activity in the case of carboxymethyl cellulose, with a Km value of 21.01 mg/mL. The substrate specificity and the pattern of substrate degradation suggested that the enzyme is an endoglucanase. Endoglucanase showed a synergism with endoxylanase in corn cobs hydrolysis. PMID:24031805

  12. Optimization of glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvana T. Silveira; Melissa S. Oliveira; Jorge A. V. Costa; Susana J. Kalil

    2006-01-01

    Glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation was optimized using factorial design and response surface techniques. The variables evaluated\\u000a were pH and bed thickness in tray, having as response enzyme production and productivity. The bed thickness in tray was the\\u000a most significant variable for both responses. The highest values for glucoamylase production occurred using pH 4.5 and bed\\u000a thickness

  13. Cell Bound and Extracellular Glucose Oxidases from Aspergillus niger BTL: Evidence for a Secondary Glycosylation Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitris G. Hatzinikolaou; Diomi Mamma; Paul Christakopoulos; Dimitris Kekos

    2007-01-01

    Two glucose oxidase (GOX) isoforms where purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the mycelium extract (GOXI) and the extracellular medium (GOXII) of Aspergillus niger BTL cultures. Both enzymes were found to be homodimers with nonreduced molecular masses of 148 and 159 kDa and pI values\\u000a of 3.7 and 3.6 for GOXI and GOXII, respectively. The substrate specificity and the kinetic characteristics of

  14. Fed-batch Production of Gluconic Acid by Terpene-treated Aspergillus niger Spores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumitra Ramachandran; Pierre Fontanille; Ashok Pandey; Christian Larroche

    2008-01-01

    Aspergillus niger spores were used as catalyst in the bioconversion of glucose to gluconic acid. Spores produced by solid-state fermentation\\u000a were treated with 15 different terpenes including monoterpenes and monoterpenoids to permeabilize and inhibit spore germination.\\u000a It was found that spore membrane permeability is significantly increased by treatment with terpenoids when compared to monoterpenes.\\u000a Best results were obtained with citral

  15. Differential Properties of Aspergillus niger Tannase Produced Under Solid-State and Submerged Fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaqueline Renovato; Gerardo Gutiérrez-Sánchez; Luis V. Rodríguez-Durán; Carl Bergman; Raúl Rodríguez; Cristóbal Noe Aguilar

    Significant differences on structure, stability, and catalytic properties of tannase were found when this enzyme was produced\\u000a under solid-state and submerged fermentations (SSF and SmF) by Aspergillus niger. The specific activity was 5.5 times higher on SSF than in SmF. Significant differences in isoelectric points of tannases\\u000a were found. The pH optima for both types of enzyme was found at

  16. Optimization of Inulinase Fermentation Conditions of Aspergillus Niger X-6 Using Respose Surface Methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denglin Luo; Haili Yuan; Xiaoyu Zeng; Jianxue Liu

    2010-01-01

    Inulinase is a hydrolase used for inulin hydrolysis to produce functional fructooligosaccharides and fructose. The objective of the research was to obtain the optimum fermentation conditions of inulinase from Aspergillus niger X-6 mutated by microwave treatment with the Plackett-Burmen design and response surface methodology. The content of wheat bran, inulin, peptone, yeast extract, fermentation time, temperature, pH, and inoculum affecting

  17. Metal-Complexing Agents as Metal Buffers in Media for the Growth of Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Qadeer Choudhary; S. J. Pirt

    1965-01-01

    SUMMARY The influence of metal-complexing agents on the mycelial growth rate, conidial germination and morphology of Aspergillus niger in shake-flask cultures was studied. The agents tested were : ethylenediaminetetra- acetic acid (EDTA), diaminocyclohexane-N,N-tetra-acetic acid (CDTA), diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), which form soluble complexes, and ferrocyanide, which forms insoluble complexes. The agents were added singly to culture media

  18. Dephosphorylation of Phytate by Using the Aspergillus niger Phytase with a High Affinity for Phytate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TADASHI NAGASHIMA; TATSUYA TANGE; HIDEHARU ANAZAWA

    1999-01-01

    A phytase (EC 3.1.3.8) with a high affinity for phytic acid was found in Aspergillus niger SK-57 and purified to homogeneity in four steps by using ion-exchange chromatography (two types), gel filtration, and chromato- focusing. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme gave a single stained band at a molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa. The Michaelis constant

  19. The use of Aspergillus niger for the bioconversion of olive mill waste-waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moktar Hamdi; Abdelkader Khadir; Jean-Louis Garcia

    1991-01-01

    Olive mill waste-water was used for protein production in small-scale experiments, using non-sterilized medium without pH control. A 14 g\\/1 concentration of proteins, 61% chemical oxygen demand removal and a 58% reduction in total phenolic compounds were obtained using an Aspergillus niger strain. The removal of phenolic compounds resulted in a change in the colour of the waste-water from black

  20. EglC, a new endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger with major activity towards xyloglucan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alinda A. Hasper; Ester Dekkers; Marc van Mil; Vondervoort van de P. J. I; Graaff de L. H

    2002-01-01

    A novel gene, eglC, encoding an endoglucanase, was cloned from Aspergillus niger. Transcription of eglC is regulated by XlnR, a transcriptional activator that controls the degradation of polysaccharides in plant cell walls. EglC is an 858-amino-acid protein and contains a conserved C-terminal cellulose-binding domain. EglC can be classified in glycoside hydrolase family 74. No homology to any of the endoglucanases

  1. Response surface optimization of fermentation conditions for producing xylanase by Aspergillus niger SL05

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Liu; Zhong-Tao Sun; Jin-Hua Du; Jian Wang

    2008-01-01

    Fermentation conditions were statistically optimized for producing extracellular xylanase by Aspergillus niger SL-05 using apple pomace and cotton seed meal. The primary study shows that culture medium with a 1:1 ratio of apple pomace\\u000a and cotton seed meal (carbon and nitrogen sources) yielded maximal xylanase activity. Three significant factors influencing\\u000a xylanase production were identified as urea, KH2PO4, and initial moisture

  2. Genomic analysis of the secretion stress response in the enzyme-producing cell factory Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Guillemette; Noël NME van Peij; Theo Goosen; Karin Lanthaler; Geoffrey D Robson; Cees AMJJ van den Hondel; Hein Stam; David B Archer

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger have a high capacity secretory system and are therefore widely exploited for the industrial production of native and heterologous proteins. However, in most cases the yields of non-fungal proteins are significantly lower than those obtained for fungal proteins. One well-studied bottleneck appears to be the result of mis-folding of heterologous proteins in the

  3. Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88.

    PubMed

    Pel, Herman J; de Winde, Johannes H; Archer, David B; Dyer, Paul S; Hofmann, Gerald; Schaap, Peter J; Turner, Geoffrey; de Vries, Ronald P; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Andersen, Mikael R; Bendtsen, Jannick D; Benen, Jacques A E; van den Berg, Marco; Breestraat, Stefaan; Caddick, Mark X; Contreras, Roland; Cornell, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne G J; Debets, Alfons J M; Dekker, Peter; van Dijck, Piet W M; van Dijk, Alard; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Driessen, Arnold J M; d'Enfert, Christophe; Geysens, Steven; Goosen, Coenie; Groot, Gert S P; de Groot, Piet W J; Guillemette, Thomas; Henrissat, Bernard; Herweijer, Marga; van den Hombergh, Johannes P T W; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; van der Heijden, Rene T J M; van der Kaaij, Rachel M; Klis, Frans M; Kools, Harrie J; Kubicek, Christian P; van Kuyk, Patricia A; Lauber, Jürgen; Lu, Xin; van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Meulenberg, Rogier; Menke, Hildegard; Mortimer, Martin A; Nielsen, Jens; Oliver, Stephen G; Olsthoorn, Maurien; Pal, Karoly; van Peij, Noël N M E; Ram, Arthur F J; Rinas, Ursula; Roubos, Johannes A; Sagt, Cees M J; Schmoll, Monika; Sun, Jibin; Ussery, David; Varga, Janos; Vervecken, Wouter; van de Vondervoort, Peter J J; Wedler, Holger; Wösten, Han A B; Zeng, An-Ping; van Ooyen, Albert J J; Visser, Jaap; Stam, Hein

    2007-02-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level of synteny was observed with other aspergilli sequenced. Strong function predictions were made for 6,506 of the 14,165 open reading frames identified. A detailed description of the components of the protein secretion pathway was made and striking differences in the hydrolytic enzyme spectra of aspergilli were observed. A reconstructed metabolic network comprising 1,069 unique reactions illustrates the versatile metabolism of A. niger. Noteworthy is the large number of major facilitator superfamily transporters and fungal zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors, and the presence of putative gene clusters for fumonisin and ochratoxin A synthesis. PMID:17259976

  4. Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. Results The laccase-like multicopper oxidases McoA, McoB and McoG from the commonly used cell factory Aspergillus niger were homologously expressed, purified and analyzed for their biocatalytic potential. All three recombinant enzymes were monomers with apparent molecular masses ranging from 80 to 110 kDa. McoA and McoG resulted to be blue, whereas McoB was yellow. The newly obtained oxidases displayed strongly different activities towards aromatic compounds and synthetic dyes. McoB exhibited high catalytic efficiency with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPPDA) and 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline) sulfonic acid (ABTS), and appeared to be a promising biocatalyst. Besides oxidizing a variety of phenolic compounds, McoB catalyzed successfully the decolorization and detoxification of the widely used textile dye malachite green. Conclusions The A. niger McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different catalytic properties. Yellow McoB showed broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of several phenolic compounds commonly present in different industrial effluents. It also harbored high decolorization and detoxification activity with the synthetic dye malachite green, showing to have an interesting potential as a new industrial biocatalyst. PMID:23270588

  5. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia is triggered by nitrogen compounds related to L-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B

    2014-10-01

    Conidial germination is fundamentally important to the growth and dissemination of most fungi. It has been previously shown (K. Hayer, M. Stratford, and D. B. Archer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:6924-6931, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02061-13), using sugar analogs, that germination is a 2-stage process involving triggering of germination and then nutrient uptake for hyphal outgrowth. In the present study, we tested this 2-stage germination process using a series of nitrogen-containing compounds for the ability to trigger the breaking of dormancy of Aspergillus niger conidia and then to support the formation of hyphae by acting as nitrogen sources. Triggering and germination were also compared between A. niger and Aspergillus nidulans using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (trigger), D-galactose (nontrigger in A. niger but trigger in A. nidulans), and an N source (required in A. niger but not in A. nidulans). Although most of the nitrogen compounds studied served as nitrogen sources for growth, only some nitrogen compounds could trigger germination of A. niger conidia, and all were related to L-amino acids. Using L-amino acid analogs without either the amine or the carboxylic acid group revealed that both the amine and carboxylic acid groups were essential for an L-amino acid to serve as a trigger molecule. Generally, conidia were able to sense and recognize nitrogen compounds that fitted into a specific size range. There was no evidence of uptake of either triggering or nontriggering compounds over the first 90 min of A. niger conidial germination, suggesting that the germination trigger sensors are not located within the spore. PMID:25063657

  6. Germination of Aspergillus niger Conidia Is Triggered by Nitrogen Compounds Related to l-Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Conidial germination is fundamentally important to the growth and dissemination of most fungi. It has been previously shown (K. Hayer, M. Stratford, and D. B. Archer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:6924–6931, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02061-13), using sugar analogs, that germination is a 2-stage process involving triggering of germination and then nutrient uptake for hyphal outgrowth. In the present study, we tested this 2-stage germination process using a series of nitrogen-containing compounds for the ability to trigger the breaking of dormancy of Aspergillus niger conidia and then to support the formation of hyphae by acting as nitrogen sources. Triggering and germination were also compared between A. niger and Aspergillus nidulans using 2-deoxy-d-glucose (trigger), d-galactose (nontrigger in A. niger but trigger in A. nidulans), and an N source (required in A. niger but not in A. nidulans). Although most of the nitrogen compounds studied served as nitrogen sources for growth, only some nitrogen compounds could trigger germination of A. niger conidia, and all were related to l-amino acids. Using l-amino acid analogs without either the amine or the carboxylic acid group revealed that both the amine and carboxylic acid groups were essential for an l-amino acid to serve as a trigger molecule. Generally, conidia were able to sense and recognize nitrogen compounds that fitted into a specific size range. There was no evidence of uptake of either triggering or nontriggering compounds over the first 90 min of A. niger conidial germination, suggesting that the germination trigger sensors are not located within the spore. PMID:25063657

  7. Cloning and molecular characterization of a soluble epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger that is related to mammalian microsomal epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Arand, M; Hemmer, H; Dürk, H; Baratti, J; Archelas, A; Furstoss, R; Oesch, F

    1999-11-15

    Aspergillus niger strain LCP521 harbours a highly processive epoxide hydrolase (EH) that is of particular interest for the enantioselective bio-organic synthesis of fine chemicals. In the present work, we report the isolation of the gene and cDNA for this EH by use of inverse PCR. The gene is composed of nine exons, the first of which is apparently non-coding. The deduced protein of the A. niger EH shares significant sequence similarity with the mammalian microsomal EHs (mEH). In contrast to these, however, the protein from A. niger lacks the common N-terminal membrane anchor, in line with the fact that this enzyme is, indeed, soluble in its native environment. Recombinant expression of the isolated cDNA in Escherichia coli yielded a fully active EH with similar characteristics to the fungal enzyme. Sequence comparison with mammalian EHs suggested that Asp(192), Asp(348) and His(374) constituted the catalytic triad of the fungal EH. This was subsequently substantiated by the analysis of respective mutants constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The presence of an aspartic acid residue in the charge-relay system of the A. niger enzyme, in contrast to a glutamic acid residue in the respective position of all mEHs analysed to date, may be one important contributor to the exceptionally high turnover number of the fungal enzyme when compared with its mammalian relatives. Recombinant expression of the enzyme in E. coli offers a versatile tool for the bio-organic chemist for the chiral synthesis of a variety of fine chemicals. PMID:10548561

  8. Gluconate formation and polyol metabolism in Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. B. Witteveen

    1993-01-01

    The capacity of A.niger to accumulate metabolites is remarkable. Under all conditions polyols accumulate in the cell and when mycelium in later developmental stages is considered, depending on the carbon source, aeration and external pH, polyols and\\/or organic acids can be formed in a very efficient way. The aim of this thesis was to obtain a better understanding of the

  9. Infected Baerveldt Glaucoma Drainage Device by Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Nurul-Laila; Azhany, Yaakub; Abdul Rahman, Zaidah; Yusof, Roziawati; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophthalmitis is rare but may complicate glaucoma drainage device surgery. Management is challenging as the symptoms and signs may be subtle at initial presentation and the visual prognosis is usually poor due to its resistant nature to treatment. At present there is lesser experience with intravitreal injection of voriconazole as compared to Amphotericin B. We present a case of successfully treated Aspergillus endophthalmitis following Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device implantation with intravitreal and topical voriconazole.

  10. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nitrilases attract increasing attention due to their utility in the mild hydrolysis of nitriles. According to activity and gene screening, filamentous fungi are a rich source of nitrilases distinct in evolution from their widely examined bacterial counterparts. However, fungal nitrilases have been less explored than the bacterial ones. Nitrilases are typically heterogeneous in their quaternary structures, forming short spirals and extended filaments, these features making their structural studies difficult. Results A nitrilase gene was amplified by PCR from the cDNA library of Aspergillus niger K10. The PCR product was ligated into expression vectors pET-30(+) and pRSET B to construct plasmids pOK101 and pOK102, respectively. The recombinant nitrilase (Nit-ANigRec) expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold(DE3)(pOK101/pTf16) was purified with an about 2-fold increase in specific activity and 35% yield. The apparent subunit size was 42.7 kDa, which is approx. 4 kDa higher than that of the enzyme isolated from the native organism (Nit-ANigWT), indicating post-translational cleavage in the enzyme's native environment. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that a C-terminal peptide (Val327 - Asn356) was present in Nit-ANigRec but missing in Nit-ANigWT and Asp298-Val313 peptide was shortened to Asp298-Arg310 in Nit-ANigWT. The latter enzyme was thus truncated by 46 amino acids. Enzymes Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT differed in substrate specificity, acid/amide ratio, reaction optima and stability. Refolded recombinant enzyme stored for one month at 4°C was fractionated by gel filtration, and fractions were examined by electron microscopy. The late fractions were further analyzed by analytical centrifugation and dynamic light scattering, and shown to consist of a rather homogeneous protein species composed of 12-16 subunits. This hypothesis was consistent with electron microscopy and our modelling of the multimeric nitrilase, which supports an arrangement of dimers into helical segments as a plausible structural solution. Conclusions The nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10 is highly homologous (?86%) with proteins deduced from gene sequencing in Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. As the first of these proteins, it was shown to exhibit nitrilase activity towards organic nitriles. The comparison of the Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT suggested that the catalytic properties of nitrilases may be changed due to missing posttranslational cleavage of the former enzyme. Nit-ANigRec exhibits a lower tendency to form filaments and, moreover, the sample homogeneity can be further improved by in vitro protein refolding. The homogeneous protein species consisting of short spirals is expected to be more suitable for structural studies. PMID:21210990

  11. Gene cloning and soluble expression of Aspergillus niger phytase in E. coli cytosol via chaperone co-expression.

    PubMed

    Ushasree, Mrudula Vasudevan; Vidya, Jalaja; Pandey, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    A phytase gene from Aspergillus niger was isolated and two Escherichia coli expression systems, based on T7 RNA polymerase promoter and tac promoter, were used for its recombinant expression. Co-expression of molecular chaperone, GroES/EL, aided functional cytosolic expression of the phytase in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Untagged and maltose-binding protein-tagged recombinant phytase showed an activity band of ~49 and 92 kDa, respectively, on a zymogram. Heterologously-expressed phytase was fractionated from endogenous E. coli phytase by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation. The enzyme had optimum activity at 50 °C and pH 6.5. PMID:24078121

  12. Optimization of ellagitannase production by Aspergillus niger GH1 by solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Reynaldo; Ascacio, Juan A; Buenrostro, Juan; Sepúlveda, Leonardo; Rodríguez, Raúl; Prado-Barragán, Arely; Contreras, Juan C; Aguilera, Antonio; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Ellagic acid is one of the most bioactive antioxidants with important applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. However, there are few biotechnological processes developed for its production, because it requires precursors (ellagitannins) and the corresponding biocatalyst (ellagitannase). The aim of this study was to optimize the culture conditions for ellagitannase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF). The bioprocess was carried out into a column bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam impregnated with an ellagitannins solution as carbon source. Four strains of Aspergillus niger (PSH, GH1, HT4, and HC2) were evaluated for ellagitannase production. The study was performed in two experimental steps. A Plackett-Burman design was used to determine the influencing parameters on ellagitannase production. Ellagitannins concentration, KCl, and MgSO4 were determined to be the most significant parameters. Box-Behnken design was used to define the interaction of the selected parameters. The highest enzyme value was obtained by A. niger PSH at concentrations of 7.5 g/L ellagitannins, 3.04 g/L KCl, and 0.76 g/L MgSO4. The methodology followed here allowed increasing the ellagitannase activity 10 times over other researcher results (938.8 U/g ellagitannins). These results are significantly higher than those reported previously and represent an important contribution for the establishment of a new bioprocess for ellagic acid and ellagitannase production. PMID:25085574

  13. Mutualistic interaction between Salmonella enterica and Aspergillus niger and its effects on Zea mays colonization

    PubMed Central

    Balbontín, Roberto; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella?Typhimurium inhabits a variety of environments and is able to infect a broad range of hosts. Throughout its life cycle, some hosts can act as intermediates in the path to the infection of others. Aspergillus niger is a ubiquitous fungus that can often be found in soil or associated to plants and microbial consortia. Recently, S. Typhimurium was shown to establish biofilms on the hyphae of A. niger. In this work, we have found that this interaction is stable for weeks without a noticeable negative effect on either organism. Indeed, bacterial growth is promoted upon the establishment of the interaction. Moreover, bacterial biofilms protect the fungus from external insults such as the effects of the anti-fungal agent cycloheximide. Thus, the Salmonella–Aspergillus interaction can be defined as mutualistic. A tripartite gnotobiotic system involving the bacterium, the fungus and a plant revealed that co-colonization has a greater negative effect on plant growth than colonization by either organism in dividually. Strikingly, co-colonization also causes a reduction in plant invasion by S. Typhimurium. This work demonstrates that S. Typhimurium and A. niger establish a mutualistic interaction that alters bacterial colonization of plants and affects plant physiology. PMID:25351041

  14. [Construction and functional analysis of the pepB gene disruptant in Aspergillus niger].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Li, Jing-Peng; Wang, Ao-Quan; Tang, Guo-Min; Wang, Hua-Ming

    2004-12-01

    An integration plasmid pMW1-pepB for the pepB gene disruption in Aspergillus was constructed. The plasmid contained the pepB gene upstream (P) 1.4kb and downstream (T) 1.3kb homologous fragments with insertion of the expression unit of the hygromycin resistance gene (hph) between them. P and T DNA fragments were synthesized by PCR from Aspergillus niger chromosomal DNA. The integration plasmid was digested with the Hpa I restriction enzyme, the resultant 4.2kb linear fragment was introduced into the Aspergillus niger strain GICC2773 which expressing the glucoamylase/laccase fusion protein by PEG-mediated transformation. 62 Hygromycin resistance transformants were screened, and from them one strain named pepB29 was identified to be the pepB disruptant by PCR analysis. Data of functional assay of the pepB29 strain indicated that the disruption of the pepB gene secreted reduced acid proteolytic activity, and improved the heterologous protein laccase production. PMID:16110957

  15. Formation of Sclerotia and Production of Indoloterpenes by Aspergillus niger and Other Species in Section Nigri

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Petersen, Lene M.; Lyhne, E. Kirstine; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    Several species in Aspergillus section Nigri have been reported to produce sclerotia on well-known growth media, such as Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agar, with sclerotia considered to be an important prerequisite for sexual development. However Aspergillus niger sensu stricto has not been reported to produce sclerotia, and is thought to be a purely asexual organism. Here we report, for the first time, the production of sclerotia by certain strains of Aspergillus niger when grown on CYA agar with raisins, or on other fruits or on rice. Up to 11 apolar indoloterpenes of the aflavinine type were detected by liquid chromatography and diode array and mass spectrometric detection where sclerotia were formed, including 10,23-dihydro-24,25-dehydroaflavinine. Sclerotium induction can thus be a way of inducing the production of new secondary metabolites from previously silent gene clusters. Cultivation of other species of the black aspergilli showed that raisins induced sclerotium formation by A. brasiliensis, A. floridensis A. ibericus, A. luchuensis, A. neoniger, A. trinidadensis and A. saccharolyticus for the first time. PMID:24736731

  16. The faeA genes from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis encode ferulic acid esterases involved in degradation of complex cell wall polysaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, R P; Michelsen, B; Poulsen, C H; Kroon, P A; van den Heuvel, R H; Faulds, C B; Williamson, G; van den Hombergh, J P; Visser, J

    1997-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of a gene encoding a ferulic acid esterase, faeA, from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis. The A. niger and A. tubingensis genes have a high degree of sequence identity and contain one conserved intron. The gene product, FAEA, was overexpressed in wild-type A. tubingensis and a protease-deficient A. niger mutant. Overexpression of both genes in wild-type A. tubingensis and an A. niger protease-deficient mutant showed that the A. tubingensis gene product is more sensitive to degradation than the equivalent gene product from A. niger. FAEA from A. niger was identical to A. niger FAE-III (C. B. Faulds and G. Williamson, Microbiology 140:779-787, 1994), as assessed by molecular mass, pH and temperature optima, pI, N-terminal sequence, and activity on methyl ferulate. The faeA gene was induced by growth on wheat arabinoxylan and sugar beet pectin, and its gene product (FAEA) released ferulic acid from wheat arabinoxylan. The rate of release was enhanced by the presence of a xylanase. FAEA also hydrolyzed smaller amounts of ferulic acid from sugar beet pectin, but the rate was hardly affected by addition of an endo-pectin lyase. PMID:9406381

  17. The transcriptomic fingerprint of glucoamylase over-expression in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger are well known for their exceptionally high capacity for secretion of proteins, organic acids, and secondary metabolites and they are therefore used in biotechnology as versatile microbial production platforms. However, system-wide insights into their metabolic and secretory capacities are sparse and rational strain improvement approaches are therefore limited. In order to gain a genome-wide view on the transcriptional regulation of the protein secretory pathway of A. niger, we investigated the transcriptome of A. niger when it was forced to overexpression the glaA gene (encoding glucoamylase, GlaA) and secrete GlaA to high level. Results An A. niger wild-type strain and a GlaA over-expressing strain, containing multiple copies of the glaA gene, were cultivated under maltose-limited chemostat conditions (specific growth rate 0.1 h-1). Elevated glaA mRNA and extracellular GlaA levels in the over-expressing strain were accompanied by elevated transcript levels from 772 genes and lowered transcript levels from 815 genes when compared to the wild-type strain. Using GO term enrichment analysis, four higher-order categories were identified in the up-regulated gene set: i) endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane translocation, ii) protein glycosylation, iii) vesicle transport, and iv) ion homeostasis. Among these, about 130 genes had predicted functions for the passage of proteins through the ER and those genes included target genes of the HacA transcription factor that mediates the unfolded protein response (UPR), e.g. bipA, clxA, prpA, tigA and pdiA. In order to identify those genes that are important for high-level secretion of proteins by A. niger, we compared the transcriptome of the GlaA overexpression strain of A. niger with six other relevant transcriptomes of A. niger. Overall, 40 genes were found to have either elevated (from 36 genes) or lowered (from 4 genes) transcript levels under all conditions that were examined, thus defining the core set of genes important for ensuring high protein traffic through the secretory pathway. Conclusion We have defined the A. niger genes that respond to elevated secretion of GlaA and, furthermore, we have defined a core set of genes that appear to be involved more generally in the intensified traffic of proteins through the secretory pathway of A. niger. The consistent up-regulation of a gene encoding the acetyl-coenzyme A transporter suggests a possible role for transient acetylation to ensure correct folding of secreted proteins. PMID:23237452

  18. Early detection of Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger on table grapes: a tool for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, F; Reverberi, M; Ricelli, A; D'Onghia, A M; Yaseen, T

    2010-09-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger aggregate are the main fungal contaminants of table grapes. Besides their ability to cause black rot, they can produce ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin that has attracted increasing attention worldwide. The objective of this work was to set up a simple and rapid molecular method for the early detection of both fungi in table grapes before fungal development becomes evident. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays were developed by designing species-specific primers based on the polyketide synthases (PKS(S)) sequences of A. carbonarius and A. niger that have recently been demonstrated to be involved in OTA biosynthesis. Three table grape varieties (Red globe, Crimson seedless, and Italia) were inoculated with A. carbonarius and A. niger aggregate strains producing OTA. The extracted DNA from control (non-inoculated) and inoculated grapes was amplified by PCR using ACPKS2F-ACPKS2R for A. carbonarius and ANPKS5-ANPKS6 for A. niger aggregate. Both primers allowed a clear detection, even in symptomless samples. PCR-based methods are considered to be a good alternative to traditional diagnostic means for the early detection of fungi in complex matrix for their high specificity and sensitivity. The results obtained could be useful for the definition of a 'quality label' for tested grapes to improve the safety measures taken to guarantee the production of fresh table grapes. PMID:20582777

  19. A novel method to extract chromium impurity using facultative marine Aspergillus niger and magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davariya, V.; Vala, A. K.; Desai, R.; Upadhyay, R. V.

    2007-12-01

    Chromium (VI) tolerance and removal efficiency of facultative marine fungus Aspergillus niger/ in the absence and presence of MnZn ferrite magnetic fluid (MF) has been studied. The fungus exhibits a luxuriant growth in the presence of hexavalent chromium at the concentration 25 mg/L. The MF also exhibits a positive effect on biomass accumulation. Percentage removal of chromium ranged 32-87%, while that in the presence of MF ranged 42-83%. Temporal effect studies on chromium removal revealed more than 50% Cr removal in the presence of MF on the fifth day. These preliminary observations indicate a possibility of harnessing young cultures of A. niger with nanoparticles dispersed in the magnetic fluid for chromium removal. Figs 2, Refs 17.

  20. Inhibition of Aspergillus niger Phosphate Solubilization by Fluoride Released from Rock Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Bonduki, Victor Hugo Araújo; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo

    2013-01-01

    The simultaneous release of various chemical elements with inhibitory potential for phosphate solubilization from rock phosphate (RP) was studied in this work. Al, B, Ba, Ca, F, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Si, Sr, V, Zn, and Zr were released concomitantly with P during the solubilization of Araxá RP (Brazil), but only F showed inhibitory effects on the process at the concentrations detected in the growth medium. Besides P solubilization, fluoride decreased fungal growth, citric acid production, and medium acidification by Aspergillus niger. At the maximum concentration found during Araxá RP solubilization (22.9 mg F? per liter), fluoride decreased P solubilization by 55%. These findings show that fluoride negatively affects RP solubilization by A. niger through its inhibitory action on the fungal metabolism. Given that fluoride is a common component of RPs, the data presented here suggest that most of the microbial RP solubilization systems studied so far were probably operated under suboptimal conditions. PMID:23770895

  1. Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) produced in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kraševec, Nada; Milunovi?, Tatjana; Lasnik, Marija Anžur; Lukan?i?, Irena; Komel, Radovan; Porekar, Vladka Gaberc

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a fungal production system is described for expression and secretion of the medically important human protein G-CSF, in Aspergillus niger. A reliable strategy was chosen with in-frame fusion of G-CSF behind a KEX2 cleavage site downstream of the coding region of the highly secreted homologous glucoamylase. This provided secretion levels of 5-10 mg/l culture medium of correctly processed G-CSF, although the majority of the protein (>90%) was biologically inactive. Following denaturation/ concentration and chromatographic separation/ renaturation, the G-CSF proliferation activity increased considerably, and analytical immobilised metal affinity chromatography confirmed the monomeric and correctly folded protein. These data suggest that this human secretory protein secreted into the medium of A. niger was not correctly folded, and that it escaped the endoplasmic reticulum folding control systems. This is compared to the folding of G-CSF produced in bacteria and yeast. PMID:25551710

  2. The predicted unfolding order of the ?-strands in the starch binding domain from Aspergillus niger glucoamylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Wang, Wen-Chi

    2002-12-01

    The unfolding of the ?-strands in the starch binding domain from Aspergillus niger glucoamylase was predicted to follow the order of ?3??2??6??5??4??1??7 by 600 ps molecular dynamics simulations at 300, 400, and 600 K. The interior region around ?-strands 2 and 3 acts as the initiation site for unfolding. ?-Strands 1 and 7 are probably stabilized by the disulfide bond formed between Cys509 and Cys604. ?-Strand 4 is stabilized by forming an antiparallel ?-sheet with ?-strand 1. Hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between side chains instead of the hydrogen bonds are important in stabilizing these ?-strands, thus the entire starch binding domain.

  3. Lipase production by recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger expressing a lipase-encoding gene from Thermomyces lanuginosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai Prathumpai; Simon J. Flitter; Mhairi McIntyre; Jens Nielsen

    2004-01-01

    Two recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger (NW 297-14 and NW297-24) producing a heterologous lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus were constructed. The heterologous lipase was expressed using the TAKA amylase promoter from Aspergillus oryzae. The production kinetics of the two strains on different carbon sources in batch and carbon-limited chemostat cultivations were evaluated. In batch cultivations, the highest total product yield coefficient

  4. Beta-fructofuranosidase production by 2-deoxyglucose resistant mutants of aspergillus niger in submerged and solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2002-09-01

    Aspergillus niger produces extracellular beta-fructofuranosidase under submerged (SmF) and solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions. After UV mutagenesis of conidiospores of A. niger, 2-deoxyglucose (10 g/l) resistant mutants were isolated on Czapek's minimal medium containing glycerol as a carbon source and the mutants were examined for improved production of beta-fructofuranosidase in SmF and SSF conditions. One of such mutant DGRA-1 overproduced beta-fructofuranosidase in both SmF and SSF conditions. In SmF, the mutant DGRA-1 showed higher beta-fructofuranosidase productivity (110.8 U/l/hr) than the wild type (48.3 U/l/hr). While in SSF the same strain produced 322 U/l/hr of beta-fructofuranosidase, 2 times higher than that of wild type (154.2 U/l/hr). In SmF, both wild type and mutants produced relatively low level of beta-fructofuranosidase in medium containing sucrose with glucose than from the sucrose medium. However in SSF, the DGRA-1 mutant grown in sucrose and sucrose+ glucose did not show any difference with respect to beta-fructofuranosidase production. These results indicate that the catabolite repression of beta-fructofuranosidase synthesis is observed in SmF whereas in SSF such regulation was not prominent. PMID:12587733

  5. Terpenoid composition and antifungal activity of three commercially important essential oils against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Deepa; Pal, Anirban; Chanotiya, C S; Mishra, Dhirendra; Pandey, K N

    2011-12-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oils extracted from three commercially important aromatic plants were analysed by capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometry and subjected to antifungal activity. Fifteen compounds, which accounted for 97.8% of Acorus calamus root oil composition have been identified. Besides the major constituent (Z)-asarone (81.1-92.4%), (Z)-methyl isoeugenol (1.8-2.1%), (Z)-isoelemicin (1.2-1.3%), (E)-asarone (1.0-2.6%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (0.2-0.4%), (Z)-?-ocimene (0.2-0.4%), elemicin (0.2-0.3%), linalool (0.1-0.9%) and kessane (t-0.2%) were identified. Monoterpenes constituted the main fraction of Origanum vulgare essential oil attaining 90.5% of the total oil composition. p-Cymene (10.3%) was the major component of the monoterpene hydrocarbon fraction while thymol (53.2%) and carvacrol (3.9%) were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes among the 33 identified constituents. Cinnamomum tamala leaf oil contained (E)-cinnamaldehyde as the principal component. Quantitative variations in (Z)-cinnamaldehyde (5.8-7.1%), linalool (6.4-8.5%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (4.7-5.2%) were significant. The antifungal activity of the hydro-distilled essential oils of A. calamus, O. vulgare and C. tamala were evaluated against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Disc diffusion method was used for the determination of the inhibitory effect. O. vulgare essential oil exhibited the highest activity. Moreover, all three essential oils inhibit the growth of A. flavus and A. niger. PMID:21707253

  6. Patterns of susceptibility of Aspergillus isolates recovered from patients enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Baddley, John W; Marr, Kieren A; Andes, David R; Walsh, Thomas J; Kauffman, Carol A; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Ito, James I; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Pappas, Peter G; Moser, Stephen A

    2009-10-01

    We analyzed antifungal susceptibilities of 274 clinical Aspergillus isolates from transplant recipients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis collected as part of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) and examined the relationship between MIC and mortality at 6 or 12 weeks. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 broth dilution method for amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITR), voriconazole (VOR), posaconazole (POS), and ravuconazole (RAV). The isolate collection included 181 Aspergillus fumigatus, 28 Aspergillus niger, 27 Aspergillus flavus, 22 Aspergillus terreus, seven Aspergillus versicolor, five Aspergillus calidoustus, and two Aspergillus nidulans isolates and two isolates identified as Aspergillus spp. Triazole susceptibilities were < or = 4 microg/ml for most isolates (POS, 97.6%; ITR, 96.3%; VOR, 95.9%; RAV, 93.5%). The triazoles were not active against the five A. calidoustus isolates, for which MICs were > or = 4 microg/ml. AMB inhibited 93.3% of isolates at an MIC of < or = 1 microg/ml. The exception was A. terreus, for which 15 (68%) of 22 isolates had MICs of >1 microg/ml. One of 181 isolates of A. fumigatus showed resistance (MIC > or = 4 microg/ml) to two of three azoles tested. Although there appeared to be a correlation of higher VOR MICs with increased mortality at 6 weeks, the relationship was not statistically significant (R2 = 0.61; P = 0.065). Significant relationships of in vitro MIC to all-cause mortality at 6 and 12 weeks for VOR or AMB were not found. PMID:19692558

  7. Genome mining and functional genomics for siderophore production in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Franken, Angelique C W; Lechner, Beatrix E; Werner, Ernst R; Haas, Hubertus; Lokman, B Christien; Ram, Arthur F J; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; de Weert, Sandra; Punt, Peter J

    2014-11-01

    Iron is an essential metal for many organisms, but the biologically relevant form of iron is scarce because of rapid oxidation resulting in low solubility. Simultaneously, excessive accumulation of iron is toxic. Consequently, iron uptake is a highly controlled process. In most fungal species, siderophores play a central role in iron handling. Siderophores are small iron-specific chelators that can be secreted to scavenge environmental iron or bind intracellular iron with high affinity. A second high-affinity iron uptake mechanism is reductive iron assimilation (RIA). As shown in Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus nidulans, synthesis of siderophores in Aspergilli is predominantly under control of the transcription factors SreA and HapX, which are connected by a negative transcriptional feedback loop. Abolishing this fine-tuned regulation corroborates iron homeostasis, including heme biosynthesis, which could be biotechnologically of interest, e.g. the heterologous production of heme-dependent peroxidases. Aspergillus niger genome inspection identified orthologues of several genes relevant for RIA and siderophore metabolism, as well as sreA and hapX. Interestingly, genes related to synthesis of the common fungal extracellular siderophore triacetylfusarinine C were absent. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the absence of triacetylfusarinine C, and demonstrated that the major secreted siderophores of A. niger are coprogen B and ferrichrome, which is also the dominant intracellular siderophore. In A. niger wild type grown under iron-replete conditions, the expression of genes involved in coprogen biosynthesis and RIA was low in the exponential growth phase but significantly induced during ascospore germination. Deletion of sreA in A. niger resulted in elevated iron uptake and increased cellular ferrichrome accumulation. Increased sensitivity toward phleomycin and high iron concentration reflected the toxic effects of excessive iron uptake. Moreover, SreA-deficiency resulted in increased accumulation of heme intermediates, but no significant increase in heme content. Together with the upregulation of several heme biosynthesis genes, these results reveal a complex heme regulatory mechanism. PMID:25062661

  8. Decolorization and detoxification of Synozol red HF-6BN azo dye, by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation the fungi, Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were employed for decolorization of Synozol red HF-6BN. Decolorization study showed that Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were able to decolorize 88% and 96% Synozol red 6BN, respectively, in 24 days. It was also studied that 86% and 90% Synozol red containing of dye effluent was decolorized by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. after 28 days of incubation at room temperature. A fungal-based protein with relative molecular mass of 70 kDa was partially purified and examined for enzymatic characteristics. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at temperature ranging from 40-50°C and at pH=6.0. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of metal cations. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that these fungal strains are capable to degrade Synozol red dye into metabolites. No zones of inhibition on agar plates and growth of Vigna radiata in the presence of dye extracted sample, indicated that the fungal degraded dye metabolites are nontoxic to beneficial micro-flora and plant growth. Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. have promising potential in color removal from textile wastewater-containing azo dyes. PMID:23369298

  9. The influence of type and concentration of the carbon source on production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ding-Bang Xu; Cynthia P. Madrid; Max Rfihr; Christian P. Kubicek

    1989-01-01

    The influence of various carbon sources and their concentration on the production of citrate by Aspergillus niger has been investigated. The sugars maltose, sucrose, glucose, mannose and fructose (in the given order) were carbon sources giving high yields of citric acid. Optimal yields were observed at sugar concentrations of 10% (w\\/v), with the exception of glucose (7.5%). No citric acid

  10. Production and Optimization of Cellulase Enzyme Using Aspergillus niger USM AI 1 and Comparison with Trichoderma reesei via Solid State Fermentation System.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Darah, I; Ibrahim, C O

    2011-01-01

    Novel design solid state bioreactor, FERMSOSTAT, had been evaluated in cellulase production studies using local isolate Aspergillus niger USM AI 1 grown on sugarcane bagasse and palm kernel cake at 1?:?1 (w/w) ratio. Under optimised SSF conditions of 0.5?kg substrate; 70% (w/w) moisture content; 30°C; aeration at 4?L/h · g fermented substrate for 5?min and mixing at 0.5?rpm for 5?min, about 3.4?U/g of Filter paper activity (FPase) was obtained. At the same time, comparative studies of the enzymes production under the same SSF conditions indicated that FPase produced by A. niger USM AI 1 was about 35.3% higher compared to Trichoderma reesei. This shows that the performance of this newly designed SSF bioreactor is acceptable and potentially used as prototype for larger-scale bioreactor design. PMID:21350665

  11. [Cloning and sequence analysis of the phytase phyA gene of Aspergillus niger N25].

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wu, Q; Liu, S; Xie, J; Ma, M

    2001-06-01

    The phyA encoding phytase of Aspergillus niger N25 was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers designed according to the sequences of the phyA in GenBank. The amplified fragment was cloned and sequenced. The results show that: the coding region is 1506 bp in size, includes a 102 bp intron, and encodes a peptide of 476 amino acid residues, in which there is a signal peptide with 19 amino acids and a mature peptide of 448 amino acids. Comparison of this sequence with the phyA of the natural A. niger NRRL3135 (GenBank Accession: M94550), the most highly secreting-phytase strain, shows that the nucleotide homology is as high as 96.746%, and the amino acid homology comes up to 97.64%. The phyA of A. niger N25 strain in this paper is appropriate to be used to construct the phytase gene-engineering bacteria. PMID:12561778

  12. An optimized method for Aspergillus niger spore production on natural carrier substrates.

    PubMed

    Bapat, Prashant M; Kundu, Sucharita; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2003-01-01

    Aspergillus niger spores have wide ranging applications in the fermentation industry as well as in wastewater treatment. We present an optimized method for production of A. niger spores on natural substrates such as rice, split pea, and millet. The specific productivity (number of spores per gram of dry substrate) was 31-fold greater and volumetric productivity was 750-fold greater compared to agar slopes. The important process variables were incubation temperature, moisture content, and inoculum quantity. We find that the optimal condition for total spore count is different from the viable spore count for millet. The optimum lies in a narrow region defined by the process parameters. Of the three substrates tested split pea gave the highest specific spore productivity of 3.1 x 10(10) spores per gram of dry substrate. This is the first report of systematic study on the effect of process parameters on spore viability. The method of A. niger spore production on natural substrate appears advantageous as compared to the currently practiced method in terms of scale-up, cost, and ease of operation. PMID:14656142

  13. Selection of reference genes for normalisation of specific gene quantification data of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bohle, K; Jungebloud, A; Göcke, Y; Dalpiaz, A; Cordes, C; Horn, H; Hempel, D C

    2007-12-01

    Aspergillus niger is a widely used expression host for homologous and heterologous protein production in biotechnological processes. In order to increase product yields, a thorough optimisation of these cultivation processes is necessary. Considering mRNA as the key molecule, which transports the genetic information between DNA and protein production side, the quantification of product specific gene expression provides useful information about product formation already on the level of transcription. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a powerful tool to obtain data about gene transcription. However, using this technique the choice of an appropriate reference system is a crucial aspect to provide optimal data normalisation. A prominent approach is the use of so called housekeeping genes as internal references. However, validation of the usability of these reference genes is the fundamental step before starting with qRT-PCR experiments. Adequate reference genes for A. niger have not been published so far. Therefore, 10 possible candidate genes from different functional classes were selected and their applicability as internal references validated. Transcript levels of these genes were compared in sets of 9, 41 and 19 samples from diverse cultivations of A. niger. Under the chosen experimental conditions, the genes act, sarA and cox5 have been identified as genes with the most stable gene expression. The three reference genes were used to normalise qRT-PCR data for glaA gene expression which showed a high correlation with glucoamylase production in continuous cultivations. PMID:17868942

  14. Application of 2-factorial design on the enhanced production of calcium gluconate by a mutant strain of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Mariam, I; Nagra, S A; Haq, I; Ali, S

    2010-06-01

    Sixty-eight isolates of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger were examined for calcium gluconate production under submerged culture conditions in 500-ml Erlenmeyer flasks. The isolate Chem-15 was selected for improvement through ultraviolet (UV) light-induced mutagenesis. Among viable mutants, strain 32 exhibited the best gluconate productivity, and it was subjected to N-methyl N-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (NG) treatment. Mutant strain NG-7 gave the highest gluconate production (86.48g/L) which varied significantly (p0.05) from that of the wild type. The mutant was cultured overnight and plated on 5-fluorocytosine-PDA medium. Gluconate productivity was increased by 35% when the process parameters, incubation period (72h), initial pH (6.5), glucose as carbon source (15%), inoculum size (1.875x10(6)CFU/ml) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as nitrogen source (0.5%) were optimized using a 2-factorial Plackett-Burman design. Maximal glucose oxidase activity (28U/ml/min) was achieved at the optimal fermentation conditions with 26.5g/L DCM. The model terms were highly significant thus suggesting the potential commercial utility of the mutant (HS, df=3 approximately 0.0182). PMID:20129776

  15. Purification and characterization of a highly enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Morisseau, C; Archelas, A; Guitton, C; Faucher, D; Furstoss, R; Baratti, J C

    1999-07-01

    The epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger was purified to homogeneity using a four-step procedure and p-nitrostyrene oxide (pNSO) as substrate. The enzyme was purified 246-fold with 4% activity yield. The protein is a tetramer composed of four identical subunits of molecular mass 45 kDa. Maximum activity was observed at 40 degrees C, pH 7.0, and with dimethylformamide as cosolvent to dissolve pNSO. Hydrolysis of pNSO was highly enantioselective, with an E value (i.e. enantiomeric ratio) of 40 and a high regioselectivity (97%) for the less hindered carbon atom of the epoxide. This enzyme may be a good biocatalyst for the preparation of enantiopure epoxides or diols. PMID:10406946

  16. Selection of amylolytically active Aspergillus niger mutants to 2-deoxy-D-glucose.

    PubMed

    Fiedurek, J; Paszczy?ski, A; Ginalska, G; Ilczuk, Z

    1987-01-01

    As a result of mutagenization and passaging on 2-deoxy-D-glucose containing medium, 10 Aspergillus niger strains resistant to this agent were obtained. These showed (with one exception) an increase in the activity of glucoamylse, the level of which ranged widely in individual cases from several to over 200% in comparison with the parent strain. A weaker rate of glucose accumulation in derepressed strains may account for the fact that the mechanism of their resistance to deoxyglucose is connected with disturbance of the system of glucose transport. However, it is possible that a high activity of acid phosphatase, which the obtained deoxyglucose-resistant cultures showed, may be involved here. Apart from the biochemical character of the catabolic derepression, it seems that it can already be successfully utilized to increase the productivity of industrial mould cultures. PMID:3122460

  17. Development of an Unmarked Gene Deletion System for the Filamentous Fungi Aspergillus niger and Talaromyces versatilis

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, Stéphane; Llanos, Agustina; Parrou, Jean-Luc; Kokolski, Matthew; Pullan, Steven T.; Shunburne, Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a method to delete genes in filamentous fungi that allows recycling of the selection marker and is efficient in a nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-proficient strain. We exemplify the approach by deletion of the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator XlnR in the fungus Aspergillus niger. To show the efficiency and advantages of the method, we deleted 8 other genes and constructed a double mutant in this species. Moreover, we showed that the same principle also functions in a different genus of filamentous fungus (Talaromyces versatilis, basionym Penicillium funiculosum). This technique will increase the versatility of the toolboxes for genome manipulation of model and industrially relevant fungi. PMID:24682295

  18. Aroma enhancement in wines using co-immobilized Aspergillus niger glycosidases.

    PubMed

    González-Pombo, Paula; Fariña, Laura; Carrau, Francisco; Batista-Viera, Francisco; Brena, Beatriz M

    2014-01-15

    A major fraction of monoterpenes and norisoprenoids in young wines is conjugated to sugars representing a significant reservoir of aromatic precursors. To promote their release, ?-glucosidase, ?-arabinosidase, and ?-rhamnosidase from a commercial Aspergillus niger preparation, were immobilized onto acrylic beads. The aim of this work was the development and application of an immobilized biocatalyst, due to the well-known advantages over soluble enzyme preparations: control of the reaction progress and preparation of enzyme-free products. In addition, the obtained derivative showed increased stability in simile wine conditions. After the treatment of Muscat wine with the biocatalyst for 20days, free monoterpenes increased significantly (from 1119 to 2132?g/L, p<0.01) with respect to the control wine. Geraniol was increased 3,4-fold over its flavor thresholds, and accordingly its impact on sensorial properties was very relevant: nine of ten judges considered treated wine more intense in fruit and floral notes. PMID:24054229

  19. Switching from a Unicellular to Multicellular Organization in an Aspergillus niger Hypha

    PubMed Central

    Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan; Hulsman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pores in fungal septa enable cytoplasmic streaming between hyphae and their compartments. Consequently, the mycelium can be considered unicellular. However, we show here that Woronin bodies close ~50% of the three most apical septa of growing hyphae of Aspergillus niger. The incidence of closure of the 9th and 10th septa was even ?94%. Intercompartmental streaming of photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PA-GFP) was not observed when the septa were closed, but open septa acted as a barrier, reducing the mobility rate of PA-GFP ~500 times. This mobility rate decreased with increasing septal age and under stress conditions, likely reflecting a regulatory mechanism affecting septal pore diameter. Modeling revealed that such regulation offers effective control of compound concentration between compartments. Modeling also showed that the incidence of septal closure in A. niger had an even stronger impact on cytoplasmic continuity. Cytoplasm of hyphal compartments was shown not to be in physical contact when separated by more than 4 septa. Together, data show that apical compartments of growing hyphae behave unicellularly, while older compartments have a multicellular organization. PMID:25736883

  20. Bioleaching of heavy metals from a low-grade mining ore using Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Catherine N; Kamali, Mahtab; Gibbs, Bernard F

    2004-07-01

    The main concern of this study is to develop a feasible and economical technique to microbially recover metals from oxide low-grade ores. Owing to the significant quantities of metals that are embodied in low-grade ores and mining residues, these are potential viable sources of metals. In addition, they potentially endanger the environment, as the metals they contain may be released to the environment in hazardous form. Hence, mining industries are seeking an efficient, economic technique to handle these ores. Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques are either very expensive, energy intensive or have a negative impact on the environment. For these reasons, biohydrometallurgical techniques are coming into perspective. In this study, by employing Aspergillus niger, the feasibility of recovery of metals from a mining residue is shown. A. niger exhibits good potential in generating a variety of organic acids effective for metal solubilization. Organic acid effectiveness was enhanced when sulfuric acid was added to the medium. Different agricultural wastes such as potato peels were tested. In addition, different auxiliary processes were evaluated in order to either elevate the efficiency or reduce costs. Finally, maximum solubilization of 68%, 46% and 34% were achieved for copper, zinc and nickel, respectively. Also iron co-dissolution was minimized as only 7% removal occurred. PMID:15177728

  1. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of Cassia surattensis flower against Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Sumathy, Vello; Zakaria, Zuraini; Jothy, Subramanion L; Gothai, Sivapragasam; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Yoga Latha, Lachimanan; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2014-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised host is a major infectious disease leading to reduce the survival rate of world population. Aspergillus niger is a causative agent causing IA. Cassia surattensis plant is commonly used in rural areas to treat various types of disease. C. surattensis flower extract was evaluated against the systemic aspergillosis model in this study. Qualitative measurement of fungal burden suggested a reduction pattern in the colony forming unit (CFU) of lung, liver, spleen and kidney for the extract treated group. Galactomannan assay assessment showed a decrease of fungal load in the treatment and positive control group with galactomannan index (GMI) value of 1.27 and 0.25 on day 28 but the negative control group showed high level of galactomannan in the serum with GMI value of 3.58. Histopathology examinations of the tissues featured major architecture modifications in the tissues of negative control group. Tissue reparation and recovery from infection were detected in extract treated and positive control group. Time killing fungicidal study of A. niger revealed dependence of the concentration of C. surattensis flower extract. PMID:25457794

  2. Enzymatic detergent formulation containing amylase from Aspergillus niger: a comparative study with commercial detergent formulations.

    PubMed

    Mitidieri, Sydnei; Souza Martinelli, Anne Helene; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning

    2006-07-01

    There is a wide range of biotechnological applications for amylases, including the textile, pharmaceutical, food and laundry industries. Hydrolytic enzymes are 100% biodegradable and enzymatic detergents can achieve effective cleaning with lukewarm water. Microorganisms and culture media were tested for amylase production and the best producer was Aspergillus niger L119 (3.9 U ml(-1) +/- 0.2) in submerged culture and its amylase demonstrated excellent activity at 50-55 degrees C and pH 4.0, remaining stable at 53 degrees C for up to 200 h. In order to establish the potential uses of this enzyme in detergents, different formulations were tested using the A. niger amylase extract. Enzyme activity was compared with three commercial formulations. The detergents are used in hospitals to clean surgical and endoscopy equipment. The presence of amylase in the formulation is because of its action within hospital drainage system, whether or not it has any function in cleaning the equipment. PMID:16112858

  3. Production of protein rich organic fertilizer from fish scale by a mutant Aspergillus niger AB100 __ A media optimization study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barnali Basu; Ajit K Banik

    Fish scale, the chief waste material of fish processing industries, was enzymatically hydrolyzed by protease of Aspergillus niger AB100 to produce soluble protein for use as organic fertilizer. Optimum inorganic nutrients were found to be: MgSO4, 0.75; K2HPO4, 0.2; and KCl, 0.075%. A. niger AB100 required FeSO4.7H2O (5 ?g\\/ml) and ZnSO4.7H2O (15 ?g\\/ml) for higher amount of protease production and

  4. Assay of the inhibitory effect of pentachlorophenol and formaldehyde on mycelial growth and development of reproductive structures in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bomar, M T; Bomar, M

    1999-01-01

    The biological activity of the antifungal agents pentachlorophenol (as sodium pentachlorophenolate) and formaldehyde was evaluated by changes in the development of fungal structures following a placement of test strips inoculated with Aspergillus niger conidia on a nutrient agar with the toxicant. The method allows a quantitative assessment of biological activity measured as the development of vegetative structures (growth of the mycelium) by metric, and the development of reproductive structures (conidia) of A. niger by densitometric methods. The use of test strips with dry conidiospores and the evaluation of the results in physical units represent a simple, rapid, exact and inexpensive test of fungitoxic agents. PMID:10997134

  5. Bioconversion of Agave tequilana fructans by exo-inulinases from indigenous Aspergillus niger CH-A-2010 enhances ethanol production from raw Agave tequilana juice.

    PubMed

    Huitrón, Carlos; Pérez, Rosalba; Gutiérrez, Luís; Lappe, Patricia; Petrosyan, Pavel; Villegas, Jesús; Aguilar, Cecilia; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Blancas, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Agave tequilana fructans are the source of fermentable sugars for the production of tequila. Fructans are processed by acid hydrolysis or by cooking in ovens at high temperature. Enzymatic hydrolysis is considered an alternative for the bioconversion of fructans. We previously described the isolation of Aspergillus niger CH-A-2010, an indigenous strain that produces extracellular inulinases. Here we evaluated the potential application of A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases for the bioconversion of A. tequilana fructans, and its impact on the production of ethanol. Inulinases were analyzed by Western blotting and thin layer chromatography. Optimal pH and temperature conditions for inulinase activity were determined. The efficiency of A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases was compared with commercial enzymes and with acid hydrolysis. The hydrolysates obtained were subsequently fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to determine the efficiency of ethanol production. Results indicate that A. niger CH-A-2010 predominantly produces an exo-inulinase activity. Optimal inulinase activity occurred at pH 5.0 and 50 °C. Hydrolysis of raw agave juice by CH-A-2010 inulinases yielded 33.5 g/l reducing sugars, compared with 27.3 g/l by Fructozyme(®) (Novozymes Corp, Bagsværd, Denmark) and 29.4 g/l by acid hydrolysis. After fermentation of hydrolysates, we observed that the conversion efficiency of sugars into ethanol was 97.5 % of the theoretical ethanol yield for enzymatically degraded agave juice, compared to 83.8 % for acid-hydrolyzed juice. These observations indicate that fructans from raw Agave tequilana juice can be efficiently hydrolyzed by using A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases, and that this procedure impacts positively on the production of ethanol. PMID:23160922

  6. Involvement of Physical Parameters in Medium Improvement for Tannase Production by Aspergillus niger FETL FT3 in Submerged Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Darah, I.; Sumathi, G.; Jain, K.; Hong, Lim Sheh

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger FETL FT3, a local extracellular tannase producer strain that was isolated from one of dumping sites of tannin-rich barks of Rhizophora apiculata in Perak, Malaysia. This fungus was cultivated in 250?mL Erlenmeyer flask under submerged fermentation system. Various physical parameters were studied in order to maximize the tannase production. Maximal yield of tannase production, that is, 2.81?U per mL was obtained on the fourth day of cultivation when the submerged fermentation was carried out using liquid Czapek-Dox medium containing (percent; weight per volume) 0.25% NaNO3, 0.1% KH2PO4, 0.05% MgSO4 ·7H2O, 0.05% KCl, and 1.0% tannic acid. The physical parameters used initial medium pH of 6.0, incubation temperature of 30°C, agitation speed of 200?rpm and inoculums size of 6 × 106?spores/ ml. This research has showed that physical parameters were influenced the tannase production by the fungus with 156.4 percent increment. PMID:21826273

  7. Hemicellulase production by Aspergillus niger DSM 26641 in hydrothermal palm oil empty fruit bunch hydrolysate and transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Ottenheim, Christoph; Verdejo, Carl; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2014-12-01

    Palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB) is an abundant and cheap lignocellulose material in Southeast Asia. Its use as the sole medium for producing lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes would increase its commercial value. A newly isolated Aspergillus niger DSM 26641 was investigated for its capability of producing hemicellulases in EFB hydrolysate obtained by treatment with pressurized hot water (1-20%, w/v) at 120-180°C in a 1 L Parr reactor for 10-60 min. The optimal hydrolysate for the fungal growth and endoxylanase production was obtained when 10% (w/v) of empty fruit bunch was treated at 120°C or 150°C for 10 min, giving an endoxylanase activity of 24.5 mU ml(-1) on RBB-Xylan and a saccharification activity of 5 U ml(-1) on xylan (DNS assay). When the hydrolysates were produced at higher temperatures, longer treatment times or higher biomass contents, only less than 20% of the above maximal endoxylanase activity was detected, possibly due to the higher carbohydrate concentrations in the medium. Transcriptome analysis showed that 3 endoxylanases (expression levels 59-100%, the highest level was set as 100%), 2 ?-xylosidases (4%), 4 side chain-cleaving arabinofuranosidases (1-95%), 1 acetyl xylan esterase (9%) and 2 ferulic acid esterases (0.3-9%) were produced together. PMID:24958131

  8. Uncovering the Genome-Wide Transcriptional Responses of the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus niger to Lignocellulose Using RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gaddipati, Sanyasi; Kokolski, Matthew; Malla, Sunir; Blythe, Martin J.; Ibbett, Roger; Campbell, Maria; Liddell, Susan; Aboobaker, Aziz; Tucker, Gregory A.; Archer, David B.

    2012-01-01

    A key challenge in the production of second generation biofuels is the conversion of lignocellulosic substrates into fermentable sugars. Enzymes, particularly those from fungi, are a central part of this process, and many have been isolated and characterised. However, relatively little is known of how fungi respond to lignocellulose and produce the enzymes necessary for dis-assembly of plant biomass. We studied the physiological response of the fungus Aspergillus niger when exposed to wheat straw as a model lignocellulosic substrate. Using RNA sequencing we showed that, 24 hours after exposure to straw, gene expression of known and presumptive plant cell wall–degrading enzymes represents a huge investment for the cells (about 20% of the total mRNA). Our results also uncovered new esterases and surface interacting proteins that might form part of the fungal arsenal of enzymes for the degradation of plant biomass. Using transcription factor deletion mutants (xlnR and creA) to study the response to both lignocellulosic substrates and low carbon source concentrations, we showed that a subset of genes coding for degradative enzymes is induced by starvation. Our data support a model whereby this subset of enzymes plays a scouting role under starvation conditions, testing for available complex polysaccharides and liberating inducing sugars, that triggers the subsequent induction of the majority of hydrolases. We also showed that antisense transcripts are abundant and that their expression can be regulated by growth conditions. PMID:22912594

  9. Citric acid production by Aspergillus niger van. Tieghem MTCC 281 using waste apple pomace as a substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinesh Kumar; Rachna Verma; T. C. Bhalla

    2010-01-01

    A solid state fermentation process was tried for the production of citric acid from apple pomace left after juice extraction\\u000a using Aspergillus niger van. Tieghem MTCC 281 spores as inoculum (36.8 × 104 spores\\/100 g of pomace). The yield of citric acid was optimized by varying the amount of methanol (1–5% v\\/w), temperature\\u000a (25–35°C) and time of incubation (1–7 days)

  10. Optimization of amylase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as solid support material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato Pérez Rosés; Nelson Pérez Guerra

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of amylase by Aspergillus niger strain UO-01 under solid-state fermentation with sugarcane bagasse was optimized by using response surface methodology and\\u000a empirical modelling. The process parameters tested were particle size of sugarcane bagasse, incubation temperature and pH,\\u000a moisture level of solid support material and the concentrations of inoculum, total sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous. The optimum\\u000a conditions for high amylase

  11. Optimization of Cultural Conditions for the Production of Xylanase by Chemically Mutated Strain of Aspergillus niger GCBCX-20

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IKRAM-UL HAQ; KOUKAB RAANA; AYESHA KHAN; HAMID MUKHTAR

    Present investigation deals with the studies on the cultural conditions for enhanced biosynthesis of xylanase by a chemically mutated strain of Aspergillus niger GCBCX-20. The effects of time course, incubation temperature, medium pH and volume of fermentation medium on the production of xylanase were studied. The maximum xylanase production (250 U mL-1) was observed at an incubation temperature of 30

  12. Developmental change of the composition and content of the chitin-glucan complex in the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Feofilova; D. V. Nemtsev; V. M. Tereshina; A. S. Memorskaya

    2006-01-01

    The change of the content and composition of the chitin-glucan complex (CGC) of the ascomycete Aspergillus niger during its development has been studied. In submerged mycelium, the complex is dominated by glucan, whereas chitin is predominant\\u000a in sporophores and spores. The highest CGC content has been noted in sporophores in the terminal phase and in submerged mycelium\\u000a in the idiophase;

  13. Effects of different carbon sources on the synthesis of pectinase by Aspergillus niger in submerged and solid state fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Solís-Pereira; Ernesto Favela-Torres; Gustavo Viniegra-Gonzfilez; Mariano Gutiérrez-Rojas

    1993-01-01

    A study was made to compare the production of pectinase by Aspergillus niger CH4 in solid-state (SSF) and submerged (SmF) fermentations. Production of endo- (endo-p) and exo-pectinase (exo-p) by SSF was not reduced when glucose, sucrose or galacturonic acid (up to 10%) were added to a culture medium containing pectin. Moreover, both activities increased when concentrations of the carbon sources

  14. Production of pectolytic enzymes by Aspergillus niger: effect of inoculum size and potassium hexacyanoferrate II-trihydrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jožica Friedrich; Aleksa Cimerman; Walter Steiner

    1990-01-01

    The effect of inoculum size and potassium hexacyanoferrate II-trihydrate, K4[Fe(CN)6]·3 H2O (KHCF), on pectinase synthesis by Aspergillus niger in submerged conditions were studied. Experiments were performed in shake flasks and in a 10-1 stirred bioreactor. Spore concentrations in the range 102-108 spores\\/1 of substrate were tested. Enzyme activity measured by the Apple Juice Depectinizing Assay (AJDA) showed the highest values

  15. Secretory expression and purification of Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in PMR1 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Hyun Ko; Moon Sun Hahm; Hyun Ah Kang; Soo Wan Nam; Bong Hyun Chung

    2002-01-01

    The gene encoding glucose oxidase (GOD) from Aspergillus niger was expressed as a secretory product in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Six consecutive histidine residues were fused to the C-terminus of GOD to facilitate purification. The recombinant GOD-His6 secreted by S. cerevisiae migrated as a broad diffuse band on SDS–PAGE, with an apparent molecular weight higher than that in natural A.

  16. Biosorption of reactive dye from textile wastewater by non-viable biomass of Aspergillus niger and Spirogyra sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud A. Khalaf

    2008-01-01

    The potential of Aspergillus niger fungus and Spirogyra sp., a fresh water green algae, was investigated as a biosorbents for removal of reactive dye (Synazol) from its multi component textile wastewater. The results showed that pre-treatment of fungal and algal biomasses with autoclaving increased the removal of dye than pre-treatment with gamma-irradiation. The effects of operational parameters (pH, temperature, biomass

  17. The weak acid preservative sorbic acid inhibits conidial germination and mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger through intracellular acidification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Plumridge; Stephan J. A. Hesse; Adrian J. Watson; Kenneth C. Lowe; Malcolm Stratford; David B. Archer

    2004-01-01

    The growth of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, a common food spoilage organism, is inhibited by the weak acid preservative sorbic acid (trans-trans-2,4-hexadienoic acid). Conidia inoculated at 105\\/ml of medium showed a sorbic acid MIC of 4.5 mM at pH 4.0, whereas the MIC for the amount of mycelia at 24 h developed from the same spore inoculum was threefold

  18. A cinnamoyl esterase from Aspergillus niger can break plant cell wall cross-links without release of free diferulic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria-Teresa Garcia-Conesa; Paul A. Kroon; John Ralph; Fred A. Mellon; Ian J. Colquhoun; Luc Saulnier; Jean-Francois Thibault; Gary Williamson

    1999-01-01

    A cinnamoyl esterase, ferulic acid esterase A, from Aspergillus niger releases ferulic acid and 5-5- and 8-O-4-dehydrodiferulic acids from plant cell walls. The breakage of one or both ester bonds from dehydrodimer cross-links between plant cell wall polymers is essential for optimal action of carbohydrases on these substrates, but it is not known if cinnamoyl esterases can break these cross-links

  19. Expression of the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its potential applications in wine production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Malherbe; M. du Toit; R. R. Cordero Otero; P. van Rensburg; I. S. Pretorius

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing consumer demand for wines containing lower levels of alcohol and chemical preservatives. The objectives of this study were to express the Aspergillus niger gene encoding a glucose oxidase (GOX; ?-d-glucose:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.3.4) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to evaluate the transformants for lower alcohol production and inhibition of wine spoilage organisms, such as acetic acid bacteria

  20. Identification and fermentation optimization of protopectinase-overproducing strain Aspergillus niger CD01 for pectin production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-lan Xia; Hao Meng; Run-min Wang; Cheng-gui Zhang; Jing Xiong; Zhen-yuan Nie; Guan-zhou Qiu

    2009-01-01

    In order to solve the citrus peel resource waste problem and minimize the drawbacks of chemical extraction of pectin, a protopectinase-overproducing\\u000a strain CD-01 for pectin production was isolated from a pit soil dumped with perished orange in Changde City, Hunan Province\\u000a of China. The strain CD-01 had the same morphology and 28S rRNA gene sequence (FJ184995) as that of Aspergillus

  1. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  2. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S; Xess, I; Swetha, J V; Tanveer, N; Asati, D; Ramam, M; Singh, M K

    2009-01-01

    Primary cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare entity, usually caused by A. fumigatus and A. flavus . Here, we present such a case, manifested by ulceration due to A. niger, which remained undiagnosed for a prolonged period. The immunological status was intact, although the patient had associated severe fungal infection. Recurrence of the lesion occurred despite repeated anti-fungal therapies. Anti fungal testing was done based on the broth dilution (M-38A, NCCLS, USA) method. The culture isolate was found to be sensitive to fluconazole and amphotericin B. Continuation of antifungal therapy improved the symptoms, reducing the size of the lesion. PMID:19736412

  3. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Sanchez, Camila Cristina; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; de Santana, Eliane Silva; de Souza, Aline Tieppo; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Buckeridge, Marcos; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Background Our dependence on fossil fuel sources and concern about the environment has generated a worldwide interest in establishing new sources of fuel and energy. Thus, the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous because it is an inexhaustible energy source and has minimal environmental impact. Currently, Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol, which is produced from sugarcane juice fermentation. However, several studies suggest that Brazil could double its production per hectare by using sugarcane bagasse and straw, known as second-generation (2G) bioethanol. Nevertheless, the use of this biomass presents a challenge because the plant cell wall structure, which is composed of complex sugars (cellulose and hemicelluloses), must be broken down into fermentable sugar, such as glucose and xylose. To achieve this goal, several types of hydrolytic enzymes are necessary, and these enzymes represent the majority of the cost associated with 2G bioethanol processing. Reducing the cost of the saccharification process can be achieved via a comprehensive understanding of the hydrolytic mechanisms and enzyme secretion of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing microorganisms. In many natural habitats, several microorganisms degrade lignocellulosic biomass through a set of enzymes that act synergistically. In this study, two fungal species, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei, were grown on sugarcane biomass with two levels of cell wall complexity, culm in natura and pretreated bagasse. The production of enzymes related to biomass degradation was monitored using secretome analyses after 6, 12 and 24 hours. Concurrently, we analyzed the sugars in the supernatant. Results Analyzing the concentration of monosaccharides in the supernatant, we observed that both species are able to disassemble the polysaccharides of sugarcane cell walls since 6 hours post-inoculation. The sugars from the polysaccharides such as arabinoxylan and ?-glucan (that compose the most external part of the cell wall in sugarcane) are likely the first to be released and assimilated by both species of fungi. At all time points tested, A. niger produced more enzymes (quantitatively and qualitatively) than T. reesei. However, the most important enzymes related to biomass degradation, including cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases, ?-glucosidases, ?-xylosidases, endoxylanases, xyloglucanases, and ?-arabinofuranosidases, were identified in both secretomes. We also noticed that the both fungi produce more enzymes when grown in culm as a single carbon source. Conclusion Our work provides a detailed qualitative and semi-quantitative secretome analysis of A. niger and T. reesei grown on sugarcane biomass. Our data indicate that a combination of enzymes from both fungi is an interesting option to increase saccharification efficiency. In other words, these two fungal species might be combined for their usage in industrial processes. PMID:26053961

  4. Indoloditerpenes from an algicolous isolate of Aspergillus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Feng Qiao; Nai-Yun Ji; Xiang-Hong Liu; Ke Li; Qing-Mei Zhu; Qin-Zhao Xue

    2010-01-01

    Two new indoloditerpene derivatives asporyzin A (1) and asporyzin B (2), one new indoloditerpene asporyzin C (3), and three known related indoloditerpenes JBIR-03 (4), emindole SB (5), and emeniveol (6) were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus oryzae, isolated from the marine red alga Heterosiphonia japonica. Their structures were unambiguously established by spectroscopic techniques. In addition, all the isolates were

  5. Phytotoxicity of lignanamides isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Na; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2012-02-22

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of phytotoxic extracts prepared from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger led to the isolation of three new lignanamides (1-3), along with six known lignanamides (4-9). The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The bioactivity analysis of the isolated compounds showed that compound 3 exhibited significant inhibition on the germination and radical elongation of Allium fistulosum at 10(-4) M concentration. PMID:22280058

  6. Sudden substrate dilution induces a higher rate of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed Central

    Legisa, M; Gradisnik-Grapulin, M

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the present knowledge of Aspergillus niger metabolism during citric acid fermentation, an idea on how to improve the process was formed. Initially, a higher sucrose concentration was used for the germination of spores, which caused a higher intracellular level of the osmoregulator, glycerol, to be present. When citric acid started to be excreted into the medium, the substrate was suddenly diluted. Optimization of this procedure resulted in a nearly tripled volumetric rate (grams per liter per hour) of acid production, while the overall fermentation time was halved compared with the usual batch process. Yet, a characteristic delay was observed at the start of the acid excretion after the dilution. Hypo-osmotic shock caused a prominent elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels. Simultaneously, the specific activity of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase increased significantly, probably due to phosphorylation of the protein molecule by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Specific 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase activity was much higher in the treated than in the normally growing mycelium. The metabolic flow through glycolysis was expected to be higher, which should contribute to a higher volumetric rate of acid production. PMID:7618885

  7. Expression of an Aspergillus niger Phytase Gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yanming; Wilson, David B.; Lei, Xin gen

    1999-01-01

    Phytase improves the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus in plant foods to humans and animals and reduces phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to express an Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to determine the effects of glycosylation on the phytase’s activity and thermostability. A 1.4-kb DNA fragment containing the coding region of the phyA gene was inserted into the expression vector pYES2 and was expressed in S. cerevisiae as an active, extracellular phytase. The yield of total extracellular phytase activity was affected by the signal peptide and the medium composition. The expressed phytase had two pH optima (2 to 2.5 and 5 to 5.5) and a temperature optimum between 55 and 60°C, and it cross-reacted with a rabbit polyclonal antibody against the wild-type enzyme. Due to the heavy glycosylation, the expressed phytase had a molecular size of approximately 120 kDa and appeared to be more thermostable than the commercial enzyme. Deglycosylation of the phytase resulted in losses of 9% of its activity and 40% of its thermostability. The recombinant phytase was effective in hydrolyzing phytate phosphorus from corn or soybean meal in vitro. In conclusion, the phyA gene was expressed as an active, extracellular phytase in S. cerevisiae, and its thermostability was affected by glycosylation. PMID:10223979

  8. Exopectinases produced by Aspergillus niger in solid-state and submerged fermentation: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Godínez, G; Soriano-Santos, J; Augur, C; Viniegra-González, G

    2001-05-01

    Exopectinase production by Aspergillus niger was compared in submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF was carried out using polyurethane foam (PUF) as the solid support. The purpose was to study the effect of sucrose addition (0 or 40 g/l) and water activity level (A(w)=0.99 or 0.96) on the level of enzyme activity induced by 15 g/l of pectin. Mycelial growth, as well as extracellular protease production, was also monitored. Sucrose addition in SmF resulted in catabolite repression of exopectinase activity. However, in SSF, an enhancement of enzyme activity was observed. Protease levels were minimal in SSF experiments with sucrose and maximal in SmF without sucrose. Exopectinase yields (IU/g X) were negligible in SmF with sucrose. The high levels of exopectinase with sucrose and high A(w) in SSF can be explained by a much higher level of biomass production without catabolite repression and with lower protease contamination. PMID:11494101

  9. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals by Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Aspergillus niger by co-metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Hervé; Yargeau, Viviane; Cooper, David G

    2010-03-01

    This work investigated the possible fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment that are known to be resistant to biodegradation. A co-metabolism approach, adding a readily degradable carbon source, was used to study the biodegradation of some pharmaceuticals. The pharmaceuticals selected were all known to be micro pollutants and frequently used by humans. The microorganisms used primarily were Rhodococcus rhodochrous, known to co-metabolize difficult to degrade hydrocarbons and Aspergillus niger. Because of the long periods of time required for the degradation experiments after growth had reached the stationary phase, it was found to be necessary to correct for water loss from the media. Co-metabolism of carbamazepine, sulfamethizole and sulfamethoxazole was observed and as much as 20% of these compounds could be removed. Small amounts of stable metabolites were observed during the degradation of some of these drugs and these were different from the metabolites obtained from abiotic degradation. A metabolite arising from the biodegradation of sulfamethoxazole by R.rhodochrous was identified. PMID:20089297

  10. Fluoride-Tolerant Mutants of Aspergillus niger Show Enhanced Phosphate Solubilization Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ubiana de Cássia; Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Silva, Nina Morena R. M.; Duarte, Josiane Leal; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-01-01

    P-solubilizing microorganisms are a promising alternative for a sustainable use of P against a backdrop of depletion of high-grade rock phosphates (RPs). Nevertheless, toxic elements present in RPs, such as fluorine, can negatively affect microbial solubilization. Thus, this study aimed at selecting Aspergillus niger mutants efficient at P solubilization in the presence of fluoride (F?). The mutants were obtained by exposition of conidia to UV light followed by screening in a medium supplemented with Ca3(PO4)2 and F?. The mutant FS1-555 showed the highest solubilization in the presence of F?, releasing approximately 70% of the P contained in Ca3(PO4)2, a value 1.7 times higher than that obtained for the wild type (WT). The mutant FS1-331 showed improved ability of solubilizing fluorapatites, increasing the solubilization of Araxá, Catalão, and Patos RPs by 1.7, 1.6, and 2.5 times that of the WT, respectively. These mutants also grew better in the presence of F?, indicating that mutagenesis allowed the acquisition of F? tolerance. Higher production of oxalic acid by FS1-331 correlated with its improved capacity for RP solubilization. This mutant represents a significant improvement and possess a high potential for application in solubilization systems with fluoride-rich phosphate sources. PMID:25310310

  11. Preparation of a whole-cell biocatalyst of Aspergillus niger lipase and its practical properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenshan; Jia, Bin; Zhao, Heyun; Xu, Li; Yan, Yunjun

    2010-10-13

    Aspergillus niger lipase (ANL), a widely used hydrolase, was displayed for the first time on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a-agglutinin as an anchor protein. Localization of ANL on the cell surface was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The displayed ANL was confirmed to be active toward tributyrin and p-nitrophenyl caprylate (pNPC). The hydrolytic activity toward pNPC reached 43.8 U/g of dry cell weight after induction by galactose for 72 h. The ANL-displaying cells were characterized for their use as whole-cell biocatalysts. The optimum temperature was 45 °C, and the pH was 7.0. The cells had good thermostability, retaining almost 80% of the full activity after incubation at 60 °C for 1 h, and >80% of the full activity at 50 °C for 6 h. The displayed lipase showed a preference for medium-chain fatty acid p-nitrophenyl esters. Therefore, the produced whole-cell catalyst is likely to have a wide range of applications. PMID:20828152

  12. Necrotizing mycotic vasculitis with cerebral infarction caused by Aspergillus niger in a horse with acute typholocolitis.

    PubMed

    Tunev, S S; Ehrhart, E J; Jensen, H E; Foreman, J H; Richter, R A; Messick, J B

    1999-07-01

    An 18-year-old Morgan mare was presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of Illinois, with a 10-day history of watery diarrhea, depression, and dysphagia. On admission, the animal was severely dehydrated, depressed, and unable to swallow and had no clinical signs of diarrhea. The respiratory and heart rate and body temperature were within normal limits. Following fluid therapy, the mare developed severe watery diarrhea and continued to be depressed, incoordinated, and dysphagic. The animal died on the fourth day after admission and was sent to the Laboratories of Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine for necropsy. Gross postmortem findings were consistent with an acute cerebral infarction in the right cerebral hemisphere, an acute necrotizing typhlocolitis, multifocal petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, enlarged and congested pars intermedia of the pituitary gland, and marked bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia with multifocal areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Histologic evaluation of the affected brain demonstrated an area of coagulative necrosis of the gray matter, with hemorrhage, vasculitis, and thrombosis. There were many fungal hyphae 3.5-6.0 microm, pale basophilic, septate, and occasionally branching at 45 degrees present in the arterial walls and throughout the necrotic tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed Aspergillus niger as the etiologic agent responsible for the mycotic vasculitis and infarction in the brain. Bacteria culture and immunohistochemical staining of the colon and cecum failed to demonstrate specific pathogens. PMID:10421105

  13. Purification and Characterization of a Ginsenoside Rb1-Hydrolyzing ?-Glucosidase from Aspergillus niger KCCM 11239

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung Hoon; Jo, Mi Na; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Rb1-hydrolyzing ?-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger KCCM 11239 was studied to develop a bioconversion process for minor ginsenosides. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 46.5 times greater than that of the crude enzyme. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to be approximately 123 kDa. The optimal pH of the purified enzyme was pH 4.0, and the enzyme proved highly stable over a pH range of 5.0–10.0. The optimal temperature was 70 °C, and the enzyme became unstable at temperatures above 60 °C. The enzyme was inhibited by Cu2+, Mg2+, Co2+, and acetic acid (10 mM). In the specificity tests, the enzyme was found to be active against ginsenoside Rb1, but showed very low levels of activity against Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1. The enzyme hydrolyzed the 20-C,?-(1?6)-glucoside of ginsenoside Rb1 to generate ginsenoside Rd and Rg3, and hydrolyzed 3-C,?-(1?2)-glucoside to generate F2. The properties of the enzyme indicate that it could be a useful tool in biotransformation applications in the ginseng industry, as well as in the development of novel drug compounds. PMID:23109906

  14. Effects of temperature and additives on the thermal stability of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Meng, Zhaoli; Shi, Ruilin; Zhan, Le; Hu, Wei; Xiang, Hongyu; Xie, Qiuhong

    2015-01-28

    GAM-1 and GAM-2, two themostable glucoamylases from Aspergillus niger B-30, possess different molecular masses, glycosylation, and thermal stability. In the present study, the effects of additives on the thermal inactivation of GAM-1 and GAM-2 were investigated. The half-lives of GAM-1 and GAM-2 at 70°C were 45 and 216 min, respectively. Data obtained from fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, UV absorption spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering demonstrated that during the thermal inactivation progress, combined with the loss of the helical structure and a majority of the tertiary structure, tryptophan residues were partially exposed and further led to glucoamylases aggregating. The thermal stability of GAM-1 and GAM-2 was largely improved in the presence of sorbitol and trehalose. Results from spectroscopy and Native-PAGE confirmed that sorbitol and trehalose maintained the native state of glucoamylases and prevented their thermal aggregation. The loss of hydrophobic bonding and helical structure was responsible for the decrease of glucoamylase activity. Additionally, sorbitol and trehalose significantly increased the substrate affinity and catalytic efficiency of the two glucoamylases. Our results display an insight into the thermal inactivation of glucoamylases and provide an important base for industrial applications of the thermally stable glucoamylases. PMID:25179903

  15. Regulation of the pathway for the degradation of anthranilate in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Rao, P V; Sreeleela, N S; Premakumar, R; Vaidyanathan, C S

    1971-07-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the factors governing the induction of anthranilate hydroxylase and other enzymes in the pathway for the dissimilation of anthranilate by Aspergillus niger (UBC 814). The enzyme was induced by growth in the presence of tryptophan, kynurenine, anthranilate, and, surprisingly, by 3-hydroxyanthranilate, which was not an intermediate in the conversion of anthranilate to 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate. There was an initial lag in the synthesis of anthranilate hydroxylase when induced by tryptophan, anthranilate, and 3-hydroxyanthranilate. Cycloheximide inhibited the enzyme induction. Comparative studies on anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase, and catechol 1:2-oxygenase revealed that these enzymes were not coordinately induced by either anthranilate or 3-hydroxyanthranilate. Structural requirements for the induction of anthranilate hydroxylase were determined by using various analogues of anthranilate. The activity of the constitutive catechol oxygenase was increased threefold by exposure to anthranilate, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, or catechol. 3-Hydroxyanthranilate did not enhance the levels of catechol oxygenase activity. PMID:5563863

  16. Effects of cellulase from Aspergillus niger and solvent pretreatments on the extractability of organic green tea waste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hun; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Heo, Wan; Lee, Hyungjae; Kwon, Eung Gi; Lee, Hong-Gu; Shin, Dong Hoon; Liu, Rui Hai; Kim, Young Jun

    2010-10-13

    As green tea is being consumed in larger amounts, more green tea waste is being produced. Following extraction, several bioactive compounds may exist in the waste including polyphenols and amino acids. It was found that an Aspergillus niger cellulase treatment of green tea waste increased the extractability of various nutritional and functional components after pretreatments with various extraction solvents such as cold water (CW), hot water (HW), sulfuric acid (SA), hydrochloric acid (HA), and methanol (Me). After the residue was treated with cellulase from Aspergillus niger, the amounts of polyphenols, total catechins, and reducing sugars in the HW extract were increased by 64.6, 941.2, and 350.9%, respectively. In particular, levels of epigallocatechin, epicatechin, and gallic acid were significantly enhanced compared to those in the nontreated control. However, protein extraction was not significantly affected, and cellulase treatment was not more efficient for caffeine extraction compared to phenolic extraction. Among the four extraction solvents, HW and SA showed relatively higher extractabilities as compared to the other groups (CW, HA, and Me). These results indicate that cellulase from A. niger can increase the extractability of green tea waste when combined with certain solvent pretreatments. Consequently, the residual functional compounds and essential nutrients from cellulase-treated green tea waste have the potential to be applied in the production of new functional foods. PMID:20843026

  17. [Niger].

    PubMed

    The capital of Niger is Niamey. As of 1995, Niger had a population of 9.2 million governed by a transitional military regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $2 billion and $230. Per capita income declined by 2.2% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Niger owed $1.6 billion, then being serviced at $242 million. For the same year, Niger exported $254 million in goods and services and imported $351 million. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 3.3% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 46.5 years, the infant mortality rate was 124 per 1000 births, 32% had access to health services, and 59% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347102

  18. Niger.

    PubMed

    1987-06-01

    Niger is two-thirds Sahara desert and the rest savannah with an area irrigated by the Niger River valley. The 6.2 million people are therefore either nomadic herdsmen or subsistence farmers, coping with a hot, dry climate. There are 5 or more ethnic groups, 2 main languages other than the official French, and most people are Muslim. The growth rate is 3.1%; children make up 45% of the population; infant mortality is 145/1000; life expectancy is 44.5 years. The constitutional government has been suspended by a military regime. A multi-layered structure called "development society" has been instituted. Per capita income is about $265. Niger has uranium, coal, iron, tin and phosphates, and farm products include peanuts, millet, sorghum, beans, cotton, rice and cowpeas. Niger received assistance from France, US, West Germany, Canada, Saudi Arabia, as well as international organizations and military assistance from several countries. PMID:12177951

  19. Characterization of toxigenic and atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates from pistachio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty eight Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from a pistachio orchard in California were analyzed for production of aflatoxin (AF), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and mating types. All toxigenic isolates produced both AFB1 and CPA. Twenty-one percent of the i...

  20. Strain improvement and up scaling of phytase production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 under submerged fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Shah, P; Bhavsar, K; Soni, S K; Khire, Jayant Malhar

    2009-03-01

    Combination of physical and chemical mutagenesis was used to isolate hyper secretory strains of Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 for phytase production. Phytase activity of mutant N-1 and N-79 was about 17 and 47% higher than the parent strain. In shake flask the productivity of phytase in parent, mutant N-1 and N-79 was 6,181, 7,619 and 9,523 IU/L per day, respectively. Up scaling of the fermentation from shake flask to 3 and 14 L New Brunswick fermenter was studied. After optimizing various fermentation parameters like aeration, agitation and carbon source in fermentation medium the fermentation time to achieve highest phytase activity was reduced considerably from 14 days in shake flask to 8 days in 14 L fermenter. Highest phytase activity of 80 IU/ml was obtained in 1% rice bran-3.5% glucose containing medium with aeration 0.2 vvm and agitation 550 rpm at room temperature on 8th day of fermentation. Addition of either bavistin (0.1%), penicillin (0.1%), formalin (0.2%) and sodium chloride (10%) in fermented broth were effective in retaining 100% phytase activity for 8 days at room temperature while these reagents along with methanol (50%) and ethanol (50%) confer 100% stability of phytase activity at 4 degrees C till 20 days. Among various carriers used for application of phytase in feed, wheat bran and rice bran were superior to silica and calcium carbonate. Thermo stabilization studies indicate 100% protection of phytase activity in presence of 12% skim milk at 70 degrees C, which will be useful for its spray drying. PMID:19082644

  1. Mixed Disulfide Formation at Cys141 Leads to Apparent Unidirectional Attenuation of Aspergillus niger NADP-Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Walvekar, Adhish S.; Choudhury, Rajarshi; Punekar, Narayan S.

    2014-01-01

    NADP-Glutamate dehydrogenase from Aspergillus niger (AnGDH) exhibits sigmoid 2-oxoglutarate saturation. Incubation with 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide (2-HED, the disulfide of 2-mercaptoethanol) resulted in preferential attenuation of AnGDH reductive amination (forward) activity but with a negligible effect on oxidative deamination (reverse) activity, when monitored in the described standard assay. Such a disulfide modified AnGDH displaying less than 1.0% forward reaction rate could be isolated after 2-HED treatment. This unique forward inhibited GDH form (FIGDH), resembling a hypothetical ‘one-way’ active enzyme, was characterized. Kinetics of 2-HED mediated inhibition and protein thiol titrations suggested that a single thiol group is modified in FIGDH. Two site-directed cysteine mutants, C141S and C415S, were constructed to identify the relevant thiol in FIGDH. The forward activity of C141S alone was insensitive to 2-HED, implicating Cys141 in FIGDH formation. It was observed that FIGDH displayed maximal reaction rate only after a pre-incubation with 2-oxoglutarate and NADPH. In addition, compared to the native enzyme, FIGDH showed a four fold increase in K0.5 for 2-oxoglutarate and a two fold increase in the Michaelis constants for ammonium and NADPH. With no change in the GDH reaction equilibrium constant, the FIGDH catalyzed rate of approach to equilibrium from reductive amination side was sluggish. Altered kinetic properties of FIGDH at least partly account for the observed apparent loss of forward activity when monitored under defined assay conditions. In sum, although Cys141 is catalytically not essential, its covalent modification provides a striking example of converting the biosynthetic AnGDH into a catabolic enzyme. PMID:24987966

  2. Combinatorial approach of statistical optimization and mutagenesis for improved production of acidic phytase by Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 under submerged fermentation condition.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, K; Gujar, P; Shah, P; Kumar, V Ravi; Khire, J M

    2013-01-01

    Combination of statistical optimization and mutagenesis to isolate hypersecretory strains is studied to maximize phytase production from Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 under submerged fermentation. The overall results obtained show a remarkable 5.98-fold improvement in phytase production rates when compared to that using basal medium. Optimization of culture conditions from parent strain is studied first by the Plackett-Burman technique to evaluate the effects of 11 variables for phytase production. The results showed that glucose, MgSO(4), KCl, incubation period, and MnSO(4) are the most significant variables affecting enzyme production. Further optimization in these variables, using a central composite design technique, resulted in 3.74-fold increase in the yield of phytase production to 254,500 U/l when compared with the activity observed with basal media (68,000 U/l) in shake flask. Our experiments show that the phytase from A. niger NCIM 563 exhibits desirable activity in simulated gastric fluid conditions with low pH and also improved thermostability when compared to commercial phytase. The improved yield demonstrates the potential applicability of phytase enzyme as a source of phytase supplement for phosphorus nutrition and environmental protection in animal feed industry. Physical and chemical mutagenesis experiments were carried out in parallel to isolate hypersecretory mutants that could possibly further enhance the enzyme production. Using optimized media conditions of the parent strain, our results show that mutant strain A. niger NCIM 1359 increased the phytase activity by another 1.6-fold to 407,200 U/l. PMID:22382169

  3. Highly thermostable and pH-stable cellulases from Aspergillus niger NS-2: properties and application for cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Namita; Janveja, Chetna; Tewari, Rupinder; Soni, Raman; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of cultural conditions for enhanced cellulase production by Aspergillus niger NS-2 were studied under solid-state fermentation. Significant increase in yields (CMCase 463.9 ± 20.1 U/g, FPase 101.1 ± 3.5 U/g and ?-glucosidase 99 ± 4.0 U/g) were obtained under optimized conditions. Effect of different nutritional parameters was studied to induce the maximum production of cellulase complex. Scale-up studies for enzyme production process were carried out. Characterization studies showed that enzymes produced by A. niger NS-2 were highly temperature- and pH stable. At 50 °C, the half life for CMCase, FPase, ?-glucosidase were approximately 240 h. Cellulases from A. niger NS-2 were stable at 35 °C for 24 h over a broader pH range of 3.0-9.0. We examined the feasibility of using steam pretreatment to increase the saccharification yields from various lignocellulosic residues for sugar release which can potentially be used in bioethanol production. Saccharification of pretreated dry potato peels, carrot peels, composite waste mixture, orange peels, onion peels, banana peels, pineapple peels by crude enzyme extract from A. niger NS-2, resulted in very high cellulose conversion efficiencies of 92-98 %. PMID:24052336

  4. Genomic analysis of the secretion stress response in the enzyme-producing cell factory Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Guillemette, Thomas; van Peij, Noël NME; Goosen, Theo; Lanthaler, Karin; Robson, Geoffrey D; van den Hondel, Cees AMJJ; Stam, Hein; Archer, David B

    2007-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger have a high capacity secretory system and are therefore widely exploited for the industrial production of native and heterologous proteins. However, in most cases the yields of non-fungal proteins are significantly lower than those obtained for fungal proteins. One well-studied bottleneck appears to be the result of mis-folding of heterologous proteins in the ER during early stages of secretion, with related stress responses in the host, including the unfolded protein response (UPR). This study aims at uncovering transcriptional and translational responses occurring in A. niger exposed to secretion stress. Results A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of protein secretion-related stress responses was determined using Affymetrix DNA GeneChips and independent verification for selected genes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated stress was induced either by chemical treatment of the wild-type cells with dithiothreitol (DTT) or tunicamycin, or by expressing a human protein, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). All of these treatments triggered the UPR, as shown by the expression levels of several well-known UPR target genes. The predicted proteins encoded by most of the up-regulated genes function as part of the secretory system including chaperones, foldases, glycosylation enzymes, vesicle transport proteins, and ER-associated degradation proteins. Several genes were down-regulated under stress conditions and these included several genes that encode secreted enzymes. Moreover, translational regulation under ER stress was investigated by polysomal fractionation. This analysis confirmed the post-transcriptional control of hacA expression and highlighted that differential translation also occurs during ER stress, in particular for some genes encoding secreted proteins or proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis and assembly. Conclusion This is first genome-wide analysis of both transcriptional and translational events following protein secretion stress. Insight has been gained into the molecular basis of protein secretion and secretion-related stress in an effective protein-secreting fungus, and provides an opportunity to identify target genes for manipulation in strain improvement strategies. PMID:17561995

  5. Biosorption of reactive dye from textile wastewater by non-viable biomass of Aspergillus niger and Spirogyra sp.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Mahmoud A

    2008-09-01

    The potential of Aspergillus niger fungus and Spirogyra sp., a fresh water green algae, was investigated as a biosorbents for removal of reactive dye (Synazol) from its multi component textile wastewater. The results showed that pre-treatment of fungal and algal biomasses with autoclaving increased the removal of dye than pre-treatment with gamma-irradiation. The effects of operational parameters (pH, temperature, biomass concentration and time) on dye removal were examined. The results obtained revealed that dried autoclaved biomass of A. niger and Spirogyra sp. exhibited maximum dye removal (88% and 85%, respectively) at pH3, temperature 30 degrees C and 8 gl(-1)(w/v) biomass conc. after 18h contact time. The stability and efficiency of both organisms in the long-term repetitive operation were also investigated. The results showed that the non-viable biomasses possessed high stability and efficiency of dye removal over 3 repeated batches. PMID:18242981

  6. A possible mechanism to control the spread and growth of facultative marine fungus Aspergillus niger using magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vala, A. K.; Desai, R.; Upadhyay, R. V.; Mehta, R. V.

    2008-12-01

    Interaction of facultative marine fungus Aspergillus niger with a Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid (MF) has been studied. The fungus exhibited a luxuriant growth in the presence of magnetic fluid at test concentrations. Though the biomass accumulation was found to be almost similar, mycelial spread was found to be rapid in the presence of MF if compared to the control one. The MF also exhibited a positive effect on the biomass accumulation during prolonged incubation. These preliminary observations provide a baseline information for possible exploitation of the magnetic fluid-facultative marine fungal interaction for bioremediation purposes. Figs 5, Refs 13.

  7. FT-IR Spectroscopy for Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus parasiticus and Characterization of Aflatoxigenic Isolates Collected from Agricultural Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Garon; Anne El Kaddoumi; Alexandra Carayon; Caroline Amiel

    2010-01-01

    In agricultural areas, Aspergillus\\u000a flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus parasiticus are commonly identified in various feedstuffs and bioaerosols originated from feed handling. Some isolates belonging to these\\u000a fungal species could produce mycotoxins and constitute a risk factor for human and animal health. In this study, Fourier-transform\\u000a infrared spectroscopy was used for a rapid detection and characterization of 99 isolates collected

  8. Derepressed 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants of Aspergillus niger with altered hexokinase and acid phosphatase activity in hyperproduction of beta-fructofuranosidase.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, B; Senthilkumar, S R; Gunasekaran, P

    2004-01-01

    Aspergillus niger NRRL330 produces extracellular beta-fructofuranosidase (Ffase), and its production is subject to repression by hexoses in the medium. After ultraviolet mutagenization and selection, seven derepressed mutants resistant to 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) were isolated on Czapek's minimal medium containing glycerol. One of the mutants, designated DGRA-1, produced higher levels of Ffase. A considerable difference occurred in the mutants with reference to hexokinase and intracellular acid phosphatase activities. The hexokinase activity of the mutant DGRA-1 (0.69 U/mg) was 1.8-fold higher than the wild type (0.38 U/mg). Intracellular acid phosphatase activity of the mutant DGRA-1 (0.83 U/g of mycelia) was twofold higher than that of the wild type (0.42 U/g of mycelia), suggesting that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation steps could attribute to the 2-DG resistance of A. niger. However, additional mutations could account for the increased production of Ffase in the mutant DGRA-1. PMID:15304742

  9. Influence of pectin and glucose on growth and polygalacturonase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state cultivation.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Salvador, Suzielle; Silveira, Mauricio Moura da

    2005-08-01

    The solid-state production of endo- and exo-polygalacturonases (PG) by Aspergillus niger was studied in a media containing wheat bran, salts, and different citric pectin and/or glucose concentrations. Kinetic analysis of the process indicated that the formation of PG and the growth of A. niger are associated processes. By increasing citric pectin from 0 to 16% (w/w), the maximum A. niger concentration (X (m)) was raised from 94 to 121 mg/g dry medium suggesting that pectin can be used by A. niger as a growth substrate besides its role as an inducer. With 16% (w/w) pectin, 281 U exo-PG/gdm and 152 U endo-PG/gdm were obtained. Otherwise, pectin concentrations from 20 to 30% (w/w) hindered both production and growth. A. niger concentrations of 108-113 mg/gdm were achieved in runs with glucose from 5 to 12% (w/w), whereas at 16 and 20% (w/w) glucose, lower X (m) values (ca. 100 mg/gdm) were measured. The addition of glucose to the wheat bran medium, up to 10% (w/w) led to maximum endo-PG titers slightly lower than those found in the absence of glucose. Nevertheless, exo-PG formation in these media was strongly increased and activities over 370 U/gdm were achieved. The results suggest that in experiments with pectin concentrations until 16% (w/w), exo-PG production was repressed by pectin-degradation products although these same substances had favored biomass growth. When glucose concentrations over 10% (w/w) were added to the media, the maximum activities of both enzymes decreased drastically, suggesting that glucose at high concentrations also exerts a repressive effect on PG production. PMID:16059783

  10. Screening of natural substrates and optimization of operating variables on the production of pectinase by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger MTCC 281

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Palaniyappan; V. Vijayagopal; Renuka Viswanathan; T. Viruthagiri

    2009-01-01

    Pectinases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes that play an important role in food processing industry and alcoholic beverage industry. The present work aims at studying different natural substrates such as wheat flour and corn flour in comparison with synthetic pectin for the production of pectinase using Aspergillus niger (MTCC: 281). The work involves optimizing various parameters like substrate concentration,

  11. Correlation of Mycotoxin Fumonisin B2 Production and Presence of the Fumonisin Biosynthetic Gene fum8 in Aspergillus niger from Grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins associated with cancer and several other serious diseases in humans and animals. Production of the mycotoxins has been reported for over two decades in Fusarium species, but has been reported only recently in strains of Aspergillus niger. In addition, a homologue of the f...

  12. Altering the Substrate Specificity Site of Aspergillus Niger PhyB shifts the pH optimum to pH 3.2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytases are of biotechnological importance as animal feed additives for their ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate from phytate for absorption by simple-stomached animals, and to reduce their fecal phosphorus excretion. Aspergillus niger PhyB has high catalytic activity at low pHs around...

  13. Structure of Aspergillus niger epoxide hydrolase at 1.8 Å resolution: implications for the structure and function of the mammalian microsomal class of epoxide hydrolases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinyu Zou; B Martin Hallberg; Terese Bergfors; Franz Oesch; Michael Arand; Sherry L Mowbray; T Alwyn Jones

    2000-01-01

    Background: Epoxide hydrolases have important roles in the defense of cells against potentially harmful epoxides. Conversion of epoxides into less toxic and more easily excreted diols is a universally successful strategy. A number of microorganisms employ the same chemistry to process epoxides for use as carbon sources.Results: The X-ray structure of the epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger was determined at

  14. Critical analysis of the effect of metal ions on gluconic acid production by Aspergillus niger using a treated Indian cane molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Subba Rao; T. Panda

    1994-01-01

    Gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger has been investigated using untreated and treated Indian cane molasses. The yield of gluconic acid was found to be reduced using an untreated molasses medium compared to a defined medium. Hence, molasses was subjected to various pretreatment techniques. Pretreatment reduced the levels of various cations and anions. As the synthesis of gluconic acid has

  15. The antifungal efficacy of nano-metals supported TiO? and ozone on the resistant Aspergillus niger spore.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Huang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Shang-Chun

    2013-10-15

    Recently, antimicrobial efficacy of nano-metals has been extensively investigated. However, most of the related studies focused on the bactericidal effectiveness. Molds, especially their spores, are more resistant than bacteria, and can build a high concentration in houses due to dampness. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of the antifungal effectiveness of nano-metals is necessary. In this study, the nano-metals (Ag, Cu and Ni) supported catalysts were successfully prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method, while the titanium dioxide (Degussa (Evonik) P25) nanoparticle was served as the support. The antifungal experiments of Aspergillus niger spores were conducted on two surfaces (quartz and putty) in the darkness with and without ozone exposure, respectively. The critical Ag concentration to inhibit the germination and growth of A. niger spores of 5 wt% nano Ag catalyst was 65 mg/mL, lower than several cases in previous studies. The inactivation rate constants (k) of A. niger spores on nano-metals supported catalysts in the presence of ozone (k=0.475-0.966 h(-1)) were much higher than those in the absence of ozone (k=0.001-0.268 h(-1)). However, on the surface of TiO? particles, no antifungal effect was observed until 6-h exposure to ozone. Consequently, ozone has a synergetic effect on nano-metals antifungal efficacy. PMID:23921178

  16. Effect of citrate on Aspergillus niger phytase adsorption and catalytic activity in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezeli, Malika; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Current developments in cropping systems that promote mobilisation of phytate in agricultural soils, by exploiting plant-root exudation of phytase and organic acids, offer potential for developments in sustainable phosphorus use. However, phytase adsorption to soil particles and phytate complexion has been shown to inhibit phytate dephosphorylation, thereby inhibiting plant P uptake, increasing the risk of this pool contributing to diffuse pollution and reducing the potential benefits of biotechnologies and management strategies aimed to utilise this abundant reserve of 'legacy' phosphorus. Citrate has been seen to increase phytase catalytic efficiency towards complexed forms of phytate, but the mechanisms by which citrate promotes phytase remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated phytase (from Aspergillus niger) inactivation, and change in catalytic properties upon addition to soil and the effect citrate had on adsorption of phytase and hydrolysis towards free, precipitated and adsorbed phytate. A Langmuir model was fitted to phytase adsorption isotherms showing a maximum adsorption of 0.23 nKat g-1 (19 mg protein g-1) and affinity constant of 435 nKat g?1 (8.5 mg protein g-1 ), demonstrating that phytase from A.niger showed a relatively low affinity for our test soil (Tayport). Phytases were partially inhibited upon adsorption and the specific activity was of 40.44 nKat mg?1 protein for the free enzyme and 25.35 nKat mg?1 protein when immobilised. The kinetics of adsorption detailed that most of the adsorption occurred within the first 20 min upon addition to soil. Citrate had no effect on the rate or total amount of phytase adsorption or loss of activity, within the studied citrate concentrations (0-4mM). Free phytases in soil solution and phytase immobilised on soil particles showed optimum activity (>80%) at pH 4.5-5.5. Immobilised phytase showed greater loss of activity at pH levels over 5.5 and lower activities at the secondary peak at pH 2.5 when compared to the free enzymes or in soil solution. The effect of ionic strength on enzyme activity was studied by increasing NaCl concentration on the activity buffer. A significant loss of activity was seen at ionic strengths over 0.6 M but enzymes in soil solution showed increased loss of activity on initial increase in ionic strength. No significant effect of citrate on phytase catalytic efficiency was observed towards free, adsorbed and precipitated (Al, Fe, Ca) phytate, except for the free phytase towards adsorbed phytase which showed a ~160% increase in P release with the addition of citric acid. This data suggest that citrate addition has no impact on the adsorption or catalytic activity of phytase in soil solution or that immobilised on soil particles, suggesting that its impact is associated with the availability of the substrate rather than effects on the enzyme per se. The ionic strength of soil solution does, however, have an impact on phytase activity suggesting that both wetting/drying cycles and fertilisation will have discrete impacts on the activity of phytases once released to soil and thus their ability to make organic P available for uptake by plants and microbes.

  17. Comparative study of toxicity of azo dye Procion Red MX-5B following biosorption and biodegradation treatments with the fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Almeida, E J R; Corso, C R

    2014-10-01

    Azo dyes are an important class of environmental contaminants and are characterized by the presence of one or more azo bonds (-N=N-) in their molecular structure. Effluents containing these compounds resist many types of treatments due to their molecular complexity. Therefore, alternative treatments, such as biosorption and biodegradation, have been widely studied to solve the problems caused by these substances, such as their harmful effects on the environment and organisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate biosorption and biodegradation of the azo dye Procion Red MX-5B in solutions with the filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. Decolorization tests were performed, followed by acute toxicity tests using Lactuca sativa seeds and Artemia salina larvae. Thirty percent dye removal of the solutions was achieved after 3 h of biosorption. UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed that removal of the dye molecules occurred without major molecular changes. The acute toxicity tests confirmed lack of molecular degradation following biosorption with A. niger, as toxicity to L. sativa seed reduced from 5% to 0%. For A. salina larvae, the solutions were nontoxic before and after treatment. In the biodegradation study with the fungus A. terreus, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy revealed molecular degradation and the formation of secondary metabolites, such as primary and secondary amines. The biodegradation of the dye molecules was evaluated after 24, 240 and 336 h of treatment. The fungal biomass demonstrated considerable affinity for Procion Red MX-5B, achieving approximately 100% decolorization of the solutions by the end of treatment. However, the solutions resulting from this treatment exhibited a significant increase in toxicity, inhibiting the growth of L. sativa seeds by 43% and leading to a 100% mortality rate among the A. salina larvae. Based on the present findings, biodegradation was effective in the decolorization of the samples, but generated toxic metabolites, while biosorption was effective in both decolorization and reducing the toxicity of the solutions. PMID:25048922

  18. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Shazia; Aslam, Hina; Ahmad, Aqeel; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed; Sohail, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE), in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (?-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase) using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP) for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes. PMID:25763058

  19. [Effect of alcoholic extracts of wild plants on the inhibition of growth of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium poae moulds].

    PubMed

    Tequida-Meneses, Martín; Cortez-Rocha, Mario; Rosas-Burgos, Ema Carina; López-Sandoval, Susana; Corrales-Maldonado, Consuelo

    2002-06-01

    Fungicidal activity of wild plants Larrea tridentata, Karwinskia humboldtiana, Ricinus communis, Eucalyptus globulus, Ambrosia ambrosioides, Nicotiana glauca, Ambrosia confertiflora, Datura discolor, Baccharis glutinosa, Proboscidea parviflora, Solanum rostratum, Jatropha cinerea, Salpianthus macrodonthus y Sarcostemma cynanchoides was evaluated against the moulds species Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium poae y Fusarium moniliforme moulds species. Alcoholic extracts 6% (w/v) were prepared using six grams of dried plant powders (leaves and stems) and alcohol (70% ethanol or 70% methanol). A spore suspension (1x10(6); ufc/ml) of each mould was prepared by adding saline solution (0.85%) and 0.1% tween 80. The extracts were mixed with Czapeck yeast agar (CYA) at 45-50 degrees C in 1:10 relation on Petri dishes. Triplicate Petri dishes of each treatment and for each mould were centrally inoculated and three Petri dishes were used without treatment as controls. The inoculated dishes and controls were incubated at 25 +/- 2 degrees C for eight days. The incubated dishes were examined each 48 h and after the colony diameter (radial growth) was measured. Two mould species were controlled by L. tridentata, B. glutinosa and P. parviflora. Extracts of L. tridentata in methanol or ethanol at 41.5-100% inhibited all six species of moulds. PMID:12828509

  20. Sugarcane molasses and yeast powder used in the Fructooligosaccharides production by Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611.

    PubMed

    Dorta, Claudia; Cruz, Rubens; de Oliva-Neto, Pedro; Moura, Danilo José Camargo

    2006-12-01

    Different concentrations of sucrose (3-25% w/v) and peptone (2-5% w/v) were studied in the formulation of media during the cultivation of Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. Moreover, cane molasses (3.5-17.5% w/v total sugar) and yeast powder (1.5-5% w/v) were used as alternative nutrients for both strains' cultivation. These media were formulated for analysis of cellular growth, beta-Fructosyltransferase and Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) production. Transfructosylating activity (U ( t )) and FOS production were analyzed by HPLC. The highest enzyme production by both the strains was 3% (w/v) sucrose and 3% (w/v) peptone, or 3.5% (w/v) total sugars present in cane molasses and 1.5% (w/v) yeast powder. Cane molasses and yeast powder were as good as sucrose and peptone in the enzyme and FOS (around 60% w/w) production by studied strains. PMID:16835781

  1. Indoloditerpenes from an algicolous isolate of Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ming-Feng; Ji, Nai-Yun; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Li, Ke; Zhu, Qing-Mei; Xue, Qin-Zhao

    2010-10-01

    Two new indoloditerpene derivatives asporyzin A (1) and asporyzin B (2), one new indoloditerpene asporyzin C (3), and three known related indoloditerpenes JBIR-03 (4), emindole SB (5), and emeniveol (6) were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus oryzae, isolated from the marine red alga Heterosiphonia japonica. Their structures were unambiguously established by spectroscopic techniques. In addition, all the isolates were evaluated preliminarily for insecticidal and antimicrobial activities in order to probe into their chemical defensive function. Compound 4 was more active against brine shrimp than the others, and 3 possessed potent activity against Escherichia coli. PMID:20797856

  2. Sequential solid-state and submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger on sugarcane bagasse for the production of cellulase.

    PubMed

    Cunha, F M; Esperança, M N; Zangirolami, T C; Badino, A C; Farinas, C S

    2012-05-01

    Sequential solid-state and submerged cultivation with sugarcane bagasse as substrate for cellulase production by Aspergillus niger A12 was assessed by measuring endoglucanase activity. An unconventional pre-culture with an initial fungal growth phase under solid-state cultivation was followed by a transition to submerged fermentation by adding the liquid culture medium to the mycelium grown on solid substrate. For comparison, control experiments were conducted using conventional submerged cultivation. The cultures were carried out in shake flasks and in a 5-L bubble column bioreactor. An endoglucanase productivity of 57 ± 13 IU/L/h was achieved in bubble column cultivations prepared using the new method, representing an approximately 3-fold improvement compared to conventional submerged fermentation. Therefore, the methodology proposed here of a sequential fermentation process offers a promising alternative for cellulase production. PMID:22409979

  3. Treatment of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus wastewater utilizing phytoremediation of microalgae, Chlorella sp. with Aspergillus niger bio-harvesting.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Nurfarahana Mohd; Bakar, Nur Syuhada Abu; Lananan, Fathurrahman; Abdul Hamid, Siti Hajar; Lam, Su Shiung; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of the performance of Chlorella sp. in removing nutrient in aquaculture wastewater and its correlation with the kinetic growth of Chlorella sp. The treatment was applied with various Chlorella sp. inoculation dosage ranging from 0% to 60% (v/v) of wastewater. The optimum inoculation dosage was recorded at 30% (v/v) with effluent concentration of ammonia and orthophosphate recording at 0.012mgL(-1) and 0.647mgL(-1), respectively on Day 11. The optimum dosage for bio-flocculation process was obtained at 30mgL(-1) of Aspergillus niger with a harvesting efficiency of 97%. This type of development of phytoremediation with continuous bio-harvesting could promote the use of sustainable green technology for effective wastewater treatment. PMID:25791330

  4. Application of Plackett-Burman Experimental Design for Lipase Production by Aspergillus niger Using Shea Butter Cake.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Aliyu; Bala, Muntari; Bala, Shuaibu M

    2013-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was used to efficiently select important medium components affecting the lipase production by Aspergillus niger using shea butter cake as the main substrate. Out of the eleven medium components screened, six comprising of sucrose, (NH4)2SO4, Na2HPO4, MgSO4, Tween-80, and olive oil were found to contribute positively to the overall lipase production with a maximum production of 3.35?U/g. Influence of tween-80 on lipase production was investigated, and 1.0% (v/w) of tween-80 resulted in maximum lipase production of 6.10?U/g. Thus, the statistical approach employed in this study allows for rapid identification of important medium parameters affecting the lipase production, and further statistical optimization of medium and process parameters can be explored using response surface methodology. PMID:25937979

  5. Isolation of gallic acid-producing microorganisms and their use in the production of gallic acid from gall nuts and sumac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nalan Yilmaz Sariözlü; Merih Kivanç

    2009-01-01

    A total number of eighty gallic acid producing strains were isolated from forest soil or plant samples. Among these strains, thirteen isolates were selected for gallic acid production and these isolates were Aspergillus niger 1, A. niger 2, A. niger 3, Penicillium canescens (3), P. frequentans (2), P. spinulosum (2), P. purpurogenum (2), and P. zacinthae. By using eight of

  6. Incidence of fumonisin B2 production within Aspergillus section Nigri populations isolated from California raisins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri occur frequently and in high populations on grapes. Species within this section include A. niger, A. tubingensis, and A. carbonarius, and are potential sources for mycotoxins including ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 (FB2) in grapes and grape products. As...

  7. Effects of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) W. Watson essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    de Billerbeck, V G; Roques, C G; Bessière, J M; Fonvieille, J L; Dargent, R

    2001-01-01

    The growth inhibitory effect of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) W. Watson var. nurdus essential oil on Aspergillus niger (Van Tieghem) mycelium was determined on agar medium. The mycelium growth was completely inhibited at 800 mg/L. This concentration was found to be lethal under the test conditions. Essential oil at 400 mg/L caused growth inhibition of 80% after 4 days of incubation, and a delay in conidiation of 4 days compared with the control. Microscopic observations were carried out to determine the ultrastructural modifications of A. niger hyphae after treatment with C. nardus essential oil. The main change observed by transmission electron microscopy concerned the hyphal diameter and the hyphal wall, which appeared markedly thinner. These modifications in cytological structure might be caused by the interference of the essential oil with the enzymes responsible for wall synthesis which disturb normal growth. Moreover, the essential oil caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. The findings thus indicate the possibility of exploiting Cymbopogon nardus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegrading and storage-contaminating fungi. PMID:15049444

  8. Conversion of orange peel to L-galactonic acid in a consolidated process using engineered strains of Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Citrus processing waste is a leftover from the citrus processing industry and is available in large amounts. Typically, this waste is dried to produce animal feed, but sometimes it is just dumped. Its main component is the peel, which consists mostly of pectin, with D-galacturonic acid as the main monomer. Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that efficiently produces pectinases for the hydrolysis of pectin and uses the resulting D-galacturonic acid and most of the other components of citrus peel for growth. We used engineered A. niger strains that were not able to catabolise D-galacturonic acid, but instead converted it to L-galactonic acid. These strains also produced pectinases for the hydrolysis of pectin and were used for the conversion of pectin in orange peel to L-galactonic acid in a consolidated process. The D-galacturonic acid in the orange peel was converted to L-galactonic acid with a yield close to 90%. Submerged and solid-state fermentation processes were compared. PMID:24949267

  9. The solubilization of potassium-bearing rock powder by Aspergillus niger in small-scale batch fermentations.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Assad, Maria L; Avansini, Simoni H; Rosa, Márcia M; de Carvalho, José R P; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra R

    2010-07-01

    The fungus Aspergillus niger was cultivated in culture medium with an alkaline ultramafic rock powder to evaluate the solubilization of potassium for biofertilizer production. The assays were carried out with 2 strains (CCT4355 and CCT911) in small-scale batch fermentations using 125, 500, 1000, and 2000 mL Erlenmeyer flasks, with a nominal volume of 40%, and rock powder at 0.4%, shaken at 160 r/min, incubated at 30 degrees C, and sampled every 7 days for 35 days. The amount of soluble K(+), the pH of the culture medium, and the acidity were determined. Both strains solubilized K(+) from the rock powder to the same extent (approximately 62%-70% after 35 days) in the 125 mL flasks; however, the percent solubilization decreased at higher volumetric scales. The results also indicated a difference in strain sensitivity to the increase in volumetric scales in batch fermentation. When filter-sterilized air was injected into the medium, the K(+) percent solubilization obtained after 4 days of cultivation was similar to that obtained after a 28 day period. The acid production by the fungus may be a mechanism of rock solubilization, in spite of the elevation in pH values probably caused by the increasing hydrolysis of the silicates. Both strains of A. niger are recommended for solubilizing potassium from ultramafic rocks, but it is necessary to optimize the oxygen transfer, which seemed to affect the rock solubilization at higher volumetric scales. PMID:20651859

  10. An acidothermophilic functionally active novel GH12 family endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger HO: purification, characterization and molecular interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Rekha; Kumar, Sunil; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh; Kumar, Dinesh; Oberoi, Harinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Endoglucanase (EG) from Aspergillus niger HO was sequentially purified through ultrafiltration, ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography to homogeneity, with an overall recovery of 18 %. The purified EG was a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of about 55 kDa. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 3.5 and 70 °C with a half life (t1/2) of 3 h and Km value of 2.5 mg/ml. Metal ions, such as Ca(2+) and Co(2+) helped in enzyme induction, while Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. Peptide mass fingerprinting results revealed that the purified EG is a novel enzyme that belongs to family 12 of glycoside hydrolase (GH12). Molecular docking studies indicated the presence of Glu116 and Glu204 as important determinant residues for the functional interaction with carboxymethylcellulose and showed hydrogen bonding with Asp99, Glu116, Glu204 and hydrophobic interactions with Trp22, Val58, Tyr61, Phe101, Met118, Trp120, Pro129, Ile130, Thr160 and Phe206. Hydrolysis of 2 % CMC with purified acidothermophilic EG at its optimum temperature and pH resulted in complete hydrolysis within 2 h yielding 18 % cellotriose, 72 % cellobiose and 10 % glucose as evident from HPLC analysis. In comparison to most of the EGs reported in literature, EG from A. niger HO exhibited higher thermostability. The acidothermophilic nature of this enzyme makes it potentially useful for industrial applications. PMID:25331339

  11. Growth Kinetics and Mechanistic Action of Reactive Oxygen Species Released by Silver Nanoparticles from Aspergillus niger on Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ninganagouda, Shivaraj; Rathod, Vandana; Singh, Dattu; Hiremath, Jyoti; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Mathew, Jasmine; ul-Haq, Manzoor

    2014-01-01

    Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs), the real silver bullet, are known to have good antibacterial properties against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study AgNPs were prepared from extracellular filtrate of Aspergillus niger. Characterization of AgNPs by UV-Vis spectrum reveals specific surface plasmon resonance at peak 416?nm; TEM photographs revealed the size of the AgNPs to be 20–55?nm. Average diameter of the produced AgNPs was found to be 73?nm with a zeta potential that was ?24?mV using Malvern Zetasizer. SEM micrographs showed AgNPs to be spherical with smooth morphology. EDS revealed the presence of pure metallic AgNPs along with carbon and oxygen signatures. Of the different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15??g/mL) used 10??g/mL were sufficient to inhibit 107?CFU/mL of E. coli. ROS production was measured using DCFH-DA method and the the free radical generation effect of AgNPs on bacterial growth inhibition was investigated by ESR spectroscopy. This paper not only deals with the damage inflicted on microorganisms by AgNPs but also induces cell death through the production of ROS released by AgNPs and also growth kinetics of E. coli supplemented with AgNPs produced by A. niger. PMID:25028666

  12. Monoclinic crystal form of Aspergillus niger ?-­amylase in complex with maltose at 1.8?Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Vuji?i?-Žagar, A.; Dijkstra, B. W.

    2006-01-01

    Aspergillus niger ?-amylase catalyses the hydrolysis of ?-1,4-glucosidic bonds in starch. It shows 100% sequence identity to the A. oryzae homologue (also called TAKA-amylase), three crystal structures of which have been published to date. Two of them belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121 with one molecule per asymmetric unit and one belongs to the monoclinic space group P21 with three molecules per asymmetric unit. Here, the purification, crystallization and structure determination of A. niger ?-amylase crystallized in the monoclinic space group P21 with two molecules per asymmetric unit in complex with maltose at 1.8?Å resolution is reported. Furthermore, a novel 1.6?Å resolution orthorhombic crystal form (space group P21212) of the native enzyme is presented. Four maltose molecules are observed in the maltose–?-amylase complex. Three of these occupy active-site subsites ?2 and ?1, +1 and +2 and the hitherto unobserved subsites +4 (Asp233, Gly234) and +5 (Asp235). The fourth maltose molecule binds at the distant binding sites d1 (Tyr382) and d2 (Trp385), also previously unobserved. Furthermore, it is shown that the active-site groove permits different binding modes of sugar units at subsites +1 and +2. This flexibility of the active-site cleft close to the catalytic centre might be needed for a productive binding of substrate chains and/or release of products. PMID:16880540

  13. Aspergillus niger I-1472 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus MUCL39533, selected for the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin, are also able to produce cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and feruloyl esterases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Bonnina; M Brunel; Y Gouy; L Lesage-Meessen; M Asther; J.-F Thibault

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous fungal strains Aspergillus niger I-1472 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus MUCL39533, previously selected for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillic acid and vanillin respectively, were grown on sugar beet pulp. A large spectrum of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes was produced by A. niger and very few levels of feruloyl esterases were found. In contrast, P. cinnabarinus culture filtrate contained low amount

  14. Partitioning of beta-mannanase and alpha-galactosidase from Aspergillus niger in Ucon/Reppal aqueous two-phase systems and using temperature-induced phase separation.

    PubMed

    Farkas, T; Stålbrand, H; Tjerneld, F

    1996-06-01

    Enzyme partitioning and recovery with a new aqueous two-phase system based on commercially available hydroxypropyl starch Reppal PES 200 and the thermo-separating polymer Ucon 50-HB-5100 was studied. Ucon is an ethylene oxide-propylene oxide random copolymer. A culture supernatant of Aspergillus niger containing extracellular beta-mannanase and alpha-galactosidase was partitioned in two steps. The primary aqueous two-phase system contained Ucon and Reppal as phase forming polymers. The effect on enzyme partitioning of salt composition, salt concentration, pH and polymer concentration was studied with the aim of obtaining optimal partitioning of target enzymes to the phase containing the thermoseparating Ucon polymer. The partitioning of the enzymes could be strongly influenced by addition of the hydrophobic triethyl ammonium ion and the chaotropic perchlorate ion. Also the effect on cationic surfactant, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, on enzyme partitioning was studied. In the second step, temperature induced phase separation was carried out on the isolated Ucon phase. A water phase and a concentrated aqueous Ucon phase were formed. The enzymes were obtained in the water phase almost free of polymer. PMID:8987681

  15. Mechanisms for solubilization of various insoluble phosphates and activation of immobilized phosphates in different soils by an efficient and salinity-tolerant Aspergillus niger strain An2.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Luo, Lijin; Yang, Jinshui; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms for solubilization of different types of phosphates and activation of immobilized phosphates in different types of soils by an efficient fungal strain An2 were explored and evaluated in this study. An2 was isolated from a Chinese cabbage rhizosphere soil and identified as Aspergillus niger. It could fast release up to 1722, 2066, and 2356 mg L(-1) of soluble phosphorus (P) from 1 % Ca3(PO4)2, Mg3(PO4)2, and AlPO4 (Ca-P, Mg-P, and Al-P) and 215 and 179 mg L(-1) from 0.5 % FePO4 and rock phosphate (Fe-P and RP), respectively. HPLC assay demonstrated that An2 mainly secreted oxalic acid to solubilize Ca-P, Mg-P, Al-P, and Fe-P whereas secreted tartaric acid to solubilize RP. Furthermore, An2 could tolerate salinity up to 4 % NaCl without impairing its phosphate-solubilizing ability. The simulation experiments validated that An2 was able to effectively activate immobilized phosphates in general calcareous, acidic, as well as saline-alkali soils with high total P content. This study shows new insights into the mechanisms for microbial solubilization of different types of phosphates and supports the future application of strain An2 in different types of soils to effectively activate P for plants. PMID:25561059

  16. Statistical optimization of cellulases production by Aspergillus niger HQ1 in solid-state fermentation and partial enzymatic characterization of cellulases on hydrolyzing chitosan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhang; Qing Sang; Wenhui Zhang

    Cultivation conditions of cellulases production by Aspergillus niger HQ-1 in solid-state fermentation (SSF) were optimized. Furthermore, partial enzymatic characterization of the crude cellulases\\u000a on hydrolyzing chitosan was studied. The moisture content, cultivation temperature, and initial culture pH were identified\\u000a by Plackett-Burman design (PBD) as the significant factors for cellulases activities. The method of steepest ascent was undertaken\\u000a to determine the

  17. High level phytase production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 in solid state culture: response surface optimization, up-scaling, and its partial characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bhavsar; V. Ravi Kumar; J. M. Khire

    Phytase production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 was optimized by using wheat bran in solid state fermentation (SSF). An integrated statistical optimization approach\\u000a involving the combination of Placket–Burman design (PBD) and Box–Behnken design (BBD) was employed. PBD was used to evaluate\\u000a the effect of 11 variables related to phytase production, and five statistically significant variables, namely, glucose, dextrin,\\u000a NaNO3, distilled

  18. Aspergillus niger genome-wide analysis reveals a large number of novel alpha-glucan acting enzymes with unexpected expression profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Lian Yuan; Rachel M. van der Kaaij; Cees A. M. J. J. van den Hondel; Peter J. Punt; Marc J. E. C. van der Maarel; Lubbert Dijkhuizen; Arthur F. J. Ram

    2008-01-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus niger is well known for its ability to produce a large variety of enzymes for the degradation of plant polysaccharide material.\\u000a A major carbon and energy source for this soil fungus is starch, which can be degraded by the concerted action of ?-amylase,\\u000a glucoamylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes, members of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 13, 15

  19. Rock phosphate solubilization by Aspergillus niger on olive cake-based medium and its further application in a soil–plant system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vassileva; N. Vassilev; R. Azcon

    1998-01-01

    A citric acid-producing strain of Aspergillus niger, grown on olive cake-based medium, was able to solubilize rock phosphate. Solubilization of insoluble phosphate increased during the solid-state fermentation process, reaching a maximum of 164µg\\/ml. Various combinations of olive cake and rock phosphate, previously treated or untreated by the fungus, were introduced into a calcareous, phosphorus (P)-deficient soil to improve the growth

  20. Citric acid production from the mash of dried sweet potato with its dregs by Aspergillus niger in an external-loop airlift bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Yuguo; Wang Zhao; Chen Xiaolong

    1999-01-01

    An external-loop airlift bioreactor (11.5 l), with a ratio of height to diameter of the riser of 2.9, was used for the production of citric acid from the mash of dried sweet potato with its dregs by Aspergillus niger. The effects of air flow rate, liquid volume and sparger hole diameter on citric acid production were investigated. A comparison of

  1. Evaluation of glucosidases of Aspergillus niger strain comparing with other glucosidases in transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenosides Rg3

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung Hoon; Jo, Mi Na; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into a specific minor ginsenoside using Aspergillus niger KCCM 11239, as well as the identification of the transformed products and the pathway via thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated to develop a new biologically active material. The conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 generated Rd, Rg3, Rh2, and compound K although the reaction rates were low due to the low concentration. In enzymatic conversion, all of the ginsenoside Rb1 was converted to ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Rg3 after 24 h of incubation. The crude enzyme (?-glucosidase) from A. niger KCCM 11239 hydrolyzed the ?-(1?6)-glucosidic linkage at the C-20 of ginsenoside Rb1 to generate ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Rg3. Our experimental demonstration showing that A. niger KCCM 11239 produces the ginsenoside-hydrolyzing ?-glucosidase reflects the feasibility of developing a specific bioconversion process to obtain active minor ginsenosides. PMID:24558310

  2. Evaluation of glucosidases of Aspergillus niger strain comparing with other glucosidases in transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenosides Rg3.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyung Hoon; Jo, Mi Na; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into a specific minor ginsenoside using Aspergillus niger KCCM 11239, as well as the identification of the transformed products and the pathway via thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated to develop a new biologically active material. The conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 generated Rd, Rg3, Rh2, and compound K although the reaction rates were low due to the low concentration. In enzymatic conversion, all of the ginsenoside Rb1 was converted to ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Rg3 after 24 h of incubation. The crude enzyme (?-glucosidase) from A. niger KCCM 11239 hydrolyzed the ?-(1?6)-glucosidic linkage at the C-20 of ginsenoside Rb1 to generate ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Rg3. Our experimental demonstration showing that A. niger KCCM 11239 produces the ginsenoside-hydrolyzing ?-glucosidase reflects the feasibility of developing a specific bioconversion process to obtain active minor ginsenosides. PMID:24558310

  3. Proteomic analysis of the secretory response of Aspergillus niger to D-maltose and D-xylose.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, José Miguel P Ferreira; van Passel, Mark W J; Schaap, Peter J; de Graaff, Leo H

    2011-01-01

    Fungi utilize polysaccharide substrates through extracellular digestion catalyzed by secreted enzymes. Thus far, protein secretion by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger has mainly been studied at the level of individual proteins and by genome and transcriptome analyses. To extend these studies, a complementary proteomics approach was applied with the aim to investigate the changes in secretome and microsomal protein composition resulting from a shift to a high level secretion condition. During growth of A. niger on D-sorbitol, small amounts of D-maltose or D-xylose were used as inducers of the extracellular amylolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. Upon induction, protein compositions in the extracellular broth as well as in enriched secretory organelle (microsomal) fractions were analyzed using a shotgun proteomics approach. In total 102 secreted proteins and 1,126 microsomal proteins were identified in this study. Induction by D-maltose or D-xylose resulted in the increase in specific extracellular enzymes, such as glucoamylase A on D-maltose and ?-xylosidase D on D-xylose, as well as of microsomal proteins. This reflects the differential expression of selected genes coding for dedicated extracellular enzymes. As expected, the addition of extra D-sorbitol had no effect on the expression of carbohydrate-active enzymes, compared to addition of D-xylose or D-maltose. Furthermore, D-maltose induction caused an increase in microsomal proteins related to translation (e.g., Rpl15) and vesicular transport (e.g., the endosomal-cargo receptor Erv14). Millimolar amounts of the inducers D-maltose and D-xylose are sufficient to cause a direct response in specific protein expression levels. Also, after induction by D-maltose or D-xylose, the induced enzymes were found in microsomes and extracellular. In agreement with our previous findings for D-xylose induction, D-maltose induction leads to recruitment of proteins involved in proteasome-mediated degradation. PMID:21698107

  4. The AngFus3 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Controls Hyphal Differentiation and Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Brandt, Ulrike; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A K; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Fleißner, André

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity. Eukaryotic differentiation in response to environmental and self-derived signals is commonly mediated by three-tiered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades. Here, we report that the MAP kinase Fus3 of the black mold Aspergillus niger (AngFus3) and its upstream kinase AngSte7 control vegetative spore formation and secondary metabolism. Mutants lacking these kinases are defective in conidium induction in response to hyphal density but are fully competent in starvation-induced sporulation, indicating that conidiation in A. niger is triggered by various independent signals. In addition, the mutants exhibit an altered profile of volatile metabolites and secrete dark pigments into the growth medium, suggesting a dysregulation of the secondary metabolism. By assigning the AngFus3 MAP kinase pathway to the transduction of a potentially self-derived trigger, this work contributes to the unraveling of the intricate signaling networks controlling fungal differentiation. Moreover, our data further support earlier observations that differentiation and secondary metabolism are tightly linked in filamentous fungi. PMID:25888553

  5. Proteomic Analysis of the Secretory Response of Aspergillus niger to D-Maltose and D-Xylose

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira de Oliveira, José Miguel P.; van Passel, Mark W. J.; Schaap, Peter J.; de Graaff, Leo H.

    2011-01-01

    Fungi utilize polysaccharide substrates through extracellular digestion catalyzed by secreted enzymes. Thus far, protein secretion by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger has mainly been studied at the level of individual proteins and by genome and transcriptome analyses. To extend these studies, a complementary proteomics approach was applied with the aim to investigate the changes in secretome and microsomal protein composition resulting from a shift to a high level secretion condition. During growth of A. niger on d-sorbitol, small amounts of d-maltose or d-xylose were used as inducers of the extracellular amylolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. Upon induction, protein compositions in the extracellular broth as well as in enriched secretory organelle (microsomal) fractions were analyzed using a shotgun proteomics approach. In total 102 secreted proteins and 1,126 microsomal proteins were identified in this study. Induction by d-maltose or d-xylose resulted in the increase in specific extracellular enzymes, such as glucoamylase A on d-maltose and ?-xylosidase D on d-xylose, as well as of microsomal proteins. This reflects the differential expression of selected genes coding for dedicated extracellular enzymes. As expected, the addition of extra d-sorbitol had no effect on the expression of carbohydrate-active enzymes, compared to addition of d-xylose or d-maltose. Furthermore, d-maltose induction caused an increase in microsomal proteins related to translation (e.g., Rpl15) and vesicular transport (e.g., the endosomal-cargo receptor Erv14). Millimolar amounts of the inducers d-maltose and d-xylose are sufficient to cause a direct response in specific protein expression levels. Also, after induction by d-maltose or d-xylose, the induced enzymes were found in microsomes and extracellular. In agreement with our previous findings for d-xylose induction, d-maltose induction leads to recruitment of proteins involved in proteasome-mediated degradation. PMID:21698107

  6. Production and characterization of in planta transiently produced polygalacturanase from Aspergillus niger and its fusions with hydrophobin or ELP tags

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pectinases play an important role in plant cell wall deconstruction and have potential in diverse industries such as food, wine, animal feed, textile, paper, fuel, and others. The demand for such enzymes is increasing exponentially, as are the efforts to improve their production and to implement their use in several industrial processes. The goal of this study was to examine the potential of producing polygalacturonase I from Aspergillus niger in plants and to investigate the effects of subcellular compartmentalization and protein fusions on its accumulation and activity. Results Polygalacturonase I from Aspergillus niger (AnPGI) was transiently produced in Nicotiana benthamiana by targeting it to five different cellular compartments: apoplast, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), vacuole, chloroplast and cytosol. Accumulation levels of 2.5%, 3.0%, and 1.9% of total soluble protein (TSP) were observed in the apoplast, ER, and vacuole, respectively, and specific activity was significantly higher in vacuole-targeted AnPGI compared to the same enzyme targeted to the ER or apoplast. No accumulation was found for AnPGI when targeted to the chloroplast or cytosol. Analysis of AnPGI fused with elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) revealed a significant increase in the protein accumulation level, especially when targeted to the vacuole where the protein doubles its accumulation to 3.6% of TSP, while the hydrophobin (HFBI) fusion impaired AnPGI accumulation and both tags impaired activity, albeit to different extents. The recombinant protein showed activity against polygalacturonic acid with optimum conditions at pH 5.0 and temperature from 30 to 50°C, depending on its fusion. In vivo analysis of reducing sugar content revealed a higher release of reducing sugars in plant tissue expressing recombinant AnPGI compared to wild type N. benthamiana leaves. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that subcellular compartmentalization of enzymes has an impact on both the target protein accumulation and its activity, especially in the case of proteins that undergo post-translational modifications, and should be taken into consideration when protein production strategies are designed. Using plants to produce heterologous enzymes for the degradation of a key component of the plant cell wall could reduce the cost of biomass pretreatment for the production of cellulosic biofuels. PMID:24970673

  7. Comparison of the EUCAST-AFST broth dilution method with the CLSI reference broth dilution method (M38-A) for susceptibility testing of posaconazole and voriconazole against Aspergillus spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Chryssanthou; M. Cuenca-Estrella

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 40 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus) were determined for posaconazole and voriconazole by the CLSI M38-A and EUCAST-AFST broth dilution methods. Where a discrepancy was observed between the methods, the EUCAST method tended to give higher MIC values. Overall, the level of agreement was 92.5% and the intra-class correlation

  8. Effect of increasing inoculum sizes of Aspergillus hyphae on MICs and MFCs of antifungal agents by broth microdilution method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Lass-Flörl; C Speth; G Kofler; M. P Dierch; E Gunsilius; R Würzner

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of different hyphal inoculum sizes on minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole and itraconazole, five isolates each of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus were studied using a broth microdilution method. Three inoculum sizes were used: 1×103–5×103, 1×104–5×104 and 1×105–5×105 cfu\\/ml. MICs and

  9. Evidence of RIP (repeat-induced point mutation) in transposase sequences of Aspergillus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria D. Montiel; Heather A. Lee; David B. Archer

    2006-01-01

    A DNA methyl-binding column was used to isolate genomic fragments enriched for DNA-methylation from Aspergillus parasiticus. One of the isolated sequences presented 67% identity at the protein level with the transposase from the transposable element Tan1 of Aspergillus niger var. awamori, and was found to be present in at least 20 copies in the Aspergillus oryzae database. Analysis of four

  10. Transcriptomic comparison of Aspergillus niger growing on two different sugars reveals coordinated regulation of the secretory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Thomas R; Goosen, Theo; van den Hondel, Cees AMJJ; Ram, Arthur FJ; Iversen, Jens JL

    2009-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus niger, responds to nutrient availability by modulating secretion of various substrate degrading hydrolases. This ability has made it an important organism in industrial production of secreted glycoproteins. The recent publication of the A. niger genome sequence and availability of microarrays allow high resolution studies of transcriptional regulation of basal cellular processes, like those of glycoprotein synthesis and secretion. It is known that the activities of certain secretory pathway enzymes involved N-glycosylation are elevated in response to carbon source induced secretion of the glycoprotein glucoamylase. We have investigated whether carbon source dependent enhancement of protein secretion can lead to upregulation of secretory pathway elements extending beyond those involved in N-glycosylation. Results This study compares the physiology and transcriptome of A. niger growing at the same specific growth rate (0.16 h-1) on xylose or maltose in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. Transcription profiles were obtained using Affymetrix GeneChip analysis of six replicate cultures for each of the two growth-limiting carbon sources. The production rate of extracellular proteins per gram dry mycelium was about three times higher on maltose compared to xylose. The defined culture conditions resulted in high reproducibility, discriminating even low-fold differences in transcription, which is characteristic of genes encoding basal cellular functions. This included elements in the secretory pathway and central metabolic pathways. Increased protein secretion on maltose was accompanied by induced transcription of > 90 genes related to protein secretion. The upregulated genes encode key elements in protein translocation to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), folding, N-glycosylation, quality control, and vesicle packaging and transport between ER and Golgi. The induction effect of maltose resembles the unfolded protein response (UPR), which results from ER-stress and has previously been defined by treatment with chemicals interfering with folding of glycoproteins or by expression of heterologous proteins. Conclusion We show that upregulation of secretory pathway genes also occurs in conditions inducing secretion of endogenous glycoproteins – representing a more normal physiological state. Transcriptional regulation of protein synthesis and secretory pathway genes may thus reflect a general mechanism for modulation of secretion capacity in response to the conditional need for extracellular enzymes. PMID:19166577

  11. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Nielsen, Kristian F; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2008-12-10

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from the South were 98-100% contaminated with predominantly A. carbonarius and A. niger. A. westerdijkiae was only found in one sample. The diversity of the fungal population was probably correlated with the geographical origin of the coffee, coffee cultivar, and processing method. Representative isolates of section Circumdati (52) and Nigri (82) were examined for their OTA production using HPLC with fluorescence detection. Aspergillus westerdijkiae (42 isolates out of 42), A. steynii (13/13), and A. carbonarius (35/35) in general produced large amounts of OTA, while one isolate of A. sclerotiorum produced intermediate amounts of OTA. 13% of the A. niger isolates produced OTA in intermediate amounts. OTA levels in coffee bean samples were analyzed using the Ridascreen OTA ELISA kits. Of the 64 coffee bean samples analyzed, 98% were contaminated with OTA in levels of <0.6-5.5 microg/kg (Arabica) and 1-27 microg/kg (Robusta). Presence of OTA in representative coffee samples was also confirmed by LC-MS/MS after ion-exchange purification. PMID:18819720

  12. Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of an acidophilic beta-mannanase gene, Anman5A, from Aspergillus niger LW-1.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S G; Wu, M C; Tang, C D; Gao, S J; Zhang, H M; Li, J F

    2012-01-01

    Using 3' and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques, the full-length cDNA sequence of the AnmanSA, a gene that encodes an acidophilic beta-mannanase of Aspergillus niger LW-1 (abbreviated to AnMan5A), was identified from the total RNA. The cDNA sequence was 1417 bp in length, harboring 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions, as well as an open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a 21-aa signal peptide, a 17-aa propeptide and a 345-aa mature peptide. Based on the topology of the phylogenetic tree of beta3-mannanases from glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5, the AnMan5A belongs to the subfamily 7 of the GH family 5. Its 3D structure was modeled by the bitemplate-based method using both MODELLER 9.9 and SALIGN programs, based on the known beta-mannanase crystal structures of Trichoderma reesei (1QNO) and Lycopersicon esculentum (1RH9) from the GH family 5. In addition, the complete DNA sequence of the Anman5A was amplified from the genomic DNA using the pUCm-T vector-mediated PCR and conventional PCR methods. The DNA sequence was 1825 bp in length, containing a 5'-flanking regulatory region, 2 introns and 3 exons when compared with the full-length cDNA. PMID:23101390

  13. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Yasser S; Alamri, Saad A

    2012-04-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appeared to be important in order for citric acid to accumulate. The production of citric acid and the consumed sugar was higher when using 0.1% ammonium nitrate as the best source of nitrogen. The production of citric acid increased significantly when 0.1 g/l of KH2PO4 was added to the medium of date syrup. The addition of magnesium sulfate at the rate of 0.20 g/l had a stimulating effect on the production of citric acid. Maximum production of citric acid was obtained when calcium chloride was absent. One of the most important benefits of immobilized cells is their ability and stability to produce citric acid under a repeated batch culture. Over four repeated batches, the production of citric acid production was maintained for 24 days when each cycle continued for 144 h. The results obtained in the repeated batch cultivation using date syrup confirmed that date syrup could be used as a medium for the industrial production of citric acid. PMID:23961184

  14. Biodegradation of high concentrations of hexadecane by Aspergillus niger in a solid-state system: kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Volke-Sepúlveda, Tania; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2006-09-01

    Solid-state microcosms were used to assess the influence of constant and variable C/N ratios on the biodegradation efficiency by Aspergillus niger at high hexadecane (HXD) concentrations (180-717 mg g-1). With a constant C/N ratio, 100% biodegradation (33-44% mineralization) was achieved after 15 days, at rates increasing as the HXD concentration increased. Biomass yields (YX/S) remained almost independent (approximately 0.77) of the carbon-source amount, while the specific growth rates (mu) decreased with increasing concentrations of HXD. With C/N ratios ranging from 29 to 115, complete degradation was only attained at 180 mg g-1, corresponding to 46% mineralization. YX/S diminished (approximately 0.50 units) as the C/N ratio increased. The highest values of mu (1.08 day-1) were obtained at low C/N values. Our results demonstrate that, under balanced nutritional conditions, high HXD concentrations can be completely degraded in solid-state microcosms, with a negligible (<10%) formation of by-products. PMID:16153825

  15. Characterization of ?-Glucosidase Produced by Aspergillus niger under Solid-State Fermentation and Partially Purified Using MANAE-Agarose

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Diogo G.; Tardioli, Paulo W.; Farinas, Cristiane S.

    2014-01-01

    ?-Glucosidase (BGL) is a hydrolytic enzyme with specificity for a wide variety of glycoside substrates, being an enzyme with a large range of biotechnological applications. However, enzyme properties can be different depending both on the microorganism and the cultivation procedure employed. Therefore, in order to explore potential biocatalytical applications of novel enzymes, their characterization is essential. In this work, a BGL synthesized by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger cultivated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) was partially purified and fully characterized in terms of optimum pH, temperature, and thermostability. The single-step purification using MANAE-agarose in a chromatographic column yielded an enzyme solution with specific activity (17.1?IU/mg protein) adequate for the characterization procedures. Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE and size-exclusion chromatography analysis resulted in an estimated molecular mass of 60?kDa. Higher enzyme activities were found in the range between 40 and 65°C and between pH 4 and 5.5, indicating an interesting characteristic for application in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels production. Thermostability studies of purified BGL resulted in half-lives at 37°C of 56.3?h and at 50°C of 5.4?h. These results provide support for further studies of this enzyme towards revealing its potential biotechnological applications. PMID:24940510

  16. Kinetic characterization of glucose aerodehydrogenase from Aspergillus niger EMS-150-F after optimizing the dose of mutagen for enhanced production of enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Umbreen, Huma; Zia, Muhammad Anjum; Rasul, Samreen

    2013-01-01

    In the present study enhanced production of glucose aerodehydrogenase from Aspergillus niger has been achieved after optimizing the dose of chemical mutagen ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) that has not been reported earlier. Different doses of mutagen were applied and a strain was developed basing upon the best production. The selected strain Aspergillus niger EMS-150-F was optimized for nutrient requirements in order to produce enzyme through fermentation and the results showed the best yield at 2% corn steep liquor (CSL), 36 hours fermentation time, pH 5, 30°C temperature, 0.3% KH2PO4, 0.3% urea and 0.06% CaCO3. The enzyme was then purified and resulted in 57.88 fold purification with 52.12% recovery. On kinetic characterization, the enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 6 and temperature 30°C. The Michaelis-Menton constants (Km, Vmax, Kcat and Kcat/Km) were 20 mM, 45.87 U mL?1, 1118.81 s?1 and 55.94 s?1 mM?1, respectively. The enzyme was found to be thermaly stable and the enthalpy and free energy showed an increase with increase in temperature and ?S* was highly negative proving the enzyme from A. niger EMS-150-F resistant to temperature and showing a very little disorderliness. PMID:24688499

  17. Inactivation of Aspergillus spp. by Ozone Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zotti; R. Porro; A. Vizzini; M. G. Mariotti

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the effectiveness of ozone in inhibiting the growth of two Aspergillus species, (A. flavus, A. niger) isolated from a nail affected by onychomycosis and from a biodeteriorated paper. Specifically, two main goals are to establish (i) whether differently aged colonies show different responses to the ozonization process, and (ii) whether a repeated ozone exposure can enhance the

  18. Lipase production by Aspergillus niger under various growth conditions using solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Olama, Z A; el-Sabaeny, A H

    1993-12-01

    Ricinus seed litters were chosen as a cheap carbon source for lipase production by A. niger under solid state fermentation (SSF). Maximum lipase production was achieved upon using an enriched (potassium citrate and casein) waste at pH 7.8 and 30 degrees C for 8 days incubation. Nitrogen sources as NH4Cl, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, urea and amino acids repressed the lipolytic activity. The chloride salts of Ba2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Hg2+, K+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Na+ and Sn2+ inhibited, while Zn+2 did not affect lipase production. Compounds containing hydrolyzable ester group, such as Tween(s), were found to inhibit lipase activity. When the effect of different additives such as EDTA, gum acacia, span(s), mineral and vitamins, were studied, it was found that they all exhibit decreased lipase production by the tested fungus. PMID:8172691

  19. Enzymatic resolution of racemic phenyloxirane by a novel epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger SQ-6 and its fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanbin; Sha, Qian; Wu, Sheng; Wang, Jianjun; Yang, Liu; Sun, Wanru

    2006-04-01

    A microorganism with the ability to catalyze the resolution of racemic phenyloxirane was isolated and identified as Aspergillus niger SQ-6. Chiral capillary electrophoresis was successfully applied to separate both phenyloxirane and phenylethanediol. The epoxide hydrolase (EH) involved in this resolution process was (R)-stereospecific and constitutively expressed. When whole cells were used during the biotransformation process, the optimum temperature and pH for stereospecific vicinal diol production were 35 degrees C and 7.0, respectively. After a 24-h conversion, the enantiomer excess of (R)-phenylethanediol produced was found to be >99%, with a conversion rate of 56%. In fed-batch fermentations at 30 degrees C for 44 h, glycerol (20 g L(-1)) and corn steep liquor (CSL) (30 g L(-1)) were chosen as the best initial carbon and nitrogen sources, and EH production was markedly improved by pulsed feeding of sucrose (2 g L(-1) h(-1)) and continuous feeding of CSL (1 g L(-1) h(-1)) at a fermentation time of 28 h. After optimization, the maximum dry cell weight achieved was 24.5+/-0.8 g L(-1); maximum EH production was 351.2+/-13.1 U L(-1) with a specific activity of 14.3+/-0.5 U g(-1). Partially purified EH exhibited a temperature optimum at 37 degrees C and pH optimum at 7.5 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. This study presents the first evidence for the existence of a predicted epoxide racemase, which might be important in the synthesis of epoxide intermediates. PMID:16320035

  20. Overexpression of the Aspergillus niger GatA transporter leads to preferential use of D-galacturonic acid over D-xylose

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide of the primary cell walls of plants and as such is a significant fraction of agricultural waste residues that is currently insufficiently used. Its main component, D-galacturonic acid, is an attractive substrate for bioconversion. The complete metabolic pathway is present in the genome of Aspergillus niger, that is used in this study. The objective was to identify the D-galacturonic acid transporter in A. niger and to use this transporter to study D-galacturonic acid metabolism. We have functionally characterized the gene An14g04280 that encodes the D-galacturonic acid transporter in A. niger. In a mixed sugar fermentation it was found that the An14g04280 overexpression strain, in contrast to the parent control strain, has a preference for D-galacturonic acid over D-xylose as substrate. Overexpression of this transporter in A. niger resulted in a strong increase of D-galacturonic acid uptake and induction of the D-galacturonic acid reductase activity, suggesting a metabolite controlled regulation of the endogenous D-galacturonic acid catabolic pathway. PMID:25177540

  1. Trehalose synthesis in Aspergillus niger: characterization of six homologous genes, all with conserved orthologs in related species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The disaccharide trehalose is a major component of fungal spores and is released upon germination. Moreover, the sugar is well known for is protective functions, e.g. against thermal stress and dehydration. The properties and synthesis of trehalose have been well investigated in the bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In filamentous fungi, such knowledge is limited, although several gene products have been identified. Results Using Aspergillus niger as a model fungus, the aim of this study was to provide an overview of all genes involved in trehalose synthesis. This fungus has three potential trehalose-6-phosphate synthase encoding genes, tpsA-C, and three putative trehalose phosphate phosphatase encoding genes, tppA-C, of which two have not previously been identified. Expression of all six genes was confirmed using real-time PCR, and conserved orthologs could be identified in related Aspergilli. Using a two-hybrid approach, there is a strong indication that four of the proteins physically interact, as has previously been shown in S. cerevisiae. When creating null mutants of all the six genes, three of them, ?tpsA, ?tppA and ?tppB, had lower internal trehalose contents. The only mutant with a pronounced morphological difference was ?tppA, in which sporulation was severely reduced with abnormal conidiophores. This was also the only mutant with accumulated levels of trehalose-6-phosphate, indicating that the encoded protein is the main phosphatase under normal conditions. Besides ?tppA, the most studied deletion mutant in this work was ?tppB. This gene encodes a protein conserved in filamentous Ascomycota. The ?tppB mutant displayed a low, but not depleted, internal trehalose content, and conidia were more susceptible to thermal stress. Conclusion A. niger contains at least 6 genes putatively involved in trehalose synthesis. Gene expressions related to germination have been quantified and deletion mutants characterized: Mutants lacking tpsA, tppA or tppB have reduced internal trehalose contents. Furthermore, tppA, under normal conditions, encodes the functional trehalose-6-phosphate-phosphatase. PMID:24725382

  2. Insights into the unfolding pathway and identification of thermally sensitive regions of phytase from Aspergillus niger by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kapil; Patel, Krunal; Agrawal, D C; Khire, J M

    2015-06-01

    Thermal stability is of great importance in the application of commercial phytases. Phytase A (PhyA) is a monomeric protein comprising twelve ?-helices and ten ?-sheets. Comparative molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (at 310, 350, 400, and 500 K) revealed that the thermal stability of PhyA from Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is associated with its conformational rigidity. The most thermally sensitive regions were identified as loops 8 (residues 83-106), 10 (161-174), 14 (224-230), 17 (306-331), and 24 (442-444), which are present on the surface of the protein. It was observed that solvent-exposed loops denature before or show higher flexibility than buried residues. We observed that PhyA begins to unfold at loops 8 and 14, which further extends to loop 24 at the C-terminus. The intense movement of loop 8 causes the helix H2 and beta-sheet B3 to fluctuate at high temperature. The high flexibility of the H2, H10, and H12 helices at high temperature resulted in complete denaturation. The high mobility of loop 14 easily transfers to the adjacent helices H7, H8, and H9, which fluctuate and partially unfold at high temperature (500 K). It was also observed that the salt bridges Asp110-Lys149, Asp205-Lys277, Asp335-Arg136, Asp416-Arg420, and Glu387-Arg400 are important influences on the structural stability but not the thermostability, as the lengths of these salt bridges did not increase with rising temperature. The salt bridges Glu125-Arg163, Asp299-Arg136, Asp266-Arg219, Asp339-Lys278, Asp335-Arg136, and Asp424-Arg428 are all important for thermostability, as the lengths of these bridges increased dramatically with increasing temperature. Here, for the first time, we have computationally identified the thermolabile regions of PhyA, and this information could be used to engineer novel thermostable phytases. Numerous homologous phytases of fungal as well as bacterial origin are known, and these homologs show high sequence similarity. Our findings could prove useful in attempts to increase the thermostability of homologous phytases via protein engineering. PMID:26037148

  3. In vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin of Aspergillus spp. isolated from patients with haematological malignancies in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gheith, Soukeina; Saghrouni, Fatma; Bannour, Wadiaa; Ben Youssef, Yosra; Khelif, Abderrahim; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Piarroux, Renaud; Ben Said, Moncef; Njah, Mansour; Ranque, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The resistance of Aspergillus species to antifungal is increasingly reported and the knowledge of the local epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility pattern is pivotal to define adequate treatment policies. Our study aimed to: 1) describe the in vitro antifungal susceptibility profile of the Aspergillus species isolated from patients with haematological malignancies in Tunisia; 2) compare the E-test and Sensititre Yeast-One assays for the detection of paradoxical growth and trailing effect, both phenotypes commonly exhibited by Aspergillus spp. upon exposure to caspofungin and 3) to evaluate the mortality rate in patients according to the causative Aspergillus species and the antifungal treatment. We tested amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin against 48 Aspergillus isolates (17, A. niger; 18, A. flavus; 9, A. tubingensis; 1, A. westerdijkiae; and 1, A. ochraceus) with the E-test. Minimal inhibition concentrations were above the epidemiological cut-off values for amphotericin B in 67% of A. flavus strains; for caspofungin in 22% of A. flavus strains; and for itraconazole in 22% of A. tubingensis strains, voriconazole and posaconazole MICs were below the epidemiological cut-off values for all strains. When exposed to caspofungin, 42% of the strains exhibited trailing effect and 38% paradoxical growth. Trailing effect occurred in 61% of A. flavus strains and paradoxical growth in 62% of Aspergillus section Nigri strains. E-test and Sensititre Yeast-One assays were only fairly concordant for the detection of these phenotypes. Repeatability of both assays was high for trailing effect but poor for paradoxical growth. The relatively high frequency of amphotericin B resistant strains makes voriconazole best adapted as a first-line treatment of invasive aspergillosis from amphotericin B to voriconazole in this hospital. PMID:26034655

  4. The role of carbon starvation in the induction of enzymes that degrade plant-derived carbohydrates in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    van Munster, Jolanda M; Daly, Paul; Delmas, Stéphane; Pullan, Steven T; Blythe, Martin J; Malla, Sunir; Kokolski, Matthew; Noltorp, Emelie C M; Wennberg, Kristin; Fetherston, Richard; Beniston, Richard; Yu, Xiaolan; Dupree, Paul; Archer, David B

    2014-11-01

    Fungi are an important source of enzymes for saccharification of plant polysaccharides and production of biofuels. Understanding of the regulation and induction of expression of genes encoding these enzymes is still incomplete. To explore the induction mechanism, we analysed the response of the industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger to wheat straw, with a focus on events occurring shortly after exposure to the substrate. RNA sequencing showed that the transcriptional response after 6h of exposure to wheat straw was very different from the response at 24h of exposure to the same substrate. For example, less than half of the genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes that were induced after 24h of exposure to wheat straw, were also induced after 6h exposure. Importantly, over a third of the genes induced after 6h of exposure to wheat straw were also induced during 6h of carbon starvation, indicating that carbon starvation is probably an important factor in the early response to wheat straw. The up-regulation of the expression of a high number of genes encoding CAZymes that are active on plant-derived carbohydrates during early carbon starvation suggests that these enzymes could be involved in a scouting role during starvation, releasing inducing sugars from complex plant polysaccharides. We show, using proteomics, that carbon-starved cultures indeed release CAZymes with predicted activity on plant polysaccharides. Analysis of the enzymatic activity and the reaction products, indicates that these proteins are enzymes that can degrade various plant polysaccharides to generate both known, as well as potentially new, inducers of CAZymes. PMID:24792495

  5. Tailoring fungal morphology of Aspergillus niger MYA 135 by altering the hyphal morphology and the conidia adhesion capacity: biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Current problems of filamentous fungi fermentations and their further successful developments as microbial cell factories are dependent on control fungal morphology. In this connection, this work explored new experimental procedures in order to quantitatively check the potential of some culture conditions to induce a determined fungal morphology by altering both hyphal morphology and conidia adhesion capacity. The capacity of environmental conditions to modify hyphal morphology was evaluated by examining the influence of some culture conditions on the cell wall lytic potential of Aspergillus niger MYA 135. The relative value of the cell wall lytic potential was determined by measuring a cell wall lytic enzyme activity such as the mycelium-bound ?-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (Mb-NAGase). On the other hand, the quantitative value of conidia adhesion was considered as an index of its aggregation capacity. Concerning microscopic morphology, a highly negative correlation between the hyphal growth unit length (lHGU) and the specific Mb-NAGase activity was found (r?=?-0.915, P?

  6. A new member of the DMATS superfamily from Aspergillus niger catalyzes prenylations of both tyrosine and tryptophan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fan, Aili; Chen, Huizhi; Wu, Rui; Xu, Hui; Li, Shu-Ming

    2014-12-01

    A putative prenyltransferase gene of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) family, An13g01840, was identified in the genome sequence of Aspergillus niger. The deduced polypeptide CAK41583 consists of 465 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 52.7 kDa. To evaluate gene function, the coding sequence was cloned into pET28a and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble His6-fusion protein was purified to near homogeneity on Ni-NTA agarose and used for enzyme assays with diverse aromatic substrates in the presence of dimethylallyl diphosphate. HPLC analysis revealed product formation in the incubation mixtures with L-tyrosine and five derivatives thereof. Structure elucidation of the enzyme products by NMR and MS analyses confirmed O-prenylations and proved the identification of a tyrosine O-prenyltransferase (TyrPT). As in the case of SirD from Leptosphaeria maculans, TyrPT also accepted 4-amino-L-phenylalanine for an N-prenylation and L-tryptophan for a C7-prenylation. The K M values of TyrPT for L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan, and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) were found to be 0.24, 0.19, and 0.71 mM, respectively. The k cat of L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan reactions were determined at 0.58 and 0.0053 s(-1), respectively. The results presented in this study enhance the relationship of tyrosine O- and tryptophan C7-prenyltranferases and provide meanwhile a new enzyme for production of prenylated derivatives. In comparison to the known tyrosine prenyltransferase SirD, TyrPT showed significantly higher catalytic activity for several substrates, e.g., 4-amino-L-phenylalanine as well as 4- and 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan. PMID:24970457

  7. NON-TOXIGENIC ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ISOLATES FOR REDUCING AFLATOXIN IN MISSISSIPPI DELTA CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for two non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus CT3 and K49 isolated from the Mississippi Delta to reduce aflatoxin contamination of corn was assessed in a field study. These two isolates exhibited comparable growth and aggressiveness as the toxigenic A. flavus isolate F3W4. The...

  8. Isolation and characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus pacC gene 

    E-print Network

    Pinero, David

    1999-01-01

    ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE Aspergillus parasiticus pacC GENE A Thesis by DAVID PINERO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1999 Major Subject: Plant Pathology ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE Aspergillus parasiticus pacC GENE A Thesis by DAVID PINERO Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  9. Pathogenicity of a soil-derived Aspergillus fumigatus isolate for normal and immunosuppressed guinea pigs

    E-print Network

    Kenyon, Elaina Marie

    1983-01-01

    PATHOGENICITY OF A SOIL-DERIVED ASPERGILLUS FUIUIIGATUS ISOLATE FOR NORMAL ANU IMMUNOSUPPRESSED GUINEA PIGS A Thesis by ELAINA MARIE KENYON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM Uni ve rs i ty in partial fulfi liuent... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December Ig83 Major Subject: Epidemiology PATHOGENICITY OF A SOIL-DERIVED ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS ISOLATE FOR NORMAL AND IMMUNOSUPPRESSED GUINEA PIGS A Thesis by ELAINA MARIE KENYON Approved as to style...

  10. Computerized study of interactions among factors and their optimization through response surface methodology for the production of tannin acyl hydrolase by Aspergillus niger PKL 104 under solid state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Lekha; Nagin Chand; B. K. Lonsane

    1994-01-01

    Optimization of five parameters (initial moisture, initial pH, incubation temperature, inoculum ratio and fermentation period), as per central composite rotable design falling under the response surface methodology, was attempted in a total of 32 experimental sets, after fitting the experimental data to the polynomial model of a suitable degree, for tannin acyl hydrolase production by Aspergillus niger PKL 104 in

  11. Impact of alg3 gene deletion on growth, development, pigment production, protein secretion, and functions of recombinant Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases in Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Ziyu; Aryal, Uma K.; Shukla, Anil K.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Adney, William S.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Ju, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiao; Baker, Scott E.

    2013-09-25

    ALG3 is a Family 58 glycosyltransferase enzyme involved in early N-linked glycan synthesis. Here, we investigated the effect of the alg3 gene disruption on growth, development, metabolism, and protein secretion in Aspergillus niger. The alg3 gene deletion resulted in a significant reduction of growth on complete (CM) and potato dextrose agar (PDA) media and a substantial reduction of spore production on CM. It also delayed spore germination in the liquid cultures of both CM and PDA media, but led to a significant accumulation of red pigment on both CM and liquid modified minimal medium (MM) supplemented with yeast extract. The relative abundance of 55 proteins of the total 190 proteins identified in the secretome was significantly different as a result of alg3 gene deletion. Comparison of a Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) heterologously expressed in A. niger parental and ?alg3 strains showed that the recombinant Cel7A expressed in the mutant background was smaller in size than that from the parental strains. This study suggests that ALG3 is critical for growth and development, pigment production, and protein secretion in A. niger. Functional analysis of recombinant Cel7A with aberrant glycosylation demonstrates the feasibility of this alternative approach to evaluate the role of N-linked glycosylation in glycoprotein secretion and function.

  12. Identification of the galactitol dehydrogenase, LadB, that is part of the oxido-reductive D-galactose catabolic pathway in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Mojzita, Dominik; Koivistoinen, Outi M; Maaheimo, Hannu; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura; Richard, Peter

    2012-02-01

    For the catabolism of D-galactose three different metabolic pathways have been described in filamentous fungi. Apart from the Leloir pathway and the oxidative pathway, there is an alternative oxido-reductive pathway. This oxido-reductive pathway has similarities to the metabolic pathway of L-arabinose, and in Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) and Aspergillus nidulans the same enzyme is employed for the oxidation of L-arabitol and galactitol. Here we show evidence that in Aspergillus niger L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LadA) is not involved in the D-galactose metabolism; instead another dehydrogenase encoding gene, ladB, is induced in response to D-galactose and galactitol and functions as a galactitol dehydrogenase. Deletion of ladB in A. niger results in growth arrest on galactitol and significantly slower growth on D-galactose supplemented with a small amount of D-xylose. D-galactose alone cannot be utilised by A. niger and the addition of D-xylose stimulates growth on D-galactose via transcriptional activation of the D-xylose-inducible reductase gene, xyrA. XyrA catalyses the first step of the D-galactose oxido-reductive pathway, the reduction to galactitol, which in turn seems to be an inducer of the downstream genes such as LadB. The deletion of xyrA results in reduced growth on D-galactose. The ladB gene was expressed in the heterologous host Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the tagged and purified enzyme characterised. LadB and LadA have similar in vitro activity with galactitol. It was confirmed that the reaction product of the LadB reaction from galactitol is L-xylo-3-hexulose as in the case of the T. reesei Lad1. PMID:22155165

  13. Assessment of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid production by Aspergillus flavus isolates from Hungary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Richard; Deepak Bhatnagar; S. Peterson; G. Sandor

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-two isolates of Aspergillus flavus were obtained from various sources in Hungary. All isolates were morphologically identified as A. flavus and three atypical variants were confirmed as A. flavus by comparing their DNA with an ex type culture of A. flavus. None of these isolates produced aflatoxins when tested on coconut agar or grown on rice medium and culture extracts

  14. Utilisation of plant cell-wall polysaccharides and organic phosphorus substrates by isolates of Aspergillus and Penicillium isolated from soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathal M. Daynes; Peter A. McGee; David J. Midgley

    2008-01-01

    The ability of seventy isolates (comprising 43 species) of Aspergillus and Penicillium, from soil and compost, to grow on sources of carbon and phosphate from plant remains was examined. Only two isolates from compost actively degraded crystalline cellulose, though most others grew on carboxymethyl cellulose. Most isolates produced biomass on cellobiose, and all on glucose, pectin and xylan. All fungi

  15. Metabolism of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (`2,4-D') by Aspergillus niger van Tiegh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Faulkner; D. Woodcock

    1964-01-01

    EARLIER papers dealing with the microbial degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) have indicated that fission may be the ultimate fate of the aromatic ring. Thus Rogoff and Reid1 detected an almost quantitative production of chloride ion by an organism belonging to the genus Corynebacterium, isolated from soil, while Fernley and Evans2 obtained alpha-chloromuconic acid as a metabolite using a soil

  16. Isolation of Two Apsa Suppressor Strains in Aspergillus Nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, M.; Fischer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans reproduces asexually with single nucleated conidia. In apsA (anucleate primary sterigmata) strains, nuclear positioning is affected and conidiation is greatly reduced. To get further insights into the cellular functions of apsA, aconidial apsA strains were mutagenized and conidiating suppressor strains were isolated. The suppressors fell into two complementation groups, samA and samB (suppressor of anucleate metulae). samA mapped on linkage group I close to pyrG. The mutant allele was dominant in diploids homozygous for apsA. Viability of conidia of samA suppressor strains (samA(-); apsA(-)) was reduced to 50% in comparison to wild-type conidia. Eighty percent of viable spores produced small size colonies that were temperature- and benomyl-sensitive. samB mapped to chromosome VIII and was recessive. Viability of conidia from samB suppressor strains (apsA(-); samB(-)) was also affected but no small size colonies were observed. Both suppressors produced partial defects in sexual reproduction and both suppressed an apsA deletion mutation. In wild-type background the mutant loci affected hyphal growth rate (samA) or changed the colony morphology (samB) and inhibited sexual spore formation (samA and samB). Only subtle effects on conidiation were found. We conclude that both suppressor genes bypass the apsA function and are involved in microtubule-dependent processes. PMID:8889518

  17. Bioprocess and biotecnology: effect of xylanase from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus on pulp biobleaching and enzyme production using agroindustrial residues as substract.

    PubMed

    de Alencar Guimaraes, Nelciele Cavalieri; Sorgatto, Michele; Peixoto-Nogueira, Simone de Carvalho; Betini, Jorge Henrique Almeida; Zanoelo, Fabiana Fonseca; Marques, Maria Rita; de Moraes Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira; Giannesi, Giovana C

    2013-01-01

    This study compares two xylanases produced by filamentous fungi such as A. niger and A. flavus using agroindustrial residues as substract and evaluated the effect of these enzymes on cellulose pulp biobleaching process. Wheat bran was the best carbon source for xylanase production by A. niger and A. flavus. The production of xylanase was 18 and 21% higher on wheat bran when we compare the xylanase production with xylan. At 50°C, the xylanase of A. niger retained over 85% activity with 2 h of incubation, and A. flavus had a half-life of more than 75 minutes. At 55°C, the xylanase produced by A. niger showed more stable than from A. flavus showing a half-life of more than 45 minutes. The xylanase activity of A. niger and A. flavus were somehow protected in the presence of glycerol 5% when compared to the control (without additives). On the biobleaching assay it was observed that the xylanase from A. flavus was more effective in comparison to A. niger. The kappa efficiency corresponded to 36.32 and 25.93, respectively. That is important to emphasize that the cellulase activity was either analyzed and significant levels were not detected, which explain why the viscosity was not significantly modified. PMID:24010038

  18. Identification of amino acid residues critical for catalysis and stability in Aspergillus niger family 1 pectin lyase A.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Torres, Paloma; Visser, Jaap; Benen, Jacques A E

    2003-01-01

    Site-directed-mutagenesis studies were performed on family 1 pectin lyase A (PL1A) from Aspergillus niger to gain insight into the reaction mechanism for the pectin lyase-catalysed beta-elimination cleavage of methylesterified polygalacturonic acid and to stabilize the enzyme at slightly basic pH. On the basis of the three-dimensional structures of PL1A [Mayans, Scott, Connerton, Gravesen, Benen, Visser, Pickersgill and Jenkins (1997) Structure 5, 677-689] and the modelled enzyme-substrate complex of PL1B [Herron, Benen, Scavetta, Visser and Jurnak (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 8762-8769], Asp154, Arg176, Arg236 and Lys239 were mutagenized. Substituting Arg236 with alanine or lysine rendered the enzyme completely inactive, and mutagenesis of Arg176 and Lys239 severely affected catalysis. The Asp154-->Arg and Asp154-->Glu mutant enzymes were only moderately impaired in respect of catalysis. The results strongly indicate that Arg236, which is sandwiched between Arg176 and Lys239, would initiate the reaction upon enzyme-substrate interaction, through the abstraction of the proton at C5 of the galacturonopyranose ring. The positively charged residues Arg176 and Lys239 are responsible for lowering the p K a of Arg236. Arg176 and Lys239 are maintained in a charged state by interacting with Asp154 or bulk solvent respectively. The deprotonation of the Asp186-Asp221 pair was proposed to be responsible for a pH-driven conformational change of PL1A [Mayans, Scott, Connerton, Gravesen, Benen, Visser, Pickersgill and Jenkins (1997) Structure 5, 677-689]. Substitution of Asp186 and Asp221 by Asn186 and Asn221 was expected to stabilize the enzyme. However, the Asp186-->Asn/Asp221-->Asn enzyme appeared less stable than the wild-type enzyme, even at pH 6.0, as evidenced by fluorescence studies. This demonstrates that the pH-dependent conformational change is not driven by deprotonation of the Asp186-Asp221 pair. PMID:12418964

  19. Heterogeneity in liquid shaken cultures of Aspergillus niger inoculated with melanised conidia or conidia of pigmentation mutants.

    PubMed

    van Veluw, G J; Teertstra, W R; de Bekker, C; Vinck, A; van Beek, N; Muller, W H; Arentshorst, M; van der Mei, H C; Ram, A F J; Dijksterhuis, J; Wösten, H A B

    2013-03-15

    Black pigmented conidia of Aspergillus niger give rise to micro-colonies when incubated in liquid shaken medium. These micro-colonies are heterogeneous with respect to gene expression and size. We here studied the biophysical properties of the conidia of a control strain and of strains in which the fwnA, olvA or brnA gene is inactivated. These strains form fawn-, olive-, and brown-coloured conidia, respectively. The ?olvA strain produced larger conidia (3.8 ?m) when compared to the other strains (3.2-3.3 ?m). Moreover, the conidia of the ?olvA strain were highly hydrophilic, whereas those of the other strains were hydrophobic. The zeta potential of the ?olvA conidia in medium was also more negative when compared to the control strain. This was accompanied by the near absence of a rodlet layer of hydrophobins. Using the Complex Object Parametric Analyzer and Sorter it was shown that the ratio of individual hyphae and micro-colonies in liquid shaken cultures of the deletion strains was lower when compared to the control strain. The average size of the micro-colonies of the control strain was also smaller (628 ?m) than that of the deletion strains (790-858 ?m). The size distribution of the micro-colonies of the ?fwnA strain was normally distributed, while that of the other strains could be explained by assuming a population of small and a population of large micro-colonies. In the last set of experiments it was shown that relative expression levels of gpdA, and AmyR and XlnR regulated genes correlate in individual hyphae at the periphery of micro-colonies. This indicates the existence of transcriptionally and translationally highly active and lowly active hyphae as was previously shown in macro-colonies. However, the existence of distinct populations of hyphae with high and low transcriptional and translational activity seems to be less robust when compared to macro-colonies grown on solid medium. PMID:23449476

  20. Lethal effects of high-intensity violet 405-nm light on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and on dormant and germinating spores of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, L E; McKenzie, K; Maclean, M; Macgregor, S J; Anderson, J G

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of high-intensity violet light on selected yeast and mould fungi. Cell suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and dormant and germinating spores (conidia) of the mould Aspergillus niger were exposed to high-intensity narrow band violet light with peak output at 405 nm generated from a light-emitting diode (LED) array. All three fungal species were inactivated by the 405-nm light without a requirement for addition of exogenous photosensitiser chemicals. Of the fungal species tested, S. cerevisiae was most sensitive and dormant conidia of A. niger were most resistant to 405-nm light exposure. Five-log10 colony forming units per millilitre (CFU ml(-1)) reductions of the tested species required exposure doses of 288 J cm(-2) for S. cerevisiae, 576 J cm(-2) for C. albicans, and a much higher value of 2.3 kJ cm(-2) for dormant conidia of A. niger. During germination, A. niger conidia became more sensitive to 405-nm light exposure and sensitivity increased as germination progressed over an 8 h test period. Light exposure under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, together with results obtained using ascorbic acid as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, revealed that 405-nm light inactivation in fungi involved an oxygen-dependent mechanism, as previously described in bacteria. The inactivation results achieved with yeast cells and fungal spores together with operational advantages associated with the use of a visible (nonultraviolet (UV)) light source highlight the potential of 405-nm light for fungal decontamination applications. PMID:23931117

  1. Aflaquinolones A-G: Secondary metabolites from marine and fungicolous isolates of Aspergillus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A-G; 1-7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048=NRRL 58570), ...

  2. A Potent Chitinolytic Activity of Alternaria alternata Isolated from Egyptian Black Sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EMAN FATHI SHARAF

    2005-01-01

    Eight fungal species characterized by chitinolytic activity were isolated from Egyptian black sand collected from Rosetta coast. Genus Aspergillus and Alternaria alternata exhibited the highest density (> 40% of the total count, each) on the isolation plates containing different treatments of native shrimp shell chitin. Genus Aspergillus was represented by A. flavus, A. niger, A. foetidus and A. ungius, with

  3. Discovery and Characterization of a Silent Gene Cluster that Produces Azaphilones from Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 Reveal a Hydroxylation-Mediated Pyran-Ring Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zabala, Angelica O.; Xu, Wei; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Tang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Azaphilones are a class of fungal metabolites characterized by a highly oxygenated pyrano-quinone bicyclic core and exhibits a broad range of bioactivities. While widespread among various fungi, their biosynthesis has not been thoroughly elucidated. By activation of a silent (aza) gene cluster in Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015, we have discovered six new azaphilone compounds, azanigerones A-F (1, 3-7). Transcriptional analysis and deletion of a key polyketide synthase (PKS) gene further confirmed the involvement of the aza gene cluster. The biosynthetic pathway was shown to involve the convergent actions of a highly-reducing and a non-reducing PKSs. Most significantly, in vitro reaction of a key flavin-dependent monooxygenase encoded in the cluster with an early benzaldehyde intermediate revealed its roles in hydroxylation and pyran-ring formation to afford the characteristic bicylic core shared by azaphilones. PMID:22921072

  4. Biodegradation of Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) by Mixed Culture of Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus and Aspergillus niger in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Atefeh; Pourbabaee, Ahmad Ali; Alikhani, Hossein Ali; Shabani, Farzin; Esmaeili, Ensieh

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two strains of Aspergillus sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. with remarkable abilities to degrade low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were isolated from landfill soils in Tehran using enrichment culture and screening procedures. The biodegradation process was performed for 126 days in soil using UV- and non-UV-irradiated pure LDPE films without pro-oxidant additives in the presence and absence of mixed cultures of selected microorganisms. The process was monitored by measuring the microbial population, the biomass carbon, pH and respiration in the soil, and the mechanical properties of the films. The carbon dioxide measurements in the soil showed that the biodegradation in the un-inoculated treatments were slow and were about 7.6% and 8.6% of the mineralisation measured for the non-UV-irradiated and UV-irradiated LDPE, respectively, after 126 days. In contrast, in the presence of the selected microorganisms, biodegradation was much more efficient and the percentages of biodegradation were 29.5% and 15.8% for the UV-irradiated and non-UV-irradiated films, respectively. The percentage decrease in the carbonyl index was higher for the UV-irradiated LDPE when the biodegradation was performed in soil inoculated with the selected microorganisms. The percentage elongation of the films decreased during the biodegradation process. The Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine structural, morphological and surface changes on polyethylene. These analyses showed that the selected microorganisms could modify and colonise both types of polyethylene. This study also confirmed the ability of these isolates to utilise virgin polyethylene without pro-oxidant additives and oxidation pretreatment, as the carbon source. PMID:24086254

  5. Comparative sequence analysis of citrate synthase and 18S ribosomal DNA from a wild and mutant strains of Aspergillus niger with various fungi

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Tahir, Aisha; Asgher, Muhammad; Rahman, Mehboob-ur; Jamil, Amer

    2014-01-01

    A mutation was induced in Aspergillus niger wild strain using ethidium bromide resulting in enhanced expression of citric acid by three folds and 112.42 mg/mL citric acid was produced under optimum conditions with 121.84 mg/mL of sugar utilization. Dendograms of 18S rDNA and citrate synthase from different fungi including sample strains were made to assess homology among different fungi and to study the correlation of citrate synthase gene with evolution of fungi. Subsequent comparative sequence analysis revealed strangeness between the citrate synthase and 18S rDNA phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, the citrate synthase movement suggests that the use of traditional marker molecule of 18S rDNA gives misleading information about the evolution of citrate synthase in different fungi as it has shown that citrate synthase gene transferred independently among different fungi having no evolutionary relationships. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis was also employed to study genetic variation between wild and mutant strains of A. niger and only 71.43% similarity was found between both the genomes. Keeping in view the importance of citric acid as a necessary constituent of various food preparations, synthetic biodegradable detergents and pharmaceuticals the enhanced production of citric acid by mutant derivative might provide significant boost in commercial scale viability of this useful product. Abbreviations CS - Citrate synthase, CA - Citric acid, RAPD - Random amplified polymorphic DNA, TAF - Total amplified fragments, PAF - Polymorphic amplified fragments, CAF - Common amplified fragments. PMID:24516318

  6. Study of the rice straw biodegradation in mixed culture of Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger by GC-MS and FTIR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaoning; Huang, Jingxia; Li, Yuanping; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Huang, Aizhi; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Shuang; Tan, Xuebin; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Wei

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the biodegradation ability of the mixed culture of Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger through the study of the organic matter extracted from rice straw and the lignocellulose structure by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of the GC-MS showed that the mixed culture possessed shorter alkane (heptane) at the end of the incubation and more kinds of organic matter (except the alkanes, 29 kinds of organic matter were detected) than the pure cultures. It could be deduced that the organic matter could indicate the degradation degree of the lignocellulose to some extent. Moreover, pinene was detected in the mixed culture on days 5 and 10, which might represent the antagonistic relationship between T. viride and A. niger. The analysis of FTIR spectrums which indirectly verified the GC-MS results showed that the mixed culture possessed a better degradation of rice straw compared with the pure culture. Therefore, the methods used in this research could be considered as effective ones to investigate the lignocellulose degradation mechanism in mixed culture. PMID:25639249

  7. A thermotolerant and cold-active mannan endo-1,4-?-mannosidase from Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88: Constitutive overexpression and high-density fermentation in Pichia pastoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhao; Jia Zheng; Hong-bo Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The mannan endo-1,4-?-mannosidase gene man26A from Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88 was optimized according to the codon usage bias in Pichia pastoris and synthesized by splicing overlap extension PCR. It was successfully expressed in P. pastoris using constitutive expression vector pGAPz?A. The recombinant endo-beta-1,4-mannanase could work in an extremely board temperature range and over 30% relative activity were retained in the

  8. Sequence Breakpoints in the Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 66-kb gene cluster in toxigenic Aspergillus flavus is responsible for the synthesis of aflatoxin (AF). Isolates of A. flavus can produce either, neither or both AF and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). We used PCR to determine whether defects are present in the AF biosynthesis gene cluster of nonaflatox...

  9. Multicentric Epidemiological Study ofAspergillus fumigatus Isolates by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. RODRIGUEZ; T. DE MEEUS; M. MALLIE; F. RENAUD; F. SYMOENS; P. MONDON; M.-A. PIENS; B. LEBEAU; M. A. VIVIANI; R. GRILLOT; N. NOLARD; F. CHAPUIS; A.-M. TORTORANO; M. BASTIDE; d'Informatique Medicale

    1996-01-01

    The genotypes of 63 isolates ofAspergillus fumigatusobtained from three hospitals in different geographical areas and of eight culture collection strains were determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Twelve of the 17 enzymatic loci studied were polymorphic, giving rise to 48 different electrophoretic types. The existence of fixed multilocus genotypes, significant heterozygote deficits and excesses at the different loci, and linkage disequilibria

  10. Aflaquinolones A–G: Secondary Metabolites from Marine and Fungicolous Isolates of Aspergillus Spp.†

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Scott A.; Lee, Sang Un; Asami, Yukihiro; Ahn, Jong Seog; Oh, Hyuncheol; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gloer, James B.; Wicklow, Donald T.

    2012-01-01

    Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A – G; 1 – 7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048 = NRRL 58570), while the others were obtained from a marine Aspergillus isolate (SF-5044) collected in Korea. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by analysis of NMR and MS data. Relative and absolute configurations were assigned on the basis of NOESY data and 1H NMR J-values, comparison of calculated and experimental ECD spectra, and analysis of a Mosher’s ester derivative of 2. Several known compounds, including alantrypinone, aspochalasins I and J, methyl-3,4,5-trimethoxy-2((2-((3-pyridinylcarbonyl)amino) benzoyl)amino) benzoate, and trans-dehydrocurvularin were also encountered in the extract of the Hawaiian isolate. PMID:22295903

  11. Environmental Isolates of Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bader, Oliver; Tünnermann, Jana; Dudakova, Anna; Tangwattanachuleeporn, Marut; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe

    2015-07-01

    Azole antifungal drug resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is an emerging problem in several parts of the world. Here we investigated the distribution of such strains in soils from Germany. At a general positivity rate of 12%, most prevalently, we found strains with the TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A alleles, dispersed along a corridor across northern Germany. Comparison of the distributions of resistance alleles and genotypes between environment and clinical samples suggests the presence of local clinical clusters. PMID:25941229

  12. Evaluation of the potential of Aspergillus niger species for the bioconversion of L-phenylalanine into 2-phenylethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Lomascolo; Laurence Lesage-Meessen; Mireille Haon; David Navarro; Claudine Antona; Craig Faulds; Asther Marcel

    2001-01-01

    Aspergillusniger was explored, for the first time, for the production of 2-phenylethanol (a rose-like aroma) using L-phenylalanine as precursor. Among the strains screened, A. niger CMICC 298302 was shown to produce, in a culture medium containing 6 g L-phenylalanine l-1 and 60 g glucose l-1, 1375 mg 2-phenylethanol l-1 with a productivity of 153 mg l-1 day-1 and a molar

  13. Molecular screening of 246 Portuguese Aspergillus isolates among different clinical and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Raquel; Veríssimo, Cristina; Parada, Helena; Brandão, João; Viegas, Carla; Carolino, Elisabete; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2014-07-01

    Clinical and environmental samples from Portugal were screened for the presence of Aspergillus and the distributions of the species complexes were determined in order to understand how their distributions differ based on their source. Fifty-seven Aspergillus isolates from clinical samples were collected from 10 health institutions. Six species complexes were detected by internal transcribed spacer sequencing; Fumigati, Flavi, and Nigri were found most frequently (50.9%, 21.0%, and 15.8%, respectively). ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequencing resulted in seven cryptic species (A. awamorii, A. brasiliensis, A. fructus, A. lentulus, A. sydowii, A. tubingensis, Emericella echinulata) being identified among the 57 isolates. Thirty-nine isolates of Aspergillus were recovered from beach sand and poultry farms, 31 from swine farms, and 80 from hospital environments, for a total 189 isolates. Eleven species complexes were found in these 189 isolates, and those belonging to the Versicolores species complex were found most frequently (23.8%). There was a significant association between the different environmental sources and distribution of the species complexes; the hospital environment had greater variability of species complexes than other environmental locations. A high prevalence of cryptic species within the Circumdati complex was detected in several environments; from the isolates analyzed, at least four cryptic species were identified, most of them growing at 37ºC. Because Aspergillus species complexes have different susceptibilities to antifungals, knowing the species-complex epidemiology for each setting, as well as the identification of cryptic species among the collected clinical isolates, is important. This may allow preventive and corrective measures to be taken, which may result in decreased exposure to those organisms and a better prognosis. PMID:24847040

  14. High level phytase production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 in solid state culture: response surface optimization, up-scaling, and its partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, K; Kumar, V Ravi; Khire, J M

    2011-09-01

    Phytase production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 was optimized by using wheat bran in solid state fermentation (SSF). An integrated statistical optimization approach involving the combination of Placket-Burman design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed. PBD was used to evaluate the effect of 11 variables related to phytase production, and five statistically significant variables, namely, glucose, dextrin, NaNO(3), distilled water, and MgSO(4) · 7H(2)O, were selected for further optimization studies. The levels of five variables for maximum phytase production were determined by a BBD. Phytase production improved from 50 IU/g dry moldy bran (DMB) to 154 IU/g DMB indicating 3.08-fold increase after optimization. A simultaneous reduction in fermentation time from 7 to 4 days shows a high productivity of 38,500 IU/kg/day. Scaling up the process in trays gave reproducible phytase production overcoming industrial constraints of practicability and economics. The culture extract also had 133.2, 41.58, and 310.34 IU/g DMB of xylanase, cellulase, and amylase activities, respectively. The partially purified phytase was optimally active at 55°C and pH 6.0. The enzyme retained ca. 75% activity over a wide pH range 2.0-9.5. It also released more inorganic phosphorus from soybean meal in a broad pH range from 2.5 to 6.5 under emulated gastric conditions. Molecular weight of phytase on Sephacryl S-200 was approximately 87 kDa. The K (m) and V (max) observed were 0.156 mM and 220 ?m/min/mg. The SSF phytase from A. niger NCIM 563 offers an economical production capability and its wide pH stability shows its suitability for use in poultry feed. PMID:21184251

  15. HYOSCYAMINE 6 ? ?-HYDROXYLASE GENE ISOLATION FROM IN VITRO CULTURED ROOTS OF HYOSCYAMUS NIGER L. AND HYOSCAYMUS TENUICAULIS SCHONBECK-TEMESY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HASSAN EBRAHIMZADEH; AFSANEH TEIMOORI; TAHMINEH LOHRASEBI

    2003-01-01

    The H6H gene for hyoscyamine 6?-hydroxylase, which converts hyoscyamine to scopolamine, was isolated from H. niger and H. tenuicaulis. The roots of 14 days sterile seedlings were transferred to a modified liquid B5 medium containing 1? M in dolebutyric acid, and after appearance of the lateral roots, subcultured in a free hormone medium. Following a week, the total cellular RNA

  16. Biodegradation of International Jet A-1 Aviation Fuel by Microorganisms Isolated from Aircraft Tank and Joint Hydrant Storage Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Y. Itah; A. A. Brooks; B. O. Ogar; A. B. Okure

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were\\u000a isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus

  17. Sequence determination of a satellite RNA isolated from Aspergillus foetidus.

    PubMed

    Shah, Unnati A; Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Coutts, Robert H A

    2015-03-01

    Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV) has at least two distinct particle types, designated as AfV-fast (F) and AfV-slow (S). AfV-S includes AfV-S1, a victorivirus; AfV-S2, an unclassified satellite RNA; and AfV-S3, a previously uncharacterized dsRNA element. Here, we describe the complete sequence of AfV-S3, which is a short non-coding RNA with no known homologs. AfV-S3 is predicted to form an extended secondary structure, shares a 5' terminus with AfV-S2, and is a satellite RNA possibly dependent on both AfV-S1 and AfV-S2. This work concludes the sequencing of the A. foetidus virome. PMID:25613164

  18. Development of RFLP-PCR method for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species using single restriction enzyme MwoI.

    PubMed

    Diba, K; Mirhendi, H; Kordbacheh, P; Rezaie, S

    2014-01-01

    In this study we attempted to modify the PCR-RFLP method using restriction enzyme MwoI for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species. Our subjects included nine standard Aspergillus species and 205 Aspergillus isolates of approved hospital acquired infections and hospital indoor sources. First of all, Aspergillus isolates were identified in the level of species by using morphologic method. A twenty four hours culture was performed for each isolates to harvest Aspergillus mycelia and then genomic DNA was extracted using Phenol-Chloroform method. PCR-RFLP using single restriction enzyme MwoI was performed in ITS regions of rDNA gene. The electrophoresis data were analyzed and compared with those of morphologic identifications. Total of 205 Aspergillus isolates included 153 (75%) environmental and 52 (25%) clinical isolates. A. flavus was the most frequently isolate in our study (55%), followed by A. niger 65(31.7%), A. fumigatus 18(8.7%), A. nidulans and A. parasiticus 2(1% each). MwoI enabled us to discriminate eight medically important Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus as the most common isolated species. PCR-RFLP method using the restriction enzyme MwoI is a rapid and reliable test for identification of at least the most medically important Aspergillus species. PMID:25242934

  19. Effect of C/N Ratio and Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology on Simultaneous Productions of Intra- and Extracellular Inulinase and Invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611

    PubMed Central

    Dinarvand, Mojdeh; Rezaee, Malahat; Masomian, Malihe; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Zareian, Mohsen; Abbasi, Sahar; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2013-01-01

    The study is to identify the extraction of intracellular inulinase (exo- and endoinulinase) and invertase as well as optimization medium composition for maximum productions of intra- and extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. From two different methods for extraction of intracellular enzymes, ultrasonic method was found more effective. Response surface methodology (RSM) with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. The effect of five main reaction parameters including sucrose, yeast extract, NaNO3, Zn+2, and Triton X-100 on the production of enzymes was analyzed. A modified quadratic model was fitted to the data with a coefficient of determination (R2) more than 0.90 for all responses. The intra-extracellular inulinase and invertase productions increased in the range from 16 to 8.4 times in the optimized medium (10% (w/v) sucrose, 2.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) NaNO3, 1.5?mM (v/v) Zn+2, and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100) by RSM and from around 1.2 to 1.3 times greater than in the medium optimized by one-factor-at-a-time, respectively. The results of bioprocesses optimization can be useful in the scale-up fermentation and food industry. PMID:24151605

  20. [Determination of the antimicrobial capacity of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against the potentially pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger].

    PubMed

    Mora, Andreína; Pawa, Jonathan; Chaverri, José M; Arias, María Laura

    2013-09-01

    Many studies can be found in scientific literature demonstrating the antimicrobial capacity of different herbs, including green tea. Never-theless, many results are divergent or cannot be compared. Several green tea formulations may be found in market, but there is scarce or non-information about its activity. In this work, the potential antimicrobial effect of 50 samples of dry green tea and in 10% infusion against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger distributed in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica, was determined. This activity was compared with the effect produced by Chinese origin green tea (Camellia sinensis). Different solvents were evaluated for preparing polyphenol enriched extracts from green tea samples. Total phenols were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric methodology, using galic acid as reference. Antimicrobial activity of green tea extracts and infusions was evaluated using the microplate methodology described by Breuking (2006). Ethanol was the most efficient solvent used for the polyphenol extractions. There was no antimicrobial effect of the different green tea extracts and infusions against the microorganisms evaluated, except for Listeria monocytogenes, where the extracts of 70% of samples analyzed and the control showed an inhibitory effect in the 10.5 mg/mL and 1.05 mg/L concentrations. None of the infusions tested, including the control, showed any effect against this bacteria. PMID:25362825

  1. Identification of InuR, a new Zn(II)2Cys6 transcriptional activator involved in the regulation of inulinolytic genes in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Lian; Roubos, Johannes A; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Ram, Arthur F J

    2008-01-01

    The expression of inulinolytic genes in Aspergillus niger is co-regulated and induced by inulin and sucrose. We have identified a positive acting transcription factor InuR, which is required for the induced expression of inulinolytic genes. InuR is a member of the fungal specific class of transcription factors of the Zn(II)2Cys6 type. Involvement of InuR in inulin and sucrose metabolism was suspected because of the clustering of inuR gene with sucB, which encodes an intracellular invertase with transfructosylation activity and a putative sugar transporter encoding gene (An15g00310). Deletion of the inuR gene resulted in a strain displaying a severe reduction in growth on inulin and sucrose medium. Northern analysis revealed that expression of inulinolytic and sucrolytic genes, e.g., inuE, inuA, sucA, as well as the putative sugar transporter gene (An15g00310) is dependent on InuR. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed, three additional putative sugar transporters encoding genes (An15g04060, An15g03940 and An17g01710), which were strongly induced by sucrose in an InuR dependent way. In silico analysis of the promoter sequences of strongly InuR regulated genes suggests that InuR might bind as dimer to two CGG triplets, which are separated by eight nucleotides. PMID:17917744

  2. Analysis of metal Bioleaching from thermal power plant fly ash by Aspergillus niger 34770 culture supernatant and reduction of phytotoxicity during the process.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Umesh U; Hocheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus niger culture supernatant is used for bioleaching process. Before starting bioleaching process, fly ash was washed with distilled water. This removed 100 % sodium, 47 % (±0.45) boron, 38.07 % (±0.12) calcium, 29.89 % (±0.78) magnesium, and 11.8 % (±0.05) potassium. The pH was reduced from 10.5 to 8.5 after water washing. During bioleaching process, around 100 % metal removal was achieved in 4 h for all metals except chromium 93 % (±1.18), nickel 83 % (±0.32), arsenic 78 % (±0.52), and lead 70 % (±0.20). The process parameters including temperature, shaking speed, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized for bioleaching process. Experiments were conducted to evaluate effect of fly ash on growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). At 20 g/100 ml fly ash concentration no germination of V. radiata seeds was observed. With an increasing concentration of untreated fly ash, a gradual decrease in root/shoot length was observed. After bioleaching process 78 % (±0.19) germination of V. radiata was observed with 20 g/100 ml fly ash. This study will help to develop an efficient process to remove the toxic metals from fly ash. PMID:25349087

  3. Use of the chemiluminescent probe lucigenin to monitor the production of the superoxide anion radical in a recombinant Aspergillus niger (B1-D).

    PubMed

    Bai, Z; Harvey, L M; McNeil, B

    2001-10-20

    Direct detection of intracellular superoxide anion radical (O(2)(.-)) production is of critical importance for investigating the responses of filamentous fungi to oxidative stress in bioprocesses. The purpose of this study is to establish a reliable method to monitor the O(2)(.-) production within pellets of Aspergillus niger. Addition of pure oxygen and the redox cycling agent paraquat to fungal pellet suspensions resulted in a considerable increase in lucigenin-derived chemiluminescence (LDCL). In the presence of exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD), the LDCL of a disrupted cell solution was inhibited. In contrast, with addition of diethyldithiocarbamate and sodium azide, respectively, the inhibitors of Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD, an increased LDCL was observed. Further, as a probe, lucigenin can be absorbed and accumulated in fungal pellet within a few minutes. Various pretreatments of the bioreactor sample for the measurement of LDCL, were also investigated in the present study, and the use of intact pellets was adopted here rather than disrupting cells because the latter treatment led to difficulties in LDCL measurement. These results show that lucigenin may be used as a convenient chemiluminescent probe to monitor intracellular production of O(2)(.-) in filamentous fungi, and thus to follow changes in the level of this stressor within fungi PMID:11536143

  4. Production of an endoinulinase from Aspergillus niger AUMC 9375, by solid state fermentation of agricultural wastes, with purification and characterization of the free and immobilized enzyme.

    PubMed

    Housseiny, Manal M

    2014-05-01

    Two different substrates, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tubers and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) roots, were tested. Using a mixture of both wastes resulted in higher production of endoinulinase than either waste alone. Also, ten fungal species grown on these substrates as inexpensive, carbon sources were screened for the best production of endoinulinase activities. Of these, Aspergillus niger AUMC 9375 was the most productive, when grown on the mixture using a 6:1 w/w ratio of sun flower: lettuce, and yielded the highest levels of inulinase at 50% moisture, 30°C, pH 5.0, with seven days of incubation, and with yeast extract as the best nitrogen source. Inulinase was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography and gel-filtration giving a 51.11 fold purification. The mixture of sunflower tubers and lettuce roots has potential to be an effective and economical substrate for inulinase production. Inulinase was successfully immobilized with an immobilization yield of 71.28%. After incubation for 2 h at 60°C, the free enzyme activity decreased markedly to 10%, whereas that of the immobilized form decreased only to 87%. A reusability test demonstrated the durability of the immobilized inulinase for 10 cycles and in addition, that it could be stored for 32 days at 4°C. These results indicate that this inulinase, in the immobilized form, is a potential candidate for large-scale production of high purity fructose syrups. PMID:24810318

  5. Purification and partial characterization of an extracellular alginate lyase from Aspergillus oryzae isolated from brown seaweed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravindra Pal Singh; Vishal Gupta; Puja Kumari; Manoj Kumar; C. R. K. Reddy; Kamalesh Prasad; Bhavanath Jha

    The extracellular enzyme alginate lyase produced from marine fungus Aspergillus oryzae isolated from brown alga Dictyota dichotoma was purified, partially characterized, and evaluated for its sodium alginate depolymerization abilities. The enzyme characterization\\u000a studies have revealed that alginate lyase consisted of two polypeptides with about 45 and 50 kDa each on 10% sodium dodecyl\\u000a sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and showed 140-fold higher

  6. A new citrinin dimer isolated from Aspergillus terreus strain ZDF21.

    PubMed

    Dame, Zerihun T; Suwannarach, Nakarin; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Dicitrinin E (1), a new citrinin dimer, together with the known metabolites, dicitrinin A (2), citrinin (3), and fumitremorgin C (4), were isolated from the broth culture of Aspergillus terreus strain ZDF21. The structure of dicitrinin E (1) was elucidated through detailed analysis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, CD and mass spectra The cytotoxicity of 1 was tested against larvae of Artemia salina. PMID:25973492

  7. Aflatoxin-producing potential of Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from Spanish poultry feeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel A. Moreno Romo; Guillermo Suárez Fernández

    1986-01-01

    A total of 126 fungal strains belonging to the Aspergillus flavus group isolated from commercial poultry mixed feeds were studied. One hundred and twenty-five were identified as A. flavus and one as A. parasiticus. Forty nine strains (39%) produced aflatoxins on a crushed moist wheat medium (28 °C\\/10 days), whereas only sixteen (13%) showed specific fluorescence on Aflatoxin-Producing Ability Medium.

  8. Brevianamides with antitubercular potential from a marine-derived isolate of Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Song, Fuhang; Liu, Xinru; Guo, Hui; Ren, Biao; Chen, Caixia; Piggott, Andrew M; Yu, Ke; Gao, Hong; Wang, Qian; Liu, Mei; Liu, Xueting; Dai, Huanqin; Zhang, Lixin; Capon, Robert J

    2012-09-21

    An Aspergillus versicolor isolated from sediment collected from the Bohai Sea, China, yielded the new dimeric diketopiperazine brevianamide S (1), together with three new monomeric cometabolites, brevianamides T (2), U (3), and V (4). Structures were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis. Brevianamide S exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), suggestive of a new mechanism of action that could inform the development of next-generation antitubercular drugs. PMID:22963079

  9. A novel glucose dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: production in Aspergillus niger and physicochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Piumi, François; Levasseur, Anthony; Navarro, David; Zhou, Simeng; Mathieu, Yann; Ropartz, David; Ludwig, Roland; Faulds, Craig B; Record, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Data on glucose dehydrogenases (GDHs) are scarce and availability of these enzymes for application purposes is limited. This paper describes a new GDH from the fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CIRM BRFM 137 that is the first reported GDH from a white-rot fungus belonging to the Basidiomycota. The enzyme was recombinantly produced in Aspergillus niger, a well-known fungal host producing an array of homologous or heterologous enzymes for industrial applications. The full-length gene that encodes GDH from P. cinnabarinus (PcGDH) consists of 2,425 bp and codes for a deduced protein of 620 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 62.5 kDa. The corresponding complementary DNA was cloned and placed under the control of the strong and constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. The signal peptide of the glucoamylase prepro sequence of A. niger was used to target PcGDH secretion into the culture medium, achieving a yield of 640 mg L(-1), which is tenfold higher than any other reported value. The recombinant PcGDH was purified twofold to homogeneity in a one-step procedure with a 41 % recovery using a Ni Sepharose column. The identity of the recombinant protein was further confirmed by immunodetection using western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. The molecular mass of the native PcGDH was 130 kDa, suggesting a homodimeric form. Optimal pH and temperature were found to be similar (5.5 and 60 °C, respectively) to those determined for the previously characterized GDH, i.e., from Glomerella cingulata. However PcGDH exhibits a lower catalytic efficiency of 67 M(-1) s(-1) toward glucose. This substrate is by far the preferred substrate, which constitutes an advantage over other sugar oxidases in the case of blood glucose monitoring. The substrate-binding domain of PcGDH turns out to be conserved as compared to other glucose-methanol-choline (GMCs) oxidoreductases. In addition, the ability of PcGDH to reduce oxidized quinones or radical intermediates was clearly demonstrated, which raises prospects for applying this enzyme to detoxify toxic compounds formed during the degradation of lignin. PMID:24965558

  10. Chemical investigation of metabolites produced by an endophytic Aspergillus sp. isolated from Limonia acidissima.

    PubMed

    Siriwardane, A M D A; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-07-01

    Endophytic fungi are considered as a good source to produce important secondary metabolites with interesting bioactivities. In a continuation of our studies towards the search for environmentally friendly bioactive compounds from Sri Lankan flora, we investigated the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungi Aspergillus sp. isolated from the seeds of the popular edible fruit Limonia acidissima L. of the family Rutaceae. The pure culture of the Aspergillus sp. was grown on potato dextrose broth media. After 4 weeks fermentation, fungal media were extracted with organic solvents. Chromatographic separation of the fungal extracts over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and RP-HPLC furnished flavasperone (1), rubrofusarin B (2), aurasperone A (3), fonsecinone D (4) and aurasperone B (5). Compounds 1-4 showed moderate activities in brine shrimp toxicity assay. This is the first report of the (13)C NMR data of compounds 4 and 5. PMID:25809933

  11. Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Celestino, Jessyca dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Érica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

  12. Identification of InuR, a new Zn(II)2Cys6 transcriptional activator involved in the regulation of inulinolytic genes in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Lian; Roubos, Johannes A.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The expression of inulinolytic genes in Aspergillus niger is co-regulated and induced by inulin and sucrose. We have identified a positive acting transcription factor InuR, which is required for the induced expression of inulinolytic genes. InuR is a member of the fungal specific class of transcription factors of the Zn(II)2Cys6 type. Involvement of InuR in inulin and sucrose metabolism was suspected because of the clustering of inuR gene with sucB, which encodes an intracellular invertase with transfructosylation activity and a putative sugar transporter encoding gene (An15g00310). Deletion of the inuR gene resulted in a strain displaying a severe reduction in growth on inulin and sucrose medium. Northern analysis revealed that expression of inulinolytic and sucrolytic genes, e.g., inuE, inuA, sucA, as well as the putative sugar transporter gene (An15g00310) is dependent on InuR. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed, three additional putative sugar transporters encoding genes (An15g04060, An15g03940 and An17g01710), which were strongly induced by sucrose in an InuR dependent way. In silico analysis of the promoter sequences of strongly InuR regulated genes suggests that InuR might bind as dimer to two CGG triplets, which are separated by eight nucleotides. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00438-007-0290-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17917744

  13. Shifting the pH profile of Aspergillus niger PhyA phytase to match the stomach pH enhances its effectiveness as an animal feed additive.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewan; Mullaney, Edward J; Porres, Jesus M; Roneker, Karl R; Crowe, Sarah; Rice, Sarah; Ko, Taegu; Ullah, Abul H J; Daly, Catherine B; Welch, Ross; Lei, Xin Gen

    2006-06-01

    Environmental pollution by phosphorus from animal waste is a major problem in agriculture because simple-stomached animals, such as swine, poultry, and fish, cannot digest phosphorus (as phytate) present in plant feeds. To alleviate this problem, a phytase from Aspergillus niger PhyA is widely used as a feed additive to hydrolyze phytate-phosphorus. However, it has the lowest relative activity at the pH of the stomach (3.5), where the hydrolysis occurs. Our objective was to shift the pH optima of PhyA to match the stomach condition by substituting amino acids in the substrate-binding site with different charges and polarities. Based on the crystal structure of PhyA, we prepared 21 single or multiple mutants at Q50, K91, K94, E228, D262, K300, and K301 and expressed them in Pichia pastoris yeast. The wild-type (WT) PhyA showed the unique bihump, two-pH-optima profile, whereas 17 mutants lost one pH optimum or shifted the pH optimum from pH 5.5 to the more acidic side. The mutant E228K exhibited the best overall changes, with a shift of pH optimum to 3.8 and 266% greater (P < 0.05) hydrolysis of soy phytate at pH 3.5 than the WT enzyme. The improved efficacy of the enzyme was confirmed in an animal feed trial and was characterized by biochemical analysis of the purified mutant enzymes. In conclusion, it is feasible to improve the function of PhyA phytase under stomach pH conditions by rational protein engineering. PMID:16751556

  14. Cloning, heterologous expression, purification and characterization of M12 mutant of Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase in yeast Pichia pastoris KM71H.

    PubMed

    Kova?evi?, Gordana; Blaži?, Marija; Dragani?, Bojana; Ostafe, Raluca; Gavrovi?-Jankulovi?, Marija; Fischer, Rainer; Prodanovi?, Radivoje

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase (GOx) genes for wild-type (GenBank accession no. X16061, swiss-Prot; P13006) and M12 mutant (N2Y, K13E, T30 V, I94 V, K152R) were cloned into pPICZ?A vector for expression in Pichia pastoris KM71H strain. The highest expression level of 17.5 U/mL of fermentation media was obtained in 0.5 % (v/v) methanol after 9 days of fermentation. The recombinant GOx was purified by cross-flow ultrafiltration using membranes of 30 kDa molecular cutoff and DEAE ion-exchange chromatography at pH 6.0. Purified wt GOx had k cat of 189.4 s?¹ and K(m) of 28.26 mM while M12 GOx had k cat of 352.0 s?¹ and K m of 13.33 mM for glucose at pH 5.5. Specificity constants k(cat)/K(m) of wt (6.70 mM?¹ s?¹) and M12 GOx (26.7 mM?¹ s?¹) expressed in P. pastoris KM71H were around three times higher than for the same enzymes previously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae InvSc1 strain. The pH optimum and sugar specificity of M12 mutant of GOx remained similar to the wild-type form of the enzyme, while thermostability was slightly decreased. M12 GOx expressed in P. pastoris showed three times higher activity compared to the wt GOx toward redox mediators like N,N-dimethyl-nitroso-aniline used for glucose strips manufacturing. M12 mutant of GOx produced in P. pastoris KM71H could be useful for manufacturing of glucose biosensors and biofuel cells. PMID:24122283

  15. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    PubMed

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10. PMID:26028740

  16. Cloning, expression in Pichia pastoris, and characterization of a thermostable GH5 mannan endo-1,4-?-mannosidase from Aspergillus niger BK01

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mannans are key components of lignocellulose present in the hemicellulosic fraction of plant primary cell walls. Mannan endo-1,4-?-mannosidases (1,4-?-D-mannanases) catalyze the random hydrolysis of ?-1,4-mannosidic linkages in the main chain of ?-mannans. Biodegradation of ?-mannans by the action of thermostable mannan endo-1,4-?-mannosidase offers significant technical advantages in biotechnological industrial applications, i.e. delignification of kraft pulps or the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass rich in mannan for the production of second generation biofuels, as well as for applications in oil and gas well stimulation, extraction of vegetable oils and coffee beans, and the production of value-added products such as prebiotic manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). Results A gene encoding mannan endo-1,4-?-mannosidase or 1,4-?-D-mannan mannanohydrolase (E.C. 3.2.1.78), commonly termed ?-mannanase, from Aspergillus niger BK01, which belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5), was cloned and successfully expressed heterologously (up to 243 ?g of active recombinant protein per mL) in Pichia pastoris. The enzyme was secreted by P. pastoris and could be collected from the culture supernatant. The purified enzyme appeared glycosylated as a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of approximately 53 kDa. The recombinant ?-mannanase is highly thermostable with a half-life time of approximately 56 h at 70°C and pH 4.0. The optimal temperature (10-min assay) and pH value for activity are 80°C and pH 4.5, respectively. The enzyme is not only active towards structurally different mannans but also exhibits low activity towards birchwood xylan. Apparent Km values of the enzyme for konjac glucomannan (low viscosity), locust bean gum galactomannan, carob galactomannan (low viscosity), and 1,4-?-D-mannan (from carob) are 0.6 mg mL-1, 2.0 mg mL-1, 2.2 mg mL-1 and 1.5 mg mL-1, respectively, while the kcat values for these substrates are 215 s-1, 330 s-1, 292 s-1 and 148 s-1, respectively. Judged from the specificity constants kcat/Km, glucomannan is the preferred substrate of the A. niger ? -mannanase. Analysis by thin layer chromatography showed that the main product from enzymatic hydrolysis of locust bean gum is mannobiose, with only low amounts of mannotriose and higher manno-oligosaccharides formed. Conclusion This study is the first report on the cloning and expression of a thermostable mannan endo-1,4-?-mannosidase from A. niger in Pichia pastoris. The efficient expression and ease of purification will significantly decrease the production costs of this enzyme. Taking advantage of its acidic pH optimum and high thermostability, this recombinant ?-mannanase will be valuable in various biotechnological applications. PMID:19912637

  17. Isolate-Dependent Growth, Virulence, and Cell Wall Composition in the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Amarsaikhan, Nansalmaa; O’Dea, Evan M.; Tsoggerel, Angar; Owegi, Henry; Gillenwater, Jordan; Templeton, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is a mediator of allergic sensitization and invasive disease in susceptible individuals. The significant genetic and phenotypic variability between and among clinical and environmental isolates are important considerations in host-pathogen studies of A. fumigatus-mediated disease. We observed decreased radial growth, rate of germination, and ability to establish colony growth in a single environmental isolate of A. fumigatus, Af5517, when compared to other clinical and environmental isolates. Af5517 also exhibited increased hyphal diameter and cell wall ?-glucan and chitin content, with chitin most significantly increased. Morbidity, mortality, lung fungal burden, and tissue pathology were decreased in neutropenic Af5517-infected mice when compared to the clinical isolate Af293. Our results support previous findings that suggest a correlation between in vitro growth rates and in vivo virulence, and we propose that changes in cell wall composition may contribute to this phenotype. PMID:24945802

  18. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri populations in Argentinian vineyards and ochratoxin A contamination.

    PubMed

    Chiotta, María L; Ponsone, María L; Sosa, Débora M; Combina, Mariana; Chulze, Sofía N

    2013-12-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri are described as the main source of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in grapes and wine worldwide. The knowledge of the factors affecting grape contamination by species included in this section and OTA production is essential to be able to reduce their presence, not only to improve wine quality, but also to maintain their safety. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the incidence of Aspergillus section Nigri species harvested in different grape-growing regions from Argentina, their ability to produce OTA, to correlate with meteorological conditions and geographical coordinates with their prevalence and to evaluate the OTA natural occurrence in grapes and wines. The morphological identification showed that Aspergillus niger aggregate species were the most prevalent ones, followed by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus uniseriate. These populations were confirmed through using AFLP markers and sequencing and, Aspergillus tubingensis was separated from A. niger aggregate. Climatic factors, altitude, longitude and latitude have influenced on the distribution of species included in the section. A. carbonarius and A. niger were OTA producers but differed in their OTA producing ability. Temperature was the factor which influenced the most over the highest incidence of A. carbonarius in La Rioja and San Juan regions. The trellis system in vineyards and drip irrigation also influenced the species isolation. The OTA levels detected in grapes and wines were low, but grape variety was more important in susceptibility to fungal infection and OTA levels. PMID:24010597

  19. Isolation and Identification of a Strain of Aspergillus Tubingensis With Deoxynivalenol Biotransformation Capability

    PubMed Central

    He, Chenghua; Fan, Yanhong; Liu, Guofang; Zhang, Haibin

    2008-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common contaminants of various foodstuffs. A biotransformation system was used in order to lessen the toxicity of DON. A strain of Aspergillus (NJA-1) was isolated from soil and cultured in an inorganic salt medium containing DON. Bt2a/Bt2b primers were used to amplify the ?-tubulin gene of NJA-1. Sequence analysis the PCR product and morphology observation indicated that NJA-1 belonged to Aspergillus tubingensis (aerobic fungi). The DNA sequence information of the PCR product was deposited in GenBank (accession number DQ9025790). The DNA sequence had 99% similarity to the Aspergillus tubingensis accession number AY820009. An unknown compound in NJA-1 showed the ability to convert DON into another product. The molecular weight of the bioconversion product was 18.1 D (H2O) larger than that of DON. The analysis showed that DON could be hydrolyzed by NJA-1. The mean DON biotransformation rate was 94.4% after two weeks of cultivation. The finding presents a new method for DON biotransformation. PMID:19330081

  20. Asporyergosterol, a new steroid from an algicolous isolate of Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ming-Feng; Ji, Nai-Yun; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Li, Fang; Xue, Qin-Zhao

    2010-10-01

    Asporyergosterol (1), a new steroid with an E double bond between C-17 and C-20, was identified from the culture extracts of Aspergillus oryzae, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine red alga Heterosiphonia japonica. Moreover, four known steroids including (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (2), (22E,24R)-3beta-hydroxyergosta-5,8,22-trien-7-one (3), (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (4), and (22E,24R)-5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3beta-ol (5) were isolated. Structures of these compounds were unambiguously established by spectroscopic techniques and by comparison with literature values. All the isolates exhibited low activity to modulate acetylcholinesterase (AChE). PMID:21121251

  1. Metabolomics of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C; Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian F; Larsen, Thomas O

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important species in Aspergillus causing infective lung diseases. This species has been reported to produce a large number of extrolites, including secondary metabolites, acids, and proteins such as hydrophobins and extracellular enzymes. At least 226 potentially bioactive secondary metabolites have been reported from A. fumigatus that can be ordered into 24 biosynthetic families. Of these families we have detected representatives from the following families of secondary metabolites: fumigatins, fumigaclavines, fumiquinazolines, trypacidin and monomethylsulochrin, fumagillins, gliotoxins, pseurotins, chloroanthraquinones, fumitremorgins, verruculogen, helvolic acids, and pyripyropenes by HPLC with diode array detection and mass spectrometric detection. There is still doubt whether A. fumigatus can produce tryptoquivalins, but all isolates produce the related fumiquinazolines. We also tentatively detected sphingofungins in A. fumigatus Af293 and in an isolate of A. lentulus. The sphingofungins may have a similar role as the toxic fumonisins, found in A. niger. A further number of mycotoxins, including ochratoxin A, and other secondary metabolites have been reported from A. fumigatus, but in those cases either the fungus or its metabolite appear to be misidentified. PMID:18763205

  2. Detection and discrimination of four Aspergillus section Nigri species by PCR.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, J D; O'Keeffe, T L

    2015-02-01

    Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are not easily distinguished by traditional morphological techniques, and typically are identified by DNA sequencing methods. We developed four PCR primers to distinguish between Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus welwitschiae, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus tubingensis, based on species-conserved differences in the calmodulin gene sequence. PCR amplification from total DNA using these primers was species specific; no amplification occurred from nontarget species DNA for each primer pair. Species-specific PCR could distinguish between species in mixed DNA templates, indicating a utility in determining culture uniformity of isolated Aspergillus strains. In addition, with these primer sets, each species could be detected in soil following mixed-species inoculation with Aspergillus spores. This indicates that PCR with these species-specific primers may be useful in determining the distribution of Aspergillus species in environmental samples without the need for species identification from isolated strains, as well as detecting species that may be infrequently isolated by culture-based methods. PMID:25384730

  3. Screening of tannin acyl hydrolase (E.C.3.1.1.20) producing tannery effluent fungal isolates using simple agar plate and SmF process.

    PubMed

    Murugan, K; Saravanababu, S; Arunachalam, M

    2007-03-01

    Industrially important tannase producing fungi were isolated from tannery effluent using simple agar plate method. The isolates were screened by submerged fermentation using auto-controlled bioreactor. The colony diameter on the solid surface media shows high correlation with quantitative production of tannase. The isolate Aspergillus niger shows maximum production of both extracellular and intracellular enzyme. PMID:16839759

  4. Gliotoxin Isolated from Marine Fungus Aspergillus sp. Induces Apoptosis of Human Cervical Cancer and Chondrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van-Tinh; Lee, Jung Suck; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Li, Yong-Xin; Kim, Kil-Nam; Heo, Soo-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Won Sun; Choi, Il-Whan; Je, Jae-Young; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2013-01-01

    Gliotoxin, a secondary metabolite produced by marine fungus Aspergillus sp., possesses various biological activities including anticancer activity. However, the mechanism underlying gliotoxin-induced cytotoxicity on human cervical cancer (Hela) and human chondrosarcoma (SW1353) cells remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the effect of gliotoxin induction on apoptosis, the activating expressions of caspase family enzymes in the cells. Apoptotic cell levels were measured through DAPI and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI) double staining analysis. The apoptotic protein expression of Bcl-2 and caspase family was detected by Western blot in Hela and SW1353 cells. Our results showed that gliotoxin treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced significant morphological changes. Gliotoxin induced apoptosis was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential. Gliotoxin-induced activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and cytochromec (cyt c) release showed evidence for the gliotoxin activity on apoptosis. These findings suggest that gliotoxin isolated from marine fungus Aspergillus sp. induced apoptosis in Hela and SW1353 cells via the mitochondrial pathway followed by downstream events leading to apoptotic mode of cell death. PMID:24368570

  5. Morphological and toxigenic variability in the Aspergillus flavus isolates from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production system in Gujarat (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Diwakar; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Vinod; Bagwan, Naimoddin B; Basu, Mukti S; Dobaria, Jentilal R; Mishra, Gyan P; Chanda, Sumitra

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and toxigenic variability in 187 Aspergillus flavus isolates, collected from a major Indian peanut production system, from 10 districts of Gujarat was studied. On the basis of colony characteristics, the isolates were grouped as group A (83%), B (11%) and G (6%). Of all the isolates, 21%, 47% and 32% were found to be fast-growing, moderately-fast and slow-growing respectively, and nosclerotia and sclerotia production was recorded in 32.1% and 67% isolates respectively. Large, medium and small number of sclerotia production was observed in 55, 38 and 34 isolates respectively. Toxigenic potential based on ammonia vapour test was not found reliable, while ELISA test identified 68.5%, 18.7% and 12.8% isolates as atoxigenic, moderately-toxigenic and highly-toxigenic, respectively. On clustering, the isolates were grouped into 15 distinct clusters, 'A' group of isolates was grouped distinctly in different clusters, while 'B' and 'G' groups of isolates were clustered together. No association was observed between morphological-diversity and toxigenic potential of the isolates. From the present investigation, most virulent isolates were pooled to form a consortium for sick-plot screening of germplasm, against Aspergillus flavus. In future, atoxigenic isolates may be evaluated for their potential to be used as bio-control agent against toxigenicisolates. PMID:25895268

  6. Antifungal Activities of SCY-078 (MK-3118) and Standard Antifungal Agents against Clinical Non-Aspergillus Mold Isolates.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Alexander, Barbara D

    2015-07-01

    The limited armamentarium of active and oral antifungal drugs against emerging non-Aspergillus molds is of particular concern. Current antifungal agents and the new orally available beta-1,3-d-glucan synthase inhibitor SCY-078 were tested in vitro against 135 clinical non-Aspergillus mold isolates. Akin to echinocandins, SCY-078 showed no or poor activity against Mucoromycotina and Fusarium spp. However, SCY-078 was highly active against Paecilomyces variotii and was the only compound displaying some activity against notoriously panresistant Scedosporium prolificans. PMID:25896696

  7. Aerobiological, biochemical and immunological studies on some of the dominant Aspergillus species of South Assam (India)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhruba Sharma; B. K. Dutta; A. B. Singh; B. R. Shome

    2007-01-01

    Two years atmospheric survey of air-borne Aspergillus was carried out in the environmental conditions of South Assam. The survey revealed a total of 16 different species of Aspergillus with marked seasonal and annual variations. Aspergillus fumigatus was found to be the dominant atmospheric fungal species followed by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, etc. Among the sample extracts tested, highest quantity of

  8. Bioactive anthraquinones from endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from red sea algae.

    PubMed

    Hawas, Usama W; El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; El-Halawany, Ali M

    2012-10-01

    The marine fungus Aspergillus versicolor was isolated from the inner tissue of the Red Sea green alga Halimeda opuntia. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18s rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain led to a new metabolite named isorhodoptilometrin-1-methyl ether (1) along with the known compounds emodin (2), 1-methyl emodin (3), evariquinone (4), 7-hydroxyemodin 6,8-methyl ether (5), siderin (6), arugosin C (7), and variculanol (8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. The biological properties of ethyl acetate extract and compounds 1-3 and 6-8 were explored for antimicrobial activity, anti-cancer activity and inhibition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease. PMID:23139125

  9. Isolation and characterization of the positively acting regulatory gene QUTA from Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Beri, R K; Whittington, H; Roberts, C F; Hawkins, A R

    1987-01-01

    The positively acting regulator gene QUTA from Aspergillus nidulans has been identified and located within a cluster of quinic acid utilisation (QUT) genes isolated within a recombinant phage lambda (lambda Q1). The DNA sequence of the QUTA gene reveals a single uninterrupted reading frame coding for a protein of mw 90.416 Kd. The QUTA protein sequence has a protein motif in the form of a putative "DNA finger" that shows strong homology to other such motifs in the GAL4, PPR1, ARGRII, LAC9 and QA1F regulatory gene products of S. cerevisiae, K. lactis and N. crassa. The data presented confirm the view deduced by genetical analysis that the QUTA gene of A. nidulans encodes a protein capable of interacting with QUT specific DNA sequences. PMID:3313276

  10. Isolation, structure elucidation, and biomimetic total synthesis of versicolamide B and the isolation of antipodal (-)-stephacidin A and (+)-notoamide B from Aspergillus versicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new prenylated indole alkaloid, versicolamide B, was isolated from cultures of Aspergillus versicolor NRRL 35600. The structure was assigned by 2D NMR data, and confirmed by a biomimetic total synthesis. Versicolamide B is the first member of the paraherquamide-stephacidin family of alkaloids fo...

  11. Isolation and characterisation of two chymotrypsins from Allocyttus niger (black oreo dory) viscera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Krzyzosiak; Roy M. Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Two serine proteases from the viscera of deep?sea fish, black oreo dory (Allocyttus niger), were purified by hydrophobic, affinity, and cation exchange chromatography. They were designated as chymotrypsins on the basis of substrate specificity and susceptibility to inhibitors. The pH optima of chymotrypsin I and II were 8.6 and 10, respectively. Chymotrypsin II retained a remarkable 80% activity at pH

  12. Isolation and characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus pacC gene

    E-print Network

    Pinero, David

    1999-01-01

    . pacC' ) were grown at pH 8. Aspergillus parasiticus strains were grown on potato dextrose agar at 30' C. Snains were maintained as silica stocks at room temperature. Sexual crosses of A. nidulans strains were conducted according to Pontecorvo (26... and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by several Aspergi llus species. Ambient pH has been determined to affect mycotoxin (i. e. aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin) biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nidulans, respectively...

  13. Biological Activities and Identification of Bioactive Metabolite from Endophytic Aspergillus flavus L7 Isolated from Aegle marmelos.

    PubMed

    Patil, M P; Patil, R H; Maheshwari, V L

    2015-07-01

    Aegle marmelos, a well-known Indian plant with medicinal and religious importance, has been extensively used in Indian traditional medicine. The present study aimed to isolate, identify, and evaluate the biological activities of endophytic fungi from A. marmelos. One of the isolates, labeled as L7, was identified as Aspergillus flavus using morphology and ITS gene sequence. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the culture filtrate were found to be 65.77 mg GAE/ml and 158.33 mg quercetin/ml of crude extract, respectively. The extract showed excellent antimicrobial activity against common human bacterial and fungal pathogens. The test extract at 700 µg/ml, which notably reduced the concentration of DPPH-free radical as percent DPPH scavenging activity, was found to be the highest (64.53 %). The extract, at the concentration of 2 mg/ml, produced 70 % inhibition of hemolysis of RBCs compared to 78 % produced by standard drug (Ibuprofen). Chemical profiling of the fermented extract using TLC followed by UV and FTIR revealed the presence of flavonoids. The HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of bioflavonoid rutin in the extract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on production of bioactive flavonoid by endophytic Aspergillus flavus obtained from A. marmelos and its pharmaceutical potential. In conclusion, the endophytic Aspergillus flavus obtained from the A. marmelos could be explored as an economic and potential natural resource with diverse pharmaceutical and biological activities. PMID:25860867

  14. Efficacy of xylanase purified from Aspergillus niger DFR-5 alone and in combination with pectinase and cellulase to improve yield and clarity of pineapple juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajay Pal; Farhath Khanum

    Pineapple is one of the fruits having xylan rich hemicellulose content more than pectin. Therefore, the efficacy of absolutely\\u000a purified xylanase from A. niger DFR-5 alone and in combination with pectinase and cellulase on juice yield and clarity was studied. Xylanase provided maximum\\u000a yield (71.3%) and clarity (64.7%) of juice in comparison to control responses (61.8% yield and 57.8% clarity).

  15. In vitro activity of disinfectants against Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Mattei, A S; Madrid, I M; Santin, R; Schuch, L F D; Meireles, M C A

    2013-01-01

    Fungi of the Aspergillus genus are widespread and contaminate the environment. Thousands of conidia are released from each phialide and dispersed in the air every day. These fungi are considered important mycose-causing agents in hospitals. Due to this, research to determine prevalent fungi from the Aspergillus genus in hospital environments, and an adequate disinfection program in these areas is are needed. This study evaluated the susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. isolated from a veterinary environment against four disinfectants. Successive dilutions of disinfectants (log2) were used according to CLSI M38-A2 microdilution technique adapted to chemical agents against 18 isolates of this genus. After 72 hours of incubation, the Minimum Inhibiting Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration capable of inhibiting 50% and 90% of the isolates were determined. Chlorexidine-cetrimine, benzalconium chloride and a chlorophenol derivative proved to be effective against all isolates with a lower MIC than that suggested by the manufacturer, except for the A. flavus strain. Sodium hypochlorite was ineffective against three A. fumigatus, three A. flavus and one A. niger isolate. These results demonstrated that all studied disinfectants were effective against environmental isolates, with the exception of sodium hypochlorite, which showed lower effectiveness. PMID:24294243

  16. Four butyrolactones and diverse bioactive secondary metabolites from terrestrial Aspergillus flavipes MM2: isolation and structure determination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The chemical constituents and biological activities of the terrestrial Aspergillus flavipes MM2 isolated from Egyptian rice hulls are reported. Seven bioactive compounds were obtained, of which one sterol: ergosterol (1), four butyrolactones: butyrolactone I (2), aspulvinone H (3), butyrolactone-V (6) and 4,4'-diydroxypulvinone (7), along with 6-methylsalicylic acid (4) and the cyclopentenone analogue; terrien (5). Structures of the isolated compounds were deduced by intensive studies of their 1D & 2D NMR, MS data and comparison with related structures. The strain extract and the isolated compounds (1-7) were biologically studied against number of microbial strains, and brine shrimp for cytotoxicity. In this article, the taxonomical characterization of A. flavipes MM2 along with its upscale fermentation, isolation and structural assignment of the obtained bioactive metabolites, and evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were described. PMID:22380482

  17. Ochratoxin A production in relation to ecophysiological factors by Aspergillus section Nigri strains isolated from different substrates in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Astoreca, A; Magnoli, C; Barberis, C; Chiacchiera, S M; Combina, M; Dalcero, A

    2007-12-15

    Contamination of foodstuff with mycotoxins such as ochratoxins is a major matter of concern for human and animal health. In Aspergillus species, ochratoxin synthesis depends on several environmental factors. The aims of this work were to evaluate the effect of water activity (0.995-0.85), temperature (15, 25 and 30 degrees C), incubation time (7, 14 and 21 days) and their interactions on OTA production on peanut, maize kernels, dried grapes and coffee beans meal extract agar medium by eight strains of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from human food in Argentina. The optimum temperature for OTA production was 25 or 30 degrees C depending on the strains assayed, in most cases the highest OTA levels were achieved after 7 days of incubation, whereas this situation occurred at 15 degrees C after 14 days of incubation for only one strain. The maximum OTA level was obtained at earlier growth states when incubation temperature increased. In general, OTA concentration increased as water activity (a(W)) increased with no significant production at 0.85-0.91 a(W) under all temperature levels tested. Production occurred over a range of temperatures (15-30 degrees C) with optimum production at 30 degrees C depending on a(W) assayed. The knowledge of Aspergillus section Nigri ecophysiology is critical in the development and prediction of the risk models of raw material and final product contamination by these species under fluctuating and interacting environmental parameters. PMID:17920659

  18. Isolation of antipodal (?)-versicolamide B and notoamides L-N from a marine-derived Aspergillus sp

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Tetsuro; Kato, Hikaru; Greshock, Thomas J.; Hirota, Hiroshi; Ohta, Tomihisa

    2010-01-01

    Antipodal (?)-versicolamide B and notoamides L-N were isolated from a marine-derived Aspergillus sp. The possible biosynthetic pathway of enantiomeric pairs of notoamide B and versicolamide B are proposed. Notoamide L is the first metabolite containing twenty-five carbons in the related prenylated indole alkaloids. Notoamide M is potentially a precursor to the proposed azadiene species involved in the putative intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction in the biogenesis of the bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane ring system. PMID:19281134

  19. Citric acid production by a novel Aspergillus niger isolate: II. Optimization of process parameters through statistical experimental designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walid A. Lotfy; Khaled M. Ghanem; Ehab R. El-Helow

    2007-01-01

    In this work, sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical designs, was employed to enhance the production of citric acid in submerged culture. For screening of fermentation medium composition significantly influencing citric acid production, the two-level Plackett–Burman design was used. Under our experimental conditions, beet molasses and corn steep liquor were found to be the major factors of the acid production.

  20. Mycoflora of poultry feeds and ochratoxin-producing ability of isolated Aspergillus and Penicillium species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. R. Rosa; J. M. M. Ribeiro; M. J. Fraga; M. Gatti; L. R. Cavaglieri; C. E. Magnoli; A. M. Dalcero; C. W. G. Lopes

    2006-01-01

    In Brazil, commercial feedstuffs are an important component in modern animal husbandry, but there is no information available about fungal contamination and ochratoxin A (OTA) production. The aims of this study were to determine the mycoflora incidence in poultry feeds and evaluate OTA production. In addition, the ability to produce OTA by several Aspergillus and Penicillium species was investigated. A

  1. Seasonal Distribution of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium Species Isolated in Homes of Fungal Allergic Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Gómez de An; JM Torres-Rodríguez; E Alvarado Ramírez

    Background: Allergy to airborne fungi can cause rhinitis and severe asthma, hence the exposure to spores inside home is an important factor of sensitization. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and prevalence of species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium inside and outside of homes of patients allergic to fungi and to evaluate seasonal variations. Methods:

  2. Genetic Isolation among Sympatric Vegetative Compatibility Groups of the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus, fungal pathogen of animals and both wild and economically important plants, is most recognized for producing aflatoxin, a cancer-causing secondary metabolite, that contaminates food and animal feed globally. A. flavus is asexual and has a vegetative incompatibility system that li...

  3. Study of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of seeds of Hyoscyamus niger and isolation of a new coumarinolignan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sajeli Begum; Bhagawati Saxena; Madhur Goyal; Rakesh Ranjan; Vijaya B. Joshi; Ch V. Rao; Sairam Krishnamurthy; Mahendra Sahai

    2010-01-01

    A chemical and biological validation of the traditional use of Hyoscyamus niger seeds as anti-inflammatory drug has been established. The methanolic extract of seeds of H. niger (MHN) was evaluated for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities in experimental animal models at different doses. MHN produced significant increase in hot plate reaction time, while decreasing writhing response in a dose-dependent

  4. Repeated Aspergillus isolation in respiratory samples from non-immunocompromised patients not selected based on clinical diagnoses: colonisation or infection?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Isolation of Aspergillus from lower respiratory samples is associated with colonisation in high percentage of cases, making it of unclear significance. This study explored factors associated with diagnosis (infection vs. colonisation), treatment (administration or not of antifungals) and prognosis (mortality) in non-transplant/non-neutropenic patients showing repeated isolation of Aspergillus from lower respiratory samples. Methods Records of adult patients (29 Spanish hospitals) presenting ?2 respiratory cultures yielding Aspergillus were retrospectively reviewed and categorised as proven (histopathological confirmation) or probable aspergillosis (new respiratory signs/symptoms with suggestive chest imaging) or colonisation (symptoms not attributable to Aspergillus without dyspnoea exacerbation, bronchospasm or new infiltrates). Logistic regression models (step–wise) were performed using Aspergillosis (probable?+?proven), antifungal treatment and mortality as dependent variables. Significant (p?

  5. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by agar gel double immunodiffusion and IgG ELISA in feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Barrs, V R; Ujvari, B; Dhand, N K; Peters, I R; Talbot, J; Johnson, L R; Billen, F; Martin, P; Beatty, J A; Belov, K

    2015-03-01

    Feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis (URTA) is an emerging infectious disease. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the diagnostic value of detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies using an agar gel double immunodiffusion (AGID) assay and an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA; and (2) to determine if an aspergillin derived from mycelia of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus can be used to detect serum antibodies against cryptic Aspergillus spp. in Aspergillus section Fumigati. Sera from cats with URTA (group 1: n?=?21) and two control groups (group 2: cats with other upper respiratory tract diseases, n?=?25; group 3: healthy cats and cats with non-respiratory, non-fungal illness, n?=?84) were tested. Isolates from cats with URTA comprised A. fumigatus (n?=?5), A. flavus (n?=?1) and four cryptic species: Aspergillus felis (n?=?12), Aspergillus thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri, n?=?1), Aspergillus lentulus (n?=?1) and Aspergillus udagawae (n?=?1). Brachycephalic purebred cats were significantly more likely to develop URTA than other breeds (P?=?0.013). The sensitivity (Se) of the AGID was 43% and the specificity (Sp) was 100%. At a cut-off value of 6 ELISA units/mL, the Se of the IgG ELISA was 95.2% and the Sp was 92% and 92.9% for groups 2 and 3 cats, respectively. Aspergillus-specific antibodies against all four cryptic species were detected in one or both assays. Assay Se was not associated with species identity. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by IgG ELISA has high Se and Sp for diagnosis of feline URTA. PMID:25634077

  6. Roles of the aromatic side chains in the binding of substrates, inhibitors, and cyclomalto-oligosaccharides to the glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger probed by perturbation difference spectroscopy, chemical modification, and mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Svensson, B; Sierks, M R

    1992-04-01

    The roles of the aromatic side chains of the glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger in the binding of ligands, as determined by difference spectroscopy using four types of inhibitors (a) valienamine-derived, (b) 1-deoxynojirimycins, (c) D-glucono-1,5-lactone, and (d) maltitol, two types of disaccharide substrates (a) alpha-(1----4)-linked and (b) alpha-(1----6)-linked, and three cyclomalto-oligosaccharides (cyclodextrins, CDs) are discussed. An unusual change in absorbance from 300 to 310-320 nm, obtained only with the valienamine-derived inhibitors or when D-glucono-1,5-lactone and maltose are combined, is concluded to arise when subsite 2 is occupied in a transition-state-type of complex. The single mutations of two residues thought to be involved in binding, namely, Tyr116----Ala and Trp120----Phe, alter, but do not abolish this perturbation. The perturbations in the spectra also suggest that maltose and isomaltose have different modes of binding. The following Kd values (M) were determined: acarbose, less than 6 x 10(-12); methyl acarviosinide, 1.6 x 10(-6); and the D-gluco and L-ido forms of hydrogenated acarbose, 1.4 x 10(-8) and 5.2 x 10(-6), respectively. Therefore, both the valienamine moiety and the chain length of acarbose are important for tight binding. In contrast to the valienamine-derived inhibitors, none of the 1-deoxynojirimycin type protected glucoamylase against inactivating oxidation of tryptophanyl residues, although each had a Kd value of approximately 4 x 10(-6) M. There are two distinct carbohydrate-binding areas in glucoamylase, namely, the active site in the catalytic domain and a starch-granule-binding site in the C-terminal domain. The alpha-, beta-, and gamma-CDs have high affinity for the starch-binding domain and low affinity for the active site, whereas the reverse was found for acarbose. PMID:1499029

  7. Efficacy of xylanase purified from Aspergillus niger DFR-5 alone and in combination with pectinase and cellulase to improve yield and clarity of pineapple juice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Ajay; Khanum, Farhath

    2011-10-01

    Pineapple is one of the fruits having xylan rich hemicellulose content more than pectin. Therefore, the efficacy of absolutely purified xylanase from A. niger DFR-5 alone and in combination with pectinase and cellulase on juice yield and clarity was studied. Xylanase provided maximum yield (71.3%) and clarity (64.7%) of juice in comparison to control responses (61.8% yield and 57.8% clarity). When used together, a synergistic effect of xylanase, pectinase and cellulase on process responses was observed indicating the necessity of a cock-tail of hydrolytic enzymes for complete cell wall degradation. Overall, an increase in juice yield by 52.9% was observed. The process was numerically optimized with the constraint of 'minimum' pectinase and cellulase and 'maximum' xylanase and incubation time for 'maximum' juice yield and clarity. The closeness of observed response (90.2% yield and 80.9% clarity) to the predicted one (89.6% yield and 80.3% clarity) indicated the validity of developed model. PMID:23572788

  8. Isolation of Aspergillus oryzae mutants for heterologous protein production from a double proteinase gene disruptant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Nemoto; Taisuke Watanabe; Yutaka Mizogami; Jun-ichi Maruyama; Katsuhiko Kitamoto

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has attracted much attention as a host for heterologous protein production because of its high secretion ability and safety.\\u000a However, there have been only a few reports on construction of this organism to improve its properties as a production host.\\u000a We previously reported that the double disruptant of the proteinase gene (tppA, pepE) improved human lysozyme (HLY) production.

  9. Pathogenicity of a soil-derived Aspergillus fumigatus isolate for normal and immunosuppressed guinea pigs 

    E-print Network

    Kenyon, Elaina Marie

    1983-01-01

    to aspergillus infection supports this assessment. White exposed mice to aerosols of A. flavus spores and compared the rate of in vivo germinati on and clearance of germinated and ungerminated spores by mouse alveolar macrophages in normal and cortisone.... They exposed mice to aerosols of A. flavus and, after six hours, found extensive spore germination in both macrophages and in extracellular tracheo-bronchiolar washings obtained from cortisone-treated, but not untreated mice. In experi- ments involv1ng...

  10. Enhanced Endoglucanase Production by Soil Isolates of Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp. through Submerged Fermentation Process (Topraktan Batik Kültür Fermentasyonu ile ?zole Edilen Fusarium sp. ve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulchamy Chellapandi; Abha Apurvabhai Jani

    Objective: The objective was to optimize the fermentation media components and condi- tions to improve the production yield of endoglucanase by filamentous fungi isolated from garden soil. Methods: Cellulolytic fungi were screened from garden soil and identified as Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp. by using conidial morphology. The influences of various culture condi- tions including incubation time, temperature, pH, carbon,

  11. Volatile profiles and aflatoxin production by toxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus grown on sterile and non-sterile cracked corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus which can grow on corn and produce aflatoxins which render it unsafe for food and feed consumption. In this study, aflatoxin and non-aflatoxin producing isolates of A. flavus were grown separately on wet (20% water added), sterile or non-sterile cracked co...

  12. Multicenter Study of Isavuconazole MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI M38-A2 Broth Microdilution Method

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, A.; Gonzalez, G. M.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Martin-Mazuelos, E.; Meis, J.; Peláez, T.; Pfaller, M. A.; Turnidge, J.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established for the new triazole isavuconazole and Aspergillus species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) that were defined with 855 Aspergillus fumigatus, 444 A. flavus, 106 A. nidulans, 207 A. niger, 384 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor species complex isolates; 22 Aspergillus section Usti isolates were also included. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered in Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States were aggregated to statistically define ECVs. ECVs were 1 ?g/ml for the A. fumigatus species complex, 1 ?g/ml for the A. flavus species complex, 0.25 ?g/ml for the A. nidulans species complex, 4 ?g/ml for the A. niger species complex, 1 ?g/ml for the A. terreus species complex, and 1 ?g/ml for the A. versicolor species complex; due to the small number of isolates, an ECV was not proposed for Aspergillus section Usti. These ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to isavuconazole due to cyp51A (an A. fumigatus species complex resistance mechanism among the triazoles) or other mutations. PMID:23716059

  13. Complete nucleotide sequences of okra isolates of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus and their associated DNA-beta from Niger.

    PubMed

    Shih, S L; Kumar, S; Tsai, W S; Lee, L M; Green, S K

    2009-01-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a major crop in Niger. In the fall of 2007, okra leaf curl disease was observed in Niger and the begomovirus and DNA-beta satellite were found associated with the disease. The complete nucleotide sequences of DNA-A (FJ469626 and FJ469627) and associated DNA-beta satellites (FJ469628 and FJ469629) were determined from two samples. This is the first report of molecular characterization of okra-infecting begomovirus and their associated DNA-beta from Niger. The begomovirus and DNA-beta have been identified as Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus and Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite, respectively, which are reported to also infect okra in Egypt, Mali and Sudan. PMID:19156351

  14. Effects of conidia of various Aspergillus species on apoptosis of human pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Féménia, F; Huet, D; Lair-Fulleringer, S; Wagner, M C; Sarfati, J; Shingarova, L; Guillot, J; Boireau, P; Chermette, R; Berkova, N

    2009-05-01

    Aspergillus species can cause mycoses in human and animals. Previously, we demonstrated that A. fumigatus conidia from a human isolate inhibited apoptosis in human pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. In the current study, we studied the effects of A. fumigatus conidia non-human origin and A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger and A. oryzae conidia on human cells apoptosis. Human pneumocytes or bronchial epithelial cells were simultaneously exposed to apoptotic inductors and aspergilli conidia. The cell cultures were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and examination of nuclear morphology. Similar to A. fumigatus conidia, A. flavus conidia inhibited cellular apoptosis while A. nidulans, A. niger and A. oryzae conidia did not affect apoptosis. We further studied the species specificity of conidia: there were no differences in the inhibition of apoptosis by A. fumigatus conidia from either human or bird isolates. In order to determine whether the inhibition of apoptosis by conidia is limited to certain strains, the effect on human cell apoptosis of different A. fumigatus human clinical isolates and A. fumigatus of environmental origin was evaluated. All A. fumigatus isolates inhibited apoptosis; an anti-apoptotic factor was released by conidia. For TNF-induced apoptosis, the anti-apoptotic effect of conidia of all isolates was found to be associated with a reduction of caspase-3 in human cells. The results suggest that suppression of apoptosis may play a role in reducing the efficacy of host defense mechanisms during infection with Aspergillus species. PMID:19117118

  15. In vitro interactions between amphotericin B, itraconazole, and flucytosine against 21 clinical Aspergillus isolates determined by two drug interaction models.

    PubMed

    Te Dorsthorst, D T A; Verweij, P E; Meis, J F G M; Punt, N C; Mouton, J W

    2004-06-01

    Combination therapy of flucytosine (5FC) with other antifungal agents could be of use for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis. However, interpretation of the results of in vitro interactions is problematic. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index is the most commonly used method, but it has several major drawbacks in characterizing antifungal drug interaction. Alternatively, a response surface approach using the concentration-effect relationship over the whole concentration range instead of just the MIC can be used. We determined the in vitro interactions between amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole, and 5FC against 21 Aspergillus isolates with a broth microdilution checkerboard method that employs the dye MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide]. FIC indices based on three different MIC endpoints (MIC-0, MIC-1, and MIC-2) and the interaction coefficient alpha were determined, the latter by estimation from the response surface approach described by Greco et al. (W. R. Greco, G. Bravo, and J. C. Parsons, Pharmacol. Rev. 47:331-385, 1995). The value obtained for the FIC index was found to be dependent on the MIC endpoint used and could be either synergistic, indifferent, or antagonistic. The response surface approach gave more consistent results. Of the three combinations tested, the AMB-5FC combination was the most potent in vitro against Aspergillus spp. We conclude that the use of the response surface approach for the interpretation of in vitro interaction studies of antifungals may be helpful in order to predict the nature and intensity of the drug interaction. However, the correlation of these results with clinical outcome remains difficult and needs to be further investigated. PMID:15155192

  16. Morphological development of Aspergillus niger in submerged citric acid fermentation as a function of the spore inoculum level. Application of neural network and cluster analysis for characterization of mycelial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Papagianni, Maria; Mattey, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Background Although the citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger is one of the most important industrial microbial processes and various aspects of the fermentation appear in a very large number of publications since the 1950s, the effect of the spore inoculum level on fungal morphology is a rather neglected area. The aim of the presented investigations was to quantify the effects of changing spore inoculum level on the resulting mycelial morphology and to investigate the physiology that underlines the phenomena. Batch fermentations were carried out in a stirred tank bioreactor, which were inoculated directly with spores in concentrations ranging from 104 to 109 spores per ml. Morphological features, evaluated by digital image analysis, were classified using an artificial neural network (ANN), which considered four main object types: globular and elongated pellets, clumps and free mycelial trees. The significance of the particular morphological features and their combination was determined by cluster analysis. Results Cell volume fraction analysis for the various inoculum levels tested revealed that by rising the spore inoculum level from 104 to 109 spores per ml, a clear transition from pelleted to dispersed forms occurs. Glucosamine formation and release by the mycelium appears to be related to spore inoculum level. Maximum concentrations detected in fermentations inoculated with 104 and 105 spores/ml, where pellets predominated. At much higher inoculum levels (108, 109 spores/ml), lower dissolved oxygen levels during the early fermentation phase were associated with slower ammonium ions uptakes and significantly lower glucosamine concentrations while the mycelium developed in dispersed morphologies. A big increase in the main and total hyphal lengths and branching frequency was observed in mycelial trees as inoculum levels rise from 104 to 109 spores/ml, while in aggregated forms particle sizes and their compactness decreased. Conclusion The methods used in this study, allowed for the detailed quantification of the transition between the two extreme morphological forms. The impact of spore inoculum level on the detailed characteristics of the particular morphological forms produced was high. Control of mycelial morphology is often regarded as a prerequisite to ensure increased productivities in industrial applications. The research described here demonstrates that adjusting the spore inoculum level controls effectively mycelial morphology. PMID:16433930

  17. Structures and antiviral activities of butyrolactone derivatives isolated from Aspergillus terreus MXH-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xinhua; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Xi, Rui; Wang, Wei; Li, Dehai

    2014-12-01

    A new butyrolactone derivative, namely butyrolactone VIII ( 1), and six known butyrolactones ( 2-7) were separated from the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of the fermentation broth of a fungus, Aspergillus terreus MXH-23. The chemical structures of these metabolites were identified by analyzing their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Known butyrolactone derivatives contain an ?, ?-unsaturated ?-lactone ring with ?-hydroxyl and ?-benzyl, and butyrolactone VIII ( 1) was the first butyrolactones contains ?-benzyl and ?-hydroxyl on ?, ?-unsaturated lactone ring. All of the butyrolactone derivatives were tested for their anti-influenza (H1N1) effects. Derivatives 4 and 7 showed moderate antiviral activities while the newly-identified, derivative 1, did not.

  18. Isolation of Mutations That Bypass the Requirement of the Septation Initiation Network for Septum Formation and Conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Mi; Lu, Ling; Shao, Rongzhong; Chin, Jaclyn; Liu, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The kinase cascade of the septation initiation network (SIN), first revealed in fission yeast, activates the contraction of the actomyosin ring, and plays an essential role in fungal septation. Mob1p, an evolutionarily conserved SIN protein, is associated with the most downstream kinase of this cascade in fission yeast. In this study, the mobA gene encoding a homologous protein was isolated from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, whose mycelium is made of multinucleate cells. The MOBA protein was required for septation and conidiation, but was not essential for hyphal extension and colony formation. To identify genes that act antagonistically against the SIN, UV mutagenesis was carried out to isolate suppressor (smo) mutations that restored conidiation when MOBA was not expressed. Microscopic examination indicated that the restored conidiation was concomitant with restored septation in the absence of the MOBA protein. Eight recessive smo mutations in five complementation groups also bypassed the requirement of the SIN kinases SEPH and SIDB for septum formation and conidiation. However, none of these smo mutations affected the localization of MOBA. Among smo mutations, smoA and smoB mutations caused reduced hyphal growth and colony formation. They also rendered hypersensitivity to low doses of the microtubule-depolymerizing agent benomyl for conidiation. Therefore, in A. nidulans, proteins encoded by the smo genes likely have an antagonistic interaction against the SIN pathway to regulate septation and conidiation. PMID:16624915

  19. Production and Characterization of Lipases by Two New Isolates of Aspergillus through Solid-State and Submerged Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Colla, Luciane Maria; Ficanha, Aline M. M.; Rizzardi, Juliana; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Reinehr, Christian Oliveira; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Due to the numerous applications of lipases in industry, there is a need to study their characteristics, because lipases obtained from different sources may present different properties. The aim of this work was to accomplish the partial characterization of lipases obtained through submerged fermentation and solid-state fermentation by two species of Aspergillus. Fungal strains were isolated from a diesel-contaminated soil and selected as good lipases producers. Lipases obtained through submerged fermentation presented optimal activities at 37°C and pH 7.2 and those obtained through solid-state fermentation at 35°C and pH 6.0. The enzymes produced by submerged fermentation were more temperature-stable than those obtained by solid-state fermentation, presenting 72% of residual activity after one hour of exposition at 90°C. Lipases obtained through submerged fermentation had 80% of stability in acidic pH and those obtained through solid-state fermentation had stability greater than 60% in alkaline pH. PMID:26180809

  20. Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by Metabolites of Phoma glomerata PG41 Isolated From Natural Substrate Colonized by Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakova, Larisa; Statsyuk, Natalia; Mikityuk, Oleg; Nazarova, Tatyana; Dzhavakhiya, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), produced by Aspergillus flavus, is one of the most life threatening food contaminants causing significant economic losses worldwide. Biological AFB1 degradation by microorganisms, or preferably microbial enzymes, is considered as one of the most promising approaches. Objectives: The current work aimed to study the AFB1-degrading metabolites, produced by Phoma glomerata PG41, sharing a natural substrate with aflatoxigenic A. flavus, and the preliminary determination of the nature of these metabolites. Materials and Methods: The AFB1-degrading potential of PG41 metabolites was determined by a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of residual AFB1 after 72 hours incubation at 27ºC. The effects of pH, heat, and protease treatment on the AFB1-destroying activity of extracellular metabolites were examined. Results: The AFB1-degrading activity of protein-enriched fractions, isolated from culture liquid filtrate and cell-free extract, is associated with high-molecular-weight components, is time- and pH-dependent, thermolabile, and is significantly reduced by proteinase K treatment. The AFB1 degradation efficiency of these fractions reaches 78% and 66%, respectively. Conclusions: Phoma glomerata PG41 strain sharing natural substrate with toxigenic A. flavus secretes metabolites possessing a significant aflatoxin-degrading activity. The activity is associated mainly with a protein-enriched high-molecular-weight fraction of extracellular metabolites and appears to be of enzymatic origin. PMID:25789135

  1. A Thermostable Crude Endoglucanase Produced by Aspergillus fumigatus in a Novel Solid State Fermentation Process Using Isolated Free Water

    PubMed Central

    Saqib, Abdul A. N.; Farooq, Ansa; Iqbal, Maryam; Hassan, Jalees Ul; Hayat, Umar; Baig, Shahjahan

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus was grown on chopped wheat straw in a solid state fermentation (SSF) process carried out in constant presence of isolated free water inside the fermentation chamber. The system allowed maintaining a constant vapor pressure inside the fermentor throughout the fermentation process. Crude endoglucanase produced by A. fumigatus under such conditions was more thermostable than previously reported enzymes of the same fungal strain which were produced under different conditions and was also more thermostable than a number of other previously reported endoglucanases as well. Various thermostability parameters were calculated for the crude endoglucanase. Half lives (T1/2) of the enzyme were 6930, 866, and 36?min at 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C, respectively. Enthalpies of activation of denaturation (?HD*) were 254.04, 253.96, and 253.88?K?J?mole?1, at 60°C, 70°C and 80°C, respectively, whereas entropies of activation of denaturation (?SD*) and free energy changes of activation of denaturation (?GD*) were 406.45, 401.01, and 406.07?J?mole?1?K?1 and 118.69, 116.41, and 110.53?K?J?mole?1 at 60°C, 70°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:22919467

  2. Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from a moderate halophile strain of Aspergillus caesiellus isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation.

    PubMed

    Batista-García, Ramón Alberto; Balcázar-López, Edgar; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixón; Cuervo-Soto, Laura; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise; Atriztán-Hernández, Karina; Morales-Herrera, Catalina; Rodríguez-Hernández, Rocío; Folch-Mallol, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications. PMID:25162614

  3. Characterization of Lignocellulolytic Activities from a Moderate Halophile Strain of Aspergillus caesiellus Isolated from a Sugarcane Bagasse Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixón; Cuervo-Soto, Laura; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise; Atriztán-Hernández, Karina; Morales-Herrera, Catalina; Rodríguez-Hernández, Rocío; Folch-Mallol, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications. PMID:25162614

  4. In vitro effect of some fungicides on growth and aflatoxins production by Aspergillus flavus isolated from Capsicum powder.

    PubMed

    Santos, L; Marin, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of some pre-harvest fungicides on growth and aflatoxin (AF) production of three Aspergillus flavus strains found in Capsicum powder. Each isolate, previously isolated from paprika, chilli and smoked paprika, was inoculated on yeast extract sucrose agar and on a 3% paprika extract agar medium supplemented with different fungicides and incubated at 20 and 30°C during 7 days. Growth measurements were obtained on days 3, 5 and 7, and the AF production was determined on day 7. The significance of the effects of the factors (strain, medium, temperature, time and fungicides) and their interaction over colony diameter and AF production was determined. Temperature constrained the effectiveness of fungicides in reducing growth, the fungicides being most effective at 20°C. The efficacy of the fungicides over AF production depended on the medium used and temperature. The most effective fungicides in inhibiting growth and AF production, regardless of the strain tested or applied conditions, were tebuconazole 25% and mancozeb 80% applied at a concentration of 0.75 and 3.5 g l(-1), respectively. Care should thus be taken in the choice of a suitable fungicide because their effectiveness may depend on intra-specific variation and temperature. Moreover, it is necessary to take into account that the most efficient fungicide in reducing growth is not always the best choice for pre-harvest treatments because it may promote AF production. Thus, the best fungicide is the one that can simultaneous prevent growth and AF production. PMID:21120737

  5. Pathogenicity of the Fungus, Aspergillus clavatus, Isolated from the Locust, Oedaleus senegalensis, Against Larvae of the Mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Seye, Fawrou; Faye, Oumar; Ndiaye, Mady; Njie, Ebrima; Marie Afoutou, José

    2009-01-01

    The use of insect pathogenic fungi is a promising alternative to chemical control against mosquitoes. Among the Hyphomycetes isolated from insects for mosquito control, the genus Aspergillus remains the least studied. In September 2005, four fungi were isolated from the Senegalese locust, Oedaleus senegalensis Kraus (Orthoptera: Acrididae), collected in Dakar, Senegal. One of these fungi, identified as Aspergillus clavatus, Desmazières (Eurotiales: Trichocomaceae) was highly pathogenic against larvae of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti L., Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). An application of 1.2 mg/ml dry conidia yielded 100% mortality after 24 hours against both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus while with An. gambiae it was 95%. With unidentified species in the genus Aspergillus, mortality after 24 h was <5% against all the larval species. Application of A. clavatus produced in a wheat powder medium using doses ranging between 4.3 to 21×107 spores/ml, caused 11 to 68% mortality against Cx. quinquefasciatus at 24h, and 37 to 100% against Ae. aegypti. Microscopic observations showed fungal germination on both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Histological studies revealed that A. clavatus penetrated the cuticle, invaded the gut and disintegrated its cells. Some Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, treated with A. clavatus reached the pupal stage and produced infected adults. However, the infection was mainly located on the extremity of their abdomen. These results suggest that A. clavatus could be an effective tool to manage mosquito proliferation. PMID:20050773

  6. Study of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of seeds of Hyoscyamus niger and isolation of a new coumarinolignan.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sajeli; Saxena, Bhagawati; Goyal, Madhur; Ranjan, Rakesh; Joshi, Vijaya B; Rao, Ch V; Krishnamurthy, Sairam; Sahai, Mahendra

    2010-04-01

    A chemical and biological validation of the traditional use of Hyoscyamus niger seeds as anti-inflammatory drug has been established. The methanolic extract of seeds of H. niger (MHN) was evaluated for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities in experimental animal models at different doses. MHN produced significant increase in hot plate reaction time, while decreasing writhing response in a dose-dependent manner indicating its analgesic activity. It was also effective in both acute and chronic inflammation evaluated through carrageenin-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma methods. In addition to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, it also exhibited antipyretic activity in yeast-induced pyrexia model. Furthermore, the bioactive MHN under chemical investigation showed the presence of coumarinolignans as major chemical constituent and yielded a new coumarinolignan, cleomiscosin A methyl ether (1) along with four known coumarinolignans, cleomiscosin A (2), cleomiscosin B (3), cleomiscosin A-9'-acetate (4) and cleomiscosin B-9'-acetate (5). The structure elucidation of 1 was done by spectroscopic data interpretation and comparative HPLC analysis. Cleomiscosin A, but not its isomer cleomiscosin B, reduced dry and wet weight of cotton pellet granuloma in mice. This suggests that cleomiscosin A is an important constituent of MHN responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:19720117

  7. Fibrinolytic activity of some fungi isolated from self-heated composted fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tahany Mohamed Ali Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Aziz Mahmoud Salama; Mohamed Ibrahim Ahmed Ali; Hagwa Abdel-Hamid Tharwat

    1990-01-01

    Mesophilic fungi isolated from organic fertilizer compost samples accounted for 70.94% of the total fungal count, while thermophilic\\u000a and thermotolerant fungi constituted 29.05% of that count. Eight mesophilic fungal species, namelyAspergillus niger, Monilia sitophila, Paecilomyces divaricata, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. fellutanum, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis,\\u000a S. brumptii andZygorhynchus japonicus; two thermophilic fungiHumicola grisea andOidiodendron flavum and three thermotolerant speciesAspergillus fumigatus, Thermomyces lanuginosus andZygorhynchus

  8. Isolation and identification of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus section Nigri strains from California raisins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine incidence and levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in California raisins, and to isolate and characterize OTA-producing fungi from California raisin vineyards. Methods and Results: Raisin clusters sampled from four California vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley were analyzed for OTA con...

  9. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus collinsii, Aspergillus floridensis, and Aspergillus trinidadensis are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA) and malt extract agar culture (M...

  10. Withanolides from hyoscyamus niger seeds

    PubMed

    Ma; Williams; Che

    1999-10-01

    Three withanolide class steroids were isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. Two of them were identified as daturalactone-4 (1) and Nic-3 (which is now named hyoscyamilactol) (2). The new compound was elucidated as 16alpha-acetoxyhyoscyamilactol (3) on the basis of spectroscopic properties and X-ray crystallographic analysis. PMID:10543915

  11. Sequence of host contact influences the outcome of competition among Aspergillus flavus isolates during host tissue invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus is achieved by competitive exclusion of aflatoxin producers by atoxigenic strains. However, factors dictating the extent to which competitive displacement occurs during host infection are unknown. The role of preemptive exclusion in...

  12. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5?336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  13. In vitro activity of a novel broad-spectrum antifungal, E1210, tested against Aspergillus spp. determined by CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methods.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Michael A; Duncanson, Frederick; Messer, Shawn A; Moet, Gary J; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2011-11-01

    E1210 is a first-in-class broad-spectrum antifungal that suppresses hyphal growth by inhibiting fungal glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. In the present study, we extend these findings by examining the activity of E1210 and comparator antifungal agents against Aspergillus spp. by using the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) to test wild-type (WT) as well as amphotericin B (AMB)-resistant (-R) and azole-R strains (as determined by CLSI methods). Seventy-eight clinical isolates of Aspergillus were tested including 20 isolates of Aspergillus flavus species complex (SC), 22 of A. fumigatus SC, 13 of A. niger SC, and 23 of A. terreus SC. The collection included 15 AMB-R (MIC, ? 2 ?g/ml) isolates of A. terreus SC and 10 itraconazole-R (MIC, ? 4 ?g/ml) isolates of A. fumigatus SC (7 isolates), A. niger SC (2 isolates), and A. terreus SC (1 isolate). Comparator antifungal agents included anidulafungin, caspofungin, amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconzole, and voriconazole. Both CLSI and EUCAST methods were highly concordant for E1210 and all comparators. The essential agreement (EA; ± 2 log(2) dilution steps) was 100% for all comparisons with the exception of posaconazole versus A. terreus SC (EA = 91.3%). The minimum effective concentration (MEC)/MIC(90) values (?g/ml) for E1210, anidulafungin, caspofungin, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, respectively, were as follows for each species: for A. flavus SC, 0.03, ? 0.008, 0.12, 1, 1, and 1; for A. fumigatus SC, 0.06, 0.015, 0.12, >8, 1, and 4; for A. niger SC, 0.015, 0.03, 0.12, 4, 1, and 2; and for A. terreus SC, 0.06, 0.015, 0.12, 1, 0.5, and 1. E1210 was very active against AMB-R strains of A. terreus SC (MEC range, 0.015 to 0.06 ?g/ml) and itraconazole-R strains of A. fumigatus SC (MEC range, 0.03 to 0.12 ?g/ml), A. niger SC (MEC, 0.008 ?g/ml), and A. terreus SC (MEC, 0.015 ?g/ml). In conclusion, E1210 was a very potent and broad-spectrum antifungal agent regardless of in vitro method applied, with excellent activity against AMB-R and itraconazole-R strains of Aspergillus spp. PMID:21844312

  14. Evaluation of antifungal activity of free fatty acids methyl esters fraction isolated from Algerian Linum usitatissimum L. seeds against toxigenic Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Abdelillah, Amrouche; Houcine, Benmehdi; Halima, Dalile; Meriem, Chabane sari; Imane, Zaaboub; Eddine, Smahi Djamal; Abdallah, Moussaoui; Daoudi, Chabane sari

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of the major fraction of fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) isolated from Linum usitatissimum L. seeds oil collected from Bechar department (Algeria). Methods The assessment of antifungal activity was carried out in terms of percentage of radial growth on solid medium (potatoes dextrose agar PDA) and biomass growth inhibition on liquid medium (potatoes dextrose broth PDB) against two fungi. Results The FAMEs was found to be effective in inhibiting the radial mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus more than Aspergillus ochraceus on all tested concentrations. The highest antifungal index was found to be (54.19%) compared to Aspergillus ochraceus (40.48%). The results of the antifungal activity of the FAMEs inhibition of biomass on liquid medium gave no discounted results, but this does not exclude the antifungal activity. Conclusions We can assume that the observed antifungal potency may be due to the abundance of linoleic and ?-linolenic acids in linseed oil which appears to be promising to treat fungal infections, storage fungi and food spoilage in food industry field. PMID:23730556

  15. Recurrent Aspergillus contamination in a biomedical research facility: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cornelison, Christopher T; Stubblefield, Bryan; Gilbert, Eric; Crow, Sidney A

    2012-02-01

    Fungal contamination of biomedical processes and facilities can result in major revenue loss and product delay. A biomedical research facility (BRF) culturing human cell lines experienced recurring fungal contamination of clean room incubators over a 3-year period. In 2010, as part of the plan to mitigate contamination, 20 fungal specimens were isolated by air and swab samples at various locations within the BRF. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus were isolated from several clean-room incubators. A. niger and A. fumigatus were identified using sequence comparison of the 18S rRNA gene. To determine whether the contaminant strains isolated in 2010 were the same as or different from strains isolated between 2007 and 2009, a novel forensic approach to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR was used. The phylogenetic relationship among isolates showed two main genotypic clusters, and indicated the continual presence of the same A. fumigatus strain in the clean room since 2007. Biofilms can serve as chronic sources of contamination; visual inspection of plugs within the incubators revealed fungal biofilms. Moreover, confocal microscopy imaging of flow cell-grown biofilms demonstrated that the strains isolated from the incubators formed dense biofilms relative to other environmental isolates from the BRF. Lastly, the efficacies of various disinfectants employed at the BRF were examined for their ability to prevent spore germination. Overall, the investigation found that the use of rubber plugs around thermometers in the tissue culture incubators provided a microenvironment where A. fumigatus could survive regular surface disinfection. A general lesson from this case study is that the presence of microenvironments harboring contaminants can undermine decontamination procedures and serve as a source of recurrent contamination. PMID:22143434

  16. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic A. waksmanii was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266= IBT 31900). Aspergillus marvanovae was isolated from wa...

  17. Antifungal activity of metabolites from the marine sponges Amphimedon sp. and Monanchora arbuscula against Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Arevabini, Cynthia; Crivelenti, Yasmin D; de Abreu, Mariana H; Bitencourt, Tamires A; Santos, Mário F C; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Hajdu, Eduardo; Beleboni, Renê O; Fachin, Ana L; Marins, Mozart

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of preharvest and stored peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) by aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus is an important economical and food safety problem in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The present investigation reports the antifungal activity of a halitoxins/amphitoxins enriched extract obtained from the sponge Amphimedon sp. (HAEEAsp), and of batzelladine L isolated from the sponge Monanchora arbuscula on Aspergillus flavus isolated from stored peanuts. A PCR system directed against the ITS region and aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes of A. flavus was applied for identification of aflatoxin producing strains. The HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range between 1.9 to 15.6 microg/mL and between 1.9 to 7.8 microg/mL, respectively. The minimal fungicide concentration (MFC) of HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L was in the range between 3.9 to 31.3 microg/mL and 3.9 to 15.6 microg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that these marine alkaloids may be further explored for the development of potential lead compounds active against aflatoxigenic fungi. PMID:24660456

  18. Production of mycotoxins by members of the Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from peanuts and maize in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi of the Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli) are pathogenic to maize, grapes, onions, garlic, apples, mangoes, and peanuts. Although some black aspergilli are reported as opportunistic pathogens, other species are able to colonize maize seedlings as symptomless endophytes, which under ...

  19. Potential production of ochratoxins and fumonisins by members of the Aspergillus section Nigri isolated as endophytes from maize and peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli), are pathogenic to several plant hosts including maize, peanuts, grapes, onions, garlic, apples, and mangoes. Although some black aspergilli are reported as opportunistic pathogens, we have documented that some species within this section ...

  20. Use of a microbial toxicity test (Microtox ®) to determine the toxigenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated from different sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Alba; Sebastián Sánchez-Fortún; Sergio Alvarez-Perez; Jose L. Blanco; Marta E. García

    2009-01-01

    The toxic activity of Aspergillus fumigatus is attributable to substances secreted by its cells. Specific toxic compounds synthesized by the fungi such as gliotoxin, can be detected by sensitive chemical procedures like TLC or HPLC. Measuring the total toxigenicity of a strain extract, however, requires a bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of using the Microtox® bioassay

  1. Enantioconvergent biohydrolysis of racemic styrene oxide to R-phenyl-1, 2-ethanediol by a newly isolated filamentous fungus Aspergillus tubingensis TF1.

    PubMed

    Duarah, Aparajita; Goswami, Amrit; Bora, Tarun C; Talukdar, Madhumita; Gogoi, Binod K

    2013-08-01

    An effort was made to isolate biocatalysts hydrolyzing epoxides from various ecological niches of northeast India, a biodiversity hot spot zone of the world and screened for epoxide hydrolase activity to convert different racemic epoxides to the corresponding 1, 2-vicinal diols. Screening of a total of 450 microorganisms isolated was carried out using NBP colorimetric assay. One of the strains TF1, after internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, identified as Aspergillus tubingensis, showed promising enantioconvergent epoxide hydrolase activity. The hydrolysis of unsubstituted styrene oxide (1) occurred to give 97 % ee of R-(-)-1-phenylethane-1, 2-diol (6) with more than 99 % conversion within 45 min incubation. It is shown to be a cheap and practical biocatalyst for one step asymmetric synthesis of chiral R-diol. The other representative substrates (2-5), although underwent hydrolysis with more than 99 % conversion beyond 15 h, exhibited poor enantioselectivity. PMID:23797508

  2. Degradation of Xylan to D-Xylose by Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Coexpressing the Aspergillus nigerbeta Xylosidase (xlnD) and the Trichoderma reesei Xylanase II (xyn2) Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. La Grange; I. S. Pretorius; M. Claeyssens; W. H. van Zyl

    2001-01-01

    The -xylosidase-encoding xlnD gene of Aspergillus niger 90196 was amplified by the PCR technique from first-strand cDNA synthesized on mRNA isolated from the fungus. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA fragment was verified to contain a 2,412-bp open reading frame that encodes a 804-amino-acid propeptide. The 778-amino-acid mature protein, with a putative molecular mass of 85.1 kDa, was fused in

  3. Selection of a strain of Aspergillus for the production of citric acid from pineapple waste in solid-state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Tran; L. I. Sly; D. A. Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    Aspergillus foetidus ACM 3996 (=FRR 3558) and three strains of Aspergillus niger ACM 4992 (=ATCC 9142), ACM 4993 (=ATCC 10577), ACM 4994 (=ATCC 12846) were compared for the production of citric acid from pineapple peel in solid-state fermentation. A. niger ACM 4992 produced the highest amount of citric acid, with a yield of 19.4g of citric acid per 100g of

  4. Correlation between the E test and the CLSI M-38 A microdilution method to determine the activity of amphotericin B, voriconazole, and itraconazole against clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Guinea; Teresa Peláez; Luis Alcalá; Emilio Bouza

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro activities of amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole against 283 clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus were studied by comparing the E test method with the reference procedure NCCLS (CLSI) M-38A. The methods were considered to agree when the results of the MICs by E test were within ±2 dilutions of the MICs obtained by CLSI M-38 A. Agreement

  5. Occurrence of ochratoxin a contamination and detection of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species in retail samples of dried fruits and nuts.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L; Ho, Yvonne S; Santillan, Carlo J

    2015-04-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and is a potential contaminant of a wide variety of food products. To determine the incidence of OTA contamination in dried fruits and tree nuts, retail packaged and bulk raisins, dates, figs, prunes, almonds, pistachios, and walnuts were collected from small and large supermarkets in seven areas of the United States between 2012 and 2014. Of the 665 samples analyzed, OTA was detected in 48 raisin samples, 4 fig samples, 4 pistachio samples, and 1 date sample. OTA contamination levels ranged from 0.28 to 15.34 ng/g in dried fruits and 1.87 to 890 ng/g in pistachios; two raisin samples and one pistachio sample exceeded the European Union regulatory limit of 10 ng/g. PCR detection of potential OTA-producing Aspergillus species revealed the presence of A. niger, A. welwitschiae, and A. carbonarius in 20, 7, and 7 of the 57 OTA-contaminated samples, respectively. However, OTA-producing A. carbonarius was isolated from only one raisin sample, and no other OTA-producing Aspergillus species were found. These results suggest that raisins are more frequently contaminated with low levels of OTA than are other dried fruits and nuts and that Aspergillus species are the likely source of that contamination. PMID:25836414

  6. Isolation, identification and antifungal susceptibility of lemon pathogenic and non pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, María Cristina; Santa Runco, Rosa; Navarro, Antonio Roberto

    2005-03-01

    Numerous species of filamentous fungi were isolated from lemon on different plantations in the province of Tucuman, Argentina. The techniques suggested by the Subcommittee of Antifungal Susceptibility of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, (USA) were adapted. The effect of three different concentrations of the fungicides imazalil, guazatine, SOPP and thiabendazole on the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus clavatus, Geotrichum candidum, Rhizopus sp, Penicillium sp, Penicillium digitatum and Mucor sp were studied. All the tested strains were resistant to thiabendazole. We assayed a mixture of SOPP (5%), guazatine (350 ppm) and imazalil (100 ppm), which showed a synergic effect on Rhizopus sp. Mucor sp was the only fungus resistant to the four fungicides tested as well as to the above mentioned mixture. PMID:15813686

  7. In Vitro antimycotic activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. against opportunistic filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2007-05-01

    Xanthorrhizol was isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza (Zingiberaceae) and its in vitro activity against opportunistic filamentous fungi was evaluated using the NCCLS (M38-A) standard method. Xanthorrhizol was found to be active against all the species tested, namely Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes: the MICs being 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 4.0, 1.0 and 1.0 microg/mL, while the MFCs were 4.0, 4.0, 4.0, 8.0, 2.0 and 2.0 microg/mL, respectively. The susceptibility of six species of filamentous fungi to xanthorrhizol was comparable to that of the commercial antifungal, amphotericin B. Xanthorrhizol also has activity to inhibit the conidial germination of all tested species. The results strongly suggest that xanthorrhizol can be developed as a natural antifungal agent. PMID:17236167

  8. Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

  9. Aspergillus section Nigri as contributor of fumonisin B(2) contamination in maize.

    PubMed

    Logrieco, A F; Haidukowski, M; Susca, A; Mulè, G; Munkvold, G P; Moretti, A

    2014-01-01

    Fumonisins (FBs), which are carcinogenic mycotoxins, are known to be typically produced by several phytopathogenic fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium. F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, two important pathogens of maize worldwide, are the most common species that produce FBs. The main FBs produced by these species are FB1, FB2 and FB3. Moreover, recently, fungal strains belonging to Aspergillus niger have been also reported to produce FBs (in particular, FB2 and FB4). In a survey on maize carried out in Central Italy, 17 maize kernel samples were collected at harvest and analysed for FB1, FB2 and FB3, as well as fungal contamination, with a particular attention to the species-producing FBs. All 17 samples were contaminated by F. verticillioides and/or F. proliferatum at a level ranging from 13% to 100% of kernels. However, 10 out of 17 samples were also contaminated by Aspergillus section Nigri with a range from 6% to 68% of kernels. There was a significant inverse logarithmic relationship between levels of Fusarium and Aspergillus contamination. All samples were contaminated by FBs; FB1 ranged from 0.09 to 30.2 ?g g(-1), whereas FB2 ranged from 0.04 to 13.2 ?g g(-1). The ratio of FB2/FB1 contamination in the maize samples was evaluated and the highest values occurred in samples contaminated with Aspergillus section Nigri. Thirty strains of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from these samples were molecularly identified (based on sequences of two housekeeping genes) and analysed for their capability to produce FB2. Among the 30 strains isolated, 12 were identified as Aspergillus welwitschiae (syn. A. awamori) and 18 as A. tubingensis. FB2 was produced by five out of 12 strains of A. welwitschiae within a range of 0.20-5 ?g g(-1). This is the first report showing the capability of Aspergillus section Nigri from maize to produce FB2 and its possibility to contribute to FB accumulation in kernels. PMID:24313896

  10. First Detection of TR46/Y121F/T289A and TR34/L98H Alterations in Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Azole-Naive Patients in Denmark despite Negative Findings in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Astvad, K. M. T.; Jensen, R. H.; Hassan, T. M.; Mathiasen, E. G.; Thomsen, G. M.; Pedersen, U. G.; Christensen, M.; Hilberg, O.

    2014-01-01

    Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus harboring the TR34/L98H or TR46/Y121F/T289A alterations is increasingly found in Europe and Asia. Here, we present the first clinical cases of TR46/Y121/T289A and three cases of TR34/L98H outside the cystic fibrosis (CF) population in Denmark and the results of environmental surveys. Four patients (2012 to 2014) with 11 A. fumigatus and 4 Rhizomucor pusillus isolates and 239 soil samples (spring 2010 and autumn 2013, respectively) with a total of 113 A. fumigatus isolates were examined. Aspergillus isolates were screened for azole resistance using azole-containing agar. Confirmatory susceptibility testing was done using the EUCAST microbroth dilution EDEF 9.1 reference method. For relevant A. fumigatus isolates, CYP51A sequencing and microsatellite genotyping were performed. Three patients harbored TR34/L98H isolates. Two were azole naive at the time of acquisition and two were coinfected with wild-type A. fumigatus or R. pusillus isolates, complicating and delaying diagnosis. The TR46/Y121F/T289A strain was isolated in 2014 from a lung transplant patient. Genotyping indicated that susceptible and resistant Aspergillus isolates were unrelated and that no transmission between patients occurred. Azole resistance was not detected in any of the 113 soil isolates. TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A alterations appear to be emerging in the clinical setting in Denmark and now involve azole-naive patients. Two recent soil-sampling surveys in Denmark were unable to indicate any increased prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus in the environment. These findings further support the demand for real-time susceptibility testing of all clinically relevant isolates and for studies investigating the seasonal variation and ecological niches for azole-resistant environmental A. fumigatus. PMID:24936595

  11. In Vitro Activities of Amphotericin B, Terbinafine, and Azole Drugs against Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Aspergillus terreus Sensu Stricto.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mariana S; Rojas, Florencia D; Cattana, María E; Sosa, María de Los Ángeles; Iovannitti, Cristina A; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Giusiano, Gustavo E

    2015-06-01

    The antifungal susceptibilities of 40 clinical and environmental isolates of A. terreus sensu stricto to amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were determined in accordance with CLSI document M38-A2. All isolates had itraconazole and voriconazole MICs lower than epidemiologic cutoff values, and 5% of the isolates had amphotericin B MICs higher than epidemiologic cutoff values. Terbinafine showed the lowest MICs. No significant differences were found when MICs of clinical and environmental isolates were compared. PMID:25824228

  12. Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for caspofungin and Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI broth microdilution method (M38-A2 document).

    PubMed

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Johnson, E; Pelaez, T; Turnidge, J

    2011-06-01

    Clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. Epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) are available for six Aspergillus spp. and the triazoles, but not for caspofungin. Wild-type (WT) minimal effective concentration (MEC) distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ECVs for six Aspergillus spp. and caspofungin. The number of available isolates was as follows: 1,691 A. fumigatus, 432 A. flavus, 192 A. nidulans, 440 A. niger, 385 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MEC data gathered in five independent laboratories in Canada, Europe, and the United States were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs expressed in ?g/ml that captured 95% and 99% of the modeled wild-type population were for A. fumigatus 0.5 and 1, A. flavus 0.25 and 0.5, A. nidulans 0.5 and 0.5, A. niger 0.25 and 0.25, A. terreus 0.25 and 0.5, and A. versicolor 0.25 and 0.5. Although caspofungin ECVs are not designed to predict the outcome of therapy, they may aid in the detection of strains with reduced antifungal susceptibility to this agent and acquired resistance mechanisms. PMID:21422219

  13. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability.

    PubMed

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  14. Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

    2013-01-01

    A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

  15. Aspergillus: sex and recombination.

    PubMed

    Varga, János; Szigeti, Gyöngyi; Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; O'Gorman, Céline M; Dyer, Paul S

    2014-12-01

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most widespread groups of fungi on Earth, comprised of about 300-350 species with very diverse lifestyles. Most species produce asexual propagula (conidia) on conidial heads. Despite their ubiquity, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified for most of the aspergilli. Where sexual reproduction is present, species exhibit either homothallic (self fertile) or heterothallic (obligate outcrossing) breeding systems. A parasexual cycle has also been described in some Aspergillus species. As in other fungi, sexual reproduction is governed by mating-type (MAT) genes, which determine sexual identity and are involved in regulating later stages of sexual development. Previous population genetic studies have indicated that some supposedly asexual aspergilli exhibit evidence of a recombining population structure, suggesting the presence of a cryptic sexual cycle. In addition, genome analyses have revealed networks of genes necessary for sexual reproduction in several Aspergillus species, again consistent with latent sexuality in these fungi. Knowledge of MAT gene presence has then successfully been applied to induce sexual reproduction between MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates of certain supposedly asexual aspergilli. Recent progress in understanding the extent and significance of sexual reproduction is described here, with special emphasis on findings that are relevant to clinically important aspergilli. PMID:25118872

  16. Parametric optimization of feruloyl esterase production from Aspergillus terreus strain GA2 isolated from tropical agro-ecosystems cultivating sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Ganesh; Kamle, Avijeet; Mongolla, Poornima; Joseph, Joveeta

    2011-09-01

    A fungal strain, Aspergillus terreus strain GA2, isolated from an agricultural field cultivating sweet sorghum, produced feruloyl esterase using maize bran. In order to obtain maximum yields of feruloyl esterase, the solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions for enzyme production were standardized. Effective feruloyl esterase production was observed with maize bran as substrate followed by wheat bran, coconut husk, and rice husk among the tested agro-waste crop residues. Optimum particle size of 0.71- 0.3 mm and moisture content of 80% favored enzyme production. Moreover, optimum feruloyl esterase production was observed at pH 6.0 and a temperature of 30 degrees C. Supplementation of potato starch (0.6%) as the carbon source and casein (1%) as the nitrogen source favored enzyme production. Furthermore, the culture produced the enzyme after 7 days of incubation when the C:N ratio was 5. Optimization of the SSF conditions revealed that maximum enzyme activity (1,162 U/gds) was observed after 7 days in a production medium of 80% moisture content and pH 6.0 containing 16 g maize bran [25% (w/v)] of particle size of 0.71-0.3 mm, 0.6% potato starch, 3.0% casein, and 64 ml of formulated basal salt solution. Overall, the enzyme production was enhanced by 3.2-fold as compared with un-optimized conditions. PMID:21952371

  17. Pharmacodynamics and Dose-Response Relationships of Liposomal Amphotericin B against Different Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates in a Murine Model of Disseminated Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Mouton, Johan W.

    2013-01-01

    The management of invasive aspergillosis (IA) has become more complicated due to the emergence of acquired azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus, which is associated with treatment failure and a mortality rate of 88%. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) may be a useful alternative to improve therapeutic outcome in azole-resistant IA. Four clinical A. fumigatus isolates obtained from patients with proven IA were studied in a nonneutropenic murine model of infection: a wild-type isolate without mutations in the cyp51A gene and three azole-resistant isolates harboring a single mutation at codon 220 (M220I) and tandem repeat mutations (a 34-bp tandem repeat mutation in the promoter region of the cyp51A gene in combination with substitutions at codon L98 [TR34/L98H] and a 46-bp tandem repeat mutation in the promoter region of the cyp51A gene in combination with mutation at codons Y121 and T289 [TR46/Y121F/T289A]), respectively. Female CD-1 mice were infected intravenously 24 h prior to the start of therapy. Groups of 11 mice were treated at days 1, 2, and 5 postchallenge with increasing 4-fold doses of L-AmB ranging from 0.004 to 16 mg/kg/day and observed for 14 days. Survival for all 4 isolates at day 14 was significantly better than that of controls. A dose-response relationship was observed independent of the azole resistance mechanism. The Hill-type model with a variable slope fitted the relationship between the dose and 14-day survival well for all isolates, with R2 values of 0.95 (wild-type), 0.97 (M220I), 0.85 (TR34/L98H), and 0.94 (TR46/Y121F/T289A), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that there was no significant difference between groups. The results of these experiments indicate that L-AmB was able to prolong survival in vivo in disseminated IA independent of the presence of an azole resistance mechanism in a dose-dependent manner, and therefore, they support a role for L-AmB in the treatment of azole-resistant IA. PMID:23380732

  18. Hyoscyamal, a new tetrahydrofurano lignan from Hyoscyamus niger Linn.

    PubMed

    Begum, A Sajeli; Verma, Shweta; Sahai, Mahendra; Schneider, Kathrin; Süssmuth, Roderich

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the isolation and complete characterisation of a new lignan, hyoscyamal, three other compounds, balanophonin, pongamoside C and pongamoside D have been isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. The structures of the compounds were settled on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of these compounds from a solanaceous plant. PMID:19401911

  19. Hyoscyamal, a new tetrahydrofurano lignan from Hyoscyamus niger Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sajeli Begum; Shweta Verma; Mahendra Sahai; Kathrin Schneider; Roderich Süssmuth

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the isolation and complete characterisation of a new lignan, hyoscyamal, three other compounds, balanophonin, pongamoside C and pongamoside D have been isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. The structures of the compounds were settled on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of these compounds from a solanaceous plant.

  20. AFLATOXIGENICITY IN ASPERGILLUS: MOLECULAR GENETICS, PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AND EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by isolates of Aspergillus section Flavi, as well as a number of Aspergillus isolates that are classified outside of section Flavi. Characterization of the aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin gene clusters and analysis of factors gover...

  1. Prospective multicenter international surveillance of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, J W M; Arendrup, M C; Warris, A; Lagrou, K; Pelloux, H; Hauser, P M; Chryssanthou, E; Mellado, E; Kidd, S E; Tortorano, A M; Dannaoui, E; Gaustad, P; Baddley, J W; Uekötter, A; Lass-Flörl, C; Klimko, N; Moore, C B; Denning, D W; Pasqualotto, A C; Kibbler, C; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Andes, D; Meletiadis, J; Naumiuk, L; Nucci, M; Melchers, W J G; Verweij, P E

    2015-06-01

    To investigate azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus isolates, we conducted prospective multicenter international surveillance. A total of 3,788 Aspergillus isolates were screened in 22 centers from 19 countries. Azole-resistant A. fumigatus was more frequently found (3.2% prevalence) than previously acknowledged, causing resistant invasive and noninvasive aspergillosis and severely compromising clinical use of azoles. PMID:25988348

  2. Prospective Multicenter International Surveillance of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Arendrup, M.C.; Warris, A.; Lagrou, K.; Pelloux, H.; Hauser, P.M.; Chryssanthou, E.; Mellado, E.; Kidd, S.E.; Tortorano, A.M.; Dannaoui, E.; Gaustad, P.; Baddley, J.W.; Uekötter, A.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Klimko, N.; Moore, C.B.; Denning, D.W.; Pasqualotto, A.C.; Kibbler, C.; Arikan-Akdagli, S.; Andes, D.; Meletiadis, J.; Naumiuk, L.; Nucci, M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus isolates, we conducted prospective multicenter international surveillance. A total of 3,788 Aspergillus isolates were screened in 22 centers from 19 countries. Azole-resistant A. fumigatus was more frequently found (3.2% prevalence) than previously acknowledged, causing resistant invasive and noninvasive aspergillosis and severely compromising clinical use of azoles. PMID:25988348

  3. Molecular epidemiology and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus terreus species complex isolates in Delhi, India: evidence of genetic diversity by amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite typing.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Shallu; Sharma, Cheshta; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Agarwal, Puneet; Agarwal, Kshitij; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus is emerging as an etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals in several medical centers in the world. Infections due to A. terreus are of concern due to its resistance to amphotericin B, in vivo and in vitro, resulting in poor response to antifungal therapy and high mortality. Herein we examined a large collection of molecularly characterized, geographically diverse A. terreus isolates (n = 140) from clinical and environmental sources in India for the occurrence of cryptic A. terreus species. The population structure of the Indian A. terreus isolates and their association with those outside India was determined using microsatellite based typing (STR) technique and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis (AFLP). Additionally, in vitro antifungal susceptibility of A. terreus isolates was determined against 7 antifungals. Sequence analyses of the calmodulin locus identified the recently described cryptic species A. hortai, comprising 1.4% of Aspergillus section Terrei isolates cultured from cases of aspergilloma and probable invasive aspergillosis not reported previously. All the nine markers used for STR typing of A. terreus species complex proved to be highly polymorphic. The presence of high genetic diversity revealing 75 distinct genotypes among 101 Indian A. terreus isolates was similar to the marked heterogeneity noticed in the 47 global A. terreus population exhibiting 38 unique genotypes mainly among isolates from North America and Europe. Also, AFLP analysis showed distinct banding patterns for genotypically diverse A. terreus isolates. Furthermore, no correlation between a particular genotype and amphotericin B susceptibility was observed. Overall, 8% of the A. terreus isolates exhibited low MICs of amphotericin B. All the echinocandins and azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole) demonstrated high potency against all the isolates. The study emphasizes the need of molecular characterization of A. terreus species complex isolates to better understand the ecology, acquisition and transmission of this species. PMID:25781896

  4. Multiple cyp51A-Based Mechanisms Identified in Azole-Resistant Isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus from China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Musang; Zeng, Rong; Zhang, Lili; Li, Dongmei; Lv, Guixia; Shen, Yongnian; Zheng, Hailin; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Jingjun; Zheng, Nan; Liu, Weida

    2015-07-01

    Seventy-two A. fumigatus clinical isolates from China were investigated for azole resistance based on mutations of cyp51A. We identified four azole-resistant strains, among which we found three strains highly resistant to itraconazole, two of which exhibit the TR34/L98H/S297T/F495I mutation, while one carries only the TR34/L98H mutation. To our knowledge, the latter has not been found previously in China. The fourth multiazole-resistant isolate (with only moderate itraconazole resistance) carries a new G432A mutation. PMID:25896700

  5. Cr(VI) reduction by an Aspergillus tubingensis strain: role of carboxylic acids and implications for natural attenuation and biotreatment of Cr(VI) contamination.

    PubMed

    Coreño-Alonso, Alejandro; Acevedo-Aguilar, Francisco Javier; Reyna-López, Georgina E; Tomasini, Araceli; Fernández, Francisco J; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Gutiérrez-Corona, J Félix

    2009-06-01

    Experiments conducted in shake flask cultures, in minimal medium of pH 5.3 containing 50 microg mL(-1)Cr(VI) with glucose as a carbon source, indicated that the biomass of Aspergillus sp. strain Ed8, a chromate-tolerant fungal strain previously isolated from a chromium-polluted soil, responds to the presence of citrate in the medium by increasing the rate of Cr(VI) reduction; this effect required the use of live biomass and was not observed in medium with lactate. Other natural carboxylic acids or non-natural metal chelating agents showed a stimulatory effect of Cr(VI) reduction by Ed8 biomass; salicylate, tartrate and citrate were the stronger stimulators of the specific rate of Cr(VI) reduction, with about 12, 8 and 7-fold stimulatory effects, respectively, as compared to control cultures without additions. A procedure for Cr(VI) removal from a diluted electroplating effluent was devised, based on the use of growth medium amended with citrate or a mixture of salycilate-tartrate and cycles of recharge of growth medium-diluted effluent. In addition, conditions were adjusted in a 2-L bioreactor to reach a 20-fold increase in the volume of the reduction system with no loss of efficiency. Strain Ed8 was identified as an Aspergillus tubingensis isolate (included in Aspergillus niger species complex) on the basis of the ITS1-5.8s rDNA-ITS2 sequence similarity. PMID:19286242

  6. Decolourization of Black Oxidized Olive-Mill Wastewater by a New Tannase-Producing Aspergillus flavus Strain Isolated from Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kachouri; S. Halaouli; A. Lomascolo; M. Asther; M. Hamdi

    2005-01-01

    Summary  By contaminating a Tunisian soil with black oxidized and sterilized olive-mill wastewaters (OMW), 30 new indigenous fungal\\u000a soil strains able to overcome the OMW toxicity could be directly selected. Ten of the fungal strains previously isolated were\\u000a screened for their capability to grow in a liquid culture medium containing oxidized OMW as the only source of carbon and\\u000a energy. According

  7. [Formation of organic acids by fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments].

    PubMed

    Sazanova, K V; Shchiparev, S M; Vlasov, D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of the fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments for acid formation was studied in cultures under various carbon sources and cultivation conditions. The composition of organic nutrients was adjusted according to the results of investigation of the surface layers from the monuments in urban environment. The primary soil formed at the surface of the stone monuments under urban conditions was shown to contain a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and is a rich substrate for fungal growth. Oxalic acid was produced by fungi grown on media with various concentrations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids. Malic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids were identified only at elevated carbohydrate concentrations, mostly in liquid cultures. Oxalic acid was the dominant among the acids produced by Aspergillus niger at all experimental setups. Unlike A. niger, the relative content of oxalic acid produced by Penicillium citrinum decreased at high carbohydrate concentrations. PMID:25844464

  8. Emergence of Schistosoma mansoni in the Niger River valley, Niger.

    PubMed

    Garba, Amadou; Labbo, Rabiou; Tohon, Zilahatou; Sidiki, Ali; Djibrilla, Amadou

    2004-05-01

    Urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis are both endemic in Niger with a dominance of Schistosoma haematobium. This study pointed out the appearance of the infection to S. mansoni in the Niger River valley, where it was until then unknown in Niger. In one year the prevalence increased from 5.9 to 19.5%. PMID:15109553

  9. Effect of nickel-cobaltite nanoparticles on production and thermostability of cellulases from newly isolated thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus NS (class: Eurotiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Neha; Rawat, Rekha; Sharma, Reetika; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Srivastava, Manish; Singh, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, effect of nickel-cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated on production and thermostability of the cellulase enzyme system using newly isolated thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus NS belonging to the class Euratiomycetes. The NiCo2O4 NPs were synthesized via hydrothermal method assisted by post-annealing treatment and characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. In the absence of NPs in the growth medium, filter paper cellulase (FP) activity of 18 IU/gds was achieved after 96 h, whereas 40 % higher FP activity in 72 h was observed with the addition of 1 mM concentration of NPs in the growth medium. Maximum production of endoglucanase (211 IU/gds), ?-glucosidase (301 IU/gds), and xylanase (803 IU/gds) was achieved after 72 h without NPs (control), while in the presence of 1 mM concentration of NPs, endoglucanase, ?-glucosidase, and xylanase activity increased by about 49, 53, and 19.8 %, respectively, after 48 h of incubation, against control, indicating a substantial increase in cellulase productivity with the addition of NiCo2O4 NPs in the growth medium. Crude enzyme was thermally stable for 7 h at 80 °C in presence of NPs, as against 4 h at the same temperature for control samples. Significant increase in the activity and improved thermal stability of cellulases in the presence of the NiCo2O4 NPs holds potential for use of NiCo2O4 NPs during enzyme production as well as hydrolysis. From the standpoint of biofuel production, these results hold enormous significance. PMID:24801407

  10. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W. T.; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. PMID:26090713

  11. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W T; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K L; Lau, Candy C Y; To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-01-01

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu-Glu-Leu-Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu-Glu-Leu-Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. PMID:26090713

  12. Antifungal activity of flavonoids isolated from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qudsia Kanwal; Ishtiaq Hussain; Hamid Latif Siddiqui; Arshad Javaid

    2010-01-01

    Five flavonoids, namely (?)-epicatechin-3-O-?-glucopyranoside (1), 5-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxylphenyl)pyrano[3,2-g]chromene-4(8H)-one (2), 6-(p-hydroxybenzyl)taxifolin-7-O-?-D-glucoside (tricuspid) (3), quercetin-3-O-?-glucopyranosyl-(1???2)-?-D-glucopyranoside (4) and (–)-epicatechin(2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromene-3,5,7-triol (5), were isolated from the leaves of mango (Mangifera indica L.). Antifungal activity of these compounds was evaluated against five fungal species, namely Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. and Penicillium citrii. Six concentrations, namely 100, 300,

  13. Does fungicide application in vineyards induce resistance to medical azoles in Aspergillus species?

    PubMed

    Lago, Magali; Aguiar, Ana; Natário, André; Fernandes, Carla; Faria, Miguel; Pinto, Eugénia

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed if the use of sterol demethylase inhibitor fungicides in vineyard production can induce resistance to azoles in Aspergillus strains and if it can induce selection of resistant species. We also tried to identify the Aspergillus species most prevalent in the vineyards. Two vineyards from northern Portugal were selected from "Vinhos Verdes" and "Douro" regions. The vineyards were divided into plots that were treated or not with penconazole (PEN). In each vineyard, air, soil, and plant samples were collected at three different times. The strains of Aspergillus spp. were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular techniques. We identified 46 Aspergillus section Nigri, eight Aspergillus fumigatus, seven Aspergillus lentulus, four Aspergillus wentii, two Aspergillus flavus, two Aspergillus terreus, one Aspergillus calidoustus, one Aspergillus westerdijkiae, one Aspergillus tamarii, and one Eurotium amstelodami. Aspergillus strains were evaluated for their susceptibility to medical azoles used in human therapy (itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and to agricultural azoles (PEN) used in the prevention and treatment of plant diseases. The isolates showed moderate susceptibility to voriconazole. We did not observe any decrease of susceptibility to the medical azoles tested throughout the testing period in any of the treated plots, although some of the resistant species were isolated from there. PMID:24833021

  14. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as...

  15. Use of a rep-PCR system to predict species in the Aspergillus section Nigri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus niger aggregate within the A. section Nigri, is a group of black-spored aspergilli which taxonomy has been elusive. REP-PCR has become a rapid and cost-effective method for genotyping fungi and bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a semi-automate...

  16. Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes. PMID:25737146

  17. Molecular genetic analysis reveals that a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (NRPS-like) gene in Aspergillus nidulans is responsible for microperfuranone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsu-Hua; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Entwistle, Ruth; Ahuja, Manmeet; Lee, Kuan-Han; Bruno, Kenneth S; Wu, Tung-Kung; Oakley, Berl R; Wang, Clay C C

    2012-11-01

    Genome sequencing of Aspergillus species including Aspergillus nidulans has revealed that there are far more secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters than secondary metabolites isolated from these organisms. This implies that these organisms can produce additional secondary metabolites, which have not yet been elucidated. The A. nidulans genome contains 12 nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), one hybrid polyketide synthase/NRPS, and 14 NRPS-like genes. The only NRPS-like gene in A. nidulans with a known product is tdiA, which is involved in terrequinone A biosynthesis. To attempt to identify the products of these NRPS-like genes, we replaced the native promoters of the NRPS-like genes with the inducible alcohol dehydrogenase (alcA) promoter. Our results demonstrated that induction of the single NRPS-like gene AN3396.4 led to the enhanced production of microperfuranone. Furthermore, heterologous expression of AN3396.4 in Aspergillus niger confirmed that only one NRPS-like gene, AN3396.4, is necessary for the production of microperfuranone. PMID:22627757

  18. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air.

    PubMed

    Jurjevi?, Zeljko; Peterson, Stephen W; Stea, Gaetano; Solfrizzo, Michele; Varga, János; Hubka, Vit; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2012-12-01

    Aspergillus floridensis and A. trinidadensis spp. nov. are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA), creatine agar culture (CREA) and malt extract agar culture (MEA), with support by molecular analysis of the ?-tubulin, calmodulin, RNA polymerase II (RPB2), and translation elongation factor-alpha (TEF) gene amplified and sequenced from 56 air isolates and one isolate from almonds belonging to Aspergillus sectionNigri.Aspergillus floridensis is closely related to A. aculeatus, and A. trinidadensis is closely related to A. aculeatinus. Aspergillus brunneoviolaceus (syn. A. fijiensis) and A. uvarum are reported for the first time from the USA and from the indoor air environment. The newly described species do not produce ochratoxin A. PMID:23355969

  19. Nautiles paléocènes du Niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tintant; J. Lang; B. Moussa; K. Alzouma; M. Dikouma

    2001-01-01

    Large numbers of Tertiary nautiloids were collected from north-west (Mentès and Tillia), central (Kao) and southern (Malbaza) Niger. Study of them reveals two somewhat different fauna: a richer one from the central region (Kao) characterized by numerous specimens of Deltoidonautilus molli (Douvillé), and a poorer one characterized by Deltoidonautilus sudanensis and D. chudeaui from northern and southern regions alike. Judging

  20. Biological activities of ophiobolin K and 6-epi-ophiobolin K produced by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungus, Aspergillus calidoustus, was isolated from the plant species Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae). A dichloromethane extract of the fungus displayed antifungal, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxic activities. Aspergillus calidoustus was identified using molecular, physiological and m...

  1. Ethanol tolerance in Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli phytase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expanded use of corn and other grain for biofuels have created an increased supply of dried grains with soluble (DDGS) and other byproducts of ethanol fermentation. Elevated levels of phytic acid in this DDGS indicate that ethanol is denaturing the native phytase produced by the yeast, Saccharo...

  2. Production of cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus tamarii Kita.

    PubMed Central

    Dorner, J W

    1983-01-01

    Production of the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus tamarii Kita is reported for the first time. Examination of 23 isolates of the fungus showed that 22 produced the toxin under the culture conditions utilized. PMID:6660879

  3. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for rapid identification of clinical fungal isolates based on ribosomal protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Panda, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Anup K; Mirdha, Bijay R; Xess, Immaculata; Paul, Saikat; Samantaray, Jyotish C; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Khalil, Shehla; Rastogi, Neha; Dabas, Yubhisha

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the identification of clinical fungal isolates (yeast and molds) by protein profiling using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 125 clinical fungal culture isolates (yeast and filamentous fungi) were collected. The test set included 88 yeast isolates (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans) and 37 isolates of molds (Alternaria spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella spp., Histoplasma capsulatum, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum nanum, Rhizomucor spp. and Trichophyton spp.). The correlation between MALDI TOF MS and conventional identification for all these 125 fungal isolates included in the study was 87.2% at the species level and 90.4% at the genus level. MALDI TOF MS results revealed that the correlation in yeast (n=88) identification was 100% both at the genus and species levels whereas, the correlation in mold (n=37) identification was more heterogeneous i.e. 10.81% isolates had correct identification up to the genus level, 56.7% isolates had correct identification both at the genus and species levels, whereas 32.42% isolates were deemed Not Reliable Identification (NRI). But, with the modification in sample preparation protocol for molds, there was a significant improvement in identification. 86.4% isolates had correct identification till the genus and species levels whereas, only 2.7% isolates had Not Reliable Identification. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS could be a possible alternative to conventional techniques both for the identification and differentiation of clinical fungal isolates. However, the main limitation of this technique is that MS identification could be more precise only if the reference spectrum of the fungal species is available in the database. PMID:25541362

  4. Regulation of Aspergillus Mycotoxin Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus produces a number of mycotoxins that pose adverse economic and health impacts on humans and animals. These include the toxic and carcinogenic polyketide-derived mycotoxins, sterigmatocystin and aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus flavus, respectively. ...

  5. Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2010-03-01

    This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 2.45-3.67), identified as A. niger (82.8%), A. flavus (14.3%), and A. terreus (2.9%). This study demonstrates the presence of certain zoonotic agents (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in stray dogs living within the studied area. Dogs play an important role in the transmission of diseases that are potentially harmful to humans. Although the prevalence of canine leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present. PMID:19514808

  6. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

    1982-12-17

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

  7. Peanut Pod Invasion by Aspergillus flavus in the Presence of Meloidogyne hapla

    PubMed Central

    Minton, N. A.; Bell, D. K.; Doupnik, B.

    1969-01-01

    'Argentine', 'Early Runner' and 'Florigiant' peanut cultivars were grown in methyl bromide treated soil in field microplots inoculated with: (i) Aspergillus flavus or (ii) A. flavus + Meloidogyne hapla. Nematode infection produced heavy root galling and light pod galling equally on all cultivars. A. flavus, A. niger, Cephalosporium spp., Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp. and Trichoderma viride were isolated from shells and kernels. A significantly greater incidence and density of A. flavus was obtained from kernels of plants inoculated with both organisms than from kernels of plants receiving only the fungus. Differences were not significant, however, for incidence and density of A. flavus in shells or for the total of all fungal propagules in shells and kernels. Shells of 'Early Runner' contained significantly greater incidence and density of A. flavus than the other two cultivars; also, kernels of this cultivar contained more fungal propagules than kernels of 'Argentine.' A significantly larger number of total fungi was isolated from kernels of 'Argentine' than from 'Florigiant.' Aflatoxins were found only in two shell samples and not in kernels. PMID:19325693

  8. In silico characterization of alkaline proteases from different species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Morya, Vivek Kumar; Yadav, Sangeeta; Kim, Eun-Ki; Yadav, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    A total of 49 protein sequences of alkaline proteases retrieved from GenBank representing different species of Aspergillus have been characterized for various physiochemical properties, homology search, multiple sequence alignment, motif, and super family search and phylogenetic tree construction. The sequence level homology was obtained among different groups of alkaline protease enzymes, viz alkaline serine protease, oryzin, calpain-like protease, serine protease, subtilisin-like alkaline proteases. Multiple sequence alignment of alkaline protease protein sequence of different Aspergillus species revealed a stretch of conserved region for amino acid residues from 69 to 110 and 130-204. The phylogenetic tree constructed indicated several Aspergillus species-specific clusters for alkaline proteases namely Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus clavatus. The distributions of ten commonly observed motifs were analyzed among these proteases. Motif 1 with a signature amino acid sequence of 50 amino acids, i.e., ASFSNYGKVVDIFAPGQDILSCWIGSTTATNTISGTSMATPHIVGLSCYL, was uniformly observed in proteases protein sequences indicating its involvement with the structure and enzymatic function. Motif analysis of acidic proteases of Aspergillus and bacterial alkaline proteases has revealed different signature amino acid sequences. The superfamily search for these proteases revealed the presence of subtilases, serine-carboxyl proteinase, calpain large subunit, and thermolysin-like superfamilies with 45 representing the subtilases superfamily. PMID:22072140

  9. ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

  10. Characterization of Aspergillus section Nigri group-maize interactions by a green fluorescent protein-tagging approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ochratoxin A, produced by some members of the Aspergillus section Nigri group, is a potent nephrotoxic and a potential carcinogenic mycotoxin. Two members of this group A. niger and A. carbonarius are notorious ochratoxin producers in plant substrates, including corn, coffee, grapes, onions, and pea...

  11. Evaluating the biodeterioration enzymatic activities of fungal contamination isolated from some ancient yemeni mummies preserved in the national museum.

    PubMed

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Abdullah, Qais Yusuf M; Al-Zaqri, Aida Qaseem M; Alghalibi, Saeed M

    2014-01-01

    Sophisticated mummification using chemical preservation was prevalent in ancient Yemeni civilization as noted in the 4th century B.C. mummies of the National Museum of Yemen, Sana'a, used in this study. Five of these mummies were used to evaluate hydrolytic enzymes produced as a result of fungal contamination. Forty-seven fungal species were isolated, thereby reflecting a high degree of contamination which may have resulted from the poor ventilation and preservation system. Aspergillus was the most common genus isolated (48.9%). Fifteen isolates exhibited ability to produce cellulase (EC; 3.2.1.4), Aspergillus candidus being the highest cellulose-producer. Pectin lyase (PL, EC; 4.2.2.2) and pectin methyl esterase (PME, EC; 3.1.1.11) were produced by Trichoderma hamatum, whereas chitinase (EC; 3.2.1.14) was produced by Aspergillus niger. Protease activity was noted by only Cladosporium herbarum. The higher activities of these fungal hydrolytic enzymes represent the major threats of biodeterioration including deteriorating linen bandages as well as the mummy bodies. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the preservation system of the mummies at the National Museum to minimize the contamination up to the lowest level and protect the mummies from biodeterioration. PMID:25478228

  12. Production of biologically active recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Ward, P P; Lo, J Y; Duke, M; May, G S; Headon, D R; Conneely, O M

    1992-07-01

    We report the production of recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression of human lactoferrin (hLF), a 78 kD glycoprotein, was achieved by placing the cDNA under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter and the 3' flanking region of the A. niger glucoamylase gene. Using this system, hLF is expressed and secreted into the growth medium at levels up to 25 mg/l. The recombinant lactoferrin is indistinguishable from human milk lactoferrin with respect to its size, immunoreactivity, and iron-binding capacity. The recombinant protein appears to be appropriately N-linked glycosylated and correctly processed at the N-terminus by the A. oryzae secretory apparatus. Lactoferrin is the largest heterologous protein and the first mammalian glycoprotein expressed in the Aspergillus system to date. Hence, this expression system appears suitable for the large-scale production and secretion of biologically active mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:1368268

  13. Ecophysiology of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species Potential Ochratoxin A Producers

    PubMed Central

    Astoreca, Andrea L.; Magnoli, Carina E.; Dalcero, Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    After aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most studied mycotoxin due to the toxicological significance in human and animal diets. OTA presence has been extensively reported worldwide in the last decade in several agricultural products. The main OTA producer in tropical and temperate climates is Aspergillus carbonarius followed by species belonging to A. niger aggregate. Currently, many scientists worldwide have studied the influence of water activity and temperature for growth and biosynthesis of OTA by these species on synthetic media. This article reviews ecophysiological studies of Aspergillus section Nigri strains on synthetic media and natural substrates. The results of these investigations suggest that significant amounts of OTA can be produced in only five days and that the use of different storage practices, such as aW and temperature levels below 0.930 and 15 °C, respectively, allow controlling fungal contamination and minimizing the OTA production in several products as peanuts, corn, dried grapes and derived products for human consumption. PMID:22069566

  14. Effect of GRAS compounds on Aspergillus rot of wood-apple ( Feronia limonia )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. R. N. K. Ratnayake; H. J. Sumithra; M. D. Fernando; Keerthi B. Palipane

    2009-01-01

    Fruit rot caused by Aspergillus niger is a major postharvest problem in wood-apple, Feronia limonia Swingle (syns. F. elephantum Correa; Limonia acidissima L.; Schinus limonia L. [Rutaceae]). The effect of four Generally Recommended As Safe (GRAS) compounds—sodium bicarbonate, calcium chloride, citric\\u000a acid and sodium benzoate—in different concentrations was evaluated on mycelium growth and spore germination. The effectiveness\\u000a of the compounds

  15. A study on Aspergillus species in houses of asthmatic patients from Sari City, Iran and a brief review of the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad T. Hedayati; Sabah Mayahi; David W. Denning

    2009-01-01

    To study the distribution of Aspergillus spp. in outdoor and indoor air of asthmatic pa- tients' houses, as well as a review on the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus .O pen plates containing malt extract agar media were used to isolate fungi from the indoor (n = 360) and outdoor (n = 180) air of 90 asthmatic pa-

  16. Production and properties of xylanases from Aspergillus terricola Marchal and Aspergillus ochraceus and their use in cellulose pulp bleaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Michelin; S. C. Peixoto-Nogueira; J. H. A. Betini; T. M. da Silva; J. A. Jorge; H. F. Terenzi; M. L. T. M. Polizeli

    2010-01-01

    Aspergillus terricola and Aspergillus ochraceus, isolated from Brazilian soil, were cultivated in Vogel and Adams media supplemented with 20 different carbon sources, at\\u000a 30 °C, under static conditions, for 120 and 144 h, respectively. High levels of cellulase-free xylanase were produced in birchwood\\u000a or oat spelt xylan-media. Wheat bran was the most favorable agricultural residue for xylanase production. Maximum activity\\u000a was obtained

  17. Aspergillus Overlap Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayman O. Soubani

    \\u000a \\u000a Aspergillus causes a variety of clinical syndromes that are influenced by the patients’ immune status and lung function and structure.\\u000a Whilst these syndromes (such as chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis, Aspergillus sinusitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis – ABPA – and invasive aspergillosis) tend to have their unique clinical,\\u000a serological, and radiological presentations, there are rare situations where these may overlap, co-exist or

  18. Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Insecticidal Potentials of Oxalis corniculata and Its Isolated Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Azizur; Rehman, Ali; Ahmad, Ijaz

    2015-01-01

    Oxalis corniculata is a common medicinal plant widely used against numerous infectious diseases. The agrochemical potential of methanolic extract, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions were assessed to measure the antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities of the plant. The crude, chloroform, and n-butanol soluble fractions showed excellent activities against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis but have no activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly the crude, n-hexane, and chloroform fractions were also found to have significant activity against fungal strains including Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flexneri, and Aspergillus flavus and have no activity against Aspergillus niger. Chemical pesticides have shown very good results at the beginning, but with the passage of time the need was realized to use the natural plant sources for the safe control of insects. The current study will provide minor contribution towards it. High mortality rate was recorded for the crude extract and chloroform fraction against Tribolium castaneum. The two isolated compounds 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,4?-tetramethoxyflavone (1) and 5,7,4?-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxyflavone (2) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities. The results showed that compound 2 was more active than compound 1 against the tested bacterial strains and insects. PMID:25873973

  19. Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Insecticidal Potentials of Oxalis corniculata and Its Isolated Compounds.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Azizur; Rehman, Ali; Ahmad, Ijaz

    2015-01-01

    Oxalis corniculata is a common medicinal plant widely used against numerous infectious diseases. The agrochemical potential of methanolic extract, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions were assessed to measure the antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities of the plant. The crude, chloroform, and n-butanol soluble fractions showed excellent activities against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis but have no activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly the crude, n-hexane, and chloroform fractions were also found to have significant activity against fungal strains including Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flexneri, and Aspergillus flavus and have no activity against Aspergillus niger. Chemical pesticides have shown very good results at the beginning, but with the passage of time the need was realized to use the natural plant sources for the safe control of insects. The current study will provide minor contribution towards it. High mortality rate was recorded for the crude extract and chloroform fraction against Tribolium castaneum. The two isolated compounds 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (1) and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxyflavone (2) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities. The results showed that compound 2 was more active than compound 1 against the tested bacterial strains and insects. PMID:25873973

  20. Isolation of a gene involved in 1,3-beta-glucan synthesis in Aspergillus nidulans and purification of the corresponding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, R; Register, E; Hsu, M J; Kurtz, M; Nielsen, J

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two highly homologous genes, FKS1 and FKS2, which encode interchangeable putative catalytic subunits of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (GS), an enzyme that synthesizes an essential polymer of the fungal cell wall. To determine if GS in Aspergillus species is similar, an FKS homolog, fksA, was cloned from Aspergillus nidulans by cross-hybridization, and the corresponding protein was purified. Sequence analysis revealed a 5,716-nucleotide coding region interrupted by two 56-bp introns. The fksA gene encodes a predicted peptide of 229 kDa, FksAp, that shows a remarkable degree of conservation in size, charge, amino acid identity, and predicted membrane topology with the S. cerevisiae FKS proteins (Fksps). FksAp exhibits 64 and 65% identity to Fks1p and Fks2p, respectively, and 79% similarity. Hydropathy analysis of FksAp suggests an integral membrane protein with 16 transmembrane helices that coincide with the transmembrane helices of the Saccharomyces Fksps. The sizes of the nontransmembrane domains are strikingly similar to those of Fks1p. The region of FksAp most homologous to the Saccharomyces FKS polypeptides is a large hydrophilic domain of 578 amino acids that is predicted to be cytoplasmic. This domain is 86% identical to the corresponding region of Fks1p and is a good candidate for the location of the catalytic site. Antibodies raised against a peptide derived from the FksAp sequence recognize a protein of approximately 200 kDa in crude membranes and detergent-solubilized active extracts. This protein is enriched approximately 300-fold in GS purified by product entrapment. Purified anti-FksAp immunoglobulin G immunodepletes nearly all of the GS activity in crude or purified extracts when Staphylococcus aureus cells are used to precipitate the antibodies, although it does not inhibit enzymatic activity when added to extracts. The purified GS is inhibited by echinocandins with a sensitivity equal to that displayed by whole cells. Thus, the product of fksA is important for the activity of highly purified preparations of GS, either as the catalytic subunit itself or as an associated copurifying subunit that mediates susceptibility of enzymatic activity to echinocandin inhibition. PMID:8755864

  1. Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA. PMID:22806781

  2. The distribution of Aspergillus spp. opportunistic parasites in hives and their pathogenicity to honey bees.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kirsten; Fazio, Géraldine; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

    2014-03-14

    Stonebrood is a disease of honey bee larvae caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. As very few studies have focused on the epidemiological aspects of stonebrood and diseased brood may be rapidly discarded by worker bees, it is possible that a high number of cases go undetected. Aspergillus spp. fungi are ubiquitous and associated with disease in many insects, plants, animals and man. They are regarded as opportunistic pathogens that require immunocompromised hosts to establish infection. Microbiological studies have shown high prevalences of Aspergillus spp. in apiaries which occur saprophytically on hive substrates. However, the specific conditions required for pathogenicity to develop remain unknown. In this study, an apiary was screened to determine the prevalence and diversity of Aspergillus spp. fungi. A series of dose-response tests were then conducted using laboratory reared larvae to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of frequently occurring isolates. The susceptibility of adult worker bees to Aspergillus flavus was also tested. Three isolates (A. flavus, Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus phoenicis) of the ten species identified were pathogenic to honey bee larvae. Moreover, adult honey bees were also confirmed to be highly susceptible to A. flavus infection when they ingested conidia. Neither of the two Aspergillus fumigatus strains used in dose-response tests induced mortality in larvae and were the least pathogenic of the isolates tested. These results confirm the ubiquity of Aspergillus spp. in the apiary environment and highlight their potential to infect both larvae and adult bees. PMID:24485932

  3. Effect of interaction between Aspergillus carbonarius and non-ochratoxigenic grape-associated fungal isolates on growth and ochratoxin A production at different water activities and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kogkaki, Efstathia A; Natskoulis, Pantelis I; Magan, Naresh; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2015-04-01

    The effect of water activity (0.90, 0.94, and 0.98 aw) and temperature (15, 20, and 25 °C) on the in vitro interactions between three ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus carbonarius (Ac-28, Ac-29, and Ac-33) and eleven non ochratoxigenic grape-associated fungal strains was assessed in this study. Fungal strains were allowed to grow in dual cultures on Synthetic Grape-juice Medium (SGM) for 15 days and fungal interactions were given a numerical score to obtain an Index of Dominance (ID) for each fungus. Results showed that in most cases A. carbonarius toxigenic strains were dominant against other fungal species. However, A. carbonarius presented mutual antagonism with A. section Nigri strains regardless of water activity (aw) and temperature. Moreover, interactions with Penicillium spinulosum and Cladosporium spp. at 15 °C, as well as Botrytis cinerea at 20 °C, showed that the antagonists were more competitive against A. carbonarius. In some cases, growth rates of A. carbonarius strains were either slightly stimulated or inhibited after interaction in dual cultures, depending on temperature, aw and competing species. Regarding OTA production, the presence of other species sometimes decreased the production or slightly enhanced it, depending on fungal competitor and environmental conditions. Overall, OTA production was higher at 15 °C/0.98 aw and 20 °C/0.98 aw for all target strains and at 20 °C/0.94 aw for Ac-33 strain only, but decreased at higher temperatures regardless of aw and interacting species. PMID:25475324

  4. Purification and Characterization of a Polyextremophilic ?-Amylase from an Obligate Halophilic Aspergillus penicillioides Isolate and Its Potential for Souse with Detergents

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Imran; Akbar, Ali; Anwar, Mohammad; Prasongsuk, Sehanat; Lotrakul, Pongtharin; Punnapayak, Hunsa

    2015-01-01

    An extracellular ?-amylase from the obligate halophilic Aspergillus penicillioides TISTR3639 strain was produced and enriched to apparent homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephadex G100 gel filtration column chromatography. The mass of the purified amylase was estimated to be 42?kDa by SDS-PAGE. With soluble starch as the substrate it had a specific activity of 118.42?U·mg?1 and Vmax? and Km values of 1.05?µmol·min?1·mg?1 and 5.41?mg·mL?1, respectively. The enzyme was found to have certain polyextremophilic characteristics, with an optimum activity at pH 9, 80°C, and 300?g·L?1 NaCl. The addition of CaCl2 at 2?mM was found to slightly enhance the amylase activity, while ZnCl2, FeCl2, or EDTA at 2?mM was strongly or moderately inhibitory, respectively, suggesting the requirement for a (non-Fe2+ or Zn2+) divalent cation. The enzyme retained more than 80% of its activity when incubated with three different laundry detergents and had a better performance compared to a commercial amylase and three detergents in the presence of increasing NaCl concentrations up to 300?g·L?1. Accordingly, it has a good potential for use as an ?-amylase in a low water activity (high salt concentration) and at high pH and temperatures. PMID:26180787

  5. Cardiovascular inhibitory effects of Hyoscyamus niger.

    PubMed

    Khan, A-U; Gilani, A H

    2008-05-01

    This study describes the hypotensive, cardiosuppressant and vasodilator activities of Hyoscyamus niger crude extract (Hn.Cr). Hn.Cr, which tested positive for alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, sterols, tannins and terpenes, caused a dose-dependent (10-100 mg/kg) fall in the arterial blood pressure (BP) of rats under anesthesia. In guinea-pig atria, Hn.Cr exhibited a cardiodepressant effect on the rate and force of spontaneous atrial contractions. In isolated rabbit aorta, Hn.Cr (0.01-1.0 mg/ml) relaxed the phenylephrine (PE, 1 microM) and K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions and suppressed PE (1 microM) control peaks obtained in Ca(++)-free medium similar to that caused by verapamil. The vasodilator effect of Hn.Cr was endothelium-independent as it was not opposed by N (omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations and also occurred at a similar concentration in endothelium-denuded tissues. These data indicate that Hyoscyamus niger lowers BP through a Ca(++)-antagonist mechanism. PMID:18773124

  6. Modelling the influence of temperature, water activity and sodium metabisulphite on the growth and OTA production of Aspergillus carbonarius isolated from Greek wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Angelos-Gerasimos; Kogkaki, Efstathia A; Natskoulis, Pantelis I; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a modelling approach to quantify the effect of temperature (15-38 °C), a(w) (0.88-0.98) and sodium metabisulphite (NaMBS) concentration (0-200 mg L(-1)) on the growth and OTA production of Aspergillus carbonarius on a Grape Juice based Medium (GJM). Growth responses of the fungus were recorded over time in terms of colony diameter changes, and fitted to the primary model of Baranyi and the estimated maximum growth rates (?(max)) and lag phases (?) were subsequently modelled as a function of temperature, a(w) and NaMBS concentration using the cardinal values model with inflection (CMI). Moreover, OTA production was measured during fungal growth and modelled as a function of the same parameters through a quadratic polynomial model. Results showed that NaMBS increased the lag phase of A. carbonarius, particularly at 38 °C/0.98 a(w) and 38 °C/0.96 a(w), as well as at lower a(w) levels regardless of temperature. In the lowest NaMBS concentration (50 mg L(-1)) there was no inhibitory effect, while at higher concentrations (100 and 150 mg L(-1)) fungal growth was delayed. No growth was observed at 200 mg L(-1) of NaMBS irrespective of temperature and a(w) levels. The optimum values for growth were found in the range 30-35 °C and 0.96 a(w), while for OTA production at 20 °C and 0.98 a(w). The developed models were subjected to internal and external validation and presented satisfactory performance as inferred by graphical plots and statistical indices (bias and accuracy factors). The present study will complement the findings on the ecophysiology of A. carbonarius using NaMBS as an inhibitory agent. PMID:25846911

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Bacillus sp. strain FAS1 isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Moshafi, Mohammad Hasan; Forootanfar, Hamid; Ameri, Alieh; Ameri, Alieh; Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Dehghan-Noudeh, Gholamreza; Razavi, Mojdeh

    2011-07-01

    During screening for antibiotic producing microorganisms from environmental soil samples, the supernatant of a bacterial isolate was found to have antibacterial and antifungal activity on the standard indicator species. The standard cylinder-plate method was used to determine the inhibitory effect of the crude supernatant of each isolate on 6 bacterial and 3 fungal standard strains by measuring the diameter of inhibition zone. The highest inhibition zone on Aspergillus niger belonged to culture broth of isolate FAS1 by 25 mm, and this isolate was the most efficient microorganism to inhibit standard bacterial and fungal species. Based on morphological and biochemical properties as well as 16S rDNA gene analysis, the selected isolate (isolate FAS(1)) belonged to Bacillus genus. Investigation on the ability of different culture media for antibiotic production led to select Luria-Bertani media for further studies. Treatment of the culture broth of the isolate FAS(1) using typical protease didn't decrease the antimicrobial activity of the supernatant. After extracting of culture broth of the selected isolate by ethyl acetate as an organic solvent, the inhibitory effect was mainly increased. More investigation was done by bioautography method where the ethyl acetate fraction of the broth culture was separated on TLC by chloroform:methanol, 60:40 as mobile phase and R(f) were calculated for inhibition spots. PMID:21715259

  8. Crop rotation and soil temperature influence the community structure of Aspergillus flavus in soil

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Crop rotation and soil temperature influence the community structure of Aspergillus flavus in soil s t r a c t Aspergillus flavus, the most important cause of aflatoxin contamination, has two major the strain L isolates. The S strain has been implicated as the primary causal agent of several contamination

  9. Aspergillus mastoiditis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mona; Bassim, Marc; Shabb, Nina; Kanj, Souha S

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus mastoiditis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. There are a few isolated reports in the literature involving immunocompetent patients. We hereby describe the case of an immunocompetent patient diagnosed with invasive Aspergillus mastoiditis, which was treated successfully, and review the literature pertaining to this condition. The common clinical presentations, putative pathophysiology, and recommended therapy are discussed. PMID:24484416

  10. Saprophytic and cycloheximide resistant fungi isolated from golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Bagy, M M; el-Shanawany, A A; Abdel-Mallek, A Y

    1998-01-01

    Healthy hair samples from golden hamsters were examined for the presence of dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes using baiting technique and direct inoculation. Thirty-four species and 2 varieties attributed to 17 genera were recovered. Paecilomyces variotii (isolated from 84.4% of the examined hair) and Aspergillus niger (81.3%) were the more frequent isolates on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide. Our results have clearly demonstrated that the hair of hamster was free from true dermatophytes. Using the dilution plate method many fungal species were isolated from cage material (7 genera and 10 species + 1 variety); from faeces (10 genera and 17 species); from standard chow (3 genera and 6 species) of hamster. P. variotii which was the most frequent fungus in the preceding 3 substrates was completely absent in the presence of cycloheximide in SDA. The present study has demonstrated for the first time the isolation of Trichophyton rubrum from hamster faeces. Also, several saprophytic and cycloheximide resistant fungi were isolated. In the air of hamster cage Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium chrysogenum, Alternaria alternata and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis were the most dominant species on SDA with or without cycloheximide. Using the agar diffusion method, Aloe sap, onion oil, garlic bulb extract and aqueous leaf extracts of Andropogon citratus, Euphorbia sp. and Ruta graveolens were tested for their antifungal activity on 10 fungal species. It was observed that onion oil exhibited a high inhibitory effect against most of the tested fungi. PMID:9768288

  11. Structures and expression patterns of two tropinone reductase genes from Hyoscyamus niger.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Oshita, Y; Kaya, M; Yamada, Y; Hashimoto, T

    1999-10-01

    In the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids, two tropinone reductases (TRs) catalyze reduction of tropinone to different stereoisomers, tropine and pseudotropine. Two TRs from Hyoscyamus niger have 64% of identical amino acids and hence a common evolutionary origin. In this study, genomic clones of TRs were isolated from H. niger. Their sequence comparison showed that although they have the same exon/intron organization, sequence similarity was restricted to the coding regions. In H. niger transgenic hairy roots, both TR promoters activated transcription of the reporter genes in endodermis and pericycle of the roots. A quantitative reporter assay and a nuclear run-on experiment indicated that the two genes are transcribed at a similar rate. The results indicate that although different activity levels have been observed for the TR enzymes in the H. niger root, the TR genes per se conserve similar tissue-specific expression pattern and transcriptional rate. PMID:10586504

  12. Development in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Müller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

  13. Biodegradation of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus section Nigri species isolated from French grapes: a potential means of ochratoxin A decontamination in grape juices and musts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hend Bejaoui; Florence Mathieu; Patricia Taillandier; Ahmed Lebrihi

    2006-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a very dangerous mycotoxin, the presence of which is often reported in different foods, as well as in beverages such as grapes, grape juices and wines. Detoxifying these products is therefore of prime importance in protecting consumer health, and biological approaches have been the most promising methods. In this report, 40 isolates representing the black apergilli

  14. Oligomycins A and C, major secondary metabolites isolated from the newly isolated strain Streptomyces diastaticus.

    PubMed

    Yang, P W; Li, M G; Zhao, J Y; Zhu, M Z; Shang, H; Li, J R; Cui, X L; Huang, R; Wen, M L

    2010-01-01

    During the screening program for fungicides, one actinomycete strain ECO 00047 was isolated with the potential activity against fungus. According to the morphology and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene (1500 bp) this isolate was identified as Streptomyces diastaticus. The active compounds were separated by silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration and then purified by flash chromatography on C18 (20-45 microm). The chemical structure of the bioactive compounds I and II were elucidated, based on the spectroscopic data of MS, IR, UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. Compounds I and II were identical with oligomycins A and C, the macrolide antibiotics which have been known to be produced by Streptomyces diastatochromogenes, S. libani and S. avermitilis. The two compounds exhibited a strong activity against Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici but no activity toward bacteria. Although the two above antibiotics were known, their isolation has so far not been reported from S. diastaticus. PMID:20336498

  15. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    PubMed

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated. PMID:19452113

  16. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial ?-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 (?=?ITAL 270/06?=?IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  17. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of a novel compound N-octacosan 7? ol, from Fumaria parviflora Lam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumaraceae) is widely used in traditional as well as folkloric system of medicine from ancient. It is commonly known as ‘Pitpapra’ or ‘Shahtrah’ in Indian traditional system of medicine and used for treating numerous ailments like diarrhea, fever, influenza, blood purifier and other complications. The object of the present study was to evaluate the Antileishmanial, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic potential of isolated compound. Methods Methanolic extract of whole plant of Fumaria parviflora was dried under reduced pressure to obtain a dark brown residue which was adsorbed on silica gel column grade (60–120 mesh) to obtain a slurry and chromatographed over silica gel loaded column in petroleum ether – chloroform (3:1, 1:1 and 1:3?v/v). The in vitro antileishmanial evaluation of isolated compound against Leishmania donovani promastigotes was investigated by growth kinetics assay, reversibility assay, analysis of cellular morphology, adverse toxicity and determination of 50% growth inhibitory concentration (GI50). Disc diffusion and broth micro dilution methods were used to study the antibacterial (Gram?+?Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis; Gram - Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) potential in vitro. Results Structure elucidation by spectral data analysis revealed a novel compound, n-octacosan-7?-ol (OC), yield (0.471%), having significant antimicrobial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in vitro with GI50?=?5.35, MIC 250, MIC 250 and MFC 500 and MIC 250 ?g ml-1 respectively. The isolated compound did not show adverse effect against mammalian macrophages. Conclusions The available evidence of compound suggested that it may be used as antimicrobial agent in future and may provide new platform for drug discovery programmes for leishmaniasis. PMID:24621260

  18. GENOMICS OF ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungal saprophyte that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is also a human pathogen and induces allergenic response, negatively impacting health care and associated costs significantly around the world. Much of the basic biology of this organism is only poor...

  19. Study on secondary metabolite content of Helleborus niger L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Braca, Alessandra; Fico, Gelsomina

    2011-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Helleborus niger L. (Ranunculaceae) leaf methanol extract allowed to isolate a phenolic glucoside derivative and two flavonoid glycosides characterized as phenyllactic acid 2-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), quercetin 3-O-2-(E-caffeoyl)-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), and kaempferol 3-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated for the first time and their structural characterization was obtained on the basis of extensive NMR spectral studies. PMID:20804829

  20. Fermentative Production and Thermostability Characterization of ? Amylase from Aspergillus Species and Its Application Potential Evaluation in Desizing of Cotton Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Chimata, Murali Krishna; Chetty, Chellu S.; Suresh, Challa

    2011-01-01

    The production of extracellular amylase was investigated employing our laboratory isolate, Aspergillus niger sp. MK 07 and effect of process variables on enzyme production, was studied in a fermentor. It was found that amylase production was maximum when the fermentor volume was maintained at 70%, rate of agitation at 250?rpm, air supply at 2.5?vvm, inoculum concentration of 10%, and a pH of 5.0. Highest enzyme production obtained under all optimized conditions was 1734?U/mL with sucrose as carbon substrate and corn steep liquor as nitrogen source. Enzyme purification studies by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 chromatography was evaluated for obtaining purified enzyme. Thermostability of amylase were evaluated with varying concentrations from 0.2 to 0.5?M concentrations of calcium chloride and the highest activity obtained was 3115?U/mL with 0.3?M calcium chloride at 55°C. Effect of temperature and pH on the activity of purified enzyme was evaluated and the purified enzyme showed an activity till 75°C and a pH of 6.5. Application potential of partially purified alpha amylase on desizing of cotton cloth was evaluated with varying enzyme concentrations from 50 to 500?U/mL and the highest desizing activity was found to be at 300?U/mL. PMID:21977326

  1. Fermentative Production and Thermostability Characterization of ? Amylase from Aspergillus Species and Its Application Potential Evaluation in Desizing of Cotton Cloth.

    PubMed

    Chimata, Murali Krishna; Chetty, Chellu S; Suresh, Challa

    2011-01-01

    The production of extracellular amylase was investigated employing our laboratory isolate, Aspergillus niger sp. MK 07 and effect of process variables on enzyme production, was studied in a fermentor. It was found that amylase production was maximum when the fermentor volume was maintained at 70%, rate of agitation at 250?rpm, air supply at 2.5?vvm, inoculum concentration of 10%, and a pH of 5.0. Highest enzyme production obtained under all optimized conditions was 1734?U/mL with sucrose as carbon substrate and corn steep liquor as nitrogen source. Enzyme purification studies by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 chromatography was evaluated for obtaining purified enzyme. Thermostability of amylase were evaluated with varying concentrations from 0.2 to 0.5?M concentrations of calcium chloride and the highest activity obtained was 3115?U/mL with 0.3?M calcium chloride at 55°C. Effect of temperature and pH on the activity of purified enzyme was evaluated and the purified enzyme showed an activity till 75°C and a pH of 6.5. Application potential of partially purified alpha amylase on desizing of cotton cloth was evaluated with varying enzyme concentrations from 50 to 500?U/mL and the highest desizing activity was found to be at 300?U/mL. PMID:21977326

  2. Isolation and identification of a novel microorganism producing the immunosuppressant tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Soo; Park, Young In

    2008-04-01

    An extensive screening program has isolated a novel microorganism capable of over-producing tacrolimus, an effective immunosuppressant with a superior potency relative to cyclosporine A. The initial screening step based on anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275, a FK506 sensitive test strain, resulted in the isolation of 127 Actinomycetes from Korean soil samples. Subsequent T-cell proliferation assay demonstrated that among the 127 Actinomycetes isolated, only one strain exhibited immunosuppressive activity. Examination of the general taxonomical characteristics and data from the phylogenetic sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene led to identification of the isolate as a strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus. The immunosuppressive activity of this newly isolated strain, S. clavuligerus CKD1119 was confirmed to be identical to that of tacrolimus. Moreover, a 7 l jar fermentor experiment using the isolate yielded a peak titer of 58 mg/l for FK-506 production after 8 d of culture in production medium. PMID:18499061

  3. A Genomics Based Discovery of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Aspergillus ustus

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Borui; Yu, Dongliang; Dai, Fangwei; Song, Xiaoming; Zhu, Congyi; Li, Hongye; Yu, Yunsong

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolites (SMs) produced by Aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. However, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. In this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. A total of 52 gene clusters were identified in the draft genome of A. ustus 3.3904, such as the sterigmatocystin biosynthesis pathway that was commonly found in Aspergillus species. In addition, several SM biosynthetic gene clusters were firstly identified in Aspergillus that were possibly acquired by horizontal gene transfer, including the vrt cluster that is responsible for viridicatumtoxin production. Comparative genomics revealed that A. ustus shared the largest number of SM biosynthetic gene clusters with A. nidulans, but much fewer with other Aspergilli like A. niger and A. oryzae. These findings would help to understand the diversity and evolution of SM biosynthesis pathways in genus Aspergillus, and we hope they will also promote the development of fungal identification methodology in clinic. PMID:25706180

  4. The Pathology of Aspergillus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Kradin

    \\u000a \\u000a Aspergillus spp. are responsible for a broad spectrum of human disorders ranging from benign colonisation of mucosal surfaces to life-threatening\\u000a angioinvasive infection. Diagnosing the array of disorders caused by Aspergillus spp. can be challenging. In the case of the hypersensitivity responses to Aspergillus species, i.e., allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis,\\u000a the surgical pathologist must be cognisant of

  5. Extracellular siderophores from Aspergillus ochraceous.

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, M A; Mocharla, R; Barnes, C L; Hossain, M B; Powell, D R; Eng-Wilmot, D L; Grayson, S L; Benson, B A; van der Helm, D

    1984-01-01

    A large number of iron-chelating compounds (siderophores) were isolated from supernatants of iron-deficient cultures of a mold isolate, subsequently identified as Aspergillus ochraceous . Siderophores in their iron chelate form were purified to homogeneity by using Bio-Gel P2, silica gel, and C-18 bonded silica gel (reverse-phase) columns. Most of these compounds, as identified by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, belong to the ferrichrome family. The organism produces ferrirubin and ferrichrysin as the predominant and the second major compound (62 and 15% of the total siderophores), respectively. Ferrichrysin appears as the first siderophore in the medium on day 2 of growth. Several of the other siderophores are novel and ranged in quantities from 0.2 to 5% of the total. The trivial names asperchrome A, B1, B2, C, D1, D2, and D3 are proposed for these novel compounds, which are all members of the ferrichrome family, and all but the first one contain a common Orn1 - Orn2 - Orn3 - Ser1 -Ser2-Gly cyclic hexapeptide ring with three dissimilar ornithyl delta-N-acyl groups. Another compound which appeared late in the growth period was similar to fusarinine C ( fusigen ). All of these compounds showed growth factor activity to various extents in bioassays with Arthrobacter flavescens Jg-9. None of these compounds showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli or Bacillus megaterium. PMID:6233261

  6. Calmodulin inhibitors from Aspergillus stromatoides.

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Martín; Del Valle, Paulina; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Sosa-Peinado, Alejandro; Del Carmen González, María; Mata, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    An organic extract was prepared from the culture medium and mycelia of the marine fungus Aspergillus stromatoides RAPER & FENNELL. The extract was fractionated via column chromatography, and the resulting fractions were tested for their abilities to quench the fluorescence of the calmodulin (CaM) biosensor hCaM M124C-mBBr. From the active fraction, emodin (1) and ?-hydroxyemodin (2) were isolated as CaM inhibitors. Anthraquinones 1 and 2 quenched the fluorescence of the hCaM M124C-mBBr biosensor in a concentration-dependent manner with K(d) values of 0.33 and 0.76 ?M, respectively. The results were compared with those of chlorpromazine (CPZ), a classical inhibitor of CaM, with a K(d) value of 1.25 ?M. Docking analysis revealed that 1 and 2 bind to the same pocket of CPZ. The CaM inhibitor properties of 1 and 2 were correlated with some of their reported biological properties. Citrinin (3), methyl 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (4), and coniochaetone A (5) were also isolated in the present study. The X-ray structure of 5 is reported for the first time. PMID:23495150

  7. [Common obstetric practices in Niger].

    PubMed

    Vangeenderhuysen, C; Olivier de Sardan, J P; Moumouni, A; Souley, A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe common practices and representations concerning pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal care in Niger. We interviewed everyone involved in antenatal care and delivery in 12 villages. We describe here common practices for diagnosis of pregnancy, antenatal care, normal and problem deliveries and postnatal care. Our findings raise questions about maternal health policies in developing countries, which do not always fully take into account the requirements of the population. PMID:9794036

  8. In Vitro Evaluation of Double and Triple Combinations of Antifungal Drugs against Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Dannaoui; Olivier Lortholary; Francoise Dromer

    2004-01-01

    Microdilution broth checkerboard techniques based on the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards methodology were used to study double and triple antifungal combinations against clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. terreus. The influences of the end-point definition (partial or complete inhibition) and the mode of reading (visually or spectrophotometrically) were determined. Interactions between antifungal drugs were also evaluated by

  9. Induced polygenic changes occurring simultaneously with major gene changes in black henbane ( Hyoscyamus niger L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Sharma; R. K. Lal; H. O. Mishra; S. Sharma

    1992-01-01

    Two macromutants [unbranched (Ub) and restricted branched (Rb)], one point mutation [yellow flowerd (‘Ada’)] and two flowering variants (early and late) were isolated in the M2 generation of gammairradiated progenies of black henbane (H. niger) — a medicinal plant belonging to family Solanaceae. These major gene changes were coupled with simultaneous changes in several polygenic systems conditioning continuous variation for

  10. Hyosgerin, a new optically active coumarinolignan, from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger.

    PubMed

    Sajeli, Begum; Sahai, Mahendra; Suessmuth, Roderich; Asai, Teigo; Hara, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2006-04-01

    Hyosgerin, a new optically active coumarinolignan, has been isolated and characterized along with three other coumarinolignans, venkatasin, cleomiscosin A and cleomiscosin B, from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger L. The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical conversion. The optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of these coumarinolignans have also been studied and discussed. PMID:16595960

  11. A study on Aspergillus species in houses of asthmatic patients from Sari City, Iran and a brief review of the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad T. Hedayati; Sabah Mayahi; David W. Denning

    2010-01-01

    To study the distribution of Aspergillus spp. in outdoor and indoor air of asthmatic patients’ houses, as well as a review on the health effects of exposure to indoor\\u000a Aspergillus. Open plates containing malt extract agar media were used to isolate fungi from the indoor (n?=?360) and outdoor (n?=?180) air of 90 asthmatic patients’ houses living in Sari City, Iran.

  12. Sorbicillinoid analogs with cytotoxic and selective anti-Aspergillus activities from Scytalidium album.

    PubMed

    El-Elimat, Tamam; Raja, Huzefa A; Figueroa, Mario; Swanson, Steven M; Falkinham, Joseph O; Lucas, David M; Grever, Michael R; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2015-03-01

    As part of an ongoing project to explore filamentous fungi for anticancer and antibiotic leads, 11 compounds were isolated and identified from an organic extract of the fungus Scytalidium album (MSX51631) using bioactivity-directed fractionation against human cancer cell lines. Of these, eight compounds were a series of sorbicillinoid analogs (1-8), of which four were new (scalbucillin A (2), scalbucillin B (3), scalbucillin C (6) and scalbucillin D (8)), two were phthalides (9-10) and one was naphthalenone (11). Compounds (1-11) were tested in the MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) and SW-620 (colon) cancer cell lines. Compound 1 was the most potent with IC50 values of 1.5 and 0.5??M, followed by compound 5 with IC50 values of 2.3 and 2.5??M at 72?h. Compound 1 showed a 48-h IC50 value of 3.1??M when tested against the lymphocytic leukemia cell line OSU-CLL, while the nearly identical compound 5 had almost no activity in this assay. Compounds 1 and 5 showed selective and equipotent activity against Aspergillus niger with minimum IC values of 0.05 and 0.04??g?ml(-1) (0.20 and 0.16??M), respectively. The in vitro hemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes of compounds 1 and 5 was investigated and were found to provoke 10% hemolysis at 52.5 and 45.0??g?ml(-1), respectively, indicative of a promising safety factor. PMID:25248727

  13. Clustered Genes Involved in Cyclopiazonic Acid Production are Next to the Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an indole-tetramic acid toxin, is produced by many species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. In addition to CPA Aspergillus flavus produces polyketide-derived carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs). AF biosynthesis genes form a gene cluster in a subtelomeric region. Isolates of A. fla...

  14. Television Broadcasting for Rural Development in Niger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hukill, Mark A.

    Communications policy and planning were investigated through the Republic of Niger's television service, Tele-Sahel, a state-owned autonomous service with a mandate to provide programs for rural development. In order to understand the context within which Tele-Sahel operates, the following topics related to television broadcasting in Niger were…

  15. Treatment strategies for Aspergillus infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom M. Chiller; David A. Stevens

    2000-01-01

    Infections caused by Aspergillus species consist of many different disease presentations, ranging from relatively benign asthma in atopic disease to life-threatening systemic invasive infections. The spectrum of disease manifestations is determined by a combination of genetic predisposition, host immune system defects, and virulence of theAspergillus species. For the purposes of this discussion, we will address three principal entities: invasive aspergillosis,

  16. Distribution of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi in commercial poultry feed in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, C N; Atehnkeng, J; Odebode, A C; Bandyopadhyay, R

    2014-10-17

    The distribution and aflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates in 58 commercial poultry feed samples obtained from 17 states in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Nigeria were determined in order to assess the safety of the feeds with respect to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Correlation was also performed for incidence of species, aflatoxin-producing ability of isolates in vitro, and aflatoxin (AFB1) concentrations in the feed. A total of 1006 Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were obtained from 87.9% of the feed samples and identified as Aspergillus flavus, unnamed taxon SBG, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus tamarii. A. flavus was the most prevalent (91.8%) of the isolates obtained from the feed in the AEZs while A. parasiticus had the lowest incidence (0.1%) and was isolated only from a layer mash sample collected from the DS zone. About 29% of the Aspergillus isolates produced aflatoxins in maize grains at concentrations up to 440,500?g/kg B and 341,000?g/kgG aflatoxins. The incidence of toxigenic isolates was highest (44.4%) in chick mash and lowest (19.9%) in grower mash. The population of A. flavus in the feed had positive (r=0.50) but non significant (p>0.05) correlations with proportion of toxigenic isolates obtained from the feed while SBG had significant (p<0.001) positive (r=0.99) influence on AFB1 concentrations in the feed. Poultry feed in Nigerian markets are therefore highly contaminated with aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and consequently, aflatoxins. This is a potential threat to the poultry industry and requires urgent intervention. PMID:25108761

  17. A new steroidal glycoside from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenna; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Jianguang; Kong, Lingyi

    2013-01-01

    A new steroidal glycoside hyoscyamoside G (1), together with two known analogues hyoscyamoside E (2) and hyoscyamoside F1 (3), was isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. The structure of 1 was established as (22R,24Z)-1?,3?,7?,22,26-pentakishydroxylergost-22-O-?-d-gulcopyranosyl-5,24-diene-26-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods including HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. In vitro, compound 2 showed cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell H460 with IC50 value of 66 ?g/mL. PMID:23745717

  18. [Creation of a heterologous gene expression system on the basis of Aspergillus awamori recombinant strain].

    PubMed

    Rozhkova, A M; Sereda, A S; Tsurikova, N V; Nurtaeva, A K; Semenova, M V; Rimareva, L V; Rubtsova, E A; Zorov, I N; Sinitsyna, O A; Sinitsyn, A P

    2011-01-01

    A heterologous gene expression system was created in a domestic Aspergillus awamori Co-6804 strain, which is a producer of the glucoamylase gene. Vector pGa was prepared using promoter and terminator areas of the glucoamylase gene, and A. niger phytase, Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase, and Penicillium canescens xylanase genes were then cloned into pGa vector. Separation of enzyme samples using FPLC showed the amount of the recombinant proteins to be within the 0.6-14% range of total protein. PMID:21790031

  19. Gene cloning, purification, and characterization of a heat-stable phytase from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Pasamontes, L; Haiker, M; Wyss, M; Tessier, M; van Loon, A P

    1997-05-01

    The finding of heat-stable enzymes or the engineering of moderately thermostable enzymes into more stable ones by random or site-directed mutagenesis has become a main priority of modern biotechnology. We report here for the first time a heat-stable phytase able to withstand temperatures up to 100 degrees C over a period of 20 min, with a loss of only 10% of the initial enzymatic activity. The gene (phyA) encoding this heat-stable enzyme has been cloned from Aspergillus fumigatus and overexpressed in Aspergillus niger. The enzyme showed high activity with 4-nitrophenyl phosphate at a pH range of 3 to 5 and with phytic acid at a pH range of 2.5 to 7.5. PMID:9143104

  20. Gene cloning, purification, and characterization of a heat-stable phytase from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Pasamontes, L; Haiker, M; Wyss, M; Tessier, M; van Loon, A P

    1997-01-01

    The finding of heat-stable enzymes or the engineering of moderately thermostable enzymes into more stable ones by random or site-directed mutagenesis has become a main priority of modern biotechnology. We report here for the first time a heat-stable phytase able to withstand temperatures up to 100 degrees C over a period of 20 min, with a loss of only 10% of the initial enzymatic activity. The gene (phyA) encoding this heat-stable enzyme has been cloned from Aspergillus fumigatus and overexpressed in Aspergillus niger. The enzyme showed high activity with 4-nitrophenyl phosphate at a pH range of 3 to 5 and with phytic acid at a pH range of 2.5 to 7.5. PMID:9143104

  1. The Aspergillus giganteus antifungal protein AFPNN5353 activates the cell wall integrity pathway and perturbs calcium homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The antifungal protein AFPNN5353 is a defensin-like protein of Aspergillus giganteus. It belongs to a group of secretory proteins with low molecular mass, cationic character and a high content of cysteine residues. The protein inhibits the germination and growth of filamentous ascomycetes, including important human and plant pathogens and the model organsims Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger. Results We determined an AFPNN5353 hypersensitive phenotype of non-functional A. nidulans mutants in the protein kinase C (Pkc)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mpk) signalling pathway and the induction of the ?-glucan synthase A (agsA) promoter in a transgenic A. niger strain which point at the activation of the cell wall integrity pathway (CWIP) and the remodelling of the cell wall in response to AFPNN5353. The activation of the CWIP by AFPNN5353, however, operates independently from RhoA which is the central regulator of CWIP signal transduction in fungi. Furthermore, we provide evidence that calcium (Ca2+) signalling plays an important role in the mechanistic function of this antifungal protein. AFPNN5353 increased about 2-fold the cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) of a transgenic A. niger strain expressing codon optimized aequorin. Supplementation of the growth medium with CaCl2 counteracted AFPNN5353 toxicity, ameliorated the perturbation of the [Ca2+]c resting level and prevented protein uptake into Aspergillus sp. cells. Conclusions The present study contributes new insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of the A. giganteus antifungal protein AFPNN5353. We identified its antifungal activity, initiated the investigation of pathways that determine protein toxicity, namely the CWIP and the Ca2+ signalling cascade, and studied in detail the cellular uptake mechanism in sensitive target fungi. This knowledge contributes to define new potential targets for the development of novel antifungal strategies to prevent and combat infections of filamentous fungi which have severe negative impact in medicine and agriculture. PMID:21943024

  2. Mycotoxin production by different ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium species on coffee- and wheat-based media.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Katherine; Vega, Mario; Rios, Gisela; Geisen, Rolf; Degen, Gisela H

    2011-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most widespread mycotoxins, and is produced by several Aspergillus or Penicillium species. Human exposure to OTA is mainly by intake of contaminated food, with cereal products, followed by coffee and red wine as the main sources of OTA. In this study, the OTA production of four ochratoxigenic fungi (two Aspergillus and two Penicillium species) was investigated in four different media, i.e. wheat and coffee model media as food-based media and two standard laboratory media (malt extract glucose agar, MEA and yeast extract sucrose agar, YES). Colony growth was documented and OTA concentrations in cultures were determined at day 2, 4 and 8 of incubation at 25°C by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). OTA production clearly depended upon time of incubation, fungal species, and medium composition. On coffee based medium, moderate OTA levels were produced by A. ochraceus BFE635 (9.8 ?g/g) and by A. niger BFE632 (10.6 ?g/g) on day 8 of incubation. In wheat-based medium, these strains produced much more OTA than in coffee. The highest OTA concentration (83.8 ?g/g on day 8) was formed by A. ochraceus BFE635 followed by the other Aspergillus niger BFE632 (49 ?g/g). Lower OTA levels were produced by P. verrucosum BFE550 and P. nordicum BFE487, in both wheat and in YES medium, whilst OTA was hardly detectable in coffee and in MEA in case of P. nordicum. Colony growth of the tested strains on different media was not indicative of OTA production. Guttation droplets developed on wheat-based medium with the Aspergillus strains within a week, and this phenomenon coincided with the high OTA amounts formed by these species. Results from this study add to our knowledge on the behaviour of ochratoxigenic fungal species when cultured on food based media. PMID:23605925

  3. Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Varga, J; Kevei, E; Rinyu, E; Téren, J; Kozakiewicz, Z

    1996-01-01

    Ochratoxin production was tested in 172 strains representing species in sections Fumigati, Circumdati, Candidi, and Wentii of the genus Aspergillus by an immunochemical method using a monoclonal antibody preparation against ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A was detected in Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. sclerotiorum, A. sulphureus, A. albertensis, A. auricomus, and A. wentii strains. This is the first report of production of ochratoxins in the latter three species. Ochratoxin production by these species was confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical methods also indicated the production of ochratoxin B by all of the Aspergillus strains mentioned above. PMID:8953717

  4. The chsBGene of Aspergillus nidulansIs Necessary for Normal Hyphal Growth and Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter T. Borgia; Natalia Iartchouk; Perry J. Riggle; Kenneth R. Winter; Yigal Koltin; Christine E. Bulawa

    1996-01-01

    Borgia, P. T., Iartchouk, N., Riggle, P. J., Winter, K. R., Koltin, Y., and Bulawa, C. E. 1996. ThechsBgene ofAspergillus nidulansis necessary for normal hyphal growth and development.Fungal Genetics and Biology20,193–203. ThechsBgene fromAspergillus nidulansencodes a class III chitin synthase, an enzyme class found in filamentous fungi but not in yeast-like organisms. Using a novel method, we isolated haploid segregants carrying

  5. Biological activity of phenylpropionic acid isolated from a terrestrial Streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Kolla J P; Prabhakar, Peddikotla; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra; Krishna, Palakodety S J

    2007-01-01

    The strain ANU 6277 was isolated from laterite soil and identified as Streptomyces sp. closely related to Streptomyces albidoflavus cluster by 16S rRNA analysis. The cultural, morphological and physiological characters of the strain were recorded. The strain exhibited resistance to chloramphenicol, penicillin and streptomycin. It had the ability to produce enzymes such as amylase and chitinase. A bioactive compound was isolated from the strain at stationary phase of culture and identified as 3-phenylpropionic acid (3-PPA) by FT-IR, EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against different bacteria like Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. flourescens, Staphylococcus aureus and some fungi including Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, F. udum and Penicillium citrinum. The antifungal activity of 3-PPA of the strain was evaluated in in vivo and in vitro conditions against Fusarium udum causing wilt disease in pigeon pea. The compound 3-PPA is an effective antifungal agent when compared to tricyclozole (fungicide) to control wilt caused by F. udum, but it exhibited less antifungal activity than carbendazim. PMID:18062653

  6. Calcium binding in. alpha. -amylases: An X-ray diffraction study at 2. 1- angstrom resolution of two enzymes from Aspergillus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Boel; V. J. Jensen; S. B. Petersen; Thim; H. F. L. Woldike; L. Brady; A. M. Brzozowski; Z. Derewenda; G. G. Dodson; H. Swift

    1990-01-01

    X-ray diffraction analysis (at 2.1-â« resolution) of an acid alpha-amylase from Aspergillus niger allowed a detailed description of the stereochemistry of the calcium-binding sites. The primary site (which is essential in maintaining proper folding around the active site) contains a tightly bound Ca{sup 2+} with an unusually high number of eight ligands. A secondary binding site was identified at the

  7. The effect of some factors of polluted environment on catalase responses and resistance of microbial isolates against toxic oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Polek, Bystrík; Godo?íková, Jana

    2012-10-01

    The properties of bacterial isolates from polluted environments which are characterized by increased levels of oxidative stress do not reflect only the level of contaminants, but also arise as a consequence of many permanently changed conditions. The survival rate of Comamonas terrigena N3H isolates from an environment with elevated levels of H(2)O(2) is correlated with stimulation of catalase. The response of bacterial catalase to the effect of phenol in exogenous conditions was affected by the presence of an additional contaminant, Cd(2+). An isolate of Aspergillus niger selected from river sediment containing 363 mg/kg As, 93 mg/kg Sb at pH 5.2-4.8 grew on Czapek-Dox agar ~1.6 times faster than an isolate of the same species from coal dust sediment with approximately the same level of pollution (400 mg/kg As) but somewhat lower pH (3.3-2.8). It also exhibited differences in the microscopic characteristics of its mycelial structures. Both isolates exhibited a higher tolerance to the exogenic toxic effects of metals (As(5+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) at 5, 25, or 50 mg/L) than a control culture, but the differences in tolerance between them were only slight. These laboratory results suggest that there are complicated relationships which may exist in the "in situ" environment. PMID:22706798

  8. Actin Dynamics in Aspergillus nidulans 

    E-print Network

    Quintanilla, Laura

    2013-04-08

    and rings. In Aspergillus nidulans actin patch and ring dynamics have been documented using fluorescent proteins tagged to actin. However, fluorescently tagged actin does not reveal the presence of actin cables. Recently, the Lifeact construct has been...

  9. Innate Immunity to Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Park, Stacy J.; Mehrad, Borna

    2009-01-01

    Summary: All humans are continuously exposed to inhaled Aspergillus conidia, yet healthy hosts clear the organism without developing disease and without the development of antibody- or cell-mediated acquired immunity to this organism. This suggests that for most healthy humans, innate immunity is sufficient to clear the organism. A failure of these defenses results in a uniquely diverse set of illnesses caused by Aspergillus species, which includes diseases caused by the colonization of the respiratory tract, invasive infection, and hypersensitivity. A key concept in immune responses to Aspergillus species is that the susceptibilities of the host determine the morphological form, antigenic structure, and physical location of the fungus. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the multiple layers of innate defenses against Aspergillus species that dictate the outcome of this host-microbe interaction. PMID:19822887

  10. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaïs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

  11. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. Essential Oil From Alborz Mountain Against Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Hossein; Moghimipour, Eskandar; Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Alipoor Astaneh, Shakiba; Shehni Moosaie, Sara; Jalili, Zeynab

    2012-01-01

    Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and hepatocarcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species. Some natural products are known to kill fungi and destroy toxins and toxin-producing agents. Objectives The purpose of this study is to provide experimental data on the antifungal activity of cumin oils and their components that could be considered suitable for application in foods and drugs. Materials and Methods The essential oil (EO) of Cuminum cyminum L. collected from Alborz Mountain, Iran, was obtained by hydro-distillation. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS). The antifungal activity of the oil was studied with regard to the inhibition of the growth of Aspergillus flavus PICC-AF39 , Aspergillus flavus PICC-AF24, Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-2999 and Aspergillus niger. The minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oil were determined. Results ?–Pinene (29.2%), limonene (21.7%), 1,8-cineole (18.1%), linalool (10.5%), linalyl acetate (4.8%), and ?-terpineole (3.17%) were the major components of the essential oil from C. cyminum L., and the oil showed a strong inhibitory effect on fungal growth. Conclusions Essential oils could be safely used as preservatives in pharmaceuticals as well as health and food products to protect them against toxigenic fungal infections. PMID:24624154

  12. Degradation of polycaprolactone at 50 °C by a thermotolerant Aspergillus sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Sanchez; Akio Tsuchii; Yutaka Tokiwa

    2000-01-01

    A thermotolerant Aspergillus sp. strain ST-01 degrading poly(e-caprolactone) films was isolated. The polyester was degraded and assimilated giving 36 mg of cell from 100 mg sample and 10 mg yeast extract after 6 days at 50 °C. The degradation products were identified as succinic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and caproic acid. The isolate also degraded more than 90% film

  13. Aspergillus fumigatus Scleritis Associated with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Oh, Joo Youn; Kim, Mee Kum; Heo, Jang Won; Lee, Jin Hak

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented with pain in her left eye. Necrosis with calcium plaques was observed on the medial part of the sclera. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the culture of the necrotic area. On systemic work-up including serum and urine electrophoresis studies, the serum monoclonal protein of immunoglobulin G was detected. The patient was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and fungal scleritis. Despite intensive treatment with topical and oral antifungal agents, scleral inflammation and ulceration progressed, and scleral perforation and endophthalmitis developed. Debridement, antifungal irrigation, and tectonic scleral grafting were performed. The patient underwent a combined pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreal injection of an antifungal agent. However, scleral and intraocular inflammation progressed, and the eye was enucleated. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the cultures of the eviscerated materials. Giemsa staining of the excised sclera showed numerous fungal hyphae. PMID:20532146

  14. Salmonella and Aspergillus infections in common loons overwintering in Florida.

    PubMed

    White, F H; Forrester, D J; Nesbitt, S A

    1976-11-01

    During a 5-year period (1970-1975), 190 common loons (Gavia immer) from overwintering populations on the east and west coasts of Florida were examined for evidence of infectious diseases. Salmonella spp (representing 8 serotypes) were isolated from 27 (14%) of the loons, and lesions typical of those produced by Aspergillus fumigatus were found in 34 (18%) of the loons. Seven loons were infected with Salmonella spp and had lesions typical of aspergillus infection. The largest number of loons (124) was obtained during the winter of 1973-1974, in connection with an offshore oil spill. There was no significant difference between the isolation rates of Salmonella spp from oiled vs nonoiled loons, but the occurrence of aspergillosis was higher in nonoiled than in oiled loons. PMID:789314

  15. The potential of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2008-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) has been currently known for their interesting antimicrobial activity being regarded as alternative antimicrobial for use is food conservation systems. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of O. vulgare essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. terreus, A. ochraceus, A. fumigatus and A. niger). The essential oil revealed a strong anti-Aspergillus property providing an inhibition of all assayed mould strains. MIC values were between 80 and 20 ?L/mL being found a MIC50 of 40 ?L/mL. The essential oil at concentration of 80 and 40 ?L/mL provided a fungicidal effect on A. flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger noted by a total inhibition of the radial mycelial growth along 14 days of interaction. In addition, the essential oil was able to inhibit the mould spores germination when assayed at concentrations of 80 and 40 ?L/mL. Our results showed the interesting anti-Aspergillus activity of O. vulgare essential oil supporting their possible use as anti-mould compound in food conservation. PMID:24031231

  16. Restriction endonuclease cleavage map of mitochondrial DNA from Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Stepie?, P P; Bernard, U; Cooke, H J; Küntzel, H

    1978-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a circular molecule of 31 500 base pairs, is cleaved by restriction endonucleases Eco R I, Hind II, Hind III and Bgl II into 3, 7, 9 and 5 fragments, respectively. The relative positions of the cleavage sites could be mapped by analysis of fragments obtained by double enzyme digestions of whole DNA and by complete and partial redigestion of isolated restriction fragments. Images PMID:345242

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of polyketide synthase genes from Aspergillus ochraceus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O'Callaghan; A. D. W. Dobson

    2006-01-01

    A number of polyketide synthase gene sequences fromAspergillus ochraceus were isolated by both SSH-PCR and degenerate PCR. The deduced amino acid sequences of the corresponding clonedpks DNA fragments were then aligned with the amino acid sequences of other polyketide synthase enzymes. One of thesepks genes is essential for ochratoxin A biosynthesis (OTA-PKS). The OTA-PKS was most similar to methylsalicylic acid

  18. Genetic aspects of resistance to imazalil in Aspergillus nidulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. van Tuyl

    1977-01-01

    Mutant strains of Aspergillus nidulans have been isolated which display a low level of resistance to imazalil, a recently\\u000a developed systemic fungicide. Agar growth tests showed that A. nidulans is about three times as sensitive to imazalil when\\u000a growing on supplemented minimal medium (SM) as compared with complete medium. This effect was reduced by adding glutamic acid\\u000a to the SM.

  19. Removal of phenol compounds from olive mill wastewater using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Geotrichum candidum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Garc??a Garc??a; P. R. Jiménez Peña; J. L. Bonilla Venceslada; A. Mart??n Mart??n; M. A. Mart??n Santos; E. Ramos Gómez

    2000-01-01

    The manufacturing process of olive oil yields a liquid waste called ‘olive mill wastewater’ (OMW). This waste has a high polluting power as well as a high antibacterial activity exerted, among others, by various phenolic compounds. Among the methods for the purification of OMW, biological systems show some advantages that make these particularly suitable. However, the presence of phenolic inhibitors

  20. Terpenoid composition and antifungal activity of three commercially important essential oils against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepa Bisht; Anirban Pal; C. S. Chanotiya; Dhirendra Mishra; K. N. Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oils extracted from three commercially important aromatic plants were analysed by capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography\\/quadrupole mass spectrometry and subjected to antifungal activity. Fifteen compounds, which accounted for 97.8% of Acorus calamus root oil composition have been identified. Besides the major constituent (Z)-asarone (81.1–92.4%), (Z)-methyl isoeugenol (1.8–2.1%), (Z)-isoelemicin (1.2–1.3%), (E)-asarone (1.0–2.6%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (0.2–0.4%), (Z)-?-ocimene